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than or equal to 10 micrometer) control measures to attain an environmental standard of Dhaka city and to compare with health cost and thus to find out most economic way to achieve Bangladesh national standard of PM10 pollution. This study will also show which one is more feasible and economic between to reduce PM10 emission to national standard for avoiding respective health hazard and to invest in health care due to PM10 exposure. For this purpose at first various sources of PM10 emission of Dhaka city are identified and emission quantity for individual source is estimated. It is found that all emission sources use petrol, diesel, coal and biomass as burning fuel which can be easily replaced by CNG (Compressed Natural Gas).It is noted that natural gas (NG) has about zero PM10 emission . Besides, in Bangladesh natural gas (NG) is abundantly available. Cost of using CNG to every emission sources is estimated. A set of control measures to satisfy environmental standard with a minimum total cost is found by using Linear Programming (LP) method: the cost becomes US$ 353.53 million per year. On the other hand health cost due to PM10 exposure has been already estimated for Dhaka city. One of the latest studies ( A.K. Azad, et. al. 2003) on health damage due to PM10 exposure shows the cost of US$ 1820 million per year. From these two studies it is showed that US$ 1466.47 million saving from health cost which is equivalent to 2.4 % of national GDP.
LIST OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Background of the research 1.3 Objective of the research Chapter 2 ASSUMED METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE PM10EMISSION 2.1 Methodology of the research 2.2 Re-suspended soil dust 2.3 Construction dust 2.4 Motor vehicle 2.5 Brick kiln emission 2.6 Industry emission Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING APPROACH 3.1 Data preparation 3.2 Modeling approach 3.3 Formulation of cost function Chapter 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Result and discussion 4.2 Rapid urbanization-a cause of rapid air pollution (PM10) Chapter 5 ASSESMENT OF HEALTH ESTIMATION DUE TO PM10 EXPOSURE 26 27 19 20 21 10 10 11 12 14 15 1 2 9
5.1 Estimating the health cost 5.2 Risk assessment of PM10 5.3 Economic Valuation of health effect Chapter 6 RECOMMENDATION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH 6.1 Limitation, recommendation and future scope 6.2 Recommendations to improve air quality in Dhaka Chapter 7 7.1 Conclusion 7.2 References 7.3 Acknowledgement
29 30 31
35 36 37
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Air is indispensable for the survival of all living organisms on earth, including human beings. It is even more important than water - without water a person can survive for days, but without air no more than a couple of minutes. Air pollution is one of a variety of manmade environmental disasters that are currently taking place all over the world. Air pollution may be defined as an atmospheric condition in which various substances are present at concentrations high enough above their normal ambient levels to produce a measurable effect on people, animals, vegetation, or materials. ‘Substances’ refers to any natural or manmade chemical elements or compounds capable of being airborne. These may exist in the atmosphere as gases, liquid drops, or solid particles. It includes any substance whether noxious or benign; however, the term ‘measurable effect’ generally restricts attention to those substances that cause undesirable effects. Recently, air pollution has received priority among environmental issues in Asia, as well as in other parts of the world. Exposure to air pollution is the main environmental threat to human health in many towns and cities. Particulate emission is mainly responsible for increased death rate and respiratory problems for the urban population. This problem is acute in Dhaka being the capital of the country and also the hub of commercial activity. The other urban areas i.e. Chittagong, Khulna, Bogra and Rajshahi have much lesser health problem related to urban air pollution. The ambient atmospheric conditions have progressively deteriorated due to the unprecedented growth in numbers of motor vehicles, and continuous housing and industrial development. Bangladesh is one of the least developed agrarian nations in the world. However, since it’s birth in 1971, there has been some growth in the industrial sector. Industries are mainly concentrated in major urban areas like Dhaka (the capital), the seaport cities like Chittagong and Khulna, the inland port city Narayanganj, and other divisional towns. Naturally, the air pollution problem is more acute in these areas. Apart from unplanned industrial development in these areas, the severity of the pollution is increased mainly due to exhausts from two-stroke engine and diesel-run vehicles. Dhaka city is facing serious air pollution and has become one of the most polluted cities in the world. A report by the World Bank indicates that concentration of particulate matter (PM10) is
higher than the Bangladeshi ambient air quality standard and even higher than the WHO guidelines. PM10 concentration is now about three times higher than national annual standard (2004). Air quality of Dhaka city has improved substantially in the recent past due to the removal of two-stroke engine baby taxis. But the gains are being progressively lost due to pollution from four stroke petrol vehicles, diesel vehicles and road dust. The main air quality problem in Dhaka is the high level of particulate matter. Both PM10 and PM2.5 levels are high, being much above the safety standards especially during the dry season. The increasing number of vehicles and their improper management, traffic congestion and operation are responsible for degradation of the air quality. The economic valuation of the air pollution revealed that between US$ 121 to 353 million per year (2003 estimate) can be saved in Dhaka as health cost if the PM10 pollution level is reduced by a modest 20% of the current level (Khaliquzzaman, 2005a). Air pollution is causing a serious threat to public health in most of the urban centers in the developing countries, according to experts. In the study, health impact of PM10 in Dhaka City for 2002 was evaluated. Risk assessment of PM10 has been performed and evaluation of economic loss due to adverse health effects has also been made. "Results from this analysis showed that the number of excess deaths per annum owing to PM10 pollution in Dhaka is 10,350." For PM10 pollution, this study predicts about 74,000 cases of chronic bronchitis, about 70 million cases of restricted activity days, about 14,000 cases of respiratory hospital diseases, over 286,000 emergency room visits, about 2.8 million cases of asthma attacks and over 220 million respiratory symptom days(A. K. Azad, et. al.2003). PM10 composed of fully dispersed liquids and solids, including soot, dust and organic and inorganic substances are the most harmful. It is emitted in the atmosphere from various activity sources, such as transportation, fuel combustion, industrial process and solid waste disposal. Quoting other studies and research works, the study found a strong evidence of the relationship between PM10 and premature death as well as disease. Identifying the sources of particulate air pollution has been reported (Begum et al, matter. 2005). Seven components have been found in the coarse PM (PM2.2-10) and six components have been found in the fine (PM2.2) particulate
It is observed that the lion shares of PM10 emission comes from vehicular emission. Major sources of PM10 emission in Dhaka city are motor vehicle. dust and debris http://www.2 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH Dhaka is now one of the most polluted cities of the world. Motor vehicles use diesel and petrol oil for their combustion which yields PM10. it needs to buy 8 waterless vacuum- assisted street sweeper Machine and divide the Dhaka city by 8 major regions. So. 3 . there are lots of two stroke engine motor vehicles in Dhaka city.dot. Although Industries around Dhaka are trying to use natural gas fuel. i) Re-suspended soil dust: It is estimated that 1000 ton road dust accumulated every year (Bangladesh Obsever-2003). They pollute the air more because of improper combustion.htm. coal and tyres as fuel. Street sweeping machines and watering and brooming. It is about 45% of total PM10 emission. The approximately capacity of this machine is 17 km per day swept. A modern waterless vacuum assisted street weeping machine can remove 99. some industries are still using coal and diesel as fuel. So about 55 days required for a machine to clean whole the city . Especially the concentration of PM10 is very high in the air of Dhaka. After every two months this cleaning activity will be conducted. it is high time to take step to diminish the PM10 emission.gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs16. A brief conception about above five PM10 emission sources needs to deal with. Besides. All the sources of PM10 use fossil and biomass fuel. brick kilns and construction dust. To control this road dust there are two methods are set.1.So to clean whole the Dhaka city (941Km2) in a week.fhwa.6% dirt. industries. There about 4000 brick kiln around Dhaka city. These brick kilns use wood. Air of Dhaka city is very dusty because of re-suspended soil dust and construction dust. It is about three times higher than the Bangladesh national standard and has become a great threat to public health. re-suspended road dust.
of Ecology. and other operations. Dust clouds are carried from the construction site to environmentally fragile areas such as lakes. The source of the dust when dealing with construction sites comes from materials such as cement. A modern waterless vacuum-assisted street sweeping machine ii) Construction dust: Construction works includes fugitive dust particulate matter created by construction activities while constructing buildings. research at construction sites has established an average dust emission rate of 1. light-duty vehicle travel. To illustrate this point. earth and agricultural land. compacting. With these new developments of infrastructure come many new environmentally related issues that need to be answered.The emissions result predominantly from site preparation work which may include scraping.1. loading. limestone. rivers. grading.Fig. streams. The suspended particulate matter that originates from construction sites is not only detrimental to human health but also to the environment as a whole. wood. 1992).2 tons/acre/month for active construction (WA Dept. gravel. pavements and roads . dirt and the demolition of previous buildings. sand. digging. The demand for an environmentally friendly dust suppressant is growing at an unbelievable rate due to the explosion of infrastructure found in most countries and regions throughout the world today. One of 4 .
those is the problem of dust contamination. particularly in Dhaka. 5 . This has really led to a deterioration of air quality. Although the percentage of two stroke autorickshaws is around 8 per cent. Two-stroke petrol engines are less fuelefficient. 3 shows the different types of automotive vehicles plying in Dhaka. The second largest polluters are trucks and buses. people exist and inhabit the immediate area. Fig. etc.2 Construction site creating dust storm iii) Motor Vehicles: Due to rapid and unplanned urbanization the total number of vehicles has increased enormously. Fig. motorcycles. which indicates their rate of growth. some recent studies have shown that they contribute around 40 per cent of PM10 and 50 per cent of HC in Dhaka City. The problem that arises with this is that where infrastructure already exists. and emit about 30-100 times more unburned hydrocarbons than four-stroke engines. jeeps. the suspended particulate matter that spawns from the construction site is then redistributed throughout the surrounding community. Most of the cars. auto-rickshaws.. Therefore. What makes this problem even more of an issue is the fact that most new construction sites are built in and around pre-existing infrastructure. ply in the cities.
90 per cent of the vehicles that ply Dhaka’s streets daily are faulty.803 motor plying in Dhaka city (except CNG converted two stroke-three wheeler).803 100% 8% Percentage 44 % 48% Source: AQMP (Air Quality Monitoring Project. Other old vehicles. overloaded.and diesel engines emit 13 times more smoke than non-diesel four-stroke engines. The automobiles on the roads are often very old. According to an assessment made by DoE. Among all the sources motor vehicles contribute largest share of PM10 emission. and poorly maintained. taxi etc) Four stroke Diesel engine vehicles (Bus. Truck. 155749 Minibus. There are about 322. including 40-year old trucks and dilapidated mini-buses. 1 Total number of motor vehicles (except CNG converted two stroke 3-wheeler) plying in Dhaka city Category of Vehicles Number Two stroke engine vehicles ( motor cycle) 140050 Four stroke petrol engine vehicles(Car. four stroke petrol engine vehicles and four stroke diesel engine vehicles. Black smoke which is primarily unburned fine carbon particles is emitted by diesel vehicles. Dhaka. Microbus.2003) 6 . are also plying the city streets emitting smokes and gases. They are two stroke petrol engine vehicles. Motor vehicle itself contributes 45 % of the total emission Table. 27004 Tractor) Total 322. Jeep. and emit smoke far exceeding the prescribed limit.
about 4000 of this kilns will be burning millions of tons of these highly toxic 'fuels' round-the-clock until the rainy season sets in. exhausts from these kilns will blanket the city and its peripheral area with a thin cloud of toxic gas for the next few months. fuel wood and coal to fire their furnaces in the most rudimentary way from Sonargaon and Kanchpur to Kamrangirchar. Ar in previous years. livestock and arable lands. trees and waterbodies in these areas will be exposed to a high level of air pollution. There is a clear directive from DOE (Department of Environment) that brick field can be setup on the banks of river or canal or beside any large waterbody. Konabari and Gazipur. 3 Rate of increasing various motor vehicles iv) Brick kilns emission: Unplanned and mushroom growth of Brick kilns around Dhaka city a mass used tyres. Besides to release smoke them should be a 120 feet high chimney with filter installation. Mohammadpur and Keraniganj to Savar.Fig. Millions of people. But almost all the chimney used in the brickfields are found found to 40-50 feet high. giving rise to serious health hazards. but also openly defy the government ban on burning wood and toxic substance 7 . Earth should be in the field which may be collected from that river. canal or waterbody. The brickfield owners not only brush aside the legal requirement of installing filters in the chimneys. Over 99 percent of there brick fields run without any Envionmental clearance what so ever. and from Hazaribagh.
such as used tyros . In the absence of any sincere effort to tackle the environmental problem. handle this environmental nightmare carefully for our future generation. brick fields have mushroomed everywhere around the cities without any respect for the law of the land or environment. So. But who cares? with the city expending at a rate of 1.5 kilometers a year in all direction. a division bench of the High 8 . demand for bricks and other construction materials is rising. Neither the district administrators nor the Department of Environment (DOE) has any programme in hand to look at this environmental nightmare. The concerned authorities have identified these industrial units and legal procedures have been initiated against them. The DOE officials say as per law of the land the police can also clamp down on such practices but due to lack of initiative the law-enforcing authorities are completely indifferent to the problem. Fig. At the same time. In Bangladesh the owner of the brickfields somehow managed the license and environment clearance from the DOE and after that they do not follow it. The DOE is already struggling with a handful number of inspectors to look in to thousands of other cases related to insurance of environmental clearance to industrial units. land owner and contractors erect buildings government officials make money bribes by allowing to continue the bad practice.There are 1. Brickfield owners make money.4 Mushroom growth brick kilns around Dhaka city emit particulate matter v) Industry emission:. but they are about to spoil the health of the next generation . they also do not care about the legal requirement of having exhaust chimneys high enough to disperse the waste beyond human contact.176 industrial units in the country that heavily pollute the environment.
Mosquito repellent. Engineering Padlock. 65 (Islamabag and its adjoining 2500areas) 81 (Gendaria and its adjoining areas) 100-150 Molding. Molding. Shoe. The industries are highly concentrated around Dhaka. are located within the city. Candle. Rather. A long time has passed since these initiatives were taken. Paints. Number of polluting industries in Dhaka city is above 4000 ( Fig. People from all walks of life in different places of the country narrated their sufferings due to industrial pollution. the scenario of industrial pollution has not improved. Rubber sandal. Rubber shoe. Welding. foundry. Foundry. Welding. The farmers and the fishermen are suffering the most as wastes and effluents from industrial units are dumped in croplands and water bodies. Pharmaceuticals. Welding. These industries discharge toxic chemicals like chromium and mercury directly into the river. tanneries for example.Court asked the concerned department to ensure pollution control measures in 903 industrial units that have been identified as polluters. Candle. Industrial Units in 5 Municipal Wards in Dhaka City Municipal Ward 5 (Pallabi and its adjoining areas) Number of Units 500 Types of Units Saree. Many polluting industries. there are more reports in the national dailies on increased industrial pollution. Foundry. 27 (Sabujbag and its adjoining areas) 20-25 42 (Mohammadpur and its adjoining areas) 40-50 Foundry. Incense. The order was served in July 2001. However. 3000 Plastic.5) 9 . Engineering. Molding. Molding.
2004) .gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs16. al. But major focus of air pollution research in recent years based on health impacts by particulate matter: PM10 or PM2. So it is about 3 times higher than standard. dust and debris (http://www. carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.appear to show the most consistent association with mortality. On the other hand street sweeping machine will be used to remove road dust of Dhaka city.5.Fig. sulfur dioxide. al. 2003). Azad et. This study will show a preventive measure to control the PM10 emission to Bangladesh standard level. PM2.htm). But all these studies show the relationship between PM10 and premature mortality and economic loss in monetary value per year. Excess death per annum in Dhaka city due to PM10 exposure is 10. K.350 ( A.dot. A waterless vacuum assisted street sweeping machine can remove 99.fhwa. various particulate matter including PM10.5: Number of major polluting industries in Dhaka city PM10 consists of many different substances suspended in the atmosphere in the form of fine particles (solid or liquid droplet).6% of dirt. black smoke and sulfates. although some associations have also been reported for ozone. Thus it causes serious health damage such as asthma. But no study attempted how to prevent this premature mortality and to stop the emission as well.5. That is why this research attempts to use CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) to every sector as we know natural gas has only 0 to 3% PM10 emission () . Among these pollutants. But Proposed Bangladesh average annual Standard is 50 µg/m3. a lot of studies demonstrated an association between daily or multi-day concentration of several common air pollutants and premature mortality. Over the two last decades. It can penetrate respiratory organs as we inhale air from atmosphere. All two 10 . chronic bronchitis etc. Recent study shows the annual average concentration of PM10 in Dhaka city is 137 µg/m3 (Murshid & Shimada et.
and have major public health impacts. respective health damage like asthma. Dhaka. After getting air pollution (PM10) cost solving by linear programming method it will be compared to health cost of Dhaka city due to PM10 exposure. 1. is one of the most polluted cities in the world. and air-bornelead pose significant air pollution problems. This research will minimize this cost.Particulate Matter (PM10). the capital of Bangladesh. So.803 motor vehicles. A cost function will be formulated subjected to constraint equations. If PM10 pollution is under control (Bangladesh standard annual standard average). Sulfur dioxide (S02). As a result respective health hazard like asthma. Three pollutants.stroke petrol engine must be converted to four stroke CNG engine and all diesel and petrol vehicles must be converted to CNG engine. chronic bronchitis and other respiratory diseases can be prevented. Dhaka city has about 322. Among the pollutants. PM10 whose levels are 3 times higher than Bangladesh Standard in the heavily polluted districts in Dhaka is the most harmful one. 11 . this program will need huge cost. chronic bronchitis and other respiratory disease will be prevented . If air pollution (PM10) cost is less than the health cost. The cost of applying various methods and technologies to reduce PM10 to standard value will be estimated and minimized by Linear Programming (LP) method.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH Air pollution is causing a serious threat to public health in most of the urban centers in the developing countries. this study will suggest the government to give more emphasis on air pollution (PM10) control than to invest in respective health care. This study will attempt to reduce PM10 from Dhaka City to proposed national standard by applying various methods and technologies. Then every year government need not to spent so large amount of money.
35 million (running cost). 6. The five emission sources and their technologies to control emission are given below:- 2.2 Re-suspended soil dust: 8 street sweeping machine cost for the first year (equipment cost plus running cost) US$ 99. Incorporating CNG Kit to four stroke diesel engine for converting into CNG engine 4. Labor cost is main for this method. Incorporating CNG Kit to four stroke petrol engine for converting into CNG engine 3. For five emission sources eight methods are set to reduce PM10 emission to standard level in two years time period. Conversion of all two stroke engine vehicles into four stroke engine and using CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as fuel. Cost calculation is given below: A Vacuum-assisted street sweeper Machine costs US$ 2. In gutter area of street this machine can not enter.59 million and for the second year is US$ 0. 7. Using CNG in Industries and brick kilns as fuel. It also includes broom and water cost.CHAPTER 2 ASSUMED METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE PM10 EMISSION 2. This is a manual broom and will remove 80 ton of road dust. The dust in gutter area is removed by brooming and watering. Cleaning of construction dust by vacuum cleaner and cleaning of construction materials.00. Estimating the cost for multi-year (two year) basis For obtaining item 1 to 7 at first emission of every source has been estimated.1 Methodology of the research Assumed methods and technologies for this research to reduce PM10 to Bangladesh standard level are given below:1. Using street sweeping machines by CNG fuel to remove road dust. 5.000 12 . It is already pointed out that Dhaka city has five major emission sources. 2.
35 + 97. 2.6` Million USD ii) Cost of broom = 10000 *12 times change * 2 = 0.3 Construction dust: Construction works are done almost all the year round in Dhaka city. Cleaning and washing construction materials is done by labor.35 Million.00. Amount of construction dust accumulated per year is 400 ton PM10 (Bangladesh Observer-2003).59 million and for the second year is US$ 0.64 = US$ 99.35 million.6 Million ii) CNG fuel cost to run the machine = 55 *100 m3 *8 *8.i) So. iii) Training and Technician cost = Trainer cost + Technician cost = 8 trainer *per trainer cost US$ 10.24 Million USD 13 .64 Total cost = 1. Removing construction dust is mainly labor oriented. Cost calculation is given below: Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) has 10.5 = US$ 0. Brick pebbles. grinding and crushing bricks and materials scatter dust in the city.6 + 0. Besides these construction workers use vacuum cleaner at construction site.000 * 8 = US$ 1. Vacuum cleaners also used to clean the accumulated dust.000* 365 + 75 technician and engineer@ average US$ 2500 *365 = US$ 97.59 Million Total cost for the first year US$ 99. It creates dust mainly from roads construction and building construction.000 cleaner to clean the roads and pavements by brooming and watering. cost of 8 Vacuum-assisted sweeper Machine = US$ 2. Cost of cleaning construction dust and road dust of 941 km roads of Dhaka city can be calculated as follows: i) Brooming and watering cost conducted by DCC as routine work = Wage per labor * Total number of cleaner * 365 days per year = US$ 4 * 10000 *365 = US$ 14.
0000000 liters *0. Two stroke engine vehicles are more polluted than four stroke because of improper combustion inside the engine cylinder.2 Million Cost of removing construction dust for the first year is US$ 175.44 227.25 = 0.0001 Volume Total PM10 in (Vehicle.0016 0.37 Million USD Total watering and brooming cost = 14.57 * 365 = US$ 175.20 million 2.4 Motor vehicles: Three types of motor vehicles are now polluting the air of Dhaka city.iii) Cost of water = 10.39 14 diesel vehicle Four stroke petrol 155749 .km/yr) (A) (27004*43.20 million and for the second year is US$ 75.800) (155749*14. Two stroke vehicles emits 153 ton PM10 per year (Bangladesh Road Transport Authority-2003). Emission of various motor vehicles are calculated from their emission factor and annual traffic volume (Table-2) Table.6+. four stroke petrol engine vehicles and four stroke diesel engine vehicles.2 Calculation of Emission per various types of vehicle is given below:Types of car Number Emission Factor Traffic (kg/vehicle. They are two stroke petrol engine vehicles.21 Million USD iv) Cost removing construction dust (washing brick pebbles and dust cleaning at building site by vacuum cleaner) = Vacuum cleaner cost + Total labor * wage per labor * 200 days per year =6.37 = 15.8000 vacuum cleaner* Taka 10000 per cleaner + 80.600) Emission ton /year(A*a) 1892.24+.km) Four stroke 27004 (a) 0. At first two stroke engine vehicles needs to convert four stroke and then incorporating CNG kit.000 * US$ 2.
Dhaka-2005) CNG conversion cost (i.950) 153. Table 3: Cost of CNG Conversion engine and Four Stroke conversion per vehicle Type Conversion of Four Stroke Petrol Four Stroke Diesel Two Engine Vehicle(Unit Engine Vehicle (Unit Engine Price in US$) Price in US$) US$ 10. Their total emission is 227 ton of PM10 per year.89 million and for the second year is US$ 78.000 US$ 322 Stroke Vehicle(Unit Price in US$) CNG Conversion Four stroke Conversion US$ 735 Source: slate. To remove this emission CNG conversion of four stroke petrol vehicles 15 .79 million.com According to table-2 and table-3 CNG conversion cost of two stroke vehicles for the first year is US$ 123. AQMP (Air Quality Monitoring Project.0001 (140050*10.newagebd.vehicle Two stroke 140050 0.com / greencarcongress. There are about 155749 four stroke petrol vehicle in Dhaka city.35 engine vehicle Source: BRTA (Bangladesh Road Transport Authority-2003).e incorporating of CNG kit) (equipment cost) of various motor vehicles are calculated from below tables.
CNG conversion cost for the first year is US$ 202. There about 27004 four stroke diesel vehicles in Dhaka city. It is seen that diesel emission is largest among all sources (38% of the total emission).08 million and for the second year is US$ 87.79 Million Total cost = 45.1 +78.47 Million 16 .1 Million ii) CNG cost of 140050 four stroke vehicle = 140050 * 15 m3 *300 * 8. Cost calculation is given below: * Conversion of two stroke engine into four stroke engine vehicle: i) Cost of two stroke engine into four stroke engine = US$ 322 * Total Two two stroke vehicle in Dhaka city = US$ 322 * 140050 = US$ 45.79 = US$ 123. To remove this huge amount of PM10 emission CNG conversion is suggested. Their total emission is 1892 ton per year.is suggested.61 million.5 = US$ 78.89 Million * CNG Conversion of Four Stroke Petrol Engine: i) Cost of incorporating CNG Kit to the four stroke petrol engine = US$ 735 * Total four stroke petrol engine in Dhaka city = US$ 735 * 155749 = US$ 114.
30 million and for the second year is US$ 101.5 = US$ 101.08 Million * CNG Conversion of Diesel Engine Vehicle : i) Cost of incorporating CNG Kit to the diesel engine vehicle = US$ 10.30 Million Total cost of CNG conversion for the first year is US$ 371.ii) cost of 155749 petrol engine vehicle = 155749 * 15m3 CNG *300 * 8. 47 + 87.26 = US$ 371.61 Million Total cost = 114.26 million.000 * 27004 = US$ 270.04 + 101.26 Million Total cost = 270 .000 * Total diesel engine vehicle in Dhaka city = US$ 10. 17 .61 = US$ 202.04 Million ii) Cost of CNG of 27004 diesel vehicle = 27004 * 100 m3 *300 * 8.5 = US$ 87.
Cost calculation is given below: 3.35 *106 m3 *8.200 brick kilns produce 1375 million bricks (Chemical Engineering.46 million ii) Cost of infrastructure i.5 Brick kilns emission: However emission of brick kilns is estimated from the emission factor of biomass burning. To use CNG in brick kilns two types of cost associated.3 = 412500000 kg = 412500 tons 147 kg of coal = 220 m3 CNG Total CNG = 220*412500000/147 = 617.51 million and for the second year is US$ 96. coal burning and oil burning (Table-3).5 i) Total cost of fuel ( CNG) = 617. Total emission for the first year is 623 ton. 18 .46 million. Development of infrastructure ( linking roads.168 million But for 4000 brick kilns around Dhaka city will cost = US$ 96.3kg/brick Total coal consumption = 1375 *106 *0.46 million + US$ 47.5 = US$ 77.05 million = US$ 143. CNG pipe line = Taka 799850 *4000 = US$ 47. BUET.05 million Total = US$ 96.e link road .51 million Total cost for the first year is US$ 143. 2002) Coal consumption/brick = 0.35 *106 m3 1 m3 CNG costs = Taka 8. CNG pipelines etc) (equipment cost) cost and CNG cost (running cost). To remove this emission from brick kilns using of CNG for firing is suggested instead of wood and coal.2.
13 PJ (world environment day 2005::SDNP Bangladesh) Calorific value of coal = 21 MJ/Kg Amount of coal = 4. leaves and and twigs 1. Cost calculation is given below: i) Coal consumption for Dhaka city (12.67*107 kg 19 .7 70. In Tejgaon industrial area of Dhaka.4 0. this study proposes to use CNG in every industry of Dhaka city to reduce this emission to the standard level.3 1. oil and biomass as fuel which emits particulate matters.Table-4: Summary of gaseous and particulate emission factor Particulates (g kg−1) Grass Leaves Twigs Leaves (1:1) Grass.6 Industry emission: Most of the industrial areas of Dhaka city is located at Tejgaon. Total emission of industry is 735 ton. al.15 *0.0 4.13*1015/21*106 = 19.4 1064.2 2.4 57. ice cream factory and heavy metal industries.8 CO2 (g kg−1) 322. coal and biomass (Table-5 and 6).2 3. biscuit industries.6 2.7 70. Kamalak Kannan. Tanneries industries are located in Hazaribagh. and Demra. there are chemical industries. This will also include two types of cost like brick kilns.one is CNG pipe line and infrastructure cost (equipment cost) and CNG fuel cost (running cost). Tongi. Emission of PM10 is estimated from emission factor of particulate matter from oil.3 twigs (1:1:1) 4. So. Hazaribagh.2 Source: (G.5 32.7 456.2 CO (g kg−1) 41.8 1.3 2. Many of those industries use CNG as fuel in Dhaka city but some of the industries still use coal.3 4. Minakshi Gupta et.9 42.34) = 4.3 1403.6 897.8 HC (g kg−1) 3. Kanchpur.2 11. 2004) 2.4 NOx (g kg−1) 2.
82*107/230 = 15.67*107/147 = 29.44*107 m3 CNG *8.96*107 m3 CNG Therefore cost to replace oil by CNG = Taka 22.34 = 40. So.51*109 kg *0. cost to replace biomass = Taka 751.96*107 m3 *8. al.We know 147 kg of coal = 220 m3 CNG Amount of CNG = 220*19. 147 kg of coal = 220 m3 CNG Amount of CNG to replace biomass = 220*502*106/147 = 751. biomass used by industries = 2.34*107 kg of coal 147 kg of coal = 220 m3 CNG Amount of CNG = 220*15. et.12*1015/16*106 = 2.88*10 15/44*10 6 = 8.34 = 3.82*107 kg We know 230 kg of oil = 400 kg of coal Amount of coal = 400*8. 2006) So.51*109 kg 18. Jashimuddin.8 million ii) Oil consumption for Dhaka = 11.88 PJ Calorific value of oil = 44 MJ/Kg Amount of oil = 3.5 = US$ 28.29*106 m3 *8.5 = US$ 36.185 = 502*106 kg Biomass and coal are about to equal in calorific value.29*106 m3 CNG So.70 Million iii) Biomass consumption for Dhaka city = 118*0. cost to replace coal by CNG = Taka 29.5% of total biomass is used in industries (M.12 PJ Calorific value of biomass = 16 MJ/kg Amount of biomass = 40.5 = US$ 94 million 20 .44*107 m3 CNG So.34*107/147 = 22.43*0.
51*108*1.51*108 kg We know 1m3 NG = 0.70+94+47.iv) NG consumption in Dhaka = 40.34 = 13.5 = US$ 47.6.56 million and for the second year is US$ 47.81*1015/55*106 = 2. Percentage emission of these five sources are shown in fig.56 million The cost for the first year is US$ 206.5 * 2.8 + 28.62*0.06 = US$ 206.51*108*1.668 kg So. 21 .5) m3 Total cost = Taka 8. I kg CNG = 1.81 PJ Calorific value of NG = 55MJ/kg Therefore amount of CNG = 13.5 m3 Amount of CNG =( 2.06 million Total cost to use CNG in industries as fuel = 36.06 million.
Table-5: Uncontrolled emission factor for PM and PM10 from bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion 22 .
23 .Table-6 Emission factor for LPG combustion Fig.6 Percentage of emission in ton from various sources.
7 Average values for Criteria Pollutants Measured at CAMS.1 DATA PREPARATION This study has attempted to estimate optimum cost of air pollution (PM10) based on Linear Programming (LP) method and then compare the cost with health cost.CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING APPROACH 3. A Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) has been established in Dhaka city. 24 . leading to severe episodes of ambient air pollution. Dhaka during 2003 along with Bangladesh Standards (Source-AQMP (2002-04). S02. PM10 and PM2. 2004)). Six criteria pollutants namely.5 NOx. The summary of air quality data for Dhaka obtained at the Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS) . O3 and CO have been monitoring in the CAMS. High levels of emission of air pollutants in a small area exceed the processes of dilution and dispersal. at the campus of the Parliament House (Sangsad Bhaban). Fairly comprehensive air quality data are being collected for Dhaka nowadays (AQMP (2002. Uncontrolled emissions from motor vehicles and other economic activities give rise to air and other forms of pollution. and is operational since April 2002. For this purpose at first PM10 emission sources of Dhaka city are identified and emission data are collected from various organizations of Dhaka city and various research papers and website.04) and Biswas et al (2001. Table.
construction dust and brick kilns data are obtained from AQMP (Air Quality Management Project. 3.1901 0.1083 0.8902 0.08 0.2 MODELING APPROACH3 As it is earlier mentioned that this research will estimate air pollution ( PM10) cost and minimize this cost . For minimization of cost Linear Programming (LP) is a appropriate method. DOE ( Directorate of Environment) . Each option has total emission in ton and total cost in US million dollars to remove that emission.1962 stroke petrol vehicles (x4) CNG conversion of diesel 371.30 vehicles (x5) 25 .21 gutter area of street (x2) CNG conversion of four 202. SOS (Save Our Soul) and from so many other website and research papers. data of emission factor. it is easy to calculate cost of unit ton to remove (Table-8). So.59 for cleaning road dust (x1) Watering and broom in 15. According to AQMP there are about 322. total motor vehicle data.Sources of emission . data about resuspended soil dust . BRTA (Bangladesh Road Transport Authority). 2 Table-8: Cost of removal unit ton of PM10 by using the following technology (for first year) System/Technology used for removal PM10 Possible total Cost of the method Possible maximum Amount of (in ton/yr) 920 80 227 1892 Unit Cost (Million US$) (to remove per ton PM10) (yj) (Million US$) PM10 removed Street Sweeping machines 99. For this purpose a cost function (objective function) is established subjected to constraint equations. This study already has total seven emission sources (motor vehicles splitted into three categories) and total eight options (variables) to remove PM10 to standard level.803 motor vehicle plying in the Dhaka city. Dhaka).
3. total cost T = ∑( xi* yj) Where yj (j= 1.438 623 735 0.8097 400 0.Conversion of two stroke 123.51 206.3……) is cost of per ton PM10 removal So Cost Function T = x1y1 + x2y2 +x3y3+… Table-9 Total PM10 (in ton) removal by applying various methods/technologies ( for first years) Source of PM10 Methods/Technologies used to remove PM10 Street Watering CNG CNG Conversion Cleaning of Using Using sweeping and to gutter area in conversion Conversion of two of four stroke stroke petrol stoke diesel petrol vehicle (4) vehicle Construction CNG dust by vacuum as CNG in as fuel 26 machines broom in of four (Xij) firing industry cleaners and in .2 153 0.3 FORMULATION OF COST FUNCTION3 Let x i (i = 1.2303 0.2.56 175.89 engine into four stroke CNG engine (x6) Cleaning of construction dust by vacuum cleaner and others (x3) Using CNG in brick kiln for firing (x7) Using CNG fuel in industries ( x8) Total 1337.2.281 5030 3.34 143.4………) is PM10 in tons to be removed by using the Method/ technology So.
1962x5 +0.8097x6+0.2303x7+0.3……) is cost of per ton PM10 removal So Cost Function T = x1y1 + x2y2 +x3y3+… So.438x3 + 0.281x8 27 .1901x2 +0.street (2) vehicle (3) i =1 Resuspended soil dust (j=1) Construction dust(2) Four stroke petrol vehicles(3) Four stroke diesel vehicles(4) Two stroke engine vehicles(5) Brick kilns(6) Industries (7) X33 x44 x11 x21 into four stroke CNG (5) others(6) brick kilns(7) (8) x62 X55 X76 X87 .1083x1 +0.8902x4 +0.2. Cost Function for first year T1 = 0.
0 .2. Two Stroke Engine:4. 1892.64) x1. x8) ( 1000. Four stroke petrol Vehicles:5. Construction dust : 3. x4. x6.Industry :x1 +x2 x3 x6 x4 x5 x7 x8 ≤ 1000 ≤ 400 ≤ 153 ≤ 227 ≤ 1892 ≤ 623 ≤ 735 8.Total Emission: x1+x2+x3+x4+x5+x6+x7+x8 ≥ (5030x0. x6. x2.) So . x4. x2.Total minimum cost for first year T1 = US$ 554. 0. x7. x5. x5.Brick Kilns :7. 327.x8 ≥ 0 Solution found ( x1.0 .Re-suspended soil dust:2.Subject to Constraint Equations :1. 0 . Four stroke diesel vehicles:6. x3.86 million 28 .x3.x7. 0 .
0003 0.26 vehicles Conversion of two stroke engine into four stroke CNG engine (x13) Cleaning of construction dust by vacuum cleaner and others (x11) Using CNG in brick kiln for firing (x14) 68.232 29 .8(52.8902 stroke petrol vehicles (x12) CNG conversion of diesel 101.59 175.2 123.89 0.Table-10 Cost of removal unit ton of PM10 by using the following technology ( for second year) tt System/Technology used for removal PM10 Possible total Cost of the method (Million US$) Possible maximum removed (in ton/yr) 920 80 227 Already removed 153 Unit Cost (Million US$) (to remove Amount of PM10 per ton PM10) (yj) Street Sweeping machines 0.8097 400 0.97 gutter area of street (x10) CNG conversion of four 202.35 for cleaning road dust (x9) Watering and broom in 14.1871 0.08 0.438 295.5% removed) 0.
56 892.Using CNG fuel in industries (x15) Total 206. vehicle into four stroke CNG (5) Construction CNG dust by vacuum cleaner (6) as in brick kilns(7) CNG in (8) machines broom in of four firing industry street (2) vehicle (3) 30 .8 0.281 Table-11 Total PM10 (in ton) removal by applying various methods/technologies ( for second years) Source of PM10 Methods/Technologies used to remove PM10 Street Watering CNG CNG Conversion Cleaning of Using Using sweeping and to (1) (Xij) i= gutter area in conversion Conversion of two of four stroke stroke petrol stoke diesel petrol vehicle (4).9 735 2810.
Resuspended soil dust (j=1) Construction dust(2) Four stroke petrol vehicles(3) Four stroke diesel vehicles(4) Two stroke engine vehicles(5) Brick kilns(6) Industries (7) x11 x21 x62 x33 x55 x76 x87 31 .
0003x9 +0.x12.8902x12 + 0.8.x13.x14.Brick Kilns : 6. Total emission: x9+x10+x11+x12+x13+x14+x15 ≥(2810.46*0. 0.8 ≤ 735 7.26 + 96. x13.x15 ≥ 0 Solution found ( x9.1810. Total minimum cost for second year T2 = US$ 152.8) x9. 0. 0 . 0.x10.Cost function for second year T2 = 101.2303x14 +0. x15) (1000.438x11 + 0.Industry : x14 x15 ≤ 295. x14.8097x13 +0. Two Stroke Engine:4.x11.0 ) So.1871x10 + 0.2 million 32 .x12.Re-suspended soil dust:2.525 + 0.281x15 Subjected to Constraint Equations: 1. x11. Construction dust : 3. x10. Four stroke petrol Vehicles: x9 + x10 x11 x13 x12 ≤ 1000 ≤ 400 ≤ 153 ≤ 227 5. 0.
For this purpose objective function for 33 . It will be needed only running cost from next year. Multi-year (two years) is considered because once all the sources are equipped with CNG from next year there is no equipment cost.1RESULT AND DISCUSSION For air pollution cost minimization a linear programming is formulated consisting of a cost function for multi-year (two years).CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.
It is 34 .five PM10 emission sources and eight variables (methods / technologies) are set to solve the linear programming (LP). respective health damages(Asthma . e reduced to the proposed Bangladesh national standard) will save 1.74 million per year.carbon monoxide. If the PM10 pollution can be prevented . dust. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 700.53 million per year whereas health cost for Dhaka city is US$ 1820 million per year. and lead . 2004) Air pollution (PM10) control measure is a preventive method. So. and organic and inorganic substances are the most harmful one. chronic bronchitis and other respiratory disease) would be reduced considerably . Among the pollutants. air pollution cost is about one fifth of health cost. suspended particulate matter. So.213 deaths annually (Murshid and Shimada et. annual average) • The annual saving from reduction of PM10 to proposed national standard is US$ 1466.were brought down to safer levels.47 million which is equivalent to 2. From the model following results are also achieved: • 64% of total PM10 is reduced in Dhaka city which leads to achieve Bangladesh national standard level (50µg/m3.al. From linear programming (LP) method it is showed that air pollution (PM10) cost is US$ 353.4% of national GDP • 64% of PM10 reduction (i. in the light of this study government should pick up this preventive measure rather than to invest in mitigative method like respective health care and can save US$ 1149. particulate composed of fully dispersed liquids and solids including soot.000 deaths annually could be prevented in developing countries if three major atmospheric pollutants .
35 . Rajshahi. Dhaka. too. nitrogen oxides. and re-suspended dust particles. could be avoided every year if particulates could be kept at the level recommended by WHO (Ostro. In 1981 the total population in urban areas was 14. such as transportation. fuel combustion. sulfur oxides. In Jakarta.000 deaths. the number of vehicles is also increasing rapidly.45 million in 1991.emitted into the atmosphere from various activity sources. such economic damages due to air pollution are estimated at $1.A CAUSE OF RAPID AIR POLLUTION (PM10) Urbanization is an inherent part of the process of economic development in Bangladesh. Various other activities related to the extremely high population density also result in severe air and other forms of pollution. 1994). which increased to 22. A number of studies show a strong evidence of the relationship between particulate matter less than 10 µg (PM10) and premature death as well as disease. 14. and its rate can be indicated by the large population growth in urban areas. traffic congestion. traffic volume.2 RAPID URBANIZATION. 4. and contributing to more and more air pollution (PM10). which is about 2 percent of annual deaths in the cities. In the urban areas ambient air quality is dependent on many factors like air movement.5 billion per year. Khulna and Chittagong. The salient parameters of air pollution are particulate matter .08 million. emissions from motor vehicles. This is the center for the major economic and commercial activities. industrial process and solid waste disposal. the capital of Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. With increased urbanization. For example. in Mexico City. Now in 2006 it is about 42 million. The major urban centers in the country are the metropolitan cities of Dhaka. The associated costs are also estimated to be very large.
constructions and other development activities further aggravate the PM10 pollution in cities. and responses to air pollution 36 . power plants. solid waste disposal sites. railway engines. Along with these buildings. In order to accommodate the growing population.10 Pressures. the construction of multi-storied buildings is increasing rapidly. Table. and dust particles also contribute to increase PM10. Impacts. open burning incineration. lead. ozone and other gases. The tremendous pressure of population has made it almost impossible to maintain a clean environment in the capital city of Dhaka.hydrocarbons. State. Aircrafts. the number of slums are also increasing. Dust pollution due to road diggings. carbon monoxide.
K. emergency room visits. risk assessment for mortality.184 billion per year which equals to US$ 1820 million per year. This paper (A. traffic polices and street venders. the exposed population are placed into three classes: • • • High exposure population include drivers. Azad. al .CHAPTER 5 ASSESMENT OF HEALTH ESTIMATION DUE TO PM10 EXPOSURE 5. One of the latest studies ( A.) are estimated following Ostro (1994). Azad. restricted activity days etc. et. the number of occurrences of respiratory and other diseases and weakness (chronic bronchitis. Finally these impacts of both mortality and morbidity are evaluated in monetary value.2003) shows that valuation of health cost is Taka 124. 38 . asthma attacks. Moderate exposure population include the commuters who exchange daily. The rest of the people are averagely exposed.K. Exposure Assessment In this study. Thus risk assessment for morbidity is also conducted. But at the same time.2003) estimated health cost considering all kind of exposures. al . et.1 ESTIMATING OF HEALTH COST Health cost on Dhaka city due to PM10 exposure is already estimated.
Considering the valuation in Jakarta (US $2).465 For a milder attack. and 80% lower productivity (valued at one-third of average wage) were used. For still milder attack only the medicine costs apply.1 days. to this we add 9. Therefore it is difficult to make a reliable valuation. cost of transport (2*Taka 50). Therefore. Therefore.1 lost working days. d) Asthma attack: A severe asthma attack lasts on an average 9. the cost of an asthma 39 .80 = 70 Taka. The average wage is about Taka 150 per day. the same figure as for an emergency room visits (Taka 350 to 400) could be used. the total for a severe attack is 9. To this added the cost of the loss of one work-day (Taka 150).This paper also estimated morbidity and finally calculated total cost. Bangladesh's lower per capita income and the restricted activity days valuation above an estimate of Taka 50 seems appropriate. d) Respiratory symptoms day: No surveys on willingness to pay to prevent a respiratory symptom day have been carried out in Bangladesh. Therefore.20 * 150 + 150 * 1/3 * 0. aerosols and tablets cost approximately Taka 300. b) Emergency room visit: Private hospital charge Taka 100 to 150 for an emergency room visit. Depending on the severity. the estimate is 2 * 50 + 150 + (100 to 150) = 350 to 400 Taka. the estimate is thus: 0.1 * (1000 + 150) = Taka 10. Morbidity: a) Restricted activity days: Ostro (1994) calculations of 20% workers (valued at an average wage). This includes the doctor's bill and medicine. The daily hospital fees in private hospitals are about Taka 1000.
which are slightly lower than the WB estimation. A number of reasons may. f) Chronic Bronchitis : It is estimated that the number of work loss days per year are 50. be responsible for this nonconformance. workdays lost at Taka 150 per day.25.attack can range from Taka 300 to 10.158 and total morbidity was 31. WB study showed that the excess death was 11.2 Risk Assessment of PM10 Table 1 shows mortality and morbidity resulting from exposure to PM10 in the year 2002.56. 40 . which are estimated at 0. respectively. resulting in Taka 1. the total hospital costs amount to Taka 1. Finally yearly expenditure on medication is about Taka 1500.09.75. the average valuation is estimated at Taka 1500 per attack. e) Respiratory hospital admission: The valuation is the same as for a severe asthma attack.000) Taka = 2. Discounted at 5%.350 and 22. the valuation of a case of chronic bronchitis is = (1.26.43.000 over 27 years.849.43. 5.1 day at at fee of Taka 1500 per day.867.825 + 1. Such a visit would average 13. Considering that milder attacks are more frequent.40. Taka 10. To this we add the costs of hospital visits. Totaling a discounted amount of Taka 22.465.09.5 times per year. if discounted at 5%.825.126 and this study findings are 10.867 + 22. however.690 Taka.465.
723 220.127.116.11.28.015 Exposure 2459 17.849 41 .038 3.492 Average Exposure 5252 37.497 5.424 6.Table 1: Mortality and morbidity from exposure to PM10.857 Respiratory 5.66.36.071 22.17.753 3.07.75.25.67.019 Room visits Asthma attacks 7.975 1.263 27.984 1.468 7.28.594 Morbidity 73. Case Mortality Items Excess death Chronic bronchitis Restricted activity days Respiratory hospital diseases Emergency High Exposure Moderate 2640 18.54.213 14.70.687 1.403 14.350 74.07.86.530 Total 10.45.24.59.031 6.40.056 symptoms days 68.717 11.818 2.86.78.
11127 million Taka as cost of respiratory symptom days.3 Economic Valuation of Health Effects Table 2: Valuation of health impacts due to the effects of PM10 Case Items Total exposureSpecific Costs Taka Total Taka) 7. 20518 million Taka as cost of chronic bronchitis.75. It has been found that about 83214 million Taka comes as the total costs for excess death case.25.99.23 0 In Table 2. the valuation of health impacts due to PM10 is shown.24.50 million (US WTP) Mortality Excess death Chronic bronchitis Restricted activity days Respiratory 10. And the massive impact seems to come out from excess death.53. The variation in cost with different type of health impacts is shown in Figure 2. Thus the total cost comes out to be 124 billion Taka. 42 .75.86.071 Respiratory 22.424 6.263 visits Asthma attacks 27. 4895 million Taka as cost of restricted activity days.64.69. which shows a tremendous loss potential on our country.350 5.40. 153 million Taka as cost of respiratory hospital disease.038 2.49000 (lost salary) 74.849 symptoms days 22. 114 million Taka as cost of emergency room visits.690 70 10465 350 – 400 1500 50 77625 5589 20518 4895 153 114 4163 11127 124184 Costs (Million Morbidity Total 14. 4163 million Taka as cost of asthma attacks.594 hospital diseases Emergency room 2.5.
So all the demands of natural gas may not be meet up from only domestic source although it seems at present that all demand can be fulfilled according to present reserve and exploration of natural gas. Traffic congestion is one of the main cause of air pollution (PM10) and Dhaka is a huge traffic congestion city.1 LIMITATION. Old engine vehicles (older than 10 years) are more polluting than new engine vehicles. In this study it is said that all motor vehicles. RECOMMENDATION AND FUTURE SCOPE During this research no action is taken about old engine vehicles. But at present Dhaka city has a few number of CNG station. Besides to maintain a continuous supply of CNG to all sector it needs to establish so many CNG stations. In this research it is not considered traffic congestion in mathematical model. brick kilns and industries will use CNG as fuel. The presence of very low speed non- 44 .CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH 6. But after several years government may have to import natural gas which will create pressure on economy.
6. import of old engine vehicles.motorized vehicles (mainly rickshaws) with a maximum speed of 10 km/hour. 45 . Some expected effects from this measure that will reduce pollution would be that traffic flow-speed will increase. Banning of old engine vehicles and excluding this vehicles from calculation-a suggestion for future modification of this research. brick field . PM 10 emission from traffic congestion should also be included in mathematical model. A suggested measure for Dhaka city is that nonmotorized traffic is restricted from arterial roads. poor fuel quality. Some of these have already been tried sporadically. Besides frequently use of two stroke engine vehicles. with some exceptions for the circulation of such traffic. to maintain non-motorized flow between different regions. and fuel consumption will be reduced for the same vehicle-miles traveled. re-suspended soil dust follow to those. The exceptions would consist of non-interactive special lanes and crossings.2 RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY IN DHAKA The estimation shows that diesel vehicles are the main cause of severe air pollution in Dhaka city and the industries. Hence. on a limited scale. inadequate maintenance of vehicles and absence of proper traffic planning are responsible for the air pollution problem in Dhaka. Rickshaws cannot be removed due to socio-economic constraints. and their interaction with motorized traffic presents a very special traffic problem. creative measures are needed to limit the impact of non-motorized traffic. but what is needed is a long-term commitment. and substantially scaled-up operations.
Introduction of ambient air quality standards and vehicle emission standard and maintaining a continuous air monitoring station(CAMS) in Dhaka city Dumping and burning of refuse garbage should be away from Dhaka metropolitan area . 6 under construction. In Bangladesh Natural gas is abundantly available. At this 99% of the PM10 emission will be reduced. coal and biomass. A vacuum-Assisted street sweeper Machine cost USD 200. road salt and other debris. For this purpose street sweeping technology should be applied .• • Conversion of two stroke engine into four stroke design and incorporating timed fuel injection and crankcase lubrication for better combustion Using CNG(Compressed Natural Gas) in all kinds of motor vehicles in Dhaka city instead of using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. • • Using CNG as fuel in all industries and brick kilns instead of oil. As a preventive option all types of construction works may be tried to do in rainy season. Petrobangla estimates the recoverable natural gas 46 . • To control Municipal road dust and construction dust have both preventive and mitigative option.000. For this the engine of the vehicles must have CNG converted . Government has already planned to set up 61 CNG filling station (4 station already existing.Banning on importing two stroke engine vehicle. It picks up fine grained sediment. Recent estimates by the US Geological Survey reveals that the total resource reserve of natural gas is about 32 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Setting of CNG filling station in Dhaka city. old engine vehicle and their spare parts. road dust. 21 site not yet decided) • • • • • Improving of traffic management so that traffic congestion may not occur at various intersection points of road because vehicle idling pollute the air more. 30 site identified. Mitigative option involve removal of road surface dust and deicing materials. Because it is seen that average PM10 load reduces substantially during the high rainfall period.
It is recommended that government will undertake actual measurement of emission factors. A continuous monitoring scheme is essential to evaluate air quality and for the development of any with the help of development partners. and the characteristics of vehicular emission control measures is necessary to design a cost effective action plan. Further understanding of the sources of air pollution. Motor vehicles. the contribution of vehicles to air pollution emissions. and conduct an investigation on emission control measures. So. It is apparent from the discussion above that it is possible to reduce emissions from various sources mentioned above to national standard if the model of the research is followed although there are some limitations are associated. especially twostrokes engine vehicles are an increasingly important source of air pollution emissions in Dhaka. the acuteness of the problems caused by air pollution. no thought of export natural gas without fulfilling of all domestic demand CHAPTER 7 7. Old engine vehicles should be banned from Dhaka city and its imports are also to be prohibited.reserves to be about 12 TCF.1 CONCLUSION The ultimate success of any decision is the extent to which it translates into action. However. 47 . complete the emission inventory.
Farmgate. PM10 pollution for Dhaka city may be reduced to national standard level. Lalmatia. Black smoke which is primarily unburned fine carbon particles is emitted by diesel vehicles. According to an assessment made by DoE. More air quality monitoring stations should be established in vulnerable areas like Tejgaon. Farmgate. Gulshan. Other old vehicles. good traffic management .2 REFERENCES 48 . In Dhaka city. reduction of traffic congestion. The automobiles on the roads are often very old. and poorly maintained. overloaded. including 40-year old trucks and dilapidated mini-buses. there is only one Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Camp (AQMP) at the campus of the Parliament House (Sangsad Bhaban ). and emit smoke far exceeding the prescribed limit. 90 per cent of the vehicles that ply Dhaka’s streets daily are faulty. 7. and residential areas of the city.and awareness campaigns organized by different mass media. Gulshan . and Agargaon. Mohakhli. have made the government aware of the necessity of monitoring ambient air quality. Manik Mia Avenue. are also plying the city streets emitting smokes and gases. DoE Should conducts vehicular emission measurement some sensitive locations like Tejgaon. if it is possible to ban old engine vehicles. commercial. These areas represent industrial. using of CNG instead of traditional fuel . So.
pdf.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/final/c01s01.available online http://www. pp. AIR POLLUTION.com/03.htm 8. Kamalak Kannan. available online at newagebd.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/final/c01s05.net/sdnbd_org/world_env_day/2005/bangladesh/industry/industry. Ritsumeikan University. Bituminous and Sub-bituminous Coal Combustion. Available online at http://www.K. available online at http://www. Meenakshi Gupta and Jagdish Chandra Kapoor.epa. revised 16 August 2004.1.pdf 6. Dhaka Bangladesh.newagebd.htm 49 . Sultana and S.html 7. Jahan. BUET.epa. G. An Economic Evaluation of Air Pollution in Dhaka City. 3953. Pollution Prevention Fact Sheet: Parking Lot and Street Cleaning: Cost of Street Sweeping Machine . Proceeding of the International Conference on Chemical Engineering Department. Delhi 110 054. Japan . Azad. Bangladesh. Timarpur. India Received 17 March 2004.high pressure.pp.moef. 83-87 (2003) 3. 10.gov. Murshid and Shimada. 22-23 September 2005 2.pdf 5. the 2nd seminar of JSPS-VCC. available online at http://www. low price .bdix. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion available online at http://www.net/Pollution_Prevention_Factsheets/ParkingLotandSt reetCleaning. From grim city to green city: Industry. Should I be a CNG convert? available online at SLATE http://slate. J. NEW AGE Xtra Cover.bd/html/state_of_env/pdf/bangladesh_air. Health and Economic Assessment of Air Pollution in Dhaka. Defence Research & Development Organisation. Centre for Fire. A. Estimation of gaseous products and particulate matter emission from garden biomass combustion in a simulation fire test chamber.stormwatercenter. accepted 2 September 2004. Explosive and Environment Safety. Available online 8 December 2004 4.com 9.
net/Env. EWand Economic Assessment o 50 . Waste Mismanagement and Health Hazard in Dhaka city. 14. I am also grateful to MEXT that provided me financial support by giving Monbukagakusho scholarship and makes me proud in becoming graduate from Japanese University.available online at http://www.uk/chemistry/3_11/3_11_4.angelfire.Features/HumanHealth/June2002/15%20to%2030.11.html 15. available online at http://www. Vehicle population. Without his guidance and supervision . liquid and gaseous fuels. Toyohashi University of Technology. Ecological Engineering Department.html .kayelaby.bcas.com/ak/medinet/dhakutp. I want to thank Dr. it was impossible to complete the thesis. available online at http://www. Asep Sofyan.available online at http://www. I also wish to express my appreciation to Mr.D candidate of Kitada laboratory for his help in various aspect.org/sdi/international_days/wed/2005/bangladesg/energy/data.sdnpbd.bcas. He inspired me every moment to to study others respective papers and journal to improve the quality and result of my research . utilization and fuel economy in Dhaka.pdf 7.co. Calorific values of solid.npl.3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS At first I would like to express my deep gratitude to my academic supervisor professor Dr. Toshihiro Kitada . the research associate of Kitada laboratory for his valuable help and suggestion in my research.net/DhakaSoE/KeyEnvironmentalIssues. for his continuous help and important guidance to this research. Takayuki Tokairin. Key Environment Issues.htm. Available online at http://www. the Ph.htm 12. 13. Use Renewable Energy: National data .
Department of Ecological Engineering Toyohashi University of Technology Toyohashi. Japan November. Toshihiro Kitada A thesis submitted as partial fulfillment Of the requirement for the degree of Master of Engineering Md. Salahuddin Sheikh Advisor: Prof.Evaluation of Optimum Set of Air Pollution (PM10) Control measures to Attain Environmental Standard of Dhaka City with Minimized Cost : Comparison of The Cost with It by Health Damage Prepared by: Md. 2007 Master Course Student ID: 055808 51 . Dr.
Bangladesh 7REFERENCE7 52 . Bangladesh Health and Economic Assessment of Air Pollution in Dhaka.Department of Ecological Engineering (Kitada Laboratory) Toyohashi University of Technology Course Student ID: 055808 Department of Ecological Engineering (Kitada Laboratory) Toyohashi University of Technology Economic Assessment of Air Pollution in Dhaka.
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