# MEHB 471: Heat Transfer & Applied Thermodynamics Lab.

Lab 7: Marcet Boiler
7.1 Objective: The main goal of this experiment is to obtain a balance relationship between temperature and pressure of saturated steam for water at all pressure levels between atmospheric pressure and 10 bars (150 lb/in2). Then, the experimental value for the slope of the graph (dT/dP)SAT is compared to the theoretical value found in the steam table. 7.2 Introduction: Thermodynamics is defined as a study related to the transfer of heat and work between a system and its surrounding, undergoing a process causing any of the properties of the system change. An ideal gas obeys the equation of state that relates the pressure, specific volume or density, and absolute temperature with mass of molecule and the gas constant, R.
PV = mRT M

However, real gas does not absolutely obey the equation of state. A few changes on the ideal gas equation of state allow its application in the properties of real gas. When energy increases within water, the increasing of activities among the molecules enables the increase in the number of molecule escape from the surface until an equilibrium state is reached. The state of equilibrium depends on the pressure between the water surface and steam. At lower pressure, the molecules become easier leaving the water surface while less energy required in achieving the state of equilibrium (boiling point). The temperature where equilibrium occurs at a given pressure level is called saturated temperature. The Marcet Boiler is used to investigate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water at all temperature levels between the atmospheric pressure and 10 bars. The experimental slope (dT/dP) SAT obtained is compared to the theoretical value determined through calculation from the steam table. Clausius-Clapeyron states:
Tv fg  dT  =   h fg  dP  SAT T (v f − v g )  dT  =   h f − hg  dP  SAT T (v f − v g ) Tv g  dT  = =   h fg h fg  dP  SAT

and hf + hfg = hg ⇒ hfg = hg - hf as vg >> vf

in which,

vf = specific volume of saturated liquid vg = specific volume of saturated vapor

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3. 7. 8. 7. Close the level valve and continue heating until the maximum gauge pressure reaches 8 bars. Complete Table 1 attached. Warning: Don't remove filler plug or open level valve when the device is pressurized. Plot the graph of temperature. 2. Attachments: Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric temperature : _____________ bar : _____________ (0C) 21 . 4. 5. versus absolute pressure. 5. 2.3 Procedures: 1. Discuss any discrepancy and sources of error of the experiment. Discuss the liquid and vapor behavior observed through the experiment and list some examples of its industrial applications. Plot dT/dP versus P and Tvg/hfg versus P on a same graph. Record all temperature readings at different pressure settings of the boiler when the boiler is heated and cooled. Compare and discuss the graph plotted from experiment data to that of the calculated data. Why is it necessary to ensure no air trapped within the device at the beginning of the experiment? 7. Connect the unit to the power supply to provide a heating rate of 2kW to the electrical heater. T. 4. 3. Set the temperature 'setpoint' to 1800C. Decrease the temperature 'setpoint' to room temperature in which the electrical heater will be off. 6.hf = enthalpy of saturated liquid hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor hfg = latent heat of vaporization 7. 6.4 Questions: 1. P. Wait for the steam output through the level valve to ensure that there is no air trapped in the boiler. Open the level valve open and switch on the power supply.

5 6.5 7.0 3.5 8.5 3.0 7.5 5.0 5. P (bar) absolute 1.Table 1: Data Collected and Calculated Results Pressure.5 4.0 Gauge Increase (0C) Temperature. dT/dP Calculated Slope.0 4.0 6.0 2.5 2. Tvg/hfg Table 2: Saturated Water and Steam Tables 22 . T Decrease (0C) Average Tavc (0C) Average Tavc (K) Measured Slope.0 1.

Pressure P Bars (Abs) 1.0 6. hfg kJ/kg 2258 2202 2164 2134 2109 2087 2067 2048 2031 2015 2000 1986 1972 1960 1947 1935 1923 1912 1901 1890 23 .8 158.0 9.6057 0.3 201.9 184.0 18.1237 0.0 3.0 4.2149 0.1632 0.2728 0. vg m3/kg 1.0 16.0 5.2 133.1512 0.0 12.3156 0.3748 0.0 11.0 10.09957 Latent Heat of Vaporization.1047 0.4 179.1 209.694 0.0 170.0 20.6 195.4 204.1104 0.0 2.1317 0.0 7.0 14.4 175.0 191.0 Temperature T 0 C 99.1408 0.1774 0.4 Specific Volume of Steam.0 17.1167 0.2403 0.1944 0.0 8.0 15.5 143.0 13.4623 0.8856 0.0 19.8 212.6 151.0 198.3 207.6 120.1 188.8 165.

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