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20 SPECIMEN OF HERBARIUM
Assalammualaikum,firstly I want to say Alhamdulillah to god because with the permission of Allah I have successfully finishing my herbarium assignment without any problem. For this part one assignment, I have working hard and try my best make sure that I can finishing this work and submit it on the date that have been stated. I also want to say a thousand of thanks to my parent because they give supported to me since I started studying here. To completed this assignment, they always give me a spirit to make this herbarium assignment successfully done. This appreciation also tomy lecturer, Miss Nor Saleha Bt. Md Saleh ,the most important person that are responsible of the AGR109 assignment for 2010 session. A thousand of thanks for you because give me important point and introduce way how to make this herbarium assignment. I can¶t imagined what would happen if without all your knowledge. From your given information, I have done my assignment earlier from the expected date. Before I forget, I want to say a lot of thankful to my friends that help me either in direct or indirectly. Lastly, to my entire senior, I appreciate your knowledge and brilliant idea for my herbarium assignment. I will remember all the knowledge that has thought. I appreciate all people who was helps me in completing this Herbarium assignment until it totally done. I will keep your duties always in my memories. Hopefully we can co-operation again next time Insya-Allah.
From this assignment, I only observed 3 main objectives there is to study about the world of herbarium and way to deal with it, to learn how to prepare a herbarium sheet and to appreciate a god creations. Firstly is to study about the world of herbarium and how to deal with it. Generally, a weed is a plant in an undesired place. It`s only grow as a parasites in a gardens, lawns, or agricultural areas, but also in park and other natural areas. Weeds are known as unwanted plant. For certain area, weeds are important as a legume cover plant or land supporter such as field and fringe of hill. Secondly, the objective for this assignment is learned how to prepare a herbarium sheet. The materials that we need are old newspapers to cover the specimens, old boxes as overlapping for specimen, scissor to cut the boxes, scalpel, and forceps. These materials are important to make the specimen dried completely. The important thing for this preparation is the newspaper must change everyday to prevent the specimens from any infection like fungi or bacteria. The last objective of doing this assignment is to appreciate the god creations and to gain more knowledge about all these kind of weeds that live around UiTM Kuala Pilah. From this, we are able to identify the plants part and know it`s common and scientific name. By that ways, we are tried to improve our lesson and add more knowledge about the plants that live around us.
grasses. it`s must be dried as soon as possible to prevent the specimens become wilt. Lay the specimen on two piece of newspaper and cover the specimen with another two pieces. Next. ferns. Use heavy books on the top of old boxes to make the specimen flat and dried faster. mosses (bryophytes). The specimen must have all the part of plant like root. After that. we face a problem to handle it`s when we tried to put the specimens in the newspapers. a pair of old boxes is already prepared with four piece of newspaper. The type of plants that can be used by this way is a weed shrub tree. If wilt. student needs to collect the specimens and clean it`s. Other than that. Herbarium contains a wide range of plants from many different families.HERBARIUM Herbarium is a collection of dried and mounted plant specimen used in systematic botany. place the covered specimen in between a pair of old boxes. plants ranging from fungi. After plants have been collected. the newspaper must change everyday to prevent the specimens from any infection like fungi or bacteria. stem leaf and flower. We must always check the specimens until it dried completely. . In making Herbarium. There are two aspects of preservation. and forbs. The first aspect is the physical specimen. lichens.
We also can frame the specimen and covered with plastic to prevent from insect or dirt. This data is important because it show the background of the specimens.The second aspect of preservation is maintenance of the information related to the collection of each specimen. common name. It`s must be kept carefully. and the location from which the specimen was collected. We should include the data for every specimen like it`s scientific name. family name. date when specimen was collected. habitat. The specimens that have already done can be reach for long time period. It usually take time at least 3 months before it completely dried. For every specimen. . It can be used as a reference for our next generation. The dried specimen can be placed into a clear folder.
especially in the spring. water. Some plant are readily recognized as weeds due to their general undesirable mess. infesting lawns. They appear and growth quickly to cover unsightly scar in the landscape made by human and nature. Weeds serve as hoots for insect and disease organism that move onto parasites nearly crops and ornamental plant. provide excellent forage for livestock during certain period of the year. there are not easily to define. Weed is a part of agriculturalist¶s every day of live. ditches and forest. . consciously. Weeds are controversial plant that are neither all bad all good. economic value. and aesthetic aspect of the land water they infest. purple nut sedge. weed adversely affect the use. depending on one¶s lock. Weeds are familiar plant in our environment that is seen. For example. quack grass. such as downy brome and Russian thistly. In general. Plants can be defined as weed if they step cultivated useful plant with one aimed into competition around growth factors such as nutrients. Weeds provide employment for local and transient labor hired to control them. sandbur and Russian thistle. common chickweeds. weeds are familiar object.WEEDS Weed may be defined as any unwanted plant that¶s growing. Briefly.water erosion of the land. punctured vine. so that the useful plant does not achieve the desired yield. Some weeds. field bindweeds. Weed prevent and reduce wind . lights. sidewalk roadside fencerows.
this type of family contains many appendages. The flowers are small. EUPHORBIACEAE These shrub or herbs trees consist of internal and stipule. its microfilm are surrounded by carbuncles. While its seed not have an endosperm. sometimes the fruit consist of 3 or 6 seeds and also contains an endosperm. It is only have one shape and it is also unisex. [3(9)] veins and intersect.WEEDS FAMILY MELASTOMACEAE The herbs and shrub trees. Mostly they have 4 or 5 sepal and rangy. it has single leaves commonly in three (nini). . Its have 5 rangy with lots of stamen.the ovary have 3 locul. In fact. It looks similarly surrounded by µkaliks¶. Besides. The fruit like berry or in capsule. one shape and dwisex. Besides . The flowers looks real. Mostly . They also have more stamen.
In the caryopsis. The fruit usually hands looks like triangle shape. It leaves growth in trees row. Sometimes the fruit are dwisex and sometimes unisex. Its have 3 or 6 stamen. the ovary has one locul and one ovule.CYPERACEAE One seasons and perennial herbs trees. its contains endosperm and a lot of starch. or perennial grasses and bamboo. The leaves is definitely elongated. . They have a joint stem and all its cavity. Their flowers is supported by a single glum.twice season grasses. Most of the leaves elongated straight at the origin. essence thread 2 or 3 force. In the young spike. The stems look like triangle. The gynesium contains 2 or 3 with one locul or one ovule. It have small flowers which is dwisex and unisex.Gynesium are basically have 3 carpel. GRAMINEAE The one . the floral is usually support with a pair of glum lemma µa palae¶.
They generally have five valvate sepals. Hairs are common. Capitate or lobed stigma. but often forming a tube around the pistils. The stems contain mucous canals and often also mucous cavities. SELAGINELLACEAE . connate at least at their bases.The flowers are commonly borne in definite or indefinite axillary inflorescences. which are often reduced to a single flower. oppositifolious or terminal. The ovary is superior. Five imbricate petals. The margin may be entire. They often bear supernumerary bracts. The pistils are composed of two to many connate carpels. They can be unisexual or bisexual and are generally actinomorphic. with axial placentation. often associated with conspicuous bracts. usually positioned on the sepals.MALVACEAE Most species are herbs or shrubs but some are trees and lianas. but may also be cauliflorous. Stipules are present. forming an epicalyx. and are most typically stellate. most frequently basally connate. The flowers have nectaries made of many tightly packed glandular hairs. but when dentate a vein ends at the tip of each tooth (malvoid teeth). often palmately lobed or compound and palmately veined. The stamens are five to numerous.Leaves are generally alternate.
In some species. scale-like leaves on branching stems from which roots also arise.Selaginella is a genus of plants in the family Selaginellaceae. they resemble a tiny battle club. leaflets have evolved into tendrils. They are often trifoliate and rarely palmately compound . scale-like outgrowths near the base of the upper surface of each microphyll and sporophyll. COMPOSITAE . the spikemosses Selaginellas are creeping or ascendant plants with simple. in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae commonly bipinnate . Unusually for the lycopods. thorn-like or be rather inconspicuous. occasionally. Both the leaves and the leaflets often have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. They are non-flowering and do not produce seeds. including all of the core clubmosses. which can be leaf-like. These plants bear spores on specialized structures at the apex of a shoot. serrate. Leaf margins are entire or. They always have stipules.or oddpinnately compound. Most often they are even. from which the common name derives. each microphyll contains a branching vascular trace. The plants are heterosporous (megaspores and microspores). FABACEAE The leaves are usually alternate and compound. and have structures called ligules. LYCOPODIACEAE A family of primitive vascular plants.
Its collar looks like chimney. It consists of 35 genera and about 1000 species. with the ovary unilocular. i. Myrsinaceae Myrsinaceae is a rather large family from the order Ericales. usually isomerous with the perianth. indehiscent fruit is a thin-fleshed berry or drupe.The herbs and shrub trees.e they have 4 or 5 sepals and petals. but a few are dioecious. the head of bouquets involucel looks like have a shape and sometimes unshaped. . superior or semi-inferior. The small flowers are arranged in racemose terminal clusters.merous or 5-merous.The one-seeded. or in the leaf axils. The plants are mostly monoecious. Sometimes. 5 stamen that grow from rangy. The gynesium contains 2 carpels. closely overlapping. The carpel has one style and one stigma. Sometimes its contains a liquid milk cell. Usually the flowers are small. The non-fleshy petals of the corolla are more or less united. The floral envelope has a distinct calyx and corolla. There are 4 or 5 stamens.an inferior ovary and one locul. and exist in dwisex and unisex. The calyx is regular and polysepalous. It is a widespread family belonging to temperate to tropical climates. and its flower have 2 sepal. The leaves alternate or can be intersect. The flowers are 4. The seeds not contains albumen.
and the ovary superior. Avicenniaceae. with axile placentation. in scrublands. Brazil and Central America. or spiny) margins. seen as streaks on the surface. Avicennia. calcium carbonate concretions. The fruit is a two-celled capsule. Africa. a genus of mangrove tree. decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed. and arranged in an inflorescence that is either a spike. or twining vines. opposite. Most are tropical herbs. Tropical genera familiar to gardeners include Thunbergia and Justicia. zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic. at the sea coast and in marine areas. The calyx is usually 4-5 lobed.Acanthaceae The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. and in swamps and as an element of mangrove woods. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a jaculator) that ejects them from the capsule. in some species the bract is large and showy. some are epiphytes. The four main centres of distribution are Indonesia and Malaysia. In most species. stamens either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla. and without stipules. shrubs. The leaves may contain cystoliths. on wet fields and valleys. a herbaceous perennial plant with big leaves and flower spikes up to 2 m tall. 2-lipped or 5-lobed. The flowers are perfect. or cyme. lobed. 2-carpellate. . dehiscing somewhat explosively. Plants in this family have simple. raceme. A species well-known to temperate gardeners is Bear's Breeches (Acanthus mollis). Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower. is included in Acanthaceae by theAngiosperm Phylogeny Group on the basis of molecular phylogenetic studies that show it to be associated with this family. including dense or open forests. usually placed in Verbenaceae or in its own family. thecorolla tubular. the seeds are attached to a small. The representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat.
I just see it as ordinary grass. From a started collect the weeds. Other than that. their family. the effect on crop rotation seed quality . thanks to Allah s. when I see a grass. Before this. I¶m very proud in giving fully percent of committing this assignment. they have their own local name. Now. and their peculiar habitats. I can understand more about weeds for example. scientific name.SUMMARY Alhamdulillah. I also know that in weeds. I indirectly appreciate to Allah for His creation.the advantages and much more. From this activity. this particular assignment also gain me more knowledge that I¶ve never know before. I realize that I¶m improving my knowledge about weeds and its function. From this. It is very special. but now. . After finishing this assignment I found that I¶m really achieve the objective of this assignment. Besides. Starting from now.w.t because I had finished my herbarium assignment perfectly by the time given. Of course this kind of assignment is very well in improving their general knowledge and boost up their cleverness in studying process. I realize there are so many types of plant exist in the world. I realize that it is not too difficult as my friends thinking. I can determines and specify the particular family name for the grass.
REFERENCE 1) BOOKS REFERENCES : TITLE WRITER Ahmad Azly b. Kuala Lumpur. Mohd Yusof Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.au/discovernature/plantfamily/index. .htm http://www.answers.gov/index. 1944.edu. 2) INTERNET REFERENCES : http://www-public.com/topic/herbarium#Collections_management http://plants.jcu.usda.html 3) HERBARIUM ASSIGMENT LAST SEMESTER. Rumpai (panduan berilustrasi) PUBLISHER Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
20 SPECIMEN OF HERBARIUM .
STEM LEAVES COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Selaput Tunggul ROOT Mikania micrantha Compositae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 3 September 2010 .
STEM ROOT LEAVES COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Kacang Kanabalia Darat Canovilla maritim Fabaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 3 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM COMMON NAME ROOT Paku Biru Selaginella Selaginellaceae Dry Area SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 4 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Mata Pelanduk Ardisia crispa Myrsinaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 4 September 2010 .
STEM LEAVES ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Senduduk Bulu Climedia hirta Melastomaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 5 September 2010 .
STEM LEAVES ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Hempedu Bumi Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 5 September 2010 .
STEM ROOT LEAVES COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Paku Serani Lycopodium cerranum Lycopodiaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 6 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Dukung Anak Phyllantus amarus Euphorbiaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 8 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Pokok Kapal Terbang Chromolaera odorata Compositae Dry Area ROOT LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 8 September 2010 .
LEAVES FLOWER STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Kancing Baju Tridax procumbent Compositae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 9 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Sedaguri Sida acuta Malvaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 9 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Kelutut Urena lobata Malvaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 9 September 2010 .
FLOWERS STEM LEAVES ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Telur Belalang Sporobolus diander Gramineae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 7 September 2010 .
FLOWERS STEM LEAVES ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Payung Terjun Eupatorium odoratum Compositae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 7 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Tahi Ayam Ageratum conyzoides Compositae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 6 September 2010 .
FLOWER S LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Bunga Jauh Cyperus distans Cyperaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 6 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Hairy Spurge Chamaesyce hirta Euphorbiaceae Wet Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 6 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Senduduk Melastoma malabathricum Melastomaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 7 September 2010 .
LEAVES STEM ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Gandar Cyperus aromaticus Cyperaceae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 9 September 2010 .
FLOWERS STEM LEAVES ROOT COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT Rumput Hakisan Rhynchelytrum repens Gramineae Dry Area LOCATION FOUND Uitm Kuala Pilah DATE FOUND 7 September 2010 .
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