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PREMATURE FAILURES IN PISTONS
Premature failures in pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners, bearings and bushings . . . . . . . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Premature failures in pistons 1. Premature failures in pistons, due to assembling error . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Circlip expulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient clearance between pin and bushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Inclined contact area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Scuffing caused by cylinder liner deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Ring flutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient assembly clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 07 07 08 08 09 09 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 04
2. Premature failures caused by engine malfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Scuffing caused by insufficient cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Damage caused by detonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Damage caused by pre-ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Cracks on piston crown and pin bosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Failures caused by running at temperatures below normal . . . . . .Page Excessive fuel injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Crown damage by erosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Interference between piston and cylinder head and/or valves . . .Page Piston fracture at the pin boss region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
2.10 Cracks at the combustion bowl ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2.11 Cracks at the piston skirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2.12 Deformation of upper cylinder liner part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2.13 Piston crown machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2.14 Incorrect con rod fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2.15 Rupture/breakage of ring land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Premature failures in pistons rings 3. Premature failures in piston rings, due to assembling error . . . . . . . . . . Page 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Inverted piston ring mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Overlapped coil spring or expander ends mounting . . . . . . . . . . .Page Mounting with odd materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Piston ring mounting with inadequate or damaged tools . . . . . . .Page Odd particles in aspirated air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Other factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 28 28 28
3.5.1 Contamination by abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 3.6.1 Cylinder washing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 3.7.1 Honing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 3.7.2 Piston ring adulteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
Premature failures in cylinder liners 4. Premature failures in cylinder liners, due to assembling error . . . . . . . . Page 4.1 Cylinder fitting with glue/adhesive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 37 37
5. Irregular machining of engine block and/or cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . Page 5.1 5.2 5.3 Fitting of cylinder liner on irregular seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Fitting of cylinder liner on irregular engine block . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient lubrication/dilution of lubricating oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
6. Other factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 6.1 6.2 6.3 Corrosion - scales - cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Circlip expulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Contamination by abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
Premature failures in bearings 7. Premature failures in bearings, due to malfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Hot short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Generalized fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient oil in bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Erosion by cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Excessive clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 39 39 40 40 41 42 43 44 44 44 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54
8. Premature failures in bearings, due to fitting error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Insufficient axial clearance (longitudinal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Solid impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Housing dirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Oval housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Insufficient part line height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Excessive part line height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Bent or twisted con rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Displaced cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page Deformed crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
8.10 Deformed engine block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 8.11 Non-cylindrical crankshaft journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 8.12 Incorrect radius conformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 8.13 Incorrect torque and application of glue/adhesive . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 9. Incorrect fitting, due to lack of attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Premature failures in bushings 10. P r e m a t u r e f a i l u r e s i n b u s h i n g s , d u e t o a s s e m b l i n g e r r o r . . . . . . . . . . . . P a g e 10.1 Incorrect assembly clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 10.2 Deformed housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 10.3 Incorrect bushing assembling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page
57 57 57 59
. . . . . . . . . . . Pa g e 11. . . . . .5 Crack and/or fissure in the valve seat region . . . . . .Premature failures in valves 11.Page Torque conversion table 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 11. . . . . . .Page 11. . . . . . .Page 11. . .7 Generalized wear on the valve head . .4 Fracture at the keeper groove region with the stem . P r e m a t u r e f a i l u r e s i n v a l v e s . . . . . . T o r q u e c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Burnt valve seats with localized wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Various types of irregularity . . .6 Fracture at the valve head region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P a g e 68 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 11. . . . .Page 11. . . . . . . . . . .3 Valve fractures and breakages . . . . . . . . .Page 11. . . . .Page 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Valve stem scuffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Valve seat wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
but he should also diagnose the cause of the reduction of the pre-determined durability. According to their function. are: Pistons Pistons are parts made usually of cast or forged aluminum. which are the result of the combustion of an air/fuel mixture. which will be analyzed. They differ basically from the bearings in their form. to control the lubricating oil film of the cylinder walls and to be a transmitting element for the heat. A good mechanic should therefore not limit his action only to the exchange of parts. Cylinder liners Liners are cylindrical parts of three types: dry. The function of an exhaust valve consists in allowing the discharge of the combustion gases. The function of an intake valve consists in admitting the air or air and fuel mixture to the combustion chamber.Introduction All engine parts have a foreseen operational life. They also allow the re-use/ salvage of the engine block in certain cases. Bearings But not always these expectations are Bearings are steel parts covered by different anti-friction alloys. in some cases of terminology and in the composition of their alloys. Piston rings Piston Rings are circular elastic elements with high expansive force. Their main functions are: to provide a sealed system for the expansion of Valves are parts built from materials of one or more types. They're normally mono-metallic or mono-metallic with seat face or wafer-welded tip end. from the piston to the cylinder. Both types of valves have also the function to seal the combustion chamber and to transmit the heat to the cylinder head and the cooling liquid. This force is transmitted to the crankshaft by the pin and the con rod. Valves maintained. which can be longer or shorter. filled with sodium. They're normally bi-metallic or bi-metallic with seat face. because internal and/or external factors to the engine can impair one of the parts during the engine operation. Therefore each part has its pre-determined operational life under normal running conditions of the complete assembly. combustion gases and to provide the heat transfer to the cooling liquid that circulates through the engine blocks galleries (in case of dry and wet cylinders) and to the air (in case of finned cylinders). The failures of internal engine components. Bushings Bushings are integral or parted parts. according to what has been expected. wet and finned. They have following main functions: to provide the sealing of the gases in the combustion chamber. they're divided into two types: intake valves and exhaust valves. similar to bearings. They can be hollow. 04 . mainly the high impacts caused by the engine's combustion. Their main functions are: to reduce the friction between a movable engine part and a static one connected to it. and to resist the high loads. depending on the specific function ascribed to it. reducing its operational life. whose function is to transmit by alternate movement the force of expanding gases.
each case in this Manual is analyzed from three different angles: 1. bushings and valves. enters in combustion and expands. Aspect . that is failed due to one or more specific causes. 2 . The spark of the spark plug starts the forced ignition. turning the crankshaft. lubrication of the ■ ■ corresponding cylinder down (engines of the The mere replacement of a part with premature failure. will submit the new part to the same causes responsible for the damages caused on the previous one. aspect and wear To have an internal combustion engine running under normal conditions. to correct the premature failure of the part. Surely exist several other causes that shoud be analyzed and take into account before assembly new parts during the engine rebuilt. spontaneous ignition. compressed by the piston. provides the admission of the air/fuel mixture to the combustion chamber. IMPORTANT In this premature failure manual we presented the most common causes that could lead to a failure in pistons.Measures to be taken. a starter is required which.Description of the destructive process and the factors capable of accelerating the damage. should not correct the failure without first discovering what has been the cause(s). Normal conditions. pistons rings. They have a higher compression ratio than the Otto-cycle engines. C a u s e s . It should be important to mention that the operational life of these components could be influenced by one or more causes combined: ■ ■ The spontaneous ignition occurs in engines that use diesel fuel. In this chamber the mixture is compressed by the piston and will have its volume reduced and its temperature increased. which could jeopardize the operational life of the above-mentioned parts. washing/insufficient cylinder. In these cases the engine admits only air into its combustion chamber and the piston compresses this air until its small volume results in a high temperature increase. In order to facilitate the understanding. therefore. The mechanic. At his moment the combustion of the air/fuel mixture pushing starts the (spontaneous piston of the combustion). bearings. cylinder liners. pushing the piston of the corresponding cylinder down (engines of the Otto-cyclegasoline/alcohol/gas) 05 . the air/fuel mixture. 3. incorrect assembly. Corrections . other factors. There are two types of ignition: ■ ■ forced ignition (by spark plug). irregular machining of the dry cylinder housing. At a certain point (injection point) the fuel is injected at the combustion chamber by an injection nozzle.A brief description of the part. Diesel-cycle).We present you below the most common causes.
Premature failures in pistons. 1. combined with the normal engine operation. 1. Correct circlip mounting. until its expulsion and/or fracture. Non-parallelism between the con rod small end bushing and the bearing.1. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Fig.1 Circlip expulsion Aspect ■ ■ ■ Piston with normal running characteristics Excessive clearance between pin and circlip. 1. without deformations during assembly. due to assembling error 1. if necessary). the fuel injection. Conical crankshaft journal. Cylinder rectification correctly aligned with the crankshaft. ■ ■ Corrections ■ Correct alignment of the con rods (changing them. 1. Cylinders are misaligned in relation to the crankshaft.1. Excessive longitudinal (axial) clearance of the crankshaft. lubrication and cooling. Breakage of the piston pin circlip groove. Check axial crankshaft clearance. 1. Eventually pieces of the fractured circlip cross the inner pin diameter and damage the other end. The air filter systems.1. Fig. Generally this occurs due to a composition of forces that pushes the pin against one of the circlips.2 Damages caused by circlip 07 .Normal running characterstics The normal wear of a piston occurs when the other engine components also function under normal conditions. Correct rectification of crankshaft journal. will result in a piston with normal wear during the operational life of the engine.1 Causes ■ ■ Bent con rod.3 Damages caused by circlip Fig.1 Damages caused by circlip Fig. Incorrect circlip mounting.
3.2 Insufficient clearance between pin and bushing Fig. observing the existence or not of pin and piston pin bore classification.2 Aspect ■ Scuffing zone along the pin bore (bosses). Corrections ■ Mount the piston pin with the correct specified clearance at the con rod small end bushing.1. 1.3 Inclined contact area Aspect ■ Inclined contact area in relation to the piston axis. 1. 1.1 Inclined marks at the piston skirt region Fig. Small end bushing ID boring.3. Fig.3 Inclined marks Bent con rod.3. Cylinders are misaligned in relation to the crankshaft. Fig. 1. Fig. Causes ■ ■ Fig.4 Inclined marks at the piston skirt region ■ ■ 08 . Rectification the cylinder.3 Corrections ■ Get a correct con rod alignment (changing them. if necessary).3. 1. 1. keeping it correctly aligned with the crankshaft. 1.2 Inclined marks Causes ■ Pin was mounted with insufficient clearance into the pin bore and/or into the con rod small end bushing.
Expanded operation. Delayed ignition originates heat and overheats this region of the piston. caused by: ■ ■ Irregular engine assembly. The problem usually occurs at the first compression ring. Furthermore the rings don't fulfill its function of transferring heat to the during engine cylinder. Excessive deposits of carbon materials. Causes Fig. 1. 1.5 Ring flutter Aspect Aspect ■ ■ Destroyed ring grooves. Provide correct machining of engine block bores for cylinder liner installation. Verify o'ring seal housing dimensins. The overheating of this piston region. Fig. o'ring seals ■ Housing diameter of o'ring seals out of specification. Use of rings with incorrect height. and consequently could cause ring flutter.1. Use of new rings in old grooves (used pisto). which is situated at the most loaded zone of the ring region and therefore is exposed directly to the combustion gases. do result in excessive groove wear. ■ Keep the clearance between the rings and the grooves within the specified values. Scuffing in small stripes. Inadequate torque of cylinder head bolt.5 Causes Deformation of cylinder liners. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Use o'ring seals of good quality. The stripes tend to enlarge during the running time and result in general engine seizure.1 09 . Corrections ■ During ring changes. ■ ■ Corrections ■ ■ Excessive clearance between ring and groove. which can originate cracks that happen normally at ring lands.4 Scuffing caused by cylinder liner deformation 1. the groove conditions should be carefully checked. Thus the piston has its resistance diminished. generally at the complete circumference of the piston skirt. mainly the first ones.5.4 Fig. which run the compression rings. plus the abrasion caused by the carbon materials. Give correct torque to cylinder head bolts. 1. Deficient cylinder rectification.
at its external surface. especially when internally or externally blocked. Obviously. which is noted mainly when the engine runs at high power. can lead to flow interruptions of the refrigerating water to the radiator. ■ Radiator in bad conditions. increasing the piston temperature.1 ■ The malfunction of the thermostatic valve. mainly over the pin axis (bosses). The thermal insulation of the radiator core from the exterior is a consequence of excessive deposits. Any change in the engine cooling results in higher temperatures of the assemblage. the engine cooling system is taken into consideration. These deposits cause considerable increase to the thermal resistance of the walls. breaking the lubricating oil film and resulting in a metallic contact between piston and cylinder. This abnormal operation leads inevitably to piston scuffing. 1. eliminating the project clearances. Piston scuffing. as a consequence of abnormal running. even during short periods.1. increasing therefore the engine temperature. ■ A slack fan belt (slipping in excess).6 Corrections ■ Observe the piston/cylinder clearance recommended by the engine manufacturer. 2. mainly mud. The piston/cylinder assembly is mounted with fairly small clearances. Fig. because the piston expansion coefficient is higher then the cylinder coefficient. which have not been removed during the last reconditioning. Causes ■ Piston fitted in the cylinder with insufficient clearance. which tend to diminish during the heating of the engine. mainly at the thrust side.6 Insufficient assembly clearance Aspect ■ Considerable and generalized scuffing of the piston skirt. 2. Premature failures caused by engine malfunction 2. caused by a reduction of the clearance to values smaller than the ones specific in the project. Fig. 10 . during the piston project. ■ A mechanical failure of the water pump can result in insufficient cooling water circulation.1 Scuffing caused by insufficient cooling Aspect ■ Causes ■ Excessive deposits in the engine block's water conduits.
■ The increase in the corresponding pressure is limited to the occupied volume by the mass that has spontaneously reacted and given birth to a pressure wave that propagates itself in the combustion chamber at sound's speed.2 Damage caused by detonation Aspect ■ Piston crown partially destroyed. Furthermore. which. The air bubbles should be removed at the correct places and according to instructions given by the manufacturer/producer. against the piston crown. Cylinders running at too high temperatures. after all air is removed from the system and before the engine is started. This combustion could represent a considerable mass. there is no time for the burnt gases to expand. at very high temperatures. NL10-340 Volvo vehicles have to be drained by removal of a small plug at the 6th cylinder head. radiator. mixture suffers when the unburnt due During gas compression to the advance of the flame front it could happen that. Corrections ■ excessive wear of the first groove. 2. fan and thermostatic valve). Low quality fuel (with low octane content). when filling the This wave is repeatedly reflected by the combustion chamber walls. belts. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Fig. the final portion of the mixture suffers spontaneous combustion. A faulty radiator cap doesn't offer sufficient water-sealing. will react instantly instead and at constant volume. which justifies the hypothesis that this abnormal combustion happens at constant volume. furrows and seizing of the piston rings. system with additivated water. plus breakage. originating a typical noise. it can originate in its last stages. 11 . Due to the high speed of this phenomenon.2 Causes ■ Use of gears and shifting. Incorrect regulation of the carburetor (extremely poor mixture). under certain circumstances. ■ Draining the cooling system to remove possible air bubbles. Incorrect distributor calibration/regulation. Revise periodically the cooling system (water pump. For example: theB58. instead of burning progressively during the flame's advance and consuming each part of the mass approximately at constant pressure. at he spontaneous combustion side of the gases (normally opposite to the spark plugs) and has its origin in the gases turbulent action.originates a reduction in air flux through the radiator. The resulting pressure is much higher than the final pressure achieved under normal combustion. combustion. The correct name of the described phenomenon is 'DETONATION'. inadequate to the vehicle load and speed. 2. when filling the system with cooling fluid. and causes the fall in water pressure and frequent water "boiling". The detonation erodes the piston crown. Excessively advanced spark. which is generally and erroneously called "pin knocking". B10M.
which will be higher and higher. pre-ignition starts to occur earlier and earlier in the cycle. At the same time in which the temperature of the parts increase. Carbon deposits at very high temperatures (almost incandescent) generating hot spots. that is. the other cylinders keep the engine running and the cylinder with pre-ignition will be submitted to combustion temperatures. Detonation or conditions that lead to detonation.1 Fig. 2. ■ ■ ■ Corrections ■ ■ Periodical revision of fuel and ignition systems. Check the cooling system. causing an excessive heat flow to the combustion chamber walls.3.3. with resulting increase in compression ratio.3 Damage caused by pre-ignition Aspect ■ ■ according to instructions given by the engine manufacturer.2 resulting from pre-ignition. until finally and silently the engine would stop. Excessive deposits on piston crown and cylinder head. Periodical regulation of engine valves. not originated by the spark plug. which isn't an inconvenience in itself. maintaining them in working conditions as recommended by the engine manufacturer. Cracks on piston crown. is called pre-ignition. If this would happen in an engine with only one cylinder. Valves operating at higher then normal temperatures. reducing the engine power. Causes ■ ■ ■ Incorrect spark plugs for the required service. ■ Avoid engine overloading.4 Cracks on piston crown and pin bosses Aspect ■ Fig. 2. In an engine with many cylinders however. Use of incorrect spark plugs. Excessive temperatures and pressures. as long as it occurs after the main flame wave. 2. the power would be reduced progressively. can perforate the piston crown. 2. the one that has been ignited by the spark plug. Excessive cylinder head lowering. The formation of a second flame wave. Hot spots originated by defective cooling. Partial destruction of piston ring lands and piston crown. whenever possible. and having Fig.3 spontaneous ignition. Corrections ■ ■ ■ Installation of adequate spark plugs. 2. We have here a new wave front. 12 .■ ■ Engine overload. ■ Hole in the piston crown. until it happens before the spark plug ignition. De-carbonization of the piston crowns and cylinder head.
tending to expand later to other regions. generally in the direction of the diesel oil injection. Causes ■ Incorrect carburetor regulation (incorrect air/fuel ratio . Should the cracks have been formed in perpendicular direction to the piston pin axis. traction or compression of the crown's surface. there has been an interaction between the boss and the piston pin. Fig. the regulation of the injection system. Thermostatic valve blocked in open position and/or non-existent.5 Failures caused by running at temperatures below normal Causes ■ The cracks formed at the piston crown are a consequence of extreme thermal tensions. ■ ■ Replace faulty thermostatic valve.too many fuel). 2. ■ ■ Corrections ■ Provide correct carburetor regulation. there have occurred subjecting also the mechanical piston to stresses. Check thermostatic valve working ■ conditions. in addition to the thermal effects.5 Aspect ■ ■ Destroyed ring lands between ring grooves. Fig. Engine running below normal temperature.6 Excessive fuel injection Corrections ■ The engine reconditioning. Avoid to run at high load with totally cool engine. Aspect ■ Scuffing stripes from piston crown downwards. as well as de engine running conditions have to be performed according to the specifications given by the engine manufacturer. and from there followed in the direction of the top.4 2. Excessive carbonization of ring lands. 2. caused by compression. to achieve correct air/fuel ratio. above the recommended values. 13 . by deformation of the piston pin and by the wedge effect applied to the surface of the pinhole. ■ If the cracks have been originated at the upper part of the bosses. 2. High tensions have occurred.■ Cracks on upper part of the pin bosses. tending to part the piston in two.
6.6 Irregular spraying done by the nozzle Fig.6.7 Scuffing started at the top land. 2.6.6. Fig.1 Spraying occurs partially out of the combustion chamber Fig. 2. The oil film dilution generates a metal-metal contact between the piston and the cylinder. 2.6.4 Irregular spraying done by the nozzle Fig.6 The temperature raises substantially due to friction and the piston expands excessively.Causes ■ The dilution of the lubricating oil film. followed by rupture at the pin boss 14 . 2. 2.6a Fig.5 Irregular spraying done by the nozzle Fig. 2.6. 2. until it gets scuffed.3 Irregular spraying done by the nozzle Fig. This can be the case when the fuel pump inject more fuel than specified and/or when there is an incorrect spraying done by the nozzles. existing on the cylinder walls. 2. happens due to fuel injected in excess.6. Fig. 2.2 Spraying occurs partially out of the combustion chamber Fig.
2.7. Fig.7.1 Destruição parcial da câmara de Fig.7 Crown damage by erosion Aspect ■ Fig. to achieve correct injection and spraying of diesel fuel. 2. Leaky injectors nozzle. and extended to the piston skirt Fig.7. ■ ■ Fig.7. 2. due to mechanical overloads and thermal disintegration.Corrections ■ Revise periodically injection pump and nozzles.2 Partial destruction of the combustion chamber Piston crown eroded.3 Scuffing started at the top land. 2. 2. 2. according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.4 Scuffing started at the top land ■ Correct fuel injection point.7.7 Corrections ■ Regulation of injection pump and nozzles.7. 2. Incorrect spraying.1 Partial destruction of the combustion chamber Fig.5 Scuffing started at the top land 15 . 2. Fig. Causes ■ ■ Excessive fuel injection at each cycle. Premature injection (anticipated ignition point). 2.7 Fig.
2.7. due to irregular function of injection nozzle 2. due to injection defect Fig.8 Interference between piston and cylinder head and/or valves Aspect ■ Piston crown is deformed due to knocking against cylinder head and/or engine valves. Change in length of con rod. without the corresponding adjustment of depth of valve seats. The carbon deposits formed at the piston crown are thicker than the top clearance. Incorrect synchronization of camshaft.7 Partial destruction of the crown. 2. due to loosening of a con rod bolt.6 Partial destruction of the crown. ■ ■ ■ Valve floating.Fig. 2.7. ■ ■ ■ Engine block height below specifications. 2. due to irregular injection Fig. resulting in piston impacts on the cylinder head.7. 2.11 Destruction of the crown and the pin boss region.7.7.7. Change in piston stroke due to incorrect grinding of crankshaft journal. due to injection defect Fig. Reduction of cylinder head height. 2.9 Scuffing started at the top land ■ 16 . Fig. Fig.10 Destruction of the crown and the pin boss region.8 Scuffing started at the top land Causes ■ Piston stroke increase.
Correct the depth of the valve seats. Check if the piston position in the cylinder is correct in relation to the top of the engine block. which could lead to fractures. Verify if the cooling. starting at the middle section of the pin bore. Deep cracks at the region of the pin bore or at the inferior skirt part. 2. ■ Check the piston crown height in relation to the engine block face. surrounded by less heated regions. 2.■ Incorrect clearance when fitting piston/ cylinders. Causes Normally this failure happens when running the engine under scuffing and cylinder crown seizing. keep the piston stroke according to dimensions specified by the engine manufacturer. Abnormal combustion. ■ ■ Fig.10 Cracks at the combustion bowl ring 2. Adjust the pump according to instructions given by the engine manufacturer. Don't exceed the speed specified by the engine manufacturer. 17 .9 Corrections ■ Follow the engine manufacturer instructions for fitting clearance of piston/cylinder.9 Piston fracture at the pin boss region Aspect ■ Aspect ■ Radial cracks starting at the bowl rim of the piston of diesel engines with direct injection.8 When the scuffed piston is moved-on by the Corrections ■ ■ ■ other ones. When grinding the fournal. lubricating and injection systems are working correctly. Insufficient lubrication. Insufficient cooling. its skirt is torn out.1 Valve mark on machined piston crown 2. Regulate the injection point. ■ ■ ■ ■ Fig. ■ ■ Fig. 2. caused by: ■ The most heated part of the combustion chamber. ■ ■ ■ ■ Check the con rod length. Follow the engine manufacturer instructions for engine running-in period. Check camshaft synchronization. Engine overload during running-in period.8. Causes ■ A premature and/or excessive fuel injection can result in high thermal and mechanical loads at the piston crown. Check if clearances are correct.
Incorrect cylinder head gasket. sometimes detaching its central part. overload of Fig.10. ■ ■ ■ Once the piston cools down to ambient temperature. Causes The deformation of the upper cylinder part Fig. The irregularities that generally cause this overload on engine and pistons. due to irregular cylinder head bolt torque. Adjust to the injection given pump by according the engine instructions ■ compression ratio. are the following: ■ expansion coefficient at high temperature. 2. the deformation persists. ■ specified by the engine manufacturer. 2. The causes of this type of piston wear can be: ■ 2. resulting in tensile stresses.12 Deformation of upper cylinder liner part Aspect ■ Material detachment at the piston top land. Increase of engine speed. A plastic deformation occurs in form of accumulated material or its concentration on the combustion chamber's periphery. Increase of compression ratio.can't expand in accordance with its the lower part of the piston skirt. because the most loaded region is the skirt. to values that are higher than the limits given in the project.11 the piston. which lead to cracks at the combustion chamber corners. Use adequate the fuel for the existing clearance Corrections ■ ■ Regulate the injection point. Generally it occurs at the highpressure side (thrust side). Observe the fitting instructions indicated on the piston crown.1 results in damage of the piston's top land.11 Cracks at the piston skirt Aspect ■ Cylinder liner deformation. Causes This type of crack is characteristic in cases of engine overload and. surpassing the limits given by the engine manufacturer. Inadequate fuel for the existing compression ratio. which in this case is submitted to excessive flexion. Excessive piston/cylinder clearance. consequently. 2. 2. ■ ■ Corrections ■ Keep the compression ratio and the speed specified by the engine manufacturer. Inverted piston assembly.10 ■ The elasticity limit of the piston material is low and therefore is easily exceeded at high temperatures. at the slot existing in the skirt. because the material can't be compressed. Fig. the only way out is to expand in the direction of the free surface. ■ In some piston types a crack at the skirt starts at the hole of the oil groove slot and in others. or the cracks develop in direction of 18 . The crack. ■ Observe piston/cylinder manufacturer.
13. The piston also can present: cracks/fractures at the pin boss region. 2. 2.13. as a result of overheating.6 Cracks at combustion bowl rin The part presents irregular marks on the piston pin.4 Machined valve recess 2.6). results in an increase in piston crown tensions. This reduction. increase in susceptibility for cracks in this region (see fig. plus the withdrawal of the concordance of the combustion chamber edges radii.3 Machined crown Corrections ■ Use pistons with lower compression height.5 Machined valve recess ■ The piston crown shows machining tool marks and absence of piece identification marks. lubricating oil consumption. 2. 2. ■ Fig.13.12 Corrections ■ Assemble and fasten the cylinder head bolt according to specifications given by the engine manufacturer. increase in concentration of tensions at said combustion bowl rim and. 2. consequently. 2. 19 .13. 2. 22.214.171.124. Fig. Replace the engine block. ■ Use cylinder head gaskets of good quality. following the instructions given by the engine manufacturer.13 Piston crown machining Aspect ■ Cracks originated along the combustion bowl rim. aligned ring end gaps and noises. Causes ■ The machining of the piston crown reduces the distance between the first ring groove and the crown (top land height reduction).Fig.13 Machined crown Fig.14 Incorrect con rod fitting Aspect ■ Fig. if available. Fig.2 Machining marks on piston crown and valve recesses Fig. 2. 2.1 Machining marks at piston crown Fig.
Causes ■ Incorrect position of the con rod in relation to the piston pin.3 Part which has been cracked during con rod fitting Corrections ■ Con rod and piston must be fitted exactly to the specifications given by the engine manufacturer. 2. Irregular heating of the con rod during fitting process.14. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. close to the pin boss Fig. ■ Fig. when assembling con rod and piston. Be alert to a possible misalignment of the piston pin in relation to the boss. while installing the pin at the piston.14.5 Piston pin mark on the pin boss 2.1 Eccentricity between the con rod and the piston pin Fig.14 Eccentricity between the con rod and the piston pin Fig.15 Rupture/breakage of ring land Aspect ■ Diesel and Otto-cycle pistons present rupture/breakage at first and/or second land between ring grooves.4 Irregular mark. Causes Fig.14. ■ Use adequate tools and electrical furnace.2 Irregular piston pin marks on the bosses during con rod fitting ■ The rupture of lands between ring grooves is 20 .14. ■ Fig.14.
2. causing the rupture of the lands between the ring grooves. Fig. 2. Check items which could lead to "DETONATION". Fig. ■ ■ Use heating spark plug correctly (if existent). This occurs due to the an increase in admitted fuel volume/mass.a consequence of a sudden combustion pressure peak. 2.15.2 Fractured lands in piston (Otto-cycle engine) Fig.15. starting motor and battery). Use correct injection point.3 Fractured lands in piston (Diesel-cycle engine) ■ Keep the projection of the piston in relation to the engine block according to the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.4 Fractured lands in piston (Diesel-cycle engine) ■ ■ 21 . Apply the parts and the components correctly.15. Fig. Under these conditions the piston is submitted to an increase in mechanical and thermal loads (higher peak pressure). Revise peripheral engine component (injection pump and nozzles. cold start system.1 Broken land in piston (Otto-cycle engine) Fig. 2.15. 2. ■ Keep the engine block height according to the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer. This rupture/ breakage is related to the process called "DETONATION". due to the decrease in combustion chamber volume in the cylinder head and also due to an incorrect injection/ignition point. ■ ■ Don't use fuel of bad quality.15 Broken lands in piston (Otto-cycle engine) Corrections ■ Keep the cylinder head height according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.
PREMATURE FAILURES IN PISTON RINGS PISTON RINGS .
the piston rings will pump it up. 180° from gap End gap End gap 3. because instead of scraping the oil down. Third groove piston ring. to be burnt together with the air/fuel mixture Corrections ■ Replace the ring set and fit the new one with its markings directed to the piston crown.1 and 3. 180° from gap First groove piston ring. Running face contact zone with cylinder. Running face . 3.Normal running characteristics The below piston rings pictures. The lubricating oil temperature and the carter pressure Fig. Running face contact zone with cylinder.1 Inverted piston ring mounting Aspect ■ in the combustion chamber. the ring contact face wear is in accordance to the operational life of the whole engine assemblage.1 Piston ring mark mounted towards the lower side increase.1. 180° from gap End gap Second groove piston ring. Premature failures in piston rings. due to assembling error 3. present normal running characteristics. allowing the combustion chamber gases to leak easily to the carter. the piston rings don't perform as expected. Fig. When this happens. forming consequently an irregular air/fuel mixture to be admitted to the combustion chamber. Causes ■ Wrong/inverted mounting of the piston rings in the piston grooves (fig. The visual appearance of the mounted piston rings indicate that they have been inverted during mounting. that is.1.contact zone with cylinder. Furthermore the inverted mounting of the piston rings increases the lubricating oil consumption.1). 3. and bushings).1 Piston ring mark mounted towards the lower side 23 . It can also increase the lubricating oil contamination by gases.3. which will reduce the operational life of the lubricant and produce damages to other engine components (main and con rod bearings. with the engraving of the lateral face placed towards the lower piston side.
and get a spiral configuration.4. due to the "wedge" provided by the adhesive. The mounting of overlapped coil spring (fig. procedure which no manufacturer/producer recommends. This radial pressure reduction will result in a considerable increase in oil consumption. 3.2). and consequently its function.3).to 3. ■ Clean all internal components with materials void of dirt and impurities.3. In the case of 3-piece oil rings. 3. Causes ■ Coil spring or expander ends are mounted overlapped.2. Corrections ■ The spring-ends of a 2-piece oil ring have to be mounted at 180° from the gap. by using the adequate procedure. Causes Fig. the 3.3.4 Piston ring mounting with inadequate or damaged tools Aspect ■ The piston ring is twisted (with displaced butts) and deformed (fig. The piston ring contamination by odd material sealing.4. 3. which is to control the excess in lubricating oil of the cylinder walls. occurred close to during the the engine is a assembly.3.1) ends during the oil ring assembly affects the radial piston ring pressure. causing an increase in lubricating oil consumption and irregular wear at the cylinders.2 Overlapped coil spring or expander ends mounting Aspect ■ impregnated at its running and side surfaces (fig. Fig. The overlapping of the expander ends in a 3-piece oil ring should by all means be avoided.3 Mounting with odd materials Aspect ■ The piston rings have odd material mounted piston ring ends will present 24 .2 ■ cylinders. 3.2) or expander (fig. The use of adhesives for engine Causes Fig.2. Piston rings with coil spring must have the coil ends positioned at 180° from the gap. 3. the ends must be displaced by 90° from each other. In this case the contaminated piston rings had its sealing function reduced.3 Corrections ■ Mounting has to be done according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.1 ■ By mounting the piston rings at the piston grooves without the adequate tools (ring pliers) the rings will suffer undesirable tensions and deformations.3. because the pressure at the periphery has been unevenly distributed. As a consequence. This reduces the operational life of the piston rings.
Mount the rings using adequate tools and in good working conditions. Don't use your hands when opening the gap ends. wearing these areas. and damaged seals on the intake manifold.5. expander ring pliers. their side faces will collide with the cylinder edge (which should have a small chamfer to facilitate the mounting).5. such as.3. starting irregular wear at its running face and at the cylinder walls.00 mm has a maximum gap opening allowance of 3.00 x 8.3 times the radial width of the piston ring.5. on top of reducing the lateral sealing. These particles. and being fitted in the cylinder. The recommended gap opening. The piston ring contamination by abrasives can occur due to: Corrections ■ ■ Fig.3.7). The oil rings present a large and plain running face (in some cases even inexistent).5. cause serious damage to the piston rings. This can result in damage or even breakage of the piston ring (see fig. for example.6 and 3. ■ Fig. 3.4 and 3. increase in gap clearance.5.90 mm. 3. such as sand (silica).5. The tool used to close the piston rings when mounted on the piston.1. mainly the ■ ■ Machining residues .2.1 Ring was twisted during mounting Fig.3. when aspirated by the engine. particles swept by the wind and those originated by shot blashing of engine components.localized pressure against the lateral piston groove faces. damaged clamps. among others. during the piston ring installation. carbon.3 = 24.4. Causes Solid particles of different sizes are present in the air. Due to these conditions the piston rings will not rotate in the groove. reduction in radial thickness. For example: a piston ring with radial width of 3.saturated or incorrectly applied filter elements.5).5.1 Contamination by abrasives Aspect ■ The piston rings present scratches and premature wear at the running face (fig. the cylinder head.4 Displaced butts due to incorrect mounting D e f i c i e n t a i r f i l t e r s y s t e m .4. 25 . as well as on side faces (fig. 3.3. resulting in: premature wear of the coating on the running and side faces. is a strap called "ring compressor". 3. increasing the oil consumption and the blow-by (flow of combustion gases to the carter).5 Odd particles in aspirated air 3. shall not exceed 8. 3. pressure reduction and deep scratches on the cylinders and on the piston skirt. If the compressor doesn't close completely the piston rings in the groove. when fitting the piston/piston ring assembly into the cylinder.5.2 Chipped contact face 3.4.insufficient cleaning of abrasive particles resulting from honing operation. dust. ■ Use adequate ring compressor for each engine.2). 3. holes or cracks in air hoses.
5.1 Cylinder washing Aspect ■ The rings present scuffing signals on the running surface (fig.6 Worn-out piston ring of the third groove ■ ■ Use fuel of good quality. seals. Fig. 3. as well as correct filter elements and separation filters.5. 3. 3. 26 .5 Piston ring with abrasive particles on lateral face Corrections ■ Use and only filters according to the to recommended applications.7 Considerable wear on the third groove 3.5.4 Piston ring with scratches on lateral face Fig. 3.1 Piston rings with scratches on running face Fig.6. 3.5).1 to 3.5.5. verify them change them according recommendations given by the engine/ vehicle manufacturer.2 Damages/scratches on piston ring contact face Fig. Prepare and clean correctly the internal components before assembling them on the engine. 126.96.36.199.3 Piston ring with scratches on contact face ■ The lubricating oil has a series of functions. Causes Fig. ■ Make a periodical check-up of the filter system (hoses.6. Fig. etc). Fig.incorrect application of fuel filters and use of bad quality fuel.■ Fuel filter system .5.6 Insufficient lubrication 3. 3. clamps.
All of this will wash the lubricating oil from the cylinder walls. which can result in flaking-off (fig. The oil film formed between the piston rings and the cylinders reduces considerably the friction.6. Fig.3 Fig. and jeopardizing the engine lubrication. Fig. Both the Diesel and the Otto-cycle engines.4 27 . For the Otto-cycle engines the "big villain" is the carburetor with bad application and/or regulation. resulting in a series of changes: quantity of delivered diesel fuel.1 Corrections ■ Keep the injection system given and by the the carburetor always regulated.6. following the recommendations manufacturer/producer. When the combustion occurs at the piston crown.two of them are: to participate on the cooling of the internal engine components and to reduce the friction between moving parts. 3.the main causes for the cylinder washing are connected to an incorrect regulation of the injection pump and nozzles. opening pressure and projection of the injection nozzles out of recommendation. 3.6. the reduction in pressure in the oil circuit. originating in this way the above-mentioned damages. synchronization among pump elements.a worn-out lubricating oil pump will reduce its pumping capacity. in presence of insufficient oil lubrication of the cylinders. having as a consequence.5) and can initiate a scuffing process. synchronization between governor and pump. the generated heat is dissipated by the piston rings (mainly by the ring in the first groove). 3. ■ Injection system and/or carburetion d e f i c i e n c i e s . avoiding the direct metal-metal contact.6.6. and the height of the piston crown. in case of Diesel-cycle engines. or also can wear the cylinders in excess. will increase the friction and the heating of the piston rings. The rings transmit this heat to the cylinder walls and to the existing lubricating oil. 3.3. Check periodically the engine oil lubricating system. ■ Check and maintain the original turbine. injectionpump rotation. The washing away of the lubricating oil from the cylinder walls has following main causes: ■ ■ Fig. seizing of the cylinders.2 Lubricating system deficiencies .
7.1). 3.2 Fig.7. 3. Causes ■ Rings of the first groove Face/external edge of the butt ends (figs.7. 3.7.ground. Use the piston rings only for the indicated applications manufacturer.3.3.2. 3. second and third grooves have signs of adulteration at the butt ends.3). constructive Fig. Adulterated butts .7. following the correct honing angle and specified roughness. Fig.1 28 .7. eliminating external chamfer/irregular finish The main cause is related to the finish of the cylinders after honing. Causes ■ The reworking of the piston ring butt ends is done to reduce its external diameters and to adapt them for different applications then been theones for The which by change of they the in have engine the piston recommended manufacturer.7.2 Piston ring adulteration Aspect ■ Rings of the first.1 Corrections ■ Honing the cylinders according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.1 Honing Aspect ■ ■ Don't make any kind of rework at the piston rings. given by the engine ■ The piston rings present scratches on the running surface.7.5 Flaking-off of the piston ring coating characteristics rings is not recommended by MAHLE and cancels any product warranty. 3. Too low roughness makes piston ring seating difficult and retains less lubricating oil on the cylinder walls.7 Other factors Corrections 3.2 to 3.6. mainly the ones in the first groove (fig. Fig. Too high roughness will result in high wear and will be a risk to the running face of the piston ring.2. 3.
2.7. 3.7.3 Rings of the second groove Butt faces (figs .2.5 29 . 3.7.8 Adulteration on one of the ends Fig. absence of Fig.original finish. 3. 3.6 and 3. phosphate/surface treatment Fig.5).2.2.7. 3.9.7 Aspect of the expander ends (figs. Adulterated butts ground.7. 3.7.2. with surface treatment Fig.4 Non-adulterated butts .7.2.original finish.Non-adulterated butts .2 Fig.2.6 Non-adulterated butts .2.3.9 Form and colors in new expanders (without rework) Fig.7). with external chamfer on the chromed face Rings of the third groove Butt faces (figs. 188.8.131.52. Adulterated butts ground.184.108.40.206 and 3. absence of phosphate/surface treatment Fig. 220.127.116.11 and 3.).7. with surface treatment Fig.2.2.2.original finish.2. 3. 3.
PREMATURE FAILURES IN CYLINDER LINERS CYLINDER LINERS .
which will change the clearance between the piston skirt and the cylinder walls. Local and uncontrolled deformations. and can reduce its operational life.1. Insufficient seat of the cylinder head Fig. The consequences can be: ■ ■ Corrections ■ Follow correctly the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer with respect of the use or no-use of glue/adhesives. leading to scuffing.1 Cylinder fitting with glue/adhesive Aspect ■ Visual inspection indicates the use of glue/adhesive at the cylinder liner seat on the engine block.1 Glue at the collar region of the cylinder liner ■ (non-perpendicularity between the cylinder liner seat and the cylinder head).1 Cylinder liner fitted with glue on the cylinder head seat (upper cylinder liner side) Causes The use of glue/adhesive. Fig. ■ Local and uncontrolled deformations. which wont let the compression rings have its complete sealing effect and which will not scrap the lubricant oil via the scraper rings. after it dries. 4. The wear on honing and the possible scratches are a consequence of the contamination by odd materials during the normal operational period. 4. causes uncontrolled deformations on the cylinder liner walls. Cylinder liner with normal running characteristics 4. 31 . and obstruct lubricating channels.Normal running characteristics The characteristics here presented correspond to normal running conditions. ■ Glue/adhesives could run into. Ovality. Premature failures in cylinder liners. due to assembling error 4.
1. specifically when it refers to the seat of the liner on the engine block.3 Glue at the region of the cylinder liner seat on the engine block Fig.Fig. 4. Machine correctly the cylinder liner seat at the engine block.1 Fitting of cylinder liner on irregular seats Aspect ■ fastening to the engine block. Causes ■ ■ Keep to the dimensions of the cylinder by the Both wet and dry cylinder liners need to be installed according to instructions given by the engine manufacturer. 4. In engines using dry cylinder liners. if the applied tensions happen to be higher then the ones recommended by the engine manufacturer. Irregular machining of engine block and/or cylinder head 5. 32 .5 Irregular cylinder liner seat on the cylinder head 5. 4.4 Cylinder head was fitted with glue at its lower base Fig. An irregular seat leads to irregular distribution of tensions along the whole cylinder liner perimeter due to the torque applied to the bolts during cylinder head ■ ■ liner seat at the engine block according recommendations given manufacturer/producer. Corrections Flange fracture of the cylinder liner and/or insufficient sealing with the cylinder head.1.2 Silicone at the lower base of the cylinder liner Fig. 4.1. Follow the engine manufacturer recommendations when fitting the cylinder liners at the engine block. a flange fracture could also occur.1.
Fractured and carbonized flange region between the piston and the cylinder liner. 33 . on external liner side and engine block housing. Figs. ■ Dry cylinder liner with irregular contact marks Install the cylinder liner. due to deformations. 5. existing irregularities of the engine block housing.3 Dry cylinder liner. can cause: ■ Change in clearance between the piston and the cylinder liner. with possible increase in lubricating oil consumption or even blow-by (gas leakages) to the carter. remove the cylinder liner and re-install it. 5. In engines running with wet cylinder liners. at the area where the O-rings are installed in the engine block. Causes In engines running with d r y c y l i n d e r l i n e r s . Fig. scuffing consequently. either wet or dry. due or not due to machining. ■ Reduction in sealing effect of the piston rings.2 cylinder liners with machining marks from engine block 5. scuffing and/or deformation at the region next to the sealing rings housing installed in the cylinder block.1. 5.2 and 5. In engines running with wet cylinder liners .1 Wet cylinder liner.■ Lower de cylinder head without lowering the cylinder liner housing seat depth at the head (for example: the VOLVO TD-102 FS cylinder head).1 and 5. If necessary.4 Flange region of a carbonized cylinder liner displacement of material from the piston skirt region. Figs.1.5 Irregular seat between the upper cylinder liner part and the cylinder head Fig. eliminating excessive deformations.1. 5. O’rings and even the displacement of these rings during the fitting of the cylinder liner. with possible scuffing originated by the Fig.1. Carbonized flange region irregularities on the engine block housing.2 Fitting of cylinder liner on irregular engine block Aspect ■ Corrections ■ Machine the cylinders according to milling instructions given by the engine manufacturer. can cause: ■ Irregular contact between the cylinder liner and the housing can impair the thermal exchange between can the result two in and. Scuffing could expand later to the piston ring region. 5.1.
Check the camshaft and its cams. 5. Regulate correctly the carburetor. ■ 5. Apply correctly the internal components (pistons. Incorrect injection/ignition points. according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.according to instructions given by the engine manufacturer.2. 5.3. 5.1 and 5.2 Scuffing originated by dilution of lubricating oil existent on inner cylinder wall 34 .2 and 5. Impurities in the cylinder liner O’ring housing ■ ■ Fig.1 Dark marks on internal side of cylinder liner. injection pump and nozzle ■ ■ Turbo charger . 5. Causes ■ Incorrect regulation. Incorrect engine running-in period. and generates vertical scratches and scuffing marks. due to constant speed Corrections ■ Regulate injection pump and nozzles. identifying the lack of interference with the housing Fig. 5.2.2. Incorrect projection of the injection nozzles. measure the internal diameter with specific instruments and search for any cylinder liner deformation. Incorrect carburetor regulation.4 O’ring has been cut during cylinder liner fitting in engine block Figs. The dilution of the lubricating oil of the inner cylinder liner wall results in a premature lapping wear done by the piston rings. Figs.3 Scuffing originated by O’ring displacement. cylinder liners and piston rings). ■ ■ ■ ■ Fig.2. Bent camshaft or with defect cams. Avoid constant engine speed during the running-in period.3 Cylinder liner with bore polishing.3 Insufficient lubrication/dilution of lubricating oil Aspect ■ After installation of the wet cylinder liner in its housing. with material removal. ■ ■ ■ Keep the correct injection point. in relation to the cylinder head.3.
These minerals will get deposited at the external heated cylinder walls in form of scales.6. like iron and copper. tearing off small particles and at the end perforating it.cavitation Aspect ■ walls and produce scuffing of pistons and piston rings. which implode against the cylinder wall. cylinder Causes ■ Electrolytic originated corrosion by the or electrolysis - chemical metal decomposition. defective caps. which are the consequence of the air/fuel combustion combustion in its interior. Modern engines have a brass ring installed below the cylinder liner collar. which appear when two different metals. which reduces the heat transfer and generates hot spots. This electrical current. which allows air to enter through hoses and connections. due to the pressure of the expanding gases against the inner walls. done by the oxygen present in the water.1 Corrosion .scales . ■ S c a l e f o r m a t i o n . after some time attacks the external cylinder walls. low water level. This return happens in a very small space of time. water with presence of corrosive materials.scales are formed by minerals found in the untreated water of the cooling system. which leads the current to the engine block and from there. the cooling water has not sufficient time to fill the resulting space. 6. which results from small electrical currents. These scales slowly form a thermal barrier. which tend to wear and excoriate the inner cylinder Fig. acid or alkaline waters. due to faulty sealing of the cooling system. Other factors 6. the cylinder walls return to its normal dimensions. or because of the absence of corrosion inhibitors as recommended by the manufacturer/producer of the engine. ■ expands fractions of a millimeter. via a ground wire. Little holes and/or formation of scales. the cylinder liners are submitted to pulsations. to the chassis. enter in contact with water. although weak. and originates very small vacuum bubbles. Chemical corrosion .1 Cylinder liner in expansion phase 35 . Once the gas expansion is over. ■ Cavitation .During the engine running. The chemical corrosion is also accelerated by the use of untreated water. forming iron oxides or rust. among other things.is the result of an attack to the cylinder liner iron. the When the wall occurs. This phenomenon is accelerated by higher oxygen content in the water.
Fig. Fig. 6. pistons.3 Cavitation without corrosion (reservoir and/or radiator cap.1. follow the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer.2 Cavitation and scales Fig. ■ Keep the correct water level in the reservoir and/or radiator.1. injection Fig. 6.6 Cavitation 36 . 6. 6. ■ Always use the corrosion inhibitor additives and the anti-freezing fluids.4 Scales ■ Assemble the engine given according by regard with to the to recommendations eventual changes in manufacturer/producer system or any other. When there is a refilling need in the water system. thermostatic pressostatic valves.1. etc.1 Bubbles around the cylinder liner Corrections ■ Keep all cooling system and components Fig.1. 6. as recommended by the manufacturer/producer of the engine. with regard to quantity of additives to be used.5 Cavitation Fig. hoses and clamps.1. compatible with the engine project.) in normal running conditions. 6.1. water pump.
Incorrect con rod fitting.2 Circlip expulsion Aspect ■ The cylinder liner has an internal mark indicating its contact with the piston pin. ■ ■ ■ ■ Bent and/or twisted con rod. Clean cylinders correctly. ■ Corrections ■ Always replace filters according to maintenance recommendations given by engine/vehicle manufacturer. Once the circlip is expelled. caused by the circlip Corrections ■ Keep the parallelism between the bushing housing center and the con rod bearing housing center. ■ Fit the con rod according to recommendations given by the engine manufacturer. due to the vertical up-anddown piston movements. Fig. Causes ■ Blocked and/or damaged air filter or Fig. ■ ■ Inspect periodically the air hoses. at the bosses and crown region. The cylinder liner presents excessive wear at the upper region.6. ■ 37 .3 Wear and scratches formed by solid particle admission into the cylinder non-operative safety valve. will wear the region (aluminum) until it manages to get free. by which the con rod "pushes" the piston pin against the circlip.2 Piston wear. The expelled circlip. 6. Bad sealing of air intake filter housing.2. Gronding the crankshaft and keep the journal according to the patterns recommended by the engine manufacturer. 6. due to deformation or damages. Incorrect position of the circlip in its groove. Conical con rod journal of the crankshaft. Incorrect cylinder cleaning during engine assembly. 6.1 Mark originated by the piston pin displacement after the circlip expulsion These factors cause misalignment and generate lateral forces. Causes ■ Lack of parallelism between the bushing housing center and bearing housing center on the con rod. ■ ■ Damaged air intake hose. the piston ring will start to move until it touches the cylinder liner.3 Contamination by abrasives Aspect ■ Fig. ■ Install and locate correctly the circlip in its housing. 6.
BEARINGS PREMATURE FAILUERS IN BEARINGS .
and resulting in fatigue. In the first case. which are formed at the bearing surface. that the operational life of the bearings has been exceeded. Contributions are also given by the exposure of Causes ■ Corrosion is a chemical attack at the bearing alloy. If operation continues. the attacked metal is removed from the matrix. Premature failures in bearings. is the appearance of engine noises ("gusts") and the reduction of lubricating oil pressure. 7. resulting from small particles. but haven't yet eliminated it completely. such as water. The lubricating oil industry has developed additives that inhibit the oil oxidation during long running periods. or can be produced during the engine running. The scratches present no problem. unless they reach the base-alloy. A fragile oxide layer over the sliding surface can also be removed by fatigue or even by erosion. the bearings will have a fairly long life cycle. After that. A major evidence. and it can result in the removal of one or more elements from the 39 . these scratches might even disappear. due to malfunction 7.Normal running characteristics A major portion of the normal bearing wear occurs during the engine start or during its initial operation. in view of the difficulty which odd particles have to remain fixed at these surfaces. the wearing rate is considerably reduced. Under these circumstances. as a result of the lubricant's oxidation. The typical aspect of corrosion can be identified by dark composites and small pits.1 Corrosion Aspect ■ alloy or the formation of fragile oxides over the sliding surface. leaving it fragile with respect to its loading capacity. originated by components that exist in the lubricating oil. The heat generated by the engine operation accelerates the oxidation process. only the very small and non-retained particles will be present in the abrasive process at the bearing surface. Under adequate preventive maintenance. Normal wear is generally indicated by a small quantity of scratches on the bearing surface. These components can be strange to the lubricating system. which haven't been retained by the oil filter. This harmful action develops when a bearing operates in a corrosive atmosphere. minimizing considerably this type of damage.
■ When changing lubricating oil. the lead or tin can move. change the piston rings and rebuilthing the engine. 7.1. crankshaft journal deformation. higher than the lead (326ºC) or tin (231ºC) fusion temperatures. Verify the alignment between engine block and crankshaft. The excessive heat can be the result of insufficient radial clearance. which might exist in the oil. and the surface layer looses its adhesion with the steel shell. The bearing surface presents irregular areas with detached anti-friction material. and to other materials. Corrections ■ Fit the bearings with the clearance recommended by the engine manufacturer. 7. and is subjected to considerable dragging forces by the shaft.1 Fig.the bearings to air and water. separating itself from the copper. The fragility by heat condition is a consequence of excessive heat increase in some bearing zones. observe absolute cleanliness and when assembling the engine.1.2. inspect carefully all journal dimensions of the crankshaft. 7.3 Generalized fatigue Aspect ■ Great areas of the bearing's anti-friction layer are torn out. eliminate all machining residues Fig.2 Hot short Aspect ■ 7. Fig. ■ engine Should the corrosion be a result of blow-by (gases flow to the carter). Under these conditions. ■ Corrections ■ Before fitting new bearings. Causes ■ When a running bearing heats up to values Fig. if necessary.1 7. 7. 7.2 Fig. Change lubricating given oil by according the to ■ specifications manufacturer. including certain metals that can produce catalytic effects. or misalignment of the engine block and/or the crankshaft. leaving the steel shell exposed. the anti-friction material reaches a point of fragility by heat.2 40 . resulting consequently in material detachment. Other contributing factors include the passage of gases to the carter (blow-by) and the combustion of fuels with high sulphur content. impurities. plus the possibility of inorganic acid formation.1 and any existing dirt.
7. ■ Corrections ■ If the bearing's operational life has been lower then expected. These fractures can get united to each other.3.3 Magnified 350 X 7. by load peaks (fig.4.4 Insufficient oil in bearing Aspect ■ When a bearing fails because of insufficient or diluted lubricating oil.2). 7. in other words. 7. where the fractures.1 Fatigue 41 .3 Causes ■ Fatigue damages can be caused by Fig.3. propagating itself parallel to the bonding line. 7. observing the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer. with the journals of the crankshaft.3. In the case of complete lack of lubrication. after perpendicular penetration. One of the most common types of fatigue occurs at the upper layer of tri-metallic bearings. and eliminate eventual existing defects. the bearing will present excessive wear by dragging off material along the axle. check the temperature and load conditions in which the engine has been running. propagate in parallel to the nickel barrier. its running surface can get shiny fig. Avoid operational engine over-loads.4 Fig. the fracture changes its direction. Fig. 7.1). and have a perpendicular propagation to the bearing surface. 7.2). Before reaching the bonding line between the bearing alloy and the support material (steel). Fatigue fractures are initiated by excessive loads. which will result in bearing material detachment.Fig.2 abnormal and cyclical stresses. 7. at the contact zone of the bearing sliding surface.3.3. Fig. 7. causing its removal in reduced areas (fig.
due to dragging away of anti-friction material. The lack of lubricating oil leads to metal-metal contact between the bearing and the crankshaft journal. will wear the electrodeposited layer.2 Insufficient oil at the bearing Corrections ■ The bearing erosion can also be caused by high velocity of the oil flux through the crankshaft holes and by flux variations given by discontinued surfaces.1 The change in pressure gets higher each time there is a high deformation between the bearing and the corresponding journal. ■ Check if the bearing oil holes are in-line with the corresponding holes on the engine block and con rods. ■ Fig. In some cases the erosion can cross the whole material depth of the bearing alloy and reach the steel shell. lubricating oil dilution.Causes Insufficient or diluted lubricating oil film between the bearing and the axle. Recondition or change them. It is normally caused by: ■ ■ ■ ■ Check the oil pump and relieve valve's running conditions. This results in rapid changes in hydrodynamic pressure of the bearing oil film. and to excessive wear. 7. channels and sharp corners. Check de dilution of lubricating oil by the fuel or the cooling liquid. 7. It is normally caused by: ■ ■ ■ 7.4. Fig. Some regions of the bearing surface are eroded. Bad functioning of the oil pump or the relieve valve. against the anti-friction alloy of the bearing.4. 7. Inverted mounting of the main bearings (lower part versus upper part). the crankshaft journals. Grinding necessary. Check the journal dimensions when choosing new bearings. if ■ 42 . Fig. insufficient vertical clearance. if necessary.5 Erosion by cavitation Aspect ■ Partially clogged oil galleries.5 Causes ■ The erosion by cavitation is a type of damage caused by the instantaneous explosion of low pressure oil vapor bubbles. such as recesses. Loads on an engine bearing fluctuate rapidly. during an engine's running cycle. both in intensity and in direction. Incorrect choice of bearing under-size. ■ ■ Avoid engine running at low speed for long periods. engine running at low speed during long periods.
■ Apply always the correct torque to the bolts and substitute them whenever recommended by the manufacturer/producer. ■ ■ ■ Check the oil pressure.6. 7.5.3 Yield of material Excessive clearance doesn't give hydro- 43 . Fig.Bearing erosion by cavitation can be divided into four main groups: ■ dynamic support to the axle. 7.6.1 Corrections ■ Use lubricating oil with viscosity recommended by the engine manufacturer. Erosion by impact cavitation . Fig. Erosion by flux cavitation . con rods and crankshaft throws.2 Yield of material Fig.6 Excessive clearance Aspect ■ The piece has scratches.6.1 Yield of material (enlarged photo) Causes ■ If the crankshaft or journal dimensions are below the recommended minimum. Erosion by suction cavitation . as well as the diameter of the bearing housing is bigger than the recommended maximum. as recommended by the manufacturer/ producer. Erosion by discharge cavitation . This results in a contact between the axle and the bearing surface. 7.6 Yield of material Corrections ■ Check the diametrical dimensions of bearings. originated by particles and resulting from deformation/ migration of the anti-friction alloy to a region close to the lateral bearing border. ■ Use adequate lubricating oil in your engine. 7. causing fusion and surface deformation of the bearing's anti-friction alloy (figs. Fig.occurs behind the axle movement. this will result in a higher than permitted maximum lubricating oil clearance.3). Check the assembly clearances.6 to 7. 7. 7.occurs in front of the axle movement. Avoid lubricating oil contamination. ■ ■ ■ Fig. 7.6.
8.2 Solid impurities Aspect ■ Foregein particles get imbued in the antifriction alloy.2 Totally worn-out flange Corrections ■ Obey to the assembly clearance specified by the engine manufacturer. resulting in material displacement.1 Causes ■ Insufficient clearance. 8.1. due to fitting error 8. 8.1. to such an extent.1 44 . at the higher axial load side. damaging completely these areas. Fig. Scratches on the bearing surface can also be found.1 Insufficient axial clearance (longitudinal) Aspect ■ Excessive wear on flange outside and in the region of the inner bearing surface.1. that the resulting friction and the lack of lubricating oil film. 8. Fig. results in a crankshaft forcing against the bearing flange. increase the temperature to levels which separate the lead from the copper in the alloy. while the other side has normal running aspect. Premature failure in bearings.8. 8. Fig. In worn areas occur fusion and anti-friction alloy detachments. caused by incorrect mounting or by incorrect placement of the clotch plate and the plateau. Check the correct positioning of the Fig.3 Bearing flange front side without wear and back side with wear ■ connecting elements between engine and gear box.
Fig. 8.3 Solid impurities Corrections ■ Install new bearings. abrasives and metallic particles. Worn-out metallic parts can also generate bad running conditions. Keep the air filter and the breather crankcase clean.2. 8. present in the oil. dirt.2 Causes ■ Dust. at engine Fig.8. are absorved on the bearing surface. before or after assembly.2. 8. The projection of this alloy or these particles can touch the axle. can leave impurities. 8. 45 .3).2. Grinding the axle. following carefully the recommended cleaning instructions.2.2 Fig.2.1 Fig.Fig. Recommend periodically the intervals the the operator oil and by to its the change filter. displacing the anti-friction alloy. Incorrect engine cleaning.4 Contaminated main bearings with circumferential scratches ■ ■ specified manufacturer. creating local friction points and disrupting the oil film (fig. 8. if necessary.
1 Causes Fig. 18.104.22.168 Dirt in housing 8. Fig.3. before installing new bearings. 8.6 Contaminated con rod bearing with circumferential scratches Corrections ■ Clean carefully the housing.3 Housing dirt Aspect ■ Localized worn areas at the alloy's surface.2). strange to the bearing ■ Particles between the housing and back of the cause bearing the inadequate contact and impair the heat flow. ■ Check the crankshaft journal and grinding them.Fig.2. 8.4 Oval housing Fig. The heating and local loads give rise to fatigue in these areas and detaches the material (fig. dirt and solid particles. 8. 8. 8.2.8 Contaminated con rod bearing and circumferential scratches in the lubricating hole direction Aspect ■ Areas with excessive wear close to the bearing partition line.7 Enlarged photo of scratches and odd materials on a bearing Fig. 8. eliminating all burrs.2.3 46 . Fig.5 Enlarged photo of a channel opened by an odd solid material. 8. 8.3. corresponding to a mark caused by the presence of odd particles at the bearing back. if necessary. Fig.
if necessary. recondition it or change the con rod.3).4. due to dirt or burrs in the part line surface. 8.5 Insufficient part line height Corrections ■ Check the housing circularity of the bearing.5. Insufficient torque. 8.Fig. the heat flow gets difficult. 8. The causes for an insufficient part line height: ■ ■ Part line surface reworked. and at the same time the additional friction caused by the bearing pulsation.4. ■ Check the camshaft journals. 8. The clearance gets considerably reduced close to the partition line. Interference between bolt and the end of screwed hole. With inadequate contact. The bearings tend to acquire this form.2 Marks of contact between crankshaft and bearings Causes ■ Due to the con rod flexure under alternate loads. 8. and should it be out of specifications. Fig. Causes ■ Insufficient fastening doesn't permit the formation of the necessary radial pressure to retain the bearing in its housing. also at the part line surface. 8. 8. the housing can get an oval form. due to the housing deformation.4 Fig.1 Oval housing increases the generated heat (fig. Cap distanced from bearing.5 Aspect ■ Shiny areas (polished) are visible at the bearing back and in some cases. producing therefore a non-cylindrical internal surface.4. and this can result in metallic contact of the anti-friction alloy with the crankshaft journals (fig. ■ ■ 47 . grinding them.1). Fig.
etc. apply the torque recommended by the engine manufacturer. Corrections ■ Clean the part line surfaces before fastening nuts and bolts. Excessive torque. Fig.).6 Aspect ■ Areas with excessive wear near the part line.3 Insufficient part line heigth 48 . check with Prussian blue or any other adequate process (bore gauge.5. if the oval form is in its permitted limits.1 pressure.6 Excessive part line heigth specified diameter. 8. 8. the resulting radial contact pressure will deforming the bearing close to the part line (fig. re-machine the housing in order to obtain a perfect circularity. Fig. 8.■ Bearing housing diameter higher than 8. When fastening nuts and bolts. When the cap bolts are torqued.6. ■ After the correct fastening of the cap bolts with a torque wrench. In the presence of an excessive part line height. 8. the bearing remains salient at the part line. The most common causes are: ■ ■ Part line of the housing re-worked. providing a good radial contact Fig. in one both bearings. if necessary. it will be forced against the housing.2 Corrections ■ Should the shell's partition line. the engine block or the con rod have been milled.1). boring it.5. 8.5. Check housing dimensions and general conditions. Causes ■ When fitted in the housing. the torque has to be according to the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer. ■ ■ Fig. ■ When fastening the bolts and nuts.
6.7. 8.8 Displaced cap Excessively worn-out areas on diagonally opposed sides of each bearing. Causes ■ In a bent or twisted con rod. by fastening of the cap bolts while the con rod is fixed incorrectly on the vise. 8. if necessary. Re-use of con rod and/or bearing bolts. Cap inversion.Fig. the housings are misaligned. originating areas of high pressure and even metal-metal contacts between the bearing and the crankshaft journal.7 ■ Areas with excessive wear on diagonally opposed sides of each bearing. ■ ■ Avoid torsion loads on the con rod. Crankshaft center displacement during ■ ■ Corrections ■ Check the con rod and replace it. 8. 8. Causes The bearing cap was displaced. forcing one side of each bearing against the camshaft (fig. due to following causes: ■ Use of inadequate wrench when fastening the bolts.1 Excessive part line heigth Fig. pins or other centralizing systems. Con rod bending can be caused by forced fitting of the piston pin. 8. or by hydraulic rock (fig.1). ■ milling operation. close to the part line surface.8 Displaced cap Aspect Fig. 49 . Fig.1 Bent con rod 8. 8.7 Bent or twisted con rod Aspect ■ 8.8). Altered holes. This can happen.7.
but generally it is more accentuated at the center bearing. The highest pressures are achieved at the highest distortion points.9 Deformed crankshaft according the to Aspect ■ ■ Machine the crankshaft given by specifications manufacturer. Fig. incorrect storage or Fig. ■ Unbend the crankshaft.8. Fig. Causes ■ The deformed crankshaft submits the main bearings to excessive loads.Corrections ■ Choose adequate wrench and fasten bolts alternatively in order to get a perfect cap seating. engine A well-defined wear strip can be observed at the upper or at the lower main bearing set.9 Deformed crankshaft 50 . The extension of this wear can change from bearing to bearing. 8. Corrections ■ Check. ■ ■ Be sure the cap position is correct. 8.2 Premature wear Fig. 8. The crankshaft can be deformed due to inadequate handling.8.1 extreme operational conditions. 8. and replace it.9).3 Premature wear 8. At these points the clearance also is reduced and metal-metal contact can occur between the bearing and the crankshaft journal (fig.8. if necessary. Check if the cap centralizing system is not altered nor damaged. 8. ■ Replace the con rod and/or housing bolts according to the recommendations given by the engine manufacturer. by adequate process. if the crankshaft is deformed.
but in general it is more accentuated at the center bearing. operational overload of the engine). 8.10 Unfavorable operating conditions (for example.1 8. 8. Install a thermostatic valve.10 Deformed engine block Aspect ■ A well-defined wear strip can be observed at the upper or at the under main bearing set.Fig.10. Causes The sudden heating and cooling of the engine is one of the causes for engine distortion.1 Fig. The extension of this wear can change from bearing to bearing.2) Corrections ■ Check for the existence of deformations.10.9. The engine block deformation can also be caused by: ■ Fig. 8. 8. 8.10. Bore the main housing. ■ ■ Fig. ■ Incorrect fastening procedure of the cylinder head bolts (fig. when it operates without thermostatic valve.2 Deformed engine block 51 . by an adequate process.
three main aspects can be distinguished.11 Non-cylindrical crankshaft journals Aspect ■ Fig. 8. concave or convex (barreled) journal profiles.3 Irregular bearings marks 8. Clearances can result insufficient and metalmetal contact can then occur between the bearing and the crankshaft journals.11 . In other cases clearances will be excessive. which correspond respectively to form defects of the illustrated crankshaft journal (fig. Fig.A. 8.11. Fig. Fig.2 Fig. 8.10. plus the con rod bearing housing's conical form are always due to incorrect rectification. generating higher heat levels in certain areas and accelerating wear.Corrections ■ Grind correctly the crankshaft journals and the housings. The conical. Depending on the regions where the highest pressures have been active.11. 8.3 Fig.1 Unequal wear strip on bearing.4 52 . 8.11 Non-cylindrical crankshaft journal Causes ■ Non-cylindrical crankshaft journals impose an irregular load distribution over the bearing surface. 8. 8.11. B and C).11.
12 Incorrect radius conformity Aspect ■ Areas with excessive wear along the bearing's lateral faces. Grind the crankshaft journals. Fig.12 Incorrect radii fillet radius lubrication channels (fig.13 Glue/adhesive on bearing's external lubrication channel Aspect Corrections ■ ■ The part presents deformation near the part line of engine block. Causes ■ Incorrect fillet radius. 53 . ■ Causes ■ The torque applied to the engine block studs/bolts. 8.13) by glue/ adhesive. Another factor leaving to fusion will be found in the partial obstruction of the external Fig. specification when given exceeding by the the engine manufacturer.5 Fig. 8.12).13 Incorrect torque and application of glue/adhesive 8.6 8. Leave no sharp corners because they will weaken the crankshaft.Fig. creating metal-metal contact along the bearing's lateral faces (fig. This contact generates sufficient heat to start the fusion and dragging of materials. observing the correct radii fillet radius. and has its external lubrication channel partially obstructed by glue/adhesive.8.11. 8. This will result in excessive wear and premature localized fatigue. 8. 8. due to tensions which will concentrate on these already loaded areas.11. tends to deformations and consequently to metal-metal contact. 8.12.1 Fig.
retainer also can result in piece deformations, compromising the oil clearance (fig. 8.13.1). Corrections
Check/revise the wrench periodically; Apply the torque recommended by the engine manufacturer; Assemble the engine according to
recommendations given by the engine manufacturer, specifically with regard to the use or no-use of glue/adhesive.
Fig. 8.13.1 Pin mark on external bearing side
9. Incorrect fitting, due to lack of attention
incorrectly fitted or if they suffer changes in their project. Incorrect fitting almost always leaves to a premature bearing failure. The figures below show the most common fitting mistakes.
Fig. 9.1 Inverted or swapped caps
Fig. 9 Asymmetrical con rod
Fig. 9.2 Inadequate shims
Fig. 9.3 Swapped bearings
Fig. 9.5 Non-aligned oil hole
Fig. 9.4 Interference between the bearing lug the housing lug
PREMATURE FAILURES IN BUSHINGS
1 tolerances for a perfect adjustment after being mounted on the cylinder block housing. Corrections ■ Use the fitting clearance specified by the engine manufacturer. The external bushing surface presents areas of little contact with the housing. 10. air filter.2 Fig.A. when the engine is started. It is also important to pay attention to any problem with the oil pump. Should the housing form tolerances not comply with the tolerances given by the engine 57 . On the internal surface the piece presents antifriction alloy detachment. In this process the bushing in formation gets a cylindrical form with Fig. The housing form tolerances are specified by the manufacturer of the engine. oil lubrication filter and air filter changes have to be done according to instructions given by the engine manufacturer. Causes ■ The manufacturing process adopted by MAHLE Metal Leve S. and to other systems. have the highest wear under normal running conditions.Normal running characteristics Bushings. 10. for camshaft bushings is called "G Die" (progressive stamping). due to assembling error 10. Normal scratches and correct wall thickness 10.1 Incorrect assembly clearance Aspect ■ 10. such as lubrication. same as bearings. The axe gets "stuck" at the bearing and rotates in its housing.2 Deformed housing Aspect ■ The external bushing surface presents deep circumferential scratches. To reduce this wear to a minimum. Premature failures in bushings. Causes ■ Insufficient diametric clearance. the axe was fitted on bushing. fuel admission/injection and cooling systems during the engine's operational life.
■ In the case of a highly deformed housing. 10. as recommended by the engine manufacturer. 10.2. the contact area between the bushing and the housing will be reduced. This doesn't allow a good dissipation of the heat generated by the bearing operation.6 External mark formed by odd material 58 . rectify it and use bushings with external oversize.2 Alloy detachement Fig. 10. interrupting the lubricating oil film and consequently causing fatigue.manufacturer. 10. resulting in a bad seating of the bushing.2.1 Alloy detachement Fig. ■ Keep the clearance and interference specifications between the bushing and the housing. 10.4 Mark of irregular bushing seat in the housing Fig.5 Internal mark formed by odd material Fig. Corrections ■ Fig.2. scuffing and material detachment. It can also result in a form error on the internal diameter. Fig. after the bushing has been fitted. and can result in a fusion of the bushing alloy.2. 10.3 Alloy detachement Check the housing circularity before mounting a new bushing.2.2.
10. 10.3. There are possibilities that cracks can appear in the bushing material.2 Inclined bushing mounting mark When the installation of a bushing in its housing is prepared.3.1 Incorrect bushing mounting mark Fig. 10. 10. 10.3 Inclined bushing mounting mark Corrections ■ Use adequate tools for bushing mounting in the housing.3 Incorrect bushing assembling Aspect ■ The external bushing surface presents deep marks.3. due to involved stresses when the engine is running. Considering that the piece is installed with interference on the external diameter. there can occur a misalignment between the bushing center and the housing.10.3. generating a certain inclination of the bushing. Don't use deformed pieces. 10. Fig. Fig.3 Causes ■ Fig. the bushing will not be correctly seated in the housing.4 Incorrect bushing mounting mark Fig.5 Inclined bushing mounting mark 59 .3. ■ Fig.
VALVES PREMATURE FAILURES IN VALVES .
■ ■ Incorrect clearance between the stem/guide and the oil/seals. the lubricating oil film. lead to the normal wear of the valves. Premature failures in valves 11. The misalignment results in excessive clearance in certain regions and in others compromises the clearance between the stem/guide. stationary. can be disrupted.1 Valve stem scuffing Aspect ■ applied oil/seals. industrial or naval). to the point of causing its scuffing (fig. can cause bending of the stem. as well as the operation of the equipment (vehicular.11. ■ The valve stem has marks due to scuffing done by the valve guide.11. This problem can also jeopardize the sealing between the valve and the valve seat in the cylinder head (fig. Causes The scuffing of the stem by the valve guide occurs when the clearance between these parts is jeopardized by failures related to: ■ Incorrect alignment between disc/spring.11. guide and valve seats. (fig. in certain cases. which exists between the valve stem and the guide.1). agricultural. when done in normal working conditions.3).Premature failures in valves The working life of the valves is in proportion to the other engine components.1. resulting in scuffing. Both the stem clearance with the valve guide. jeopardize the oil film which exists between the valve stem and the valve guide.2). The valves interference in the piston top due to incorrect synchronization. Inadequate engine operation. followed by material dragging. 11. in material being dragged.1. as well as incorrectly Combustion residues. The fuel injection. This can result. lubricating. When the engine works under inadequate overload/ speed for the working conditions.1. 61 . Carbon residues. resulting in inadequate clearance between stem and guide. ■ Incorrect synchronization. cooling and air filter systems.
1 Scuffing at the lower valve region Fig.1.4 Scuffing due to insufficient clearance between valve and valve guide Fig. The valve springs have to be tested according to the engine manufacturer's recommendations. 11.3 Stem bending due to valve interference in the piston top Fig. Corrections ■ Check the alignment between the valve seat und valve guide. 11.11.2 Valve seat wear Aspect ■ The valve seat presents excessive wear in channel form. Check the alignment between the Causes ■ components: spring/disc/valve guide/seat. fig. 11.generated by the combustion of the mixture. 11.1.1. can jeopardize the clearance between the stem/valve guide in this region and start the seizing (fig. 22.214.171.124). Fig.1 Wear in the seat region 62 . ■ The wear at the valve seat region is caused by the misalignment between the cylinder head valve seat and the guide.2. with respect to the engine's regulation of the fuel injection system (alcohol.2 Scuffing with material dragging Fig. Deficient valve springs can also cause wear in the valve seat region. Check synchronization and avoid excessive engine speed. Follow the engine manufacturer's ■ recommendations. High camshaft rotation results in valve floating (the valve almost doesn't close and open again) when the valve is "weak" (fig. petrol. The use of fuels that are inadequate to the valves can also be the cause of this wear. Clearance and correct applications shall be checked.2. diesel). along the whole seat diameter.1.1. Corrections ■ 11.4).11. 11. when deposited on the lower part of the valve stem.
and also the incorrect use of engine-breaking.4 Fracture at the keeper groove region with the stem Aspect ■ The valves present cracks/fractures or wear in the keeper groove region.1 and 11. The valve interference to the piston top.4.1. 11.4. Corrections ■ The valve springs shall be tested as to The limits dimensions shall be when load for is applied.3 Valve fractures and breakages Aspect ■ The valve presents fracture and total head breakage in the radius and stem region. 11. as well as adjust correctly the valve clearance.2). Replace keepers and test the valve synchronism. Irregular and damaged keepers can be considered as causes of this type of failure. 11.2. 11. During the valve replacement not only the springs shall be inspected and tested.2.4). Fig. Causes ■ Fig. 11.3.4. as formerly informed. This type of failure is related to mechanical causes. The increase of the tensions is related to deficient springs and subsequent valve floating. as well as excessive clearance during adjustment of the valves and also valve floating (fig.1 Deformed and broken valve at the radius and stem region Fig.3.2 Wear in the seat region 11.the limits recommended for each engine/vehicle manufacturer.3. which forces this opening and also compresses and closes the spring. but also the keepers. High rotations also causes floating and the increase in tension at the radius/stem region. Causes ■ The breakage on the radius and stem region is related to an excessive increase of the cyclic tension on the stem. due incorrect engine syncronization.3. are factors that jeopardize the normal working conditions of the valves (fig.2 Broken valve head at the radius and stem region 11. This type of failure is related to mechanical causes. use of engine breaking shall all follow 63 . The valve closing is done by the smaller cam part of the camshaft and mainly by decompression and opening of the springs.11. 11.3. speed springs. 11. The valve opening movement is done by the cam.4. permitted Distribution and/or recommendations excessive Corrections ■ followed.
11. seat sealing (valve and valve seat) as well as operate the vehicle according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Corrections ■ Corrections ■ Keep the original characteristics of the engine.2 Damaged keeper Fig. Causes ■ The partial valve head breakage starts with fissures at the valve seat region and is originated by the increase of combustion pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber and at the valves. Fig. The valves present a crack/fissure at the head seat region.1 Broken head 64 . Should the fissure increase.2 Fissures on the valve seat Fig.1 and 11.4. correct ignition or injection timing.4.6. 11.5 Crack and/or fissure in the valve seat region Aspect ■ ■ The valve has a partially broken head. 11.1 Breakage at the keeper groove region Fig.5. The increase in combustion chamber and valve temperature is related to the use of inadequate fuel. Correct the alignment of valve steam and valve seat. 11. use the adequate fuel. 11. which results in thermal fatigue. 11. Causes ■ The start of the fissure is given by a thermal shock caused by unequal heating.Fig.2).5. This type of failure is related to thermal causes.1. and fig.6 Fracture at the valve head region Aspect 11. excessive carbon deposit and incorrectly applied valves.6. Misalignment between valve steam and valve seat and insufficient contact (valve/valve seat) lead to inadequate cooling. This type of failure is related to thermal loads causes.5.4. adequate spark plugs and correct the valves in relation to its seats. as well as the use of uncoupling during descents (gear box in the neutral position) also contribute to thermal Fig.6.2). inadequate spark plugs.3 Breakage at the keeper groove region 11.4 Wear at the keeper groove channel caused by irregular keeper fatigue (fig. The incorrect operation of the vehicle. This type of failure occurs only on exhaust valves.4. 11.5. part of the head will detach as show in the item 11. incorrect ignition/injection timing. The incorrect bedding of the valve on its seat can be the origin of this type of fractures (fig.11. 11.
Avoid long working cycles under idle condiction. 11. Fig. Provide the correct seating. poor fuel mixture and inadequate compression ratio are factors that affect and wear the valve head (fig. Pre-ignition.1. As a consequence.2).8.and 11.7. head cooling cylinder galleries with products recommended by the engine manufacturer.1 and 11. as well as the compression ratio.2 Breakage of part of the head Causes ■ Excessive localized heat at the head region. combined with high operational temperatures and combustion pressures.7 Generalized wear on the valve head Aspect ■ The valve presents wear at the head region and the valve seat. 11. This type of failure is related to thermal causes. 11.8 Burnt valve seats with localized wear Aspect ■ The valve presents a channel that starts at the seat and extends itself in direction of the radial region. 11. Corrections ■ Corrections ■ Keep the original engine characteristics.7. as well as gas escape concentrated at one only point. in correspondence with the engine specifications. 11.1 Breakage of part of the head Fig. Deficient refrigeration is another factor. detonation.6. 11. carbon residues generated by irregular combustion (poor mixture) will appear at the seat region and will jeopardize the sealing between the valve and its seat.2). Irregular valve seat sealing with cylinder head seat. as well as keep the and air/fuel clean mixture the as homogeneous.8. will result in local disintegration. 65 . Incorrectly valve clearance is another factor to jeopardize the sealing and to cause this type of failure (fig.Fig. ignition/injection point and use adequate fuel. due to partial obstruction of the cylinder head cooling.7.7.1 Wear at the valve head region Fig. the valve is cooled inadequately. 11.2 Wear at the valve head region 11. Causes ■ Wear is related to the increase in valve closing forces.6.
Excessive carbon results from excessive clearance between the valve guide and the stem. Corrections Fig. This deficiency will increase the valve pressure at the seat in the region of major incline and permits the gases to pass where the pressure is the lowest. or incorrect height of the guide in relation to the cylinder head. It should also be mentioned that the cylinder head seats should be rectified. Keep the clearances recommended by the engine manufacturer and also protect the oil seal in order to avoid damages in the keeper grooves during mounting. 11. 11. Fig. Fig.1 Irregular seating area Causes ■ Irregular seating marks are due to lack of perpendicularity between the cylinder head valve seat center and the valve guide center. Replace rocker arms and don't rectify them.8. Irregular marks at the valve top are due to irregularities at the rocker arm. irregular marks at the valve top.of the rocker arm over the valve. 9 Various types of irregularity Aspect ■ Valves with contaminated valve seats.9.9. 11. 11. replace also the cylinder heads when necessary. if taken in relation to the cylinder head valve seat axle. 11.8.2. damaged or jeopardized retainers.1.9. Another problem could be found in the incorrect height of the cylinder head.9. The different values between the valve seat and the cylinder head seat permit the valve to be bedded correctly during the cylinder combustion (fig. displaced seating marks.2 Inlet valve contaminated by lubricating oil due to excessive clearance between valve and valve guide or malfunction of oil seal 66 .1 Localized disintegration at the seat region ■ Keep perpendicularity between the cylinder head valve seats and the guides. taking angles and minutes into consideration.9.4). 11.2 Points at the valve seat are contaminated by carbon residues 11.3. excessive carbon at the valve base. 11. This deficiency doesn't permit the valve to rotate.9.11. caused by inclined action Fig.
Fig. Rocker arm deficiency 67 . 11.3 Contaminated inlet valve with lubricating oil crust due to excessive clearance between valve and valve guide or malfunction of oil seal Fig.9.9. 11.4 Marks indicating that the valve hasn't rotated.
48 549.50 636.1893 7.9678 1.10 72.4980 6.4429 12.4564 3.56 86. = 10mN (Metronewton) 1 mkgf.44 672.22 231.90 687.57 614.75 433.4658 7.5946 3.9221 11.36 173.45 455.79 311.-lbs.13 166.37 701.6268 2.3181 3.03 101.12.0418 3.81 622.58 397.4013 9. = 0.30 ft.5208 1.138255 mkgf.2121 2.6913 0.0738 2.83 716.55 368. The publication and the reproduction of this manual.33 79.14 694.4752 11.8067 5.-Ibs.0510 7. 224.39 267.-Ibs.08 506.3503 2.71 556.7973 1.4886 2.2537 5.93 36.46 238.8295 0.7195 12.86 65.17 43. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 ft. 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 ft.1060 1. = 7.87 593.67 679.5302 5. 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 mkgf.68 469. 0.5718 8.34 607.43 144.16 260. 4.1382 0.61 491.02 318.09 289.9128 7.84 499.8805 8.62 274.82 405.60 708.04 629.35 332.94 564.3275 7.98 441.12 383.07 723.5074 10.8899 12. 477.91 470.76 216. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 mkgf.2765 0.4242 4.4107 13.0926 10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 mkgf.26 108.-Ibs.3919 5.0604 11.6134 11.2309 10.2215 6. 9.32 296.2859 4.6456 10.2330 ft.73 122.66 151.01 535.11 600.9544 10.40 578. written authorization.5530 0.78 528.88 376.59 180.8577 12.72 339.15 ft.6591 1.8384 4.8711 4.5396 9.2725 13. 1 mkgf.-Ibs.0282 12.9866 mkgf.9450 6.3597 6.4336 8.18 354.20 665.1664 12.7839 10.8255 1 ft.55 303.0188 8.14 137.97 658.99 ft.7745 6.1154 5.6872 13. in the whole or partially are expressly forbidden without MAHLE Metal Leve S.6778 9.1248 9.1476 mkgf.6362 6.7651 2.6040 7.1987 11.5812 12.2443 1.89 159.9034 3.8161 9.3825 1.1570 8.54 520.51 426. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ft.17 571.80 94.23 14. 68 .95 347.7007 4.25 325.-Ibs.-Ibs.64 585.24 542.5490 13.9772 5.40 50.06 195.0832 6. Torque conversion table mkgf.3047 12.6685 5.9960 13. 7.2631 9.5624 4.42 361.9356 2. A.-lbs.52 209.96 130.70 28.7423 7.69 245.35 390.38 484.63 57.7329 3.8483 8.2953 8.7517 11.47 21.74 650.05 412.85 282.0094 4.21 448.31 513.29 202.50 115.7101 8.3369 11.50 643.1799 3.92 253.28 419.4118 0.3691 10.83 188.1342 13.
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