HRD Scenario in India

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HRD Scenerio in Indian organisation its Problems and Prospects
By S K Dhar INTRODUCTION From the early days of HRD Interventions introduced in Larsen & Tubro in 1975, we have traversed a period of 26 years and during these period, in Indian Organisations the importance of Human Resource Development has been comprehensively felt and various processes and instruments of HRD are being applied in different Organisations in the manufacturing, financial and Service sectors. Whether it is a case of SBI, LICI, GIC or Canara Bank, Indian Bank or it is a case of HMT, TISCO, TELCO, NDDB, Thermax, Hindustan Motors, the importance of HRD in managing people for results and bringing effectiveness in the field of `Management' have been widely appreciated in all the Conferences of National HRD network. Critical Issues Critical issues which are identified by the Top Management Team in different Organisations share the same concern and deal with identical problems. It is found on a survey of the Indian Organisations that in the following fields HRD has to be Strengthened. y Recruitment and Promotion Policies Organisations are to be reviewed on a recurrent and continuous basis. should be given greater emphasis in promotions. y Merit of different



Performance Appraisal System in the Organisations is to be modified so that the right persons are rewarded in the right manner and placed in the right posts.

y y y

Greater emphasis is to be laid on Human Resource Development and Training. Communication system is to be improved. Motivation, morale, commitments and sense of belongings and involvement of employees at all levels should be enhanced.


Greater attention is to be paid regarding development of

first line supervisors, second and third line executives. y Policies, Rules and Procedures of the Organisation are to be consolidated and reviewed

on a consistent and recurrent basis. Define goals of HRD In LIC, we have identified the following goals of HRD. To facilitate in giving sufficient and prompt service to our customers, LIC reorganised structures and system in the early 1980s. The goals of our personnel Policies in the restructured set up are identified as follows. y To ensure that adequate number of persons with sound insurance background and experience both in generalist and specialist are available at different operative and supervisory and managerial levels. To evolve the personnel system so that the employees are provided equitable opportunities to move up in the Organisation on the basis of their performance and ability. The employees repose confidence in the personnel practices followed by the Corporation. The Policy should not only be fair and just but also to be perceived as fair and just. To ensure that responsibility for results is provided right from the lower level so that employees can develop a sense of independence and self confidence. That jobs are enlarged and enriched and are performed in a manner that nurtures team work providing opportunity for learning new and varied skills thus, making the work more satisfying and meaningful. That those employees who show special aptitude for different skills are carefully provided appropriate training experiences. Several strategies to achieve the above stated objectives and goals were developed. Consistent with the Policy of Consensus, new strategy were circulated and discussed with groups of employees. It was clear that LIC needed a comprehensive HRD approach in 1987. The Organisation stated its beliefs about HRD as under : *That Human potential interest in every employee is vast; it can be further enhanced by various Interventions like Training, Job-rotation, counselling Organisation Action etc. * That people are major assets and that an Organisation can make full utilisation of individual potential by providing a developmental environment and opportunities by encouraging and rewarding innovativeness and creativity. * That such people, who are unable to contribute to the Organisation fully due to reasons beyond their control can also give their best if they are taken care of and proper environment and conditions are provided.







* That competency can be developed in people at any point of time; as model employer it is desirable that we encourage competency enhancement. * That HRD provides higher quality of work-life through opportunities of a meaningful career, job satisfaction and professional development. * That HRD philosophy emphasises human well being and Organisational growth. * That HRD Policies are relationship centered and the extent of relationship under HRD is life long and not merely for 8 hours a day. * That as a model employer we must provide for employee growth; if an employee perceives anurturing environment, automaticaly there would be a positive response to match individual aspirations with Organisation¶s needs. * That HRD processes have to be planned and continuous in order to be effective. Keeping the above HRD beliefs and goals in front of the organisation our Central Office, HRD Cell, have so far undertaken the following few steps to bring about change and turn around in the Organisation.

Under the guidance of Prof. Ishwar Dayal, our external consultant on OD/HRD, LIC introduced the system of Work Plan and Review for all the Class-I Officers of the Organisation at all levels in all its offices. Through the instrument of WPR, an attempt was made to integrate the individual growth and the Organisational growth through a process of role scanning, job survey, swot analysis and periodic review of result areas and monitoring of performances as per work plan drawn up by each individual Officer for a particular Financial Year. Emphasis was laid on the task of discussion, review, counselling and mid-course correction in the activities of the individual officer for realisation of his performance targets. From 1989 onward through intensive workshops, interface and comprehensive Programme, these WPR instrument was internalised with the Organisation. Lot of clarity was observed in understanding the role and making realistic job survey by the individual officer. A systematic line of critical thinking on the concerns of the Department and Organisation emerged as a result of intensive work planning and reviewing. Central Office, also guided to re-structure of functioning of different Departments at the Central Office and Zonal Office level with the help of Desk System where each Department was divided into several distinct desks with fixed accountability and responsibility. The Desk System brought about lot of clarity and accountability among the Officers of the Organisation at the Central Office and Zonal office level. Redtapism, delay in decision-taking, procrastination and other tactics in the Organisational behaviour of LIC were removed or reduced to a substantial degree through the Desk control system. The prescribed role element and the discretionary role element in the decision maker¶s work area become more clear by successful

utilisation of the Desk control mechanism. Overlapping functions were avoided, duplication was reduced and with the help of service bureau for data control, data monitoring, data building, each Desk had to perform a distinct role with support from each section under the Desk. This has developed a new working culture in the Organisation in LIC in the early part of the 1990s. From 1993 onward, Central Office evolved a comprehensive Programme of OD/HRD awareness for all the Branches as a whole through a medium of well articulated Action Plan. Here, the focus is on making our Organisation customer friendly and market friendly. To be brief the interests of LIC Policy Holders have been kept at the central focus. To develop a prompt, error free and expeditious service for our ever growing Policy Holder¶s segment in this age of competition has become the main goal before the Organisation today. If the loayalty of the policy Holders is eroded and they are not satisfied with our standard and levels of service, in the event of opening up Life Insurance Sector to Private. Companies in the very near future, it is most likely that some Policy Holders will switch over their loyalty and patronage from LIC to other Companies. For any Organisation with a marketing and servicing goal such a scenario will be the most difficult and undesirable. Therefore, LIC Central Office has developed comprehensive OD/HRD Action Plan covering all the Branches and including all the classes of employees I, II, III and IV attached to our Branches. They have also made this awareness Programme mandatory for all the Officers and HGAs of the Divisional Office, so that, the Divisional Office can give proper support service to the Branches to make their servicing effecive and fault free. All the important Divisions have been covered in phase-I & phase-II in all 7 Zones of LIC. The Action Plans have been prepared by around 1200 Branches in the entire Country and on the basis of the Action Plan it has been attempted to develop a new working culture based on the principle of co-ordination, co-operation and collaboration among all sections of employees, with the idea that the Branch Office will function as a fully equipped working team and their main aim will be to serve the Policy Holders equally, promptly and accurately. The Branch Management Committee¶s role in understanding the concerned problems and issues of the Branches have been highlighted and the co-operation from each level has been sorted out to make the Branches modern performers in the field of Life Insurance sales and servicing.

The entire organisation need for facing the change and entire HRD thrust will be determined by comprehensive modern and effective system of training to be imparted to our

Assistants, HGAs and different levels of Officers in the Organisation, both in the marketing side as well as in the administrative side.
Another important and significant decision has been taken by LIC to upgrade our servicing standard by technical up-gradation, by introducing over a period of time in a phased and progressive manner the Front-end Application in our Branches, indicating that the Cash, NB, Sales, PS work will be controlled, monitored and regulated through Machines. This has been contemplated in order to reduce response time and also in order to generate speed in our working of different Desks of our Branches. This has also been envisaged that through Front-end which will ultimately be developed to a Local Area Net-working System (LAN) definitely, our Organisation will be in a position to satisfy the Policy Holders who are having high levels of expectations and who want that Organisation should use modern technology to satisfy their demands and needs. The entire Programme for 2,000 plus Branches in LIC, will be implemented in a phased manner through a process of trial and experimentation and reviewing the results achieved and arranging for mid-course correction and Co-ordination at different levels.

The entire organisation need for facing the change and entire HRD thrust will be determined by comprehensive modern and effective system of training to be imparted to our Assistants, HGAs and different levels of Officers in the Organisation, both in the marketing side as well as in the administrative side. This also involves a wide net-working of training for our large number of Agents on a selective and time budgeted basis. Without adequate efforts, total sincerity and massive involvement in the training field, the Organisation can not develop appropriate strategy to face the changes and challenges of modern competitive World. Therefore, MDC, ZTC, STC all have to play their significant role in bringing about a total cultural changes in the organisation. 180 degree turn in the Organisation is possible only if the operating Departments, the Supervisors and Executives of the Organisation supported by the massive co-operation of all classes of employees and Agents, work in close co-operation with the training establishments. The different instruments of HRD have to be integrated through proper implementation of our objectives for the raising of the standard of output and productivity of each employee and bringing about a new change in the organisation so that it can serve its objectives and successfully implement the goals of the Organisation. HRD can not be conceived in isolation; it is the imperative need

for the individual¶s growth, Organisational growth and making the Organisation prepared to face any new challenges which may emerge from the external and internal environment. It is also not a pious philosophy without any pragmatic root, it is a strategy as we have seen in the case of Steel Authority of India, how they have brought about a turn around in the Organisation by adopting HRD strategy. We shall have to distinctly understand the significance of this strategy. Not only SAIL or Indian Oil Corporation or in Organisations like HMT and Thermax, HRD has been assigned a major role in changing the work approach and work ethics of the employees and Officers but even in a small Organisation in our Country, the need for Human Resource Development, the need for training updation and bringing about innovative strategy have been felt comprehensively. This is a continuous process. We cannot expect magical results. This is also painstaking and has to pass through lot of Organisational constraints and difficulties. The internal Policy of the Government, the internal outlook, the outlook of the Government towards employees in the PSUS and other Semi Government concerns, the overall IR climate, the Social, political, cultural network in the Country, the fulfilment of legitimate aspirations of employees of different cadres and different Organisations - all these are variable factors for a new instrument of Human Resource Development. New interventions, new innovative practices and lot of creative designs have to be thought of in making HRD design and HRD strategy successful; there can not be a set pattern of HRD implementation for all Organisations. The Organisation¶s potential, existing state of affairs and existing industrial relation climate also have to be specially considered to bring about effective change in the Organisation, through HRD Interventions. To sum up, after surveying the HRD climate in different Organisations, we may feel that there is huge scope in making HRD really effective, result-oriented and achievement-oriented. Potentiality of every human individual in the Organisation is immense and people will have to change their perception about the job, work systems and work approach on a continuous basis. Because the market is in the midst of, massive and radical changes in the present World, the customers¶ expectations and demands are also changing very fast. So, by upgrading our capability and by utilising optimum level of skill through training and orientation, we can develop a vibrant and consumerfriendly Organisation. Problems before HRD practitioners are many. Social problems, Oranisational problems, psychological problems relating to mental blocks and prejudices, problems from the Trade Unions, problems relating to lack of commitment from the top management and middle level management - these are all passing phases in the developing scenario of an Organisation. The constraints before HRD implementation have to be faced in a radical manner through process of Organisational diagnosis. Once the problems are sorted out and solved and we can see new prospects before the Organisation. HRD helps our power of rational judgement to understand the problems; it also helps to build up new initiative and vision to solve the problems in the

Organisation concerning people, product, system and technology. Therefore, HRD is the most important challenge before all organisations in the 21st Century. Top HRD Scenario in India

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