"N'VERSITY OF N.C.

AT CHAPEL HILL

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>.

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lli

>:

00034703321

(yoMüm/'
WOM/IN AND r/VS/VVVW^UF

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A-«»

dT*'

NEFES

This book is due at the WALTER R. DAVIS LIBRARY on the last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold, it be renewed by bringing it to the library.

may

^

RETURNED

Che/

(

WOMAN and TAC A\A/\A/I O^ TASAWWUF
^1^/^

IC

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLIMA

AT CHAPEL HILL

NEF=ES yaynlar
ISBN
:

978-605-5902-00-1

/.

basm
5

Kitap yayn no:

Mays, 2008
istanbul

Bu
yer

kitap yayna

TÜRKKAD istanbul ubesi tarafndan ha^rlanmijtr.
TIEM (Türk
ve

Kitaptayer alan minyatürler

islam Eserleri Müt^esi) ve

Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi'nde

alanya^ma

eserlerden seçilmi detaylardr.

Derleyen:

TÜRKKAD istanbul ubesiyayn kurulu
Na^l Kayahan, Nefe
Belgin Birol Batum
Tof,

Yayn
Kitap

Kurulu: Cemâlnur Sargut,

Aylin Atikler Yurdacan

Tasarm: Hümanur Bal,

Fotoraflar:

Aygül Okutan, Mehmet OkutanKapak Tasarm: Aygül Okutan

Logo Tasarm: Hümanur Bal
Redaksiyon:

Can

Ceylan

Kapak

& Cilt Pasifik Ofset

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Badat

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Tel: (216)

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Fax: (216) 359 4092

Q/â/m/iÂa

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'(me6t

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

içindekiler contents

ÖNSÖZ
Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin Yaantsnda Günümüzün Mutasavvf Kadnna Bahj. Cemalnur SARGUT
2

TÜRKKAD

-

Türk Kadnlar Kültür Dernei

stanbul ubesi

Bakan

Kiihun
Prof.

Çocuu Karim Douglas

14

CROW
Felsefe

slâm

Târihi Profesörü,

Amerikan Katolik Üniversitesi Deerler ve iddete Hayr Enstitüsü Üyesi, ABD

Aratrma

Hey'eti,

Evliya Kadnlar.

28
Üniversitesi,

Dr.

Anna

BIGELOW
ABD

Felsefe ve

Din Bölümü, Kuzey Carolina Eyalet

Murataja Göre islâm Düüncesinde, Toplumda Kadn ve Erkein Kolu: Mutasavvf Gö^üjle Prof. Dr. Azizan

46

BAHARUDDN

Uygarbklar Aras Diyalog Merkezi

Bakam, Malaya

Üniversitesi,

Kuala

Lumpur, Malezya

Bir Kadnn Bakcyla 21. Yü^l'da
Tasavvuf.

78

Rabia Brodbeck

UZUN
Kadna Bakif
Prensip Olarak

Modern Dans Sanatçs, Yazar

Ihn-iArahîde iki Türlü
insan olarak
Prof. Dr.

Kadn

ve

Ko^ik

Kadn

94

Suad

el-HAKM

slâm

Felsefesi ve

Misdsizmi Profesörü, Lübnan Üniversitesi

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF içindekiler contents

Mevlânamn Kadna Bahp.
Prof. Dr.

120
Öretim
Üyesi

Mehmet

DEMRC
1

Dokuz

Eylül Üniversitesi, lahiyat Fakültesi

Maneviyâtn Gü^llii ve Diji Unsuru. Prof. Dr. Cari W. ERNST
Seçkin William R.

39

Kenan Profesörü

Dini Aratrmalar Bölümü, Kuzey Carolina Üniversitesi, Chapel Hill,ABD

20. Yü^i'n islâm Mutasavvflarndan

Ken 'an Rifâ'nin
156

Kadna

Bakifi

Dr. Cangüzel Ziyaretçi Öretim Görevlisi, Dini Aratrmalar Bölümü, Kuzey Carolina Üniversitesi, Chapel Hill, ABD

ZÜLFKAR

Inisiyatik Gelenek içerisinde

Samiha Ay verdi.

191

Sâdk YALSIZUÇANLAR
TRT Ankara Televizyonu
-

Prodüktör

KADIN WOMAN AND AW UF TASAWWUF TAS
VI-

içindekiler contents

PREFACE
How Today's Mutasammf Women Can Be Seen
Ufe of Samiha yaverdi. Cemalnur SARGUT TÜRKJCAD Turkish Women's Cultural Association
in the
-

President of Istanbul Branch

Child of Soul.
Prof.

Karim Douglas

CROW
USA

21

Professor of Islamic Thought
Catholic Universit)' of America, Washinton D.C., Council for Research in

Values and Philosophy Member of Non- Violence Institution,

Women of the Saint, Saintly Women Dr. Anna BIGELOW
North Carolina State Universit}' Department of Philosophy & Religion,

37

USA

Murata S

Ideas on Gender Relationships

in IslamicThoughtia Sufi Perspective

62

Prof Dr. Azizan
Head of
Universit}'

BAHARUDDIN

the Centre For Civilisational Dialogue,

of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Sainthood in 21st Century from a Female Perspective

86

Rabia Brodbeck

UZUN

Modern Dancer and Author

Ibn Arabi's Twofold Perception of Woman: Woman as Human Being and Cosmic Principle Dr. Souad Mysticism, Professor of Islamic Philosophy

106

HAKIM

&

Lebanese University

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

içindekiler contents

How Bjimi \'^iews Women Prof. Dr. Mehmet DEMRC
Professor of

.129

Tasawwuf

History, Faculty of Divinity,

Dokuz

Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey

Beauty and the Feminine Element of Spirituality. Prof. Dr. Carl W. WiUiam R. Kenan Distinguished Professor and Director of

147
the Carolina

ERNST

Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations

Department of Religious
Hill,

Studies, University

of North Carolina

at

Chapel

USA

How a 20th Century Mutasamvuf, Ken 'an Rifai,
Dr. Cangüzel

Views Women. ..174

Güner

ZULFIKAR
of North CaroHna- Chapel

Visiting Research Scholar

Department of Religious
HiU,

Studies, University

USA

Journey

to

Real Meaning

in

Samiha yaverdi.

212

Sadk YALSIZUCANLAR
TRT Ankara Television,
Producer

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KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF içindekiler contents

ÖNSÖZ
A

Islami gelenek Allah'n A.dem'e föjle seslendiini

bildirir;

"Ben rahmetimi
bir

kulun Havva'nn

ahsnda senin

için

topladm"

ve

"Ry Adem, mümine

kadndan daha hayrl

bir rahmet olama^'.

Tasavvuf

bak açs bu sÖ!(leri
Eer o
nefis,

öyleyorumlar; Allah rahmetiyle insann nefsini var etmitir.

mutmain

mertebesine

ulap mü'min

olursa beeri insan

makamnayükseltip,
rahmettir.

Allah 'in ondaki

tecellisiyle

mükafatlandrr ki, bu da en hayrl
erkek

Dolaysyla tasavvufta dii
er-Rfâî'nin

nefsi,

akl

temsil eder. \^e nefis

hocam Ken'an

buyurduu gibi; ikayet edilmesi deil bilakis ükredilmesi gereken

tekamülfrsatdr.

Kemal Nefis

Sayesinde Bulunur

Neden ekva bu

nefsinden, reva

m bilmemek kymet
büyük nimet
kullan sen
vahdet

Huda'y

Zülcelâl'dendir sana o pek

Refikindir

sakn hor görme onu hoça

Bilen nefsin bilir

Hakk

',

nedir

hem le^t-i

Nefis

olmaca mümkin miyetimek bâb- maksûda
o

Ömür âhir olunca

sana çektirme:^ hiç hasret

Bilip kadrin onu ilm

ü

edepten hiç

ayrma
et

sen

ikâyet

etmesin senden

nasl mümkinse

hikmet

Fakat bu

söylerim terbiyeden sonra olur
nefsin

makbul

Olur insan, eden slâha

Ken 'an 'â himmet

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
Önsöz Preface

Bu

nedenle

akln
"Si;^

nefse, nefsin

akla ihtiyac vardr. Yüce Allah bu gerçei
bir elbisesini^

Kur'ân 'da

kadnlarn^ için

kadnlarn^^ da

si^in için

elbisedir" dije bildirir. Sultanlar

sultan Rabiatü'l Adviye "E.er bir
merbesine ula§m§
ise o

kadn
deildir,

Viakk yolundayürüyüp mutmain
er'dir, recüldür,

artk kadn

merttir" der.

Demek

ki

diji, nefs-i

emmare halinde iken

koruk ü^üm, mutmain olunca (Allah 'ndan emin) ü^^m, râ^e
merdiyede ajk jarab,
olur.

(radiye) ve

safiye 'de

(Meryem gibi olduunda)
ve

sirke gibi temizleyici

Dip'nin

anal müritliidir ki evladn madde
ve son

mana

sütüyle besler.

Bu açdan
nefsin

birçok mutasavvflar ruhu di§i olarak deerlendirir.

Kuh

burada

tekâmülü

noktas gibidir.

H^. Mevldna "Beden

içinde

mukîm, hanmefendi

ruh,

hicabn syrd

ve

a§k

çetesiyle kojarak ufaklajt" der.

(D1 198) Hatta ba^en cotuunda Mirac

Peygamber'in
gelin

(s.a.v) gelinin elini

öpmeye gidip gibi deerlendirir. Miraçtaki

Allah 'in

î^atdr.

Bütün mutasavvflar bu benzetmeleri Peygamber'in

(s.a.v)

kadna

verdii deerden etkilenerek yorumlarlar.

H^; Peygamber

(s.a.v),

kadn

ve erkek birbirlerinin iki

yansdr derken

Allah 'in Hucurat sûresinde buyurduu

''Ey insanlar, si^i gerçekten bir erkek

ve dimidenyarattk" ayetininyorumunuyapmtr.
(s. a.

Büyümden H^-Peygamber'e

v)

göre '%adnlar akl ve gönül sahibi erkeklere hükmederler" sö^ü
bir

kadnn

Allah 'in patndan

nur olduunu açklamaktadr. '%adn insan Allah 'a

yaklatrr ve

erdirir"yorumuyla Ibn-i Arabi Peygamber'in (s.a.v) bakijina

açklk getirir.
Nihayet
ki "Ey Allah'n Cemali olan kadn, sen ki Allah'n
tecellilerinin

diyebiliri^

Kûhmet

ve

Kûhim
"

kaynasn.

Eer Yaradan

erkek ve

kadn

kutuplarda görünüp kendinden kendine
idrak edebilirdik.

apk

olmasayd, onu nasl tanyp

Cemâlnur Sargut

h " i..M ^:^

M

ri^

':*^^^

'

V

.

'.

^^,>'^^:^)^J

IJ-

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

Sâmihâ Ayverdi'nin Yaantsnda Günümüzün Mutasavvf Kadnna

Bak

Cemâlnur SARGUT
16 Aralk 2005 târihinde

TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâtrasna düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasavvuf" bahkl
teblidir.

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

Sâmiha Ayverdi; "Tasavvuf bir ztlar âbidesi olan insan bünyesini ruhen de yekpâreletirerek bütünlüe götüren yoldur, her eyin düzelmesi insann kendi düzelmesine baldr" der. Bütünlenmenin zrh vücutta olum mu, insanda ne mutiuluk ihtiyâc, ne ac çekme korkusu, ne mevki ne para hrs, kinler, dümanlklar, menfaate dayal dostiuklar kalr. Bunlarn hepsi

Bu dünyâya geli nedenimiz vahdettir, birliktir, Allah'n mânâsnda bütünlenmektir. Çoklukta bir olabilmek içinse müterek manevî deerlerin olumas gerekir ki, bu da yalmz Allah'a hesap veren, kendi nefsinin esaretinden kurtulmu hür ferderin, muamele ettikleri her yaratlmta sevgüileri olan Allah'n isim ve sfadarm idrak etmeleri üe mümkündür.
nefsânî hançerlerdir.

gök kubbe Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin "mânevi zengin" dedii bu güruh, altnda ebedî geçer akçe olan îman, ihlas, insaf, doruluk, cömertlik, feragat, fedakârlk, güzel ahlak, vatan ak, hikmet ve irfan gibi ulvi vasflar mayalandrp etraflarna tayanlardr. Görülüyor ki, teklie bakmay büen göz, çoklua hürmeti bilen gönlün meyvesidir.
Hz.
der.
Ali,

u

"Cemden

önce tefrik kâfirlik, cemden sonra tefrik

etmemek ^ndkhktr'''

Sâmiha Ayverdi, cem makamyd. O gönlüyle zâüme kin tutmaz, zulümle urard. Ama görülüyor ki, zulmü yapam da azarlamas mecburi idi. Bu bakmdan ömrünü mücâdele üe geçirdi. Mektuplar yazd, bazen de ac tatk bizleri merebimize göre uyard zamanlarda kendisine krlmak, haa, hiçbirimizin aklndan büe geçmedi. Zira, Allah sevgililerinin ikâz insana; "'A.tan el benim elimdir.'' âyetinin zuhuru gibi geldiinden, lütufmr.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

Yüreinin Götürdüü Yere G//adl eserinde, ''Kendisi ile kavgasn
hir ideolojinin ya

bitiremeyenlerin,

bayran tanmas ne kadarjanl^tr" diyen Susanna Tamaro'ya hak vermemek elde mi? Sâmiha Ayverdi, ''islâm, insanolunu beceri hrs ve insiyaklar bandan çöt^üp, esaretten kurtaran dindir. Ayplann bir muhasebe ve kontrolpotasnda eritip antan dindir. Gene insanoluna,
da bir "i^m"in
ulvi bir gayenin §evk ve

heyecann

veren dindir^''

derken Tamaro'ya hak verip

slâm'

tek

çözüm

olarak gösterir.

Devrin Yusuf'u olmay bilen güzeller içinse, inançlarnn bayran tamak ve her halleriyle örnek olmak mecburiyettir. Yusuf olmak, yâni içindeki
birlii

kurmak, aklyla nefsini nikahlayp ruhun vücuttaki hâkimiyetini salamak, kadna çok yarar. Oysa diilik vasf dînî kitaplarda nefsi sembolize eder. {Kum Sûresi, 21 âyette pyle buyrulmaktadr: 'Yine O'nun
.

âyetlerindendir ki siî^n için nefislerimden kendilerine

snrsnz diye e^leryaratm... ")
Erkek, akl sembolize eder

Nefis
ki,

ise

insan dierlerinden a}iran
ise nefaset

enâniyettir.

her

ikisi

de tekâmül etmedii zaman

felâkettir, zîra

yalnz "ben"

der.

Yüceldiklerinde
Nefis, "ben"

olutururlar, çünkü "ben" deil "sen" derler.

demekten kurtulup Allâh'ndan emin olduunda eer vMlah da ondan raz olursa öyle bir dereceye ular ki, ite bu kadn için Peygamber
Efendimiz, "Kadnlar,
âkiller

ve gönül sahipleri üzerine galiptirler" der.

Galiba burada Peygamber, safiye

makam dediimiz, ruhun tecelli makamna

ulaan diinin, erkek olan akl ve Allah'n nuruyla aydnlanan gönlü üzerine hâkimiyet kurduunu belirtmektedir. Hazret-i Mevlânâ ise bu makam
Mesnevfae, "Kadn,

Hakk'n

nurudur. Sâdece sevgili deil sanki hâliktir,

mahluk

deir

sözleriyle anlatr.

slâm

tasa^^vufu

kadn iki

özelliiyle inceler ve yüceltir. Biri tekâmül

etmi

diilii, dieri ve en önemlisi
özelliklerine

anah. Diiliinin

hürriyeti,

kadna, beerî

hâkim olmad, söz geçirmeyi öretir. Aksi takdirde bu hâli gerçekletiremeyen kadn ya da erkek nasl patiayaca belli olmayan saatli bomba gibidir. Sâmiha A}^erdi'ye göre kadn, döl veren ve dourduklanyla beraber bütün aileyi, bir görenek ve gelenekler düzeni içerisinde topla}ip birletiren, toplum dengesinin ipuçlarn elinde tutan ve aile kovamn
petekle}dp dolduran srh kuw^et olmutur.

Kadn aile içinde sabrl, temkinli,
ile

vakarl, efkatli ve özellikle de gayretli klan daha birçok özellikleri

de

silahlandrm olan kuvvet, ona annesinden ondan da çocuklarna geçecek
olan terbiye sistemidir,

EDEPTR.

te maddesinde ve mânâsnda hayat felsefesini böylece kurup bünyeletiren

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

bu edep

ile

kadn, toplumun

irfan

ve uygarlk âbidesinin
çizer,

ta kendisi

olmutur.

Böylece kadndaki bu üstünlük yolunu
tehlikeden, zarar faydadan ayrt
ettirir.

doruyu eriden, huzuru

örgütleen

aile

Ana-kadn çekirdei etrafnda kurumu toplumun en salam iç yapsn oluturur.
tecellisini

Kadn ya
ki,

da erkek edep ehH deilse, her yaradlmta AUâh'n

idrakten âcizse ne mutlu olur, ne de mutlu eder.

Kadnn ans ana olmaktr
eitme

annelik

tpk öretmenlik gibi yavrusunu

eitirken asl kendisini

ansna

sahip olur.

Tekamül etmi
özelliklerinden

bir nefsi olan kii, ister erkek ister

kadn

olsun cinsiyetin

arnp

er

olma derecesine ular. Analar bu konuda daha
ile

ansldr. Muhyiddin-i Arabi, "erUk" kelimesini tarif ederken "insann yaradkt ve hevâlanmn karanlndan kurtulup, akln ve manevî terbiyenin
temizlenmesi ve tamamlanmasdr'' diyor.

Analk

oluturma kabiliyetidir ki, dünya, analk vasfyla cenneti bulmak için tek frsattr. Peygamber ''Cennet analarn ayaklan altndadr''' derken anneliin deerini bu yüce hadîsiyle vurgulamtr. Hz.Mevlânâ
cennetieri
(6.
cilt,

Mesnevi'At

3257) "Anaya karp minnet tabiidir çünkü

o

Allah'n efkatiyle
olan rahim

ilhamlanmtr'' der. Anahk, Allah'n Peygamberdeki
sfatyla da anlatlr.

tecellisi

Bu

bak

açsndan Bursevi

Hazretieri Peygamber'in

üm (ana/den geldiini ve bütün yaratlmlarn anasnn o Sultan olduunu söyler. Divdn- Kebir'de (2237) "Peygamberlerin gat^ab analann k^nl gibidir. Öyle bir krgnlktr ki o sevimli çocuk için bilim
açklarken

ümmi oluunu

eden de analktr. Müritier farld deildir. Her öretmenin sütü ayndr ama çocuk sütü, kendi annesinden emmeyi sever ve ister. Süt, o müridin ilminden akseden AUâh'n mânâsdr kevser arabdr. Emzirme, mânevi yaknl anlatr.
ile

doludur'' der.

Hz.Mevlânâ'ya göre müritte

tecelli

;

Mesnevi,

Hz.Musa'mn

annesini

mürit

olarak tarif ederken annelik vasfn,

evlâdm irad eden insan- kâmil
t^drabna hâmile olmayan, dii

olarak tasvir eder.

Gene

Mesnevi,

"Akn

nefistir,

er olan nefis deildir''' der.

Annelik kadna böylesine yüce deerler katarken, kadn kendi mânâsna
ulaabilmeyi becerir ve nefsini kinlerin, hrslarn,
esaretinden kurtarr, zarafet, vericilik, merhamet,

ar dükünlüklerin
badatrcük, "önce
aheser
bir eser

ben deil sen" diyebilmek
ortaya çkar.

hasletierini

aça çkarabilirse
ki,

Kadn,

altn bir tenceredir. Yeter

içinde pislikli bez

kaynatmasn.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

Bunun
bir

olabilmesi için

u güzelliklere sahip olmas gerekir: Dostuna küçücük
yâni

kazdan dolay küsüp danlmaz,

ona göre yanl

olan, ancak, Allah'n

indinde

doru

olan bir hareketten dolay dostunu yüz üstü

brakp

geri

Dostu hatâ yapt zaman o yapm gibi olur çünkü bilir ki, insanlar bu dünyâda birbirinin tamamlaycsdr. Kulun rzas için Allah'n gazabn aramaz. Kulu honut etmek için Allah'n rzâsn çinemez. Gönlünün sefas, mümin kardeleri için kalbinde fenalk, öfke ya da kin diye bir ey kalmamas demektir. Bu hâl hasl olursa vahi hayvanlar bile onunla ünsiyet ederler. Kendi ayp ve kusurunu bilmezse, her vakti ve zamâm noksandr. BiHr ki, az edep çok ilimden hayrldr ve yine bilir ki, lüzumsuz sözler ve dedikodular ba uçurur. Onun dostu, onu günahlardan
çekilmez.
geri çeken,

halda da ayplardan
ki,

kurtaran ve ona

Hakk yolunu gösterendir.
âhirette

drak eder

dünyâda bakalarna fayda vermeyen

de kendisi

fayda görmez.
eski elbiseler

Çok iyi

biHr

ki,

ibâdet, inzivaya çekilip

kuru ekmek yemek,

giymek deildir. Belki dünya lezzetierinin cümlesinden zevk almaya iktidân varken bunlara kaplmamaktr. Gene çok iyi bilir ki, gönüller üstündeki perdelerin en kaln Allah'n mahlûku ile megul olmaktr. kram eder, ikram beklemez. Kulluunu, yokluunu ve aczini bilir. Piman olaca
ilerden
çekinir.

Hocam Sâmiha Ayverdi,
âit

aczinin içindeki vakaryla ve

anlattmz, kadna

bütün güzel vasflar

aça çkarp örnek olan haliyle bize hiç
,

görmediimizi

sandmz Hz. Hatice'yi, Hz. Fatma'y, Râbiatül Adviye'yi,
burada

Muhyiddin-i Arabi'nin müridi Fatma bind el-Müsenna'y
gösterdi ve öretti.

adm

anmadm yüzlerce mutasavvf Müslüman kadn, dolaysyla Hz. Mer^^em'i
Ne mutiu bizlere ki. Peygamber sahabesini hocalarmzda
"Ben bu maddî alemde
gafillere,

gördük ve
hayat tarz

izledik.

tasavvufla

yaantm
Senin içinde

birletiremem", diyen

tasavvufun herkes tarafndan yaanabilir
seveceksin.

olduunu
ve

gösteren ve öreten, "insanlar
var.

tükenme^ af

merhamet hazneleri
ve

Onun
ve

için yalmt^^

insanlar deil, bütün

mahlukât ayn yorulma^ h^
cevheri cömertçe

ayn tükenme^ itiyakla
eksilecek

seveceksin.

Sende mevcut

harcamaksn; hatalarnda
ölümleri
ile

sevaplarnda onlarla bir olarak seveceksin.

Doumlar ile çoalp,

kadar onlarla olacaksn^ diyen Hatice

Cenan Hammefendi'nin, Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin, Nazl Sultan'n, Türkiye'nin ilk kadn felsefecilerinden olan Semiha Cemâl Hammefendi'nin, mutasavvf yazar Safiye Erol'un, annem Mekûre Sargut'un önünde eiliyor ve kendilerine onlar gibi olmaya çalma gayretiyle teekkür ediyorum.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

Today's Mutasawwuf
in the Life of

Woman

as reflected

Sâmiha Ayverdi

Cemalnur SARGUT
Translated
b)-

Cangüzel

Ziilfikar,

Fahir Zülfkar and Aylin Atikler Yurdacan

This paper was presented

at the" International

Symposium of

Women and Sufism"

that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Sâmiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

SâiTLha A}'verdi says that,

"Tasawwuf

is

the path that brings the collection
spiritual

of opposites, which
integration.

is

man's constitution, into wholeness through

himself in

The improvement of everything depends first on man putting order." WTien the armour of wholeness manifests in man's

body, he no longer feels the need for happiness, has fear of suffering
pain,

nor does he have ambition for status or money. Neither do grudges,

enmit}^,

nor friendship based on profits remain. These are
(ego).

all

daggers of

the nafs
to

The reason

for our

coming into

this

world

is

imbdet, unification,

become

a united

whole

in the

meaning of

Allah.

To become one within

multiplicity,

common

spiritual values

need to manifest which are only

made
those
:d
CD q:

possible by those freed individuals,

who

account only to Allah,
nafs,

who

have been freed from enslavement to their

who

discern

their

Beloved Allah's names and attributes

in their interaction with every

created being.

CO

Such people
I-

who convey
deemed

to their surroundings this

group of sublime
qualities

qualities are

spiritually rich

by Sâmiha Ayverdi. The

of

C
CO

certainty

of

faith, sincerit)^

of

heart, fairness, honest); generosity, abnegation,

self-sacrifice, beautiful

morals, love of country,

wisdom and

spiritual

0)

knowledge

are eternally valued

by everybody under the blue

vault

of

O

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF

heaven.
fruit

It is

apparent that the eye that knows

how

to see oneness,

is

the

of a gönül (mind <& heart) that knows

how

to respect multiplicity.

Hazret-i Ali says, "Before reaching the state oi jam (gathering
together in Allah), tafriq (distinguishing things as being separate) is
{kuff).

all things

blasphemy

After achieving this state oi jam, lack of
representedyi:^;^

tafriq

becomes unbelief".

Sâmiha Ayverdi

maqam

(station).

Wox gönül (mind-heart) could

never be vindictive towards the cruel, but yet she would fight cruelty.
see that she also felt the necessity to reprimand the cruel.

We

That
at

spent

all

her üfe struggling earnestly. She wrote

letters

and

why she times when
is

she gave us bittersweet warnings in a

manner most
feel

befitting

our

temperaments,

it

never crossed our minds to

hurt because

that the warnings
in the

of Allah's beloveds are reaUy His blessings
is

we knew as shown

Quranic verse, 'The hand that

hitting

is

mine".

Can one

disagree with Susanna Tamaro,

Your Heart,

"How wrong it is

for those

who wrote in her book Follow who have not ended their fight
"Islam

within themselves to carry the flag of an ideology or an —ism"? Justifying

Tamaro, Sâmiha Ayverdi shows Islam
is

as the only solution in saying,

the religion that unravels the driving

bonds of human passions thus
the reKgion that melts and refines
It is also

freeing

mankind from enslavement.
pot of
critical

It is

faults in the

thinking and self-control.

the religion

that gives

mankind the ardent yearning and enthusiasm

for a sublime

goal."

For those beautiful people,
of
this era,
it is

who have known how to become
of
{hal). It is

the 'Josephs'

a

must

that they carry the flag

their beliefs

and

set

an

example
to

in

all

their

behaviour
i.e.

very appropriate for a

woman
CD
CK

become a Joseph

to establish unity within

by marrying her aql (mind)
spirit in the

to her nafs (soul) thus ensuring the

dominance of the

body.

However, in most
(soul) (e.g.

religious
,

books the feminine

quality symbolizes the nafs

CO
v^

Koman: 21

And one of His signs is that He created mates forjou from
them). Nafs,

yourselves thatyou

may find rest in

on

the other hand,

is

also the

C

egoism that separates human beings from others.
(intellect).

Man

symbolizes aql
CO

Both aql and

nafs

can be catastrophic

if

they have not been

£

O

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF

perfected because they only say "I".

When

they are exalted, they

become
from

exquisite because they don't say "I" but "you".

When
if

nafs is free
is

saying "I" and
her,

becomes confident

in Allah,

and

Allah

content with

woman reaches such a high level that Our Prophet says of her, "Women are victorious over the wise and the good hearted." It is likely that here the Prophet means that the female who reaches the maqam of
safijya (the station where the spirit becomes manifest)

becomes dominant over
light).

the male aql and gönül (mind-heart) illuminated by nur (divine

In his

Mathnawi,

Rumi

explains this

maqam like

this, "She

(woman)

is

a ray of

God

she is not that (earthly) beloved she is creative, you might say she is not created^

(Mathnawi

I:

2437, translated by Nicholson)

Islamic tasawwuf studies and exalts

women in two ways:

firsdy in her

perfected feminity and secondly in her motherhood.
feminity teaches a

The freedom of her

Otherwise

woman to control her human, earthly characteristics. a woman or man who cannot attain this state resembles a time

bomb that can explode unexpectedly. According to Sâmiha Aj^erdi, woman becomes the mysterious force by being a procreator. Together with those to whom she has given birth, woman gathers and unites the
family within traditional order by carrying within her being the clues of

how to balance society and replenish the family nest. The force that drives woman within the family to be patient, cautious, dignified, solemn, compassionate and especially diligent among many other empowerments
is

what she transmits

to her children through the training system
called

of

manners and ways of behaviour

ADAB

(good manners).

With
and
e)

this 2idab

woman

establishes
life

and embodies within her temperament

spirit a

philosophy of

where she herself becomes a monument
Thus,

of

society's

wisdom and

civilization.

woman

follows a superior path

^
^
^

which enables her

to distinguish

between

right

and wrong, between peace
useful.

and danger and between the harmful and the
the family
is

The

institution

of

organized around the functions of the 'mother-female nucleus'

^

which

is

the strongest inner structure of society.

E
0)

If a

man

or a

woman does

not have good manners and behaviour and

O

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
10

is

unable to distinguish the manifestation of Allah in every created being
feel

then they cannot
so fortunate for a

happy nor can they make anyone
to

else happy. It

is

woman

be able to become a mother because

motherhood,

similar to being a teacher, provides her with the opportunity

to train herself while training her child.

Anyone, be

it

male or

a female,

whose
(er),

nafs

has been perfected achieves

the level of an entity above gender

purified

from

all

sexual qualities.

Mothers

are

more

fortunate in this respect. Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi describes

such an entity as "completion and refinement after being freed from the
darkness of one's desires and humanity through the Hght of reasoning

and

spiritual training."

Motherhood
motherhood

is is

the ability to create paradises. Therefore, in the world
the only opportunity through

which to find

paradise.

The

Prophet emphas2es the significance of motherhood in
''Paradise
lies

his great hadith,
(Vol. 6, 3257)

under the feet of the mother^

Rumi in

his

Mathnawi

says, ''Though
(yet) 'tis

a mother's

tenderness is (derived) from God,
to serve her'''

a sacred duty and a worthy task
also

(translated

by Nicholson).

Motherhood can
rahim
(attribute

be explained

as

being the manifestation of Allah's

of mercy)

through the being of the Prophet.

From

this

perspective Hazret-i Ismail

Hakk Bursevi
derives
all

explains the Prophet's being

ümmi by saying
suggests that
1

that the

word

from "urn" meaning mother and

He is

the

mother of

the created.

Rumi writes
is like the

in his Divan-

Kebir (2237) that "The anger of the prophets [anbiyaa]
it is

anger of a
the pretty-

mother;

an angerfull of patientforbearance ('hulm)for the sake of
('tifl-i

faced infant
to

khuub-ruu)" (translated by Ibrahim Gamard). According

Rumi, what

is

manifested in a murshidh also motherhood as murshids
CD

are

no

different

from mothers. The rmlk of every teacher is the same but
its

the student desires to be breastfed only with
is

own

mother's milk. Milk
(It is the

the reflection of Allah's

meaning through the

murshid.

wine of

CO

Kevser.)

Breastfeeding suggests spiritual closeness. In the Mathnawi ^h&t&
is

Moses' mother

described as a murshid, the quality of motherhood
C
(perfected

represents the insan-i kamil
milk,

human) guiding his child "Give him
him
5

O mother of Moses,

and cast him

into the water: be not afraid of (putting

KADIN v£ WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
11

to) the trial.

Whoever drank that milk on

the

Day

of Alast

6

distinguishes the

milk

(in this world), even

as Moses (distinguished and

knew

his mother's milk). If thou

wishestfondly for thy child's discrimination (and recognition), suckle (him) now,

O

mother of Moses" {Mathnawi

II:

2969-71, Nicholson translation).. Again in
suffering

the Mathnawi, "It is the feminine nafs that is incapable of withstanding the
of divine love not the nafs of the
word,
entity

above genders^ '"This

Humayra' is afeminine
ffta'niith]];

and the Arabs

call the

(wordfor) "spirit" jjaan, can] feminine

But

there is no fear (harm) to the Spirit ffjaan]]from beingfeminine: the Spirit

f fruuhj]

has no association (nothing in common) with
feminine and masculine: this
is

man and woman.
is

It is higher than

not that spirit ffjaan]] which

composed of dryness

and moisture". {Mathnawi: 1974-6, translated by Nicholson)

As motherhood adds high
her spiritual meaning.
she can free her nafs from

values to a

woman, she succeeds

in achieving

Woman becomes
its

a masterpiece in her existence if

enslavement to hatred, ambitions and extreme

attachments thus revealing her qualities of elegance, generosity, compassion,

compromise and

sacrifice (being able to say "you" before 'I").

Woman is
it.

a

golden pot provided that she does not boil dirty cloths in

In order for this to happen, a
beautiful
i.e.

woman

should possess these following

traits:

she should not get offended by a friend's minor warning

she should not leave her friend alone just because she thinks she did

something wrong, because according to Allah her action may be correct.

Whenever

a friend

makes

a mistake, a

woman
knows

should

feel as if

she has

made

that mistake herself because she
this

that people are integral to

each other in

world. She does not ask for Allah's wrath by trying to

please His servant. She does not try to please another by transgressing
Allah's approval
CD
o:

(rida, contentment).

Her

delight in h&t gönül (heart-mind)
all evil,

is

only found through emptying her heart of

fury and hatred towards

her

sister believers. If

she achieves this

state,

then she can even make

CO

friends with wild animals. If a

woman
a

does not come to

know her own

shameful behaviour and
c

faults,

then her every

of time. She knows that having

moment becomes a waste few good manners {adab) is much better
friend
is

than having a lot of knowledge and she also knows that empty talk and
S

gossiping will be her downfall.

Her

the

one

that holds her

back

ü

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

jd^
12

&

from her
the right

sins, saves

her from shameful experiences and

who shows

her

way

to Truth.

A woman comprehends the fact that the one who
this

does no favour for others in
hereafter.

world

will receive

no favours

in the

She knows very well that worship does not involve becoming

a recluse or eating dry bread

and wearing old
is

clothes.

Although she could

divulge in earthly riches and desires, she

not carried away by them.
veil

Again she knows very well that the thickest
is

over the gönü/ (heart-mind)

become too busy with Allah's creatures. She serves but does not expect to be served. She knows her servanthood, her nothingness and her neediness. She refrains from actions that she may later on regret.
to
dignity in her
act^ (nothingness)

With her
in
all

and her being a
traits,

role

model by living

the above mentioned beautiful

has showed and taught us the
that

my teacher, Sâmiha Ayverdi mutasawwuf Muslim women we presumed
binti

we had

never seen such as Hz. Hatije, Hz. Fatima, Rabi'a al-Adawiyya

and Ibn Arabi's murshide Fatma

el-Musenna.

How happy we are to
sahahes.

have been able to see and observe in our teachers the Prophet's

To

the unaware

who

say "I cannot

combine tasawwuf
is

into
a

my lifestyle",
life

my teachers
love people.

have showed and taught that tasawwuf
I

way of

that

can be lived by everyone. You have

bow before

Hatice Cenan

who

said, ^''You should

infinite treasures

of forgiveness and compassion within you.

That is whyyou should love not
enthusiasm
love

only people hut all the created with the

same untiring

and unending desire. You should generously spendyour treasure and should
their

them as ifyou are one with them in both

had and good deeds. You should
.

he with them in their increasing during hirth until their decreasing during death" I

Nazl Sultan; the first female Turkish philosopher, Semiha Cemal, the mutasawwuf writer. Safiye Erol and my mother, Mekure Sargut. I thank them by attempting to be like them.
also

bow

before Samiha Ayverdi,

CD

CO

3

S

Ü

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
14

Ruhun Çocuu
Dr. Karim D.

CROW

Çeviri:

Cangüzel Zülfikar, Fahir Zülfikar, Aylin Atikler Yurdacan

16 Aralk 2005 tarihinde

TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâûrâsma düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasav\af" bahkh
teblidir.

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

Bismillahirrahmânirrahim

(Batlayan

ve Esirgeyen

Allah 'in Adyla)

O, o

^ttr ki si;(i

bir tek nefistenyaratt, e§ini de

ondan var etti ki gönlü buna snsn.

-Araf

Suresi 7:189.

slâm, kadn ve erkek arasndaki özel
sükûnetine

bir ilikiden yola

çkarak nefsin

doru bize

rehberlik edecek bir

çok kymedi kaynaa

sahiptir.

Haürlayalm

ki 'nefs' kelimesi

Arapça'da dii bir kelimedir.

Düünmemizi

salayacak ve nefsi mükemmele veya bütüne eritirecek ciddi
gereken hasreti ve yüksek enerjiyi
bir kaç noktaya
(ya

çahma için
uyandracak

da

asil mücâdele:

himmet)

deinelim.

Hz.

Muhammed

(S.A.S.)

Örnei:
kadn

Annesi Amine

bint-i

Vehb'in vefâû ve süt annesi Halime'nin himayesinden
birçok

sonra küçük yetim

Muhammed'e

bakt.

Ona

üvey anneUk

yapan birçok kadn akrabas oldu. Bunlardan

biri

Fatma

bint-i
ve

Esed bin
Ü^^Ali'nin

Hâim

(Ebû

Talib'in

hanm ve Muhammed'inyengesi,

manevi annesi
elleriyle

annesi)âiit

ve vefat edince onu Peygamberimiz kendi

gömmü,

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
15

mezanna inmi ve vücûdunu gömleiyle sarmûr. Onun
Hani
bint-i

kz olan Ümmü

Ebû Talip'le Peygamberimizin gençken evlenmek istedii
Peygamberimizin mirac, Hicret'ten önceki dönemde
Peygamberimizin bir de süt kzkardei

söylenir ve

Ümmühan'n evinde gerçeklemitir.
vardr:

Ümmü Hâkim el-Beyzâ
etmesinden holamrd.

(Zübeyir bin Abdülmuttalib'in k:<7).

Hz

Muhammed'infj-.^.j-.j baba tarafndan kuzeniydi ve Medine'ye geldiinde
ziyaret

Peygamberimizin geni ailesindeki kadnlardan kendisiyle en uzun arkadalk

kurmu olan ve belki de O'nu hemen herkesten daha iyi tanyan kii olarak Hz Muhammed'in (s.a.s.) Habeli hizmetkâr Ümmü Eymen'den
bahsetmemiz
gerekir.

Ad Bereket idi ve Mekke'de Peygamberimizin anne

babasndan kendisine kalmü. Annesinin vefâündan sonra Efendimize
bakt.

Ümmü Eymen, Peygamberimizin hayât boyunca hâne halknn bir
etti

parças oldu. Efendimiz, onu azad

ve

evlad Zeyd bin Harise
belki

(ölümü

629 1 Hicri 9, Mutah)
Sevdicei)

ile

evlendirdi. Zeyd, (Hubb-u Resûlullah / Peygamberin

Peygamber Efendimize çok yaknd ve

de kendisinin

vârisi

olabilecek kii olarak büe düünülebüinirdi.

Ümmü Eymen ve Zeyd'in
Peygamber Efendimiz ona

oullan,

Üsâme

bin Zeyd (Hubb'un olu)

idi.

çok

iltimas eder

ve hatta onu hayatta kalan tek

çocuu Fatma kadar

sevdii

söylenirdi.

Ümmü Eymen, Efendimizin vefâüm görüp matemini tutacak
yaad ve vahiylerin kesilmesi
sebebiyle

kadar uzun

duyduu derin üzüntüyü

anlatan duygulu iirler okurdu.

Fakat Allah'n elçisine
bint-i

ilk

yllarnda hayât destei vermekle tannan Hatice
için

Hüveylid

idi.

Kendinden yaça genç olan ei

yakn, akll ve

güvenilir bir klavuz görevi gördü. Efendimiz, onunla ve

amcas Varaka
ikisi

bin Nevfel

ile

vahiy tecrübelerinin detaylarm paylati.

Her

de

Efendimizin peygamberlik görevini açmas

için destek oldular

ve te}ddine

yardmc
ve eziyet

oldular.

Hz. Hatice, Peygamberimizin Mekke'de kabul edilmedii
zor ve yorucu yllarnda, O'nu tevik edip rahadatt
getirdi.

gördüü en

ve Efendimizin çocuklarm dünyaya

Hz. Hatice'nin Hicret'ten üç

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
16

yl sonra, son derece zor ardar altnda vefat edii, Hz. Muhammed'i

(s.a.s.)

çok derinden

etkiledi.

Hz. Hatice'nin vefatndan sonra Peygamberimiz, birkaç kadnla evlendi.

Üçüncü ei olan

Aye

bint-i

Ebû

Bekir,

hem

Efendimiz'in ailesinde

hem
bir

de Efendimiz'in vefatndan sonra ük Müslüman topluluk içinde çok önemli
bir rol

oynad. Peygamberimiz'in eleri arasnda,
ise

mühim

rol

oynayan

dieri

Ümmü Seleme'dir.
ile

Kendisi ve kocas

Ebû

Seleme'den olan

çocuklar
kalan

Efendimiz'in evinde büyümülerdir. Peygamberimiz'in hayatta
fakat dört

olu yoktu,

kz: en büyükleri Hz. Zeynep ve en küçükleri

Hz. Fatma olan kzlarnn hayatta kalan çocuklan vard. Hazret-i

Muhammed,
kocas

Ebûl-Kâsm (Kâsm'm

babas) lakabyla bilinmesine

ramen,

biz O'na,

Rebi' bin Ebû'l-'As'a olan

ak ve sadakatinden dolay Zeynep'in yâni,
kznn adndan
Bedr

Peygamber'in hayâtnda önemli bir yer tutan en büyük

dolay Ebû-Zeynep

(Zeynep'in babas)

deme

cüretini gösterebiliriz.

Sava'nda

esir

düen

Rebi',

Hz. Hatice'nin kendisine verdii akik kolyeyi
fidyesi ile

babasna gönderen Zeynep'in

kurtulmutur. Hz. Zeynep'in

kz

Ümâme bint-i er-Râbi; Peygamberimiz taraûndan çok seviliyordu.
8.

Hicret'in

ydnda Mekke'nin

fethi

esnasnda bu torununu kendi devesi üzerinde
(s.a.s.)

tamü.
sonra

Hz. Muhammed'in
Ali bin

ve teyzesi Hz. Fatma'nn vefâündan

Ümâme,
olduu

Ebû

Taüp'le evlendi ve Hz.
etti.

Fatma'nn dört küçük

çocuunun bakmna yardm
üzerine
söylenir.

Evliliklerinin
(s.a.s.),

Hz. Fatma'nn talimat

Hz Muhammed

Zeynep

bint-i

Ümmü
evlat

Seleme de dâhil olmak üzere dier elerinden de birçok üvey kz
sahibi oldu.
idi.

Hiç üphesiz

ki,

O'na en yakn evlâd, en küçük
ile

kz Hz Fatma

Babas, onu baba tarafndan kuzeni olan Hz. Aii

evlendirinceye dek

Hz. Fatma Mekke'de ve Hicret'ten sonra Medine'de babasnn evinde

yaad. Muhakkak
çok kuvvetli
teyit eder.

ki,

Hz. Hatice'nin en son

kz Hz.

Fatma

ile

arasnda
iliki\d

bir

ba vard.

Saysz

hadis onlar arasndaki

bu özel

Babasnn vefatndan
etti.

alt ay sonra

hüznüne dayanamayarak

kendi de vefat

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
17

Peygamberimiz, hayatinin son üç ylnda, Kahire'nin Kpti liderinin hediye
olarak gönderdii Maria
ile

memnun ve rahat bir ekilde yaad.

Elerinden
biri

ayn olarak onu Medine'nin güneyindeki yedi meyve bahçesinden

olan

Merûbât-

Ümmü brahim'de barndrd. Birkaç hadise göre Maria'nn
Hz

kald yerin yukansnda küçük bir özel oda varm ve Peygamber Efendimiz
elerinden uzak olarak oraya inzivaya çekilirmi. Oullar ibrahim,

Muhammed'in en son çocuu idi ama 18

ay yaad.

Bu bize unu hatrlatabilir.

Derin mâneviyatinn yansra Peygamber Efendimizin

doasnda

da beer

olmann duygusall ve

bir yere

snp sükûnet bulma ihtiyâc yatmaktadr.

Ak ve maneviyat doal bir neeye sahiptir ve bu, Nefsin her iki yönü
arasndaki güven ve sükûnet içinde kefedilebüir.

Peygamberin hanmlar,

hamm

akrabalar, kzlar ve
anlatir? Hazret-i

kz

torunlaryla
(s.a.s.)

arasndaki sevgi ve efkat bize neyi

Muhammed'in
ailesi

peygamberlik vazifesi esnasnda O'na en yakn kiilerin,
içerisindeki

ve

hanmlar

bu kadnlar olabileceini haürlamalyz. Bu, mübarek
ü:(enne olsun)

peygamberimiz Hz. Muhammed'in (Allah'n sonsu^ rahmeti
ahsiyeti ve karakteri

hakknda

neyi belirtir? O, her ne kadar askerî seferlere

kumandanlk etmi, on yl
devlet kurarak

süreyle Medine'de giderek gelien bir ehir-

onu

idare

etmi, insafsz ve

ar hilekâr kiilerin
bir hareket ve

dümanlklarna kar
insan olsa da, O'nda
herkesçe ehâdet

beceriyle

mücâdele vermi

hizmet

yumuak ve hassas

kiilik özelliklerinin

hâkim oluuna

edilir.

Kendisine yöneltilen

dorudan

bir istei hiç bir

zaman reddetmemi, ashabnn hatâlarn
dönemi
kabile

istisnasz affetmi ve câhiliye

Araplannn kaba, azgn davranlanna uzun

süre

ac çekerek

âzami sabr göstermitir.

Dolaysyla, Peygamberin ahsî hayatinin hakikati bu kadnlar

ile

çok

yakndan
ile

ilikilidir

ve bu, O'nun etrafndakilerde görülen erkek ve affetmeyen kabile düzenine

ayrcal

seçkinciliin

(elitism) sert

kar hogörü
Bu hakikat,

ve efkatie davranabilmesini salayan önemli etkenlerden

biridir.

slâm'n mâneviyâtina mührünü

basm ve

özellikle

mutasavvflar çok

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
18

etkilemitir.

Peygamber

ailesinin

önde gelen üyelerinden

biri

olan
Hatice'nin

Cafer-i

Sâdk

(ölümü 148/765), Hz.

Muhammed

(s.a.s.)

üe

Hz

evliliklerinde

olduu gibi, önce

bir

hanmla

evlenip, ancak

onun vefatndan

sonra

baka hanmlarla evlenmeyi

tercih ederek

Peygamberin yolunu takip
bir din ve

etmitir. slâmiyet, çoklukla

erkee imtiyaz veren
ciheti, yâni

medeniyet

olarak görülürken, hayâtn

kadns

Nefis iklimi çok büyük bir

tibar ve hürmetle kutsal addedilerek islâmiyet'im sinesinde yer alr.

nsann

diil özellikleri
ki,

ile

ilikilendirilen

büyük

bir

sr ve bozulamaz bir

mukaddeslik vardr

bu mevcut küresel materyaüst çamzda, slâmî

öreti ve kültürde çok

yanl anlaümûr.

Meselâ, 'duyularn

iffeti'

Y&yâ.

bakalarmn bakndan kaçnmak

için gözlerini yere
3.,

indirmek.
9.

Bat

toplumlarnda çok yanl anladmtr. Hicri

Milâdi

yüzyl ulularndan

Hakim

el-Tirmizî,

Peygamberin

u mehur hadîsini derinlemesine
ikinci

yorumlamtr:
Hakîm'e göre,
güzelliine
birisini

"ilk bakî§
ilk

sanadr, ancak

hak§ sana

kar kullanlacaktr. "
için, bir

bak kiinin ruhundan yükseldii ve Allah'n yarauklarmm
kii

hayranlndan zevk ahp mutluluk duyduu

baka

gördüünde ona bakmasna ve onun güzellii üe
izin verilir

ekil ve emailinin

düzgünlüünü görmesine
kere

ve hatta tevik

edilir.

Ancak,

ikinci

baktnda ve dier

kiiye

fiziksel olarak sahip

olmakla elde edecein

zevki hayâl etmeye
gelir;

baladnda, bu

kusurlu olan nefs ve heva seviyesinden

ite bu tür ehvetli haz öteki dünyâda sana

kar

kullanlacaktr.

Bugün pek çok Müslüman toplumunda yaayan kadn ve erkek arasndaki
cinsiyet, meslek,

eitim ve öretim farklüklarma ve slâm adna veya
yetkili

Peygamber'e dayanilarak

imicesine yapüan istismarlara ramen,

vücûdumuzda

yer alan

ahsiyetin,

farkndalmzn ve idrâkimizin
bir Nefs'dir.

merkezi ne erkek ne de kadndr, o yaratlm
deeri, Allah'n çifder hâlinde yaratarak

Dierini bilmenin
ile

tamamlad

kendi benliimiz

buluup tammaktr.

Araf Sûresi

(7: 189),

insanlarn tek bir nefsden (mn

nefsin vâhidetin)

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
19

yaratldklarm

bildirir.

Erkek ve kadn, dierini kendi öz benliinin

tamamlayc

bir

parças olarak görür ve kaderleri

akn ba ile bir araya
ileyhe) yatar.

gelen ortak itimat ve tevekkül üe îman ve güvende (li-yeskunâ

Bu akta
mülayim

beraber sükunet bulma
bir

hâli,

beerin tek
iç birliini

bir

varkk olarak birleip

sükûnede

dolmu

kendi

gerçekletirmesi

demek

olan manevî idealini ortaya çkarr. Bu, nefsimizi bütün ve bir
görevidir.

yapma

Bu, nefsin kaderidir. Çünkü devaml olarak ahenk içinde birlemi çelien

ztiarn devâsm bulmaya çalyoruz. Ancak o zaman birlii ve

bütünlenmiliin huzurunu

hissedebiliriz.

çsel

varlmz, ancak tamamlayc
ruhu

veya zt parçalar birletiinde kendinin daha yüksek ve daha saf taraflarn
kapsayabilir. Nefsimiz, yüzeysel

benliimizden yüksektir, çünkü

nefs,

kuatr

—ve Ruh en
olmaktr.

saf hâlinde.

Akldr.

Rehberin ii. Nefsimizi Benliimize tantmak ve ruhun /

mânânm domasna
süt verdii

yardmc

Mürid

veya Rehber, bir annenin

çocuuna
belki

gibi Nefsimizi besler.

Mürid

bizim

içsel

varlmza,

de biyolojik

babamzdan daha yakndr. Müridimiz, hakikatte bizi bü)öiten, kusurlarmz
anlamamza ve kabul etmemize yardm eden, kendi ayaklarmzn üzerinde
durana kadar
bizi gözeten,

bütünlüe ulamak

için bize yol

gösteren bir
için

anne

gibidir.

Mânevi ebeveyn, pek çok açdan, bizim hakîki hayâtmz

fiziksel

ebeveynimizden daha önemlidir.

Burada

biz,

manevî hayâtn üzerine ina edüdii güven ve
tekâ

akn

temeline

eriiriz ve

bu da bizim gerçek kapasitemizin ve

mülümüzün

aça

çkn destele}ip devamllm salayabilir. Mürid varlmzn parçasdr,
hem
kendini

kavray

için bir

ayna

hem

de nefsimizde gizlenmi olan

5mksekliklere ve bo^'utiara göz

atmak

için bir penceredir.

Ey mânâ cam

—beni

senin

çocuun

yap,

çünkü anam da babam da aym

anda senin içinde bulunurlar!

..-^

f

'O
'

Y^;J'

\-

i

'r

Xf

\

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
21

Child of Soul

Dr. Karim D.

CROW
at the" International

This paper was presented

Symposium of

Women

and Sufism"

that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

In the

Name
who

of God, AllMerciful, All Loving

It is

He

createdjou from a single soul and
like nature, in order that soul may
{in love).

made her mate of

find tranquility in her

-

al-A'raf 7:1 89.

Islam has

many precious

resources to guide us towards the inner tranquiiit)'

of Soul through the

special reladonship
is

between

woman

and man.

Remember

that 'Soul' (Nafs)

a

feminine word in Arabic. Let us look

at several aspects that

may

provide food for thought and excite the inner

yearning and higher-energy (or 'noble striving' himmah) for working

earnesdy to achieve

this

wholeness or perfection of Soul.

The Example

of the Prophet

Muhammad
bint

(S):

After the death of his mother

Aminah

Wahb and

the care of his

milk-nurse Halimah, the young orphan
several
CO «0
;

Muhammad was
b.

cared for by

women. He had

several close paternal relatives

who

served as his
(wife

foster mothers; they included
Talih

Fatimah bint Asad

Hashim

of Abu

O)

O

and Muhammad's paternal aunt (&fostermother, and mother of 'AH) whom the Prophet buried with his own hands in Madinah, going down into her
grave and wrapping her body in his
bint

own

shirt.

Her daughter

Umm Hani

Abi TaUb

is

said to

have been sought in marriage by

Muhammad

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

Wft.
22

when he was

a

young man; and

it

was

in the

house of

Umm Hani where
a milk-sister:

the Prophet slept the night that he experienced the mi'raj or ascent to the

highest heaven before the Hijrah.

The Prophet
h.

also

had

Umm Hakim al-Bayda' (daughter of al-Zuhayr
Muhammad's
came
paternal cousin

!Abd al-Muttalib); she was
visiting

whom he was

fond of

when

she

to Madinah.

Among all

the

women

of

his

extended family

who had
life

the longest

association with the Prophet over the course of his

and

who

probably

knew him better than almost any one

else,

we

should mention

Muhammad's
Her

Abyssinian servant (freedwoman//W^W<«/ Rasul Allah)

Umm Ayman.

name was Barakah and
in

she was inherited by the Prophet from his parents

Makkah, and cared

for

him

after the

death of his mother.
his

Umm Ayman
life,

remained part of the Prophet's household throughout
freed her and gave her in marriage to his adopted son
(killed at

and he
Harithah

Zayd

b.

Mu'tah

in 8

H

/629).

Zayd (caUed Hibb Rasul Allah

/Beloved of

God's Messenger)

was very close to the Prophet and may have even been

considered as the one

who would

inherit

from him. The son of

Umm

Ayman & Zayd was Usamah b. Zayd (d. 54 H, called al-Hibb ibn al-Hibb) who was especially favored by the Prophet and said to have been loved by him as much as he loved his only surviving child Fatimah. Umm Ayman (d. 23 H) lived to mourn Muhammad and recited moving verses
lamenting the cessation of revelation with his passing.

But the

woman

best

known

for her crucial role in supporting the

Prophet

in his early mission as

God's Messenger was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.

She exercised a close mentoring role for her younger husband,

who

shared

the details of his revelatory experiences with her and with her uncle

O o
^j

Waraqah b. Nawfal; both of them helped confirm and support Muhammad's
opening to
his prophetic mission.

Khadijah encouraged and comforted of persecution and rejection

him during the most difficult and
in

trying years

^
^^

Makkah, and she bore

his children.

Khadijah 's death about three years

before the Hijrah under extremely harsh circumstances in the Shi'b of

o
'^

Banu Hashim

affected

Muhammad

deeply.

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
23

KADN

VE

WOMAN AND

After Khadijah's passing the Prophet took a

number of

wives,

among
Another

whom his

third wife 'A'ishah bint

Abi Bakr played

a leading role in his

family, as well as for the early

Muslim community

after his death.

of the Prophet's wives

who

played a significant role was

Umm Salamah,

and her children from her husband

Abu Salamah were

raised in

Muhammad's household. The Prophet had no surviving sons but four daughters, among whom the eldest Zaynab and his youngest Fatimah had surviving children. While Muhammad was known by the patronym of

Abu 1-Qasim, we
husband

might perhaps venture to refer to him

as

"Abu Zaynab"

after his eldest daughter,

whose
is

story of great love
a

and

loyalty to her
sira.

al-Rabi' b.

Abi 1-As

touching part of the Prophet's

(After being

mad prisoner at Badr,
to

Rabi' was ransomed by Zaynab who sent

to

her

father an onyx necklace given

her by KJjadijah on her wedding day.) Zaynab's

daughter

Umamah

bint al-Rabi'

was dearly beloved by the Prophet who
his

carried his granddaughter with

him upon

camel during the campaign

of Fath Makkah
aunt Fatimah,

in 8

H. After Muhammad's death and the death of her
Ali
b.

Umamah wed
(their

Abi Taüb and helped
to

raise Fatimah's

four young children
instructions).

marriage was said

have taken place at Fatimah 's

Muhammad
Zaynab
Prophet was
in

also

had

several stepdaughters

from

his other

wives, including
child to the
father's

bint
his

Umm Salamah.

Undoubtedly the

closest
in her

youngest daughter Fatimah,
after the Hijrah in his

who lived
was

house

Makkah, and

house in Madinah
a strong

until

he wed her to

his paternal cousin Ali.
last child

Certainly there

bond between
hadith

Khadijah's

Fatimah and

Muhammad, and numerous

confirm the special affection between them. She died of sorrow
six

about

months

after his passing.

O o
CO

During

his final three years
(sent to

Muhammad
on

also

took delight and comfort

with Mariya

him as a giftfrom
his wives

the Coptic leader of Cairo),

whom he

housed separately from
Ibrahim
(one of

his estate

known

as

mashrabat

Umm

«0

Muhammad's seven

orchard estates in south Madinah).

A number
a small

3 O

of
I

hadith specify that the building

where Mariya was lodged had

upper chamber or private room {mashrabah) where
retreat for privacy apart

Muhammad
(d. 1

used to

Q

from

his wives.

Their son Ibrahim
lived only

9 H) was

the last

born of Muhammad's children but

8 months. This

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

iT/^ -^y\J
24

may remind

us that within the nature of the Prophet there operated a
his

concern for the softer moist side of

being in which

Muhammad

found

sanctuary and tranquility out of the deepest spiritual motives. Love and
spirituality

possess a natural joy that
side

may be

discovered within the trust

and repose between the two

of our Soul.

The

love and affection between the Prophet and his wives, his female

relatives, his

daughters and grandchildren: what does this

tell

us

?

We

should remember that the closest individuals to

his prophetic mission

immediate family

may well have been and wives. What does this
in peace)?

Muhammad during these women within his
indicate about the personal

character and individuality' of our blessed Prophet

Muhammad (may
a

God overwhelm him
who

Although he was

man

of action
citystate

led military campaigns, organized

and directed

a

growing

based in Madinah for ten years, and dealt adroitiy with the enmity of

some extremely cunning and

ruthless persons,

it is

universally attested
his

of

him

that his

dominant

traits

belonged to the soft moist part of

person

the

man who

could never refuse a request directly

made

to him,

who

invariably forgave the shortcomings

of

his

Companions, and who exhibited

utmost patience and long-suffering with the unruly uncouth behavior
manifested by the
tribal

Arabs of the Jabihjjab.

Thus, the

reality

of the personal

life

of the Prophet was associated very
factors that

closely with these

women, and

this

was one of the leading

enabled him to manifest such great forbearance and compassionate

conduct towards the harsh and unforgiving

tribal

ethos of male privilege
a

and

elitism

surrounding him. This

reality

has

made

deep imprint upon

the nature of Islamic spirituality, above
(d.

all

with the

Sufis. Ja'far al-Sadiq

148/765), one of the leading

members of

the Prophet's

Household

(Al Muhammad), was known to maintain the Prophet's pattern of marrying

one

first

wife,

wedding other

women

only after her passing
is

just as

Muhammad
religion

had done with Khadijah. While Islam

often viewed as a

and

civilization that privileges males, yet within its

bosom

is

enshrined

this great

reverence and respect for the feminine aspect of Hfe,

the realm of Soul.

KADIN vt WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
25

There

is

a great mystery

and

inviolable sanctity associated with the feminine

human being, which in Islamic teachings and culture has become much misunderstood in our present global materialist age. Let
aspect of the

us mention here the example of the 'chastity of the senses' or lowering

of the eyes to avoid meeting the gaze of the other, today
misunderstood in western
societies.

much

The

3/9^ century master al-Hakim

al-Tirmidhi gave an insightful interpretation of the famous hadith of the

Prophet:

'The

first

look

is

for you, yet the second look will be
first

held against you." al-Hakim explains that when a person
another
it is

sees

permissible and even encouraged to look and view that

individual's beauty
arises

and

fairness

of form

&

features, since this first

look

from one's

spirit {ruh)

which takes

delight

and happiness from
take the

admiring the beauty of God's creatures. But

when you

second

look and begin to imagine the pleasure you might enjoy by physical
possession of the other, this arises from the lower blameworthy self
hawa); this type of lustful
{nafs,

enjoyment

shall

be counted against you

in the

Hereafter.

Despite differences in gender, occupation, training and education between

women and men in many Muslim
continue to be practiced in the
authority,

societies today,

and the abuses that

name of
is

Islam or by invoking prophetic

we must not
The

forget that the inner person within our bodies, our

centre of awareness and perceptions,
a created Soul. in the

neither a

value in

knowing the

man nor a woman, but other is to meet our own self

completion of that which

God

created in pairs.

The Qur'anic

verse in

j/^ra/

al-A'raf 7:189 informs us that
.

humans

are

created from a single soul
to,

(.

.min naf/^ ivahida^^, that male and female

recognize the other as integral parts of their
destiny
reliance
lies

own

true

self,

and that

their

in dwelling together in the
faith

bond of
(.

love bringing mutual

and reassurance,

and

trust

..li-yaskuna ilayhd).

Such repose

o4

together in love offers the spirimal ideal that the
realize his

human person may

or her interior unity
is

filled

with peacefiil tranquility by conjoining

as

one

single being. This

the task of

making our Soul whole and one.

CO

i
i

\

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

KADN

VE

WOMAN

AND

Jm^
26

^

Such
rest

is

the destiny of the soul, for

we

are continually seeking the healing

of conflicting opposites joined in harmony. Only then may we

experience the oneness and peace of completeness.

Our

inner being

contains the higher purer part of the Self-realizable only in unity

when
at

complementary or opposing parts
surface
its

join.

Our

Soul

is

higher than our
is

self,

for Soul

encompasses the

Spirit

—and

the Spirit

Mind

purest.

The work of
in the birth

the Giaide
Spirit.

is

to introduce our Soul to our Self

and to

assist

of

The Teacher

or Guide

is

one

who

nourishes our

Soul as a mother gives milk to her child.
intimate with our interior
really like a

The Teacher may be more being than our natural father. Our Teacher

is

mother who

raises us

up and helps us understand and accept

our shortcomings,

who

watches over us

showing us the way

to advance to
significant for

we can walk on our own completion. The spiritual parent
till

feet,
is

in

many respects more
Here we reach the
that

our

real life

than our physical parents.

basis

of

trust

and love that spirimal

life is

built on,

and

may

nourish and sustain the unfolding of our real potential and

The Teacher is part of our being, both a mirror for selfapprehension and a window for glimpsing the heights and dimensions
completion.

hidden within our Soul.

O Soul — make me your child, for within you are found my mother and
my
father at once!

O
O
CO cc

o

Q

CD

.*••-

\

<y-^

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
28

Evliyâ'nn Kadnlan, Evliya Kadnlar

Dr.

Anna BGELO]V
Nazl Kayahan, Aylin
Atikler

Çeviri:

Yurdacan

16 Aralk 2005 tarihinde
100. Sene-i Devriyesi

TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin Doumunun
dü^^enlenen

Hâtrasna

"Kadn

ve

Tasavvuf" ballkl uluslararas sempo:Qiumda

sunulan teblidir.

Hindistan'daki türbelerde birçok

mutasavvf

evliya

kadnn

rolü

mühim

ve eit, hatta bâz durumlarda üstün ve egemen bir yapdadr. Camiye
gitmeyen çok büyük saydaki Müslüman Hintli kadnlarn bir araya gelmeleri,
ibâdet etmeleri,
fikir teatisinde

bulunmalar ve umûmî

dînî görevlerini
ederler.

yerine getirmeleri için

bu

türbeler

çok önemli

bir

merkez tekil

Müslüman olmayanlar da skça bu
yerlerde saylar

türbeleri ziyaret ederler; hatta
olabilir.

bâz

Müslümanlardan büe daha çok

Ashnda "dergâh"

denilen

bu

türbeler,

Hindistan'n birçok yerinde halk

yaamnn merkezini
ükrünü
Çocuklar ylan

olutarur. Bebekler, evHyânn inayeti üe dünyâya gelir ve bu lûtfun
tasdik için türbeye
getirilirler.

lk

saç

tra buralarda yaphr.

sokmalarna ve hastalklara

kar korunmak için buraya getirilirler. Müslüman
çiftler

damatiar evlenmeden önce bu türbeleri ziyaret ederler. Hindu ve Sih
evlendikten sonra etrafn tavaf ederler, inananlar snav,

i bavurusu veya
maddî
edilir.

seyahat gibi her türlü önemli iler için bir ziyaret yaparlar. Hastahk,

skntlar ve

aile

sorunlar gibi ciddi tehlikeler için türbede dua

Ölenler için dualar burada okunur, evUyânm
atalar için de. Allah'n dosdar,

adna hacnn ya da seyyahn
özellikle
ile

halkn problem ve ihtiyaçlarna
yâni din

duyarl olan kiiler olarak düünülürler. Evliyann ruhu

yakn temasta

bulunmak için âlim veya emir olmaya,
dînî törenlerini ve mâlî ilerini idare

adam veya

zengin bir insan

olmaya gerek yokmr. Evliya olmak, türbeyi

ziyaret
için

etmek ya da türbenin

etmek

erkek olmak gerekmez.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
29

Ashnda bâz durumlarda

türbelerin

bakmlanm

ekseriyetie

kadnlar yapar
türbelerin

ve Hindistan'n birkaç yerinde

Müslüman olmayan kadnlar yöresel

bakmn üsdenmilerdir.

Evliyann inâyederinin

araclm yapan böyle
bulmulardr.

kadnlar, maddî ve mânevi kuvvetin

kaynam bu rollerde

Ve tabii ki, türbeleri, topra onurlandran ve halk lûtuflandran birçok kadn evliya da vardr. Bu çalma Kuzey Hindistan'daki türbelerdeki kadnlarn rollerine mtar: kendini dîne adamlar, bakmla ilgilenenler

k

ve

evliyalar.

Kadn evliyalar ve

mutasavvf edebiyat geleneinde dii
fazladr,

sesler

konusunda aratrmalarn says oldukça

kadnm rolünü inceleyen
nasl yer

ama popüler tasavvufta çalmalar henüz balangç seviyesindedir. Bu
sûfi türbe

ksa tetkik, Müslüman olan ve olmayan kadnlarn

ve geleneklerinde

ald ve görevlere el koyduu hakkndadr.
hogörü

Ataerkil toplumlardaki kadnlar tarafndan beslenen takva, sabr,

aym zamanda herhangi bir mutasavvfn da idealidir. Sûfî türbelerinde tüm dinlerden olan kadnlar için ayrlm yerin daha büyük olmasna ramen, Müslüman olan ve olmayan kadnlarn evde veya iyerindeki bo)an emeyi telâfi etmek için gerçek
ve hizmet gibi sosyokültürel dii
idealleri,

kuvvet ve otoriteyi kullanabilecekleri dergâhlar

bilinçli

olarak

aradklarm
deerinin

söylemek çok
ölçülmesi

ileri

gitmek

olur.

Ashnda böyle

bir iddia

kadmn

ile ilgili

Batl görüleri çok iyi yanstr. Ancak geleneksel toplumda

kadnlar

için var olan rollerin

hizmet, sabr ve takvadan

karmak anda, dergâh hayatnda kadnlar doan özgürlük ve gücü tanr ve kymet verir.
rolleri

Kadnlarn
mutasavvf

hayattaki

dier

de böyle

özellikleri besleyebilir fakat

evliyalar söz

konusu olunca,

ilâhî

srra yaklatklan için hizmet,

sabr ve takva bütün insanlara model tekil

eder.

Hikâye anlatanlar, dînî usûl uzmanlar ve kendini dîne adayanlar olarak
kadnlar,

Müslüman olsun

ya da

olmasn

sûfî türbelerinin

ayrlmaz

bir

parçasdr. Dergâhlarm hizmetinden sorumlu olarak kadnlar, evliyalarn
geleneklerinin koruyucular, onlarn ilmini nakleden, takva ehli pirlerin

hâtralarm canl tutan ve gelecek

nesillere hikâyeleri iletenlerdir.

Aratrmamm ana bölümünü yaptm kasabada da durum aynen böyleydi.
Kuzey Hindistan Pencab'da bulunan Malerkoda
asl
15. \aizyilin

ortalarnda

ad eyh

Sadreddin Sadri Cihan olan ve halk içinde
bir evliya

eyh Haydar olarak

bilinen

mutasavvf

tarafndan kurulmutur. Soyundan gelenler

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
30

onun halifeleri ya da dergâhn koruyucular olurlar. olan bu ailenin kadnlarnn çou, eyh'in hayât ve
son derece
Haydar'la
bilgi sahibidirler.

u an oldukça geni
mucizeleri

hakknda

Türbeleri ve geleneklerini

çalrken eyh

ilgili

hikâyeleri

bulmak için erkeklere gönderildiim kadar sklkta

kadnlara da yollanyordum. EvUyâmn ilmini bu kadnlardan örendim.

eyhin sojmndan gelen

bir

kadn

halifeyi

evinde ziyaret ettim. Yamnda,
kalan bir

türbeyi ziyarete geldii zamanlar âüenin

yamnda

gez^n fakir
balad,
fakat

oturuyordu. Fakir, eyh'in ilmiyle

ilgili

hikâyeyi anlatmaya

ksa

bir

otorite

zaman sonra hikâyenin sonunu, dedesinin ilminde gerçek ve meru olan kadn hâlifeye brakt. O da bana eyh Haydar 'in Malerkotia

kasabas hâline gelen araziye nasl sahip olduunu anlatt. eyh; bir

rmak

kenarnda oturup tefekküre dalmken birden
yerde Delhi'ye saldrmak amacyla yola

bir

frtna kopmu.

Ayn

çkm olan diktatör Bahlol Lodhi

kamp kurmu. Frtna karargâhta karmaa ve zarara yol açm ama eyh kulübesinde bu durumdan rahatsz olmam; hatta farkna bile varmam ve mumu da parlak bir ekilde yanmaya devam etmi. Bu durum,
ordusuyla
zafer

kazanmak

için

dua istemi ve

kazanm

olan Lodhi'yi çok etkilemi.

hanedann kurmaya balam. Baka bir mucizeden sonra da eyh'ten çok etkilendii için kz Taj Murassa Begüm'ü evlenmek üzere eyhe vermi ve yannda da büyük bir arazi hediye etmi. Bu hikâyeyi anlatan kadn halife. eyh Haydar'n mucizeleri ile ilgili daha birçok hikâye
Böylece Delhi'de Lodhi
anlatt.

Bu

mucizevî hikâyelerin özlü bölümlerine olan hâkimiyeti ve bir

fakir misafirle bir antropologa

bu

hikâyeleri aktarmaktaki isteklilii

bu
bir

meselelerdeki kendi otoritesinin idrâkini gösteriyor. Fakirdin himâyesi ve

kendinden emin hâü, onun

eyh

Haydar'n hayât ve miras

ile ilgili

uzman olduunu

ortaya koyuyor.

Aratrmam

esnasnda baka
geçirdim.

bir gün, halîfe ailesinden iki

kadnla

bir

öleden sonra

Bu yahca kardeler genelde

türbede oturuyor,

seyyahlardan gelen

balar kabul ediyor, verilen balan teberruken iade
yam
sra.

ediyor ve istek üzerine nasihat ve tavsiyelerde bulunuyorlard. Ayin usûllerini

denedeme
bilinen

rollerinin

eyh

Haydar ve Markotia
kardelerden
biri

târihi ile ilgili

hikayeleriyle ünlülerdi. lginç bir hikâyede

herkes tarahndan

dergâh çevreleyen duvarn
bir

bir

gecede melekler tarafndan

yapld

inancna deiik ve özgün

ekleme yapt. Malerkoda'daki dier binalarn

inaadarndan oldukça farklyd; kasabadaki

çou târihî binann küçük

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
31

tula yaplarna tamamen tezat tekil eden büyük

gri

ta

bloklar vard.

En

çok anlaülan hikâye, bu özgün duvarn
bir

eyh

Haydar'n vefatndan sonra

gecede melekler tarafndan mucizevî olarak ina edilmi olmasyd.

öyle açkladlar: Bir kadmn oraya oturup yemek öütmeye balamasyla mucize balad ve
Halîfe kadnlar, hikâyeye dii bir boyut getirdiler.
bitirince

duvar

yapm da sona erdi.

Hikâyedeki

kadmn ad verilmiyordu.
ilâhî

Fakat bir
bir

kadmn buday öütmesinin,

melekler tarafndan yapüan

iin hikâyesine entegre olmas günlük ilerle üâhî müdâhale arasnda

paraleUik yaratyor.

Bu balantyla kadmn

görevine verilen

kymet artm

ve hayât devam ettirmek ve yemek ileriyle
statüsünün ötesinde bir mevki verilmitir.

uramak için gerekli olan Böylece kadnlarn görevi, eyh

yatt kutsal bölgenin bakm ve koruyuculuu seviyesine kadar yükseltilmitir. Un öütmek, aileye hizmet; duvar ina etmek, evliyaya
Haydar'n
yaplan hizmet
ile

ilikilendirilmitir.

Halîfe kadnlar, evliyamn

hayâtm ksaca anlatrken
Öyle görülüyor
ki,

kzm da tarif etmilerdir.

Bibi

Mango adndaki Mango kötü bir evlilik
Bibi

yapm ve einin âüesi tarafndan atilmt. Malerkoda'ya dönerken babasna
geleceinin haberi verilirken, seyahat ettii tahtrevan, kasabann civarlarnda

beklemekte

idi.

Mutsuz

bir evliliin ve zorunlu geri

dönüün verdii utançla

babasmn yüzüne nasl bakacam merak ediyordu. Perian bir durumda topran onu kabul etmesi için dua etti ve gerçekten de öyle oldu. Yer yarld ve tahtrevam yuttu. Bu hikâye, geleneksel ve ataerkil toplumlarda olduu gibi namusa gösterilen üstün ilgi ve kadn iffetinin önemini
vurguluyor. Bibi

hakknda sorulacak sorular babasna kötü yansyacakt ve o yüzden babasnn ismine leke gelmemesi için kendini kurban etti. Fakat onun kurban edilii öyle bir mucizevî ekilde oldu ki,
safiyeti

Mango'nun

hem

kendisinin

hem

de

babasmn erdemi

ispat

edilmi oldu.

Dier

durumu çok kötü bir ekilde tasvir ediliyordu ve ayrlmn elzem olduu tarif ediliyordu. Erkek bir halîfenin görüüne baklrsa kz kardelerini almak için eyh Haydar oullarm yollam ve en büyüünün bunu reddedii kralln ona geçmemesine sebep olmu. Halîfe kadnlar için hikâye anlatmlar, bu tür ihtimâlleri içermiyordu. Bu hikâye, daha çok eyh 'in kzmn istisnaî güç
anlatmlarda Bibi Mango'nun einin
ailesiyle

olan

ve takvasmn bir örneidir. Ayrca bu hikâye, paradoksal olarak kendinden

vazgeçi, yâni feragat

ile

kuvvetiendirilmi kadnlarn gücünü gösterir.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
32

Onun topraa girii,
yapmaktan

bir

model oluturan dii

fazilederle

gerçeklemitir:

sonsuz bir edep kaygs, evliya

babasnn adna

leke sürecek bir

ey

sakn, ve

alçak gönüllüü.

özellikler olan takva, tevazu

ve

En belli bal mutasavvf ve dii hogörü bu hikâyede ön plana çkmtr.

yutuu sk rasdanan bir mecazdr. En bilinen örnei Ramajanadaki Tann Kral Rama'mn kars j'//^'mnkidir. Esaret ve geri dönüten sonra Sita'mn masumiyeti hakknda üpheler
Hint edebiyatnda

topran

faziletli birini

Kocasnn erdemli yönetimini olumsuz etkilememek için topraa iltica etmek istedi. Tabii ki, Sita'mn da Bibi Mango gibi bütün bu suçlamalarda
zuhur
etti.

bir kabahati yoktu.

Her ikisinin de topraa defnedilmesi birçok yönden kutsal kabul edilen bir olaydr. Kutsal bir ie tahsis ederek ve masum kadnlarn suçsuzluunu ispat ederek onlara mutiak bir dorulama ve zafer

suçlanm birinin güçlü masumiyetine ve dürüstiüüne ahit olmak için topran bu bir edebî temadr ve gerçekten saf ve takva sahibi insann varlna iaret
temin edilmitir. Sâdece kadnlara özgü deilken,

çar

eder.

Mango'nun topraa girdii yapld yer olan id Gah'n tam
Bibi

yer

imdi

bir

dergâh ve id ibâdetierinin
Basit bir türbenin etrafnda

d snrndadr.
bir yerdir.

son zamanlarda ina edilmi küçük

Ön

tarafnda bir kütük var.
beliriveren

Bunun, tahtrevan ve
bir

içindekiler

topraa gömülürken kulptan
Orada

aaç parças olduu
ziyaret

söyleniyor.

tantm Sih bir kadn türbeyi
kzmn türbesini
Orann

20 yldr

ediyormu. Ailesinin önceden ihtilaf, kzgnlk ve hastalktan

dolay sorunlar

yaam olduunu söyledi. Dualar duyulmu ve her yl
gelir,

ükrünü
ziyaret

bildirmek için

önce babann sonra da
bilezikler

edermi. Pembe
ilgilenen kii

bir

baörtüsü ve

takdim etmi.

bakmyla
söyledi.

krmz ve pembe baörtülerin, bileziklerin, makyaj
balar olduunu

malzemelerinin ve hindistan cevizinin en çok verilen

Ona göre

ziyaretçilerin

çou kadnm ve

daha çok dourganlk,

para ve

aile ileri gibi

âüenin refâhm ilgilendiren konularda dua ediyorlarm.

Güney Asya'da
hac yolculuklar

dergâhlarda

Müslüman olmayanlarn bu tarz hâmiHi ve sradan eylerdir. Her gün olagelen bir ey olmasna

ramen,

dergâhtaki günlük törenlerde önemli dînî farkllklar ve gözle

görülür çeitlilikler vardr. Meselâ Hindular ve Sihler evliyalarna 'bagvan'

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
33

yâni "tanr" derler

ki,

bu Müslümanlar

için

temelden aykn bir kavramdr.
sebebi olur.

Bunun

herkes farkndadr, fakat nadiren

açk münazara

Müslümanlar genelde dualarn takdim ederler
veya para vermezler. Herhangi
örtü, kilden
biri

fakat secde edip

yemek

eker, türbe için yeil ya da mavi bez

küçük

atiar, tütsü,

ya lambalar, para, keçi veya türbenin
ile

bakm için eyalar balayabilirler. Bu balar gibi dînî âyinleri idare
edenler de çeitlilik gösterir. Mürideri veya halîfeleri

evliyann çeitli

ekilde etkileimi salamak

için

türbede yer

kadnlar tarafndan
evliyayla dînî tören

icra ediliyor.

açlmtr. Bütün bu roller Aslnda bazen sâdece kadn halîfeler
bulunuyorlar. Dindar

deiimini görümek için mevcut

olan kadnlar tek

bana, grup

hâlinde veya aileleriyle gelip duada

bulunuyorlar. Bayan mürider genellikle evliyann ruhuyla diyalog kurabilmek
için

kendi takipçi heyetiyle geliyorlar. Böylece ricada bulunanlar ve arac

kimseler

tamamyla kadn

olabiliyor ve evliyâmn
ileten

duasndan baraka hem
bir otorite

faydalanan

hem

de bu duâ)^

araclarn

kadn olduu

arenas oluuyor.

Kadnlar niyaz

edici

ve arac olarak hizmet

ettikleri için,

dergâh sâdece bir

dii otorite arenas olmakla kalmayp tüm dinlere mensup kadnlarn
birbiriyle

etkileime geçebildikleri bir yerâk.

Bu

kadnlar benzer motivasyon,

kayg ve

ümitierle gelen

dier

dînî inançlara

mensup kadnlarla ister istemez
ilikileri

karlarlar. Güney Asya'daki kadnlarn dinler aras

güçlendirmedeki

rolünü düünürsek

kadmn deiik

kutuplara

bölünmeleri çözmedeki ve çelikileri

bölünmü toplumlardaki deiime uratmadaki potansiyel
aktif rol olarak

gücünü kefederiz. Kadnlar, evliyalk geleneinde
bir otorite

manevî
tekrar

alan olutururlar.

Bu gücü

alp

aile

mensuplar arasnda

daiür, kendileri, evüya ve toplumlar arasndaki ahlâkî güç alveriini temel alan bir kimlik olutururlar.

Bir keresinde dergâha
bir

iki

Hintli

kadn

geldi.

Ne yapacaklarm
iki

kestiremez

durumda, daha önce bahsettiim yalca
ilerlediler.

kabre kadar dikkatlice

Bir kaç rupi

oturduu (hint para birimi) ve eker
halîfenin
bir yere iki

kadn

verdiler, kabre eildiler,

etrafm dolatüar ve kabrin arkasnda

ya lambas yakp braktlar. Kabrin ayak ucuna dönerken (bu ilemlerin yapldyer) teberrûlarm aldlar ve tereddüt ederek halîfelerden, ikilemde
kaldklar özel bir konu hakknda

yardm

istediler.

Daha genç

olan

Hindu

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
34

kadn, yal olannn
sahibi

geliniydi ve iki

yldr

evli

olmasna ramen çocuk

olamamt.

Halife kadnlardan biri onlara Hazret'e dua ettikleri

takdirde kesinlikle bir
da, dedi, ben

olu olacan
henüi(^

söyledi.

Yal olan
"

'Tyi söylüyorsunufi

inansam

hile

gelinim Evlijaullah'a

inanma^

Gelin

lafa

kart ve

'nanmyor saylmam.

Sadece

bilmiyorum " dedi.

Tek emin olduu
biri

kaynvalidesinin evliyaya olan inancyd. Halifelerden

pek çok

burada dua etmekle erkek çocuk sahibi olduklarm hatrlatt.

kadnn Onun da,

eer
bir

temiz bir kalple dua ederse bir

olu olacan

söyledi.

Kadnlar özel

adak ya da ikram gerekip gerekmediini sordular. "Hayr" dendi,

kalplerinden geldii gibi davranmalar ve ihtiyaçlarna ve güçlerine göre
bir

ey sunmalan yeterliydi.

Sonra üç kadn, gelinin yemek yeme

sal ve alkanlklarndan bahsetmeye baladlar.
tavsiyelerde bulundukça, daha genç olam,

alkanl, Yal olanlar iki kadn

çounlukla onlar dinliyordu.

Bu

tür fikir teatileri, günlük,

sradan hatta

skc

saylr.

Ama

aslnda öyle

deildir.

Bu konumalar tamamen

farkl dînî rabtalar olan,

buna

ramen

tek bir

mânevi

figür etrafnda birleen kiiler

arasnda gerçekleen insanî
dergâh smrlar

alveriler, etkileimlerdir.
içinde gerçekleen

Bu konuma aym zamanda

karlkl ruhî, kiisel ve fnansal destee bir örnek tekil etmektedir. Gerçi bu tür olaylarn bâzlar bir kereye mahsustur; hatta anlktr; ama kiiler hatta toplum üzerindeki etkileri kalcdr.
Mabedin snrlar
dâhilinde,

bu deiik

fikir

ve uygulamalann bir problem

tekil ettiini, ya da ritüellerin, adaklarn, ya da

balarn yararn etkilediini

hisseden bir tek kiiye rasdamadm.
vaziyette kabirde

Çou sâdece omuzlarm silkmi
mantkî tutarszhklarn sonuçlarna
için fark

dua etmenin yaran

için

kaytsz kalan insanlard. Ksacas, bu dindar insanlar
gerektirmez. Üstelik halka
araya gelme imkânlar

ayrm
için bir

açk bölüme
olabiliyor.

girileri

smrlanan kadnlar

smrl

Yukarda bahsi geçen, çocuktan

yoksun

bir evlilikle
için

ilgili,

dinler aras istiare mahiyetindeki vakalar balanti
Ihtilaflan

kurmak

önemli ftrsadardr.

çözme ve
için

din konusunda

uzman

olan kiüer

bile, ritüelleri

paylamay ve

inançlar aras alverii, güveni

gelitirmek için, klielerin zararm önlemek
için alnabilecek

ve

ihtilaflan

en aza indirmek

en güçlü pozitif tedbirlerden

biri

olarak gösterirler. Dînî

çatimalann çok sk

karlald Hindistan'da, sûfî mabedlerin destekledii fikir alverii imkâm bar tekrar temin etmede önemli bir adm olarak

görülebilirler.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
35

Burada bahsedilen tüm durumlarda
ve Hindu dindarlar
-

-

eyhin kz, Müslüman
edilirler.

halîfeler,

Sih

deerler ve ortak kayglar temelde son derece insanî

olup tüm inançlara mensup kadnlar tarafndan kabul

En önemlisi,
mekânlar

kadnlarn diyanet anlay ve uygulamalar, mezarlarn bulunduu toplumlarn
evlerine ve hayatlarna evliyann

gücünü entegre ederek,

sûfî

canlandryor. Dergâhlardaki takva uygulamalan sayesinde kadnlar topluma

ahsî

disiplinlerini, ailelerinin

refah

için

ne kadar diergâm olduklarm,

ve Allah dosdarna olan inançlann gösteriyor.
"chelas"Yt "sevadar"

Bu

toplumlarda

kadn

halîfe,

ohtak

liderlik

rolünü üsdenen kadnlar, evliyaya, onun

hem nesebi, hem taycs, hem de hizmetkân olup hizmet etmekle otoriteyi
ellerinde tumyorlar.

Takva ekonomisine göre, dergâhta geçer akçe

benliksiz

olmak, hizmet ve vermektir.

Bu yüzden kadnlar bu

tip özelliklerin kültürel

deerleri tersine çevirip, onlan güç ve kuvvet
getirmeye muktedirlerdir.
disiplin

kayna

özelükler hâline

Bu deime, pirlerin bizzat kendilerinin uygulad
yineler.
ideali

ve kendinden feragat etme modeüni

Müteakip mutasavvf

kadnlara misal tekil eden Râbia Hazretieri bu

öyle örneklendirmitir.

"yil/âh'm biliyorsun ki kalbimin istei senin emirlerine uymaktr.
Senin maiyetine bitlet etmektedir.

Gölümün nuru
hif(met

Bu

mesele bana isnat

edilirse,

Sana

etmediim

bir saatim bile olmaî^r Sûfî

uygulamada, Allah' bulmaya çalmak,
ile,

kendi benliini yok ederek, tövbe

hogörü

üe ve Allah'n verdii her

art

kabullenerek olur. Rahat, zenginlik ve dünyevi güç
zorluklar ve

yanltc

olabiür.

Ashnda

skntlar Allah'n

lutfu olarak görülür ve tasavvuf

yolunda seyahat edenin Allah

dndaki balardan alâkasm

kesmesine

yardmc

olur.

Bu

disiplinlerden gelen güç, ataerkil kültürlerde

kadmn

kazanmas gereken paradoksal güce benzer. Bu yüzden kadn figürünün sûfî geleneinde merkezde oluu ve zarurî olarak elde ettii özelliklere kymet veren vazifelerde bulunuu artc deildir.

o
o
1%.

'

#7

V

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
37

Women of

the Saint, Saintly

Women

Anna BGELOIT
This paper was presented
at the" International

Symposium of

Women and Sufism"

that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

At

the

tomb
and
in

shrines of India's

many

Sufi saints

women play prominent,
Muslim Indian women,
and engage

equal,

some

cases preeminent roles. For

who

overwhelmingly do not attend mosques, these shrines provide

important centers for
in public piety.

women

to gather, pray, exchange news,
also frequent the

Non-Muslims

tomb
in

shrines
Sufi

places in even greater

numbers than Muslims. Indeed
of community
life

- in some tomb shrines,
in India.

called dargahs, are at the center

many places
first

Babies are born through the grace of the saint and they are brought to
the

tomb

to

acknowledge

this blessing as infants.

The

haircut

is

often

honored

at these sites.

Children are brought for a protection against

snakebites and diseases.

Muslim grooms

visit

before their marriage,

Hindu

and Sikh couples circumambulate together afterwards.
any major undertaking should include a
applications, or travel.
visit to

Among the

faithful,

the shrine, exams, job

tomb: sickness,

Any serious danger should be prayed for at the money problems, or family strife. Prayers for the dead

may be

offered there,

pilgrim's

on behalf of the saint him or herself and for the own ancestors. The friends of God are thought of as particularly

sympathetic to the problems and needs of ordinary people.

One need

not be an

'alim

or an amir, a religious scholar or a rich man, in order to
spirit

hold intimate discourse with the

of the

saint.

Indeed, one need not
rituals

be male to be

a saint, to visit a

tomb, or to manage and control the
fact, in

and finances of the
caretakers

shrine.

In

some

cases

women

are the chief

of the dargahs and

in several places in India

non-Muslim

women

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

^K/^
38

&

have taken up the task of maintaining local Sufi tombs. As the mediators

of the

saint's blessings,

such

strength in these roles.

women find sources of spiritual and temporal And of course, there are many women saints
Sufi tombs: the devotees,

whose tombs honor
the caretakers,

the earth and bless the community. This study

illuminates the roles of

women in North India's
saints.

and the

There

is

ample research on

women
is

saints

and on the feminine voice in Sufi

literary traditions,
is still

but the study of
a brief

women's

roles in popular

Sufism

in

its

infancy. This

exploration of

how Sufi

shrines

and

traditions are inhabited

and

appropriated by

women, both Muslim and non-Muslim.
of
piety, patience,

The

socio-cultural feminine ideals

acceptance, and
societies are also

service necessarily cultivated

by

women in patriarchal
somewhat
it

the ideals for any Sufi. In spite of the
shrines for

greater space at Sufi
to say that

women

of aU

religions,

would be too much

Muslim and non-Muslim women consciously seek out
compensate for
their subjugation in the

dargahs

where they

could potentially wield substantial power and authority in order to

home and

the workplace. Indeed,

such a claim would reflect highly western notions of the measure of a

woman's

value.

Rather,

we can understand

that in the

complex web of
by the
life

roles available to
at a dargah

women

in traditional society, those offered

acknowledge and value the power and freedom born of
piety.

service,

patience,

and

Though women's
as they

other

life

roles

may

cultivate

such

qualities, in the

context of the Sufi

saints, service, patience,

and piety are

the

model

for

all

humans

approach the divine mystery.

As

tellers

of

tales, ritual specialists,

and devotees, Muslim and non-Muslim

women

are integral to the üfe of Sufi shrines.

As

caretakers,

women

are

important custodians of the traditions of the saints and are transmitters

of the lore of the

saints,

keeping

alive the

memory of
is

the pious pirs and

passing the stories on to fumre generations. This
the

certainly the case in

town where
India,

I

did the bulk of
in the

my research.
1

Malerkotia, in Punjab
saint.

North

was founded

mid

5

century by a Sufi

Shaikh

uj

Sadruddin Sadri Jahan popularly

known as Haider Shaikh. His
of
his dargah.

descendents
the

CD
QQ
CD

are the kbalifahs, or hereditary custodians

Many of

women in

this

now quite

large family are extremely

knowledgeable about

C c

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
39

the Shaikh's
I

life

and

miracles.

As

I

studied the

tomb
as to

shrine

and its

traditions

was

as frequently referred to local

women

out stories about Haider Shaikh.

From

these

men in order to find women I learned the lore
descended from

of the

saint.

In one household,
sitting

I

visited a female khalifah

the Shaikh

who was

with an itinerant^^/r who stays with her family

whenever he comes
authority

to visit the tomb.

The ^^/r began

the story of the

Shaikh but soon deferred to the khalifah

woman

as the true

and

rightful

on the

lore

of her progenitor. She told

me

about

how

Haider

Shaikh came to possess the land that became the town of Malerkotia.
Sitting

on the banks of

a river, the saint

was absorbed

in

contemplation

when

a

storm blew up. At the same place the warlord Bahlol Lodhi

camped with his army en route to attack Delhi. The storm caused chaos and damage in the army encampment, but the Shaikh was undisturbed,
even unaware, in
impressed Lodhi
his

hut and his candle burned brighdy and

steadily.

This

who

asked for a blessing for victory, which he received

and went on to
the Taj

establish the

Lodhi dynasty
saint that

at Delhi. After

another miracle
his

emperor was so awed by the
Murassa Begum
in

he gave the Shaikh

daughter

marriage along with a sizeable land grant.
this

The

khalifah

woman who narrated
stories

core

tale told several

other stories about
the substantial
stories to her

the miracles performed by Haider Shaikh.

Her mastery of

body of miracle
j^^/r guest

and her willingness to recount the

and an anthropologist demonstrate her perception of her own

authority in these matters.
single her out as

Th&faqiH deference and her confident manner
life

an expert on Haider Shaikh's

and

legacy.

On another day during my research I
of the
khalifah family.

spent an afternoon with two

women

These

elderly sisters frequentiy sat at the

tomb,

accepting offerings from pilgrims, returning blessed offerings as tabarruk,

and giving advice and counsel when requested. In addition to
as ritual supervisors, they

their roles

were both renowned for
history.

their stories
tale,

about
sister

Haider Shaikh and Malerkotia

In an interesting

one

gave a unique twist to a commonly held belief that the wall surrounding
the dargah was
different

made overnight by
in construction

angels. This wall

is

remarkable, quite
in Malerkotia

from

from any other building

large grey stone blocks that contrast sharply with the small brick construction

of most historic

sites in

town.

The dominant

narrative

is

that this unique

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
40

wall

was constructed miraculously by angels

in a single night after

Haider
this

Shaikh's death.

The

khalifah

women brought a

feminine dimension to
wall

story, explaining that the

work on the miraculous

began when a

woman sat down to begin grinding meal and ended when she stopped. The woman in the story is not named, but the integration of women's
work — grinding
flour

into the tale

of the divine work done by angels

creates a parallelism

between mundane labor and divine intervention.
this

Women's work
its

is

enhanced by

connection giving
it

it

a status

beyond

necessity for sustenance and raising

to he level

of sustaining and

protecting the sacred precincts of Haider Shaikh's resting place. Service
to the family

— making

flour

— is

linked to khidmat for the saint

building

the wall.

The

khalifah

women also included in
of
a

their brief

account of the
It

saint's life

a description

his daughter, called Bibi

Mango.

seems that Bibi

Mango

was married into

bad

situation

and was kicked out by her

in-laws.

On
Filled

her return to Malerkoda, the palanquin in which she rode was set

down

on the

outskirts

of town while her father was notified of her return.

with shame by her unhappy marriage and forced remrn, she wondered

what face could she show her
to accept her

father? Distraught, she prayed to the earth

and so

it

did.

The ground cracked open and
typical

the palanquin

was consumed. This story speaks of an overriding concern with honor
and the importance of female chastity
societies.

of

traditional, patriarchal

Questions about Bibi Mango's purity would reflect badly on her

father, so she sacrificed herself to preserve his
sacrifice

good name, but her
to her

was done in
her

a miraculous

way that testified

own righteousness

as well as

father's.

In other accounts, a very bad picture of the situation
is

at the in-laws is

painted and her departure
khalifah,

portrayed as essential. Indeed
his

in the

view of a male

Haider Shaikh himself sent

sons to
his being

retrieve their sister

and the

refusal

of the eldest to do so led to

bypassed in inheriting the kingdom. For the khalifah women, these narrative
possibilities

were not included. Rather the

tale is

an example of the
CD

exceptional

power and

piety of the Shaikh's daughter. It also demonstrates

the paradoxical strength of

women who

abnegation.

Her entrance

into the

empowered through selfearth was clearly made possible by her
are
for propriety, her unwillingness

OQ
cc

model feminine virtues: an excessive concern

c c

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
41

upon her saindy fadier, and her humility. Piety, modest, and forbearance — these central Sufi and feminine qualities — all come to
to bring dishonor

the fore in this

tale.

The absorption of

a righteous

person into the earth

is is

a fairly

common
Sita,

trope in Indian literature.

The most famous example

that

of

the

god king Rama's wife
questions arose about

in the Ramayana.
Sita's chastity,

After her captivity and return,

driving her to seek refuge in the earth
rule.

from the negative impact on her husband's righteous
Sita, like

Of

course

Bibi

Mango, was innocent of the

charges.

So the interment of

many ways serves as an apotheosis. By sanctifying and justifying the innocent women, they are provided with the ultimate vindication and victory. While not exclusive to women, this calling of the earth to wimess
each in
to the purity

and

integrity

of a wronged person

is

a powerful literary

theme, signaling the presence of a truly pure and pious person.

The

spot where Bibi

outer edge of the

Mango entered the earth is now a dargah, just on the Id Gah where Id prayers are performed. It is a small,
said to

recentiy rebuilt structure around a simple tomb. In the front court\'ard
is

a

stump which

is

be part of the
its

tree that

sprang from the handle

while the rest of the palanquin and

occupant were absorbed.

One

Sikh

woman I met there had
said her family

been coming for twenty years to the tomb. She
in trouble with lots

had been

of discord, anger, and

sickness.

Her prayers were heard and so she comes back every year to give thanks, first visiting the father's tomb and then the daughter. She offered a pink chunni, or head scarf, and some bangles. The caretaker reported that pink
and red
scarves, bangles,

makeup, and coconuts were aU

common offerings.
relations.

In his view
to issues

more

visitors here

were

women and their prayers often related
fertility,

of

familial well-being

such as

money, and family

Such non-Muslim patronage and pilgrimage
in

is

commonplace

at the dargahs

South Asia. Although

this is

an everyday occurrence, there are

considerable theological differences and observable variations in terms

of

daily ritual practice at a dargah.
-

For example, Hindus and Sikhs frequendy

refer to the saint as bhagvan

god, a concept abhorrent to Muslims. This
is

difference

is

noted by everyone, but

rarely seen as

grounds for open

KADIN WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
VF.

42

disputation.

Muslims are more

likely to offer

only prayers and not to
offer sweets, a

prostrate or give food or money.

Anybody can and does

green or blue cloth cover or chadar for the tomb, small clay horses, incense,
oil

lamps, money, goats, or objects for the maintenance of the shrine.
ritual specialists are also multiple, as

Like the offerings, the
at the

space

is

made
his

tomb

for various

modes of

interaction with a saint

- through

or her descendants, the khalifahs and through visiting disciples
possesses, called
chelas.

whom he

All these roles are

performed by women. Indeed,
negotiate ritual exchanges

sometimes only
with the
saint.

women khalifahs are present to
Female
chelas

Women devotees come

alone, in groups, or with family

to offer their prayers.

often

come with
given

their

own

retinue of

followers to hold dialogue with the spirit of the saint.

Thus

the supplicants

and the mediators of the
entirely female,

saint's blessings at a

opening up an arena

moment may be of authority where women are both

the beneficiaries and the agents of transmitting the saint's blessings or
haraka.

Because

women

serve as supplicants and mediators, the dargah

is

not only

a potential arena
all

of female authority,

it is

also a place

where

women of

religions

may interact

with one another. They inevitably encounter

women
role

of other

religious faiths

who

have come to the shrine with similar
attention to the

motivations, concerns, and hopes.

By paying particular
in

of

women in

facilitating inter-religious relations in

South Asia we

discover the potential

power of women
saints

overcoming divisions and
society.

transforming conflict in an often polarized
in the traditions

By

taking active roles
spiritual

of the

women negotiate
on

an arena of

authority, partaking

of that power and redistributing it among
identity based
saint,

their family

members, creating an

the exchange of pious

power

between themselves, the

and

their

communities.

In one such instance, two
Shaikh.

Hindu women came

to the dargah of Haider

up

to

They appeared unsure of how to proceed and came cautiously the tomb where the two elderly khalifah sisters I mentioned earlier
They gave
lit

O
-J

were

sitting.

a

few rupees and some sweets, bowed to the tomb,
oil

Uj

walked around and
to the foot

two

lamps in an area behind the grave. Returning

CD
CQ
to

of the tomb

(the foot

end where these transactions take

place),

they received

some

taharruk then hesitantiy asked the khalifahs for help

c c
"=1:

TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF
43

KADN VE WOMAN

AND

with their particular dilemma.

The younger Hindu woman was
them
to pray to Hazratji
is all

the elder's

daughter-in-law and she had not conceived after two years of marriage.

One

of the khalifah

women
older

told

and they wul

surely get a son.

The

woman

replied that

well and good, she

believes in the saint, but her daughter-in-law does not.

The

daughter-in-

law interjected that she doesn't exacdy not believe, she simply doesn't

know yet. She knew only that her mother-in-law has great faith in the saint. One of the khalifahs told her that so many women have had sons
from praying
here, she can

be sure that she wul also be blessed
if

if

she

prays with a pure heart.
particular vow, or

The women asked offering. They were told

they should

make some
do whatever
ability.

no, they should

they feel in their hearts, and give according to their need and
three

The

women

then started talking generally about the daughter-in-law's
habits.

diet, health,

and

The two

older

women
not.

continued to exchange

advice while the younger mostiy listened. Such exchanges are commonplace,

mundane, even

dull.

Except that they are

These conversations
affiliation

are

human interactions between
the kind of mutual support

people of disparate religious

who

share a belief in a single spiritual figure.

The

conversation also exemplified

-

spiritual, personal,

and

financial

- that occur
as

within the bounds of the dargah.

Though some of
lives

these experiences are

momentary, even
well as

fleeting, their

impact on the

of the participants

on the

life

of the community endures.
never met a person

In the confines of the shrine
in belief or practice
rituals,

I

who

felt

that variation

was

a

problem or had an impact on the

efficacy

of

vows, or offerings. Most merely shrugged, clearly unconcerned by

the implications of the logical inconsistency for the efficacy of prayer at the tomb. In short, difference for these devotees does not necessitate
division.

Moreover

for

women, who may have

restricted access to the

public sphere, opportunities for encounter can be limited.

Thus episodes
marriage cited

such as the inter-religious consultation about an

infertile

above are important oppormnities for connection.

Significantiy, experts
ritual

on

conflict resolution

and

religion often

recommend

exchange and

interfaith interaction as

one of the most
trust,

positive measures for countering
conflicts.

damaging stereotypes, building
where reUgious
conflict
is all

and mitigating

In India,

too

common,

the occasions for exchange

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
44

afforded by these Sufi shrines
peacebuilding.

may be an important

ingredient in

In

all

the cases discussed here

-

the daughter of the Shaikh, the

Muslim

khalifahs, the

Sikh and

Hindu devotees are shared

the values or concerns expressed

are essentially

human and
piety

by

women

of

all faiths.

Above

all,

we
the

see that

women's

and practice enlivens Sufi spaces, integrating

power of the

saint into the

which the tombs

are located.

homes and lives of the community in Through pious practice at the dargah, women
their faith in the friends

publicly demonstrate their personal discipline, their altruistic concern for
their families' wellbeing,

and

of God.

Women

who

take

on

leadership roles within these communities as the female

khalifahs, chelas,

and

sevadars wield authority derived

from

their service to

the saint as his lineage, his vehicles, and his servants. In the
piety at the dargah, the currency
is

economy of

selflessness, servitude,

and generosity.

Women are able,
of such
qualities,

therefore, in these contexts to reverse the culmral value

turning

them

into sources of strength
self-sacrifice

and power. This
by

inversion replicates the

model of
is

and

discipline practiced

ûi&pirs themselves. This ideal
for subsequent Sufi

exemplified by Rabia, the great model
prayed:

women, who
in

"O God, Thou

knowest that
me,

the desire of
light

my heart is

conformity with Thy command, and that the

of

my eye is in

serving

Thy

court. If the affair lay with
practice,

I

would

not

rest

one hour from serving Thee." In Sufi

one seeks

God

through self-effacement, repentance, forbearance, and acceptance of every
condition given by God. Comfort, wealth, and worldly power are suspect

and

potentially misleading.
as

Indeed challenges and tribulations are often
traveler

understood

God's blessings, helping the

on the

Sufi path to

renounce attachments to things other than God. The power that comes
through these disciplines resembles the paradoxical strength that
all

women
it is

over the world must cultivate within patriarchal cultures. Thus

not

surprising that

women

figure centrally in the traditions

of the

Sufis, finding

roles that value the very qualities they

have necessarily cultivated.
CD
QQ
CO

c c

'..I

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
46

Murata'ya Göre

slam Düüncesinde Toplumda Kadn ve Erkein

Rolü: Mutasavvf

Bakyla

Prof. Dr.

A^î^an

BAHARUDDN
TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâtrasna düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasavvuf" balkl
teblidir.

Çeviri:

Nazl Kayahan, Ömer Özel, Zümrüt Erdur

16 vVralk 2005 tarihinde

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

Kendimize sk sk sorular soranz. Ben kimim? Nereden geliyorum? Dünya
ve evren nasl meydana geldi? Varoluun anlam nedir? Benim ne

yapmam

ve ne

yapmamam

gerekiyor?

Bu dünyâdaki

yaamm sona erince nereye
rolümüz

gideceim? Bunlar, evren ve bizim onun

içindeki yerimiz ve

Bu sorulara verdiimiz cevaplar da dünya görüümüzün ekillenmesinde yardmc olur. Dünya görüü düünce biçimimizi ve davrammz etkiler. Onlar yaammz etkiler. Bu dünya görüü içinde, bizim kadn-erkek konusu ile ilgili görülerimiz de yer ahr.
hakknda sorduumuz
sorulardr.

Temel
bir

Kadm'n anlam, statüsü, ilevi ve rolü üe ilgili anlam yolculuuna çkmak istiyorum. Kadmn mânevi öneminin ne
olarak, "diil"in yani

olduunu anlamak istiyorum. Hârika konferansmzn ana konusuna bal kalmaya çalarak izleyeceim bu konu sannm çok büyük önem tamaktadr,
çünkü hayâtn pek çok alannda sürdürdüümüz
ve "dii"
ile ilgili

yaam biçiminde

"erkek"

ilkelerin

günümüzdeki uygulamalarmda

hissedilen bir

dengesizlik var.

Bunun

felâket getiren sonuçlan, mesela, sâdece

kaynaklarn

devamllm deil aym zamanda türümüzün özelliini, özünü tekil eden
insanh da
tehdit

eden ekolojik krizlerde kendini

gösterir.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
47

Kstl zamandan
konunun

ötürü,

bu anlay-irfan yolculuunu

sizlerle

sâdece ksaca

paylaabileceim. Fakat

unu söylemek kâfi gelir ki, "dünyevi" platformda
çünkü

pratik faydas varsa da, asl kiisel seviyede bilmek gerekli,
özellikle

arayc olarak ve de

kadn arayc

olarak, Allah'n

ne istediini

bilme arzusundayz, ve biz sâdece ondan dolay ihtiyaç duymaya, ümit
etmeye, korkmaya ve

âk olmaya çalyoruz.
bir ilim ve bir din

Müzâkereye zemin tekil etmek üzere, ben
olarak, kendi

örencisi

geçmi

tecrübelerimden,

bunun yan sra

âlimlerin ve

tasavvufu uygulayan kiilerin yazlarndan istifâde edeceim, özellikle
yazar Sachiko Murata'mn dier eserlerinin

yan sra

7j/,^/;^'w

Tao'su (1992)

adl kitabndan ve Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee'nin yine bir çok eserinin yan
sra A§kn Çelikileri (1996) adl

çalmasna bal kalacam.
Çünkü

Kiisel

deneyimlerimi önemle vurgulamak isterim.

bildiiniz gibi,

konutuumuz
baka ifâdeyle,

bilgi

ve irfan turu hissedilmeden gerçekte bilinemez, bir

idrâkin ve gönlün u^nam içinde beraber

çalmas lâzmdr.

Dünya görüümüzün

gelitirilmesi ve

durumumuzun açklanmas
olarak

Günümüzde slâm ve Müslümanlarla ilgüi
yönlendirilen insanda, diil varla; yâni
nekahet, bütünlük, empati vs)

büyük yanl anlalmalar

yüzünden, en azndan uygarlklar aras diyalog balamnda, din tarafndan

kadna özgü

özelliklerin (gü^llik,

erkee özgü

özelliklerle (saduyu, yüreklilik, kuvvet,

kararllk) eit
alâkal olarak,

deere
açkça

getirilmesine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadr.

Münazaramzla
duyulan anahtar

belirtilmesine ve

açklanmasna

ihtiyaç

sorular/konular aadakileri içeriyor:

Erkek

kadnn zdd

olarak nedir?

Batdnn,

ikisinin

arasndaki ilikiye

bak

biçimi tek bir yol
olabilir?

mudur?

Doulu ve

slamî görü bundan ne kadar farkl

Bugün
verilen

belki ihtiyaç duyulan

ey diiliin

(erkekte vel vga

kadndaki), erkeklie

an önemi dengelemesi, yâni
Kadn ve
için,

Sachiko Murata tarafindan tanmlanan

negatif erkeklik.

erkek olarak daha uyumlu biçimde

yaayabilmemiz

gerçei akUca yakalamamz gerekiyor.

te

hakikat

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
48

ile

uraan ilme

ve tecrübeye dayanan bir

oluum

olarak tanmlanabilen

tasavvuf, bize

bu konuda yardm

edebilecektir.

Diilik ve Kadnlarn Hatal Deerlendirilmesi
Kendi
için

eseri Cinsiyet ve Karakter de, yazar

Otto Weinninger,

kadn biüm

tamamen uygunsuz
varlk

olarak tanmlamakta:

"Kavram üretemeyen kadn

gibi bir

muhakeme edemez, karar veremez. Onun aklnda öznel ve nesnel ayn deildir; muhakeme etmesi imkânszdr ve doruyu istemesine, doruya ulamasna imkân yoktur. Hiçbir kadn gerçekte bilime ilgi duymaz, sâdece kendisini ve pek çok iyi erkei ama kötü psikologlan kandrabilir".^

Yukandaki görü kimseye çok da

artc

gelmeyebiür, fakat nasl

meydana

çkt ve altmda yatan derin felsefî varsaymlar nelerdir? Târih bilimcilerine göre, bu görü Fransz matematikçi - filozof Rene Descartes tarafndan akl ve cisim arasnda yaplan ayrmdan sonra balad. Descartes'n mehur
ifâdesi

"Cogito ergo sum" 'Düünüyorum, öyleyse varm", Batl erkeklerin

kimliklerini

bütün organizmalar

yerine, sâdece akllariyla

e tutmalarn

tevik

etti..

Nükleer Fizikçi Fritjof Capra'mn ifâdesine göre "akl ve cisim

ayrm, âlemin ayr nesnelerden oluan mekanik bir sistem olduu görüüne yol açt, bu da daha sonra, birbirleri ile etkileimlerinden ve özelliklerinden bütün doal olaylarn tammlanabilecei temel maddesel yap talarna indirgendi."
arasndaki
.

Capra, Descartes'n

doa ile ilgili görülerinin daha

sonra tüm canl

organizmalan kapsayacak ekilde geniletildiine ve onlarn farkl parçalardan

oluan

makineler ^^\ alglanmalarna yol

açtna inamr. Bugünkü modern
devam

bilimin temelinde

çounlukla bu dünyâmn mekanik alglanmas vardr ve
safhalarna hâlâ çok güçlü etki yapmaya
ki,

modern

yaamn çeitli

etmektedir. Analizler göstermektedir

bu alglama

irfanda, bilgide,
yol

akademik

disiplinlerde ve

hükümet kurumlarnda parçalanmaya

açm,

bunun yan sra doal
parçalardan

çevreyi

snrszca

istismar edilebilecek farkl

olumu gibi

alglamamn da "hakl ve mantkl" olduu

iddiasna gerekçe oluturmutur.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF
49

Doay istismar, doa ile beraber tanmlanan kadnlarn
geleneinde) istisman
ile birlikte

(en

atfndan

Bat

devam

etti.

Doa, bir çeit "besleyen, bmoiten
bir

anne" olarak aynca da "vahi ve zapt edilemez
Ataerkil sisteminde
iyi

dii" olarak addedilmitir.

huylu anne imaj "boyun

een"

olarak deiti, öte

yandan vahilik zanm,

kadnn

erkek tarafndan zapt edilmesi, erkein
fikrine yol açû.

egemenlii ve kontrolü alüna girmesi gerektii
ilenebilir ve sömürülebilir

Doay

mekanik bir yap olarak gören Newton biliminin

kadnn da ayn tarzda ele alnmasna neden oldu. Mamafih, kadn ve doann mitolojik birliktelii, kadmn tarihçesini çevrenin tarihçesine balar ve bugün ekoloji ve feminizm arasnda özel ilikinin kayna olarak görülür. Bu meyanda tarihçi Carolyn Merchant unu önerir: "u andaki
büyümesi
çevresel ikilemin kökenlerini ve bilim, teknoloji ve sistemle olan

balantlarn

aratirrken, hakikati yaayan bir organizmadan ziyâde bir makina gibi
alglayarak bizi

doann ve kadnn üzerinde egemenlik kurmaya iten dünya
incelememiz gerekmektedir.".

görüünü ve

bilimi yeniden

Bugün hepimize tandk

gelen çevre kavramlar
isimli bir

hakknda yazan

ilk

kimin

Rachel Carson (1907-1964)

kadn olduunu not etmek çok ilginç
bir deniz biyologu
idi.

olacaktr. Carson, 1962 de Sessi^Baharh {Si/enf Spring) yazd. Yazar olarak

ünlü olmasna

ramen, Carson ashnda profesyonel
faaliyetier

G. Kass-Simon'un hakl bir ekilde tespit ettii gibi "tabiatta her eyin
birbirine

muhtaç olduu ve sanayilemi

aracü ile insanlarn
skcdr. Bu nedenle

mütemadiyen topraa kalc

hasarlar verdii

bak

açs, bugün o kadar

yaygn
Sessi;i

bir

görütür

ki,

sürekli

tekrarlanmas adeta

Bahar ilk kez ortaya çktimda, modern teknolojinin geri
bir biçimde, çevremizi

dönüümü

olmayacak
fikri,

mahvederek
idi;

bizi

ortadan

kaldraca

duyulmam
ihtilaflar

devrimci bir

düünce

toplumun her kesiminde

tarûmalara ve müzâkerelere sebep olup, hükümette ve sanâ\ide, konuyla
ilgili

ve korkular yaratmt.

Carson, çevreye yaplan tahribatiarla
55 sayfalk kaynak hazrlamak ve
kald.

ilgili,

yüzlerce gerçek teblie dayal
sayfada

görüünü 350
hissetti.

tarûmak zorunda

O aynca çevrenin tahribatna neden olan pek çok biyolojik ve ekolojik
açklamak mecburiyetini
"

ilkeleri

Carson'un

kitabmn en hzl
idi,

etkilerden biri

DDT'nin

bir

böcek ilac olarak yasaklanmas

uzun

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
50

vadeli

sonucu

ise

dünyây deitirmesi

oldu.".

^

imdi daha

bir

açklk kazanmtr
çizgisel

ki,

çevrebilim

kart

(antiekolojik)

düünmenin bilimsel metodunun vurgulanmasndan kaynaklanmaktadr. Eko sistemler, devirler ve
davranlar, aslnda düz
ki,

an

dalgalanmalara dayanan, dinamik bir denge içinde varlklarn sürdürebilirler

bunlar çizgisel olmayan süreçlerdir. Capra'mn belirttii
gibi

gibi, "belirsiz
belirli bir

ekonomik ve teknik büyüme

düz

çizgisel

olgularn daha

örnek verecek olursak, çok büyük zaman dilimlerinde radyoaktif atklarn

depolanmasmn doal dengeyi bozmas kaçnlmazdr ve er geç iddetli bir hasara neden olacaktr. O nedenle modern uygarlkta akli, entellektüel
gücün, ümi büginin ve teknolojik becerilerin geliimi üe
irfan,

maneviyat

ve ahlâkî deerlerin gelimesi arasnda çarpc bir uyumsuzluk vardr".

Kültür analizi üzerine yazarken, Capra gibi yazarlarn da belirttii gibi

,

bu uyumsuzluk "yang"n ya da insan yapsnn erkeksi tarafmn
bilgi,

(rasyonel

anali^ ve genileme)

ar vurgulamp, "yin"in veya yapmzn kadns
ihmâl edilmesinden kaynaklanmaktr.

tarafinn

(irfan, senteî^ve çevresel duyarllk)

Yin\yang terimleri
zira

kültürel dengesizliin analizi

srasnda

özellikle faydaldr,

geni

bir ekolojik

görü

bir sistemler görücü

benimsemektedir.

sistemler

görüü, dünyây bütün doal

olaylarda

karlkl iliki ve

Bu karlkl

dayanma içinde görür ve bu yap içinde
ki,

her sistem entegre bir bütündür

bu bütünün özellikleri parçalarmnkine indirgenemez. Canl organizmalar,

toplumlar ve ekosistemler hep birer sistemdirler.

Capra'ya göre, "yin", küçülebüen her

eye

tekabül edebilen, cevap vermeye

hazr, uyumlu ve muhafazakardr, oysa ki "yang" genileyebüen, saldrgan

ve talepkâr olan her eyi
iyi

içerir.

Çin kültüründe, "diü" ve "erü"

bizatihi,

ve kötü hangisidir eklinde hiçbir zaman üikilendirümemitir. yi olan

"diil" ya da "eril"

deü,

ikisinin

arasndaki kuvvetli/dinamik olan
dengesizliktir.

dengedir; kötü ve zarar verici olan ise

Ayn remizle, kadn ve
zaman
birinin

erkee

âit

özelliklerden bahsederken

amacmz

hiç bir

dierinden daha üstün olduunu söylemek deildir. Vurgulamak istediimiz,
her birinin dierini

tamamlad,

biri

olmadan dierinin eksik olacadr.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
51

Bu

nedenle, her erkek ve

kadnn toplam

kiilii, statik,
âit

duraan

bir varlk

deildir. Bilakis kiilik,

kadna ve erkee

unsurlar arasndaki

karbkl

etkileim sonucu
âit

olumu

kuvvetli/dinamik bir hâdisedir, insan tabiatna

bu

bak

açs, tüm erkeklerin sâdece erkeksi ve tüm kadnlarn sâdece

diil (kadns)

olmas gereken kat

bir

düzen

kurmu

olan pederahî,

Capra'nn

inand batl/modern

toplumlarn olmas gereken toplumla

keskin bir zddiyet içindedir. Böyle bir durum, erkee,
rolleri

"tüm önde giden

ve

çou
7

toplumsal imtiyazlar vererek bu terimlerin mânâlarm da

çarptmtr".

Bat kültüründe kadn
yaraüc olarak

geleneksel olarak pasif ve alc, erkek de aktif ve

tasvir edilmitir. Aristo'nun cinsiyet teorisine

kadar giden
bir rolde

bu

tasvir,

yüzyülar boyu

kadm erkee göre

aa ve boyun een

mtmak için

bilimsel bir gerekçe olarak

kullanlmür,
ve mistikler içinde kadnlar
(nefs)

Schimmel'e göre dînî alanda,

özellikle zâhider

hakknda kullanlan

çou hürmetsiz ifâdeler, Arapça'da ruh
nefis)

kelimesinin

Bakara Sûresi 53. âyete göre diil isim olmas ve genellikle nefs-i emmâre
(emreden,

kötülüe götüren

olarak

anlalmasndan kaynaklanmaktadr.
bir at ya

Bu anlayta
bir

nefis, inatç,
itaat

kar

koyan
bir

da deve, siyah bir köpek,

yüan ve/veya

etmeyen

kadn

suretinde temsil edilmitir.
diil isim olan

Schimmel açklamasnda, nefsin aynca, Arapça'da yine

maddî

dünyay da sembolize
Ancak,

ettiini belirtir .°

hem

erkek

hem kadnn nefs-i emmâreye
ile

sahip

olduu

hakikatinin

üstünde,

kadn

genel olarak nefis

özdeleürilmi
çok

olsa dâhi, Kuran'daki
seviyesi

Züleyha hikâyesinde anlatld
hatirlamalyz.

gibi nefsin bir

olduunu

Bildiimiz gibi Züleyha, erkek güzelliinin
olan

mükemmel örnei
süre çektii

olan Yusuf'a

akyla tükenmiti Ancak
Süresi,2) seviyesine

nefs-i

levvâme ya da kendini eletiren ruh

(Kyamet

çkmak için uzun

ac

ile

kendini

saflatird ve ne

zaman

ki nefs-i

mutmainne ya da huzurlu ruh

(FecrSüresi,27)

seviyesine eriti o

zaman

sevgilisiyle birleebildi.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
52

Bu

nedenle, dii ruh ya da nefis benzetmesinin hakîki rolünün, Murata'nn

dikkatimizi çektii gibi, bilgeük ilmini anlayarak teslimiyet yoluyla
melekelerin, istidat terbiyesi

zayf

demek

olan mânevi yolun mucizesini anlatmak

olduunu

görebiliriz.

Diillii daha derinlemesine anlamak

için,

Vaughan-Lee,
eril

A§kn

Çelikileri

adl eserinde, mânevi yolculuun da diil ve

özelliklerinin
ki,

olduunu
örtülerin

söylüyor. Eril boyut, çokluktan birlie giden yoldur

yüzümüzü
1

altndaki hayâlden çevirip bizi ekilsiz gerçei aramaya,

döngümüzü
o ^

tamamlayp, O'nu yaratltaki zuhurundan bilmeye

yöneltir.

Öte yandan yolun

diil

boyutunda "O" her zaman mevcuttur. Diü,
yaratan ve

yaratln srrn

saklar

ki,

O'nun dünyâs akta

birlesin. Öyleyse

yolun diü boyutu bu içgüdüsel
ortaya çkarandr.

ak

veya akla irtibat uurlu bir ekilde

Diü için döngü
bütündür.

her zaman

tamamdr çünkü

diilin

doas her zaman
"gerçek" dier
ikilikler

Onun vazifesi, akn çarkn ve
bilinç

kendi

doal bütünlüünü, içgüdü
birlikte,

dünyâsndan

alamna tamaktr. Bununla

maddeci dünya zaman ve mekâna
içerir.

bah

snrlamalar, bölünmeler ve

Diü her zaman içgüdüsel bütünlüünün bozulmasndan
geleneine göre diiün
idrâki

korkar ve

acsn çeker. Tasavvuf
yoktur, sâdece

ve ruhu içinde ayrlk

yaamn ve akn birliinin kutsall vardr,
ayrlk acsyla

dünya

sürekli olarak onu, diili

..11

ancak

d

yüzletirir.

Vaughan-Lee,

üâveten, idrâkin kendisinin,

ayrl gerektirdiini

açklyor: subje ve obje
ikilik

arasndaki

ayrm gibi yalnz
birdir.

nefsin yüksek idrak derecesinde

yoktur.

Büen ve bügi

Bu

ikinci hâl, ebedî

mücâdelemizin

gayesidir.

Ancak, idrâkin üstünlüüne ulaabilmek
geçici gücüyle
ezeli

için,

diü erkein, akln deüp
ihtiyaç

ruhun içgüdüsel bütünlüünü bozmasna
1

duyar ve

bütünlüün parçalanmas,

nefsin daha farkh ve yüksek mertebede
9

yeniden

domas için gerekli bir arttr.
kart

Diü,
yol,

yâni ruh yolunun

olan ve Murata'nn akü yolu dedii erü

arayan eklin illüzyonlarndan uzaklatrp, biçimsiz gerçee götürür

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
53

ki,

buradan
ile

nefis iç ve

d dünyâyla kucaklama
bir deyile, ikilik ve

özelliine sahip olan yeni

bir idrak

döner.

Dier

ayrlk örtülerinin altnda

olan birlik ortaya çkar, kefedilir.

Tüm yaamn
Bu
özelliin

birlii olan diil

ruh bu nedenle, Büyük Ana olarak

bilinir.

doamnkine

olan benzerliiyle önceden

açklanmtr. Fakat
bu, diile

tüm

yaamn bu büyük ak kendi birliini bilmez.
eril

Bilindii gibi, sâdece

insanlarda var olan idrâkin

boyutu

diili, ikilikle yüzletirir ki

vermi olduu acya ramen üstün

idrâkin

esâsn

içinde

barndrmaktadr.

Akl ve ruhun

"evlilik" süreci

ya da Murata'ya göre evrensel evlilii Vaughnifâde edilmitir
:

Lee tarafndan

aadaki paragrafta

"Hem

erkek

hem

de kadnda diil ve

eril özellikler

vardr ve bu bizim
farkl derecelerde
brakabilir.

mânevi yolumuza yansr. Her birimizde diil ve

eril

vurgulanmtr. Aynca toplu artlandrma doal meylimizi gölgede

Bâz kadnlar için

eril

bir tarzda

aratrmaya odaklanmak, her eyi kucaklayan

diü olmaya nazaran daha
kültürel

kolaydr. Hiçlik ideali

yaamn kutsal doasndaki

içgüdüsel farkndalktan daha kolaydr. Erilin yâni akln vurgulanmas

ardanma, diüin yâni ruhun yaralanmas ya da ruhun derin
için fiziksel

oryantasyonu sonucu oluabilir. Eril ve dii

spektrumda nasl

farkllklar bulunmakta ise arayamn yönelimi sâdece cinsel rol almayla

snrl

deildir.

Hayâtn yaratc dansyla ahenk
olabilir

içinde olan erkekler

vardr

ve O'nun

tecellilerinin esrarengiz güzellii içinde

kolayca sevgiliyi bulabilirler.

Bir ressam

bu mânevi mizaca sahip

ve iine teslim olarak sevdiine

yaknlar."
Kalbin içinde ayrlk
yer alr.
diildir.

olmad gibi, diyebiliriz ki, erü ve diilin evlilii kalpte

Ak limitsiz bir okyanus olarak kutsal kollaryla her eyi içeren

Dahil etme ve Hariç tutma
Diil ve
eril

dâhil

etme ve

hâriç tutmayla paralellik gösterir.

Ve arayan bu

meziyederin ikisine de ihtiyaç duymaktadr. Birlemenin de
hikmeti vardr.

ayrln da
olabilir,

Doruluk yolunda

feragat

etmek

bile bir

snrlama

"Terki terk etmek de bir terktir" de söylendii gibi dünyâda olmak

ama

KADIN VE WOMAN AN'D TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
54

dünyâdan olmamann anlam, bizim dünyây tüm karklklar ve
ihtiamlaryla, strap verici kskançlk ve sefâletieriyle kabul etmemiz
gerektiidir. Kalbimizi

yaama açmak demek,

bizim

ikilikle

veya aykrlklarla
içinde esas

snrlanmadmz
birliin

demektir. Bizler, kalbimizi

tüm ztlklarn
için

bulunduu kendimizin yuvas yapmak
ki,

savamahyz. 15
birlik yâni

Derine inersek, anlamalyz

çokluk birlii yanstr ve

tevhid

kendisini çoklukla aikâr eder.

Eer biz çokluun kerametini inkâr edersek,
inkâr
bir

biz

Hakk'n
ki,

bir

olduunu gösteren hayât
O'nun güzelliinin
bir

etmi

oluruz.

unu idrak

etmeliyiz

biz sâdece

aynas deil aym zamanda

O'nun güzelliinin

parçasyz. Biz kendimizde yaratln gizemini de
sr,

tayoruz. Var oluu zuhura getiren
yani "Ol" emridir .^^

yaratlm tam

ifâdesi olan

"Kün"

Çocuklarna ihtimam gösterirken,

diil, hariç

tutulmann

tehlikesini

bilir.

Hayatn kutsaU O'nun bütünlüüne baldr; çünkü her ey
Gerçek
terk

O demektir.
ki,

edi dünyâdan vazgeçi deildir

fakat

BEN 'ligin terk ediliidir.
mal,

Bununla

birlikte benlik

d dünyâmn

içine

o kadar gömülmütür

kendimizi benlik kalbndan serbest

brakma yolunda

mülk sahiplenme

ve dier kazammlar, dünyâdan yüz çevirmeyi çok zor bir süreç hâline

sokmaktadr.
ritüellerin

imdi

biz

cihadn gerçek

mânâsm ve

belki de

namaz

gibi

amaç ve faydalarm görüyoruz.

Eer bireysel kimliimiz
biz

önemli

bir

makam veya güzel bir ev gibi

d koullara balysa
kesmemiz
gerekir.

bu snrlamalarla

hapsolunmuuzdur.
edebilmek istiyorsak

Eer kendimizdeki cevheri tammlamak için gerçee
balanmz
Terk ediin kökeni,

doru bir aray içinde isek ve dünyevî çabalarmzda vahdet fikriyle hareket
nefsin birlie dâhil edilmesi ki
belirtildii gibi

tüm benliimizi

geride brakp, hadis-i erifte

"ölmeden önce ölmeyi"

gerektirir.

Bizler

hayâtmzn ksdamalanm

bo ve aldatc dünyây görmek için
yaradln
geçmektir. Biz

kendimizi eitmeliyiz. Nefis tarafndan kucaklanmak,
engellerinden kurtulup sonsuzluk ve özde hiçlik

boyumna

smrlarmz eritirken akn scaklna nasl ihtiyaç duyuyorsak, hayatmzdaki balarmzdan kurtulmak için de akn klcma ihtiyâcmz vardr. Bu ak ve scakkk bizim diil dünyâmzda zâten
kendimizle olan

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
55

bulunmaktadr. Yeter

ki biz

Allah'n içimizde oluunu hissedebilelim.

Bu arada Vaughn Lee'nin dedii gibi, anlamahyz ki, nefes alp verme gibi büzüme ve genleme hareket ve deiimin devam edegelen sürecidir. Lee,
bir

noktaya odaklanp dikkatimizi bir noktada toplamamz gereken anlar
farkl tecrübeleri içine alacak

olduunu ancak kalbin
de

genileme dönemlerinin

olduunu

belirtiyor.

Bu

kendimizin farkl yüzlerimizin ve sevgilimizin

idrâkine

vardmz anda olmaktadr. Bizim tek bir safhada mesela bir
küçülme veya diü
bir
özellik olan

erkeksi dinamik olan

genileme aamasnda
hikmeti vardr ve sonra

taklp kalmamamz lazm. Hepsinin

zaman ve

da tersine döner. Burada nefsimizin rehberliine ihtiyâcmz vardr. Biz
sâdece
belirli bir

mânevi dinamie

bal kalmamz
daha

konusunda uyarldk.
gelir.

Her

birimize yolun farkl bir cephesi daha kolay ve daha çekici

Bâz

arayanlar, terk

etmenin erkeksi

enerjisini

çekici bulabilirlerken, diilin

dâhil

olma çabas krlganlk

hissine yol açabilir. Dierleri belki de
olup, hariçte

doal

olarak diil

yaklama yatkn

tutmann gücüyle baa çkmakta

••17
zorlanabilir..

Erkekle
Farklar:

Kadn Arasndaki

Erillik ve Diillik

Açsndan Oluan

Hepimizde

eril

ve diü

niteliklerin

olmasna ramen

biz erkek ve kadnlar,

fiziksel, psikolojik

ve mânevi hislerimiz
bir

açsndan
bir

farkl

yaraülmzdr.

Kendi vücûdunda yeni
hakikati

hayâü hisseden

kadn, hayâün mânevi

hakknda içgüdüsel bir anlay
erkek,

içindedir.

O bu bilgileri doumunda,
alr.

kendi mânevi ve fiziksel merkezindeki Allah'n yaraüc gücünden

Dier bir taraftan

bu

bilgiyi elde

etmek için çok çahmak zorundadr

ve bu ekilde olmak

için,

içgüdüsel gücünün eklini deitirerek

onu

Allah'n irâdesine teslim etmek zorundadr.

Bu yüzden

görebiliriz ki, bir

zaman hayâtn mânevi hakikatiyle balant halindedir ancak, erkein içgüdüsel gücü onun ilâhî potansiyelinin farkna varmas için dönüüm geçirmek zorundadr. Kadmn doal benliinde,
her

kadnn içgüdüsel doas

kadn her zaman mübarek merkezdedir ancak bir erkek kendi mânevi doasm kefedici kahramanca bir yolculuk yapmak zorundadr.
Kadnlar, içgüdüsel olarak hayâtn bütünlüünün farknda olmasna ramen,

KADIN VE WOMAN ANJD TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

Q
56

d balardan ayrlmakta
görünmez

zorlanrlar. Genellikle, erkek için

ayrlmak ve

hedeflere odaklanmak daha kolaydr. Bir
anlatiyor:

kadn mürid bu

durumu öyle

"Kadnlar çocuklara sahip olduklar
erkeklere

için,

bu dünyânn

gereçleri onlar için

olduundan daha önemlidir. Bizim scakla ve güvenlie ihtiyâcmz vardr. Bir kadn için, ev, scaklk, güvenlik, sevgi, erkeklere olduundan çok daha önem
için

arz eder. Hindistan'da görürsünüz ki

'sannyasin'den (münzevi) daha fazla erkek 'sannyasin' vardr. Bir

kadn kadn

dünyây

terk

etmek çok daha zordur. Biz kadnlar

için

mânevi hayata

olduundan daha kolaydr ama terk etmesi erkee göre çok daha zordur. Bir kadn için, dünyâdan ayrlmak hayâtn her eyi içine dâhil eden yapsndan uzaklamann verdii acya yol açar.
erkekler için

uyum salamak

Bu yüce ana, her eyi kucaklamasna ramen, çocuklarnn bilinçsiz kalmasn ve kendisine kulluk yaparak balanmasm ister. Ancak arayan Allah'tan baka hiç kimseye ban emez. Ayrl, kiinin yaratltaki rahatszlklanndan o azad edilirken aym zamanda onun mânevi yapsna deer vermektir.".
-I

Bununla
gibi idrak,

birlikte

son olarak, tüm gerçek öretmenlerin bize söyleyecei

kstiamalarn

acsn içinde

tar.

uursuzluun

tabiat

snrszdr
bilir

ve

tammlanmamtr. uursuzluk okyanusunun smrlar

ve farkllklar

yokmr.

Tüm

bu savaa ramen sonunda yolcu bilemeyeceini
bize

ve

Vaughn Lee'nin
gibi

hatrlatt

gibi bizler

büyük
ki,

Sddk

Hz.

Ebu

Bekir

dua

etmeliyiz:

"ükürler olsun o Allah'a
ilgili

yaramklarna O'nu bilmedeki

dnda kendisiyle bilgi edinme yolu göstermemitir." Bu dünyâda O 'nun kulu ve hizmetkâr olarak devaml O 'nun arzusu dâhilinde
aczleri

yaamak için hem aklmzla hem
bilmemiz
gerekir.

de kalbimizle O'na

âit

olduumuzu
olur,

O'nu bilmek yalnz O'ndan dolay ve O'nunla

gerçek hizmetkâr
olunarak. ^9

olmamn yüksek

erefiyle ve

tamamen O'nda yok

Eril

Kadn

olarak

konuup
Eril'in

belki diyebiliriz

ki, bilgi

ve Diil'i anlamak ancak

ayn zamanda

önemini anlayarak tamamlanabilir. Yalnz böyle
ikisi

yaptmz zaman, biz

arasndaki dengeyi nihâî olarak

salam oluruz.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
57

Pratik anlamda, bizim ahlâkî deerler seklinde dünyâya

sunduumuz bu dengedir ki, medeniyetleri birbirine balar ve bunu tüm kâinata uyguladmz
zaman da
ahlak bizi ekolojik krizlerden koruyan güç olur.

Bu balamda,
iyi

Arapça'da, etiin ilmi olarak kullanlan "Ahlâk" kelimesi

ya da kötü 'karakter özellii' anlamna gelen huluk'tan türetilmi.
tarafna {ruh veya akl)
aittir

Övgüye

deer karakterler nefsin aydnlanm
karanlk taraf
ile

ve suçlanan

ise (nur eksiklii
.

anlamndadr) genellikle feminen, diil ruh

ilikilendirilmitir

Yeniden vurgulanmas gereken

ey sâdece ükre

deer ve

gerekli özelliklerin ne
eril

olduu

deil, bunlarn

varolan diil ve

taraflarn ayrlmaz bir

kadn ve erkekte parças olduklardr. Bu sâdece
itidale (adalet
bir ekildeyerliyerineyerletirmek

kendimizin "yin" ve "yang" veçhelerimizi dengeleyerek tam
kelimesiyle

ayn kökten gelmitir ve

herzeyi

doru

anlamna gelir) ulalr. Kendinde dengenin kurulumu, erkek ve kadn

toplumda adaletin kurulmasma tekabül

eder.

Diiliin genel
veriyoruz
ki,

özelliklerini tarif

ettiimiz gibi erilliin özelliklerini

aada

hiç birimiz

bu

özelliklere

kadmn

da ihtiyâc olduunu inkâr

etmeyecektir.
91

Bu
-

özellikler övalyelik özellikleridir

ve unlardan olumaktadr:

Yasal olmayan eylerden uzak

durmak

Davranlarda
Birisinin

iffetli

olmak

Biraz sanat ya da ticârede

uramak
bir ii gizli

açk açk yapmaktan utanaca

yapmaktan

geri

durmak
-

Tasvip edilen davramlar

yapmay alkanlk haline getirmek Gayrimeru olandan kaçnmak Ruhu, kirli ve ayp fiillerden muhafaza etmek
Edepli olmak
Dili

hfz etmek

Tamahtan kaçnmak
yi davranlarda sebat etmek
Güzel ahlâk
sahibi

-

olmak

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
58

"Erlik" cömertlik, hürriyetperverlik ve
fütüvvefle.

asil kalplilik

mânâsna

gelen

de

ilikilidir.

Son
bize

olarak,

akla alakal olarak sklkla

yaadmz aknlkla

ilgili

Murata

unu hatrlatyor: Onunla ügüi

deneyimimiz ne olursa olsun, ondan

hiç vazgeçmemeliyiz. Câmi'nin

u sözünü naklediyor:
sizi

"Yüzlerce
kurtarr.

ey deneyebilirsiniz ama ak yalruz bana
nedenle, hiç bir dünyevi ekil için
". ^"^

kendinizden
o,

Bu

aktan kaçma çünkü

en

ulu hakikat için hazrlktr

Ancak, Allah'la olan ilikimizi hiç bir zaman insanla olan ilikimizle

kartrmamahyz. Kanunlatrsak da veya
anlamalyz
ki, kalpler,

içten kontrol altna alsak da,

irâde ettiimiz ya da içimizde var olan her

ak

ilikisinde bizim gerçekten hakikatini ve en derin

âk olduumuzun O -Allah- olduu tasavvufî
insani ilikilerin

tutkularmz

maddî dünyâsna
idrak eder.

yöneltmenin bizim

için

sâdece çok kolay

olduunu
(gayr),

Aym

remizle,

"kskançlk"
biçim

(gayra)

ve "dier"

kadn-erkek/kar-koca
içindedir.

ilikisinde

hem

hem

de anlam olarak

sk bir iliki

Kskançlk, Murata'ya göre, bütün "dier"lere arkasn dönmek ve garazsz
bir

dikkade Allah' hedeflemektir.

Çünkü

\llah, kendi yerine taplacak hiç

bir

"dier" istememektedir. Kskançhkta sebat etmek veya bakalarm
olur, tevhidi tesis eder.^-^

reddetmek, irke engel

O hâlde, insan boyumnda

gerçekleenlerin nasl mânevi anlamlar

tadm yine görüyoruz.

Sonuç
Erkek-kadn

ayrüm incelerken, Müslümanlar,
ile

sembol üe sembolize
nitelii
özellikleri

edilen arasndaki fark veya cisim

o cisimde tecessüm etmi
özellikleri ile

ayrmaldr. Konumuzun ana amac, dii ve erkek
erkek ve

bu

kadn

olarak nasl elde etmemiz gerektiini ve

bu

elde ediin

neden ve nasllarm anlamaktr.

Son

olarak,

tarttmz konunun halifelikle de alâkas vardr. Çou

zaman

9
59

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

slâm'n

bize insanlarn Allah'n

dünyâda/bu hayatta

halîfesi

olduunu
kontrol

söylediini duyarsnz.

Bu

nedenle çevreyi,

fiziksel, ahlâkî, politik

etme haklan vardr.

Ama bu halifeliin u an içinde bulunduumuz durum
hakikatini

olmayp amaç olduu
haûrlatr
.

göz ard etmektir. Murata bize bunu

Teknolojinin çevreyi ve bizim

yaantlarmz deitirmek üzere kullanlmas
olmayan ekline karük, gerçek

eklinde
halifelik,

gördüümüz
tamamyla

halifeliin gerçek

Allah'a itaate

dayanr ve kulun kiisel arzusundan
ulaür. Sen ve ben, erkek ve kadn
halîfesi

dolay deil kiisel arzuya

ramen
ki,

eer

egolarmz

teslimiyete

dönümediyse, Allah'n

olmay

isteyemeyiz.

Teslimiyet ve hilâfet kullukmr

bunun yokluunda bugün gördüklerimizle

kadmn rzna geçilmesi ve insanlarn kuUuk ve huzura ulamasna yardmc olan deerler ve kurumlarn yok edilmesi.
kalrz, yani çevrenin ve

Murata

u hadisi naklettiinde
hüküm

konuyu bugün bizim

için

özedemi

oluyor:

"Son

saatin belirtileri
ilikilerin

arasnda ilmin yok olmas,
sürmesi,

gayrimeru
her
elli

kaytszln yerlemesi, kadnlarn saysmn artmas öyle ki,
(Buhari ve Muslim, dünyamn sonunda

kadna bakacak bir erkek olmas"
erkein durumu hakknda).

kadn
Bir

ve

baka deyile, bugün problem erkek ve kadnn eit olmamas durumu deü, fakat daha az hakîki kadn ve hakîki erkein kalddr. Çoumuzun
ruhlar
{di§i)

Allah'la ve dolaysyla

da

kendileriyle,

bakalaryla ve çevreyle
bir

huzur

Gördüümüz gibi bu huzurun erkek olmamn doru mânâsm anlamaya bahdr.
bulmu
deildir.

ksm,

dii ve

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
60

DPNOT:
^

A.

Rahman

(1994), slamiyet:
-

Doal Yaam Tarz

(slam: the Natural

Way

of Life), Londra sf 2 3 ^ Otto Weininger (1906) Cinsiyet ve Karakter (Sex and Character), G.P. Putnam and Sons, New York.

Alnt: Azizan Baharuddin (1995), Kadnlar: dealler ve Gerçek. (Women: Ideals and Reality), Politika Aratrma Enstitüsü, Kuala Lumpur sf.105
•^

F.

Capra (1982),
:

Dönüm Noktas:

Bilim,

Toplum ve Yükselen Kültür (The

Turning Point

Science, Society

and

the Rising Culture), Flamingo,

Londra, sf. 23 ^ Carolyn Merchant (1980), Doann Ölümü (The Death of Nature), New York: Harper and Row sf. xviii ^ G. Kass-Simon and Patricia Fames (eds.) 1990, Bilim Kadnlar: Kayda Geçenler (Women of Science: Writing the Record), Hindistan UP. sf. 257-258 ° FritjofCapoa 1982, ayn ^ ayn. Sachihiko Murata da slamiyetin Taosu (Tao of Islam) adl kitabnda

ayn noktay ayn

vurguluyor.
in

° Anne-Marie Schimmel 9 ^
'^ Lwellyn
sf.

Sachiko Murata (1992)

sf vii-x

Vaughen-Lee (1996) 95-102

Akn Paradokslar (The Paradoxes of Love),

11

12 "^
''3

ayn ayn
sf

Murata sf. 164-165 ^^ Vaughan Lee (1996)
'^

95

102

° 17
'

° ^^ Vaughan Lee

ayn ayn ayn ayn

sf. sf.

117

20 Murata (1992) 2'' Murata sf. 266

257

22 Murata
2^ Murata 24 Murata

sf. sf. sf.

260 266 322

un

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

J^f^
62

Murata's View on Gender Role in Islamic Thought: Sufi Perspective

Prof. Dr.

A^î^an

BAHARUDDN
at the" International

This paper was presented

Symposium of Women and Sufism"
2005.

that

was organ2ed by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

1 6,

We

often ask ourselves questions such as

Who am I? Where do I come
the
I

from?

How did the world and the universe come into being? What is
my existence? What
in
it.

meaning of
after this

should, and not,

do? Where

will I

go

earth-bound existence? These are questions about the universe,

our place, role and function
questions will in

The answers
act.

that

we have

for these

mrn

assist

us in shaping our worldview or Weltanschauung.
think and

Worldviews
in this

affect the

way we

They

affect

our Uves. ImpHcit
issues.

worldview would be our ideas on gender and gender

Basically I

would

like to

embark upon

a journey

of understanding regarding

the meaning, status, function and role of the "female" and hence the

woman,
the

i.e. I

would

like to

understand what the

spiritual significance

of

woman is. As weU
is

as trying to

be in Hne with the theme of your
think
is

wonderful Conference,
today there

this topic is I

of great significance because

a perceived imbalance

between the application of the

^
'^ -^

"masculine" and "feminine" principles in the way
in

many

fields

of

Hfe.

Disastrous
crisis for

we conduct our lives consequences of this may be illustrated
is

through the ecological
sustainability

example which threatens not only the
the hallmark

Q:

of resources but also the very humanity that

of our species.

^ ^
OQ

Due

to time constraints

I

can only share

this

tour of understanding very

^

N
N

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
63

briefly,

but suffice to say that whilst
utility, at

at the 'worldly' level the topic

has

practical

the personal level
seekers,

and

especially

women

we need to know because, as seekers, we desire to know what God wants and
in love with

we

try to

need/hope/be scared of and be

and because of

Him
As
as a

only.

background for discussion,

I will

be depending upon

my own

past

experiences and knowledge as a student of science and religion as well

upon

the writings of scholars and practitioners of tasawwuf, especially

Sachiko Murata, author of amongst other works. The Tao of Islam (1992)
as well as Llewellyn

Vaughan-Lee, author of amongst others. The Paradoxes

of hove (1996).

I

place a great deal of emphasis

on

the personal experience

because as you are aware, the type of knowledge and understanding that

we

are talking about cannot really be

"known" without being
in tandem.

"felt",

i.e.

the intellect as well as the heart

must work

Improving our world view and explaining our position
Today, due to the massive misunderstanding concerning Islam and Muslims
at least

and

in the context

of a dialogue of

civilisations, there is also a

need for the feminine

(beauty, gentleness, holism,

empathy

etc)

qualities

of the

human

as

guided by the religion to be brought equally on par with the
(reason, courage, strength, decisiveness).

masculine qualities
issues that

Key

questions /

need

articulating

and explaining in the context of our discussion

include:

What is
Is the

masculine as opposed to feminine?

western way of seeing / understanding the relationship between

the

two the only way?;

how

different

would the eastern and Islamic view

be?

What
term

is

perhaps needed today

is

for femininity

(in

man and /

or

woman) to

balance the over-emphasis

on masculinity or what Sachiko Murata would

as negative masculinity.

We need to grasp reality sapientially in order
properly" and Sufism can be described

to live as

man and woman "more

c
to

as a very empirical / scientific enterprise that deals with reality that

can

help us.

N
N

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
64

The Mismeasure of

Femininity and

Women
women
as

In his Sex and Character, the writer Otto Weininger described
totally unsuitable for science, for

example.

He

said "a being like the female

without the power of making concepts,

is

unable to make judgments. In
is

her mind subjective and objective are not separated; there

no

possibility

of making up judgments and no

possibility

of reaching or desiring

truth.

No woman is

really interested in science.

She may deceive herself and

many good men, but bad

psychologists by thinking so".

The above view might not come

as too great a surprise to anyone,

but

how did

it

originate
it

and what were the deep philosophical assumptions
According to historians of science,
it

underlying

to begin with?

began

with what

is

known

as the division

between mind and matter by the

French mathematician - philosopher Rene Descartes, whose famous
statement "Cogito ergo sum" - "I think, therefore
I

exist"

encouraged
rather than

western

men

to equate their identity with their rational

mind

with their whole organism. In the words of the nuclear physicist, Fritjof

Capra "the division between mind and matter led to
as a

a

view of the universe

mechanical system consisting of separate objects, which in turn were

reduced to fundamental material building blocks whose properties and
interactions

were thought to completely determine

all

natural

phenomena".

Capra believes that

it

was the same Cartesian view of nature

that

was

then extended to living organisms which were seen to be machines,

made

up

also

of separate

parts.

At the

basis

of much of modern science today
it

is this

mechanistic conception of the world and

continues to have
life.

tremendous influence on many aspects of modern
analyses have

Amongst

others,

shown

that

it

has resulted in the fragmentation of knowledge;

fragmentation of academic disciplines and government agencies as well
as

being the justification and rationale for tteating the namral environment
it

as if

was made up of separate parts to be exploited without

limits.
00

The exploitation of

nature took place alongside the exploitation of
(at least in the western tradition).

women
Nature

c
N

who

have been identified with nature

N

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
65

has been regarded as a kind of "nurturing mother" as well as a "wild and
uncontrollable female".

Under

patriarchal systems the benign motherly

image changed to "passivity" whereas the notion of wildness led to the
assumption that

women are to be

conquered and subsequentiy dominated
rise

and controlled by men. With the

of Newtonian science that saw

nature as a mechanical structure manipulable and exploitable, so too were

women

to be treated in such a manner.

However, the mythological
of

association of

women

and nature

links the history

women

to the

history of the environment
relationship

and

is

seen as the source of the special
In this context the historian,

between

ecology 2X^6. feminism today.

Carolyn Merchant suggests that "in investigating the roots of our current

environmental dilemma and
the system,

its

connections to science, technology and
the formation of a world view and science

we must reexamine

which by reconceptualising

realit)" as a

machine rather than

a living

organism sanctioned the domination of both nature and women".

Perhaps

it is

interesting to note that the first person to have written about

the concept of the environment which
a

we

are

all

familiar with today
Silent

was

woman, Rachel Carson

(1907-1964)

who wrote

Spring'm 1962.

Although famous
biologist.

as a writer,

Carson was

in fact a professional

marine
all

As G. Kass— Simon has

aptiy pointed out "the

view that

of

nature

is

interdependent and that through industrialized activity humans

invariably cause

permanent damage
that to reiterate

to the earth

is

a

view which today
It is

is

so

commonplace

it is

almost boring.

hard to believe

therefore that

when

Silent Spring first

appeared, the idea that

modern

technology could annihilate us by irretrievably destroying our habitat was

an unheard of an revolutionary thought - one that provoked debate and
discussion throughout the society and was greeted with alarm and

controversy in government and industry.

Carson had

to

produce 55 pages of references based on hundreds of
of destruction to the environment and she had to argue

actual reports

her point in 350 pages. She also had to explain

many of

the biological

and ecological principles which caused the destruction.
immediate
effects

One of

the

of Carson's book was "the banning of

DDT as an

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
66

insecticide whilst the long

term consequences were that

it

changed the

world".

5

It is

now becoming clearer that attitudes which are profoundly antiecological
stem from the overemphasis of the sciendfic method on
linear

actually

thinking.

Ecosystems sustain themselves

in a

dynamic balance based on

cycles

and fluctuations which are non

linear processes.

As Capra points

out, "linear enterprises such as indefinite

economic and technological
with the natural
is

growth — or

to give a

more

specific example, the storage or radioactive

waste over enormous time spans

— wiU inevitably interfere

balance and sooner or later will cause severe damage. There
in

therefore

modern

civilization a striking disparit}^

between the development of
skills,

intellectual

power,

scientific

knowledge, and technological

on the

one hand, and of wisdom,

spirimality

and

ethics

on

the other". "

Writing on an analysis of culture, writers such as Capra also point out
that the
(of

above

is

the result of overemphasis of the jang or masculine side

human

nature)

-

rational

knowledge,

analysis,

expansion; neglecting our
synthesis

yin, or feminine side (of our nature)

— intuitive wisdom,

and
an

ecological awareness.
analysis

The yin/yang terminology is
as
it

especially useful in

of culmral imbalance

adopts a broad ecological view, a view

that could also

be called

a systems view.

A systems view sees the world in
all

terms of the interrelatedness and interdependence of
in this

phenomena, and
and

framework any system

is

an integrated whole, whose properties
parts. Living organisms, societies

cannot be reduced to those of
ecosystems are aU
systems.

its

According to Capra, yin corresponds to

all

that

is

contractive, responsive

and conservative whereas yang implies
and demanding. In Chinese
with what
is

all

that

is

expansive, aggressive

Q\Ax\xte,yin
se.

andyang have never been associated
is

bad or good per

What is good
what
is

not the yin or yang but
is

the dynamic balance between the two;

bad or harmful

imbalance.
qualities,

By
it is

the

same token when

talking about feminine
is

and masculine

never our objective to say that one
is

better than the other.

What we

03

are emphasizing

that each

complements the other and

that without one,

the other will be incomplete.

c *

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
67

KADN

VE

WOMAN AND

Therefore, the total personality of each
entity that
is static.

man and
a

each

woman is

not an

Rather personality

is

dynamic phenomenon

resulting

from the interplay between feminine and masculine elements. This view
of

human
all

nature

is

in sharp contrast to that of patriarchal (as Copra

believes

western / modern society to be) society that has established a rigid order in

which
only.

men

are

supposed to be masculine only and

all

women

feminine

Such a

situation has also distorted the

meaning of those terms by

giving

men

"all

leading roles and

most of

society's privileges".

In western culture

and receptive,

women have tradidonally been portrayed as passive men as acdve and creative. This imagery goes back to
been used throughout the cenmries
subservient

Aristode's theory of sexuality and has
as a scientific rationale for keeping

women in a subordinate role,

to

men.
of religion according to Schimmel many of the disrespectful

In the

field

sayings about

women,

especially

among

ascetics

and mystics, stem from
feminine noun, and

the fact that in Arabic the

word

for soul,

(nafs), is

based on the sura 2:53

it is

often understood as the nafs ammara "the soul
is

that incites evil". In this understanding the nafs

represented through

the image of a stubborn resisting horse or camel, a black dog, a snake

and or

a disobedient

woman. She

explains further that 'nafs'h also used

to symboüze/project the material world o °

which

in Arabic

is

also a feminine

noun.

However, over and above the
both men and women, even
if

fact that the nafs

ammara is possessed by

women

are identified with nafs in general,

we

should remember that there are various stages of the nafs as the story
in the

of Zulaikha

Quran

illustrates.

Zulaikha as

we know was consumed by
become
the nafs

her love for Yusuf, the paragon

of male beauty. However, she purified herself through a long period of
suffering to

lawwama or

the self critical soul (75:2) and

only

when

she reached the level of the nafs

mutmainna or

the peaceful

soul (89:27)

was she able

to be united with her beloved.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
68

Therefore,

we can
is

see that the real role of the analogy of the feminine

soul or nafs

in describing the

mystery of the

spiritual path,

which

is

the

education of the lower faculties through submission accompanied by

understanding

(sapiential knowledge) as

pointed out by Murata.

For

a

deeper understanding of the feminine element, Vaughan-Lee in his
tells

Paradoxes of Love

us that the spiritual journey too has a masculine and
is

a feminine aspect.

The masculine dimension
veils
circle,

the path

from

multiplicity

to oneness, in

which we turn from the

of

illusion to seek inner reality

beyond form, completing the
His creation.

coming

to

know Him

reflected in

However,

in the feminine

dimension of the path

He

is

always present.
is

The feminine
to

holds the secret of creation he says, which
in love.

that the creator

and His world are united
is

The feminine

aspect of the path then

make conscious

this instinctual love

or link of love.

For the feminine the
feminine
is

circle is

always complete because the nature of the

always wholeness.

Her

role

is

to bring the circle of love
hale,

and

the natural wholeness (form the old English word
self,

meaning health) of the

from the

instinctual

world into consciousness.

However, the 'real'/other/material world contains /involves the
of time and space, divisions and
suffers
dualities.

limitations

The feminine

always fears and

dismrbances of her instinctual wholeness. According to the Sufi
psyche and perception of the feminine there
1

tradition, within the

is

no

separation only the sacred oneness of Mfe and love, but the outer world
continually confronts her with the pain of separation.

Q Q
:=>

Vaughan-Lee further explains
separation, the division

that consciousness itself necessitates
object.

a:

between subject and
is

Only

in the higher
3:

consciousness of the self
are one.

there

no

duality; the

knower and the knowledge
OQ

The

latter is the

goal of our perpetual striving.

C
<B

N N

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
69

KADN

VE

WOMAN AND

However, to reach the

quality

of consciousness, the feminine needs

as

it

were to experience "the penetrating power of masculine

spirit violating

her instinctual wholeness"; and the sense of primordial wholeness being

broken,

is

a necessary condition for the self to be reborn in a different,

higher dimension.

The masculine path [which Murata
the feminine
(soul)]

also calls the

Intellect,

as

opposed

to

then takes the seeker away from the illusions of form

into the formless reality;

from which the

self returns

with a 'new'
it

consciousness that possesses the quality of embracing within

the inner
duality,

and outer worlds. In other words, the oneness beneath the of separation
is

veils

of

discovered.

13

That

is

why

the feminine
all life,

is

known

as the

Great Mother,

who is

the

oneness of
described
oneness.

very often the analogy given to Nature as has been
all life

earlier.

But the great flow of

does not

know its own

As mentioned,

the masculine spirit of consciousness possessed

only by humankind, then confronts the feminine with duality which despite
the pain
it

causes to the feminine, contains the seed of the higher

consciousness

we have mentioned. This

process of the 'marriage', ("or

universal marriage" according to

Murata) between the masculine and the

feminine

is

described by Vaughn-Lee in the following paragraphs:

"Both men and women have masculine andfeminine
in our spiritual drive.
degrees.

qualities

and these

are reflected
differing

In each of us masculine andfeminine are emphasised to
conditioning that

There

is also the collective

may overshadow our natural

tendencies.

For some women

the masculine focus of the quest is easier than the allis easier

embracingfeminine; the ideal of renunciation of
life's

than the instinctual awareness

sacred nature. This masculine emphasis can he the result of cultural conditioning,
the soul Just as there are

a wounding of the feminine, or a deep orientation of
variations across the physical spectrum of masculine

many

andfeminine,

so also is the seeker's

^^
02
i
«J

orientation not limited to sexual typecasting. There are
creative dance

men who

are in tune

mth

the

of

life

and can find the Beloved most easily

in the mysterious beauty of

Hisforms.
to his

An artist may have this spiritual temperament,
closer to

and through

surrendering

work come

Him whom he loves.

N

KADIN vu WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
70

As
it is

it is

within the heart that there

is

no

separation,

we can
and
it is

also say that,

in the heart that the marriage

between the masculine and the feminine
limits

takes place.

Love though

is

an ocean without

the feminine

that includes everything within her sacred arms.

Inclusion and Exclusion

The feminine and masculine are

also analogous to inclusion

and exclusion

-

and, the

seeker needs both these qualities. There is both the

wisdom of union and the wisdom
limitation,

of separation.

On

the path

toward the Truth even renunciation can be a
is renunciation.

as in the saying that 'denunciation of renunciation

"

To

be "in the
confusions

world but not of the world" means we have

to accept the

world with all of

its

and glory
hearts to

including
life

all,

the pangs

ofjealousy and the pain of misery. Opening our

means we are not
to

limited bj duality or caught in contradictions.

We

should strive
within

make

the heart, the

home of

the Self which contains all the opposites

its essential oneness.

Going deeper we have
and oneness
the
(tawhid)

to understand that multiplicity reflects oneness
itself

makes

known through
the
life

multiplicity. If

we deny

wonder of

multiplicity

we deny

that enables us to recognize

that

He

is

the One.

We

have to

realise that

we

are not only a mirror to

His beauty but also a part of His beauty.

We
is

carry within ourselves the

hidden secret of creation, the secret that
very word of creation, Kun
("Be!").

brought into existence by the

In caring for

all

of her children, the feminine knows the danger of depends on
its

exclusion. Life's sacredness

entirety (because everything

is

He).

True renunciation does not mean renunciation of the world but the
renunciation of the
ego.

However, because the

ego's identity

is

so

embedded

Q Q
rD q:

in the outer world, in possessions

and attachments, turning away from

the world can be a very difficult process of breaking the grip of the ego,

•=1:

of freeing ourselves from

its

patterns of identity.

Now we see the true
such as the
salat,

3;
=3:

meaning oî jihad and the purpose and use of
perhaps. If our individual identity
is

rituals

00

dependent upon our outer condition,

c
CO

N N

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
71

(in

an important position or a beautiful house for example),

we

are imprisoned in

these limitations. If
identify with
in

we

are seeking to look only towards the truth to

what

is

highest within ourselves^ to be and

do what

is

holistic

our worldly endeavours,
root of renunciation
is

we need
and

to cut these cords

of attachment.

The
that
die".

the Self's totality of inclusion which

demands

we

leave behind the ego,

as the hadith says to "die before

we

We
Self

need to
its

train ourselves to see the limitations

of our

own

life as

we
the

know it,
is

basic emptiness

and

illusory nature.

To be embraced by

to have a break through the barriers
essential nonexistence.
just as

of creation into the dimension

of eternity and our
cut us away

We need the
we need
the

sword of love to
love

from our attachments,
of our

warmth of

to melt the boundaries

own

being. This love

and warmth are

already within our feminine nature and

we need

to allow

God

to

work

them
In the

in

and through

us.

mean time as Vaughn Lee

says

we need to understand that contraction
is

and expansion, in-breathing and out-breathing, the path
process of

a continual

movement and

change. There are times
says,

when we need

to focus

and keep our attention one-pointed he
expansion
This
is

but there are also periods of

when the heart opens to include a diversity of experiences. when the manifold aspects of our self and the Beloved come into

consciousness.

We

must not be caught

in

one

stage, in the

masculine
its

dynamic of contraction or feminine

quality
its

of expansion. Each has
opposite.

time and purpose, and then changes into

Here we need the
attached to

guidance of the Self
a particular spiritual

We

are

warned

that

we cannot remain

dynamic only and that for each of
easier

us, different aspects

of the path may be

and more appealing. Some seekers may find the
attractive,

masculine energy of renunciation more

while the feminine

work of

inclusion

may evoke

feelings

of

vulnerability.

Others are maybe

naturally predisposed to the

work of
17

the feminine and find the force of

exclusion difficult to undergo.

CO

N N
"5:

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
72

Differences between

man and woman in respect

of the intrinsic

masculine and feminine within them
Although we aU have masculine and feminine
qualities within us,

we,

men

and women, are made differendy
spiritual sense.

in the physical, psychological,

and

A woman who experiences new life
of the
creative

from within her own
essence of
life.

body has an
receives this

instinctual understanding

spiritual

She

knowledge from the
centers, at birth.
as

power of God

in her spiritual

and physical
to gain this
drive

A man, on the other hand, has to work hard
such has to transmute his instinctual power

knowledge and
it

and surrender
instinctual

to the

wiU of God. Therefore, we can see that a
the spiritual essence

woman's
of
life,

namre always connects her with

but the man's instinctual drive has to be transformed in order to

realize its divine potential. In her natural self, a

woman

is

always at the

sacred center but a

man

has to

make

his heroic

journey of rediscovering

within himself his spiritual nature. Although
life's
it is

women instinctively know
invisible goal.

wholeness, they find
easier for

it

difficult to leave

outer attachments. Generally

men

to be detached

and to focus on an

A

woman
"Because

spiritual

Master explains

this

condition as follows:

women have

children, they are

made

in such

a way that things of

this

world

are more important than for a man.

We need warmth,

we need security. For a woman
will
it is

a home, warmth,
see in

security, love,

are

much more important than for a man. You

India

many more male
difficult to

sannyasins than female sannyasins.

For a woman
life is

much more

renounce the world
is

For us women

spiritual

easier

than for men, but to renounce

more

difficult

than for men. For a woman, detachment
life.

can carry the pain of cutting her away from the all-inclusive nature of
the

Although

Great Mother embraces

everything, she requires that her children

remain unconscious

and bound to her in

servitude
is the
its

(However), the seeker bows down before

Q Q
q:

no one but God. Detachment
while at the

work of freeing
sacred nature".

oneself from the grip of creation

same time honoring

a:

Finally,

however, as

all

the genuine teachers will

tell us,

consciousness also
is

CO

carries the pain

of limitation. The nature of the unconscious
is

unlimited

c M N

and undefined. The ocean of the unconscious

without borders or

KADIN vt WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
73

differentiation. Despite

all

the striving, ultimately the wayfarer
us,

knows

that

he cannot know, and
great Sai)idina

as

Vaughn Lee reminds
:

we need

to pray as the

God who hath given His creatures no way of attaining to the knowledge of Him except through their inability
Abu Bakr did
In order to
"Praise to
to

know Him".

Live in this

world

as

His servant, constantiy
as

attentive to His will,

that

we belong

to

we need to know in the mind Him. To know Him can only be

weU

as in the heart

possible through /

with / because of Him, hence the extremely high honour of true 19 servanthood and complete annihilation.

The Masculine
Speaking as

women perhaps we can say that knowledge and understanding
if

of the feminine can only be complete
significance of the masculine at the

we and we
time.

must, understand the

same

Only when we do so can
practical terms
it

we
is

ultimately achieve the balance

between the two. In
to the world in the

this

balance that

we can present
is

form of our
from the

ethics

and morality which

the

cement
is

that binds civilization together,

and

when
crisis.

applied to nature, ethics

the force that saves us

ecological

In this context.
is

derived

The Arabic term used for the science of ethics akhlaq, from Khuluq which means "character traits", which may be
characters belong to the luminous side of the
(which merely

good or bad. Praiseworthy
self (the spirit or Intellect)
absence of
light),

and blameworthy the dark

means

the

often associated with the 'feminine' soul.

What needs

to be reemphasized
traits are

though

is

not only what the praiseworthy and necessan^
is

but equally important

that they are inherent in both the

feminine and mascuüne, which exist in both

men and women.

It is

only
i'tidal

by balancing the two jin
or equilibrium, (which
is

2.nd jang aspects or qualities
derivedfrom the

of ourselves,

same root word as adl orjustice, and
achieved.

defined as putting everything in

its rightfulplace) is

The

establishment

of equilibrium
c
CD,
i

in the self (men
society.

and women) corresponds to the establishment

of

justice in

human

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
74

Just as

we have described,
also need.

the universal qualities of femininity, the following
-I

are qualities

of masculinity which

am

certain

none of us

will

denyof:

women

These

qualities are

those of chivalry, and consist

-abstinence from things unlawful
-chastity in

manners
art or trade

-having

some

-abstaining
-habit

from doing secredy what one would be ashamed
is

to

do openly

of doing what
is

approved

-shunning what

held base

-preserving the soul of filthy actions and what disgraces

-good manners
-guarding the tongue

-shunning impudence
-persevering in

good manners

-moral goodness

"Manliness"
liberality

is

also

connected

^ith. futuwa,

which

signifies generosity,

and noble heartedness.

Finally,

regarding the perplexit}' that

we

often experience concerning love,
it

Murata reminds us that whatever our experiences are with
give

we must not
So never

up on

it.

She quotes Jami

as saying:
love alone will releaseyou fromyourself
.

"You may

try

a hundred things, hut

flee from love in

an

earthly guise -for it is

a preparation for the supreme truth ".

However, we must not confuse our relationship with
relationship.

God with or human
it

Whether enacted or inwardly contained, we must understand
love and that

that the hearts understands the mystical truth that in every love affair,
is

Q q
~^

really

Him whom we

it is

only too easy for us to project

our deepest desire onto the tangible world of

human

relationship.

^
a:
CO

By

the

same token, "jealousy"

(ghayra)

and "other"

(ghayr) in a

manboth form

woman/husband- wife

relationship are intimately connected in
is

c
<d

and meaning. To be jealous

to turn

away from

all

"others" and aim for

N

N

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
75

KADN VE WOMAN

AND

God with

single-minded attentiveness says Murata for

God wants "no
tawhid.

others" to be worshipped in place of Himself. Perseverance in jealousy

or the negation of others
Therefore,

is

to avoid shirk

and to establish
in the

we can

see again

how what happens

human dimension

contains spiritual meanings.

Conclusion

When

evaluating the

man -woman

dichotomy, Muslims today must learn
is

to distinguish

between the symbol and what

symbolized or between

The primary thrust of our discussion is male and female "qualities" and how we as men or women must acquire them, and understand the hows and the whys of
the object and the "quality" "incarnated with in it."*
this acquisition.

Finally,

what have been discussing
often hear that Islam

also has a bearing

on our vicegerency.
beings are God's
the right to
is

One might

tells

us that

human

vicegerents (khalifah)

on earth/in

this life.

Hence they have
But
this

control the environment
the fact that vicegerency

(physical, moral, political etc).
is

to ignore

the goal, not the actual simation or state that
us.

we

are in yet.

Murata reminds
as

True vicegerency,
technology
is

opposed

to the false

form we
and

find in the

way
lives today,

being used to change the environment and our

depends completely upon obedience to

God

is

achieved in spite of

the servant's personal desire and not because of them.

"You" and

"I",

"man" and "woman" cannot
serva nthood, without which

desire to be God's vicegerent unless our
is

egos are transformed into submission. Submission and vicegerency

we

get

what we

see today, the rape of the

environment (and woman)
that help

as well as the destruction

of values and instimtions

humans achieve servanthood and
allow Murata to

peace.

We may perhaps
"Among the
ignorance
so that 50
is

sum up
will

the situation for us today

when

she quotes the hadith:
signs

of the

last

hour

be that knowledge disappears,

established, fornication prevails,

— women become many,
<&

women will

have but one

man

to stand over thtm''' (Bukhari

m

Muslim

regarding

men and women

at the end of time).

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
76

in other words, the problem today
are "unequal" but that there
is

is

not so

much

that

men and women
women
left.

much

fewer

true

man or

true

The

souls (feminine) in

many of

us are not/have not found peace with

God

and therefore with themselves, others and the environment. As we have
seen part of that peace
lies in

the understanding of the true

meaning of

being feminine and masculine.

ENDNOTES
1

A.

Rahman

(1994), Islam the Natural

Way

of Life, London pp 2
G.P.

-

3
York.

2

Otto Weininger (1906)

Sex and Character,
105

Putnam and Sons, New

Quoted
3
F.

in

Azizan Baharuddin (1995), Women-Ideals and Reality,
p.

Institute for

Policy Research, K.L

Capra (1982), The

Turning Point p.

Science Society and the Rising

Culture, Flamingo, London,

23
p.

4

Carolyn Merchant (1980),
xviii

The Death of Nature, New York Harper and Row

5

G. Kass-Simon and Patricia

Fames

(eds.) 1990,

Women

of Science-Righting

the Record, India
Fritjof
ibid.

UR

Pp. 257-258

Capoa 1982,

ibid
in in

Sachihiko Murata

her Tao of Islam also emphasizes the

same

point.

o

Anne-Marie Schimmel

Sachiko Murata (1992) pp

vii-x

^ibid 10 Lwellyn Vaughen-Lee (1996)
11

The Paradoxes of Love,

pp.

95 -102

ibid

ibid

^^ ^^

Murata pp. 164-165

Vaughan Lee (1996) pp 95
ibid ibia ibid ibid

-

102

^^

16.^..

Q Q
=J
p.
p.

19

Vaughan Lee

117

tt:

20
21

Murata (1992) Murata
p. p.

257
a:
"^

266
260

22
2^

Murata

OQ

Murata ^^ Murata

p. p.

266
322

C
to

N N

i'p

y

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

Jm^
78

^

Bir

Kadn Bakyla 21. Yüzyl'da Tasavvuf

Rabia Brodbeck
çeviri:

UZUN

Can

Ceylan, Aylin Atikler Yurdacan

16 Aralk 2005 tarihinde
100. Sene-i Devriyesi

TURKKAD istanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin Doumunun
dü^enlenen

Hâtrasna

"Kadn

ve

Tasavvuf" ballkl uluslararas sempo^umda

sunulan teblidir.

Önce

size

neden balkta

21.

yüzyl vurgulamak istediimden bahsetmek
(vaktin olu)

istiyorum.

Tüm gücümle ibn-i vakt

olmak hem insanolunun

bana gelen günümüz olaylarna kar duyarh, hem de benim içimde ve dmdaki hakikate olanlara kar duyarl olmak istiyorum. Muhiddin Arabi'nin dedii gibi: "Zaman bir klçtr. Eer sen onu kesmezsen, o seni
keser."

Kadn

evliyalar üzerinde

çalmamn tek nedeni,

onlarn hayat tarzlarmn
izinde

sanatn örenmektir: onlardaki kendimi tanmak, onlarn
ve onlarn en safiyâne
hallerini taklide gayret

yürümek

etmek ve inallah nihâyetinde
evliyalarndan Hazret-i
(r.a.)

onlar gibi olabilmek. Ehl-i Beyt'in en yüce

kadn

Fatma

(r.a).,

Hazret-i Hatice
onlara

(r.a.)

ve Hazret-i

Aye

hâricinde

baka

kimseye

kar

duyduumuzdan daha
için

yüce bir

ak ve hayranlk
vardr."

duyamayz. Onlarn ebedî güzelliklerinin
belirttii gibi

kölesi

olmakyz. Fethullah Gülen'in

"Her büyük erkek

büyük

bir

kadn

Ve unu da belirtmek isterim
riyakârlmz,

ki,

tüm zamanlarn en müçtehid evliyalarndan

Râbiatül Adviye, beklentiye dayal dînî

inancmz yok etmi

ve manevî

kutsal deerlerimizin suistimal edilmesini,

akl oyunlarn, pazarlk yaparcasna ettiimiz

kafamz kantran ibâdetieri, yanl dînî

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
79

saplantlarmz, manevî
etmitir: "Allah'm
nimetieri

hayâlleri

u duâsiyla bir tayfun gibi darmadan
al.

eer

sana cehennem korkusu yüzünden ve cennet

yüzünden ibâdet edersem bunu benden

Eer sana

sâdece etme."

Senin için ibâdet edersem, beni o sonsuz güzelliinden

mahrum

Bu aziz kadn, kutsal aknn srrm en safiyâne vecd içinde temsil etmektedir."
Buna
ki,

ilâveten,

sk sk tarûlan

u mevzuyu da belirtmek isterim. Biliyoruz
muhteem vahdeti içinde fark, hal ve makam deildir.
(c.c.)

evliyalk mertebesine

ulalnca, Allah'n
erkek arasndaki

cinsiyet kalmaz!

Kadn ile

Böyle

yanl düüncelerden Allah bizi korusun. Rahmeti sonsuz olan AUâh (c.c.) kadna ve erkee farkh görev ve sorumluluklar vermitir. Mesela, kadn peygamberlik görevini kolay kolay tayamaz; onun tayamayaca
kadar

ar ve tehlikelidir. Allah

(c.c),

merhametinden dolay bu

gibi görevleri

kadna yüklememiür.

Dier taraftan, erkek doum yapamaz ve annelik görevini kadnn yapt kadar mükemmel yapamaz. Daha fazla örnek vermem zamanmz olmad için u an mümkün deil. Kitaplarda yazld gibi bâz yüce evliya kadnlarn
tasvirini

yapmak
olarak

yerine,

günümüz dünyâsnda bu konuyla mücâdele eden
yular

bir

kadn

yaadm tecrübelerden bahsetmek istiyorum. Bana göre,

mânevi yolda, kadn olarak ihtiyaçlarmz hakknda konumak, uzun
önce

yaam kadn evliyalar hakknda konumaktan daha deerlidir,
de yüce örneklerden

mahrum günümüzde. Sanki Allah (c.c), içinde bulunduumuz yüz ylda, kadm evliyalarn büyük çounluunu setrediyor, gizliyor. Hepimizin bildii olaanüstü kadn evliyalar, binlerce yl önce yaamtir. Yazdm son yazya öyle baladm: "Bu makaleyle, zamamn sonu için bir lisan bulma çabas içindeyim. Çok sevdiimiz yüce Allah (c.c.) ile aramzdaki kaybolmu ve acizane beraberlii bulabilmek için tüm
özellikle

gayretimi ortaya koyuyorum."

Bu bâtn

mücâdele,

ilâhi bir

mücâdele demekdr ve buna "cihad"

denir.

Eer insanolunun bütün
giydirecektir.

sanatiann en yükseinde, bütün mücadelelerin
elbisesini

en çetininde, 'cihad'da uzmanlarsak, Allah, bize velayet

Bu yolla yaam tarznz,
din
ile

âhiret

yaamnn tarz hâline gelecektir.
ise

Ben hayâün

alakasnn bulunmad, dinin

hayada ilikisinin

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
80

snrl olduu Baü toplumunda
hayattan

yetitim.

Hayâtn tüm kudsiyeüni

aksettiren

ebedî güzelliin diniyle yüz yüze gelene kadar ben de hayât dinden, dîni

kopuk algladm. slâm'la
ile

tantmda bu dünya üe ötesi, kutsalla
ayrmn anlamsz olduunu
ibâdede müstarak, tüm varlk üâhî
kuduyor.

profan, maddiyat

maniviyat arasndaki
sürekli bir

örendim.
bügi
ile

Tüm mahlukat

dolu, her

ey varln birliini

nancm

hayretie

kuvvetlenmiti, çünkü bütün hayatn
edebiliyordum. Bütün
ötelere

ilâhî

olduunu görebiliyor ve

tecrübe

sknûlanmzn kayna ilâhî beraberlikten gafletimizle duyduumuz susuzluumuzu hissetmemizdedir. En büyük
farknda olmamak ve
cehalettir.

dümanmz

Bu hayat okuluna davet edilmem ile bana ilâhî bir idrak kabiliyeti verildi. Baka bir deyile, Cenâb- Hak bizim yeryüzündeki yaammzn bir okul olduunu idrak etmeme izin verdi. Ayrca nur yoluna. Yüce Rabbimizin ilâhî hikmet yoluna, hakîki deiime, Bâtnî mânâlarn tadn çkarmaya davet edildim. Ben bunu "Ak Okulu" olarak adlandryorum. Bu konumamda sizinle manevî kemâle uzanan bu muhteem yükseklik yolunu
paylamak istiyorum. Manevî geüme, itaatte mükemmellik demek deildir.

Onun anlam, akn mükemmelliidir. Yaratl balamnda insan saf ruhtur; ahclan sonsuza kadar üâhî sfatiara açk bir veli, lâhî Nefestir. Bu nedenledir
ki,

evren velayet üzerinde kuruludur. lâhî sfatiar kozmosun mimarî
arada
tutar.

yapsn bir

Eer insan,
nsan

kendi beeri tabiatn son raddesine

kadar yaarsa, Hazret-i

yani insan- kâmil olur.

Ahmet Samânî Hazretieri diyor ki: "Gel, bütün iin aray olduu bu dünyâya katl. Öretmenin olan yokluk sana ak alfabesini anlatacak".

snandan, varlk çölüne geçtiinde, çamurdan var edilen Adem'in gösündeki cennette bir ak yldz parlamaya balad.
"Âdem, yokluun
gizli

Ak günei, onun sonsuz gizeminin semasnda ldamaya balad."
Kur'an- Kerim 'deki
âyetier

de insann kemâle ermesinin

bir deülidir:

"O,

onlan seviyor ve onlar da O'nu seviyor." Kur'an sâdece

ak söz

konusu

olduunda Allah

ile

insan karlkl
bir

getiriyor.
var.

Yarat kavram

içinde, ilâhî

ak ile insanî ak
var

arasnda

denge

Allah'n bize olan

ak sebebiyle

olduumuz

demektir. Allah kendi

yaknlm bize öretiyor. Bir adm

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
81

daha öteye gidersek,

kâinat, evliyalarn temeline

dayanmtr;

yâni kâinat

tevhid temeli üstüne kurulmutur. Var olan

herey Allah 'm kar konulamaz
Tevhid kâinattaki en büyük

birüini bize iaret ediyor. Bütün hayat
güçtür.

ilâhî.

Her eyi

bir arada tutan birlik nurudur. Birlik yoluyla kendi

varlmzn aydnlanmasma ularz. Bu müminin en }^ksek gayesidir.
Bencillik

yok olduunda

birlik

doacaktr. Kâinat

bir arada tutan saf

diergamlktr. Ancak diergamk kâinat
eitimin en üst biçimidir; en

aydnlatabilir. Birlik,

mânevi

mükemmel

derstir.

Zîra tevhid nuru her

eye

yayür ve bütün yaratlm hakîkadere nüfuz

eder.

Bu

nur bütün

ikiyüzlülükleri, hurafeleri, mitieri, illüzyonlar, ehveti,

kargaay,

sihri,

bilinçsizliimizin

karanln yok edecektir. Herkes
aittir.

tevhid ihtiyâc içindedir,

çünkü bizim ruhumuz Allah'a

te bu yüzden tasavvufu örenmeli ve yaamalyz. Bu sebeple akn
yolunda yürümeye gayret ettiim
için

kendimi Allah'n

(c.c.)

büyük lutfundan

nasiplenmi olarak hissediyorum ve bu

ak yoluna Tarikat-i Muhammedi,
Bu yol,
Hakîkat-i

Muhammedin Yolu

ismini

vermek

istiyorum.

Muhammedi'ye bütün
hissediyorum, çünkü

kalbiyle inanan herkesi içine ahr.
için

Ayrca, 21.

)aiz}ilda

da bu yolu yürüyebildiim

Allah'n

(c.c.)

bü}^ lutfu}da nasiplendirildiimi

günümüzde

ilmin ufuklar sonuna kadar

açlm

durumda.

mükemmele ermi bilim içinde yayoruz. Modern akl gerçekle buluuyor ya da, modern bilim dinle buluuyor veyahut Allah'n vahiylerinin mutiak doruluu modern akl tarafndan
Kemâle ermi
bir din ilmi ve
teyit ediliyor.

Bilim adamlar maddenin derinliklerine daldklarmda, kâinatn birliini ve

dinamik karakterini idrak etmeye baladlar. Yâni mistik tefekkür ve modern

ayn sonuca vard. Bilim ve din birletiinde, bizler lâhî Huzûr'un muazzam konsantrasyonunun farkna varacaz. O zaman bütün mevcudatn
fizik

mükemmelliini ve

birliini görebileceiz.

Yâni tasavvufî tefekkür
sebeple,

ile

modern
Bat'mn

fizik

ayn

neticede buluuyor.

Bu

günümüzde

Dou ve

ilminin birlemesinden harekede, görüyoruz ki evrensel din olan

slâm'n farkndah yeniden

doumu tecrübe ediyor.
ki,

Bu yüzden

söylemek istiyorum

arûk hakikatin evrenselliinin zamandr.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
82

Tek
var.

bir din var, tek bir

Tanr

var, tek bir kitap var

ve sâdece tek bir hakikat
sâdece

Daha

jöiksek bir farkndalkla
ile

uyanmann tam zaman, çünkü

Bat arasnda bir köprü kurulabilir. Sâdece bu yüksek farkndahk tüm dünyâda sesini duyurabiHr. Dou ile
bu yüksek farkndalk
ile

Dou

Bat arasndaki köprü uzun zaman önce ina edildi. Mudak hakikat ve sonsuz aydnlanma çok uzun zamandr mevcut. Kur'an- Kerim 'de
buyruluyor: "Ve Allah nurunu tamamlayacak." Biz nur üstüne nur olan
bir dine
ile

mensubuz. Allah'n üâhî nuru, müminin ruhunun

arnm nuru
katmzdan

buluacak. "Bugün dîni tamamladm." Allah gaybn anahtarlarm
bilgi,

uzatyor. Bize aracsz
ilim verdik."

alg gücü veriyor. "Ve Biz onlara

Kefin ihtiaml günei en üst seviyeye uursuzluun tüm karanlklarm yok ediyor.

yükseliyor ve

Hazret-i

Muhammed'in

(s.a.s.)

dünyâya terif etmesiyle her
gibi:

Kâinat nura gark oldu. A.Yusuf Ali'nin dedii
olan en büyük ihsandr;

ey deiti. slâm'n nuru mümkün
biz de

eer bunu idrak edebilirsek,
(s.a.s.),

onun ihtiamyla
ile

parlarz"

"Muhammed Mustafa'mn
onun ümmeti olan

O'na deil, O'nun

birlikte

indirilen nuru,

herkesi ereflendirmektedir." Dinin

bu

zenginlii ortaya

çkmtr, insanolu

sonsuz bir servete, Allah'n sonsuz

ihsâmna, yüce bir idrâke, sonsuz keremine, en parlak

aydnla,

ilâhî

cömertliin hazînesine ve en yüce ahlaka

kavumu ve insanolu her alanda
Baka
bir

tekâmül ve kusursuzlukla karlar. Sevgili Peygamberimiz, tüm akl ve
gönülleri, Allah'n güzelliine ve
bir deyile, Hazret-i

mükemmeliyetine yükseltmitir.
(s.a.s.)

Muhammed'in

geliiyle,
(s.a.s.),

mânevi

tasfiye devri

balamtr. Onun
dorular
söyler;

için Hazret-i

Muhammed
eitim

insanla evrensel
evrensel

rehber sunmaktadr. Kur'an- Kerim evrensel bir

çardr ve

o evrensel

bir

sistemidir.

eyh Muhiddin bn Arabi diyorlar
sözleri
(s.a.s.)

ki:

"Hazret-i

Muhammed'in

(s.a.s.)

Dou 'dan Bati'ya her yere düzen getirmektedir. Dahas, Hazret-i Muhammed tek bir milletin peygamberi olarak gönderilmedi, O
âlemlere rahmet olarak gönderildi.

Bu yüzden ruhun anlam, insan

tabiatn

sâdece bir yönüyle deil, bir bütün olarak düzene koymaktr."

Tekrar söylemek gerekirse, insan olarak ruhumuzun bütün derinliklerini

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
83

kefetmek ve kâmil insana ulamak
nihâî
bir

gibi bir

mesûliyeüm2

var.

nsann
..."

tamamlan

yüce Allah'n

(c.c.)

u sözlerinde anlam buluyor: "Ben
ki,

kulumu sevdiimde, onun gören gözü, duyan kula olurum
kardelerim, bu sebeplerden dolay inanyorum
iyi

Sevgili

kendi hayatmzdaki

anlammz ve uygulamamz gereken bir zamandayz. imdi Muhammedi oluumuzu kutiama zamandr
tevhid ilmini idrak edebilmek için Tasavvufu

ve Hz. Muhammed'infj-.^.j-.j ümmeti olma erefine eriimizi

kudama

zamamdr.

Çok

ilginç bir
ile

nokta da udur: günümüzde insankk
bir hâle geldi.
etkiliyor.

târihî

göstermitir

ki.

Dou
bütün

Bat ayrlamaz

ülkeleri

aym ekilde

Modern dünyânn yaad sorunlar Maddi ve manevî depremler insan

olunu derinden sarsyor. Bugün dünya evrensel bir sabahn seherinde. Yaanan acüar evrensel boyutlara ulam durumda. Gezegenin her tarafina hâkim tahrip edici güçler bizi dehete sevkediyor. nsanolu Cemâlullah'tan,
ilâhî güzellik

mahrum

kald. Allah bizlerden, kendimizle

barklmz,

güveni, emâneti, huzuru çekip ald.
acziyet hissi
âcüiyet,

Tüm

karanlk hâdiselerle beraber, bir

dünyâmn bütününe yaylyor. Onun için zamammzda, bir alayan bir ihtiyaç var. nsanlk hakikatin ve tecrübenin iddetli
ilâhî

gereksinimi içerisinde,

merhametin susuzluu üe muzdarip; çünkü

ondan çok
istiyorum

tehlikeli bir

ekilde uzaklaük.

Demek

ki

ebedî deerlere

muhtacz ve bu yüzden çözüm
ki,

evrensel boyutiarda olmaldr. Söylemek

evrensel bir dînin

zaman geldi.

Din, hayâtn tüm aamalarna
renkler arasndaki sorunlan

çözüm getirir.
ancak din

Milleder, insanlar, kültürler,

rk ve

düzeltebilir.

Din;

kalbi, zihni,

ruhu, bilinci ve inanc bütünletirir.

nsana yüce

bir birlik

muamelesi yapar.

nsanlk, bugün

ykm ve kurtulu arasnda bocabyor. Külli cehaletin
ile

koyuluu inancn safl
güzelliklerle bir arada.

karlayor. En büyük
Kötü
artik iyi üe,

kötülükler, en yüce
bir

Karanlk ve aydnlktan baka geride

ey kalmad.

Kötü düünceler
yüze.

zirvesine ulati.

eytan da AUah üe yüz
(c.c),

noktalardaki ztlklar bir araya getirerek, Allah

yaatü
görmeyi

kutsal tecrübelerle, bizi ekülendiriyor ve

daha büyük bir farkndala
ki bizler,

hazrlyor. Yaraticmz, bu âlemdeki herkesi uyandnyor

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
84

örenelim. 1

1

Eylül 'den beri, ARahfcc.) çok ciddi bir

dil

kullanyor. Allah'n

dilinin insan üzerinde

çok

ar ve hiçbir eye benzemeyen bir etkisi vardr.
Daha

Onun için hayâtmz
önce hiç
hissedebiliyorum.

içinde yükselen ilâhî bir huzur hissediyorum.

olmad kadar,

u an âk olmann o güzel kokusunu

Gördüümüz
fakat

Bat ve Dou gerçeklii, bugün birbiriyle buluuyor, maalesef bu buluma, terör, doal felâkeder ve insan hayâtnn
gibi.

yozlamas ile oluyor. Dünyây küresel bir köy hâline getiren sâdece bütün insanl birletiren yüksek bilginin farkndal ve Dou ile Bat'y birbirine baml klmak deil, ayn zamanda insanlk târihinde son zamanlarda
gelien olumsuz hâdiselerdir. Allah

saptrüm mânâs

ile

cihâdn

yaanmasnn sonuçlarn bize yaatyor, çünkü Yüce Allah'n istedii cihad
yâni bâtnî mücadeleyi

yaamyoruz. Allah

bize evrensel bir

zdrap

veriyor.

Çünkü O'nun tüm

evreni kucaklayan dînini

yaamyoruz,

içinde

yaadmz
gibi

bu yüz yl bizimle konuuyor. Bizim Allah 'm

olmamz istedii

yaamadmz gösteriyor.

u

siyah ve beyaz

düünmeyi brakalm.
arkasndan

Helâl ve

haramn ksr döngüsünü
lkokul
birinci

terk edelim. Sevaplarn

komay brakalm.
yapmay

snf

düünme tarzn brakalm,
yöneltelim. Hz.

ibâdeti yüzeysel

terk edelim.

Kendimizi

ebediyete, lâhî Güzellie ve Sevgüi

Yaratcmz 'in mükemmelliine
gibi:

Mevlânâ'mn dedii

"Tevhid âlemi duyularn hissettirdiinden farkhjöndedir.

Eer Birlik istersen,
Ve son yUarda
var.

o jöne git."

u hikmeti Allah bana sürekH gösteriyor, bizim kaybmz
nefes almaya ihtiyâcmz

kazancmzdr. Bizim

olduu gibi Allah'a ihtiyâcmz

^^3î^

|!t»t»

TAS

KADIN

WOMAN AND AW UF TA5AWWUF
VI-

86

Women

Sainthood in the 21^* Century

Rabia Brodbeck

UZUN
at the" International

This paper was presented

Symposium of Women and Sufism"
16, 2005.

that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

First I

would

like to tell

you why

I

choose to mention the 21^^ century

within the

title. I

wish to be with

all

my strength

a child

of the time, to

be

alert, to

be utmost wakeful, to be utmost receptive to the current events

of humankind and to be utmost receptive to the truth within and without
me. Like Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi
cutsjou.
says:

"Time

is

a sword. Ifyou do not cut it,

it

In

my view the only reason why I
To

study female sainthood,

is

to learn

from

them.

recognize myself within them, to try to walk in their footsteps,

try to imitate their purified

example, and
ehl-i beyt,

finally to

become
all

like

them, so
saints,

God wills. Nobody else but the
Hadrat Fatima, Hadrat
Hatija,

the greatest of

women

Hadrat Aisha, may abundant blessings be

on them, should win our
"For every great man,

greatest love

and admiration.

We

should be

enslaved to their eternal beauty. Fethullah Gülen

comments about them: there was a great woman." And to mention maybe the
saint

most revolutionary women

of

all

times Rabia al-Adavia,

who

shattered

N
O
0)

our wishful religious thinking, our
divine aspirations, our vicious

spiritual pretence,

our manipulated

mind games, our

'bargain'-supplications,

our blurred (contaminated) worship, our divine
appetites, like a

illusions,

our

false religious

-Q
T3

heavy storm with her famous prayer:
and if I worship You

"O

God, if I worship

You forfear of
if

O
v_

hell,

in hope of paradise, forbid it to me.
everlasting Beauty.

But

I worship You for You, do not hold back from me Your

CQ

CD

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
87

Moreover, doesn't the most miraculous event, the truth of the Kaaba (the

Holy House of Allah)
the

visiting Rabia, before

her arrival on the way visiting

Holy House,

give proof of the greatest

woman

sainthood?

Our
issue:

supreme friend of
In addition,
I

God

represents the secret of love in purest exaltation.

would

like to

mention the following often discussed
starts, in

We all know, when
there
is

sainthood

the realm of God's glorious unity,

no gender! The difference between men and
state.

women

is

not in

rank or in their

God

forbid,

we make any of

these false statements.

God most Generous gave different tasks and responsibilities to women and different tasks to men. Women for example cannot carry
But
easily the responsibilities

of prophethood, being too heavy for her to
mercy,

carry and dangerous.
duties.

Out of God's

women are discharged of

such

On

the other hand,

men

cannot give birth to
perfectiy like

therefore execute

motherhood so
is

human life and women do. To go into

further investigation

not possible due to time constraint

Within

my speech, instead
done

of portra}ing some exalted Sufi
books,
I

women

saints,

which

is

lately a lot especially in

would

like to talk

about

my own experiences as a struggling woman in this present modern society. It seems to me more valuable to talk about our needs as woman on the spiritual path than studying women who Hved long time ago, especially
due to the lack of exalted examples
Allah
is

in

our present times.
saints in

It

seems that

hiding the maturity of
saints

women

our present centuries.
lived thousands or

The outstanding women more years ago.
In

which we aU know,

my latest writing I

start

with the following sentence, ''With
times.

this essay

I

am trying desperately
is

to find

a language for the end of

I put all my

efforts in

lookingfor the lost togetherness with our beloved Lord. " The internal struggling

of divine nature

called fihad If
.

we master

the greatest of aU

human

struggle,

God Most High will
a

close us with the robe of sainthood.

I

come from

Western society where

life

has nothing to do with religion

and

religion Httie to

do with

life,

until that

moment when

I

encountered
all life.

the religion of infinite beauty, which revealed the sacredness of
I

learned that there was

no

separation between this world and the hereafter.

KADIN vt WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
88

the profane
is

and the sacred, the material and the

spiritual. All

existence

celebrating the oneness of being.
I

My belief was nurtured with admiration
all life is

because

could see that an experience that

divine. It

is

the

unawareness of the divine presence and the lack of divine
the root of
all

thirst that is

problems.

Our greatest enemy

is

unconsciousness and

ignorance.

I

was given

this divine

perception after

I

was invited

in the school
life

of

life.

In other words,

God let me become
was invited

aware that our earthly
to join the path

represents

a school. Additionally I

of Hght, the path of

transformation, meaning the path of God's divine wisdom, the sweet
taste

of inner meanings.

I call it

the school of love. Within this speech

I

like to

share with you this path of greatest exaltation towards spiritual

maturity. Spiritual

growth does not mean perfection

in obedience. It

means

perfection in love. If

God wills, we will gain

the station of loverhood.

In the concept of creation the

human being is pure

soul, a saint forever

receptive towards divine qualities, infused with His divine Breath of mercy.

That

is

why

the universe

is

based on sainthood. The divine

qualities are

holding the architectural structure of the cosmos together. If the

man
holy

human namre human being.
lives

in

its fullest

sense, he

becomes

hadrat-i insan, the

The

Sufi Saint

Ahmad Samani comments: "Come into this world,
teacher,

which

is the

workshop of seeking. The
of lover ''''When Adam

who

is poverty,

will write outforyou the alphabet

(as)

walked outfrom

the hiding-place of nonexistence into

the spacious desert of existence, the star of love began to shine in the heaven of the

breast of

A.dam

's

clay.

The sun of loverhood began

to

burn in the sk^ of his inmost

N

mystery."
loves

The Quranic
love

verse proves the fulfillment of

human

kind:

them and they

Him." Only with the attribute of love the

"Hg Quran
O ©
exist

speaks of mutuality of
is

God

and man. In the concept of creation there

an equal balance of divine love and

human

love.

We

can say

we

because of the love
closeness to us!

God has

for us. This

means God

Ö
O
OQ
CO

is

teaching His

Going one

step further

we can

say,

the universe

is

based on sainthood.

«J
(XL

KADIN VL WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
89

meaning the universe
the universe.

is

based on

unity, tawheed, all existence
is

is

showing

evidence of God's overwhelming oneness. Unity

the greatest

power

in

The Hght of

unity holds everything together.
It is

Through

unity

we

reach the enlightenment of our being.

the highest goal of the
is

true believer.

When

selfishness vanishes unity will appear. It

pure

selflessness that holds the universe together.

Only

selflessness

can illuminate
it is

the universe. Unity

is

the highest

form of
This

spiritual education,

the

most
it

excellent teaching, because the light
realities.

of unity

prevails over everything,

brakes through aU created

light extinguishes all h3^ocrisy,

superstition, myths, illusions, sensuality, confusion

and magic darkness
sovils

of our unconsciousness. Every one
belong to God. Therefore
this
I

is

in

need of unity because our

feel
it

extremely favoured by
tariqat-i

AUah

to walk

on

path of love,
is

I like

to call

Muhammedi.

It

includes ever\^

believer who

wholeheartedly following the path of Haqiqat-i Muhammediyya,

the truth of

Muhammed.
I

Additionally

feel

extremely favoured by Allah to walk

this

path of love

in the 21^^ century because today the horizons

of knowledge opened up

to the fullest dimensions.
religion

We live in

the perfection of knowledge of the

and we

live in

the perfection of knowledge of science.

The

modern mind meets

the truth or

modern

science meets religion or the

absolute truth of God's revelations gets confirmed by the

modern mind.
character,

Modern
that
is

scientist

have advanced into the deepest realms of matter and
oneness of the universe and
its

have begun to

realize the

dynamic

to say, mystical contemplation

and modern physics come to the

same conclusion.

When

science and religion unite,

we

will

become aware
able to see

of outstanding concentration of divine Presence.
the perfection and oneness of
that
all

We will be
reason

existence.

For

this

we can observe
in
is

due

to the unification

of the eastern and the western knowledge

the present time, the awareness of the universal religion Islam
a revival.

experiencing

I

wish to say

now it is
is

time for the universality of the truth. There

is is

just
just

one one
CD
!

religion, there

just

one God, there

is

just

one book and there

truth. It is time to

wake up

for higher awareness only higher awareness

can build a bridge between East and West. Only through higher awareness

KADIN VF WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF

^^'JT
90

can the truth have a voice in the world. The bridge between East and

West has been

built

long time ago.

The

absolute truth has been given a

long time ago. The

infinite illumination

has been given a long time ago.

The Holy Quran religion Light on
perception. 'And

says:
light.

"And Allah

We are part of "Today I have perfected the religion. " God gives us
will perfect

His

light.

"

the
the

keys to the unseen.

He

gives us direct

knowledge and the power of

We

taught them knowledge from

Our "Presence.

"

The good
limit has

news of the ascension of the soul beyond the unsurpassable
been given to man.

With the coming of the Prophet
everything changed.
7\li

Muhammed
is the biggest

(pbuh) into

this

world,

The

universe was flooded with pure

light.

A. Yusuf

comments:
sent

''The light of Islam
in
it.'"

bounty possible, if we truly

understand,

we should glory

'The

light

of

Muhammed Mustafa
The

(pbuh),
is

which

is

down with

him, not to him, illuminates everyone

who

being honoured to follow his universal community."
the religion got revealed.

inner wealth of

Humankind

received infinite riches, the fullness
infinite grace, the highest

of Allah's divine

gifts,

supreme consciousness,

illumination, the treasures

of divine generosity, highest standard of morality,

human beings
raised
all

are faced with perfection in every field.

Our blessed Prophet

minds and hearts to the exalted places of God's beauty and

perfection. In other word, with the

coming of prophet Muhammed (pbuh),

the time of spiritual purification begun. Therefore, the Prophet

Muhammed
a universal

(pbuh) represents a universal guide to humanity.
call,

The Quran

is

revealing the universal truth, a universal system of education.

Sheikh Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi
setting order everywhere, from the

said:

"The words revealed to
to the

Muhammed fpbuhj,
the prophet

East

West Moreover,
a mercy upon

was not

:::d

N
rj

sent as the prophet of

a particular

nation, but as

the whole universe.

So
of

the soul is
it.

meant

to regulate

notjust apart of our

human

nature, but the whole

comment of Ibn Arabi wholeheartedly. We are given the responsibility within our present time as human being to discover the whole complexity of our soul and reach human perfection. The ultimate fulfillment of man lies in the holy tradition where God Most High says: "Wlien I love a servant, I become the eyes with which he sees, ." I become the ears with which he hears.
"I

shared this wonderful

o
-o

O
ÛQ
CO

.

CD

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
91

My dear listeners,
Tasanmmf, to
fulfill

for these reasons

I feel it is

time for the realization of

the science of unity within our
that

own
are

lives.

This

is

the

time to celebrate that
to the

we are Muhammedi, Prophet Muhammed's community.

we

honored to belong

Very interestingly in our present time the events of human history show
that East

and West become inseparable. The
with the same force.

crises

of the modern world
spiritual

hit all countries

The earthquake of
to extremes.

and

material nature has shaken

humankind

We

are smitten with

heavy destructive forces
security, trust,

all

over the planet.

God

took away the values of

comfort and peace within ourselves.
is

A feeling of helplessness
The mourning is of
far

spread worldwide. Humanity

deprived of divine beauty and blessings.

Therefore, today the earth experiences mourning.
universal nature.

There

is

a crying

need growing into global dimensions.

Humanity
away from

is
it.

in utter

need for the truth because we are dangerously
eternal values

We are in need of
It

and therefore the solution

has to be universal.
universality

means

it is

time for the universal religion, the

of the

truth. Religion

can smooth out any conflict between

people, nations, cultures, races and color. Religion unifies the mind, heart,
soul,

conscious and belief

It treats

man

as a

being of glorifying

unity.

In our present time humanity finds

itself

between destruction and

salvation.

The darkness of complete ignorance meets the purity of belief The peak of evil meets the highest ulumination. The devil is face to face with God.
There
is

nothing

left

but darkness and

light.

In bringing the far distant

opposites together,

AUah shapes

us up for holy experiences in order to

^
r^

become ready for higher awareness. Our Creator is waking up every human being on this planet that we might learn to see. Since the 11
September,

God

speaks a very serious language. God's language has such

an intense, shattering
ü
-Q

impact on humankind, that there
lives. I

is

a divine
I

Presence arising within our

can

tell

you

like

never before;

can

smell the sweet scent of loverhood within our present time.

o

As we can
OQ
CD

see, eastern reality

and western

reality are

meeting each other

today, unfortunately through terror, natural catastrophes

and greatest

corruption of
CD

human

life. It is

not

just the

awareness of the higher

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
92

knowledge

that unifies the
it is

whole of humanity and makes

east

and west

face each other;

the latest negative events of
a global village.

human

history that

makes the world into
(^^.totted jihad,

God makes

us live the effects of

because

we do not

live

His given desired divine internal

struggle.

God gives

us universal suffering, because
religion.

we do not

live

His

all

embracing universal

God
life,

confronts us with death, the highest

number of
to

losses of

human

because

we do not

apply and undergo

the experience

'die beforejou die\

our beloved Prophet Muhammad's advice
live in is talking to us. It

humankind. This very century we

shows,

we

are not living

how God meant

us to be. Every pain, every suffering

is

caused by the separation from God.

To

finalize

my

speech,

let

us leave this black and white thinking. Let us

leave the
circle

of permissible and forbidden,

helal-haram.

Let us finish

this

running

after

good

deeds.
this first class

Let us leave

school thinking. Let us leave the surface

worshipping. Let us leave
these bargain supplications. Let us direct ourselves to eternity, to the divine

Beauty, to the

supreme perfection of our beloved Creator. Mevlana Jalaladdin Rumi
says:"

Know that the World of
the senses.

Unity

lies

in the other direction from

Ifyou want Oneness, go in that direction!"

I wish

to giveyou

one of the most valuable pieces of wisdom, which Allah taught
it is

me

within the lastyears are in need of God.

that loss

is

our gain! A.s we are in need of breathing, we

/6

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
94

KADININ

BN ARAB'DEK KL GÖRÜNTÜSÜ (tasavvuru):

nsan Olarak Kadn ve Kozmik Prensip Olarak Kadn
S^'acI

al-HAKM
Mehmet TAV
(Orijinal

Çeviri:

metin Arapça'dr.)

16 Arahk 2005 tarihinde
100. Sene-i Devriyesi

TURKKAD istanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin Doumunun
düzenlenen

Hâtrasna

"Kadn

ve

Tasavvuf" ballkl uluslararas sempoyumda

sunulan teblidir.

arücdr ki, 8 asrdan fazla bir zaman önce büyük Müslüman bilgin Muhiddin bn Arabî {hicri560-638) insan yeteneklerde erkek üe kadn arasnda tam bir eitlik bulunduu görüüne varmtr. bn Arabî, erkein
kadna kar
sahip

olduu

'derece'yi ise ontolojik (varlkhilimsel) bir

ekilde

tevü ederek, evrenle
yerine

ilgili eril

ve

tekil

düünceleri

bir kenara atarak
birbiriyle

onun

yaradl ve

bilgi

düzeyinde erilliin ve diiliin

kaynaü

evrensel ve zorunlu bir birlikten bahseder.

Muhddin Arabî slâm
sunmutur. Bu bak,
islâm'da

kültür târihinde yeni bir

kadn görüntüsü ve imaj
geçirmelerini

çada

Müslümanlar'a ilham verecek ve onlarn

kadn mefhûmu ve tasavvurlarm yeniden gözden
baktr. Bu
sayede, kültürel

temellendirebilecek bir

deiim çarkmm doru

yönde ilerlemesine katk salar.

bn Arabi'nin görülerine temel çizgileriyle belirleyebilmek için bu çalmam 2 ana bölüme aynyorum. Her ksm ise iki alana ayrlarak toplam 4 alan
olur
ki,

her bir tanesi

kadn konusunda

yeni bir

düünsel açüm

sala^'^acak

yeterliliktedir.

Birinci

bölümün

bal bîr insan olmas özelliiyle kadndr. Bu konu,

iki

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
95

alanda incelenebilir:

Kadnn ilmî ehliyeti b) Kadnn ruhsal ehliyeti
a)

kinci

Bölüm ise,
a)

bir

varolu

ilkesi

olarak diiliktir.

Bu da iki alanda araûnlr.

Erkein varlk ve

irfan tamamlaycs,dii olarak kadn.
diilik.

b)

Varolusal bir mertebe olarak

BRNC BÖLÜM
Bir insan

olma özelliiyle kadn

bn Arabi, dii ya da erkek olsun insanlk hakikatinin bütün insanlardan
tek

olduunu düünür. Her
erillik ise,

iki cins

insanlkta

eittir.

Asl olan budur.

Diilik ve
der:

insan cevherine ilien durumlardr.

bn Arabi öyle

"nsardk erkek ve

dii}i kapsar. Erillik ve diilik, insanlk hakikatinden
iki

olmayan bu hakikatteki

arazdr."^

Baka bir yerde ise öyle der: "Hav\^a, Adem'den yaratlmür. Bu nedenle onun iki hükmü vardr. Asl itibaryla erkeklik ve dolayh olarak da diilik
hükmü."

nsan olmada iki

cins arasndaki
ehildir

bu eitlie dayanarak, kadn erkein yapû
faaliyetiere muktedirdir.

bütün ileri yapmaya

ve bütün aklsal ve ruhsal

imdi onun ümî ve

ruhî ehliyetine bir göz atalm:

Kadnn lmî Ehliyeti
Çeitli metinler, bize

kadnn bilimsel ve

siyasal hayata aleni

ve direkt olarak

katld sonucunu çkartabileceimiz pek çok olay aktanr. Bu, Peygamber'in
daha sonra da sahabelerin döneminden Hicret'in
ilk

jöizyllarna kadar
esir

sürmütür. Daha sonra karanlk çalarn balamasyla

ya da satn

ahnarak cariyelerin sanat hayatiarna ve sultanlarn saraylarna girmesiyle

hür
ile

kadnn

toplumsal yaamdaki rolü giderek gerilemitir.

Bu

ise

erkek

kadm arasnda eit olmayan

yeni bir iliki getirmitir. Bir tarafta güçlü.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAIVWUF

/?
96

yöneten ve sahip
hile

ile

dier

tarafta kiisel

çkarlarna ulamak

için

çou kez

ve desiseye bavurmaktan çekinmeyen zayf ve sahip olunan arasnda

bir iliki

kadn ve erkek topluluklarnn arasndaki bu

hayatî

kopuklua

ramen sûfî ortamn çounluu her iki cinse açk kalarak kadna dii olarak deil tpk erkek gibi ilâhî yaknla ve irfana ehil bir insan olarak bakmtr.

bn Arabi, ondan önceki sûfî seleflerinin ilim ve irfan sahibi kadn hakkndaki
görülerini gelitirmitir.

Bu da onun metinlerinde tasavvuf ve

fikh alannda

açkça görülür.

imdi bu her iki alandaki kadn görelim KADIN: ruhsal öretmen, mürid, eyh ve ilâhî anne. Bu
örnek BLYE'lA(Sepi//a'/) bilge kadn "Fatma Bint
Kurtubi" (Kurtubah Al Musanna
al

kiilie en
el

iyi

Musanna

ona hizmet etmitir
ile

-^

k^ Fatma) ki, bn Arabi gençliinde 2 yl ve bu süre bn Arabi'nin bir sûfî bilgenin dostiuu
yaayarak dostiuk ederek, hizmet ederek
gelir ki,

geçirdii en uzun süredir. Sûfî terminolojisinde hizmet ve dostiuk

kelimeleri

muaeret

yoluyla, yânî

örenme
biçimidir.

ve terbiye olma anlamna

bu da

sûfîlerin

örenme

Hocalarn

telkine

dayanan informatik yönteminden farkldr.

bn Arabî 'hizmet ettim' derken, hizmet edileni eyh, mürit ve ruhsal
öretmen
al

edindiini kasteder.

Demek

ki,

eyh ve mürid

ne

ise,

Fatma Bint

Musanna ve
ikinci

bn Arabî öyleydi. bn Arabî, bu bilye'li bilge hammn
rolünü ve ona olan ruhsal

onun
ki,

doumundaki
ettii ve

ban

iyi

belirtmitir

bu da hizmet

yaad dier eyhlerde olmamtr. Sadece ona

Annem" diye hitab etmitir. O da, O'na "Ben senin ilâhî ananm ve (gerçek annesi Nur Hanm' kast ederek) bedensel annenin 'nûr'uyum" ^ der. Bu bilge hammn bn Arabi'nin yeniden dousundaki etkisi Fütuhat adl
"ey
eserinde

onun görülerine

yer verdii ve

ona

verilen velayetin lütuflannn

anlatld

az saydaki metinden anlalr.

Örnein

bn Arabi'ye der ki:

"Allah' sevdiini söyleyip

onun tarafndan hep görüldüüne sevinemeyene

hayret ederim"

^.

bn Arabî, Fâtiha'mn kendisine yardm ettiini
makamn örenmitir.
Sonra onunla
birlikte

söylediinde

hocasnn

hocasnn

istedii bir

ey için

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
97

Fatiha 'yi beraber okuduklannda ve

onun okumasnn
bu

etkisiyle sûre

odada

havada yüzerek belirince yüce
harf biliminde,
'ki

makamn anlam ve görmütür.
bilimidir,'
ki
'

^

Aynca

bu da evüya

bilge

hanmdan
Ondan

yararlandndan bahseder. Demek

bu bilyeli
veli

büe hanm, bn Arabi'nin

hayâtnda ruhsal öretmen ve mürit

olarak tecelli etmitir.

bahsetmekten ve alnülar yapmaktan onun eyhliini ve ilminin önünde
mürit olarak

durduunu

belirtmekten çekinmemitir.

Bu da

pratik olarak

bn Arabi'nin kadmn eyhliine, ruhsal müritliine ve müriderinde
erkeklerinde bulunabileceinin ifadesidir. Cinsler arasnda

kanma

bahanesiyle erkein
itibar edilmez.

kadna mürit olmasm
târih

caiz

görmeyenlere burada hiç

Çünkü kadm da

boyunca ve günümüze kadar erkein
müridin hayatndaki rolünü

müridi olabilmektedir.

Konu burada kadna

oynamasna müsaade edecek ilmi

ehliyet ve irfan konusudur.

Kadn fakih, kadn imam bn Arabi, Belks'a hkhi bir mertebe vermitir. Allah'a inannca Süleyman'n
peinden gitmemi, ona
izleme}dp arac

olmam, inancnda bir peygamber veya imam istemeyerek Allah'a tpk peygamberler gibi dorudan
tâbi
ile birlikte

inançh ve

ba olduunu ilan etmi, "Musa ve Harun'un Tanrs" ° diyen
bn Arabi'nin hayâtna baktmzda, onun kadndan
adam olmayp
biri

firavunun aksine "alemlerin Rabbi olan Allah'a Süleyman

inandk" demitir.

üçüncü

ahs

olarak bahseden bir teori

tecrübe ve pratik

adam olduunu görürüz. Kadnn yeterliliini,
söylerken

ehiUiini ve

erkee

eitliini

kadn konusuna bakan veya baktran
biri

olarak deil

tand

ve bildii kadnlar gören
söyledikleri

olarak söylemitir.

Onun kadnla

ilgili

kadmn

kendisine kudretini ve imkânlarm

açt yaanm
konusunda

engin bir tecrübeye dayanr.

ki

cinsin ilmi yeterlilikteki eitlii

kadmn erkek ve kadnlara imamlk yapabileceini bile söylemitir. Der ki; "Bâz insanlar kadmn hem erkeklere hem de kadnlara imamlk ^sapabileceini caiz görür, ben de öyle diyorum". ^ Bu çok çada bir
konudur, 21. yüzyldaki hiçbir
bir söylemdir.

slâm bilgininin söylemeye cesaret edemeyecei
üretme}! metinlerle

Bu da sannm birçok müctehidin hüküm

gerçek

yaamn

arasndaki diyalektizmden deil de, metinlerden metin

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
98

üretme çabalarna hapsolmalarndan kaynaklanr.

Kadnn Ruhsal Ehliyeti bn Arabi'nin eyhlerinden ibilyeli Fatma Bint al Musanna'mn ruhsal
yeterliliine bakarak

u soruyu sorabiliriz: Kadnn önünde ona açk olan
varamayaca en
üst tavan

ruhsal mertebeler nelerdir? Varabilecei ve
nedir?

bn Arabi, varlk anlaynda kadnn insana özgü kemâl mertebesine
ulaabileceini ve insan- kâmil olabileceini
söyler.

Der

ki:

Kemâl, kadna
bir derece

kapal deildir. Erkekten yaratld
gerisinde

için

yaradl srasnda ondan
deildir.

olmasna ramen kemâl, kadna kapal

Kemâlde bu sra
Keza ayn

ilemez. ^^ Ayrca Fütûhât- Mekkiyje adl eserinde erkekliin kemâlinden
bahsederken, bunun erkek ve diide de olabileceini söyler.
eserinde
^ ^

Bâtn Devlet bahsinde bâtn

evrensel faaliyederde

makamlar

sayarken

bu makamlarn erkee ve diiye de açk olduunu

belirtmitir. ^^

Kadnn tarihsel zayflk imajna kar gelirken bn Arabi kadnn gücüyle
ilgili

öyle

der:

"Yaratlm evrende kadndan daha güçlüsü
giderek

yoktur. Allah'n

kadnlarn nefesinden yaratt melek melaikenin en güçlüsüdür" }^
Arabi daha da
ileri

bn

kadn ve
söyler.

erkeklerin kutupluk dahil

bütün

makamlarda ortak olduklarn
nedir? ve
gelir?

^^ Peki kadna açk bu yüksek

makam

kadnn

kutb olmas büyük eyhin düüncelerine göre ne anlama
ki,

Bu

soruya cevaben deriz
olur.

kadn kutb olunca

vaktin sahibi ve
mürselinin'in
^

zamann efendisi
ümmetindeki

Allah 'm yeryüzündeki

halîfesi, Seyyid'el

vekili,

seçkinliin ve insanî husûsiyederin vârisi olur.
^ ",

^

Dünya onunla döner
örtüdür.

dünyânn hükmü ve yönedmi ona

verilir,

Hak

onunla beraber olur ve onun
^
'

zamâmnda

sâdece ona bakar.

O en yüksek

Cenab- Allah huzurunda

koltukta oturup ona kendisinin ve

dünyânn

istedii bütün ilâhî isimleri verir.
biat etmesine ve

O da ilâhî surede oturunca

bütün âleme O'na
yüksek veya

emrine girmesini emreder. Biadna
Sâdece meleklerin üst mertebede
kutb

aa bütün memurlar
arasnda kendisi

girer.

olanlarla insanlar

gibi

mükemmel ve
^

makamna

ehil

olanlar

onun biatna ve tasarrufuna girmez.

°

ibn Arabî,

kadmn erkee

velayetini reddedenlere

kar gelirken

açkça

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
99

kutupluk

makamna varlabileceini

belirttikten sonra

öyle

der:

Peygamberimizin "kendilerini kadna yönettiren kavim
sizi

iflah

olmaz" demesi

yanltmasn. Çünkü biz Allah'n veli etmesinden bahsediyoruz, insanlarn

veli

etmesinden deil. Hadis, insanlarn

velî

etmesinden bahseder. Ayrca
had'^,si

Peygamberimiz 'in bu meselede "Kadnlar erkeklere kardetir" diyen
bize yeterlidir. Yâni erkein sahip

olmas

caiz

bütün makam, mertebe ve

sfatlarn Allah'n istedii kadnlarda

olabilir.

Demek ki, bn Arabî kadnn
söyler.
ehildir.
^

erkee olan kardeliine dayanarak kardein muadil ve eit olduunu
Dolaysyla kadn erkee velayet makamlarnn hepsine
^

Kadmn aamayaca
Arabî der
ki;

tavan ise peygamberlik ve risâlet

makamdr.

bn

kadn kemâl mertebesinde erkee
peygamberlik

ortaktr.

Ama ekmeliyet
erkek tercihtir ve

makam ki bu da risâlet ve
erkekleriyle eit

makamdr, ^^

Hz. Muhammed'in son peygamber oluuyla da dier tüm Müslüman
olmutur.

KNC BÖLÜM D; Varolu lkesi Olarak Kadn
imdi ise, kadnm
yâni erkek
ile ikili,

müstakil, hür bir insanî varlk

mefhumundan, dier

ile

e üikisine diren "dii" mefhumuna geçelim.
farklar

Burada diilik seviyesinde roUerdeki ve varlk mertebelerindeki
ortaya çkar.

bn Arabî, eitiik ve

farkllk konularnda der

ki:

nsaniyet

yönünden bakan
ise

erkek

ile

kadm erkekle eitier. Erillik ve diilik yönünden bakan kadm aynr. Cenab- Allah der ki; "erkekler onlardan bir
çekeriz. ^^

derece fazladr". Yani etkin edilgenin önüne geçer. Burada diiliin varhksal
bir

mertebe olduuna dikkat

O bir sfat, mevki ve roldür, smrlanm bir kiilik deildir. Bu da dii
mertebesinde
'er'in (erdiji)

veya er mertebesinde bir dii
gelir

(di^i er)

olmasnda

herhangi bir varhksal bir engel yoktur, anlarmna
bir

ya da

aym kiinin
iki

konumda dii baka

bir

konumda

ise er

olmasndadr. Önümüzdeki

alam incelediimizde bu konu anlalacaktr.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
100

Dii Olan Kadn Er Olan Erkein Varlksal ve rfan Tamamlaycsdr: Dii kadn ve er olan erkein ilk Adem ve Havva'nn yaradllarnda

çk

ve aralarnda olan varlksal elemesidir, evliliidir.

bn Arabi'de er olan

Adem üe Havva'nn varln görürüz. Sanki insan tarihindeki her ilikinin kaynak örnei varoluun balangcym
erkek üe dii kadndaki her ilikide
gibi.

bn Arabi, insann balangc ve iki cins arasndaki ilk ilikinin ve kadn
sevgisi mâhiyetinin ilâhî bir sevgi

oluu

ile ilgili

görüünü yorumlara açk

sembolik üslubuyla açklar.

Bu kompleks

ve kavrayc

görüü

iki

madde

halinde elden geldiince

özedemeye çalacaz:

Dii Kadn Erkein Varlksal Tamamlaycs:

bn Arabi, Adem'in vücûdunu ilk insan vücûdu olarak görür. O da —bizim
düüncemize göre- çömlekçinin çamurdan
benzer.
yaratr,

vücutiar ve cisimler
Allah,
.

yapmasna

Ve Adem'in kaburgasndan Cenâb-

Havva'nn vücûdunu

tpk marangozun tahtay yontmas gibi '^^ bn Arabi, Adem ve Havva'nn aralarndaki ve daha
çiftine sirayet

sonra insanlarn her

eden varlksal

yaknl öyle

tasvir eder: Allah,

Havvâ'mn

çkyla Adem'in vücudundaki boalan yeri arzu üe doldurmutur, zira varlkta boluk olmaz. "Havvâ'mn çkyla Adem'in vücûdunda boalan yeri arzu üe doldurmutur, zira varlkta boluk olmaz". ^3 Böylece Âdem
kendisine olan sevgisiyle

onu sevmitir. Çünkü onun

bir

parçasyd. Havva
idi.

da Adem'i sevmitir.
sevgisi

Çünkü o geldii ve olutuu mekan
ise

Havvâ'mn

mekânna

olan sevgidir. Adem'in ki

kendisine olan sevgidir. ^4

Demek ki,
varlksal

er olan erkek

kendinden ve suretinde olan kadnla birlemeden

doluluu hissedemez. ^5 jb^ Arabi, dii güzellii göreceimiz

pencereyi

açmken
Nizam

öyle

diyebiliriz:

bn Arabi'nin arzu ettii ve sevdii
yaamna baktmzda
Adem'in vücûdundan
için

kadn kendi

suretinde yaratüan

kadndr. Özel

sadece bayan

bint Mekineddin'i görürüz. O,

yaratüan Havva's

olmu

ve varhksal olgunlua

ulamak

onunla

birlemeyi istemitir. Divân\n Mukaddimesi'nde bu söylediklerimizi

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
101

kantlayacak vasflarla ondan bahseder:

çan tek örnei, o gözün siyahnda,

gösün yüreinde

oturur sevgisi kadîmdir.

Dii Kadn Er Olan Erkein rfan Tamamlaycs:
Ibn Arabî,
Fusus'el Hikem

adl kitabnn son bölümünde sâdece bir kereliine
bir

çok ince

bir

konuya deinir; özede: Cenâb- Hak maddeden baka
sâdece maddeyle

eyde görülemez. Görüntünün kadn erkein

olacandan erkein

Hakk' kadnda görmesi en büyük ve en mükemmel görütür. ^^ Böylece
irfani

tamamlaycs

olur.

Peki Ibn Arabî,

bu düüncesini nasl sunmutur?

Çk noktas
Allah da ona
sevdiyse

Peygamberimiz'in

u hadisi olmutur: "Dünyamz bana sevdiren üç ey
sevgisidir.

vardr. Kadnlar, güzel koku ve namazdr."

Ona göre

temel olan erkein Rabb'ine olan

kadn

sevdirmitir.

Cenâb- Allah nasl kendi sûredndekini

erkee de

ondan yaratt ve onun suretinde olan kadm sevdirmitir.
Erkek

kadn

sevip de onunla birlemeyi ve bir

olmay

istemitir.

Birleme

kaplam ve kadnda yok olmumr. Hak ise kulunu saknd için ona ykanmay emretmi ve sonra yok olduu kiiye yani kadna bakmay. Onu ykanma ile temizlemitir. Çünkü Hakk' kadnda görmesi gerekiyordu. Bu da en mükemmel görüdür. Çünkü bu Hakk'
olunca da arzu her tarafm

eden

ile

edilgenle birlikte (aktif
söylese de

ve pasif)

görmektir. ^

'

Kaanî bunun

iliki

amnda ^" olduunu

metinden bunun hemen sonra ve akabinde

olduu anlalr.
Diilik Bir Varolusal (Kevnî) Mertebedir:
Ibn Arabî, diiliin bütün varlklarda geçerli olan varolusal ve ontolojik
bir ilke

olduunu

ve

erillik ile

var edililiin bütün
erillik

aamalarm paylatm
ama

söylerken zirveye çkar. Diilik ve

varlksal hacimlerde eit

varlksal roUerinde ve mertebelerinde farkldrlar.

Diilik mertebesi edim ve etki mertebesinin sahibi
edilgenlik kabiüyeti mertebesidir. Diilik erilliin

erillikten

etkilenme ve

atm, tohum dönüüm,

oluum ve

ortaya

çk

yeridir.

^^

Ona

göre her olabüen, her edilgen ve

etkilenen er de olsa dii mertebesindedir.

Her kim

ki

ekim,

dönüüm ve

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
102

oluum

yeri ise erde olsa diilik mertebesindedir.

Binanaleyh evrendeki

her mahluk varlksal ve irfan düzeyinde diidir.

bn Arabi, der ki:
jB/^ di^iyit olupurduklanyla

ükür yillah'a ki kainatta hiç erkek yoktu.
Toplumun
ve geleneklerin

erkek dedii

ise

hen de onlardanm onlar dibidir ve

umudumdurA^

Ve der ki, her edilgenin mertebesi
Fiil

diiliktir

ve edilgenden

bakas da yokmr.

veya edim, eden ve edilgenin arasndaki hakikate bölünür. Edenden
ise

yapabilmeyi kabul edilenden

yaplabilmenin kabulü beklenir. ^^
her yerinde vardr ve her
biri

Ibn Arabi'de diilik ve
var eder.

erillik

varln

dierini

Çünkü edime açk

edilgen ekim ve

oluum yeri olan
fiili

dii olmadan

eden ve ekip oluturmak isteyen erde olamaz.
Diillik ve
erillik birbirlerine

karan ve ayn

paylaan

iki

eit prensiptir.

Ona ramen

diilik mertebesi erin gerisindedir. Peki

bn Arabi erkein

kadna olan önceliini ve

derecesini nasl açklar?

Ibn Arabi bu dereceyi ve öncelii toplumsal ve yaamsal alandan çkartarak
varhksal alana tar.

Ona

göre erkek Allah' kadndan önce idrak etmitir.

Çünkü ondan önce varolmutur. lâhî emir tekrar etmeyeceinden öncekine
oluan görüntünün sonradan gelene olmaz. Çünkü Cenâb- Hak ayn
surette iki defa tecelli etmez.

Bu

ilâhî

büyüklüün
-^^

gereidir.

te erkein kadna göre öncelii budur.
ise

Yutuhat'va bir

baka

yerinde

erkein bu varhksal önceliini yok etmeden kadna baka

bir öncelik

ve ayncahk mertebesi koyarak dengelemeye çaharak öyle der:

Allah'n hikmetini görmezsin
(Arapça'da erkee

ki

kadna isimde erkekten

fazla

klmtr.

MeK\ kadna ise MeR'e denir) }^ Arapça dilbilgisinde kadnn erkee olan fazlasna devam
Diiliin erefndendir
diüdir.-^4
ki

ederek öyle der:
ki

Allah için kullanlan zat ve sfat kelimeleridir

Böylece

kadmn erkein

ta

karsna

eit koymakta srar ederek öyle der:

"Evren her

ikisinin üzerinde

durmakta" yâni erkek ve

kadnn üzerinde.^^

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
103

SONUÇ bn Arabi'nin kadna olan bu pozitif dejenere olmayan görüü yerdlii ve
:

modernlii
gerekse

kadn eksik ve aa gören mutaassp islamclar hem Dou'da hem Bati'da kadnn tarihsel, kânûnî, fkh ve dier
ile

gerek

alanlardaki

konumunu

tekrar

gözden

geçirilmesini isteyenleri epey

artr.

Ayn zamanda bu görü slâm'n insanlm göstererek isnad edilmee çahlan kadna zulüm, aalama ve hakszlk safsatalanndan armdnr.
Kadna bugün
fazlasyla ihtiyâc olan kudsiyeti

vermek

için

yllarn sürgüne

yollad ve çkarlarn inkâr ettii slâmî deerleri tekrar kadna kazandrmak için bn Arabi'nin görüü Hicri 6. yy'dan günümüze yetimektedir.

DPNOT:
bn Arabî, el-tnsân el-Küllî, (Mahtiit ez-Zâhiriyye), no.4865,2b. ^ bn Arabî, el-Fütâhât el-Mekkijje, C.IV, s.84.
^

3 el-Fütûhât, C.I, S.274.

^

Suâd el-Hakim, el-Mu'cem

es-Sûjî,

s.

124- 125.

5 el-Fütûhât, C.II, S.347.

Aym yer Aym eser,

C.

II,

s.

135.

^ el-Mu'cem es-Sûfi, ^ El-Fütûhât, C.I,

s.

213; Fusüsu'l-Hikem, C.I, s.156-157.
447.

s.

^^A.g.e,.C.l,s.lO^.

^^X^.^,. C.II, S.588.
^^Ag.e,. C.II, 6-39,
,

bn Arabî ricalin saylarm ve mertebelerini zikrederken
kadn ve erkein
birlikte

onlar arasnda, birçok yerde
belirtir.

bulunduunu

açkça

^3^^.^., C.II,466.
^4^.^.^.,
^^

cm, S.89.
es-Sûjî,
s.

Bkz. el-Mu'cem

s.

680, el-Ecvibe el-Fâika, li-bn Arabî, 9a.

^^ el-Mu'cem es-Sûf,
^^ el-Mu'cem es-Sûjî,

912. Mentilul-Kutb,

ü-bn

Arabî,

s.

2.

s.

912. el-Fütûhât, C.II, s.555.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
104

^^ el-Mu'cem es-Sûf, ^^ el-Fütûhât, C.III,

s.

913. el-Fütühât, C.III,
89.

s.

136- 137.

s.

20^^.^.,
2^

cm,
s.

s.

88.

^.^.^., C.I,

486.

22x^.^., C.I. s.124-125.

"Havva'nn
doldurmutur,

çkyla Adem'in vücûdunda boalan yeri
zira varlkta

arzu

ile

boluk olmaz"

fikrini

bn Arabî kitaplarnn

birçok yerinde tekrar
^^ El-Fütühât, C.I, s.MA.

etmitir.

^^ Bkz. Fusüsu'l-Hikem'vci

Hz.Muhammed
Osmâniyye,

ile ilgili

fass.

Bkz. Fusûsu'l-Hiken'm. son fass; ve Bâlî Efendi'nin Fusüsu'l-Hikem erhi,

el-Matbaa en-Nefise

el-

s.427.

^^ Bkz. Fususu'l-Hikern'm

son fass, ve Bâlî Efendi'nin erhi, s.425-427.
el-

Kaânî'nin Fusüsu'l-Hikem erhi, Matbaatü Mustafâ el-Bâbî

Halebî,

Msr,
29 30

s.332-333.
s.

Kaânî'nin Fusüs erhi,
el-Fütühât, C.III, S.297: el-Fütühât, C.IV, S.445.
S.

333.

"el-Ünsâ MahaUü't-tekvîn."

3^ A.g.e., C.I,

507.

32 Bkz. A.g.e., C.I, 679.

El-Fütühât, C.III, s.89.

Erkein ve kadnn ahitlii

meselesini inceledii

bu

yerde,

bn Arabî çok dikkate ayan noktalar ortaya çkarr.

34 El-Fütühât, C.III, S.90.

Ayn yer.

>:ai"'
•r

.4-

'.

i!-

'.

'.

"

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
106

Ibn Arabi's Twofold Perception of
-

Woman

Woman

as

Human Being and Cosmic Principle -

Souad A.l-Hakim
Translated by

N ermine Hanno
Women
and Sufism" that

This paper was presented at the" International Symposium of

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

In the

Name

of Allah the

Rahman the Rahim

It is

astonishing that a colossal Islamic scholar, Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi (560
lived

- 638AH), who
that

more than

eight cenmries ago, should have declared

woman and man are absolutely equal in terms of human potentiality. He interpreted the 'degree' which was given to man over woman ^ as an
ontological matter, abolishing singular male images of the universe in

favour of a binary conjugal conception, where male and female are coupled

together in a necessary cosmic unity

on

the level of both Creation and

Gnosis.

Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi has presented
of Islamic Culture.
It is

a

new vision of woman

in the history

indeed a vision worthy of inspiring contemporary

musUms, of

acting as a foundation for the reassessment of their notions

and concepts about
cultural

women

in Islam,

and of propelling the wheel of

change

in the

proper path.

For the purpose of outlining Ibn Arabi's
into

vision,

my research is
is

divided

3:

two main

parts,

each containing two subsections, that

a total of

o
CD

O
CO

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
107

KADN

VL

WOMAN

AND

four, each holding the potential to

be a spring-board for a new wave of

thought on the issue of women.

Part

One - Woman

as

Human Being
reality as

Ibn Arabi views
females.

human

one

in

all

human

beings, males

and
is

The two genders

are equal in respect of humanity,

and that

their origin.

Maleness and femaleness are contingent
says:

states in the

human

essence.

He

'Humanity unites male and female, and

in

it

maleness

and femaleness

are contingencies not a

human

reality'.

^

He

also says:

'Eve was created from
that

Adam, and

so she has two determinations (hukm),

of male by virtue of origin and that of female by virtue of contingency'

^ Based

upon
all

this

gender equality

as

human

being,

woman is

qualified to

work

in

the occupations a
all

man does, and

possesses the aptimde for
activities.

the performance of

intellectual

and spirimal

In the following,

we
1.

study a woman's aptitude for knowledge and

spirituality:

Woman's Aptitude
direct participation

for

Knowledge
the evident
started
first

Texts preserve for us

many reports from which one can prove
of

and

women in cultural and political life. This
where the
role

at the

time of the Prophet, the Companions, and lasted through the
Hijrab, until the dark ages

few centuries of the

of the free

woman in
public
life

faded away to a role of

owned

slavery

— whether by purchase
and
in the courts

or by capture as a result of war
rulers.

-

in the field

of

arts

of

This brought about a

new kind of

relationship

of inequality between

men and women, between a powerful authoritarian owner and a powerless owned, who would not shy away on most occasions from using guile and
deception in order to achieve personal gain.

In spite of the appearance of a breach in the
societies, Sufi circles

life

of men's and women's

remained, for the most part, open to both genders,
as a

looking

upon woman

human

being and not as a female, as a person

with exactiy the same aptitude for divine closeness and gnosis as a man.
"O
CO

Ibn Arabi further developed the vision of the Sufis

who

preceded him.

O
to

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
108

with regard to

women

being people of knowledge and gnosis. She
fields.

manifested in his works in two aspects: the Sufi and thç.fiqh

a)

Woman as Spiritual Teacher, Guiding Shaykh, and Divine Mother
woman of gnosis from
his youth,
Seville,

This characterisation was personified by a

Fatima bint Ibn Al-Muthanna of Cordoba. In
her, himself

Ibn Arabi served

^

,

for about 2 years. This

is

longer than any period of time

he spent

in the

'company' of a

sufi gnostic,

inasmuch

as the

words

'serve'

and 'company' denote

in sufi terminology, taking

and learning from, being
all

polished by association and

company and

service,

of which

is

unveiled

by Sufis in an educational method quite different from that of uicfaqih

who
it

requires intellectual force-feeding.

When

Ibn Arabi says

'I

served',

means he took the person served

as a shaykh, a guide,

and

a spiritual
all

teacher. Therefore, Fatima bint

Ibn Al-Muthanna was for Ibn Arabi

that a shaykh

is

to a murid.

Ibn Arabi, the murid, acknowledged the role of the Sevillean gnostic
his rebirth,

in

and accepted

his spiritual descent

from

her,

which he never

did with any of the shaykhs he accompanied and served during his Lifetime.

She was the only one he

called

'my mother'.
light

And

she used to

tell

him:

'I

am

your divine mother, and the

of

your earthly mother.' ^

The

influence of this gnostic lady

on

the rebirth of Ibn Arabi appears

in the

few passages he

relates in the Fütuhat which include
gifts

her
her.

contemplations and the

of sainthood that were granted to
'I

She

used to say to Ibn Arabi for example,

wonder

at

him who

says

he loves

God
for

and yet

is

not rejoiced by Him, for

His eye observes him in every eye,

He is the one witnessed by him. and He is not hidden from him not

one moment.' ^

Ibn Arabi came to
the

Quran served

know her station when she told him that the Fatiha of her. He learned first-hand when she recited the Fatiha
and he read with
her.

it:

for a matter she desired

As

a result

of her reading,
3:

she created a three-dimensional ethereal image of the Fatiha, and asked
it

to carry out such

and such an order.

'

He

also

mentions benefiting

ö
CO

O
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
109

from

this gnostic lady's
is

knowledge

in the field

of the science of

letters,

which

a science of saints. °

Therefore, the Se^dllean gnostic manifested in the

Life

of Ibn Arabi

in the

position of guiding saint and spiritual teacher, and he
to learn

was not embarrassed

from

her, or to surrender to her leadership, or to stand as a murid
is

before her knowledge. This
that a

practical

proof of Ibn Arabi's declaration

woman

can be a shaykh and a

spiritual guide,

and that

men

are

among her disciples. So let no attention be paid to those who do not see that a man can be the disciple of a woman on the pretext
allowed to be

of the mixing of the sexes, because
have been numbered
is

historically

and to

this day,

women

among the
of

disciples

of

the aptitude for knowledge and learning,
rightful role in the life
a disciple.

men shaykhs. The issue here which allows a woman to take

on her
b)

Woman

as

Endowed with Direct Understanding

(Faqiha)

and

Prayer Leader (Imam)

Ibn jArabi bestows upon Buqis (Queen of Sheba) the rank of Faqiha. NXTien she surrendered to Islam, she did not become a follower of Solomon nor
did she submit to his guidance. Rather, she remained free in her belief

from following an envoy or an imam,

free

from intermediaries. She

revealed that she possessed direct belief in

God,

exactiy like that of the

Envoys,

when

she said:

'I

submit with Solomon to AJlah, Lord of the

universes', in contrast to the

Pharaoh

who

said: 'the

Lord of Moses and

Aaron'. 9

By examining Ibn

Arabi's Hfe,
a

we can
theory

say that he

is

and experience, not

man of

who

speaks

man of knowledge about woman as an
a

invisible/hidden being. This

means

that

when he

described woman's

aptitude and acknowledged her abilities and her equaUt}^ to

man, he was
'issue

thinking of those

women

he knew and not theorizing on the
are based
their

of

women'. Ibn Arabi's statements on women
of
life,

on

a broad experience
aptitudes.

in

which

women

revealed to

him

powers and

As

regards equality between the sexes in the field of their competency in

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF
110

knowledge, he held the view that a

woman
There
both

could be imam, leading both

men and women in prayer. He
with
that.'
1*^

says:

are people

who permit women
I

to lead the prayer unconditionally, for

men and women, and

agree

And
that

this is

very

much

a

contemporary

issue,
I

which no Islamic scholar
suppose that the reason
is

in

the 21^^ century

would dare

to agree with.

many

legal authorities are

trapped into passing judgments by linking

scriptural passages

with other passages, rather than by wreathing passages

and

life as it is lived.

2.

Woman's

Spiritual Aptitude

In addition to what has been referred to regarding woman's spiritual
aptitude in discussing the SeviUean gnostic Fatima bint Al-Muthanna, one

of Ibn Arabi's shaykhs, we may
are

set forth a question:
is

what

spiritual

ranks

open

to a

woman, and what ceuing

there

which she cannot pierce?

To begin with, Ibn Arabi affirms woman's
in other

attainment of

human perfection,
is

words becoming Terfect Man'

as in his ontological definition.

He

says: 'Perfection is

not barred to women. If
this is a

woman

indeed one
(ijad)

degree lower than man,

degree of coming into being

since

she was created from him, and this does not detract from [her attainment
of| perfection.' ^

Mn addition, when Ibn Arabi defined 'Perfect Manhood'
he pointed out that
this is for

in the Fütuhat al-Makkijya,

both males and

females.

^

^ Likewise,

when he

detailed in the Fütuhat 'the

Country of the
activities

Interior' {dawlat al-hatiri)

and the number of universal ranks and

in the interior,

he mentioned that they were open to both

men and

women. 13

To

counteract the historical stereotypical image of woman's natural
is

weakness, Ibn Arabi writes about her power: 'And there
powerful creature in the universe than
has created from the breaths
angels.'
{anfas)
. . .

no more

woman for each angel that God of women is the most powerful of

^^
O
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
111

Ibn jArabi goes so

far as to say that

men and women
{qutb).
it

share
is

all

the ranks

of sainthood, even that of the Pole
rank which
is

^^ But what

this superior

open

to

women? And what does
of al-shajkb al-akbar?

mean

for a

woman

to

be a

'Pole' in the eyes

In answer to the above,
possessor of the

we can say that once a Pole, woman becomes moment iwaqf), master of the time, God's vicegerent on
Adamic
distinction.
^

His earth, representative of the Envoy in his community, heir to being
chosen, cloaked and to acquiring
"

Around her

the

world turns
world
rest

^

'
:

she arranges
her.

its

governance and the needs of the entire
of His

upon

God is

in solitude with her without the rest
is

creation,

and

He

beholds none but her during her time. She

the highest

veü.

^

^ In the Presence of mithal,

God erects

for her a throne

upon which
that

He

seats her,

and then

He

bestows upon her aU the Divine

Names
seated

the universe asks of her and she asks of Him/it.

When she is

upon

God orders the universe to pledge allegiance and to pay homage to her. Among her subjects are every being, high and low, except the highest of the angels, who are those lost in love
the throne in the Divine Image,

{muhayjamun), and the singulars

{afrad)

of mankind, over

whom

she has

no

authority because they are Like her, perfect, with the aptitude for
^

what

she has received of Polehood.

^

Ibn Arabi
iwilaya)

is

opposed

to those

who

refuse to acknowledge the sainthood

after

women rather than men. He says in an unambiguous passage stating that women can indeed reach the station of Polehood:
of
not be veiled by the saying of the Prophet, peace be upon him,

And do

"Prosper not those

who give sovereignty to woman", since we are discussing
not people giving sovereignty, and the saying was
people give sovereignty.

God giving sovereignty,
about those to
else in this

whom

Had

there been nothing
said,

matter but what the Prophet, peace be
it

upon him,

"Women
is

and

men

are siblings {shaqa'iqf\

would have been
^^

sufficient; that

to

say, all that is rightfully a
is

man's, in terms of stations, degrees and qualities,

also possible for

whichever

woman God

wills.'

it

3:3

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
112

Therefore,

men and women
is

being

'siblings'

was the

basis for
level.

Ibn Arabi

to denote that a sibling

similar, equal

and of the same
all

As

a result,

woman
As
a

is

equal to

man in

aptitude for

the stations of sainthood.

for the ceiling that limits

woman

and that she cannot
{risala wa-bajthd).

pierce,

it is

that

of envoyship and prophetic mission

Ibn Arabi says that
that

woman

shares the degree of perfection with

man, and

man

is

favoured by superlative perfection: envoyship and prophetic mission.^^
In that sense, she
is

equal to

all

muslim men

after

prophethood and
peace be upon

envoyship has been sealed by the person of
him.

Muhammad,

Part

Two - Female

as

Cosmic

Principle

We move now from the
individualized

concept of

woman

{mar'a) as

an independent

human
on the

being, to the concept of the female {unthd)

which

thrusts her into a duo, a couple, a relationship with the other, 'the male'.

And

it is

here,

level

of femaleness, that differences in the roles
says regarding the

and the cosmic degrees emerge. Ibn Arabi

two aspects

of equality and discrimination: 'Whoever regards humanity equates
to

women

men, and whoever regards maleness and femaleness, and God's words:
a degree over

'Men have

them [women]', and made

the actor prevail over

the acted-upon, discriminates between

men and women.' ^^
is

We would like

to point out here that femaleness

an ontological degree,
is

a quality, position

and

role,

not a specific being. This means that there
a

no ontological impediment preventing
femaleness
(a female male)

male being in the degree of
(a

or a female being in the degree of maleness
to

male female), or for the

same person

be in one place
clear

a female

and

in

another a male.

And what is meant by that will be
two subsections.

when

dealing with

the subject in the following

1.

Female Woman: completing being and gnosis
first

for a

Male

Man
o
(O

The

manifestation of female

woman and

male

man

appeared in the

3 O

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
113

creation of

Eve and Adam and
male

in the

consummation of
is

their ontological

marriage.

We may observe
man -

that there

a strong presence

of

Adam

and
Ibn

Eve

in every

female

woman

relationship, according to
is

Arabi.

It is as if

the beginning of creation

the archet}^e for every true
history.

conjugal relationship that ever occurs in

human

Ibn Arabi

relates his vision

of the beginning of man, the

first

relationship

between the two sexes and the quiddity of love of
Love, in a symbolic manner open to interpretation.

women

to Divine

We wiU attempt to
as

summarize these comprehensive and complex perceptions
possible in the next two paragraphs.

much

as

a)

Female Woman: completing being
first

for a

Male

Man

human body as that of Adam and in its origin — insofar as we imagine it - it resembles a sculpture that a potter would create out of clay and then fire in a kiln. From Adam's rib, God
Ibn jArabi considers the
created the

body of Eve, so

it

resembles in

its

origin a sculpture that a

carpenter would chisel out of
ontological yearning between

wood

or stave. ^^ Ibn Arabi describes the

Adam

and Eve, something which spread

from them
place

to every

human

couple in being, saying: 'and

God
felt

filled

the

from which Eve was created with a hunger for remain any void in being. ^4 When He filled it with
her a yearning as towards himself because she
felt
is

her, for there
air,

cannot

he

towards

a part

of him, and she

a yearning towards

him because he
is

is

her homeland, from which she

originated.

So Eve's love

love of homeland, and

Adam's love

is

love of

himself ^^

Therefore, the male

with the female image. ^^

man does not feel satiation in being except by uniting woman, she who is created from him and is in his own

This brings us to opening a

window from which we can view Ibn Arabi's perception of female beauty, as far as we are able to tell. We say that the
desired

woman

for

whom

Ibn Arabi yearns

is

the

woman

created in his

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
114

image.

And by
is

looking into his private
the only

life,

we

discover that

Nizam

bint

Makinuddin
'Eve'

woman who was

capable of becoming to

him

the

who came

out of the body of 'Adam', and with

whom he yearned

to unite to achieve his satiation in being.

He

describes her at the beginning

of

his

Dman by qualities

that serve to confirm

what we have mentioned.

He
eye,

says:
is]

'[She

the incomparable

one of her
She
is

era.

Her home

is

the pupil in the
.'
.

and the heart

in the chest.

of long experience.

b)

Female Woman: completing gnosis
issue,

for a

Male

Man

Ibn Arabi discusses a delicate
in the last chapter

something he does perhaps only once,

of

his Fusus Al-Hikam.

The matter is summarized

in

the fact that

God

{haqq}

can never be witnessed divested of matter.

And
'

since witnessing cannot take place except in matter, a man's witnessing

of

God in woman is the grandest and most complete witnessing. ^ In this sense, female woman is one who completes male man in gnosis.
Ibn Arabi present
this idea?

How did
It

springs

from contemplating the prophetic

saying:

'I

was made

to love

women, perfume, and the freshness of the eyes [that was brought to me] in prayer.' It may be deduced that the basis is man's yearning for his Lord, who is his origin, and that is why God made him love woman - for as God, the Most High, loves him who is in
three things of your world,

His image.
for

He makes

loveable to

man

the

woman whom He

extracted

him from him and who appeared

in his image.

woman, he desires to conjoin and unite with her, and when the act is consummated pleasure overtakes all parts of the body, and it is as if he were annihilated in her. Thus as God is jealous for his servant, He orders him to perform a full ablution in order that he be
NXHien
loves

man

cleansed of 'other', and return to observing

Him

in the

one

whom he

has been annihilated

in, i.e. in

woman.

O
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
115

He has
in

cleansed

him by complete ablution because he has
is

to

wimess

God

woman, and
it is

that

the grandest and the

most complete contemplation,

because

a wimessing of
insists

Al -Qashani

God as actor and acted-upon simultaneously/" that this witnessing is in the act of copulation ^\
signifies that
it

whereas the actual passage
to
it.

follows

it

and

is

a

consequence

2.

Femaleness as Cosmic Degree
a great deal

Ibn Arabi shows

of ingenuity

when he makes

femaleness a

cosmic principle permeating through every creature and product, sharing
with maleness the act of creation in every plane. Femaleness and maleness
are equal in their ontological amplitude, but they are separate in their roles

and degrees of being.
degree of receptivity, of acted-upon-ness, and of being

Femaleness

is

a

effected by maleness,

which

is

the possessor of the degree of actor and

acted-upon.

It is also

for maleness the place for depositing, seeding,

growing, bringing into being, creating ^^ and manifestation. Each receptive

and acted-upon and being effected
be male; and everything which
is

is

in the degree

of female even

if it

a place for depositing, seeding,
if it

growing

and

creating,

is

in the degree

of female even
is

be male. Therefore,
the ontological

every creature in the universe
gnostic levels. Ibn Arabi says:

'female'

on both

and the

"We

are females for

what He impregnates

in us

Praise be to

God,

there

is

not in

this universe a

male

Those men

whom

custom designates
are reaUy females: they are

They

my

soul,

my avail'

-^^

He
is

says:

The

degree of every acted-upon
is

is

that

of a female, and there

nothing that

not acted-upon. Action

is

in reality divided

between the

actor and the acted-upon:

from the

side

of the actor comes the power

or

ability,

and from the

side

of being acted upon comes the receptivity

to being empowered.'-'"^

KADIN VR WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

^ jd^
116

According to Ibn Arabi, femaleness and maleness permeate through the
articulations

of being, each one of them bringing about the other. For
its

there

is

no

'male' actor, with

propensity towards depositing, seeding
a 'female'

and

creating, except

through the existence of

who

is

receptive

to the action, a receptacle for that depositing, seeding,

and

creation.

Femaleness and maleness are two conjoined, simultaneous, mutually
corresponding principles, sharing one
femaleness
is

act.

In spite of

this,

the degree of

one degree behind that of maleness. So how

does Ibn

Arabi

interpret the degree

man

has over

woman?

Ibn Arabi transmutes
regards

'the

degree'from its social and

life

context to one of Being.

Me
to

man

as being in God's mentation before woman, as he was prior to her in

existence. Since the

Divine order is never repeated, the witnessing which happened

the former can in no the

way repeat itself
as

to the latter,

because

He does not manifest in

same image
is

twice, just to the

He does not manifest to

two people in the same image,

and this

due

Divine Vastness.

And this is the degree by which a man exceeds

a woman. 33

In another section in the Fütuhat, Ibn Arabi

is

intent,

not on erasing the
it

ontological degree that belongs to man, but
a spiritual degree belonging to

on making

equivalent to

woman. He

says:

'Do you not observe

God's wisdom in giving an increase to

name? He

says

of

man

al-mar\ while

woman over man in terms of He says of woman al-mar'ah. Thus
that

He

increased her by ^^^'in pause (gram.) and by ta'm conjunction (gram.)
to the

when compared
in that station,

name

'man'.

So she has a degree over
to His saying,

of man's

which corresponds
filled this

"men have

degrees over
{mar'aB}!

them [women]" so He
34

gap with that increase for women

He

follows

up the

linguistic
'.
.

context which manifests woman's superiority

over man, by saying:

.

and had there been no honour paid to the
{dhat)

feminine other than the fact that both the Divine Essence
Quality
(sifd)

and
•=t;

are feminine [in gender], that

would have been

sufficient'. -^-^

a:

o
O
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
117

it is in this

manner
as

that

Ibn Arabi

is

insistent

on placing woman on the
depends on two orders'

same footing
^"
,

man,

for as he says, 'the universe

that

is

to say,

on man and woman.

Conclusion
Ibn Arabi's positive and unadulterated view of

woman is

astonishingly
it

modern when compared

to

contemporary perspectives, be

those of

some muslim extremists who treat women as a lesser being, or those of people who demand a reassessment, historical, linguistic, legal, theological etc, of woman's place in both the East and the West, according to some
other kind of limitation.

This view also shows the humanity of Islam, cleansed of
coercion and persecution of

all

the oppression,
it.

women that has
is

been attributed to

Indeed
fill

the vision of Ibn Arabi extends far beyond the 6^" century Hijrah to

woman with

sanctity

-

and she

in dire

need of

it

today

-

and to restore

truly Islamic principles,

which have been banished by the passage of years
interests.

and masked by personal

ENDNOTES
^

See Q.2.228:

"Men

have a degree above them [women]".
f.2b.

^ ^

Ibn jArabi, Al-Insan Al-Kulli, Zahiriyya ms. 4865,

Ibn

jArabi, Al-Futuhat Al-Makkiyja, vol.IV, p.84.

4 Fut.
5

121 A.

Al-Mujjam Al-Sufi, pp. 1 24- 1 25.

^ Put: 11.347. ^ Ibid.
8 Ibid, 11.135. ^

Mu-Jam, p.213, Fusus Al-Hikam, vol.1, pp.156-157.

10

Fut

1.447.

^^ Ibid, 1.708.

^2 Ibid, 11.588.

CD

i

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

jn^
118

Ibid. II.6-39,

where Ibn Arabi mentions men of numbers and men of
j

ranks,

and

reveals in

many

instances that they include

men and women.

^^ Ibid, 11.466.
^^ Ibid, III. 89.
^"^

See Muijam, p.680, Al-Ajmba Al-La'iqa by Ibn Arabi,
j

f.9a.

Muijam, p.912, Man:^l al-quth by Ibn jArabi,
^^
^^

p.2.

MuiJam, p.912, and Fut 11.555.
MuiJam, p.913, and ¥ut
III. 136-

137.

20 Fut III.89.
2^ Ibid, III.88.

22 23

Ibid, 1.486. Ibid, 1.124-125.

The thought of 'Eve going out of Adam and her
desire
is

place being inhabited by
a void in being'

and yearning for her because there cannot remain

repeated in

many of Ibn

jArabi's books.

25

Yut

1.124.

See Fusus Al-Hikam,

The Bezel of
(final chapter),

the

Wisdom of

Singularity in

The

Muhammadian Word.
See Fusus Al-Hikam

and Sharh al-Fusus by

Bali Efendi, Al-

Nafisa Al-Othmaniya Press, p.427.
See, Fusus Al-Hikam, final chapter,

and Sharh

al-Fusus

by

Bali Efendi, Al-

Nafisa Al-Othmaniya Press, pp.425- 427; and Sharh Fusus Al-Hikam by

Abd
333.

al-Razzaq Al-Qashani, Mustafa Al-Babi 7\1-Halabi Press, Egypt, pp.3329Q

Al-Qashani, Commentary on Fusus, p.333.

Fut

III. 297,

'Female, locus of creation'.

32 Ibid, 1.507.

^3 See Fut 1.679.

Fut

III. 89,

Ibn jArabi deals here with the issue of the testimony of

men and

women, and draws many

conclusions of great benefit worthy of our attention.

We may also
35 36

observe English possesses the same Hnguistic feature, where

'wo-man' has an increase over 'man'.

Fut
Ibid.

III.90.

5

CD

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
120

MEVLÂNÂ'NIN KADINA BAKII
Prof. Dr.

Mehmet

DEMRC
TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâtrasna düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasavvuf" balkl
teblidir.

16 Aralk 2005 tarihinde

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

Müslüman toplumlarda

târih

boyunca

kadnn konumunu

belirleyen

unsurlar unlardr: Dînî kurallar, sosyal, siyâsî ve etnik çevre ve

slâm

Bu sebeple slâm dünyasnda, kadnn her yerde ve her dönemde ayn konumda ve durumda olduu söylenemez. Kur'an- Kerim'de kadmn gerek yaratl, gerekse hak ve sorumluluklar yönünden erkekle müsâvî konumda olduu görülür. Kadn, Allah'n kulu olmas bakmndan erkekle eit seviyededir. Dînî hak ve sorumluluklar
öncesinden gelen kültür miras.
da ayn düzeydedir. Hz. Peygamber'in kadnlara yönelik söz ve uygulamalan

da benzer çerçevededir.^

Hz. Peygamber 25 yl boyunca Hz. Hatice
kendisini dâima destekledi,

ile

tek eli olarak

O'na

teselli

kucan açt.

yaad. O da Sonraki ei Hz.Aye,

kz Hz.Fatma, hem salklarnda, hem de sonralar toplumda çok seçkin
bir yere sahip oldular. ^

Ne yazk ki slâm
devam
geriledi.

toplumlarndaki uygulamalar her zaman bu çizgide

etmedi. Hz. Peygamber'den sonraki dönemlerde

kadmn

mevkii

Köklemi

ataerkil aile

anlay

ve erkek egemen tavr,

kadn

haklarm kstiad. Shhati üpheli bâz

hadisler

yaygnlk kazand. Naslar

bu

istikamette yorumland.-^
ise

Tasavvuf çevrelerinde
ileri

kadmn yeri, baka

alanlarda

olduundan daha

seviyededir.

lk önemli kadn

eren Râbia-i Adeviye'nin ismi bir sembol
deildir. ^

hâline geldi. O,

bu alanda tek örnek

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
121

"Bana dünyadan üç ey sevdirildi: GÜ2el koku, kadnlar ve gözümün nuru olan namaz." ^ mealindeki hadis-i erif, tasavvuf muhitinde daha çok

tannd, revaç buldu ve zengin yorumlarla iz brakt. ^ Târih içinde hemen her toplumda kadn konusunda farkl deerlendirmeler

yaplmür. Erkek egemen

bir

tavrm

yaygnl

açkür.

Buna
üeri

tepki olarak
bir

doan

feminist cereyanlarn

bâz zorlama düünceler

sürdüü de

gerçektir.

Bütün bunlarn ötesinde, soukkanllkla meseleye bakacak olursak
görürüz:

unu

Kadn, yaratiklann en üstünü olan insan nev'inin bir örneidir. Tpk erkekte olduu gibi, onun da meziyederi ve zaaflan vardr. Yap olarak genellikle duygusal taraf ar basündan, bu meziyet ve zaaflan
daha beürgin ekilde ortaya çkar.

Hz. Mevlânâ'nn kadna

bakna gelince; onda tasavvuf düüncesindeki kadna olumlu yaklamn ar basû açktr. Gölpnarh'mn belirttii gibi,
Mevlânâ'nn zaman zaman "kadnlan dâima erkekten

aa gören ortodoks
sözü icap ettii

düünceye temas, ancak
için tekrarlamaktan
ilgilidir.

bir gelenekten, herkesin söyledii

Evet,

baka bir ey deildir." ^ Bu tumm, realist oluuyla da kadm bir eytan deildir, ama o, bir melek de deildir. Her
bâznda da bazan
ilgili

insan gibi olumlu ve olumsuz örneklere sahiptir; kii

iyi

bazan kötü davranlar

sergileyebilir.

Ne

ki

Mevlânâ'da kadnla

olumlu

unsurlarn daha çok öne
Kendisinin

çkti

görülür.

mudu

bir evlilik

hayâo olmutur. Buna

ramen

Ffhi Mâjh'm

bir yerinde evlilik
birlikte

hakknda olumsuz ifâdelere
vâstadr.

yer verir.

O'na göre kadnlarla

yaamak çok sabr gerektirir. Bu
olgunlatrmas
için bir

beraberlik insann kendisini

iyiletirip

Tpk elleri kirden temizlemek
evlilik

için bir havluyla silmek gibidir.

Hayatta asü olan,

ve onun zahmetine
A

kadanmaktr.

Ama buna güç yetiremiyecek olanlar,
Harakani hikâyesi
ilgi

Hz. Isa

gibi

bekârl

tercih edebilirler. "

Mesnev^dçk

eyh

çekicidir: Bir

müridi bu eyhi

ziyaret için binbir

skntya katiamp

gelir.

Kapi)T eyhin kars açar ve

kocas hakknda fevkalâde kötü

sözler eder.

Onun bir

sahtekâr ve riyakâr

olduunu

söyler.

Çok üzülen mürid
onu
bulur.

ayrlr,

ormanda Harakanî'yi aramaya
"Ben sabredip bu kadmn

ko)alur. Nihayet

Harakani bir arslan üzerine binmi ve elinde
ki:

kamç

olarak bir

ylan tutmaktadr. Der

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
122

yükünü çekmeseydim,

arslan

benim yükümü çeker miydi?"

^

Arâbînin kars hikâyesinde de yoksulluktan müteki olan bir

kadnm
da, yer yer

drdnm tasvir eder.

^

^ Hikâyenin sonunda

i

tatlya

balanrsa

kavga iddedenir, koca: "Ey kadn, kavgadan çekimeden vazgeç,

vazgeçmeyeceksen benden vazgeç!"

der.

"Susarsan ne
gelir. ^ ^

âlâ!

Yoksa

u

dakikada evi bark terk ederim" noktasna kadar

u hakimane söze yer verir: Hikâyenin devamndaki u ifâdeler ne kadar beerî tasvirlerdir:
balayan kadn
için

Bu arada alamaya "Göz ya kadnn tuzadr."
ve

"Alamadan

bile gönül çekici

olan

kadnn, göt(jap

âh ü vâh hadden adnca;

göt^a^jamumndan

bir ^im§ek

çakp

o merd-i vahidin kalbine bir
verince
o,

kvlcm sçrad.
hal ne olur?

Güî(eljüî(üyle erkei esir eden

kadn, kendine bendelik süsü
seni tir tir titreten

Akametinden yüreini oynatan, kibrinden

gölünün önünde

alamaya
istinas

baslarsa ne hâle gelirsin?
gönülleri

ile

kanatan

ogüt^el,

iiyalvarmaya dökerse ne hâle girersin?
dilber öî^ür dilemeye

Cevr ü cefâsnn

tu^na düürmü o
linnâs..)

kalkrsaya bi^m

öt<rümüîi ne olabilir?

Allah (Züyyine

^^ hükmünce

kadnn muhabbeti ile insan
bulmas
için yaratt.

tet^yin etmitir.

Hakk 'in

bu

tertibinden insanlar

nasl kaçabilir?
ve teselli

Zira Allah

kadn

erkein sükûn

Bunun

için

Adem

Havva dan nasl ayrlabilir?
Bir kimseyiitlikte Zalolu Rüstem
dinlemek hususundayine de
Sofilerine
bile olsa,

ya da Hamladan

bile ileri geçse, ferman

karsnn

esiridir.

cümle alemin mest olduu H^.
ey

Muhammed bile:

'%ellimimyâ Hümeyrâ"

derdi

(Bana bir eyler söyle

Hümeyrâ).

Hz. Mevlânâ bu noktadan itibaren beerî-maddî âlemin üstüne
metafizik dünyâya

çkp
suya,

adm

atar.

Önce sembollere bavurur; erkei
ise de,

kadm

atee benzeterek der
ve

ki:

'Her ne kadar su atee galip
kaynatr.

baskn

bir

kabn

içindeyken

ate

o

suyu

Ne

vakit bir

kap

ikisinin

arasna girse (ate)

o suyu

havaya

çevirip yok eder.

Zahiren su atee galip olduu gibi, sen de

kadna hâkim

isen de

bâtnen kadna hem

malûp hem

de talipsin!

Böyle bir hususiyet ancak insanda vardr.

Hayvandaki muhabbet duygusu
ileri gelir.

eksiktir.

Bu

da hayvann insandan

aa olmasndan

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
123

Resûlüllah Efendimi^: '%admlar, âkiller ve gönül sahipleri

titrerine galiptir

'

dedi.

Dier taraftan

câhiller

kadna galiptir, çünkü

onlar sert ve

kaba muameleli

olurlar.

Câhillerde rikkat, lütuf,

muhabbet at^r. Çünkü tabiatlarnda hayvanlk galiptir
ve

Muhabbet ve rikkat insanî sfatlardr. Gat^ap

ehvet ise hayvani sfatlardr.

"

Ve yüce Mevlânâ son noktay koyar: "Kadn Hakk'n nurudur, sâdece sevgili deü,
deü."13

sanki haliktr,

mahlûk

te kadnn gerçek deeri buradan geHr.
vasflar

O, Allah'n yaraoc kudretinden
vazife görmekte,

tamaktadr. Hayâtn devamllnda bü)öik
ilâhi faaliyet

böylece

ve tecellinin aziz bir rüknü olmaktadr. Belli bir irfan

seviyesine varanlara göre:

"Kadna muhabbet, onlann vücutian aynasnda

Cenâb- Hakk' müahede edebilmektendir." Maneviyat âlemlerinde mesafe kat etmi erkein kadna sevgisi, bir bakma onun vastasyla ilahî güzelliin
vuslatn dilemek mânâs tar.
^'^

Kadn Hakk'n nuru olarak gören ve yaraOc vasfna vurgu yapan Mevlânâ
kadm-erkek denkliine, her bakmdan bunlarn
birbirini

tamamlayc

olduklarna, dolaysyla tek kahnca ikisinin de eksik ve

yarm olacana

iaret eder.

u benzetme ne hotur:
kendi
çiftini

"Alemde her cüt( muhakkak kendi çiftini ister. Kehrüba nasl saman çöpünü çekerse
her cü^'

muhakkak

çeker"

Gökyü^yere "Merhaba"

der,

"demirle

mknats

naslsa ben de seninle öyleyim"
besleryeti§tirir.

Gökyü^ aklen
Yerin harareti

erkektir, yer

kadn. Onun verdiini bu

kalmad

m gök hararet
akl

yollar, rutubeti bitti

mi

rutubet

verir.

Buyeryü^ü, hanmlklar etmekte,

dourduu

çocuklar em^rip yetitirmektedir.
idlerini iliyorlar.

u

hâldeyerle göün de

var, böyle bil

Çünkü aklllarn

Yer olmasa güller, erguvanlar nasl biter, gökyüf^ünün suyu, harareti olmasayerden
ne hâsl olur?

Diinin erkee meyli

ikisinin de

ii tamamlansn

diyedir.

Bu

birlikte

âlem baka bulsun diye

Tann
^

erkekle

kadna da

birbirlerine

kar meyil

verdi.Gece de böylece gündüzle

sarma dola olmutur.

Geceyle gündü^ sureta birbirine

aykrdr, ama hakikatte

birdir. ^

Arâbî hikâyesine Mevlânâ kendisi yorum
nefis ve

getirir:

"Bu kan kocadan maksat
ikisi de

akldr. yiyi de kötüyü de ayrt etmek

için

bunlarn

çok la^mdr. "Bu

KADIN VE WOMAN A^oD TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
124

^kisi.

(akl ve

nefis)

§u toprak evde (yani bedende) gece gündür^ cenk ve ddaldedir''^^

Baka bir hikâyede
Bunlardan
nefisle
biri

u ben2etme yaplr: ''Akh erkek
hep
^
'

bil,

nefsi ve

tamah kadn"

nura öteki karanla götürür. Fakat ruh

doru yolu bulunca
nura kavuurlar.

akl

birbirini destekleyerek,

birlikte hakikate,

Bu durum

her

iki

cins için geçerlidir.

Düünce dünyâsnda böyle
olduunu
görürüz.
bir evlilik

olan Hz. Mevlânâ'nn gündelik hayâtna, tavr

ve uygulamalarna bakarsak, kadnlara

kar

çok daha sevecen ve anlayl

Mevlânâ tek eli

hayât yaad. Einin ölümünden sonra
etti.

bir

kadn

daha ald, kendisi ondan önce vefat
Evlilik

Evinde aynca

câriye

kullanmad.^"

kurumuna

bakn olu Sultan Veled'e evlenecei srada yapa u
Ei olacak Fatma Hatun'la evlilii esnasnda oluna
yüzümüzü ak etmek istersen, onun hatnm aziz, onunla her günü ilk gün, her geceyi gerdek gecesi say.

tavsiyelerde görebiliriz.

unlar
Hani

yazar: "Allah için
tut;

ancak pek aziz
bir

gün Hz. Peygamber
bir
^

kz Fatma'y ho tutmas için Hz. Ali'ye:
parçasdr"

"Fatma benim bedenimin
böyle düün.."
^

buyurmum ya. Ein için
seviyede

sen de

Mevlânâ'nn kadnlarla ünsiyetinin çok
kadnlar

ileri

olduu

görülür.

Bu

hem
^^

yüksek tabakaya mensup ailelerden

hem

de sradan halk

içindendir. Eflâki'nin Menâkb\nd2i, ilk gruptakilerden bir
zikredilir.

ksm ismen
idi.

Bu

eserde Mevlânâ
ilgi

hakknda

bir

çok kadndan rivayeder yer
halk tabakasndan
evlerine

alr.

Mevlânâ'mn asü

gösterdii kadnlar

ise,

Onlar Mevlânâ'y

severler, toplantlar

yapp onu

çarrlard.

rad

için onlara gider, gelince

üstüne güller saçarlard. Gölpnarl'mn beyânna
ederlerdi.

göre onunla
Eflaki'deki

birlikte

sama

u rivayette Mevlânâ'nn kadndaki insanlk cevherine sayg
ve maiyetindekilerin, kendisine sayg gösterisinde
^^

duyarak
bir

ald güzel sonucun örneini görürüz: O, insanlarn hakir gördüü
kadnn

fahie

bulunmalar üzerine, onlara gönül alc sözler söyleyerek, tövbe edip düzgün
bir hayâta

dönmelerini

salamtr.

Schimmel, Kur'an'daki Belks-Süleyman kssasna dikkati çeker. Sâdece

Mevlânâ'nn bu konuyu Hz. Süleyman'la Belks arasnda cereyan eden
romantik duygular ve

ak zemininde ^^ derinlemesine ele aldm belirtir.^-^

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
125

nsan
çeker.

psikolojisini iyi bilen

Mevlânâ,

kadn ruhunun

inceliklerine dikkati

An basklarn
nedir?..

ters

tepeceini hatrlatr. Fthi Mafih\e.

kadnn

zorla

örtülmesi konusunda

ho bir örnek vardr:
söyle,

"Kadn

Sen nasl bakarsan bak, ne söylersen

o neyse odur.
olur."

Kendi bildiinden

amaz;

belki

çok söylemekle daha beter
ne kadar

"Kadna kar: "Kendini
dolay, o
iki

sakla, örtün!" diye

ar gidersen, onda

kendini gösterme arzusu o nisbette fazlalar. Halkta da, gizlendiinden

kadn görme
ekmek

eilimi o kadar ziyâdeleir.

u halde sen oturmu,
saklaj^arak

tarafn da
bir

görmek ve görülmek arzusunu ve
alsan,

isteini artnyorsun.

"Meselâ

koltuunun altna koyup, onu herkesten

desen

ki:

"Bunu

hiç kimseye
bile!.."

vermeyeceim,

hattâ hiç kimseye

göstermeyeceim
o

Her yerde ekmek bolluuna ramen, sakladn

ekmei görebilmek için insanlar senin peini brakmazlar ve: "Biz o sakladm mudaka görmek isteriz! "diye, tuttururlar. Çünkü "insanlar
Ayrca eer o

yasaklandklar eye

kar ar istekli olurlar." kadmn özünde kötü i yapmama
o,

eilimi varsa, sen mâni
iyi

olsan da olmasan da;

güzel

yaradlna, temiz ve

huyuna uyacaktr.

Müsterih

ol

ve gönlünü bulandrma.

Eer durum bunun aksine ise, o yine
hareket edecektir.

kendi bildii yolda,

yaradlna uygun ekilde

Ona engel

olmaya çalmak, isteinin iddetini artrmaktan baka bir eye yaramaz."^^

Sonuç: Hz. Mevlânâ hayâtn
insandr. Beerî yönüyle

içinde, ayaklar yere basan, gerçekçi bir
ele alrken,

kadn

onu meziyederi ve

zaaflaryla

olduu gibi deerlendirir. Kendisi tek eli ve mutiu bir aile hayât sürdürdü. Her smftan kadnla ülfet ve ünsiyeti oldu. Onlarla safiyet ve samimiyet
içinde ilgilendi.

Öte yandan metafizik açdan ve hakikat gözüyle baknca

kadn alabildiine tebcil eder. Yaratclk ve dourganlk özellii dola\asyla o sanki tanrsal bir vasfa sahiptir. Mevlânâ kadm "Hakk'n nuru" olarak
niteler.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
126

DPNOTLAR:
1

Bk. M. Akif

Aydn, "Kadn",

Diyanet

slâm Ansiklopedisi (DA),

c.24,

s.

86-87.
^

Annemarie Schimmel, Ruhum Bir Kadndr,

çev.

Ö. Enis Akbulut,

s.25,

zyayinclk, stanbul, 1999
^

M. Akif Aydn,

DA, ayn yer
s.

A. Schimmel, Tasavvufun Boyutlar, çev. Ender Gürol,

363,

Adam

yaynclk,

stanbul, 1982.
1.

Nesâî, Iretü'n-n-Nisâ,

Bu yorumlar

için bk.

bn Arabi, Fusûsu'l-Hkem, "Muhammed"
Celâleddin,
s.

fass.

Abdülbaki Gölpnarl, Mevlâna
stanbul,
°

213,

nklâp

Kitabevi,

1959
ne^ri)
s.

Bk. Mevlana, Fihi Mâfh, çev. A.Avni Konuk, (S.Eraydtn

81-82,
s.

zyayinclk, stanbul, 1994; Scihimmel, Ruhum Bir Kadndr,
^ Mesnevi, c. IV, beyit:

78.

2044-2145.

^0 Mesnevi,
^^

I,

2290

Mesnevi,!, 2A?)Q.
Al-i

Imran

sûresi 14. âyet:

"Kadnlara, oullara, kantar kantar altn ve

gümüe,

cins adar ve develere, ekinlere

kar an sevgi beslemek, insanlara

ho
yer

göründü. Bunlar dünyâ hayâtnn nîmederidir. Oysa varlacak en güzel

AUah katndadr."
I,

^ Mesnevi,

2420-2437; Ken' an

Rifai,

erhli Mesnevi-i erif,

s.

346, beyit:

2455-2574, Kubbealt neriyati, stanbul, 2000.
Bk. Ken'an Rifai, erhli Mesnevi-i erif
^

s.

350,

5

Mfj«m;

III,
I,

4402-441 8.
b.

^^ Mesnevi, ^^

2616-18; K. Rifai erhi,
s.

2656-58.

K. Rifai erhi,

425.
Celâleddin,
s.

Abdülbaki Gölpnarl, Mevlana

213.

127

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF tebliler proceedings
Mevlana, Mektuplar,
çev.

Abdülbaki Gölpnarh, s.l4,nklap ve Aka

Kitabevi, stanbul, 1963.
^^ Bk.
^

Schimmel,

age,

s.

47.

Bak. Eflaki, Ariflerin Menkbeleri, çev Tahsin

Yazc,

I,

537,

MEB yayn,

stanbul, 1964.
22 Mesnevi, IV, b.

859 vd.
62-63.
çev.

Schimmel,

age,

24 Bk. Mevlana,

¥îhiMâfh,

Meliha Tankahya,
tere.

s.

11 4- 11 8,

MEB yayn,

stanbul, 1958;
s.

ayn

eser,

A.Avni Konuk
1994.

hazrlayan: Selçuk Eraydn,

81-83,

z yaynclk, stanbul,

\

r

1^

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
129

Rumi's View of

Woman

Prof. Dr.

Mehmet

DEMRC
at the" International

Translated by Fahir Zülfikar

This paper was presented

Symposium of

Women

and Sufism" that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

1 6,

2005.

There are some elements that determine woman's
throughout history: religious
rules; social, political,

status in

Muslim

societies

and ethnic environment;

and culmral heritage inherited from pre-Islam

era.

For

this reason,
is

it is

not possible to say that the woman's stams in Islamic world
in

the

same

everywhere and

at all times.

According to the Qur'an,
right,

woman is

equal to equal

and

responsibilities.

Woman is

man both by creation, by to man because both are
talks
^

servants {kul) of

God. The Prophet Muhammad's

and practices

toward

women

are within a similar framework, too.

Hz.

Muhammad
his

lived with his only wife, Hadijah for

25

years.

She always

supported Piim and opened her arms for comfort. His second wife Aisha
daughter Fatima had a very prominent status in the society both ^ in their health and after their death.

and

Unfortunately, the practices in Islamic societies were not always

like this.

Woman's

status deteriorated after the Prophet's time. Patriarchal family

mentality and male dominant behavior limited the rights of

woman. Some
{Nas)

suspicious hadiths have

become widespread. Verses from Qur'an
this direction.
-^

have been interpreted in

Women have
5

a better status in

/^j/^w^environment than other

areas.

The

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

KADN

VE

WOMAN

^ND
130

name of Rabiat'al Adaviyya, one of the most important woman saints, has become a symbol. However, she is not the only example in this area.^ The hadith of "Three things in your world have been made lovely to me: women, perfume, and prayer, which is the delight of my eyes," ^ has been better known in /(^x^w^environment and has become popular
and remarkable with
rich interpretations. "

Women have been viewed
history. It
is

differendy in almost every society during the
is

obvious that a male dominant attitude

common. And

it is

a fact that feminism,

which has been created

as a reaction to this,

proposed

some

farfetched thoughts.
all

Beyond

these, if

we

consider this problem calmly,
species, the

we can

see this:
all

Women are
strengths
their

one of the kinds of human

most superior of

creation. Just as

men,

women

have strengths and weaknesses. These
distinctively

and weaknesses are more

observed in

women

since

emotional sides are generally more dominant in their nature.

Let us

move on

to Rumi's understanding of

women:

it is

obvious that
thinking,

tasavvufs positive
too.

approach toward
says,

women is dominant in Rumi's

As Gölpnarl

"He

refers to the

orthodox thinking which always
of traditions and the necessity
is

places

women inferior to men just because
what everybody
Yes,
says."
'

to repeat

This attitude

also related with his

woman is not a Satan, but she is not an angel, either. Like everyone, women may set positive and negative examples. Individuals
being
realistic.

may

display

good or bad
of

behavior. However,
are

it

can be observed that the

positive traits

women

more prominent
this,

in

Rumi.

Rumi had

a

happy marriage. Despite

he comments negatively on

marriage in a part of FihiMafih. According to him. Living with a
requires a great deal of patience. This togetherness
is

woman
more
real

a

means

to get

mature.

It is just like
life is

rubbing

dirt

off one's hand using a towel.

The
be

meaning of
like Jesus. °

to get married

and to overcome the

difficulties marriage.

Those who do not want

to be bothered with this

may prefer

to

single

Uj

Q

Mathnam is very interesting: A disciple of Harakani comes to visit him after going through a lot of trouble on the way. Sheik's wife opens the door and tells many bad things about him.
Sheik Harakani's story in

S
i:

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
131

She says that he

is

dishonest and hj'pocritical. With this shock and sadness,

the disciple leaves the
Finally,

home and goes

to the forest looking for Harakani.

he finds Harakani riding on
Harakani
says: "If I

a lion,

holding a snake as a whip in

his hand.

weren't patient enough to carry her burden,

would

this lion

be carrying mine?"^

In the story of A'rabi's wife, he describes the whining of a

woman who
at the

complains about being poor. ^^ Although they get along well

end
says:

of the

story,

they get into big arguments along the way.
Please

The husband
you

"Oh woman!
to

abandon the
If

fight

and

conflict. If

are not going

do
I

that, please

abandon me!

you be

silent, it is
^ ^

more than

okay. If
starts

not,

wiU leave the house

at this

very moment!"

The woman

crying and
trap."

Rumi wisely tells

us the moral of the story: "Tears are a woman's

The
Her

story in

Mathnam proceeds with

expressions of

human

descriptions:

tears

and sobbing soon became
she already was for
a lightning bolt,

excessive,

Though

him impressive
which
lit

That pain produced

A spark inside his heart and made
The
pretty face

it split:

which turns you
she acts servile,

to her slave.

When

how must you

behave!

That one whose arrogance astonished you

Now cries in

front of you

—what can you do?
in need!

That one whose proud rebuffs made you heart bleed

Can do more damage now she comes
We've
all

been trapped once
^

in her tyranny

Now she is begging, what are we to plea?
It's

beautifiedfor men,

^

So how can So
he's consoled

God gave it shape; men know where they can
was
created:

escape?

by her she

A
Q3l

Can Adam then from Eve be Hamza and Rostam in bravery
His wife
still

separated?

keeps him bound in

slavery.

si

Although

his

words could make the whole world sway,
mef he
still

'Please redhead, speak to

would

say.

5

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

i9
jnf^
132

After this point,

Rumi
to

rises

above the human-material universe and steps

into the metaphysical world.

He

starts

using symbols; resembling

man

to

water and

woman

fire.

He

says:

Water puts out the flames which winds
But boüs away when heated
For
if a

just fan

in a pan,

pan should separate the two
It

wul evaporate in front of you.

Though outwardly above her you may tower You want her, so within she has the power. This love's the special human quality;
Beasts lack
it

that's their inferiority.

The prophet once

'Women all control Intelligent men, those who have a soul, But stupid men rule women, for they're crude
said,

And
They lack
all

hold a simple, bullish

attitude.'

tenderness and can't be kind
stiU

Their animal soul

controls their mind:

Tenderness

is

a

human

quauty,
animalit}',

While

lust

and rage show

And Rumi

concludes:

Woman is
Not only
This
is

God's divine

light.

beloved,

more

like the creator,

not the created 13

where the

real value

of

woman comes

from. She conveys
plays an important duty

characteristics

from God's creating power. She
of
life,

for the continuity

and thus

acts as a pillar

of the divine action and

(j,

manifestation. According to the ones

who

reached a high level of spirimal

"^

woman stems from the ability to witoess God in their mirror-like bodies." When a man, who has progressed in his journey
knowledge, "Love for

nj

Q
•^

of

spirituality,

loves a

woman,

it

means

that he

is,

in a way, viewing her

as a

means of asking

to unite with the divine beauty. ^4

^

5

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
133

KADN

VE

WOMAN

AND

woman as the light (ray) of Haqq (God) and focuses on her creativity trait. He also mentions that woman and man are equal, that they
Rumi
sees

complete each other in every sense and that
single,n the other
is

if either

one of them

is

considered to be half and incomplete.

The

following

metaphor

is

very nice:

'^very particle in
counterpartJust as

this universe

wants

its

counterparts.

Every particle

attracts its

amber attracts

straw.

Sky

says "Hello,

'

to earth,

1 am
is

with you as iron

is to

magnet.

Sk)i is

man
is

by mind, earth

woman. She feeds and grows what he gives.
it gives

If there

no warmth on earth, sky sends heat; if the moisture finishes,

humidity.

This earth acts as woman, she breastfeeds the children she has given birth
to

and nurtures them.

Therefore,

know

that both earth

and sky has

intelligence because they are

doing what

the intelligent do.

If there were no

earth,

how would roses and redbuds grow;

if there were no water or

heat of the sky, what could the earth produced
Affiliation of femalewith male is to get the two completed.

God gave man and woman
in this togetherness.

affiliation

with each other

to let the universe go till eternity

Night is locked in
but in

close

embrace with day. Outwardly, day and night are contradictory,
-^

reality they are one.

^

Rumi comments on
represent soul
{nafs)

the A'rabi stor}^ as follows:

'The uife and

the husband

and

intellect {aql).

Both

are necessary to distinguish

good from
(body)

bad. These two {nafs and

aqlj) fight

each other in

this

sou

home

day and night." ^^

There
{aql) is

is

another comparison in a different story:
is

"Know

that intellect
light,

man, soul and greed

woman." One

takes

you to the

the

^1

other to darkness.

When the
^
'

spirit finds

the correct path, soul and intellect
reality,

support each other and they both unite in
is

Divine

light {nur).

This

true for both genders.

5

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

& ^1^
134

When we
is

look

at

Rumi's daily

life,

behavior and practices,

we

see that he
his first
her.

very compassionate and understanding toward

women. After

wife's death,

Rumi got married

to another

woman
^

and he died before
can understand his

He

didn't have female slaves in his house.

°

We

approach to marriage from
writes the following to

his suggestions to his
is

son Sultan Yekd. Rumi

him when he

about to marry Fatma Hatun: "If
want me
first
to hefreefrom

you want

me to be proud of you

(ifyou

shame), respect
if

her dearly; treat her every day as

if

your

day and every night as

your wedding night. Remember, one day the Prophet told Ali to keep her
daughter, Fatima in comfort and said: ^Fatima
in the
is

a part

of

my body' Think

same way

for your wife."

^

^

Rumi's familiarity level with

women is

really high.

These

women

are

from

both aristocrat families and ordinary ones. The names of some from the former are mentioned in Eflaki'?, Menakib. ^^ There are many stories in
this

book about Rumi narrated by women. The women he was most
were among ordinary people. They
invite
all

interested in

loved Rumi. They

would organize gatherings and
to guide to

Rumi

to their

homes.

He would visit

them and women would

scatter rose leaves

on him. According

Gölpmarh, they would even whirl with him.

In Eflakis story

we can

see

how he

achieves a

good outcome by

respecting

the core values of
their respect to

women: While

passing by, a group of prostitutes showed

Rumi. Although people viewed them as despicable creatures,
^^

he treated them in such a pleasing attitude that they ended up becoming
penitents and started to live

more decent

lives.

Schimmel draws our attention

to the story of Belkis

and Süleyman from

Qur'an. She points out that only

Rumi

O

discusses this story thoroughly

within the context of romantic feelings and love ^^ between Hz. Süleyman

and

Belkis.

^^
UJ

Q
Knowing human psychology very well, Rumi emphasizes
a

the delicacy of

woman's

spirit.

He

reminds others that extreme pressure may create a

5
0)

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
135

reaction.

There

is

an interesting example in Fihi Mafih about covering

woman by
"What
say.
is

force:

woman?.. She

is

what she
if

is,

however you look, whatever you
times, she

She doesn't change her mind;

you say too many

may get

even worse."

"When you
desire

tell

her too

many

times: 'Cover yourself!',

you in

fact increase

the desire to

show

herself to others.

of outsiders to see
so,

When she does cover herself, the that woman becomes greater. Therefore, by
of both
it

doing

you

trigger the desires

sides to see

and to be seen." For
it

example, you buy bread and hide

from everybody putting
this to

under your
I

arm and
people

say: "I

am

not going to give
this to

anybody; in fact
is

am

not

even going to show
will follow

anybody!" Although there

bread everywhere,
definitely

you to see the one you have and say "We would

like to see

what you

are hiding!" because people feel an extreme desire

toward things that are forbidden.

Besides, if doing the right thing

is

in that

woman's core

values, she will
if

follow her beautiful nature, her clean and
to stop her.

good behavior, even

you
is

try

Be

at ease

and don't trouble your

heart. If the situation

contrary to

this,

she will do her

way and according
desire.

to her nature. If

you

try to stop her, this

wiU only increase her

^^

Conclusion: Rumi
a

is

a realistic

person from

real

life.

\)CTien

he discusses

woman's human
kinds of

side,

he evaluates her with both her strengths and
life

weaknesses.

He had

a

happy family

with one wife.

He had

familiarity
sincerity.

with

all

women. He
fertility,

tried to help

them with

purit)^

and

With

a metaphysical approach, he glorified

of creation and

women

as "the light

of

woman has God" {nur).

a

women. Because of the power Godly attribute. Rumi describes

S-

51

KADIN vt WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
136

ENDNOTES:
^

Please see

M Akif Ayd, "Kadn", Diyanet islam Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia
by O. Enis Akbulut,
Iz Publication, Istanbul, 1999, p. 25.

of islam), V. 24, p. 86-87.
^

Annemarie Schimmel, Ruhum Bir Kadndr (My Soul is a Woman), Turkish
translation

3
'^

Aydn,

ibid, p. 86-87.

Annemarie Schimmel, Tasavvufun Boyudan
translated

(Dimensions of Tasawwuf,

by Ender Gürol,
1.

Adam

Publication, Istanbul, 1982, p.363.

Nesai, I^retü'n-n-Nisa,
^
.

Please see Ibn Arabi, Fususu'l-Hikem,

"Muhammed".
inklap Publication, Istanbul,

^

Abdulbaki Gölpnarh, Mevlana
p.

Celaleddin,

1959,
^

213.

Please see Mevlana, Fihi Mafih, Turkish translation by A. Avni
s.

Konuk,

Iz Publication, Istanbul, 1994,
p. 78.

81-82; Schimmel,

Ruhum

Bir Kadndr,

9

Rumi, Mathnawi,

IV, I'dAA-lXA'b.
I,
I,

^0
^ ^

Rumi, Mathnawi,
Rumi, Mathnawi,

2290.

2430

(English translation from, Raimi,

The Masnavi: Book

One, trans. Jawid Mojaddedi,

New

York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p.

149-150.)

Qur'an,

3: 14,

"Beautified for

mankind
and

is

love of the joys (that come)
silver,

from

women

and offspring, and stored-up heaps of gold and
(with their mark),

and

horses
the
^^
life

branded

cattie

and

land.

That

is

comfort of

of the world. Allah! With
1,

Him is

a

more

excellent abode.

Rumi, Mathnawi,

2420-2437; Ken'an

Rifai,

erhli Mesnevi-i erif (Mathnawi
p.

with Commentary),

2455-2574, Kubbealti Publication, Istanbul, 2000,

346.

o

Please see Ken'an Rifai, erhli Mesnevi-i erif (Mathnawi with Commentary),
s.

350.
LU

^^
"

Rumi, Mathnawi,
Rumi, Mathnawi,

III,
I,

4402-4418.
Rifai,

Q
erhli Mesnevi-i erif (Mathnawi

2616-18; Ken'an

with Commentary), 2656-58.

Ken'an

Rifai,

erhli Mesnevi-i erif, (Mathnawi with Commentary),

p.

425.
CD

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
137

Abdülbaki Gölpnarl, Mevlana Celakddin,
^^

p.

213.

Rumi, Mektuplar

(letters),

Turkish transladon by Abdülbaki Gölpnarl,

p. 14,

inklap ve Aka Publication, istanbul, 1963.
p. 47.

Please see Schimmel, ibid,
^^

Please see Eflaki, Ariflerin Menkbeleri (Legend of Wises), Turkish translation
I,

by Tahsin Yazc,
^^ Schimmel, ibid,
^^ See

537,

MEB press, Istanbul,

1963.

Kumi, Matbnam, IV, 859 onward.
p.

62-63.

Rumi, Fihi Mafih, Turkish translation by Meliha Tarikahya,

MEB

press, Istanbul, 1985, p. 114-118;

same book,

translated

by A. Avni Konuk,
p.

prepared by Selçuk Eraydin, Iz Publication, Istanbul, 1994.

81-83.

Q)

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
139

Güzellik ve Maneviyâttaki

Kadn Unsuru

Prof. Dr.

Cari W.

ERNST

Çeviri:

Cangüzel Zülfkar

16 Aralk 2005 tarihinde

TÜRKKAD stanbl ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâtrasna düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasavvuf" bahkl
teblidir.

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

Hz. Muhammed'in

bir hadisi öyledir: 'A/Iab gü^e/dir ve güreli

sever.

" Bir

baka

hadiste

ise,

'T)ünyamî(dan hana üç ^ey sevdmlmi§tir: kadn, gü^el koku
güzellik

ve göf^ümün

nuru

nama^ " buyurmutur. Maneviyâttaki
cinsiyet

aknn

önemi nedir? Ve bu hassas konuya

ne ekilde dahil olur? Rifâî

mutasavvf geleneinden gelen ve seçkin
Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin hatras erefine
bir

modern Türk kadn olan araya toplandmz bu günde, bu
bir

sorulann önemi daha da artmaktadr. lâhi güzelliin tefekkürünün estetik

oku üe mukayese edildiinde, erkek veya dii olmak önemini kaybetmektedir.
Ancak,
belirli bir

sosyal ve tarihsel

zamamn

içinde yer alyor
rol

olmamz,

toplumun erkek ve kadn üzerine yükledii
etmemizi imkânsz hale
getirir.

ve beklentileri göz ard

Geçtiimiz yüzyl içinde küresel ekonomilerde
yerinde,

meydana gelen deiimler, dünyann her
ve dine

kadmn

eitim, kültür

sebep

katlmnn bu güne kadar görülmemi bir ekilde ortaya çkmasna oLmumr. Bu tecrübe ettiimiz deiimlerden çkarlmas gereken
erkeksi maneviyâttan farkl

büyük ders, kadns maneviyâtn

olduu deildir;

bunun
olarak

yerine,

anlay

kabiliyeti olan

kadnlann

seslerini

dinlemenin, haksz

kadm

erkekten

aa

bir

duruma koyan

benlikçi ataerkiUiin

ksdamalarndan kurtulmamza
Dünyadaki bütün büyük

izin verebileceidir.

dinlerin geleneklerinde erkek

egemen

siyasî

yaplanmalarn olduu sosyal tekilâdanmann benzer ekiUerde

yaand

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
140

Kadnlarn önemli mânevi roller ald gerçei halen yürürlüktedir ve bu durum resmî tarihlerde genellikle kabullenilmez.
kabul edilmelidir.
Alimlerin

yakn geçmite

kaydettikleri

en büyük basanlardan

birisi;

esrarengiz

biçimde her yerde

dlanm kadnlarn sesini dünyann bütün medenîlemi
çkartmak gayretidir. Tarih
bir

bölgelerinde ortaya

zamanlar

özellikle sadece

krallarn ve

büyük adamlarn

tarihi olarak dikkate

almrd,

fakat artk

kadnlarn
ve

rol

aldklar ksmlar anlalmadan; geçmii
kabul
edildi.

anlaymzn

eksik

çarptlm olaca
önem

Din

tarihinde, Hristiyan

maneviyâtnda kadn

mistiklerin katklarna

haûr

Bu mühim konudan bahseden bir çok yaynlar da vardr. slâm maneviyâtna baktmzda; yakn geçmie dek özellikle az sayda bulunan kadn eserleri sebebiyle durum daha karmaktr. Müslüman kadnlarn mânevi yaantsna dair biraz bilgiye
saylr derecede
verilmektedir.

erimek

kabüdir, ancak

bu hususta

biz

daha ziyade erkeklerin yazdklarna

güvenmek durumundayz.
mutasavvflar üzerine

Bir örnek olarak, Câmî'nin kitab verilebilir. O,

yazd biyografik eseri Nefahâtü'l-Üns'u

ÇYaknhgn

Meltemleri), "Allah' bilen erkeklerin seviyesine

erimi Allah' büen kadnlarn

ansna" balkl ksa
Orada öyle
yazar:

bir ekle tamamlar.

Mekke Aç hmlan
ülgerine olsun),

eserinin yazar

Muhyiddin ibn Arabi (Allah'n

rahmeti

yetmi üçüncü bölümde, Hak dostu
fakat erkeklere

erkeklerin nesillerinden

bahsettikten sonra,

"bu erkekler hakknda erkek olarak söylediklerimiz
daha çok atfta bulunulur,
verdi,
der. Birisi

kadnlar da kapsar,

sordu: 'Kaç tane "abdal" vardr?'

Cevap

'Krk ruh

vardr.' 'Niye

krk

tane erkek demedin?' diye soruldu.

Cevap

verdi,

'Çünkü onlarn aralarnda

kadnlar da

var.'"

Meajihin

Nesilleri eserinin

yazar,

eyh Abdurrahman
hallerinin

el-Sülemi, Allah '
isimli özel

Bilen ve Kendini

Ona Adayan Kadnlarn Mânevi Hallerinin Hatras
çoklarnn mânevi

bir kitap derledi ve bir

açklamasm

ortaya

çkartt. air el-Mütenebbi,
diil kelime,

"güne"

(^ems)

kelimesinin

Arap gramerinde
bir

ayn

(kamer) ise erkil kelime

olduu durumunu ima eden

dörtiük

yazmtr:

KADIN VE WOMAN AN'D TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
141

Kadnlar benim

tanmladm gihilerse,

ürkeklerden daha üstün olmaldrlar.
Diillik günete bir kusur

olmad gibi,

Ay da erkliliinden gurur duymamaldr.
Sülemî'nin

kaybolmu

olan

risalesi

yakn geçmite bulundu ve Rukiye
tarafmdan ngilizceye
çevirildi.
^

laruy Kornel (Kkia Elaroui

Cornell)

Bu metin

bizim biraz daha detayh bir ekilde, Suf hayat hikâyesinde

cinsiyet meselesinin beürsizlik ve hassasiyetini

görmemize

izin verir (lütfen

bu Jö^ konusu dörtlükte el-Mütenebbi'nin kadnlara samimi olmayan bir iltifatta

bulunduunu kaydediniz çünkü
görüntüsüyle sunmaktadr.)
biri

o

srad kadnlar cidden,

tuhaf birfenomen

Bu belirsiz durum bu antolojide yer alan kadnlardan

tarafndan tuhaf bir kuvvede ifade edilmitir. Merv'li Ahmed'in
"Gizlilik

kz

Aye:

kadnlar

için

keiften daha uygundur, çünkü kadnlar

kendilerini

aça vurmamaldrlar."
(perdelerin

Mutasavvflarn kef
sorulan bir soru

kalkmas, açlmas) dedikleri tecrübeye dair

hakknda Aye'nin verdii bu cevap artcdr. Bu cevap
metnin içeriinde kadnlar arasnda benzeri mânevi

beklenmez,

zira

tecrübenin bolca

bulunduuna

ait deliller

verilmitir. Fakat bir

bakma, bu

cevap bizim üzerinde

durduumuz konuyu anlamak için
birini gösterir:

aratranlara

kar

koyusun ana meselelerinden

Özel alana

ait

snn geçmeden
bu
iktibas

slâmî kültürün kadn boyutuna nasl
(alnt),

eriebiliriz? Bir anlamda,

neden çok az sayda kadnn genelde biyografik

eserlerde ve özelde

de mutasavvf biyografilerinde temsil edildiini açklar. Bir çok hallerde

bu kadnlarn

biyografileri (belirtildii takdirde)

kitabn "balca" konusu

olan erkeklerin biyografilerine ek

bölüm

olarak dahil edilmitir.

Kadn

dümanl, mutasavvflarn eserlerinde
Bununla beraber,
bir

kesinlikle

bulunan

bir davramtir.

baka anlamda, kadnlarn

gizlilii

ve hususiyeti

düüncesi hem mutasavvflarn yazüannda onlara

ayrüm ksa bahisler ve
bilgi

hem
bu

de söz konusu bu eserlerde kiisel ayrntilaryla biyografik

eksii

hali

açklamaya yardm

edebilir.

Kadnlar Suf

biyografilerinde tasvir

edildiklerinde,

bunun

tipik

sunum

örnekleri bulunur; ve
ile

bu durum, önceden

tahmin

edilebilir

erkek-kadn dinamikleri

gayet güzelce açklanabilir.
suretinde erkek

Kaç

defalar etkisi güçlü bir

kadnn
iltifatiar,

esasen
bir

kadn

olduu

söylenmitir?

Bu

tür

menfî

kadnn mânevi gücüyle

kafas

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
142

karm ve akn (hayretten donakalm) erkek ecere kaytçs için en son
çare olarak görünür.

Dinin ve maneviyâtn, cemiyete açk yazl kaytlarnda, kadnlarn genelde
saf

d

braklmalarna ramen;
ait

ilâhî

varla erimede

akn doas ve
Sempo^um

güzellie

anahtar tartmalarda kadnlarn belirgince tasvir edililerini

görmek,

ister

istemez ve

sk sk

dikkati çekmektedir. Eflâtun
felsefî öretileri

isimli eserinde Sokrat',

ak ve güzelliin

üzerine rahibe

Diyotima'dan talimat ahr bir halde anlatr. Kur'an'da Yusuf üe Züleyha
hikâyesi anlatlrken,

ona "hikâyelerin en güzeH"

denilir.

Bu neden

böyledir?

ranl mutasavvf Ruzbihan Bakl'ya
Dünyevî

(ölümü 1209) göre:
usta için, ilâhî

ak üâhî akn balangcdr. Hem çrak hem

akn

mestliine erimek üzere kaçnlmaz bir

durum vardr ve o da yaradlmlan ulûhiyetie kaplamaktr. Hz. Muhammed'in (s. a. s.) dinî hukukunda iffetli aka destek yolunda kamt vardr. Yüce Allah'n (a.c.) kitabnda 'Biz sana
en güzel hikâyeleri söylüyoruz.' (Ysuf
rahmet
ile

Sûresi-3)

buyurduu

gibi, (Allah'n
(a. s.)

ve

merhameti onlarn ü^rine olsun)
(a. s.)

Yusuf

ile

Züleyha ve Yâkub

Yusuf

gibi biz

de sana

âk ve maukun hikâyesini söyleyelim,

çünkü onlarn

akmn hikâyesi ak ve sevdâmn olduu en güzel

hikâyelerdendir. ^

Ruzbihan'n hayat hikâyesinde, iraz'a döndüünde ve halka

ilk

vaaza

baladnda bir
eyh
bir

sansasyonun ortaya

çkmasna sebep olduu
gün Atik Camii'de vaaz
bitki

anlaülr.

En

eski çevirisinde hikâye öyledir:

Pasa'dan iraz'a geldiinde,
ki,

ilk

etti.

Vaazn

orta yerinde dedi

"Ben camiye girdiimde,

satclarnn köesinde
sana 5aizünü

kadn kzna

nasihat ediyordu,

'Canm yavrum, annen

örtmeni ve güzelliini pencereden herkese göstermemeni tavsiye eder.

Bu

senin güzelliin ve sevimliliinden dolay deildir, herhangi birini ayartmaya

sebep olmamak

içindir.

Beni duymuyor

musun ve benim
demek

tavsiyemi kabul

etmiyor musun?"

Ruzbihan bu
kendisini

sözleri

duyunca, o kadna unlar

istedi;

"Senin

kzna

saklamasm ve gözlerden yasaklamasm tavsiyene ramen ben
ki;

diyorum

ona kendisini göstermesi

için izin ver!

Kzn senin nasihatierini

dinlememeli veya bunlar kabul etmemeli, çünkü o güzeldir ve güzellik
kendisine

ak itirak edinceye

kadar huzur bulmaz."

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
143

eyh bunu
bir

söylediinde, Allah yolunun yolcularndan (müridlerden)

biri

o

huzurda bulunuyordu.

Bu

sözlerin

oku onun

kalbi hedefini buldu, böylece

çlk ile ruhunu teslim etti. "eyh Ruzbihan canlar kelimelerinin
kesiyor!"

klcyla param parça
ona

çlklar ehirde

yükseldi.

ehrin insanlar

doru

yöneldiler ve

onun müridi/dervii

oldular.

Baz daha sonraki nakiller, Ruzbihan'n anneye olan tavsiyelerine
da
eklerler:

u yorumu
aka

"Ak ve güzellik,

hiç bir

zaman

birbirlerinden
-^

ayrlmamak
the Covers)

üzere, ezel öncesinde bir
dair

anlama

yaptlar."

Hakikaten, kendisinin

önemli incelemesi olan Alklarn Yasemini (The Jasmin of

isimli eserinde,

Ruzbihan, adeta hocas gibi davranan ve kendisine insani

ak ile ilâhi ak arasndaki ilikiyi tammlamas için meydan okuyan isimsiz bir kadn ile tartmaya girer. Dier bir mehur mutasavvf olan Ibn-i
Arabi (ölümü 1240),
ilâhî güzellik

hakknda yorum yapar ve kendi ayrd
bu
ilâhi

noktas

olarak,

Kur'an ve hadiste açkça söylenen el-Cemil (Gü^el) ismini
eserinde yer alan

alr. Fütuhati'l-Mekkiyye

ismin

tarümasna

dair

giri kabilinden bir iirinde, güzellii duygulann alglayabileceinin ötesinde

olan ve fakat sevgilinin kalbi tarahndan ahit olunan
ortaya koyar

ilâhî sevgili

bilmecesini

^ve

bu

ilâhî

güzelliin

ak, Arap

iirinde göklere çkarlan

büyük aklarn modelidir.
Gü^elfakat hasrette
Kalpler
deil,

aydnlk fakat görülmeyen,

O 'na ahittir,

ama

bilmekler.

"Gökler

O 'nu ihtiva edemef^' biri hariç
Gerçek idrakin geride

braktndan baka

O'na

"sevilen" dersemyalanc

olmam

O'na "ahit olunan" dersem, bu benim bildiimdir.

O 'ndan baka sevilen yoktur,
]/e sadece

S elma 'lar,

Leyla lar

ve

Zeynep ler örtüdür.

Onlar örten perdelerdir, nakleden,
Sevenlerin iirleri veyanlaryla.

Mecnun

ve

Leyla gibi,

ve

onlardan önce gelenler gibi,
isimlerini

Beir ve Hind gibi —kalbim

tayama^ ^

Bu

ekilde,

bn Arabi, yaratc ve yüce ilâhi güzelliin, bu dünyamn güzel
kadn
sevgililerin

eylerine olan ilikisini açklar ve bu da ancak erkek ve

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
144

isimleri

ile

yaplabilir.

bn Arabi'nin, içlerinde büyük bir mutasavvf olarak
bulunduu pek çok önemli kadn
yazmtr.
oluturduu

methettii Kordoba'l Fatma'mn da
mutasavvflarla

çaht hatrlanmaldr. Ayrca, tasavvuf öreticisi olmak
kadnn
erefine iirler de

üzere icazet verdii 14

Bununla

birlikte,

kadnlara yaplan bu göze çarpan önemli atflara ramen,

kadnn idealize

edilmesinin sembolik veya zihnî bir hapishane

iddia edilebilir -özellikle

bu kadmn tamamyla farkl

bir rol için veya

konumda tammlanmas anlamna geliyorsa. Fakat gerçek udur ki, kadnlar erkeklerin saygsm kazanm seçkin mânevi öretmenlerdir. Menkbelerin içine gizlenmi ve sklkla da baka kadnlarn marjinallemelerini hakJ göstermek için kullanlm olmasna ramen,
erkekten farkl soyut bir
Rabiatü'l-Adeviyye'nin (S.jü^/) hikâyeleri

onun

erkeklerin

hocas

(müeddibe)

olduunu açkça
ile

göstermektedir. Hint Çiti tarikatinin kurucusu.
1232), Bibi

eyh
sitayi

Nizâmeddin Evliya (ölümü
bahsetmitir: 'Aslan

Fatma Sam 'm karizmasndan

ormandan

dar çktnda, kimse onun erkek mi
çocuklar, ona erkek de olsa dii de
ile ilgili

dii mi

olduunu sormaz; Adem'in
ileri

olsa itaat etmeli ve

sayg göstermelidir. Fatma Sam
^

hikâyelerde

onun

an dindarlndan ve
bir

gördüm. Büyük

kadnd."

yandan çokça bahsedilir. Ben kendisini eyh Ahmed Rifâi'nin kz, Seyyide Zeynep
tarafndan "yüksek vasflar ve

bint-i el-Rifâî (ölümü 1232), bir biyograf

hayran olunacak mânevi seviyesi sebebiyle; sabrh, mütevaz kadn, Allah'
hatrlayan,

mükemmel kadn veli,

Allah' katksz bilen, takva sahibi, ümitli

aydnlk

olan, erkek evliyalardan

daha kdemli" olarak tanmlanmtr. ^

Modern zamanlardan önce pek nadir rastianabilen, kadna mânevi hoca olarak hayranln bu açk ifadeleri, kadnn pek çok Müslüman toplumlarda özel çevrelere itilmi olmasna ramen, kadn ve erkein mânevi eitliinin tarihsel kamdandr. imdi, ihtiyaçlarn, kadn ve erkeklerin eitim almam
ve igücü içinde daha önceleri hayal dahi edilemeyen bir ölçüde yer

almalarm zorunlu

kld bir çadayz. Yaygn eitim politikalar
kabiliyetli

ile

okur

yazarln yaylmas, saysz
meslekleri elde etmelerini

kadnn,

bir

asr önce düünülemeyecek

mümkün klmtr. Bu Orta Dou için, Avrupa ve Amerika'dan daha az doru deildir. Seküler devletierde dinin yeniden yaplam, baka sektörlerde kadmn giyim ve davram üzerindeki mmcu kontrol faktörünü artrm olsa bile, dinî ve kültürel konularda kadmn
liderliini ortaya

çkarrmtr.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
145

Hocam Annemarie
ikinci

Schimmel, hatratnda öyle yazmtr:
arkadalar, Türk kültürünün

"

(Türkiye'de)

baka bir ksmna, Türk tasavvufunun en iyi geleneklerine ulamama yardm ettiler. Üst üste gecelerini sessiz meditasyon ile geçiren baarl i adamlar vard, ve
mutasavvflar ve yazarlar arasnda önde gelen bir isim olan Sâmiha Ayverdi

kalmda, yeni

vard, geleneksel hayatn yüceltildii pek çok kitap ve makalenin yazan.

Onun
ailesi

evinde

Osmanl

Türkiye'sinin kültürü

ile

tamtrldm, aynca o

ve

Islâmî güzel sanatiann ve özellikle hattn sonsuz güzelliine gözlerimi

açtlar.

Boazn üzerinde gök}aizü gül bulutlan ile kaplym gibi görünürken,

uzun ve akc cümlelerle
sonra.

yapû

sohbetierini dinlemeyi
ellerini

çok sevdim. Bir

kaç hafta önce, Mart 1993'te, narin

Ramazan Bayram arefesinde öteki kiisel övgüden, bu Türk öretmenin, kendisi de daha sonra Islâmî sanat ve maneviyâtta otorite haline gelen Alman arkada üzerindeki güçlü
'

öptüümden üç gün dünyaya göç etti." Bu derin
son defa

etkisini görebiliriz.

Onlarn

ilikilerinin güzelliin takdirinde

merkezlenmesi

ve

ikisinin

de örnek öretmenler olmas tesadüf deildir. Hepimizin, böyle
talihli

seçkin insanlar tanyacak kadar

olmamz

dilerim.

DPNOT:
1

Ebû Abdurrahman

es-Sülemî, ilk Mutasavvf Kadnlar: Zikre'n-nisâ
çeviri

el-

muteahhidât es-Süfij/yat,

gözden geçirmeli

Rkia Elaroui Cornell

(Louismlle,

KY: Fons
Ernst
^

Vitae, 1999).
Öretileri, çeviren:Carl

Ruzbihan Bakl, !Abhar el-apkin^ Tasavvufun
(Boston: Shamhala, 1999), sayfa 90.
bilgi için

W.

Aynntl

bkz. Ruzbihan Bakl, Mistisi^ ve Iran Tasavvufunda
Sufi Series, 4 (London: Cur^on Press, 1996).
II,

Velilerin Belâgati,

Curzon

^ Ibn Arabi, Fütuhatil-Mekkiye,

542

(eh.

142).

"Gözler onu

ihtiva

edemez"

Kur'an'dandrf?C^.-/0^;.

AbdülHak Muhaddis D't^cv, Ahbarü'l-ahyar,

Tasavvufun Öretileri, p. 186.

Ahmed ibn Muhammed
p.

el- Vitri, Kav^atü'l-nat(irin,

Tasavvufun Öretileri,

191.

Annemarie Schimmel, "A

Life of Learning,"

v**i,Vl
--*<

>i

''A'

<^

V\

#.
rk

%

V
Jl^v^

m''

:.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
147

Beauty and the Feminine Element of

Spirituality

Carl W.

ERNST
at the" International

This paper was presented

Symposium of

Women

and Sufism" that

was organ2ed by the Turkish Women's Culmral Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Sarmha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

The Prophet Muhammad once

said,

"God is

beautiful,

and He

loves beauty.

He

also said, "Three things in jour world have been made

lovely to

me: women,

perfume,

and prayer is

the delight of

my

eyes.

"

What

is

the significance of the
this

love of beauty for spirituality?
delicate topic?

And how

does gender enter into

As we gather

to

honor the memory of Samiha Ayverdi,

an outstanding modern Turkish
tradition, these questions take

woman
may

connected to the

Rifa'i Sufi

on

a particular significance. Ultimately, the

question of being male or female
to the aesthetic

fade in importance

when compared
fact

shock of the contemplation of divine beauty. Yet the
in a particular social

that
it

we

are

embedded

and

historical

moment makes

impossible for us to ignore the roles and expectations that society has

placed

upon men and women. The transformations of
and
religion has

global economies

over the past century have created a situation in which women's participation
in education, culture,

become

public in an unprecedented

fashion, in every corner of the world. Perhaps the greatest lesson to be

learned from the changes
is

we now experience is not that feminine

spirituality

different

from masculine

spirituality; instead, listening to the

voices of

^
'^^

insightful

women may

allow us to step aside from the limitations of the

^
^

egotistical patriarchy that has unjustiy dismissed

women

as inferior to

men.

It
3-.

must be acknowledged

that

all

the major religious traditions of the

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

jj?*^
148

world have experienced similar forms of
male- dominated political structures.

social organization fact
is

through
have
i

The

remains that

women

played important spiritual roles, and yet this
in official histories.

generally not acknowledged

One of

the major achievements of scholarship in

recent years has been the effort to recover the voices of

women in

all

the

^

major

civilized regions

of the world, from which on the whole they had

|

been mysteriously excluded. History was once considered to consist
exclusively

of the actions of kings and great men, but increasingly

it is

being admitted that our understanding of the past will be incomplete and
distorted unless

;

we comprehend

the parts that

women have

played.

In the history of religion, considerable attention has been paid to the
contributions of

women

mystics to Christian

spirituality,

and there

are

numerous publications addressed
Islamic spirituality, the situation
relative lack
is

to this important topic. If

we

turn to

more complicated,

particularly
It is

by the

of writings by

women before

recent times.

possible to

get

some

access to the spiritual lives of

Muslim women,

yet

we must

rely

primarily

on

writings by

men. As an example, Jami concluded
Nafahat al-Uns (The Breezes of
the

his Persian

biographical

work on

Sufis,

Intimacy),

with

a brief appendix entitied,

"On the Remembrance of

Women Knowers
it

of

God who

have Attained the Levels of the

Men

of God." In

he

writes.

The author of TheMeccan
generations of the

Openings,

Muhyi al-Din ibn

al-' Arabi

(God have

mercy on him), in the seventy-third chapter, after

mentioning some of the

we have said regarding these men, as men, includes women, though there is more reference to men. Someone was asked, 'How many "Substitutes" {abdal)
says,

men of God,

"Everything that

\

are there?

He replied, Torty souls.' He was asked, 'Why did you not forty men?' He answered, 'Because there are women among them.'"
'

say

The master Abu Abd al-Rahman
Masters,

al-Sulami, author of Generations of the
the Spiritual States of

'

f-

compiled a particular book, the Memoir of

^
o<
'^

Women Devotees and Knowers of God, and he has
of the
spiritual states

clarified

much in

explanation

of many of them. The poet al-Mutanabbi has written
is

a verse, alluding to the fact that "sun" {shams)

feminine and

"moon"

^
^

{qamar)

is

masculine in Arabic:

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
149

KADN

VE

WOMAN

AND

]Vere

women as I have

described,

Women would be
Femininity
is

superior to men.

no defect in the sun,

Nor should the moon be proud of masculinity. The lost treatise of al-Sulami has been recently
This text permits us to see with a
sensitivity
Little

rediscovered, and
^

it

has

been translated into English by Rkia Laroui Cornell.

more

detail the

ambiguity and

of the issue of gender
is

in Sufi

hagiography (note that the verse

by al-Mutanabbi

really a

backhanded compliment
appear to be a
is

makes one exceptional
indeed). This

woman

women, since it very strange phenomenon
to

ambiguous position

stated with peculiar force

by one of
of Merv:

the

women who
is

figures in that anthology, 'A'isha bint

Ahmad

"Concealment
are not to

more appropriate

for

women than unveiling,

for

women

be exposed." answer that 'A'isha gave to a question about the kind
call

This

is

a surprising

of mystical experience that the Sufis
because the text
experiences
itself

unveiling (kashf.

It is

unexpected

provides abundant evidence of such spiritual
in a sense, this

among women. But

answer

illustrates

one of

the main problems confronting anyone
subject

who

seeks to understand the
access to the feminine
in the private sphere?

we

are addressing:

how

can

we have why

dimension of Islamic culture without trespassing

On one level, this
in biographical

quotation explains
in general

so few

women

are represented
particular.

works

and
of

in biographies

of Sufis in

That
as

is,

in

most

cases, biographies

an appendix to the biographies

women (when given at all) are included of men that are the "main" subject of

the book. Certainly misogyny was one attitude to be found in Sufi texts.
Still,

on another

level,

the notion of concealment and privacy for

may help
writings,

explain both the

women relatively small space granted to women in Sufi
detail in these biographies.

and the brevity and lack of personal
figure in Sufi biographies,

Where women do
dynamics.

one

finds typical patterns

of presentation that may well be explained by predictable male-female

How many times has
it

it

been

said

of an impressive woman,
a

that she was, as

were, a

man

in the

form of

woman?

This sort of

negative compliment seems to be the last resort of the male hagiographer

who

is

perplexed and bewildered (and struck with admiration) by the spiritual

KADIN vu WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
150

power of
religion

a

woman.

Yet despite the

common
figure

omission of

and

spirituality,

it is

women from the public record striking to see how frequentiy and how
in key discussions

of

inevitably

women

prominendy

of the nature of

love and beauty as avenues to the divine. Plato in the Symposium depicts

Socrates as receiving instruction from the priestess Diotima

on

the the

philosophical teachings of love and beauty.
story of Joseph

When

the Qur'an

tells

and Zulaykha,

it is

called "the

most

beautiful of stories."
{d.

Why is
1209),

that?
it is

According to the Persian Sufi master Ruzbihan Baqli

because
is

Worldly love
adept there

the beginning of that divine love. For both beginner and

is

an unavoidable condition for reaching the intoxication of
is

divine love— and that
in support
he

to clothe the created with divinity.
religious

There

is

proof

of chaste love in the

law of

Muhammad
is,

(God's prayers

upon him).

The word of God
of

(who

is great

and mighty): 'We

shall tell

you

the

most

beautiful

stories' (Qur'an 12:3), that

we

shall tell

you the

story of the lover

and the beloved, Joseph and Zulaykha (peace be upon
(peace be

them), and also the love of Jacob and Joseph
tale

upon them), for the

of love
love. ^

is

the

most

beautiful of stories for those

who

have passion

and

In the biography of Ruzbihan,

it is

related that he caused a sensation

when he

returned to Shiraz and

first

preached in public. In the oldest

version, the story goes like this:

When the

shaykh came from Pasa to Shiraz, the

first

day that he preached

in the 'Atiq

mosque,

in the

midst of his sermon, he

said,

"When

I

entered

the mosque, in the corner of the herb sellers a

woman was

advising her

daughter, saying,

'My

dear, your

mother advises you

to cover your face,

and don't show everyone your beauty from the window. This should not
be, for

by reason of your loveliness and beauty, someone may

fall

into
CO

temptation. Don't you hear

my words and

accept
to

my advice?'"
tell

When
not

Ruzbihan heard these words, he wanted
let

that

woman,
is

"Although you advise her and forbid her,
listen to these

her

show herself! She should
she
beautiful,

words of yours or accept
rest until love

this advice, for

and beauty has no

becomes joined

to

it."
1^

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
151

When

the shaykh said

this,

one of the

travelers

on the path of God was
of
his heart, so that

present.

The arrow of
and gave up
is

these

words

hit the target

he

cried out

his spirit.

The

cry

went up

in the
his

town

that

"Shaykh

Ruzbihan

cutting souls to bits with the

sword of

words!" The people

of the town turned toward him and became

his disciples.

Later accounts add to Ruzbihan's advice to the mother the

comment

that

"Love and beauty made
one

a pact in pre-eternity never to

be separate from

another."-^ Indeed, in his

own major

treatise

on

love, The Jasmine of

the Lj)vers,

Ruzbihan engages

in a dialogue with

an unnamed

woman who

challenges

him

to

defme the relationship between human love and divine

love, so that she acted in a

way

as his teacher.
(d.

Another famous
and takes

Sufi,

Ibn 'Arabi

1240),

comments on

the divine beauty

as his point

of deparmre the divine name

al-Jamil, "the Beautiful,"

as attested in the

Qur'an and hadith. In an introductory

poem

to a

discussion of this divine

name in al-Futubat al-Makkiya, he sets forth the enigma of the divine beloved whose beauty is beyond the reach of the senses, and yet who is somehow wimessed by the lover's heart— and the
is

love of this divine beauty
in Arabic poetry.

the

model

for

all

the great loves celebrated

Beautiful but not longing, luminous but not seen,

jet hearts witness Him, just as they do not know.
"Eyes do not encompass

Him"

exceptfor one
left

whom
and if
There
is

master intellects have

behind.
liar,

If I call Him "beloved, " I would not be a

I call Him "witnessed, " that

is

what I know.

no other beloved but He,

and only Salmas, Toylas, and Zaynabs
They are
the curtains that
veil,

are for the

veil.

that are conveyed

by the poetry of
as

lovers,

and their prose,
before,

Uke Majnun and Tayla,
like

and those who came

Bishr and Hind--mj heart cannot bear their names. ^

In

this

way Ibn

'Arabi explains the relation of the creative and transcendent

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF

jrff'^
152

divine beauty to the beautiful things of this world,

and

this

can only be

done through the names of male and female
that

lovers. It

should be recalled

Ibn 'Arabi himself studied with several prominent

women

Sufis,

including Fatima of Cordova,

whom he praised as a great mystic, and he also wrote poems in honor of 14 women to whom he gave authorization
(J/a^a)

to be Sufi teachers.

Nevertheless, despite these striking references to
that the idealization

women, it can be argued
into an

of

women

has also served as a kind of symbolic or

intellectual prison, particularly if this

means defining women
spiritual teachers

entirely separate role or metaphysical status distinct
reality is that

from men. But the

women

have been eminent

who

have

indeed earned the respect of men. Although shrouded in legend, and
often used as the exception justifying the marginalization of other
the stories of Rabi~a al-~Adawiyya (8
century) clearly

women,

show her

as the

teacher {muaddiha) of men.

The

great master of the Indian Chishti order,
1325), paid tribute to the charisma

Shaykh Nizam al-Din Awliya'
Bibi Fatima Sam:
asks if
it is

(d.

of

"When
it is

the lion has

come out of

the forest,

nobody

male or female; the children of

Adam must obey and show
stories

respect,

whether

male or female. Now, in the
said regarding her

of Fatima
I

Sam
have

there has been

much

extreme piety and old age.

seen her. She was a great
1232), the daughter of

woman."

^ Sayyida

Zaynab bint
one

al-Rifa'i

(d.

Shaykh

Ahmad

al-Rifa'i,

was described by

a

biographer as "the patient, humble
the perfect

lady, the

who

recollected

God,

woman

saint,

the pure

knower of God, the pious God-fearing

one, the hopeful luminous one, the one

who

took precedence over

saintiy

men, through her
These

lofty qualities

and her

illustrious spiritual states." ^

clear statements

of admiration for

women

as spiritual teachers

have been rare before modern times, but they are important historical
indications that the spirimal equality of
in certain quarters, despite the

men and women was recognized common dismissal of women to the private
Now, we
are in an age

^^

"^

sphere in

many Muslim

societies.

when
and

necessity

a;
'*'

decrees that both
in the

men and women need

to seek education

participate

modern workforce on
literacy

a scale previously

undreamt of The spread
it

.

of mass

through policies of universal education has made

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TAS A WW UF
153

possible for countless talented

women

to undertake careers that
is

would

have been unthinkable a century ago. This
East than
it is

no

less true in the

Middle
religion

in

Europe and America. The reconfiguration of
opened up the
possibility

in secular states has in matters

of women's public leadership
it

of religion and culture even while

has also increased the

factor of conservative control of
sectors.

women's

dress and behavior in other

In her memoirs,
following:

my

former teacher Annemarie Schimmel has written the

"During

my

second stay

(in

Turkey),

new

friends helped

me

to

gain access to another part of Turkish culture, to the best traditions of

Turkish Sufism. There were successful businessmen

who yet would spend

night after night in silent meditation, and there was Samiha Ayverdi, the

towering figure

among mystics and writers,
to the culture

author of numerous books
life.

and

articles in

which she conjures up the

traditional

In her house

I

was introduced

of Ottoman Turkey, and she and her family

opened

my eyes
I

to the eternal beauty

of Islamic

fine arts, in particular

calligraphy.

loved to listen to her discourses which went on in long,

swinging sentences, while the sky over the Bosphorus seemed to be
covered with clouds of roses.

A few weeks ago, in March 1993, she passed
after I

away on the eve of the Feast of Fastbreaking, three days
her
frail

had kissed

hands for the

last time."

'

From

this

deeply personal tribute,

can see the powerful effect that
friend,

this

Turkish teacher had on her
authority

we German

who

herself

became an outstanding

on

Islamic art and

spirituality. It is

no accident

that their relationship centered

on the

appreciation of beauty, and that both

women became

exemplary teachers.

May we

all

be fortunate enough to

know

such outstanding individuals.

KADIN WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
v'F

154

ENDNOTES:
^

Abu Abd ar-Rahman
~

as-Sulami, Ear/y Sufi women: Dhikr an-niswa

al-

muta ^abbidat

as-SuJîyyat, ed.

and

trans.

Rkia Elaroui Cornell

(Louisville,

KY:
W.

Pons Vitae, 1999).

Ruzbihan
Ernst
^

Baqli, ^Abhar al-^ashiqin, in Teachings of Suftsm, trans. Carl

(Boston:

Shambhala, 1999),

p. 90.

For

details, see

my

Rut^bihan Baqli: Mysticism and the Rhetoric of Sainthood
Sufi Series, 4 (London: Curt^on Press, 1996).
II,

in Persian

Sufism,

Curzon

^

Ibn 'Arabi, al-Futuhat al-Makkiya,

542

(ch.

142).

The phrase

"eyes

do

not encompass
'

Him"

recalls

Qur'an 6.104.

Abd
186.

al-Haqq Muhaddith Dihlawi, Akhbar al-akhyar, in Teachings of Sufism,

p.

Ahmad ibn Muhammad
p.

al-Witri,

Rawdat al-na:(inn, in

Teachings of Sufism,

191.

Annemarie Schimmel, "A
Paper No. 21
Ayverdi
-

Life

of Learning," Charles

Homer

Haskins

Lecture for 1993, American Council of Learned Societies, Occasional
(available online at).

See also Schimmel's

article

"Samiha

Eine istanbuler

Schriftstellerin," in

Der

Orient in der Forschung:

Festschriftfur Otto Spies t(um 5.

April 1966, ed. Wilhelm Hoenerbach

(Wiesbaden: Harrassomt^ 1967), pp.569-585. Professor

Schimmel

dedicated to Samiha Ayverdi her
in Lslam,

book My SoulLs a Woman: The Feminine,
Lnternational Publishing

trans.

Susan H. Ray (New York: Continuum

Group, 2003).

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
156

Çada Mutasavvf Ken'ân (Rifâî) Büyükaksoy'un Kadn Anlay
ve Sâmiha Ayverdi

Dr. F. Cangü^l Güner Zülfkar

16 Arabk 2005 tarihinde

TÜRKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin
Hâtrâsma düzenlenen "Kadn ve Tasavvuf" balkl
teblidir.

Doumunun
uluslararas

100. Sene-i Devriyesi

sempozyumda sunulan

''''insanlar seveceksin, senin içinde
var.

tükenme^

af,

merhamet

ve

müsamaha hazneleri
ve

Onun içinyalm^ insanlar
seveceksin.

deil, bütün

mahlûkat aynjorulma^ h\

ayn

tükenme^ itiyakla

Sende mevcut cevherleri cömertçe harcamaksn, insanlar

insanlara itirak ederek, hatâlarnda ve sevaplarnda onlarla bir olarak seveceksin.

Doumlar ile çoalp
olarak
ve
vaf(ifen,

ölümleri

ile

eksilecek

kadar onlardan olacaksn. Senin

bir insan

insanlarnyülkünü müterek, samimi bir gayeye, bir ideale çevirmektir

bunun

bir çok yollan vardr.

Fakat en

kestirme, en gü^el, en

büyük yol a§k

ve

imanyoludur. Hudutsu^

bir insanlk a§k.. .beeriyetin tek selâmet

kaps
ve

her

^aman

budur, insan kemâle, be^erîlikten ulühîlie,

ksacas Allah 'a ancak

ancak bu

yoldan ulapr^

^

Hatice Cenan Sultan

Hazrlmzn yazya geçirilmesi ve sunulabilmesi; öncelikle hatralar
önünde hürmetle eildiim, aralarndan göçmü olardan rahmet
niyazlanyla

andm, hayatta olanlarna sahk ve afiyet dualar gönderdiim kadnlar
sayesinde olabilmitir.

Aratrmalarma

ilk

olarak 2001 senesinin

Aralk
ara

aynda Amerika'da Chapel Hül ehrinde baladm ve kimi zaman
vererek, halen

devam etmekteyim.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
157

Osmanl
Harbini,

Devletinin Mutiakyet ve
I.

II.

Merutiyet

devirleriyle,

Balkan

Dünya Savam, Kurtulu Savan ve

neticesinde yeni kurulan

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti dönemlerini

yaam ve yaad her dönemin artianna
bir öretici ve eitici

imammn

belirtisi bir

huzur ve kolayhkla uyabilmi

anlayn dile getirmek üzere huzurunuzdaym. Kendisi hakknda yazlm olan birincil kaynaklarn banda örencisi olan
mutasavvfn, kadn
dört

kadm yazarn hocalarna

dair görüleri, hatralar ve

hocalarmn

sohbetierinden yaptklan derlemeleri gelmektedir. Tarihçi olarak her

araürmada olduu
ettiim
bilgi ile

gibi öncelii birincil kaynaklara

vermek ve oradan

elde

sorularma cevap aramam zaten beklenendir. Yalmz bu

noktada daha

ilk

kaynan yadna hazrlayclarmn kadn olmas bile

sorularmn cevabn bulmama
alnnca Kenan

k

tutan bir faktör

oluturmumr.
bans ve

Hakikati

arayan beynim ve gönlüm, bitmeyen sorularm, okuduklarmla bir arada
ele

Rifâî'nin sanki

yeryüzünde

sevgi, huzur,

özellikle

de ahenk içinde

yaamak ve bu yaam
ile

biçimine örnek olmak üzere

gönderildiini bana düündürtmütür.
Kendilerinin ksaca hayat hikâyesi

balayp daha sonra kadn anlaym
vermeye

belirten çeitli mahiyette notiardan derlemelerle, örencilerinden bahsederek

anlatabileceim bu üstün

anlay

örnekleri

ile

çalacam.
Filibeli

Kenan

Rifâî Hazretieri 1 867'de Selânik'de

domutur. Babas

Hac

Hasan Beyefendi, annesi Hatice Cenan hanmefendidir.

Doduu dönem,
çare

Osmanl

Devletinde aznlklarn isyanlarmn

ortal atee verdii sava
yaanan kayplara

günlerinin habercisidir. Devlet idaresi savalarda
olarak düündükleri

Batülama

hareketierine Tanzimatia
ailesi

balamtr.
verir.
ilk

Balkanlardaki huzursuzluk artnca

stanbul'a göç etmeye karar

Eitimini Galatasaray Sultânî'sinde tamamlar, eitim kadrolar arasnda
görevine Balkesir'de balar. Manevî eitimini annesinden
alr.

Annesinin

müridi FHbeli Ethem
Hayat"
adl
isimli

ah onun da mürididir.

Balkesir'de "Muktezâ-y

kitabm

yazar. Camille

Flammarion'un "Dünyamn

nklâb"
taltif ile

eserini

Türkçeye

çevirir.

^ Balkesir'den Adana'ya, Adana'dan Manasûr'a

tayini çkar.

Manastr 'da Maarif Müdürlüü görevindedir. Oradan
getirilir.

Üsküb'e Kosova Vilayeti Maarif Müdürlüüne

Oradan Trabzon'a
tayin edilir.

ve daha sonra da stanbul'a Nümune-i Terakki

Müdürlüüne

Ardndan

ald manevî bir iaret üzerine Medine'ye tayinini ister.
müdürlüüne
getirilir.

Orada

"dâdî-i Hamîdî"

Medine'de kendisine

eyh Hamza

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWU.F
158

Rifâî

tarafndan icazet
için bir
ilahi

verilir.

Burada Türk'lere Arapça, Araplara Türkçe
ait

öretmek

klavuz kitap hazrlar. Güfte ve besteleri kendisine

olan bir çok

üzerinde çakr. Derken stanbul Erkek Mektebi Franszca
ziyarete

hocalna ve iki ayr göreve daha getirilir. Sonra tekrar Medine'ye gider. Döndüünde Fener Rum Lisesinde hocala devam eder.
stanbul'da

konann bahçesinde

kendi imkânlar

ile

inâ

ettirdii

Ümm-

ü Ken'an dergâhnda mesnevi

dersleri, sohbetier

ve

zikir âyinleri icra edilir.

Kendilerine dair bu çok ksa biografik bilgiden sonra
eserleri

imdi Kenan

Rifâi'nin

üzerinde durarak bu

çada mutasavvfn kadn anlayn anlamak
baarl
bir öretici ve idareci

için gayret

edeceim.

Kendisinin eitim-öretim konulannda çok

olduu, ksaca verdiim özgeçmi
ilâve olarak eserleri olan insanlar

bilgisinden kolaylkla anlalabilir.

Buna

incelendiinde, onun ne gibi deiiklik
ettii

ve

yeniliklerle

eitim-öretim uygulamalarna devam

daha

iyi

anlalr.

Öncelikle

allagelmi snrlandrmalan ortadan kaldrm, kadnlarn kendi

tahsillerini

tamamlamalarnn üzerinde durmutur. Bu çok önemli
belirir.

bir

deiiklik olarak

slâm

dinini

yorumlarken meselâ peygamberin
tahsil edinip''

"I/m

Çin'de

bile olsa

alnp'' veya "Beikten me^^ra kadar ilim

hadisleri

yahut Hz. Ali'nin "Bana

bir harf öretenin kölesi olurumt' sözlerinin

herkese hitap ettiinin üzerinde durmutur.

Kadnn sosyal hayatta yerinin

olmad dönemde yetien örencilerinin sosyal hayatta çok aktif roller aldn görüyoruz. Bunlara dair örnekleri vereceim.
hemen
hiç

Onun

getirdii en önemli yenilik
denilebilir.
ailelere

eitim-öretim almak ve meslek

sahibi

olmaktr,

grup üyesi
ve sosyal

Çünkü kendisinin etrafnda nice asil ve üst ekonomik mensup kadnlar, yaanan savalarn getirdii ekonomik
ekilde mevcut statülerinden olunca hiç yüksünmeden
belirtisi

krizlerle bir

ve herhangi bir ikâyet

göstermeden tam

tersi

ükürle derhal

kollarn svayarak görev

bana geçmilerdir.

Bunlardan en çok bilinen

örnek olan Nazl hammefendidir, Evrenos-zâdelerdendir ve ilkokul

Bu öretmenin evinde bayram yemekleri örencileri için kazanlarla kaynar. Nazl hanmn maddî imkânlar bu ikramlar yapmaya yetecek gibi olmasa da o özellikle fakir çocuklarn tepeden trnaa üstierini giydirir, karnlarn doyurur. Bu çocuklar toplumda öz güvenle çalan,
öretmenidir.
etraflarna yararlar olan insanlar haline
gelirler.-^

Kenan

Rifâi'nin

kadnlarn

sosyal hayattaki rollerinin

deimesine

dair

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
159

yaklamn, tasavvuRn ilkelerinden "bâtn zahirle balantdadr" ile okumak
ve yorumlamak da mümkündür.

Onun
ile

Medine'de

baard

örencilere kitap

datm töreni srasnda, ^

örencilerine kendisinin

yazd ve besteledii ilahileri okutmas her vesile

ile

öretmek için uygulad çeitli yöntemler arasndadr. Gün gelir piyano ilahi besteler. Bunlar onun yenilikçiliinin, yaad çan icablarm
için

önceden görerek; gereken uyarlamalarn yaplmas

ald tedbirlerdendir.
eline

Deien dünya ardarnda mânâsn ve
vastay gayesine hizmette kullanmaktan
saklamayn, öretmek
cihetiyle

özünü koUayarak;
asla

geçen her

ylmamtr.
cihetiyle

"Bildiinizi kendini:^

kskanç, örenmek

ihmalkâr olmayn. Bildiini

kendine saklayan kimse beeriyet için birajp tenkil eder, örenin ve öretin!' ^

dedii
ve

örencileri hocalarmn bilimsel gelimeleri, teknik bulular,
estetik

felsefi

akmlar yakndan

takib ettiini yazarlar. ^

Kenan

Rifâî iki

eye
'

özellikle

çok önem vermitir: "Bi^^atja^ayarak öretmek
sorar: "Çocuklar!

ve severek

öretmek!'

Bir

gün örencilerine
Benyalan

Ben ^bet

ediyor

muyum? Ediyorsam
Ben kalb kryor
ey Uy or

si^ de edin.

söylüyor muyum? Söylüyorsam si^ de söyleyin.

muyum? Kryorsam si^ de krn. Ben
Yapyorsam
si^e de bol bol i^in!

kin tutuyor, kibrediyor, based

muyum?

Ama beni hocam^ bilmi^seni'^ bende olmayan
hakkm reddetmek

hasletlerin herhangi birinde

konuklamak üstünü^deki mânevi

olma^m?' °
Örencilerinden Sâmiha Ayverdi ve Nezihe Araz hanmefendiler; "Bu
idealist terbiyeci, sevinç
için

kadar aann, nefe kadar kederin, hayat muammasn hecelemek
biliyordu.

önümür^e konan müstesnafrsatlar olduunu da

SIasl bilememi

olabilir

ki bi^^t kendisi -daha evvelkifasllarda da belirttiimit^gibi—yeryü^nün muharip

O ^drabn, bir keyfiyeti olgunlapnp kemâle getirdiini kabul ettii için; yaî^n sca kadar kpn souuna da ihtiyac olan nebata aamay nasl hatrndan
adamyd.
geçirmiyorsa, becerin
ediyordu!'

olgunlamasnda

rol

alm§

olan aclara da bir dost muamelesi

^ diyerek hocalarnn öretim ve eitim yöntemlerine

dair belirgin

örnek

verirler.

Kenan

Rifâî hazretieri

ile ilgili

yine

bu

iki

örencisi;

" insanolundaki tecessüs melekesinin istihale ve harekete tâbi olan hakikati kendi

^ihnî ve hissî imkânlar
de hiç kimseye
silsilesinden

ile

aratrmaktan horlandn da takdir etmi^, büyüden
diyerek bir tefekkür

dorudan doruya "inan!" dememi, "dü^ün!"

sonra inanp

1 n inanmamayyine düjünücünün hükmüne brakmtr!' ^^

ifadesiyle

kinci

anlayn özetiemilerdir. Dünya Sava günlerinde bir akam,
eitim

radyoda çeidi istasyonlarda

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
160

dolap,

haberleri dinledikten sonra Ü2Ülerek

unlar söylemi olduunu
isimli

yine Ken'an Rifâîve Yirminci A.snn

Ipmda Müslümanlk
iyilikte

eserden

okuyalm:
''''Kur'an

insanlar sevip onlara hayr ve

bulunmak

ve

adi ü ihsan

ile

muamele
ve onlara

etmek lât^m geldiini, peygamberler de insanlarn, Allah'n

ailesi

olduunu

efkat

ve

merhamet

edenlerin

Allah indinde makbul olduunu beyan
teaman, her istasyonun

ediyor.

Halbuki ^imdi, radyo dümesini çevirdiim

düman memleketine
Filistin,

yaplan hücumlar

ve yaplan

tahribat sayp

döktüünü duyuyorum. Roma,

Msr, jondra ,ilh.. hep ol Sonra da bi^ bir §ey olmad, kaybm^ok, diye iftihar ediyorlar. XX. Asrda insanlk için bu ne elim bir netice! Bu hesapça dost kalmam.

O

halde dost

kim?"
^ ^

sorusunu sormutur.

sava ve
gerekir.

Bu sözlerinin yirminci yüzyln ilk yansnda yaanan zulümler kadar günümüz ardanna da uygunluuna dikkat etmek

Kadn erkek arasnda mânevi terbiye/mânevi eitim konusunda da ayrm
gözetmemitir. Kendisiyle

tanmadan

önce, evden

yamnda

lalas,

dads,

her eyi hazr olmadan merasimle çkmayan, çok saygn bir aristokrat
ailenin

kz olan Semiha Cemâl hanmefendi,
ile

^

^

Kenan

Rifâî'nin

öretim
hadisi

ve eitimi

tasavvufun

ilk

admlarndan addedilen peygamberin
evvel

icab "mute

ente kable

mutu" yani "ölmeden

ölmek" srrna eritirilince,

hocasmn gösterdii
olmu, sonra da
Türkçemize

istikamette çok çalarak,

önce okulundan mezun

Felsefe öretimini

tamamlamtr. 36 yanda bu dünyadan
Epiktet

göçerken arkasnda yazlarndan derlenmi Gül Demeti isimli kitab ve

kazandrd Eflâtun külliyat, Mark Orel ve
kalmtr.

ile

beraber

yetitirdii bir çok örencisi

Semiha Cemâl

hanm hocasnn kadn anlayn
için

öylece

özetier:

"Kadnda

ma^araktr, diye onu tebcil eder." ^^ Semiha Cemâl hammefendinin açklad bu bak açs bizim için çok mukaddes ve azizdir. Acaba biz bugün bu anlay
dahi muayyen bir heykel-i hüsn ü hayal, onun

mevcut deildir. Kadn,

kavrayabilir miyiz? Materyalist ve

sömürgeci mevcut düzenin, sanayilemenin

acmasz çarknn dilileri arasnda giderek bir ticaret meta gibi takdim edilen kadn bedeni ve reklâm dünyasnn yoz bir biçimde cinsellii ön planda sunan günümüz bak açsna bu engin hürmet dolu bak nasl
tekdüze ve
anlatabiliriz? Öncelikle

kendimiz nasl anlayacaz?
olarak

Kadm basit, baya

ve anlk zevklerin

oyunca

görmedii

gibi

ona gösterdii sayg

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
161

kadnn varlnda
gayesini

ak içindir. slâm tasavvufunun, yaradln ak olarak açklad düünülecek olursa, onun bütün inand
ortaya

çkan

prensipleri her nefes

yaayan

bir hoca, bir yol gösteren

olduu da

açktr.

Bu

konularda yine örencilerinin yazdklanna müracaat edince
o,

u satrlar

okuyoruz: "Görülüyor ki

hakiki a§k problemini vazederken ne dünyevi ve ft^ik

a§k inkâr edip
cinsî insiyakn

küçümsüyor, ne de insanlar devaml bir vecd ve istirak âleminde

tutarak insiyaklarn

^hnî bir tecrübe plânnda hapsetmek
ile

istiyordu.

Kenan

Rifâî,

rûhîleme plânnda ve içtimâîle^meyollan

tahavvülve

istihale ederek,

yani

bir keyfiyet

deiiklii geçirip yükselerek

ulvî bir bütün halinde

mükemmellie

sevk edilebileceine inanyordu. Esasen insan psikolo/isindeyaptrmak istedii §uurlu

süblimasyon ameliyesi de buna

dayanmaktadr" ^^
küçülten, onlarda

"En gençyadlarndan
"Dokunmayn

beri

kadnlar ve kadnlk hakknda, onlan

nakîse görmeye mütemayil herhangi birfikre verdii cevap hemen hiç deinmiyor:

benim kadnlarma, beni bir

kadn

dünyaya getirdi, ben onlara sö^

söyletmem, {...f

1942 senesinde önünden geçerken

uradmz
diye izah ettikleri

"Andifonia"kilisesinde bizleri

mukaddes hücreye sokmadklan ve sebebini
için

de "kadnlar günahl olduklan

bu hücreye giremezler"

zaman bu

hadiseyi bir platform yaparak kendisinin ve slâmiyetin

kadn

meselesini ele

al tarzn

eve gelir gelmez öyle dikte etmiti:
ne

"Asrlar boyunca kadn

için neler söylendi, nelerya^^ld,

kanl maceralara giriildi.
eline bir

Onun ad kâh hudutsu^ ihtiraslara
verildi.

vasta

edildi,

kâhfaziletin

bayrak olarak

Fakat islâmiyet kadar hiç

bir f<jhniyet, hiç birfelsefe

ona bahâ biçemedi,

hakiki mevkiini veremedi.

Zaman

ve menfaatler islâmiyetin

kadn

telâkkisini ne

kadar tahrif

ederse etsin,

onun

bu husustaki görücü inkâr kabul etme^
Zira en büyük
delili

Kur'an- Kerimdedir. Orada hitaplar "mu minin
tefriksi^yaplm§
ve

ve

mü'minât,
ve

sâlihin ve sâlihat" diye
sâlih erkeklerden

mu mine

ve sâliha

kadnlar mü'min

ayrlmamtr,

islâmiyetin ilk

samanlarnda kadn
bile fiilen

içtimaî hayatn

her safhasnda erkekle beraberyer almakta, hatta gagalara
idi.

itirak etmekte

"Bana dünyamzdan kadnlar, gü^el kokular sevdirildi
diyerek sevdii eylerin

ve

nûr- dîdem salatdr"

banda kadn

sayan Peygamberimi:^ onun içtimaî hayattaki

yerini

"kadn erkein yansdr"

diye sarahaten ve kat'î olarak, tayin etmitir.

Acaba islâmiyetin kadna
kuvvetini

verdii bu deer nereden geliyor? islâmiyet

Hakkn yarata
has bir deer

tamas

ve

hayat idâmede

oynad

rol

bakmndan kadna,

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
162

vermitir.
'Tertev-t

Bu

deeri

Ha^reN Mevlânâ öyle

ifade etmitir:

Hakkest an

mauk
deildir,

Hâkkest an gûyyâ mahlûk nî"

Onun kadn (mahlûk

sanki Halik 'tir) diye kabul edii, hayatin

ve âlemlerin

mânâs

olanyaratia kudreti bi^t(at ahsnda temsil etmesinden dolaydr.

Görülüyor ki islâmiyet,
de

kadn,

içtimaî hayatta bir süs, bir lüks

metâ olarak deil
da sadece

i ve hayat arkada diye
ediyor.

nat^ar- itibare

ald gibi,

cinsiyeti

bakmndan

bir :^evk âleti olarak görmüyor,

onda

Hakkn, yaratc

kudretinin bir numunesini

müahede
"Gûyyâ
diyor.

Yine Ha^et-i Mevlânâ:
e^perdeî rakîk " (Sanki bir ince perdeden

Hak

tâft

Hak

tecellî

etmitir.)

Esasen Peygamberimi-:(in "bana dünyanzdan kadnlar sevdirildi" sö^ü de
felsefenin

böyle bir

mahsulüdür

Bu

sö^ü Muhiddin-i Arabî öyle

i^h

ediyor: "Kesûlullah

nisaya muhabbet ederek onlarn vücudu
etmitir. " Zira îbnilFarit'in de

aynasnda

Hakk kemâli ile müahede
bakma Allah 'in
düünce muayyen
cemâline
bir seviyenin

dedii gibi: 'Her gütmelin hüsnü Allah'n cemâlinden
bir

müsteardr. "

u

halde erkein

kadna muhabbeti

vuslat talepten
ve

ibarettir.

Fakat üphesini ki

böyle bir

manevî terbiyenin mahsulüdür.

Kadn sadece cinsî ^evk
varmak

ve ehvetlerin bir tatmin

âleti
gibi,

saymak büyüden de günahl görmek

basit ve iptidaî bir t(ihniyetin eseri
için bir vasta, bir

olduu

mahbûb- hakikînin

aslna, hakikatine

köprü bilmek
ifadesini

ve

ona göre hürmet etmek olgun bir görüün

ifadesidir

ki bu da Islâmiyette

bulmutur.

"^^
farkl yönetim

Gelien ve deien dünya ardan derken onun üç

döneminde

yaadn hatrlamak gerekir. Mutiakiyet,
Her dönemin kendisine göre
ahlâkî, kültürel

II.

Merutiyet ve Cumhuriyet.

özellikleri vardr.

Her dönemde toplumun

ve sosyal deerler bütünlüünde çok

hzl ve köklü deiimler

yaanmtr. Bu
balatmtr.

deiiklikler içerisinde o her zaman kadna verdii sayg

ve gösterdii özenle özde

ayn ve

fakat biçimde farkl ve yeni uygulamalar

Peygamber efendimize Kur'andaki emirlerin sadece erkeklere mi

ait

olduunu
mümin

soran kadnlarn sorular üzerine, Kur'an- Kerim'de

Ahzab
devam eden

sûresinde öyle bir cevap verilmitir: ^''Müslüman erkekler ve müslüman kadnlar,
erkekler ve

mümin kadnlar,

taata

devam eden erkekler

ve taata

kadnlar,

doru

erkekler ve

doru kadnlar,

sabreden erkekler ve sabreden kadnlar,

mütevaz

erkekler ve müteva^i kadnlar, sadaka veren erkekler ve sadaka veren

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
163

kadnlar, oruç tutan erkekler

ve oruç tutan

kadnlar,

r^ann

koruyan erkekler

ve

rv^anm koruyan kadnlar,

A.llah ' çok ^ikreden erkekler ve çok t^ikreden

kadnlar

varya;i§te A.llah, bunlar için

hirmairet

ve

büyük bir mükâfat ha^rlam^tr."

(Kuran 33: 35) '^ slâmiyetin mukaddes kitabnda
türlü sorumlulukta eitliine dair verilebilecek

kadn ve erkein her
biri

en güzel örneklerden

bu

âyet-i kerimedir.

Kenan

Rifâî hazrederinin

de sohbetierinde ve günlük

hayatta üzerinde en çok

durduu

mesele budur:

Kadnn ve erkein insan
yenilikleri

olmak yolunda üzerlerindeki mükellefiyetin eit oluu.
Dinin esaslarnda salam duran ve sosyal yapda ortaya çkan

benimseyen bu
hitaba
fakat

çada

mürid, kadnlarn

sosyal hayatta da Kur'an'daki
için

uygun

eitlikte

sorumluluk almalar

çalmtr.
çok

lkeleri

aym

uygulamalarnda deiiklik söz konusudur. Cemiyetin ihtiyaçlar
aktif olan bir

dorultusunda çahma hayatnda
rol sahibi

kadmn

eitimlerinde

olmutur.

Onun çok farkh alt yaplardan ve kültürlerden örencileri
aydn kadnlardr. Semiha

olmutur. Bunlar

genellikle tahsilli, diller bilen

Cemâl, Sâmiha Ayverdi, Safiye Erol, Sofi Huri, Nezihe Araz,
Sargut,

Mekûre

Müjgân Cumbur hanmefendiler

eserleriyle

çamzn mümtaz
saymak

kadn
dahi

örnekleri arasndadrlar.

Bu kadnlarn

hepsinde tesbit edebildiimiz
tek tek eserlerini

ortak özellik, onlarn yazar olulardr.

Onlarn
için

bu tebli metnini çoktan dolduraca
tertip gayesi

buraya kaydedemeden

geçiyorum.

Kenan Rifâî hazrederinin örencisi Sâmiha Ayverdi'yi 1 00. doum yü dönümünde anmaktr. Çok küçük yata çok ükür, kendisini tammak bahtiyarlna eritiim Sâmiha A}^erdi
hanmefendinin bende
ile

Bu toplantnn

brakt en önemli iz, daima ve sonsuz bir "tevazu"
bir

kendini hiç
''Ben,

ön plana çkartmadan çalmas olmutur. Hana isimli
ustamn haznesinde
kara mangrm.

eserinde

Ama

o,

bu kara, bu

knk

mangra, korgibi altnlar arasndan çekip, pey sürerek
Seni kendim
için,

haznesindeyer verdi. Üstelik:

beni âleme söyleyip bildirmen için seçip aldm, dedi." diyerek

kendisini ve

hocasm

harika bir Türkçe
ile o;

ile

tammlar.

Hocasmn

kendisine
kirlilii

verdii ilham ve tevik
gibi konular

bu güzel ülkede çevre

bilinci,

hava

henüz gündeme gelmedii zamanlarda, tek

bana ydmadan

Fatih, Fevzi

Paa

Caddesinde kesilen aaçlarn yerine kendi cebinden

ödedii

paralarla

ald

fidanlar dikerek, onlarn sulanmas için hiç

üenmeden, caddenin

iki

tarafndaki dükkân sahiplerine gidip "size susuz

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
164

birisi

gelse su verir misiniz?" diye

sormak

suretiyle,

onlarm gönüllerine
kova su verilmesi

hitap ederek,
için tek

bu

dikilen aaçlara ilk yaz her

gün

birer

bana
bir

sivil

hareket oluturmutur.

Onun ben

Müslüman, Türk, kadm, yazarm diyerek sadece kitaplarn
çekildiini hiç

yazp köesine

görmedim. Tersine söz konusu kimliini

dile

getirerek eüne geçen her frsatta

bu kimliin gerei, hocamn yaayarak

bana örettii ahlâkn icab budur diyerek, gayrette ve çok çalmakta

olduunu gördüm. Hiç
bütün

bir

zaman "ben" dememitir. Ülke
bürokrasideki

âlemi için ve hatta dünya ve insanlk için
yetkili siyasî kadrolara,

slâm gördüü gerek üzerine hemen
için,
ileri

gelenlere, devlette, özel

köe yazarlarma, dikkatini çekmek istedii herkese o konu hakknda mektuplar yazm, mekmbunun arkasm aratrmtr.
sektörde, gazete

Yaananlardan haberdar olmak maksadyla, en azndan

bir

günlük gazete

okumak onun
haberlerin

için

her

etrafndaki herkese

aydmn yapmas gereken normal bir haldir. Bunu telkin etmitir. Lüzum gördüü takdirde derhal iittii
onlarla
ilgili

aslm aratrarak

gerekli tedbirleri almakta asla

gecikmezdi.

Yazd tasavvuf romanlarn, sonradan daha çok hatra, tarih
kitaplar takib etmitir. 1400. Hicrî yla girerken adeta

ve eitim

arhkl

dii bir arslan gibi kükreyerek bütün

slâm

âleminin Heri gelenlerine hitaben
Kölelikten Efendilie

mektuplar hazrlar, bir kitap yazar ve adeta haykrarak:
diye seslenir.

Batl

güçlerin sömürgeciliine

kar,

yetsin artk
liderleri

bu kulluk

ve kölelik hali diye can feryad

barr. slâm

âleminin

bu ngüizce

ve Arapça baslan kitaplar kendilerine hitaben

yazlm

mektuplar alnca

günümüz ardarnda slâm dininin temsilcileri olan biz Müslümanlarn, bundan yaklak çeyrek asr kadar önce onun yapt çary duyup duymadmz düünüyorum. O
ne yapmlardr? Bilemiyorum.
ziyade

Ondan

da hocas

gibi

devamh deien

zahir artiara kendisini uyarlayarak, yenilemi

ve yenilenmi, kendisine ve cemiyete yeni isdkameder çizmitir.
yenilikçilii

Onun bu

hocasndan gelir. Çünkü

kendisi böyle anlatr.

Hem kitaplarnda
anlatmtr,

hem
der.

sohbederinde

hocamz

bize tasavvuf ilkelerini yaayarak

Sâmiha hammefendi, aabeyi Ekrem beyefendi ve onun ei lhan

hammefendi
kültürünün

ile

beraber, giderek kaybolmaya yüz

mtmu Türk-slâm
eserleri

el

sanatiar ve

müzii

gibi konulara

özen gösterip bu

koruyarak insanla hizmet vermek üzere Kubbealt Akademisi Kültür ve

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
165

3

Sanat Vakfin kurmulardr.

Bu aydnlk ocaktan yetien

örenciler,

bugün

I

I
1

dünyann çeitli yerlerinde eserleriyle sergiler açmakta, konferanslar-dersler verip insanla bu ata yadigâr güzellikleri göstermektedirler. Bu üçlünün geni ufuklar kucaklayan iman, ahlâk ve ak anlaylar Kenan Rifâî'nin
elinde

I

mayalanm

ve ekillenmitir.
'',

Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin hizmetleri sebebiyle "Vakf sultan"
I
I

"Vakf Ana"

^° veya "Vatan annesi"

-^

^ gibi hitaplarla

anldn tesbit ettik.
o kitaplaryla dergâb açacak,

1

Hocas Kenan
onun
tesiri

Rifâî,

Sâmiha Ayverdi'nin annesine "Sambaya dikkat edini;^dünya

1

bir

asr deiljü^lerce asr sürecektir ve
edecektir!'

I

durdukça gönülleri uyandrmaya devam

demilerdir.

Baz kere aratrmac
susmak
el

I

olarak da sorulabilecek sorularn cevaplar kendiliinden gelince

I I

ve

sessizlik içinde

bu

hali

dinlemek, kabil olduunca,

kabmz

verdiince

I
% \
\

o am terennüme bakmakta hayr vardr, diyorum.
ilhan Ayverdi hammefendi,
"Kesintisini

devam eden ir§ad'

balkl yazsnda,
sit-in

Ken'an

Rifâî Hazrederinin bir
var'''

gün yaknlarna: "Benim

dahiyüzerini

I

görmediini':^ nice evlâdlanm

dediini yazar. "Etrafndakileri ömür boyu mânevi

I
i,

nn^kla besleyen ^^/^ hocam:^ tasarrufunu ve ir§âd vadesini, yüklerini görmediimizi
evlâdlan içinde kesintisi^ devam ettirmitir!' diyerek

I

devam

eder.

Sonra da
bir

I

"Sâmiha A-nne'nin dedii gibi: 'Çok §ükür, çok
Dost
var.

fükür...

Miyânemi^de

keremli

\

Topran

üstünde de

olsa,

altnda da

olsa,

her teaman rehber, her flaman

I

yâr- vefâdar.r diye
isimli

smet Binark beyefendinin ya\na hazrlad

Dost Kaps

\

kitabn takdim

yazm

tamamlar. ^^

\

Kenan

Rifâî hazrederinin,

kzlar Kâinat hammefendiye 30 Nisan 1945'te
bir /eye

3

yazdklan mektupta, "Sen sakn
benim melek kt^m!' ^^ sözleri

sklma.

Biliyorsunya, saadetin

anahtar

\

hâdisat olduu gibi kabul etmektir. Halik 'na ve hâline olduu gibi ükretmektir,

\

onun dünya anlaym ve kadna da erkee
2.

de

bakm özetieyen hitabdr.
senesinde

Nezihe Araz hammefendi kendilerinin vefatnn

yazd yazda

hocasna öyle
mahcup
için
olur,

seslenir:

"Kimdir bu fedai ki günahlarmzdan
çilesini çeker,

bi;<jmyerimizde
ve güzelletirmek

inkârlarmzn

hayat kolaylatrmak
l§te senin

bütün dertlerimiz^ yüklenir.. ^ ^^ "A^/k ve îmân...

hayatfelsefenin
diye

iki temel ta/!..

Hak'la halk birlemek,
biz^ senin ihlâsl sesine

Hakk' halkta görmek, halk Hak

sevmek.

Fakat

hâlâ niçin lâz^m geldii kadar kulak

^^ vermiyoruz^?.. "
Safiye

Erol hanmefendi, hocasyla

ilgili biz^e

§u

bilgiyi

vermektedir:

'Hocam Kenan

Rifâi derdi ki: 'Bir kötü itiyad sökmek, sra

dalan

devirmekten daha güçtür. "

Bu

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
166

sebepten hocam, talebelerine iyi itiyatlar vermek sistemini takip ederdi, iyi itiyatlar

sk

f^er'ederek kötülerineyer

brakmad. Bunlarn gümrah

bereketi î^emini

kavraynca

kötü itiyatlarn durumu

ibaten

mükül safhaya giriyor.

Ekseri imkâns^la^yordu.

Hocamn

srarla telkin ettii esaslardan biri deyaplmamas lât^m gelen peylerden

saknld kadar, yaplmas lâ^m gelen peyleri lâî^m gelen tarzda, vaktini geçirmeden mutlakayapmakt."" ^^ Felsefe doktorluu unvann Almanya'da kazanm
olan Safiye Erol bir

yazsnda

''Ulularn

kelâmn

dilde, t^ihinde,

gönülde

dolatrmak

bile

insan sorumlu klyor^ demitir.

^-^

Safiye Erol

hocasndan

örendiklerini aktarrken tahsilinin ona
felsefe

kazandrd
anlatr.

engin

düünce ve

ufuklarnda rahatça

gezinir.

Dou ve Bat filozoflarndan bahseder.
Onun zengin tasvirlerinden
''

Karlatrmalar yapar. Sonunda hocasn
"

oluan üç ksmlk etüdünde Mürpd-i Agâh" isimli felsefî yazsnda hocasndan örendiklerini aktanrken Sabr, pasif bir tahammül deil,

Müslümanln
Erol:

etik deerlerinden

kopan aktif

bir nurdur.''

demektedir. Safiye

"Osmanl mparatorluu dald, fakat

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Türk an'anesi

bakidir. Devlet lâik oldu, fakat islâmiyet

altnc

hissin bile eriemeyecei

sr ve

ihti^amiyle vicdanlar tahtndadr. Tarikatlar tasfiyeye

urad; fakat tasavvuf, çada

üslûplardan geçerek

Türk fkâr ve san'at hayatnfeyi^endirecektir. "dedikten sonra

öyle devam

eder:
Rifâî...

"Hocam Kenan

mistik adam,

srr görmü, srr

yaam,
zerk

srra

katlm

adam.

Srr beer plânna çkarm, hikmete çevirmi, cemiyete
hakim adam.

etmi

insan...

Bütün yaptklarm
irad eden

din-i

mübin

dairesinde yapan

büyük slâm eyhi, halk

terbiyeci, yani

mürid; yolunun icaplarna, cemiyet bünyesine,

insan ruhuna tam bir vukufla agâh olan mürid-i agâh.

Tacn, hrkasn ne kadar kolaylkla çkard. Kendisinin herhangi bir makam ve kisve üe takyid edilmesine imkân vard? Dünya onun manevî saltanatndan ne bir ey alabilirdi, ne de o saltanata ilâve edecek deerde

m

bir

ey bulabilirdi.
gibi:

Abdal Musa müridlerinden Derdimend Hüsnü'nün dedii
Kudretten

banda

elîfî

tac

Eiin

bekleyen gürûh- nâci

Marktan marba

oynar

klc

Klc oynatan cana ak olsun." ^6

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
167

Arap ve Hristiyan
Sofi Huri

bir aileden

yetimi, ngiltere'de

tahsilini

tamamlam
bir ehlullah
için

hanmefendi, hocasn öyle anlatr: Kenan
abidesidir.

Rifâî

"öy/<?

ki benlii a^k, ruhu a§k, kendisi bir a§k

Bu mistik a§k anlamak
katrasm
içmi§,

insann ancak kendisi

böyle bir

a^kn

hiç

olma^a

bir

asrlar boyunca
elâleler

mütefekkir, fair ve mistiklerin kaleminden çalayanlar gibi

durmadan akm§,
olsa,

halinde

dökülmü
'

olan o a^k

ummamna, ^rre mikdan da

dalm§ olmas

lâ^mdrr ^

Sofi Huri

hammefendi, ''Kenan Kifâ'nin

benliini saran öyle bir
bir ideal

p
Bu

a§k vard ki o

akyü^nden bankalarnn
etmi§,

hayatna kymet vermi, yüksek

altnda onlara hi^et

kendi benliini onlarla ajnle§tirmif, a§k, hayatnn

öf^, enerjisinin en yüksek faaliyeti ve

enyapa

kudreti olmutur. A^§k üslerinde
ve

durmak, her §eyi a^kta bulmak, bu onun umdesi
böyle olmasayd,

hayatnn niangâh olmutur.

böyle

yüklenmi olduu ar^m va^eji, mür§id ve mürebbi vat^esini muhterem bir ekilde nasl ifa edebilirdi?" ^" Sofi Huri kendileri hakknda
"Ey

yand ksm ^u sofilerle tamamlar:
hakkn, tevazün
ve

mua^^ ve mükerrem ulu,
ancak tekrim

ey fat^iletin,
bilirim,

a§kn

timsali!

Eer vasfnda kusur ettimse,
i§te

ballarsn

af senin ^ânndandr. Ben
senin

seni tavsif deil,

ve tebcil edebilirim. l§te

mihrabna takdimemi ar^ttim,

elerimi bir meneke demeti halinde tuhf

hu^uruna koydum.

Ey

ruhu nur, kendisi serapa pürnur olan

KAMIE INSyiN,
''Kalem biliyor
bahttr,

ebediyet boyunca

nur

içindeya§ar

^^
ki, yollar

Sâmiha Ayverdi Dost isimli eserinde,
ve

a§p onun

sevgi

iman

ile

salama

alnm kapsna uramak
idi
i§te.

bahtn

tâ kendisidir^ -^^

"Dost cümle âlemin dostu
muhabbet

Herkese

datlmak

ürkere bekleyen

efkat

ve

bereketleri vard.

Ona, gönülleri kekülünü u^tanlar, bu mîrî maldan
(...)

nasiplerini alarak geçip gidiyorlard.
hisselerine

Dost'un ismet

ve

iman çinisinin yolcular,

dü§en manevîpayla, ihlâsl,
-^^

iffetli,

sabrl, feragatli, fedakâr ve

çalkan

oluyorlard^

Sâmiha Ayverdi, Nihad SâmiBanarl beyefendiden naklen:
en basit hâdiselerini dahi deerlendirip
Celâleddin-i

"Günlük hayatn
velî gördüm:

mânâlandran

iki

büyük

Mevlânâ

Rûmî ve Ken 'an

Rifâî..''

dediini nakleder. -^^

Sâmiha Ayverdi hocasm Dost kitabnda anlatmaya devam ederken, bize

unlar

söyler: "O, insan, kendinden habersi:^^ âtl ve gafil
bir günah

brakmann,

cemiyete

kar§ imlenmi

olduunun

takdiri içinde

idi.

Buyütüden de kütleyi muvazeneli,
olarak görmek istiyordu.
ve terbiye
isteyerek,

muhasebeli, kontrollü veyüksek voltajl bir enerji

kayna

Amma,

bu

i§te,

insan bir ^uursuî^ maliyeme gibi kullanmyor, yetinme

ameliyesinin mes'uliyetli
gayreti ve karan,

admlarn,

bi'^^t insann kendisinin

atmasn

karpsndakine brakmakla,

ahsiyetleri avucu içine

alp ediyordu.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF T AS A WW UF

jrf^
168

i9

Onun

için de, çevresinde yetinenler,

kendi kendilerinin efendisi denecek olgun,

seviyeli

ve kifâyetli kimseler olarak, cemiyet

lan arasna, saf
ile

dalm bulunuyorlard.
ayrmyor ve
mütalaa ederek, ona göre

Zîra

Dost,

klcn

ikijuf^ugihi olan madde

mânây,

birbirinden

insan,

vâr

olmann

asaletine yakdan bir ruh düt^ni içinde

haydyordu.
Dost'un kütleleri tevhîd
harç, sevgi ve

anlaynda
-^-^

birletirmek ve

uyandrmak yolunda kulland

imand

vesselama

Sâmiha Ayverdi kadnlarn sosyal hayatta
onlann
insiyatifîyle elde edilecek

rol sahibi

olmalar gerektiini,

gelimelerin toplumu daha dengeli

klacan görmü ve

1966'da

merke2 Ankara'da olmak Ü2ere Türk Kadnlan

Kültür Dernei'ni kurmutur.
senelerce bir çok güçlükle

Bu

dernekte Sabahat Gülay hammefendi

uram, çok mücadeleler vermitir. imdi
acil

rahatsz olduklar için kendisine Allah'tan hayrl ve

ifalar niyaz

ediyorum. Sabahat hammefendi Ankara'da

merhum ehidimiz
ile elele

rahmetli

Tevfk

leri beyefendinin

ei Vasfîye hammefendi

senelerce

çalmtr.
stanbul'da dernek yine kendisine
acil

ifalar niyaz ettiim,

Türk

dilinin

açklamal sözlüünü tek bana, kahramanca hazrlayan, çok
imza

aziz

lhan

Ayverdi hammefendi idaresinde, çocuk iftarlarm düzenleyerek yine bir
ilke

atm,

kitaplarda

yazl olanlarn yaanan

hale getirilmesi için

didinmitir.

Mekûre
kasvetli

Sargut hammefendi

hocasmn ona verdii
etkili

dersleri

en ac, en

demlerde etrafna da örnek olacak ekilde yaayarak

yaamamn
saylmakla

konumaktan her zaman daha

olduunu göstermitir.

Duygulu Gönüllere

Hitap, Arifler bahçesinden gibi tasavvufî eserler

hazrlam

ve

ad

bitmeyecek her yatan örencilerinin sorularna

bkp usanmadan cevap
iki

vermi, ustasndan örendiklerini anlatmtr. Hele de

harikulade genç

kadmn anas
Bu
iki

olarak

toplumda güzel ahlakyla örnek insandr.

genç

hammn birisi Dr. Asuman Kulaksz iç hastalklar uzmamdr,

o da

iki

çocuk anasdr. Mesleinde yurt içinde ve

dnda kaydettii
serbest iirler

baarlarn yamsra, tasavvuf edebiyatnda örnek oluturan
yazar.

Anasmn ve babasmn kard mayay
ise

o da bu ekilde yaatr.

Dieri

önce Kimya mühendisi

olur.

Sonra anneciinin yetitii yolun

inceliklerinde dantel gibi ilenir.

Hep Nazl öretmenin duasna balayarak
seçerek hiç

kendisi için

Kimya öretmenlii yolunu

usanmadan daima

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
169

severek vermekle, fedâkârlkla
ile

taçlandrd hayatnda yine saysz

örencileri

yaar. Sâmiha annesi ona

"kzm gençlerle Mesnevi çal", dedii için
çeitli ülkelerde

gençlerle

çalmaya balar. Annesi Mekûre hanmefendi ile Sâmiha Ayverdi
dersler, konferanslarla bir

onun ük mânâ hocalandr. imdi de sadece Türkiye'de deil
verdii saysz
insan olmak yolunda

çok gönülleri uyandrmaya, insan

ataca admlara yöneltmeye her nefes çalmaktadr. Ayn zamanda Türk Kadnlar Kültür Derneinin stanbul ubesinin imdiki bakandr. Depremden zarar görenlere her hafta örencileri üe tadklar yardmlar, onlar ev-bark-i-okul sahibi yapma gayrederi için tek

bana

sivü

toplum kuruluu olarak görülmeyi hak

ettirir.

Fakir fukaradan,

rütbesiz, mevkisiz, isimsiz insanlara,

mehur

stand-up komiklerden,

sanatkârlara,

akademiden i dünyasna deiik toplum kademelerinden
eitim-öretimi kendi olarak yaar,

türlü çeitli insanlara

yaamay ilham
mahzun

halinde sunar.

te o da kendisine sorulan sorulara her zaman, hocam
bu
zarif ve güzel

Kenan

Rifâî böyle söylerler, diyerek balar. Nefesiyle uzaklardaki

gönüllere ve dimalara yetiebilen

Allah nzâs için çalp, hizmette olmaktr. Allah

hocamn tek zevki muhterem hocam Cemâlnur

Sargut hanmefendiden ve

onu

yetitiren hocalarndan raz olsun.

Kenan

Rifâî hazretierinin etrafna her nefes

yaayarak anlatû, mânâ ve
iletiim araçlarnda

tasavvuf öretilerinin artk
seslendirildiine

günümüzün yaygn

ahid oldukça;

kendilerinin 1925'te dergâhlarn

kapatlmasna

dair çkartlan yasa üzerine vMtay dergâh,

Ümmü Kenan dergâh isimleriyle
imdi artk görevlerini
söylemi olduklarn
için

bilinen

hankâkna

giderek, dlit vurduktan sonra "Dergâhlar cemiyete kendisiyle

ban§k

insanyetitirmek yolunda görevleriniyapmlardr.

tamamladlar, bundan böyle gök kubbenin alt dergâhtr!' diye

hatrlyorum. Bu
niyaza

varl dünyasndan
kadn

bir

nebze de olsa nasiplenmek

vardmz gönül insan bir baka sohbetinde ise "Bundan böyle
erkek

akademide ders vereceim. Snflarda

kan§k

sralarda oturan örencilere
bile

konulacam. Onlara
ders

Hakk 'in

Cemâl'ini anlatacam.

Srasnda Franst^ca da
delili

anlatacama demilerdir. Sözlerinin vücud bulduunun

çamzn

hzl ve yaygn
Kenan

iletiim araçlarnda yaplan konumalarda, yazmalarda,
tertib edilen uluslararas

yaynlarda ve de bugün

sempozyumla taçlanmtr.

Rifâî hazretierinin torunlar

"herkes bana bir isim veriyor,

Ayegül hanmefendiye çocukken sen ne diyeceksin bana?" diye sorunca onun

"akm" diyeceim cevab üzerine "ben herkesin akym, sen bana "Akam"

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
170

dersin,

ben de sana

"Akam"

derim, dediini Haziran 2002'de
-^^

yaptm

Bu noktada Kenan Rifâî'nin ak ve sevgiyi dahi nasl bölütürmekten yana olduunu sevgili torunuyla arasnda geçen bu konumadan çkaryorum. nsanlar bu derece sevmek, onlarla
özel

görümede örenmitim.

hata ve kusurlarnda bir olarak sevebilmek, sevginin

paylaldkça

arttn

yaamak ancak onun
düünüyorum.
din,
dil,

annesinin sesleniinin canlanmasdr, diye

O annesinden kadm da erkei de kavrayan; cins, renk, rk,

aynm gözetmeksizin kucaklayan insanlk anlayn örenmi ve öretmi bir mübarek veli'dir. Bizim O'nun amnda söz söylememiz ne haddimize, fakat ancak âciz kabmza ihsan olduu kadaryla
ekonomik snf
Hz. Mevlana'nn Mesnevi'sinde anlatlan
fil

hikâyesi gibi eksik takdimdir.

Duamz insaniyetin bu güzel âbidevî
iki

ahsiyetinin sevgi nazarlarnn her

âlemde de üzerimize olmasdr.

Allah üzerimizde mevcut ve sonsuz
eksik etmesin,

olduuna inandmz Cemâl Nur'larm
almasn. Sadece ülkemizde deil
ve huzur yolunda
haliyle,

gönlümüze

verdiklerini

bütün dünyada insanlara olumlu

etkileriyle birlik

hayatyla, eserleriyle, örencileriyle örnek

olmu Kenan

Rifâî hazretierinin

himmeti üzerimizde dâim olsun, âmin.

Kaynaklar
Hülbe Bayta Yaynlar, 1980.

Ajrverdi, Sâmiha. Dost, stanbul:

Ayverdi, Sâmiha. Hana, stanbul: Kubbealt Neriyat, 1988.

Ayverdi, Sâmiha, Nezihe Araz, Safiye Erol ve Sofi Huri. Ken 'ân Rifm

ve 20.

Asnn

lnda Müslümanlk, Ankara:

Hülbe Yaynevi, 1983.

Binark, smet. Dost

Kaps: H^elve Ebed Arasnda: Kenan

(Rifâî)

Büjükaksoj,

Yaladklar

ve Söyledikleri,

Hakknda

Ya^lanlar ve

Söylenenler,

stanbul: Cenan

Eitim, Kültür ve Salk Vakfi, 2005.
Ernst, Carl. Haceti Muhammed'in Yolunda: Islâmiyeti Günümü':^ Dünyasnda
Yeniden

Düünmek,

Çev. Cangüzel

Güner

Zülfikar, stanbul:

Okuyan Us

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
171

Yaynlan, 2005.

Erol, Safiye. "Sihrü Sözler", Türk Yurdu, 49. Yü, 276/6,

Austos

1959.

Güner, Agâh Oktay "Sâmiha Anne",

(Türkiye,

30 Marl
s.

1993), Kuhhealt

Akademi Mecmuas, Nisan-Temmuz 1993, say

2-3,

80-82.

Ik, Emin. "Sâmiha
Nisan-Temmuz
Palsay, nci.

Ayverdi'ye Veda", "Dualar, Fatihalar ve Tekbirlerle"

makalesinin içinde, hazrlayan Mustafa Tahral, Kubbealti Akademi Mecmuas,
1993, say 2-3,
s.

12.

"Vatan Annesi," Türk Edebiyat, Sâmiha Ayverdi Özel Bölümü,
36-38.

say 127,

s.

DPNOT:
Sâmiha Ayverdi, Nezihe Araz, Safiye Erol ve Sofi Huri, Ken an Rfâî ve 20. Asnn Ilnda Müslümanlk, Ankara: Hülbe Yaynevi, 1983, s. 15-16.
Eserlerine dair

ayrntl

bilgi için bkz:

smet

Binark, Dost

Kaps:

Ei(el ve

Ebed Arasnda: Ken 'an
Ya^lanlar ve

(Rfâi) Büyükaksoj,

Yazklan ve Söyledikleri, Hakknda

Söylenenler,

stanbul: Cenan Eitim, Kültür ve
not.
bilgi için

Sahk Vakf,
ve

2005,

s.

54, 19

numarah

Nazh hammefendi hakknda daha detayl 20. Asnn lnda Müslümanlk, s. 63-67.
Medine'deki bu törene
a.g.e.,
s.

bkz: Ken'ân Rfâî

ait

ek bügi

için bkz: a.g.e.,

s.

79.

101. 101. 112.

^ a.g.e.,
a.g.e.,

s.

s.

8 a.g.e.,
a.g.e.,

s.

112. 114.
122.

s.

10a.g.e.,
^^ a.g.e.,

s.

s.

135.
Dost, Ankara:

^^

Sâmiha Ayverdi,

Hülbe Yaynevi, 1980,
s.

s.

31-32.

Kenan Rfâî ve Yirminci Asnn
^^a.g.e.
s.

Ilnda Müslümanlk,

189.

191.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

& ^C^
172

^^a.g.e.,

s.

193-194.

Cari Ernst, Haceti Muhammed'in Yolunda: slâmiyeti
Yeniden

Günümü^ Dünyasnda

Düünmek,

Çev. Cangüzel

Güner

Zülfikar, stanbul:

Okuyan Us

Yaynlar, 2005,
^^

s.

211-212.
"Dualar, Fatihalar ve Tekbirlerle"

Emin Ik, "Sâmiha Ayverdi'ye Veda",
1993, say 2-3,
s.

makalesinin içinde, hazrlayan Mustafa Tahral, Kubbealt Akademi Mecmuas,

Nisan-Temmuz
^^

12.

Agâh Oktay Güner, "Sâmiha Anne", (Türkiye, 30 Mart 1993), Akademi Mecmuas, Nisan-Temmuz 1993, say 2-3, s. 80-82.
nci
Palsay,

Kubbealt

"Vatan Annesi", Türk Edebiyat Mecmuas, Sâmiha Ayverdi
1984, say 127,
s.

Özel Says,
^^

Mays

s.

36-38.

^ smet Binark, Dost Kaps,
a.g.e.,
s.

13.

252.
187.
188.
ve

22a.g.e.,

s.

23 a.g.e.,

s.

Kenan Rifâi

Yirminci Asnn

Ipnda Müslümanlk,

s.

249

25 Safiye Erol, "SihirH Sözler",
s.

Türk Yurdu, 49. Yü, 276/6, Austos 1959,

55 (Halil Açkgözün Sajiye Erol'un Makaleler kitabnajat^d "Onsö^'den

alnmtr.)
Kenan Rifâîve Yirminci Asnn
^7
a.g.e.,
s.

Ilnda Müslümanlk,

s.

266.

280. 281. 283.
Dost,
s.

28a.g.e.,

s.

29 a.g.e.,

s.

Sâmiha Ayverdi,
^^ a.g.e.,
•^2
s.

40.

44.
44. 45.

a.g.e.,
a.g.e.,

s.

s.

Dost Kaps'nda. sayfa 95'te muhterem

Ayegül Kaytaz hammefendinin
yer almaktadr.

yazsnda da bana

lütfettikleri

bu hatra

PAJt>

KADIN vF WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
174

A Contemporary Sufi, Ken' an Rifai Büyükaksoy's Understanding
of

Women and Sâmiha Ayverdi

Cangü^l Güner ZUL^IKAR
Translated by Fahir Zülfikar, Yekta Zülfîkar
This paper was presented at the" International Symposium of Women and Sufism" that was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring late Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December 16, 2005.

You have

to love people; there is

an unlimited amount of
speed

the treasures of forgiveness,

compassion and tolerance within you. For that reason, you will love not only people,

but also every creature with the same

tireless

and

endless desire.

You have

to

spend the treasure withinyou with generosity. You will love people byjoining together
with them, by being one with them in both their mistakes
be one with them in such
lessen as they are dying.

and good deeds. You should andyou should
a

a way thatyou should grow as

they are born

Your mission, as a human

being, is to direct people to
to reach this.

mutual and sincere cause and idea, and there are many ways

The

shortest
.

and the most
that

beautifulpath is the one of love

andfaith. Umitless

love

of people.

is the only

door

to salvation for

humanity.

Human

beings can reach perfection

and divinity,

in short

God, only through

this path.

Hadija Janân Valide Sultan

and teacher Ken'an Rifai (1867-1950) understood women. Rifai lived through the turbulent period spanning the Sultanate and the Second Constitutional (1908) periods of the Ottoman Empire, the Balkan War (1912-15), the First World War (1914-18), the Independence War (1919-1922) and the establishment of Turkish Republic (1923) yet through his faith he was able to adapt. This essay presents a brief biography of Ken'an Rifai, compiles some samples from his writings that represent his understanding of women, and concludes by showing how this legacy is carried on by his disciples. Ken'an Rifai was born in Filibe (currently in Bulgaria) in 1867. His father
In this
article, I will

explore

how the

Sufi master

or

=^5

N
0)

N
•—^ •—J

C

o

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
175

Abd al-Halim Bey, son of Hadji Hasan Bey; his mother was Hadija Janân Hanm. Abd al-Halim Bey was a high ranking government employee
was
serving as governor of Filibe

when

his

son was born.

^

During
(1839)

this time, rebellions

and unrest among

minorit}' populations led

to a constant state

of war. The Ottoman administration began the Tan2mat

movement as a part of a Westernization project intended to cure the wounds of wars. By the increasing uneasiness in the Balkans, his famuy decided to move to Istanbul. After completing his education at
Galatasaray Sultanisi, he started his
Rifai received his spirimal training
first

teaching job in Balkesir. Ken'an

his mother's teacher {murshid),

from was also

his

mother.

his teacher.

Ethem Shah of Fuibe, Kenan Rifai wrote his

hook Muktet(a-ji Hayat \n Balkesir. He also translated Camille Flammarion's Rfvolution of the World from French into Turkish. ^ After Balkesir, he was appointed to Adana and Manastr as the director of education. Then he was promoted as the director of education of Kosova, Üsküp (Skopje). Later, he was appointed to Trabzon and to Istanbul as the Director of Numune-i Terakki. With a spiritual sign, he asked to be appointed to Medina and became the Director of Idadi-i Hamidi. While in Medina, he received his ija^at (certificate) from Shaykh Hamza Rfâî. He prepared a guide book to teach Arabic to Turkish people and Turkish to Arabic people. He wrote lyrics and composed many hymns. Then he was appointed
as a

French teacher to Istanbul Erkek Mektebi
to

(Istanbul Boys School).

He

went

Medina

for a

visit;

teaching at Fener
Fatih, Istanbul,

Rum

upon returning to Istanbul, he continued (Greek) High School. At Jmm-ü Ken 'an lodge in

which he built in the garden of his house, he taught the Mathnam of Rumi, gave discourses and dhikrs were performed. It is clear from this short biography that Rifai was a very successful teacher, educator, and administrator. In addition to this, when we look at his disciples as well as his works, we can see his different and innovative styles of teaching. First of all, he removed some common restraints for women and encouraged them to complete their education. This was a very important change for that time. Kenan Rifai also asserted that prophetic hadith such as "Seek knowledge even if it is in China!" and "Seek knowledge from birth to death!" or Ali's words of "I'll be the slave of the one who teaches me a letter!" appues to everyone - including women. We wul see that, as a result of such teachings, his female disciples were very active in social Ufe during an era in which women had almost no place in the
public sphere.

The most important improvement

he brought was for them to receive an education and acquire a profession. Although belonging to
for

women

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
176

and economically high class, many women who knew him started working right away without any complaints when they lost their status because of the economic and social crises that resulted from the wars. One example of these women, Nazli Hanim of the Avranos Family, was
a noble

an elementary school teacher. Despite her very limited resources she
continued to cook for her students and children on religious holidays and

provided clothing to especially poor

kids.
-^

These children grew to be

self

confident and helpful people to others.

Ken'an Rifai's approach to the change in the social roles of women can be explained by a tasawwuf principle: 'The internal is interconnected
with the external"
{bâttn ^hirile

balantdadr).

As one of his teaching methods, he made his students sing some hymns that he composed during a ceremony to give books as awards to successfixl students in Medina. ^ He composed hymns with the piano. These are
and being able to foresee the future and act on it. In this ever-changing and developing world, he used all kinds of means without losing the real meaning of life. He said to his disciples: "Don't be selfish about things you know, don't be jealous about
examples of
his progressive character

and don't be negligent of learning. The one, who knows some things and doesn't share with others, is a shame for humanity, so please learn and teach." -• His disciples write that he was very much interested in progress in the sciences, technical innovations, and philosophical and aesthetic trends. ^ Two things were very important for Ken'an Rifai: 'Teaching by setting an example and teaching by loving." One day he asked his disciples: "Do I do backbiting? If I do, you can do it too. Do I üe? If I do, you can lie too. Do I break any hearts? If I do, you can break too. Do I have animosity, haughtiness, or jealousy? If I do, you have my permission to have those feelings too. But if you think me as your teacher, having any of those characteristics that I don't have, means
teaching,
'

rejecting

my rights on you."

°
q,

Samiha Ayverdi and Nezihe Araz, both his disciples, represented his teaching style, by writing the following: "This idealistic teacher believed that suffering and sorrow, as much as joy and cheerfiilness, are opportunities to grow in understanding of life's enigmas. How come he couldn't know, (. .) he himself was a suffering man of this world. Since he accepted the fact that suffering is necessary for progress; he wasn't thinking to feel sorry for the plants that needed winter's cold as much as summer's heat, and was treating the suffering which played a roU in progress of a human, as a friend." ^ They summarized his philosophy on education: "He also knew human beings want to search {haqiqai) reality's transformation and
.

^ ^
u.

N
cd

^
o,

c
CD

O

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
177

movement by

their

own minds and
For

feeling abilities because
this reason,

of their

curiosity {meleke) skill/aptitude.

he never said to anyone,

"Believe!" Instead he told
to believe to their

them "Think!" and

left

them

to believe, or not

judgments

after following a {tefekkür) thinking

sequence."^ ^

During the days of the Second World War, after listening to the news on some radio channels he stated: "The Qur'an states that it is necessary to love people, do well to them and treat them with justice and virtue {adl u ihsan). All the Prophets say that people are the family of God and the ones who treat them with compassion and mercy would be favorable to God. But now, when I turn on the radio, all I hear from every country's channels is how much damage they caused to their enemies. Rome, Palestine, Egypt, London, etc.. all are the same. Then they are proud of themselves by saying nothing happened to them. What a grievous result for the humanity in 20 century. According to this, there is no friend.

Who
He

is

the friend then?" 1^
are
still

These words 20 century.

as correct

now

as they

were

in the first half

of the
in

didn't consider there to be differences

between

man and woman

Semiha Jamal Hanim, belonged to a noble, aristocratic family. Before meeting Ken'an Rifai, she didn't even go out of her house without her nanny and servant. ^^ Once she understood the essence of
their spiritual training.

the Prophet's hadith of "die before dying" with Ken'an Rifai's teaching,

she worked really hard. First she graduated from her school and then

completed her education in philosophy. Although she passed away at the early age of 36, she left a compilation of her Tasawwuf articles, named
Kose bouquet (Gül Demeti), a translation of Plato's complete works into

Turkish, as well as translations of Marcus AureUus and Epictetus and

many

students.

Semiha Jamal Hanim summarizes her teacher's understanding of women: "He glorifies woman not because of their physical beauty, but because of the manifestation of the Divine Love in them." ^-^ This approach explained by Semiha Jamal Hanim is very sacred and precious for us. Can

we comprehend this today? How can we explain this understanding to today's people, who are bombarded with advertisements showing woman
and commodities in a materialist and imperialist system? Even before that, how can we understand? He not only does not see woman as simple, banal and as toys for short term pleasures, but respects them greatiy because of the Divine Love in them. When we think Islamicate Tasawwuf explains the creation with Love, it is clear that we can easily
as sex figures

KADIN WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
VI.

178

see

him

as a teacher

who

lived with the principles that

he believed in

within each of his breath.

and what they wrote on the subject: "It is obvious that when he questions the problem of the {Haqiqi AshM) True Love, he neither denies and disdains this worldly and physical love, nor does he promote being in a state of ecstasy all the time. Ken'an Rifai believed that even sexual instinct would be changed and transformed. In the process of spiritualization the nature of sexuality can be directed spiritually towards the realization of perfection. In fact, the sublimation he wanted to have on human psychology was based on this." '^
Let's turn again to his disciples

"Since his youthful years, his response to any idea inclined toward disdaining

woman did not change: 'Do not become aggressive towards women, it was a woman who brought me into this world, I wiU not allow anyone
to insult them.'
(.
.

.)"

In 1942,

we were

passing by Andifonia Church.

We

went

and wanted to see the holy cell. When they said: "Since women are sinful, you cannot go in," he took this as an opportunity to explain his and Islam's approach to the understanding of women and he wrote: "For centuries, there are so many things said and written about woman, and a lot of adventures have been undertaken because of them. Sometimes her name has been used as a means of ümitiess desires and other times given to virtue's hand as a flag. However, no mentality or philosophy
in

granted her the place she deserved as

much

as Islam did."

Although time and different interests manipulated Islam's understanding of women, his idea cannot be denied. Because, his main proof is in the Qur'an. The Qur'an addresses people such as "for the submitting men and submitting women," "for the believing men and the believing women," "for the devout men and the devout women." It does not discriminate between men and women; on the contrary it treats them in the same way. In the first years of Islam, women took their place in society next to men, she even attended wars. The Prophet put women at the first of the things that he loves by saying "Three things in your world have been made lovely to me: women, perfume, and prayer, the {nut) light of my eyes." He also said "woman is the other half of man," and determined women's place in society with clarity and certainty.

—1

Why does Islam attribute this much importance to woman? Islam attributes woman a special importance because she carries God's creative power
and has a
Partav-i

N

crucial role in the continuation

of

life.

Rumi

expresses the same

idea in this couplet:

Haqqast an mashuk

ni

c
CO

Ü

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
179

Halikast an guyya mahluk ni

Rum's

approach

because she holds

women of the power of
to

"she is not
creation,

a

creature, she is like the Creator, " is
is the real

which

meaning of the world and
hut

universe, within herself

A.S seen

here,

Islam treats
life

woman

not as an ornamental or luxury item in
is also

society,

as companions in

and work. A.nd woman
her.

not considered as sex objects but

as God's creatingpower observed in

A.gain,

Rumi says:
thin curtain.)

Guyya
(As

Hak

taft

at^parda-i rakik

if like the Truth manifested

Himself from a

The

Prophet's saying of
is

"Women in your world

have been made lovely

to me,"

also a result
his love

of the same philosophy. Muhyiddin ibn Arabi
Farit says: "Evety beauty's beauty

explains:

"By

toward women, the Prophet observed the Truth in women's

body as a mirror'\

As Ibn

God's beauty!' (Her gürelin hüsnü Allah 'in

a metaphor of Cemâl'inden müsteardr.) Therefore,
is

God's ifamal) beauty. Of course, this kind of thinking requires a certain level of mind and a spiritual education /training. To think of woman only as a means to satisfy sexual desires and so consider her as sinful is a sign of a very
man's love for
a way, a request to reunite with

woman is, in

simple and primitive mind. However, to regard her as a means or a bridge
to reach the (haqiqat) real essence

so respect her Islam." 15

is

of Truth, to reach the True Love and an appearance of maturity and this is expressed in
in the conditions

While speaking about changes and progress
world,
eras

of the

we have

to

remember

that

Kenan

Rifai lived during three different

of government: the Sultanate, the Second Constitution and the Republic. Each era had its specific characteristics. Society's ethical, culmral and social values changed fundamentally and rapidly in each period. Amidst these changes and with regard to his views of women, he started

new applications that were different in format but the same in essence. "A number of women approached the Prophet Muhammad to ask him about the prevalence of male pronouns in the Qur'an, wanting to know if women were included in these statements. The next revelations of the
Qur'an responded
directiy to these concerns, with
it

an extended

series

of

men and women share equally in the religious life: Tor the submitting men and the submitting women, for the believing men and the believing women, for the devout men and the devout women, for the sincere men and the sincere women, for the patient men and the patient women, for the humble men and the humble women, for the men and the women who give alms, for the men and the women who fast, for the men and the women who guard their chastity.
balanced phrases that make
clear that

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
180

and for the

men and

the

women who remember God much

for

them

God has prepared forgiveness and a great reward. (Qur'an 33:35)" ^" One of the best examples from the sacred book of Islam on equality of men and women for their responsibilities is this verse. This is one of the subjects Ken'an Rifai expressed in his discourses and also in his life: man
and woman's obligation
equal.

in the path

of becoming

a real

human being is

Staying firm

on

structure, this
efforts for

and adapting improvements in social contemporary teacher (murshid) Ken'an Rifai made endless
religious principles

women to

carry equal responsibility as addressed in the Qur'an.

He played a
in social
life.

significant role in

many womens'

education,

who were

active

He had many

students

coming from

different

These are mostiy well educated women who foreign languages. Semiha Cemal, Sâmiha Ayverdi, Safiye Erol, Sofi Huri, Nezihe Araz, Mekûre Sargut, Müjgân Cunbur are among the contemporary examples of distinguished women. One common characteristic of these
and
cultures.

backgrounds can speak

women is
The
Sâmiha
is

that they are writers.

goal of this
Ajrverdi's

symposium
100

is

to

commemorate Ken'an
is

Rifai's

student

birth date. It

an honor for

me

that
I

I

when I was
that she

very young.

The most important

thing about her

met her remember

worked always with an endless humility and never put herself

before others. In her book,
"I am a black
little,

Hana

(The Inn Keeper), she says:

cent in

my

master's treasure. But, by

making a
^
'

bid,

he has chosen this

this

broken cent among golden, andput it in his

treasure. Further,

1 have

chosen

jou for myself, to tell the other people about me' he said." With the inspiration and encouragement of his teacher, even before there was any mentioning to environmental sensitivity and air pollution, she planted trees at Fevzi Pasha Avenue at Fatih, Istanbul to replace the ones which have been cut down, with her own money. She acted like a one person civil society movement and got support of shop-owners at the both sides of the street and secured watering of these fresh trees by asking them one by one: "If someone very thirsty comes to you, would you give

him water?"
Muslim, Turkish, woman writer, I have never seen her just writing her books and sitting in her house. On the contrary, I always saw her working hard all the time by saying as a necessity of her identity and her

As

a

-J

She was completely selfless. She never said "Me!" For her country, for Muslims and also for all the people of the world, when
teacher's teachings.

N
0)

she

felt

the need, she wrote letters to policy makers, bureaucrats, private

N

sector and state executives

and followed up with her

letters.

c

O

TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
181

KADN

VE

WOMAN

AND

According

to her, to

be aware of what

is

going on around,
day.

it is

the duty

for an intellectual to read at least
this to

one newspaper every

She suggested

everyone around her.
reality

When

something grabbed her attention, she
issue. First

immediately made a

check and acted to resolve that
historical,

she

wrote tasavvuf novel?,, and her memoirs,
followed. In the year 1400th of

and education books
all

Muslim

calendar, she wrote letters to
also prepared a book: l^t

the dignitaries of

Muslim countries and
She
cries against

Us Be

Nol Slaves
powers:
I

hut Masters.

Western imperialist and colonial

"Enough of

this slavery!"

don't

know what
I

those dignitaries did once they received those letters
interested if we, self-claimed representatives
call

with the books.

am more

of Islam now, understand her

from quarter

a century ago.

She also

renewed

herself, as his teacher did,

according to the conditions of the

time and set up
attitude

new goals both

for herself

and the

society.

Her progressive

comes from her

teacher.

Both

in her

books and

in her discourses,

she says:

"Our

teacher taught us tasawwufhy living."
his wife Ilhan

Samiha Ayverdi, her brother Ekrem Hakki Ayverdi and

Ayverdi established The Foundation of Culture and Arts

Academy of

Under

the Sky (Kuhhealti Akademisi Kültür

ve

Sanat Vakf) to serve people

by protecting Turkish and Islamic

culture's arts

and music. Many people,
Understanding

who
of

benefited from this center,

now open

exhibitions, give conferences,
this beauty.

offer classes aU around the world
faith, ethics

and show

and love of

this trio

has been molded in the hands of

Ken'an

Rifai.

Because of her various

services, she has

been

called as Sultan
^9,

of Waqf

(Vakf Sultan) ^^, Mother of Waqf (l^akf Ana) homeland (Vatan Ana). ^^
Because of Samiha Ayverdi's
to

and Mother of the

services, her teacher

Kenan

Rifai

once

said

Samiha Ayverdi's mother, "Watch over Samiha, her influence

will last

not one century but hundreds of centuries and she wiU open schools with
her books; so long as the world
I say that

lasts

she will continue to open up hearts."

sometimes

it is

better to keep silent
I

when

the answers are already

given and to listen to that silence.

think

it is

better to live in that silence

for as long as our capability carries.

In Ilhan Ayverdi's "Continuous Guidance"

(irshad)

tided article, she writes

KADIN VK WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
182

of

how Ken'an

Rifai said to

some of

his relatives: "I

have

whose

faces not even

you have seen." She continues

many disciples with "Our beloved

teacher,

who

fed

all

those around him continuously with moral boons,

has continued his providence and guidance through his
descendants." Later

many unseen
'Thank God,

on she
is

writes,

"As Mother Samiha

said:

thank God. .There
.

a Friend

among
this,

us with generosity.

Whether he be

above ground or below ground, he
friend
(yar-t vefâdar).

will always

be

a guide, always a loyal

."
.

And

with

she concludes the introduction of

The Friend's Door (Dost Kaps), which was prepared for publication by
Binark. 21

smet

In a

letter to his

daughter Kâinat

Hamm on April 30,
as
it is.

1945, Ken'an Rifai

writes

"Do

not ever get upset by anything. As you know, the key to
to accept

happiness

is

whatever happens

It is

to be able to pray
are,

to our Creator

and for

how and what you are in the way you

my angel

daughter." ^^ These words are a declamation of his worldview and his

views of

woman

and man.
Rifai's death.

In an article she wrote two years after Ken'an

Nezihe Araz

Hanm hails her teacher as
our
sins in

such:

"Who

is this

person

who

is

ashamed of

our place,

who

suffers

our denials,

who

in trying to

make our

lives

happier and more beautiful takes on such burdens of ours?..." ^3
faith.
.

"Love and

.The two cornerstones of your philosophy of

life!..

To

unite the Truth with the people, to see the Truth in the people,

and to

love the people as the Truth.
{ihlas)

But

us,

why don't we
^^

listen to

your sincere

voice as

much

as

we need

to?.."

Safiye Erol

Hanm gives us

this bit

of information about her teacher:
is

"My

teacher Ken'an Rifai used to say: 'Uprooting one bad habit
difficult

far
this,

more

than trying to overturn mountain chains.' Because of

my teacher
planting

followed the system of giving his students good habits.
habits frequentiy, he wouldn't leave any space for
in.

By

good

bad habits

to root themselves

Once

the

good

habits' thick

abundance had absorbed
a difficult one. It

the groundwork, the state of the bad habits

becomes

becomes almost impossible. Another fundamental
teacher put great importance
that
is
is

principle that

my

N
0)

upon was

it is

as necessary to

do the thing

essential

without losing a

forbidden. " ^5 Safîye

moment as it is to not do something that Erol, who received the Doctorate of Philosophy

N
••3

O)

C
to

o

KADIN VL WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
183

in

Germany, writes
relating her

that

"Even

circulating the

words of the wise

in the

tongue, in the mind, and in the heart

make

a

person responsible." ^^

While

knowledge gained from her teacher, Safiye Erol stroUs
the

comfortably

among

immense sentiments and philosophic horizons
She mentions Eastern and Western

that her education gave her.

philosophers. She makes comparisons. Eventually she speaks of her
teacher.

While

relating everything she learned

from her teacher

in a three

part smdy, she writes in a philosophical study

named "Muqid-i Agâh"
it is

{Aware

Teacher) that "Patience is

not a passive tolerance,

a light {nur)

emitted from the ethical values of being a Muslim." After saying: "The

Ottoman Empire
remain
in the

dispersed, but the Turkish Republic

and the Turkish
Islam
still

traditions

eternal.

The

state is secularized,
all its

but

lives

on

throne of the conscience with

secret

and

splendid glory that cannot be reached even by the sixth sense. Sufi orders

were eliminated, but tasavvuf
and
art

(Sufism) will

prosper in the Turkish
styles." Safiye

intellect

by the transformation of contemporary
.

Erol

"My teacher Ken'an Rifai. .a mystic man, a man who saw the secret, who lived the secret, and who eventually joined the secret. A wise man who transformed the secret to the human level, who transformed it to wisdom and then who transferred it to society.
continues as such:
.

Doing everything according
of Islam,
a trainer

to the distinguished religion, a great shaykh

who

guides the people, meaning as a mentor (murshid),

an aware master
knowledge.

(murshid-i agâh)

who

grasps the

human

spirit

with whole

He left his

mantie and turban with such ease.
a state

Was

there even a possibility

of limiting him with

and

a

garment? Neither the world could take

anything from his moral sultanate, nor could he find anything that would

add value

to that sultanate. a disciple

As Derdimend Husnu,
His
tall (alifi)

of Abdal Musa,

says:

crown made by Might on his head

Those who awaits atjour threshold are the savedflock/group

His sword plays from

the

East

to the

West

May

the

Tove

be the spirit
elifi

who moves that swords ^

(Kudretten

babnda

tac

Epin

bekleyen gürûh- nâci

KADIN WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
VI:

184

Marktan manba

oynar

kha
in

Kba oynatan cana a§k olsun.) Sofi Huri Hanm, who grew up
completed her education
in

an Arab and Christian family and

England, describes her teacher as "such a

man of God that his personality is the love, his spirit is the love, his self is a monument of love. To understand this mystic love, it is necessary for
one to have
at least

drunk

a small bit

of

this love; to

have dived, however

ocean of love that has flown uninterrupted from the pens of thinkers, poets, and mystics." 2° Sofi Huri Hamm says "There was
short, into the

such a love that surrounds Ken'an

Rifai's

being that because of
light

this love

he gave value to the
high
ideal,

lives

of others, served them under the

of an

united his being with theirs; love, the essence of his

life,

became
and the

the greatest action and

most constructive power of

his energies. Putting his basis

importance on love, finding everything in love, became
target
If
it

of

his

Life.

wasn't like that,

how could

he be

this successful in his

duty of being

an educator {murshiâ)r ^^ Sofi Huri completes the part on him:

"Oh

glorified

and respected great teacher, oh symbol of

virtue, truth,
attributes,

humility and love!

Even if
I

I

was not accurate explaining your
forgiveness
is

you will forgive me,
I

know because

one of your characteristics.
I

cannot describe, but can only glorify and praise you. Here,

presented

my offering; here, I put my violet bouquet of gifts in front of you. Oh! Perfect Human who himself is light (nur) and whose spirit is light, always
Uve in Ught!" 30
In her book. Dost, (The Friend) Samiha Ayverdi says:
is

"The pen knows

it

a fortune to
faith, after

knock on

his door,

which has been supported with love
~^^

and

passing so

many

roads."

"The Friend was

friend of

everyone.

He had compassion and endearment to distribute to everyone. Ones who put their cup of heart in front of him left with their cup full. .) Ones who followed his path of chastity and faith became sincere,
(.
.

-J

pure, patient, surrendered, altruistic and hard working because of spirimal
training." -^^

Samiha Ayverdi quotes from Nihad Sami

Banarli: "I

saw two
."-^^
.

N

great saints

who

evaluate very simple daily activities and

draw wonderful
Rifai
.

conclusions from them: Mevlana Jalal al-Din

Rumi and Kenan

N
O)

Samiha Ayverdi continues to

tell

us about her teacher in her book. The

c
«0

Ü

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
185

KADN

VE

WOMAN

AND

Friend:
is

"He knew leaving a human being

stagnant and unaware of himself

a sin toward society. For this reason, he always

wanted to see the society

as a stable, accounted,

and controlled power supply with high voltage.
he wasn't using a human being like an unconscious

However, to

realize this,

material, but

by leaving the effort and decision to that person he wanted

them

to take action for their

own

progress and encouraged them to
this reason, the

develop their

own

unique views and opinions. For

ones

who grew up around him

took their places in society as mature,

self

confident and capable people. Because the Friend did not completely
separate spirituality and material needs, but saw these as two faces of a

sword. Thus he educated people about that kind of
a corresponding
nobilit}'^

spirituality that suited

of being. ^^

The
of

glue the Friend used to join the society together in the understanding

{tevhid) Unit}^

was love and
realized that

faith."

Sarmha Ayverdi

women

needed to have

a role in social

life

and the progress reached with
balanced.
in

their contribution will

make

society well-

To

this

end she established Turkish Women's Cultural Association

1966

in

Ankara. Ms. Sabahat Gulay served long years in very tough
is

conditions as the president of this association. Unformnately, she
sick

now

and

I

pray for her quick recovery. She worked hand in hand with Ms.
the late martyr Tevfik
Ileri's

Vasfiye

Ileri,

wife, in Ankara.

The

Istanbul branch, under the supervision of Ilhan Ayverdi

her quick recovery too

— who

I

pray for

just

published the big Turkish Dictionary

with examples after 34 years of endless work, undertook ^^r dinners for
children for the
first

time and endeavored to realize what

is

written in the

books.

Ms. Meshkure Sargut demonstrated that setting an example throughout

some very tough times
(Talking
to the Feeling

is

more
and

effective than the rote repetition

of her

teacher's ideas. Besides preparing tasavvuf books. Duygulu Gönüllere Hitap

Hearts)

Arifler

Bahçesinden (From

the

Garden of

Wises), she

answered the questions of her countiess students from every

age, never getting tired,
0)

and taught what she learned from her master. She
(ethics)

is
i

an example of beautiful ahklaq

in

our society with her two

î

wonderful daughters.

One of

those two

women, Ms. Asuman Kulaksz,

also a

mother

to

two

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

jr)t^
186

children,

is

a doctor

of internal medicine. Besides being very successful

in her occupation, she writes tasawiaf (mystical)

poems.

Ms. Cemalnur Sargut
trained in the

first

became

a chemical engineer.
trained.

Then, she was

same path

in

which her mother

With the influence

of Nazl

Hanm,

she chose a career in teaching chemistry at high schools.
abroad. She lost one daughter at birth. She lives her
students with love and sacrifice. She started studying

Her only son

lives

Hfe by teaching

many

Rumi's Masnavi with young people because Mother Samiha asked her to

do
her

so.

Her

birth

mother Ms. Meshkure Sargut and Samiha Ayverdi were
teachers.
all

first spiritual

Now, by giving

discourses and conferences,
is

not only in Turkey, but
to

around the world, she

making every

effort

awaken some hearts and
She
is

to direct people in the path

of becoming a

real person.

also the Chair

of Turkish Women's Cultural Association's

Istanbul Branch. She carried help to the earthquake victims every

week

with her students and tried to find them housing, school and jobs as well.

For
the

all

these, she

is

like a civil society

establishment by herself She lives

life

she wants to teU and teach to everyone, from poor to rich, from
artists.

blue color workers to academics, from ordinary people to

When

she

is

asked questions, she
only joy of

starts with:

"My

teacher

Kenan

Rifai says.."

One and
far

this beautiful teacher,
is

who

can reach people even

away with her breath,
I

to

work

for the

Mercy of

God and

serve other

people.

pray for

my dear

teacher Cemalnur Sargut and also for her

teachers.

When
lüfai

I

see or listen to the spirituality
I

and tasavvuf teachings of Kenan

on media,

remember what he
as Altay

said

of

his lodge,

known

Lodge or

when he was locking the door Umm-i Kenan Lodge, following
I

the regulation of banning the lodges in 1925 by the State: "Lodges

cc
"=1:

completed

their duty to nurture people,

who

have peace in themselves.
is

Their period has ended.
m.agnificent teacher,

From now
on,

on, the lodge

under the

sky."
his

This

.^
"^

whose

ideas attracts
I will

many of

us, in

one of
I

discourses says:
students,

"From now

teach in Academia.
I will tell

wul

talk to

o
N
CD
"^

men and women mixed

together.

them about God's

Beauty.

I will

even teach these in French." By the speeches, writings or

publications through today's media and this international symposium,

we

can say that his words became

reality.

ö,

c
<0

Ü

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
187

One

day,

Kenan
call

Rifai asked to his

granddaughter Ayshegul

Hanim when
everybody's

she was very young: "Everybody

calls

me with

a nick

name, what are you
"I

going to
love,

me?" She responds: "Ashkim (My

/ove!)."

am

you
I

will call

me

'Ashkam' and

I will call

you Ashkam'." This memory,

Hanim when I interviewed her in 2002, was also written in page 95 of Dosf Kaps (The Door of the Friend). It is understandable from a littie talk with his granddaughter how much he
which
learned from Ayshegul
likes to share the love. I think, to

be able to love people

this

much, to be
and good
it

able to love

them by being one with them

in their mistakes
is

deeds, and to be able to live the reality of love

increased once
life

has

been shared shows us that her mother's words came to

through him.

He is
from

a saint,

who learned to be a real human being and
economic
It is

not to discriminate

against color, ethnicity, religion, language,
his

class,

men or women,
of the elephant

mother.

not possible for us to describe him in completeness;
it is

we can

only say things in our grasp as

told in the story

in Rumi's Masnavi.

Our

prayer

is

to earn his love both in here

and

in the

hereafter.

May God continue to light His beauty upon us and do not take away the things He inspired to our hearts. We hope the influence of Kenan Rifai, who set an example with his life, works, and students not only in Turkey,
but
all

over the world, will continue always, amin.

Bibliograhy

Ayverdi, Sâmiha. Dost, (The Friend), Istanbul: Hülbe

Bayta Ya}inlan, 1980.

Ayverdi, Sâmiha. Hana, (The Inn Keeper), Istanbul: Kubbeala Neriyat,
1988.

Ayverdi, Sâmiha, Nezihe Araz, Safiye Erol ve Sofi Huri. Ken an Rifâî ve 20.

A.snn

Ilnda Müslümanlk,

(Kenan Rifai and islam in the

Ught of

the

20th

Century),

Ankara: Hülbe Ya)anevi, 1983.

Binark, smet. Dost

Kaps: E^el ve Ebed Arasnda: Kenan (Rfd) Büyükaksoy,

Yazklan
Kenan

ve Söyledikleri,

Hakknda

Yatlanlar

ve Söylenenler,

(The Friend's Door:

Rifai Buyukaksoy, in Between the Pre-Eternty

and Eternity, His Writings

and Discourses, and Writings and Speeches Ahout Him), stanbul: Cenan Eitim,

KADIN VE TASAVVUF

WOMAN AND

_

jf)^
188

£

Kültür ve

Salk Vakf,

2005.
the

Ernst, Carl. Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in

Contemporary World,

Chapel

Hill:

UNC Press, 2003.
Austos
1959.
(Türkiye,

Erol, Safiye. "Sihirü Sözler", Türk Yurdu, 49. Yü, 276/6,

Güner, Agâh Oktay. "Sâmiha Anne",

30 Mart
s.

1993), Kuhhealt

Akademi Mecmuas, Nisan-Temmuz 1 993, say

2-3,

80-82.

Ik, Emin. "Sâmiha
Nisan-Temmuz
Palsay, nci.

Ayverdi'ye Veda", "Dualar, Fatihalar ve Tekbirlerle"

makalesinin içinde, hazrlayan Mustafa Tahral, Kubhealtt Akademi Mecmuas,
1993, say 2-3,
s.

12.

"Vatan Annesi," Türk Edebiyat, Sâmiha Ayverdi Özel Bölümü,
36-38.

say 127,

s.

DÎPNOT:
^

I

would

like to

thank Mr. Cemil Büyükaksoy, Ken'an

Rifai's

grandson,

for helping
^

me

to find this information.

For detailed information on his books, please see: Ismet Binark, Dost Kaps: E^el ve E bed Arasnda: Ken'an (R^fdi) Büyükaksoy, Yaladklar ve Hakknda Ya^lanlar ve Söylenenler, (The Friend's Door: Kenan Söyledikleri, Rifai Büyükaksoy, in Between the Pre-Eternity and Eternity, His Writings and Discourses, and Writings and Speeches About Him.) Istanbul: Cenan Eitim, Kültür ve Salk Vakf, 2005, p. 54, footnote 19. For detailed information about Nazli Hanim, please see Ken 'an Rifai ve 20. Asnn Ilnda Müslümanlk, (Kenan Rifai and Islam in the Ught of 20
Century), p. 63-67.

For detailed information on
5ibid. p. 101. •^ ibid, p. 101.
^ ibid, p. 112. 8 ibid, p. 112. 9 ibid, p. 114.

this event, ibid, p. 79.

^0 ibid, p. 122.
^^ ibid, p.

135.
Dost, (The Friend). Ankara:

Sâmiha Ayverdi,
1980,
p.

Hülbe Publishing,
1

31-32.
Century, p.
89.

^ Kenan Rifai and Islam in the Ught of 20
^4 ibid, p. 191. ^5 ibid, 193-194.

Carl Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World, Chapel Hill: Press, 2003, p. 144-145.

UNC

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
189

''

Sâmiha Ayverdi, Hana, {The Inn
1988, p. 59.

Keeper), istanbul:

Kubbealti Publisher,

^^

Emin Ik, "Sâmiha Ayverdi 'ye Veda",

(Farewell to

Samiha Ayverdi),

"Dualar, Fatihalar ve Tekbirlerle" makalesinin içinde, (in "Du'as, Fatihas and Takbirs"), (prepared by) hazrlayan Mustafa Tahral, Kubbealti Akademi Mecmuas, Nisan-Temmuz 1993, say 2-3, s. 12. ^^ Agâh Oktay Güner, "Sâmiha Anne", (Mother Sâmiha), (Türkiye, 30 Mart 1993), Kubbealti Akademi Mecmuas, Nisan-Temmuz 1993, say 2-3, s. 80-82 ^^ nci Palsay, "Vatan Annesi," (Mother of Homeland), Türk Edebiyat, Sâmiha A)^erdi Özel Bölümü, say 127, s. 36-38 smet Binark, The Friend's Door (Dost Kaps), pg 13. 22 ibid, pg. 252 23 ibid, pg. 187

24bd,pg.l88
2<^

Kenan Rifa and islam in the Ught of the 20 th Century,^ 249 Safiye Erol, "Enchanting Words", Turk Yurdu, 49°^ Year, 276/6, pg. 55 (taken from the introduction by Halil Acikgo7 in Safiye Tirol's Articles book.) Ken 'an Rifai and Islam in the Ught of the 20 Century, pg. 266
ibid, pg.

28
29

280

ibid, p. 281. ibid, p. 283.

30
^

Samiha Ayverdi,
ibid, p. 44. ibid, p. 44

Dost,

The

Friend, p. 40.

32 33

34

ibid, p. 45.

D

]V/

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
191

NSYATK GELENEK ÇERSNDE SAMHA AYVERD
Yusufçuk'ta

Geçen Ba2i Tasawufi Mazmun Ve Temalar Üzerine

Sadk

YALSIZUÇANLAR
tarihinde

16 Aralk 2005

TURKKAD stanbul ubesi tarafndan SâmihaAyverdi'nin Doumunun
ve

100. Sene-i Devrijesi

Hâtrasna dü^nlenen "Kadn

Tasavvuf" ballkl uluslararas sempo^umda

sunulan teblidir.

Bir veliye tasavvuf nedir diye sorduklarmda, 'Allah'n seni sende öldürüp,

Kendinde ebediyyen

diri

klmasdr'

der. Böylesi çetin bir

meseleye dâir

konumaya balyoruz. Üstelik modern zamanlarda bütünüyle yitirdiimiz bir hâlden, söze dönümesi en mükil iten söz ediyoruz. Bir halk âiri,
'âklk ne

mükü hâldir' derken bunu îma eder. te anlam dünyâs tamamen
:

deimi bir söz daha Ak.
buyurduu
aslnda
üzre,

eyh-i Ekber'in Füsus'un son fassnda beyan

ak, parçann bütüne olan itiyakdr. Ki bütün aklar
olan evkindendir. Mecazî, hakiki, yönü

varln Vareden'e

sapm
Hatta

veya sahih hangi muhabbet olursa olsun, lâhî

ak cümle sindendir.
:

eyh, kadmn erkee dükünlüünü de, insamn kendi yurduna olan vurgunluu olarak tevil eder. Bir sözcük daha Te'vil. Bugün bizim

için

mânâs deimi, farkllam,

anlamsal zemini yitmi veya bizde ne

tecelli

ne inkiaf olarak belirmeyen bu kelimelerle konuurken ne kadar çaresiz

olduumuzu
Tasavvuf
ve sarih

bir kez

daha ifâde edelim.
boyutudur, dense

için dînin batini

tamm
:

budur,

diyebiliriz.

yanl olmaz. Ya da en kapsayc Bu anlamda örnein 'La Mevcude illa

Hu' (O'ndan ha§ka
de sö^ edilir
böyledir,

hir §ey yokturI Sadece

O vardr- ki böylesi bir Resul haberinden

Balangçta

O

vard

ve

O 'nunla birlikte bir eyyoktu. Bu bugün de
bâtnî

yann da

böyle olacaktr.

Yani vücud- hakiki O'nundur, O'ndan gay ny
etmektedir.) fikrini, 'La ilahe Illallah'n

mevcud denmesi git(li
bir

bir

irki ima

okumas

olarak düünebiliriz.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
192

Tasavvuf bütün semavî dinlerin bâtn boyutunu ifâde
kavle göre Allah'n

eder.

Zaten
Arifler

bir

yaratt ük varhk, Nur- Muhammedi'dir.
Hakikat- Muhammediye,
kavle göre de

buna

kâinatn yaratc

ilkesi derler.

mürekkeptir. Bir
nur'dur.

baka

varln yazld Allah'n yaratt ilk ey kalem ve

Hokka Nun'dur ki Kün lafznn son harfidir. Hokkann mürekkebi ise Nûr- Muhammedi'dir. Bir haberde Resul, 'Adem henüz su ile balçk arasndayken Ben peygamber idim' buyurur. O halde tüm semavî haberlerin cevamiü'l- kelim sfatyla
Kalem varlklarn
kudret kalemidir.
Resul'ü,

yazld

Muhammed'dir.

(s.a.s.)

Zâten kelamlarn

incisi

olan Fâtiha'y

getirmesiyle

hem sözün

nihayetini

hem

de bütün sözlerin hülasasn ifâde

etmitir. Fatiha, fetheden demektir. Kitap onunla açlr, lâhî Hakikat'in

kaps

odur. Ümmü'l-Kuran'dr, Fâtihatü'l-Kuran'dr.
gibi lâhî Hakikat'le

O halde söz O'dur.

O'ndan beslenen söz de O'nun
saydamlatrma yönünde
derken

aramzdaki perdeleri

bir ileve sahip olabilir.

Ama biz tasavvufi edebiyat
modern

bn Fand'n iirlerini kastederiz.
döndüünde

Sekiz

on gün süren cezbelerinden

sonra kendisine

söyledii iirlerden. Ki onlar da

insann deifre etmesi imkanszdr.

olduklarn yine kimi
iirleri,

Bu konuda oryantaHstierin acz içerisinde oryantaüstier söylerler. Çünkü bn Fand gibi ariflerin
ibarettir.

melekut alemindeki müahadelerinden

Sekizyüz civarnda

eser kaleme

alm olan Hz. eyh-i Ekber, Füfubafta, 'Benim bütün eserlerim
sadece bir
tanesidir.' der.

binlerce

müahedâtmdan

Tasavvufi eser derken böylesi bir alana girmi oluyoruz. Keza Hz.

Mevlânâ'mn, Niyâzi-i Msri'nin,

eyh

Bedreddin'in, Yesevi'nin,

Yunus

Emre
gibi

Hazrederi'nin,
âit

eyh Gâlib'in sözlerinden bahsediyoruz.
dünya
dilin e

Bunlar alemi

mânâya

hakikatierin

döküknesidir

ki,

onlarn âdeta

muamma

konumalarnn srr
dilsiz

budur. 'Mantku't-Tayr'm lugat- mutiakndan
bizi; bizler

söyleriz' diyor âir,

kimse anlamaz

muamma olmuuz. Bu

gerçekte

kulaksz sözdür.

O hâlde ona kulak verenin de canyla
hâlinde anlam srlarm açan
dile

dinlemesi gerektir.

Can kulayla dinlenmesi

bu sözün modern zamanlardaki metinlerde ne kadar
etmek bize dümez. Mantku't-Tayr

geldiini takdir

müellifi imla-y lâhî üe
gelir.

yazmaktadr.

O'nun bütün
hazînelerden.

sözleri

Kuran'm hazinelerinden

Ar'n

altndaki büyük

O kapnm kimlere açlaca ise kimsenin malumu deüdir.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
193

Modern
açlabilir.

atelerin ortasnda

yanmakszn yaayabilen
görüler
üeri

bir aziz âire de

Sufi

sözcüünün kökenine

ilikin çeitli

sürülmütür. Bunlar

arasnda en makbulü, Beni's-Suffe
Kabe'nin korunmasna

kabilesiyle

ilgili

olamdr. Kendilerini

adam

olan

bu

kabile,

henüz Kur'an inmeden

önce, Kabe'nin temizlik ve güvenliini bir tür ibâdet biçiminde
gerçekletiriyorlard. Suf, Arapçada

yün anlamna

gelirdi ve

bu

kabile

baMar

5ainden
ilgili

yaplm

sade bir aba giyerlerdi. slamla
sufiler gibi

tamtktan sonra
insanlara

Kabe'yle

duyarlklan devam eden ve

yaayan bu

izafeten dervilere sufi

ad

verildi.

Bir

baka görüe göre,

marifet üminin

sultanlarndan olan Hz. Ali, tasavvufî gelenein Hz. Peygamber'e

bal

öncü ad idi. Nitekim
veya

arifler

ve

sufiler

arasnda, kendisini Hz. Ali'ye neseben

manen balayanlar çoktor.
anlam kadarna

Sufilere göre.

Kuran

ayetieri

ve Peygamber

sözleri, çeitli

sahiptir.

Herkes, Kuran ve hadisin içerdii
ehli,

bu anlam
ariflerin

düzeylerine nüfuz edemez. Zahir

bu iddiay reddeder. Oysa,

ortak kanaatine göre, sözgelimi

Kuran'm yedi anlam kat mevcuttur.

Yedinci anlam düzeyi sadece Allah 'm ilmindedir,
ulaabilir.

ama dier

kadara, insan

Bunun

yolu

ise,

yine

Kuran'n ve Hz. Peygamber'in emrettii
ile

nefsle

mücâhade,

riyazet ve tezkiye

açür. (Hatta baî^
'denirler

sufiler

Kuran 'in
olsa

mânâ

denirinin dibinin
ayetleri

olmadm belirterek,

mürekkep aaçlar kalem

Kabbinin

yalakla tükenmedi,

âyetini de

bu anlamdayorumlarlar. H^.

Mevlânâ 'mn, 'ü:^m sarholuu deil bi:(im sarholuumu^ biî^m sarholuumuzun
sonuyok, beyti de bunu ima ediyor olabilir.) Tevil ya da
bir
tefsir,

manevi

bir mertebe,

makam gerektirir.
insamn mânevi

Allah

kelammn
(seyr-i

batini zenginliklerine

ulaabümek
gerekir,
arifler,

için,

bir gezi

sülük)

gerçekletirmi olmas

insandan amaç,
külli

halîfedir,

bu

ise,

insan- kâmildir. Buna, kimi

abdi

de

derler.

nsanBir

kâmil, kâinatn minyatür hâlidir.

Onda, lâhî

isimlerin

tümü

tecelli eder.

baka

kavle göre, insan- kâmil, Kuran'dr,

Kuran'n

kardeidir.

Kâmil

insan, Allah'n yer^oizündeki halîfesidir,

O'nun mahlukatna
alr, varlklara

merhamet ve efkatie muamele
merhamet
verir,

eder; Allah'tan

rahmet

yer^öizünü korur, Allah'n gerçek bir halîfesidir. eyh-i

Ekber'e göre, yeryüzündeki tüm varlklar, insan- kâmilin parçalardr.

nsamn, bu mertebeye ulaabilmesi için mânevi bir seyahat, bir miraç yaamas gerekir. Bu gezinin balangcm zühd olumrur. 'Kötülüü
emreden
nefs'in tezkiyesi,

ancak

sürekli

ve duyarl bir ibâdetie gerçekleebilir.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
194

Bu bakmdan slam'n balangç
model olarak Hz. Muhammed'in
yöntemleri, tevekkülü,

günlerinden itibaren,
(s.a.s.)

mükemmel
nefsle

bir

2Ühd ve takvas,

mücâhade

bakasnn

derdiyle dertlenmesi, sürekli Rabbi'nin
esaslar, sonraki

huzurunda bulunmamn gerektirdii adap ve
oldukça sâdk
izleyiciler

yüzyllarda

bulmutur. Özellikle

bir ilim

ve belagat merkezi

olan Basra ve Küfe,

aym zamanda zühd

hareketinin de bereketli bir

çevresine tanklk eder.

nsann

kul olarak alçakgönüllü bir hayat sürmesi,

eylem ve düüncelerinde tam

bir

uyum

içinde olmas, sabr ve

ükür

ehli

bulunmas,

bir

bakma, kâmil

bir veli

ve nebi olarak Hz. Peygamber'in
Bunlar, 'Allah dosm/veli'

brakt mirasa varislik edenleri iaret eder.
olarak

Ad

anlmlardr ki, en yetkin örneklerine sahabiler arasnda tank oluruz. ayn zamanda mânevi bir makama özel isim olmu olan Üveysü'l-

Karânî, bunlarn en kamil örneklerindendir. O, bir anlamda, kendisini
insanlardan yitirmesiyle, sonradan Melametiyye biçiminde adlandrlacak

olan bir damara da kaynaklk eder. Arif ya da suf, hangi isimle anlrsa

anlsn, bu samimî mümin, kendisine Hz. Peygamber'in
edinir.

yaamm örnek
bu uhrevi

O, dâima, Allah'n

külli irâdesine

bal,

nefsin tutku ve arzularndan

arnm,

marifet ve tefekkür dolu bir hayatn sahibidir. Suf,

ilkeleri esas alarak

yola koyulur. Nefsini tezkiye edene ve marifet nurlarna

müheyya
Gerçi

bir hâle gelene kadar

bu yolda

yürür.

Bu

yolun nihayeti yoktur.

arifler, 'tevhid'

makammn, manevî

seyahatte, varlabilecek

en üst

düzey olduunu söylerler ama, Allah'n mutiak ve sonsuz
olarak gaybubet etmenin nihayeti olamaz.
bir

varlnda tam

Erken dönem
el-Basri'nin

zahitierinin ilginç

örnei olarak görülebilecek olan Hasan

u ifadeleri, sufyi
dokunuta
ise,

bize net bir biçimde tammlar niteliktedir:

'Bu dünyamn tüm çekiciliklerine dikkat

et.

Bir ylan gibi

yumuak, ama

zehri öldürücüdür.

Onda

bir

zevk buldun
edecektir.

hemen

terket,

çünkü, ondan çok az, sana yol
birdenbire deiir. Sen,

arkadal

Dünyâmn

hâli

deiene, kalc olmayana, sana sadk yoldalk
Basra,

etmeyene sakn kalbini balama.' Bir anlamda zühdü de tanmlayan bu
ifadeler,

O'nun

bir

mektubundan ahnmtr.

Hasan

gibi

daha pek

çok zahide ev sahiplii yapmtr. Fakr ve istina vadisinin yldzlarndan
biri

olan Râbiam'l-Adeviyye bunlardandr.

Keza erken dönemin

iki

önemli

velisini,

Cüneyd-i Badadî üe Hallac- Mansur'u

anmamz

gerekmektedir.

El-Muhasibi'nin örencisi olan Cüneyd-i Badadî, 'Yolun eyhi' olarak da

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
195

anlr ve
kiiliktir.

nazarî tasavvuf târihî

'Allah'n seni

açsndan önemle kaydedilmesi gereken bir sende öldürüp, Kendinde diri klmas' tanm, özü
ve Ebedî olann, zamanda

itibariyle, tevhidin, 'Ezelî

balangc

olandan,

yâni fâniden ayrlmas' ükesine dayanr. Kuran, bize, 'her

ey yok olucudur,

(O'na bakan/ O'nun
ilkesinin

vechi)

müstesna' der. Bu, esâsnda, 'varln birlii'

de

kaynam

oluturur. Sufîler, varlk

ünvâmm Cenab- Hakk'a

layk görür, varolana

bir

unvan olarak yaktrmazlar. Varolan, gerçekte
Bu, bir görünüm, bir belirmedir.

Esma ve Sfat'n tecellisidir.

Tpk denizin
bir hâlidir.

dalgalar gibi. Dalga, denizden ayr bir varhk deildir,

onun

Tüm yaratlmlar da, Allah'n mudak varhndan
anlamda, varolanlann, Allah'n
Tecelli
ile

'taan' bir hâldir.
tecellisi

Bu

Esma ve Sfat'mn
sözcük olarak
bize,

olduu

söylenir.

aym kökten gelen

bir

'cilve'nin

anlam, 'gerdek

varhn, Allah'n 'açlmas' olduunu ihsas eder. Esma ve Sfat'n tecellisi, bir bakma, varln açlmasyla, yâni cilvesiyle gerçeklemektedir. Bu ise, kaf ve nun arasnda ortaya
gecesi, gelinin,

yüzünü açmas'dr. Bu,

çkmaktadr. Bu yüzden kimi
ile

arifler

varhn

hazînelerinin anahtarnn, 'kaf

nun arasnda' olduunu

belirtirler.

Yâni 'kün' emriyle
bu,

varhn

arketipleri

yaraûlmaktadr-ki bunlara ajân-

sabite denir-

zaman ve mekân

ötesi bir

varhk alann iaret eder.
teceUisiyle gerçekleir.

Varhn haricî vücut giymesi ise, Esma ve Sfat'n Varhn vücûda gelmesi sürecinde görev alan
perde

'sebepler'in, tenteneh bir
ârif-i

olduunu

belirten

Bediüzzaman, dier

biUahlar gibi, Allah'n, Kendisiyle varhk arasna

yetmibin zulmanî

ve nûranî perde

koyduunu

söyler.

Ibn Arabi Hazrederine göre, bu perdeler,

nebilerin ve velilerin gözlerinden giderümitir. Hz. Ah'ye izafe edilen bir

söz öyledir: 'Perde-yi gayb açlsa, yakînim ziyadelemeyecek.' Suflerin,
marifet ilminin

kaps

olarak gördükleri Hz. Ali,

bu

sözüyle,

gözünden bu

perdelerin giderilmi

olduunu

örtük biçimde ifâde etmektedir. lâhî

ak

arabyla sarho olanlarn en üstünü olan HaUac- Mansur,
i

çada Cüneyd-

Badadî

gibi,

kalbine inen marifet nurlarm 'eriat'n mizamyla tartma

konusunda, meleke sahibi
evi'ni,

yâni bedenini,

olmadndan, 'fânilerin eUeriyle kirletebildikleri bu uurda kurban vermitir. Kendisini öldürenlerin,
söylüyorsunuz' diye cevap
verir.

'Ene'1-Hak' deme, 'Hüve'1-Hak' de, kurtul, sözüne, 'ben zaten öyle diyorum,

ama

siz

O'nun

gâib

olduunu

Bu

söz,

AUah üe varhk arasnda tenteneh bir perde olan mahlukat, tümüyle aradan çkarma eihminin üst düzeyde bir ifâdesi olmaktadr. Çünkü, HaUac-

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
196

Mansur benzeri

sufiler,

varolann

rüyeti,

Hakk'n

rüyetidir, diye

düünürler.

Varolu

tlsmm

çözmede, Hallaç,

çada ve halefi sufiler kadar 'ansl'
smrlarm
denilebilir.

olmamasna ramen, bu
genletirmeye de

köktenci tutumu, sufi gelenein

yardmc olmutur,

A.

J.

Arberry, islam Mistiklerinin Öykiisündc, zühd hareketinin, Basra'dan
kadar,

Küfe 'ye
ikinci

bütün slam alemine ve
siyasal

özellikle Hicri 2. /Milâdi 8.

yüzyln

yansnda

ve dînî faaliyederin önemli bir merkezi hâline gelen
'Emevileri

Horasan'a nasl

yayldm anlatr:
yaplmt.
b.

ykan ve Abbasi
Budizmin
b.

hilâfetini

kuran plan, Horasan'da

Bir zamanlar

filizlendii bir

merkez olan bu uzak

vilâyet,

Belh prensi ünlü ibrahim

Edhem'e
daha sonraki

(U60/777)
sufiler

âit idi.

ibrahim
bir

Edhem'in

riyazete çekilii,

arasnda gözde

tema hâline

geldi ve sklkla
hikâyesi,

Gautama Buda'mn
sufîlerde

öyküsüyle

karlatrld, ibrahim Edhem'in
türden bir ruhî

tüm

gördüümüz
sülûkuna

uyam

öyküsüdür. Rububiyet yanlsamasna
salikin seyr-i

yol açabilecek

tüm mal varhklarm tümüyle terketmeden
ilginç bir

balamas imkânszdr. Bunun

örneini Ibn Arabi'de

görürüz. Mânevi yolculuuna erken yata balayan eyh-i Ekber, yirmili

yalarn balarndayken, sahip olduu tüm eyay, babasna emânet eder
ve ihtiyaç sahiplerine

datmasm

söyler.

Nedenini soran babasna

ise

u

cevab

verir:

'Üzerinde bir

bakasmn hakk

olan her Allah kulu, kulluunda

bu hak nisbetinde

eksik kalr.' ibrahim b. Edhem'inkine benzer menkbeler,
tarihi

her sufi için çokça anlatlr. Tasavvufun nazarî
bereketli bir

dnda,

sufizm

için

kaynak olan menkbeler,

sufilerin,

halktan Hakk'a

doru

yürüyüünün

tam olarak karmza çkarlar. Sufi, manevî miracna yaarken,
ilk

dünya varlndan soyunmamn

adm olarak, üzerinde herhangi bir
sufi,

dünyevî mal brakmamaldr. Tövbe kapsna bu halde yanaan

adma
titiz

zühd denilen ve slâm'n
bir

'ibâdat'

ksmm oluturan amel-i
Zühd

sâühalara

biçimde uymak olan bir yola

girecektir.

ve takva, sûfinin nefsiyle

mücâhadede bulunmas zorunlu
yakîne

bir sürece, bir hâle iaret eder.

Olgun

bir

ulamak ve müahadelere hazr

hâle

gelmek

için

bu zorunludur.

Farzlarn yamsra,

inam

Allah'a

yaknlatran

nafileler

de sufnin dikkatli

ve duyarh bir biçimde

uymas gereken
sufiyi,

ibâdetier cümlesindendir.

Huu ve

huzur hâH, havf ve recayla gerçekleecektir. Burada
ve
uzletier,

zikr ve virdler, halvet

sabr ve ükürler,

'ubudet' hakikatine

doru yüceltecektir.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
197

Ubudiyyet, kulluun çeitli
sufide sürekli galebesi, artk

belirtilerini ifâde

etmede kullanlr. Bu
yol

hâlin,

onun nza makamna doru

aldn gösterir.

Geylâni Hazrederi'nin öretisinin merkezine
etkili

ald 'acz' ve 'fakr' hâqli en

Bu yolda, istikamet üzre olmann art, ihdastr. Bediüzzaman'n srarla üzerinde durduu ve adna bir risale kaleme ald ihlas, kulun, hereyde, samimî bir biçimde Hakk'n nzâsm gözetmesi hâlidir. Bu, Melâmîlerde olduu gibi, sufnin, dünyâya gelirkenki saf ve
ve ilevsel yoldur.

yaln hâline dönmesini sonuç verecektir. Saf ve

katksz

bir kul

olma
hlas

durumu

sufîyi, ferasete,

cud ve sehaya, gayrete,

fakr, sefere, sohbete,

muhabbete, aka, evke ve marifete ulatracaktr. hlasn

hakikati,

Sûresi'nde 'ehadi)yet' olarak ifâdesini bulur. Ehadi}Tet, Allah'n ayan

alemindeki mutiak tekliidir. Allah,
tecellinin

tecelli

âleminde vahid'dir,

birdir.

Ama
Bu

olmad öte alemlerde
sufi

ehaddir, tektir. Allah'tan
hâli, ihlas hakîkatiyle

bakasmn

huzurunu kabul etmeksizin yaama
süreçleri

gerçekleir.

yaayan ve
b.

gelenein

yaam öyküsüyle en ilginç kiiliklerinden
yerlisi

olan

Bir

El-Haris el-Haf, Melametiyye hareketinin bir dier ismidir.
olan Hz. Bir,

Merv'in, bir zamanlar 'düzenbaz ve aki' bir

slâm'n

çarsna

gerçek anlamda uyduktan sonra, 'bakalarnn düüncelerine
içtenJikle sahip

aldrmazlk' doktrinine de
hiyerogliflerini bildii,

çkmtr.

Antik

Msr
düüncesini,

Hermetik bilgelie âinâ olduu söylenen, yar-

efsânevi bir

baka

ahsiyet olan

Zünnûn- Msrî,

'marifet'

tasavvufa dâhil edenler arasndadr. Sufiler arasnda, 'Benim
yücedir, takdis ve
fikrinde

anm ne

tebih banadr' sözüyle öhret
ileri

bulmu

olan ve tevhid

HaEac'dan da

giden Bayezid-i Bistâmî, marifetin ahikasnda

yer alr. Arberry'e göre, Bayezid-i Bistâmî'den sonra Sufi nazariyesinde

merkezî bir
(fenafillah)

konum kazanan tamamen gelimi, Rabbinde doktrinini görüyoruz. Buradan, 'Allah'tan baka
nefis ve
ileri

fâni
bir

olma

ey yoktur'
fani

ifâdesine

geçmek,

dünya terkedildiinde mistiin, Rabbinde
deildir.

olduunu
olarak,

sürmek zor

Zühd

öretisinin zorunlu sonucu

dünya deersizdir ve müminin kalbinin

meru meguliyeti,

ancak

Allah'a ibâdettir. (Hermetik bilgelikten sö^etmi^ken Jlisofa (hikmet
kökeninden de bahsetmek yerinde olacak,

mn ürken dönem Atinalfilot(oflann Msrdan
sevgisi)'

Hermetik hikmetten

istifâdeleri, filosofia'mn

^minini oluturur. Hikmet sö\

aktanlama:^ hikmetin

dili

sembol ve sükuttur çünkü.

Ancak Atinal kadim

mütefekkirler hikmet sevgisini edinebilmilerdir Msrdan. Felsefe

adm adm hikmetten

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
198

u^kla§mantn
sorusu kökene

târihi haline gelmi§tir sonralar. Yieidegger'in 'Nedir

hufelsefe denilen?'

dönme

ihtiyâayla söylenmitir ve felsefenin jeniden hikmete, en
ilgili

a^ndan
ilgilenir,

hikmet sevgisine dönücüyle

bir endieyi içinde tapr. Zîra

hikmet varlk la

varolanla deil Zâten Hölderlin 'in iirine ili§kinyansnda da Heidegger, 'mülklerin

en tehlikelisi' dedii iirin

'i^lev'inin

varolann

varl

tehdidini deifre etmek olarak

açklar.)

Tasavvuf târihinde Muhyiddin

bn Arabi, nasl bir dönüm noktas ise,

nazarî sufizmin özel tarihinde de Hüccetü'l-slâm olarak görülmelidir. Gazâli'nin, özellikle
sonra,

mam Gazali, bir aama
yaamnn ürünü

Emevî Camii'nde itikafa çekildikten

El-Munkzu Mine'd-Dalal
kelamc ve

eserinde

anlatt derûnî

olan düünceleri,

selefilerin

tasavvufa yönelik iddetli eletiri

ve îtirazlarm püskürtme yönünde bir ilev

görmü,

aynca, sufî tefekkürünü

zenginletirmitir. Onikinci yüzyl, çeitli sufi tarikatiarn
bir

olumaya

balad

dönemdir. Tekke, zaviye ve hankahlar çevresinde

belirli bir ritüeli olan,

'mürid'e dayal bir tasavvuf

anlaynn,

giderek

tüm slam corafyasnda

yaygnlat bir süreç. Tarikadar arasnda doktrin düzeyinde deil, daha çok ritüel balamnda bir ayrmdan söz edilebilir. Esas itibariyle, her
tarikatn,

Kur'an'n Hz. Peygamber'in emri olan nefsle mücâhade ve
belirli zikr

riyazet

yöntemini,

seanslarm, nefsin tezkiyesine yönelik eylemlerini

izledii söylenebilir. Zikr, tasavvuf ehlinin, vecde

ulamada ve gerek

nefs

gerekse

nefîsd taudan yok etmede öne
zikirdir.

ald bir ibâdet biçimidir.
Ne
ki,
ile

Namaz, en büyük
özellikle

Kuran

kraati, bizzat zikrin kendisidir.

Lafza-y

Celâl, kelime-yi tevhid

ve ehâdet

Esma

zikirleri,

arnmada ve aknlamada sk biçimde izledikleri düzenli bir ibâdet tarz olarak bugüne dein gelmitir. Nazarî tasavvuf târihinin en önemli ad, kukusuz Maribli ünlü bilge ve
sufüerin,

eyh-i Ekber namyla maruf, Muhyiddin

bn Arabi'dir. bn Arabi, kendisine
kurmu ve tedvin
içine,

gelinceye kadarki sufi gelenei tevarüs etmenin yamsra, gerek doktrin
olarak gerekse sözlük

bakmndan

sufizmi âdeta yeniden

etmitir.

O'nun oldukça kapsaml marifet ve tefekkür alam
toplanmtir.

tüm

slamî

ilimler

Fkh, kelam

ve hadis alamnda da hayli eser

vermi olmasna ramen, bn Arabi, daha çok ünlü Fütuhat- Mekkiye ve Füsusu'l-Hikem'iyle tamnr ve haleflerini özellikle bu eserleriyle etkiler. Bir bakma, tüm sufi literatür, bn Arabi'nin bu iki önemli eserinin çevresinde geliir ve döner diyebiliriz. O'nun sistemli tefekkürü, tüm ilhamn Kuran'dan

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
199

ve O'nun hazînelerinden alan
süresince

tevil

ve

tefsir

yöntemi, mânevi mirac

yaad çok sayda vakas, nazariyat ve sözlüü, tasavvuf târihi
bn Arabi, öncelikle
Tüm peygamberlerin
olduunu

boyunca çok sayda esere kaynaklk etmitir.

belirtilmelidir ki, özel bir velayet doktrinine sahiptir.

ayn zamanda

veli

belirtir

ve velâyetierinin nübüvvetierine gâlib

geldiini söyler. Peygamberlerin tümü, 'Hakikat- Muhammediye'nin
tezahürüdür. O, hatemü'l-enbiya

olduu
biri

kadar, hatemü'l-evliyadr da. Hz.

peygamber'in

(s.a.s.),

velayet

bakmndan dört büyük izleyicisi/vârisi vardr.
olduunu ifade eder: Hz. mirasnn hatemi, kukusuz benim.' Bu, eyh-

eyh-i Ekber, kendisinin bunlardan

Muhammed'in ve Mesih'in
i

Ekber'in en çok

itiraz

gören düünceleri arasndadr.

bn Arabi, hatem
itiraz

olduuna

ilikin birkaç

vakasm

da aktarmaktadr. Bunlarn çounu,
ve saldrlara

Fütuhafx.2i yer alr.

Zahir ulemâsmca tekfir derecesinde

hedef olmasna karük,
sufide derin bir etki

bn Arabî, kendisinden sonra gelen hemen her
etkiyi,

brakmtr. Bu

sadece sufilerde aramak da

yanl

olur.

eyh; aym zamanda

âlimleri, feylesoflar, mütefekkirleri
etki

ve

düünürleri ve siyâset adamlarn da

alannda tutmumr. Hakknda en

çok erh yazdan kitaplarn

sahibidir.

bn Arabi'ye ilikin çok sayda târihçe,

erh ve yorum yazlmtr. O'na göre, kâinat, göreceli bir varla sahiptir. Hem, sonsuz varolu, hem de fâni yokolutur, Allah'n ilminde oluu bakmndan ebedi varolutur; fâni yokoluu ise, Allah'a göre, dsal oluundandr. Allah, hem Zâhir'dir hem Bâtn. Zahir ve Bâtn olu, insann bildii biçimiyle, Hakîkat'in iki temel öesidir. Her ne kadar Yaratc, mahlukattan ayrümsa da, akrd kabul edilen Hakikat, içkinlii kabul
edilen âlem
ile

aymdr. Yâni, Hakk, mâsivâda, varlk aynalarnda beliren

sfatlarn aymdr. Hak,

varln ruhu,
O'nun

âlem de, O'nun

zahiri suretidir.

Allah'tan gayr varlklar,

irâdesi yoluyla, eylerin kurallarna

uygun

olarak haraket eder ve varolur;

O'nun

temsilcileri.

Esma

ya da

külli

kavramlardr. Varlk âleminde görünmeden önce, olgular
varhklar, Allah'n ezeli ilminde ayan- sabite
idiler

dünyâsmn
olarak var
ki,

(ontolojik model)

ve bu nedenle, lâhi Zat ve uur'un parçasydlar. Denilebilir

ayan

sabite,

mudak
bir

hakikat olan Vahid- i

Ehad

ile,

varbk arasnda bir berzahtr.

Allah

ile,

olma manasnda birleme
ile

bn Arabi'de asla söz konusu

edilemez. Suftnin, Allah

bir

oluunun idrakine varmasndan bahsedilebilir.
Akl- Evvel, Hakîkat- Muhammediye'dir.

Kâinatn yaratc

ilkesi

olarak

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
200

Bu
hâli

ilkenin kusursuz belirtisi,

nsan- Kâmil'de

olur.

Hakikatin minyatür

nsan- Kâmil, aym zamanda kâmil veli ve nebi olan Hz. Muhammed'in de bizatihi kendisidir. bn Arabi'ye göre, her peygamber,
olan

Allah'm bir

'kelime'sidir.
ilk

Mutiak mânâda 'kelime'

ise,

peygamberlerin

Hatem'i ve
kelimeler,

hakikati olan Hz. Muhammed'dirfx.^.j.j.

Bütün bu

ferdî

Hakîkat- Muhammediye'de toplanmtr. Yüzlerce eser kaleme
izleyicisi

alm

olan eyh-i Ekber'in çok sayda
Iraki, Cilî,

olmutur. Bunlar arasnda,
vd. arifler saylabilir.

Konevî,

Molla Câmî, Kayseri,

Konuk

Bunlarn çou, eyh'in en çok tartlan

eseri Füsusu'l-Hikem'e.

erh de

yazmlardr. eyh-i Ekber'in ad,
da çok geçer. Bediüzzaman,

eserleri

ve düünceleri, Risale-i Nur'da

bn Arabi'yi, 'bir mûcize-yi hakikat, hârikay
olarak niteler. eyh-i Ekber'in

Kuran ve ulum- slâmiyyenin mucizesi'
eserlerinde isim zikretmeksizin

alnt

yapt Hz. Mevlânâ da, sufi gelenein
iirsel

önemli adlarndandr. Hakikat'n tefekküri ve
bir imajinasyonla ortaya

boyutiarn,

mükemmel
iki

koyan Hz. Mevlânâ, bu vadinin dier
ruh
idi/ Senai,

adm da

anarak öyle der:

'Attar,

O'nun

iki

gözü/ Ve ondan sonraki

devirde/Biz geldik onlarn izinden.' Bir bakma, Rûmi,
Arabi'den sonra, bütün bir tasavvuf geleneinin

bn Fard ve bn

karmzda
de
estetik

üç doruk isim vardr.

Bu

üç

bilge,

sacayan tamamlar. Artk sufizmin hem nazarî hem
Bunlardan
özellikle

açdan kemâlinin

zirvesini temsil eder.

bn

Arabi'nin dünyâs, bize, tasavvuf irfamm
fazla veri sunar.

tamma açsndan gereinden

nisiyatik gelenein
biri

modern zamanlarda en

saf ve

katksz

adlarndan

merhume Sâmiha Ayverdi'dir. O gelenein günümüzde gürbüz ve bereketli bir damarna mensubiyeti olduu gibi, ömrü bojnanca elinden dümeyen kalemiyle onlarca esere de imza atm ve eserlerinin çounda tasavvuf! neve dile gelmitir. O'nun oldukça zengin manevî ve zihinsel yaam içerisinde Yusufçuksun ayn bir deeri vardr. Yusufçuk, modern Türk Edebiyaû'nda dili ve dünyâs bakmndan yekta bir eserdir. lk basm 1 946
ylmda
ksa

yaplm olan

Yusufçukta.,

yazarn 'mesel' olarak niteleyebileceimiz

öyküleri yer almaktadr. Ayverdi,

Ken'an

Rifâî'ye intisapl ve

O'ndan
hikâye,

sonra da bir nevi postniin olarak cemaatin 'anne'si

olmu, roman,

deneme, aratrma, sohbet, geziyazs ve günce türlerinden pek çok kitap

yazm velut bir sanatkâr. Rifâîliin bir kolu olan bu gelenein her ne kadar

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
\

201

Ahmed-i Rufûî

hazretleriyle

silsile

ba varsa da, Ken'an Rifâî hazretieri
tasavvufi

aralarnda eyh-i Ekber de olmak üzere bütün bir irfan geleneinden
beslenmitir. Yusufçuk,

günümüzde

neveyle yazlm, mecaz ve

mazmun dünyasyla, diliyle, kurgusuyla, tarz beyanyla sufiyâne denilebilecek
bir metinler
ilgisi

toplamdr. Ksa, açkuçlu,

trajii

olmayan, dramatik bir kurguyla

bulunmayan bu mesellerin
kitab'n

ilkine Ayverdi,

Feta'nn

ilk

olarak

karsna

'kainat

çkardm, açtm ve

'Oku!' dediini söyleyerek girer.

Kitaptaki meseller boyunca. Yazar kainat

kitabnn sayfalarm okumaktadr.

Her kssa, bu

kitaptan bir sayfa, bir cümle, bir kelime gibidir. lâhi

akm
için

sarholuu
öncelikle
kitap

içinde

yazlm

olan Yusufçuk, kainat kitabmn

okunmas
bilir'

insanm kendi kitabm okumas gerektiini bize hatrlatr. Sanki
'nefsini bilen

bu uyan çevresinde döner. Bu,

Rabbini

hakikatinin

ifadesidir. Nefsini bilmek,
tecelli

insamn kendisinde

tecelli

eden lâhî

Esmamn

düzeyince gerçekleir. Nefsini bilmekten

muradn bu olduunu
zaman
tedbiri altndaysa

söyler arifler.

nsan lahi isimlerin

hangisinin ne

ve

tecelli

ne düzeydeyse o yetkinlik düzeyince

bilebilir

Rabbini. Ayverdi,
selin

'tepsisinin içine nisan

altna

çanam'
Rahman

niçin

yamuru toplayan bir çocuk gibi, bu akp giden koyduunu sorup durur. Bu soruda bile sufi

mazmunlarndan birkaçn bulmak mümkündür.
Allah
sfatyla

Yamur rahmeti simgeler.
kabil hâle

ar kuatmtr. Dünyâda bu sfatia, âhirette Rahim
gelme

ismiyle mütecellidir.

Rahman'da kayt yokmr. Çanak, feyze

durumunu
talep,
ki,

ifâde eder.

Kulun yapabilecei ey hazrlanmaktr. Ki buna
.

edene de

talip tabir e dilir

Müride eanlaml olan bu kelimeden anlarz
Allah'tr.

insan sâdece ister

ama

asl

murad eden

nsan

diler fakat

gerçekleen murâd-

yamuru da evrensel sembollerdendir. Sedef bedendir, inci kalptir. Nisan yamuru inhisar kabul etmeyen kalbin kökenini simgeler. Kalp, insandaki lâhi merkezdir. Namaz ve hac arzn
lâhî'dir.

Nisan

merkezi olan Kabe'ye yönelinerek edâ
lâhî merkeze yâni kalbe
'yer

edilir.

Zikirde ise insan kendindeki

doru bükülür.
sorular sorar

Kalp, beytullahtr. Bir kutsî hadiste,
kalbi

ve gökler Beni

kuatamad, ancak inanm kulumun

kuatt'

buyrulmumr. Ayverdi,
'biliyorum
:

ama ardndan
ben

tecâhül-i arif yaparak,

ama

yine de soruyorum' der. Yusufçuksun bir
bir zafer için gelir,
ise

baka metni öyle

açlr 'Herkes bu meydana
için geldim.'
niteliktedir.

sâde Sana yenilmek

Bu cümle yalmz bana

bize sufliin hâl dilini ele verir
kendisidir.

nsanla lâhi hakikat arasndaki en büyük engel insanm

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
202

nsan

kendisinden tümüyle kurtulmakszn lâhi feyze kabil hâle gelemez.

bn Arabi,

secdede Efendimiz 'in sürekli

yapt duay hatrlatr:

'Allah'm

beni nur kl' O'na göre Efendimiz burada, Allah'm beni Sen kl' demektedir.

en-Nur, Allah'n isimlerindendir ve 'beni nur kl' diyen, gerçekte, 'beni

benden
Secde

al.

Kendi sonsuz ve mudak varlnda yok
en yakn olduumuz
yerdir,

et'

demek istemektedir.

madem

o halde kendimizi tümüyle

kaldrmamz gerekecektir. Ayverdi'nin, 'sade Sana yenilmek için geldim 'ini de böyle okumak mümkündür. Bir baka metinde öyle der 'Adm sordular. Söyledim. "Tammyoruz, kimmi o?" dediler. Az kald
aradan
perdeyi çekip seni onlara gösterecektim; fakat ihtiyatkâr

:

olmay

jine

Senden

örendiim

için

vazgeçtim ve

düündüm

ki,

gösterseydim de

göremeyeceklerdi; zira perdelerin

görmülerden
Yusufçuksun
tasvir eder.

olsalard,

kalkt ezel gününde onlar Seni imdi burada, "Tammyoruz" demezler ve demir
tek görülecek

asa demir çark,

bu kâinatn

görülmemiini

arar ve bulurlard."

bu metninde Sâmiha Ayverdi muazzam

bir hakikati tek

cümlede

Ezel biliiklii dedii bu temaya kitapta sk sk döner: "Ezel
bir

gününün divâne yolcusunun parmana dünyâya gelirken
sözün pek çabuk

yüzük takm,

sonra da, 'bunu hrszlar çalacakür; sen gene onu ara bul" demitin.
çkti.

lk

Gözümü bu âleme

açar açmaz,

onun

parmamdan

çahnm olduunu gördüm.
tekliin ifâdesi olan

Çaldran da ben, arayp bulacak olan da
dile gelir. kilik

bendim." Burada tevhit hakikati

aradan kalkar. Mutiak

baka

bir

meselinde Ayverdi, 'henüz zaman

yaratlmamken
birletirir:

insan sözü edilmeye

demez

bir varlkü' mealindeki

haberle, 'balangçta Allah

vard ve O'nunla

birlikte bir

ey yoktu' hakikatini
ate birbirinden

"Dünya

ekilsiz bir

ynken, ne

toprak, ne su, ne

seçümeden ve mükevvenat henüz tasavvur ve yaratü teknesinde

yourulmadan Sen vardn." Mudak
ve
:

tekliin hayret

makamndaki

seyircisi

ak yolcusu olarak da insan anar "Ve ben hep bam kapmn eiinde. Senin hayrann olarak ak rüyalarm görürdüm." A}^erdi'nin bu metinlerinin çou naz makamnda kaleme alnmtr. Yazar, nazdan niyaza, niyazdan
naza gider
gelir.

"Bugün Sensizlie tahammülüm yok"

der, "beni

kendimden

geçir,

sarho

et."

hikâye olarak
el

Bu dilee eriinceye kadarki serencamm ise kozmik bir anlatir "Ruhum bir kalbn esiri olmadan evvel, elimi bir
:

tuttu ve

bana güneleri,

seyyareleri,

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
203

semâvâtn
misafir

acaibini gezdirip seyrettirdi. Nihayet bir
yer... buras

âleme getirerek

:

'te

olacan

dünyâdr' dedi. Böylece kimsenin kimseyi
patrtil âleme

görmeden çalp didindii bu
gürültülü bir arza inmitir.

ben de katldm." Bu, insann

lâhi varlktan kesret âlemine iniinin hikâyesidir.

nsan

ebedî sessizlikten

Ve

su

ile

sarho olacak düzeye gelinceye kadar
geldii Yusufçuk\2in

bu hengâme

içerisinde yuvarlanacaktr.
bir

Her metninde ayr

hikmetin

dile

imdi de istina

makamnda yazlm bir meseli analm: "karna dua etmek için oturup ellerimi açtm. Ne garip ki 3Kizünü görünce bütün isteklerim, sam vurmu
bir

aacn yapraklar gibi
neticeyi

kavrulup döküldü. Bilmem niçin evvelden bu

mukadder

bana haber vermedin? Ben dua mahalli deil,

ak

ocanm demedin?" Râbiatü'l-Adeviyye bir gün hastalanr. Aclar içindeyken
Bayezid çkagelir. 'Niçin Rabbinden ifa dilemiyor, bu
diye sorar. Râbia, 'O'nun

acy

çekiyorsun?'

murad bu
Dua,

iken niçin aksini isteyeyim,
el-Alevi'ye göre Allah
ile

bu ayp

deü mi?'diye

cevap

verir.

eyh

kalben

aracsz haberleen kâmil

veliler için gereksizdir.

Ayverdi'nin bu metni
arifler

gerçekten de üstün bir yetkinlik düzeyinden

yazlmtr. Buna

Zat

merebi

derler.

Zâten insamn manevî seyrinde gezinin

zirvesi Zatiyyet

düzeyidir.

Bu bölüme

fark- evvel tâbir edüir. Mahlukiyetten Zatiyyet
ki,

hakikatine uruc eden veliler oradan tekrar nüzul ederler
sâni olarak isimlendirilir. Seyr-i

bu da fark-

sülûkunu

tamamlam kâmil veliler ümmiyyun,
câhil

safiyyun ve zatiyyundur.

Ümmiyun,

sanldnn aksine
içermez,

anlamna
kast,

gelmez, okur yazar olmayan

mânâasm

ümmiyyundan

insamn kendi kiisel algsm ortadan kaldrmasdr. lâhî Hakikat'e açk ve

hâzr hâle gelmek

için

bu

arttr. Safiyyun ise kalbin ve hafizann

saflndan

kinayedir. Neati'nin, 'ettik

o kadar

ref-i

taayyün

ki

Neâti/Ayine-yi pür-

tab- müceUada nihamz' ifâdesindeki 'mücella'
etmektedir.

mazmunu bunu ima
'i

Ayna

saf ve cüal

olmakszn lâhî Hakikat kusursuz biçimde
ise,

yanstamaz, aktaramaz. Zatiyyun olmak
gerçeklikten semavî hakikat'e
eder.

yerden semaya, beeri

doru bir gezinin gerçekletirümesini iaret

nsan arza nüzul etmi, inmitir. Kudsî Kelam da arza tenezzül etmitir. nsan hayattayken bu iniin simetrik bir gezisini gerçekletirmek durumundadr. Bu geziyi gerçekletirenlere 'zatiyyun' denir. Zatiyyun olan kimse arûk merhume Ayverdi'nin yukarda andm metninde ifade ettii hale ulamtr. Sürekli Rabbi'nin müâhadesiyle megul hâle gelmi ve

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
204

O'nunla arasndaki haberleme kanallar tümüyle açlmtr. Rabbinin

müâhadesine mahzar olan kimse

için

O, artk bir dua
edilir.

makam deil,

bir

ak ocadr.

Bu,

makama
verir.

'muhabbetullah' tabir

Muhabbetullah,

ak ve evk merdivenlerinden söz etmek yerinde olacaktr. Muhabbet, kuun uçmaya çalmasdr. Ak kendi kanatlanyla uçabilmesidir. evk ise en üstün düzeydir
mârifetullah netice

Tam

da burada muhabbet,

ki,

bu,

kuun kanad krldktan
bilir ki,

sonra da uçmaya gayret ediidir. Çünki bu

düzeye erien kii

kendisi Rabbi'ne kendi kanatlaryla

ulaamaz,

ancak Rabbi, 'el-Karib' adyla kendisine yaknlatrabilir.

Bu makamda ise
ve açklkta

ancak insan akla dolar.
Yusufçuk\2i]d bir
anlatr:

metin bize bu hakikati olaanüstü

bir saflk

'Küçük kz! Mektebe

baladn gün, hocan ilk i olarak sana harfleri
harfleri birbirine

öretmiti. Az sonra bu örendiin

çatma temrinleri
ibare

yaptn ve böylece kelimeler meydana çkt. Sonra bunlan sraladn ve
oldu. Böylece de
bir

okumay

söktün.

dersâneden

içeri giriyorsun.

Arûk büyüdün, mektep bitti. imdi yeni Ben de sana ilk i, bu kitapsz kalemsiz

ba harflerini öreteyim: Gülümseme ve utanma. te yavrum bunlar, ak kitabnn ilk harfleridir.' Ayverdi, burada hem hakikatin zahirî ve Bâtni boyudarndan söz açmakta hem de ak mesleinin
kazanlan ilmin
mâhiyetinden konumaktadr. Zahir,
Hazretieri, Fütuhaft^.

bâtmn

d boyutudur. bn Arabî
için,

öyle

der: eriat, Hakikat'in örtüsü veya perdesi

deildir, bizatihi kendisidir. Hakikate

geçmek

bizzat eriata nüfuz

etmek

gerekir.'

Bu

bize, zahirin

bâündan ayr

bir olgu
ki,

olmadm, onun

geçmek esastr ve bunun yolu da zahirden geçmektedir. Zahirde kalmayp bâtna nüfuz etmek gerekir. Bâûn akûr. Ak yolunda ise insan sürap karlar. Ayverdi
bir boyutu, bir
gösterir.

yönü olduunu

Demek

bâtina

öyle

der: 'Isürap
zira

denen

bir harf

vardr

ki,

bunu hepsinden

evvel

örenmeye
cümle

çal;

onu

ihtiva

etmeden mânâ

kazanm

hiçbir kelime, hiçbir

yoktur.'

Bu, bize

ak arabiyla sermest olanlarn en üstünü ve bir ak ehidi
Hazretieri'ni hatrlatir.

olan Hallaç -1

Mansur

zindanda kendisini ziyarete gelen
der:

Ölümünden birkaç gün önce, Cüneyd-i Badadî Hazretieri'ne öyle
giy.

'Yarndan sonra beni öldürdüklerinde, sen medresene dön ve üzerindeki

Çünkü ak yolunda, ehitlik kaçnlmazdr. Bu meslekte insamn kendi kamyla alaca abdestie klaca iki rekat namaz üzerine farzdr.' Istirap sözcüü, ak yolundaki
sufîlik

hrkasm

çkararak müderrislik cübbesini

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
205

ehitlii ima etmektedir.

Bu mazmun, 'ölmeden
kza son

evvel ölünüz' hadisinden

kaynaklanr. Ayverdi, meselinde küçük

olarak öyle seslenir:

'Eer

straba yer vermemi
yeri yok' diye haykr.'

bir ibareye rastiarsan,

korkma; 'bunun

ak kitabnda

Buna

'belâ'

da

tabir edilir. Belâ

da

inisiyatik bir

mazmundur. Nitekim
fethinin arzusuyla

Hallac- Mansur Hazretieri öyle demitir: 'Sultanlar, bir iklimi (mülkü,

yanp tutuurlar. Biz ise, yllardr Senden gelecek bir belâmn umuduyla yamp yaklmaktayz.' Belâ 'yi hem Rabbin bir üâhi lütfü, bir olarak okumak hem de 'belî/evet' mânâsna yormak mümkündür. Bu ise, 'rzâ'\ taleb
vatan) fethettiklerinde, yeni bir iklimin,

vatamn

ba

Rza makam, sâdece Allah'n kuldan deil, kulun da Allah'tan raz olmasn içerir. Bu makam, yetkinlik düzeylerin üst basamaklarndandr.
etmektir.
Pir Sultan

Abdal

Hazretieri, bir nefesinde, 'güzel
bir

ak çevrimizi çekemezsin

demedim mi/bu
suretiyle,

rza lokmasdr yiyemezsin demedim mi?' demek

'nzâ'nm ne denli

ulalmas güç

bir

makam olduunu belirtmitir.
tecellisini bir lütuf

Rza, kulun her eyden raz olmas, Rabbinin her

olarak

kabûUenmesidir. Mûsibetier, yokluklar, yoksulluklar, yalnzlklar, aclar,
ayrlklar, ölümler, her türlü

maddî ve mânevi skntlar can ve bala

benimsemesi ve ükr makamnda bulunmasdr. Sâmiha Ayverdi, YusufçuliX2^
bir

anlatsnda bunun batnna

doru

szarak öyle der: 'Gidenin yerine
tesellisi.

benzerini getirmek gayreti, ite insanlarn
cesur,

Ama o

bazen daha

daha pervasz davranarak, insanolunun bu körü körüne sarld,

bam gösünde dinlendirdii, ya da hizmetine çard 'teseUi' adl cariyeyi,
ezel künyesinde

rastiad

ismiyle

çarr:
teselli

'gaflet'.'

Bu metnin
deildir.

alt

okunmas

yapldnda
olduu
olur ki

'teselli'nin

Bâtnî hakikatinin rza,
olmak,

'gaflet'in ise 'tevekkül'

anlalacaktr.

Raz

bulmak

Rza, 'arük öyle
srrdr. Ya da

Ben kulumdan kulum Benden raz
artk

olur' hakikatinin

'ey nefs,

Raz olmu

bir hâlde Rabbin'e dön'

nidâsndaki srdr. Nefs,

dünyâya inerken
bir miraçla

yaad irtifa kaybm, simetrik bir geziyle, yâni manevî
makamna
bir zerre

taçlandrdktan sonra rza
'safîyye'

uruc eder.
ise,

Bu

halde

Rabbin'e dönen nefs arük

olmutur. Gaflet

kulun Rabbin 'den

nisyamdr. Sufiler

'ben'lik

duygusundan

kurtulamam olduunu

ifade ederler. Gafil

kalm ise kulun gafletten olan tevekkül makamna
Hazretieri'ne Seriyü Sakati

eriemez. Tevekkül, insamn aradan çekilmesidir. Zîra insanla Rabbi
arasndaki engel kendisidir. Cüneyd-i

Badadî

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
206

Hazretleri'nin söyledii

u söz bunu ifâde eder: 'Senin varlndan daha
benzetmek

büyük

bir

günah

yoktur.' Ayverdi, metinde, Teselli'yi bir cariyeye

suretiyle

hem

tehis sanat yapmakta

hem

de

tesellinin

batançkarclk
ilgili

niteliine atfta bulunmaktadr.

Yine 'ak'a üikin
vurgu yer
alr.

bir

baka

metinde, onun belirleyici ileviyle
'müstebit' kelimesiyle ifâde eder.

bir

Bunu Ayverdi,

Ak gerçekten
niteliidir.

de tüm balar ykarak kendi

balarm

kurar.

Bu onun kozmik
biri

Ayverdi öyle der: 'Konuuyorduk, içimizden
-Târihin kaydettii en müstebit

sordu:

hükümdar kimdir?
Saydlar, söylediler. Fakat sorgu
geldik.

Her azdan
sahibi

bir isim

çkmaya balad.
bir

bunlarn

hiçbiriyle tatmin

olmuyordu. Bir ara göz göze

Bana,

-Niçin sesin

çkmyor? Sen de

ey

söylesene, dedi.

Zâten ben de söylemeye hazrlamyordum. Yavaça,

-Ak! Dedim.'
Ayverdi bu hakikati ifâde ederken,

akn ezelden ebede tahtnda tek rakibi

olmakszn

saltanat sürüp

buyruk yürüttüünden bahs açmaktadr. Zâten

sonunda, 'bunu, bu aikâr zaferi koyup uzaklara gitmek ne reva' diyerek,

'ak imi her ne var âlemde' gerçeini tahkim etmektedir.

Varln mayas aktr. Varoluun srr aktr. Evren aktan domumr. Varhn merkezinde hakikat- Muhammediye bulunur. Bütün muhabbetier
muhabbet-i Muhammediye'dendir. 'Muhammetten hasl oldu

muhabbet/Muhammetsiz muhabbetten ne
konumaktadr. Yusufçuksun
bir

hasü' diyen âir

bu srdan

metninde Sâmiha Ayverdi,

inam balçktan

youran ve ona nefesinden üfleyen Yüce Rahman'm soluunun rüzgâr oluumuzdan söz eder: 'Sana soruyorum dostum, beni bu dünyâya kim davet etti? Anamla babam m? Hâa. Onlar, ezel tasarrufunun zavall bir âletinden baka nedir? Sahibim bir mucize göstermek istedi; gitti bir da bandan bir avuç toprak alp yourdu ve ona kendi nefesini üfleyerek dünyâya frlam. Bu çamur, dünyâda bir anann babann çocuu oldu. Adna da adm verdiler. Yalan söylemiyorum; ben, onun nefesinin bir rüzganym ve beni bu dünyâya, urunda binbir âlemi terk ettiim bu ses, bu nefes sahibi çard.' Bu anlatda insamn zuhurundan söz açümaktadr. Aziz

Mahmud

Hüdâyi

Hazretieri,

Muhammed'in Zuhuru adl eserinde bu

ezelî

hikâyeyi anlatr. Sufilerin çokça

rabet

ettii bir kutsi hadiste

Rabbimiz

öyle buyurur:

'Gizli bir

hazine idim, bilinmeyi sevdim.

Bu

srla

mahluka ti

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
207

yarattm.'
edendir.

Mahlukatn erefi olan insan varlk aleminde en son zuhur

Çünkü insan me^'vedir. Varhm özüdür, özetidir. Kâinatn kalbidir. vMlah'n yeryüzünde halîfesidir. Allah insana soluundan üflemitir.

Rahman'n

nefesi

insann ruhudur. Gerisi kemiktir, kldr.
açarlar.

Sufiler

ruhun

bedene tenezzül ediinden söz

Ruh, ten kafesinde mahpustur.

Bu

skma, ruhun ölmeden
toprak'

evvel

ölme isteiyle yanp tutuma, özgürleme

arzusunu da beraberinde getirmitir. 'Adamah' kelimesi Ibrânice'de'

krmz

anlamna gelir.

Adem yâni insan kzl topraktan kanlmtr. Rahman,
yourmutur. O'nun katndaki
Adem'in çamurunu
iki

insann çamurunu
bir

bir rivayette dörtbin sene

gün bizim katmzdaki bin yl

gibidir. Allah,

yourmutur. Yâni Celâl ve Cemâl yönüyle. Allah 'm iki eli de sa elidir. Yâni, Allah'ta baskn olan Cemâl boyutudur. Çünkü Allah gökleri ve yeri ala günde yarattktan sonra Rahman sfatyla ar istiva etmitir. O'nun rahmeniyeti dnda hiçbir varlk kalamaz. Bundan kinaye, Ibn
eliyle

Arabi Hazretieri, Allah 'm

iki eli

de

sa elidir,

buyurur. Ayverdi, metnin
Sâhibi'ne seslenerek

devamnda,
öyle

yere nüzul eden çamura üflenen

soluun

ham ne toy bir adamm. Onun urunda binbir âlemi balamak da nedir? Bu ses beni yerimden, yurdumdan, saltanat ve daraûmdan koparmsa çok bir ey mi? Bu davete kar ben kim oluyorum?
der: 'Ben

de ne

O dile, tarife gelmeyen ferman sahibi, kolumdan tutup dünyâya sürüklerken,
elini

elimden koparmaya kyamayarak, kendi de beraber

geldi.

Daha ne

isterim, söyleyin

ben ne

isterim daha?'

Bu istein sonuçlarndan olmak üzere bir baka
Buna 'menzü'
kul,

Yusufçuk

kssasnda Sâmiha
yerdir.

Ayverdi, 'secde'den bahseder. Secde kulun Rabbi'yle
denir.

bulutuu

Alak Sûresi'ndeki 'secde

et,

yakmla' buyruuna uyan

doru iner. Rabbi de kuluna doru tenezzül buyurur. Ve bir yanyol karlamas gerçekleir. Buna nüzûldan, initen kinaye menzil denir.
Rabbi'ne

Ayverdi öyle der: 'Rabbim, sanrlar

m

ki,

ben secde ederken, taa, topraa

ba

koyarm?

Ha)ir, eilen

bam,

o kaskat yerde senin

aknn jomuak

dalgalarma karr.'

Bu cümle gerçekten de zengin bir atf alanna sahiptir ve okuma imkânlarna
açktr.
Secde, ubudiyeti simgeler. Secdeye varmak üzere kulun eilmesi

Rahman'n

gecenin üçte birinde dünya semâsna iniini simgeler. Bir rivayette Allah,

gecenin üçte birinde dünya

göüne dein

tenezzül buyurarak, 'yok

mu

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
208

Benden

bir

ey dileyen, vereyim'
bir

eklinde nida eder. Namaz, kul

ile

Rabbi

arasnda ortak
buyurur: 'Ben,

münâcattr. Yine bir kutsî hadiste Rabbimiz öyle

namaz

kulumla aramda ortak bir münâcat kldm.
aittir.'

Onun

yans Bana, yars kuluma
sûrenin

bn Arabi Hazretieri bundan harekede,
klnmasnn hikmetinden de
ise kula âit

mesela Fâtiha'nn namazda vacip
ilk

söz ederek,

üç âyetinin Allah'a dier dört âyetinin

olduunu

söyler. Zira 'sâdece

Sana ibâdet eder sadece Senden yardm
râcidir.

dileriz' ifâdesi

kula

aittir

ve Rabbi'ne

Kyam,

'Rubûbiyet'i simgeler. Rükû, ubudiyeti

sembolize eden secde üe Rubûbiyeti simgeleyen

kyam

arasnda berzahtr.

Secdede insan kendi benliinin snrlarn tümüyle terk ederek Rabbi'nde

müstarak olmaya çalmaktadr. Bu

istirak hâlini Sâmiha Ayverdi, 'lâhî

akm yumuak dalgalar'nda kaybolmak eklinde ifâde etmektedir.
Bu kaybolu
nasiptir.

Bunu

bir

baka metninde Ayverdi öyle düe
nasihat

döker:
hisse

'nsanolunun kulan bükmek,
çkarmak da botur. Bu cihanda
sel gibi akar.

vermek botur; kssadan

nasihat, nisan
ki,

yamuru gibi

bol bol yaar,

Ama nerede
Her

o sadef

azn açsn da yuttuu bu damlay
Ama nerede
bize,

inciye tebdil etsin.

hâdise, içinde hissesi olan bir kssadr.
sirk

o göz

ki,

bu dolak ve

yazy söküp

heceleyebilsin.'

Bu uyar
bir âyetin

muhasebe günü gelmeden nefsimizi hesaba çekmemiz gerektiini de
hatrlatr.

Her olayn

içinde hissesi olan bir kssa
delili,

olmas

anlam
bize

denizindendir. Varhklar Allah'n birer

birer âyetidirler.

Her ey

O'nu

söylemektedir. Hiçbir

ey yoktur

ki,

O'nu ham üe tebih etmesin.

O halde kâinat kitabmn birer kelimesi olan varlklar ve olaylar bizim için
birer hakikat habercisidir. Yusufçuksun bir meselinde Ayverdi bizi âdeta

tüm

perdeleri kaldrarak yokluk hakikatiyle yüzyüze getirir:

'Zaman zaman
vardr. Ona,

hislerimin

kapsn

çalan,

aldr etmezsem

zorlayan bir

el

-Kimsin, ne istiyorsun? derim.

Cevap yerine
düüncelerim

içeri bir el

uzamr.

Düünürüm.

Para istemeyen, mala, rzka

tamah etmeyen bu avuca ne
bir karara

koyacam uzun

uzun düünürüm ve

balanamaynca

da, sualimi hiddetie tekrar ederim.

O belki dalgnlma, belki unutkanlma, belki de gafilliime küsen, fakat
gene de
tesir

ve halavetini eksiltmeyen

sesiyle,

-Yokluk! der.

Yokluk,

inisiyatik sözlükte 'fenâ'yla

karlanr. Acz,

fakr,

kusur vb. stilahlar

da bu kavramn anlam dünyâsna

aittir.

Bu

tarik,

yâni acz ve fakr yolu,

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
209

Allah'a
geçer.

ulamada en

etkin,

en ksa ve

tehlikesiz yoldur. Beka,

fenadan

Varla

yoklukla ulalr.

nsan yok olmadan Rabb

belirmez.

nsan
artar.

azaldkça ve yok oldukça Rabbi'ne yaknlar, Rabbi katnda deeri

Bu metnin yüzeyinde maddi varhk-yokluk muhasebesi görünse de gerçekte fakrn hakikati anlatlmaktadr. Sonunda Ayverdi, 'varhk amnda verilen, yokluk olmaz ki vereyim. .Yokluk amnda varlk bulunmaz ki, 'gel al'
.

diyeyim' diyerek

varln yokluktan geçtiini
Bugün susmak

bildirmektedir.

Hikmetin

dili

sembol ve sükuttur.

Yusufçuk\2i

bu hakikat de

bizi

karlar:

'Bana, 'söyle' deme.

istiyorum. Sözlerimi

gönlümün knna

sakladm;

söyle, diye
el

üstüme varma. ayet sana uyar da onlar çekip

çkarrsam,

sürenin parmaklan doranr.' Sükût da bir hâldir ve veU seyri

sülukun bir yerinde buna urar. Halvet zaten sessizliin yurdudur. Orada

beeri olan
kalbin

susar,

lâhî olan

konumaya balar. nsandaki ilâhî merkez
Mansur
Hazretieri bir keresinde
kalplerin helâkindendir.'
bir hakikatin dile

olan

konumas

sükûttur. Hallac-

öyle

demitir: 'Dillerin

konumas,

Metnin devamnda

Sâmiha Ayverdi, kalbe

domayan

gelmemesi gerektiini

hatrlatr: 'Bana, 'söyle' deme. Sen söyle, sen haber ver ki

ben neyim?

Hangi göklerin hangi köesinden bu dünyâya damladm?' Bu ayn zamanda,
'ya

hayr

söyle veya sus'

uyarsnm da

tevili gibi

görünmektedir.
söz

Büyükler, 'dert alatr,

ak söyletir' demilerdir. Muhabbet olmakszn

kemâle ermez. Kemâle ermeyen söz hayr tamaz. Ayverdi, bu hakikati

öyle

dillendirir:

'Rabbim, senin takat getirilemeyen ateinle kavrulup

yanarken, söyleniyor, haykryor, inliyor, feryad ediyorum. Beni divâne
diye, biçâre diye

de olsa dinleyenler

var.

Rabbim, senin ateinle kavrulup

da yanmamak, yamp da haykrmamak, inlememek olur mu?
içine

Ama bu

ate

düeni kendisine benzettii, varlk

tezahürleri içinde bir avuç kül
bir rüzgâr, bilinmez

olduu, sözü, feryad, ikâyet ve ekvay, bilinmez
nerelere sürüp

götürdüü zaman, söyleyememek strab üe ben ne yapa}im?

Söyle bana o
Yusufçuksun

kyamet lahzasmn lisâmm olsun öret!'

hemen tüm metinleri inisiyasyon sözlüünün stdah ve mânâlanyla doludur. Modern zamanlarda yaam velî bir yazarn kaleminden dökülen bu eserin tekke-tasavvuf edebiyat gelenei içinden okunmas ve yorumlanmas gerekmektedir.
erhi gerektiren bu metinler toplam, bize yitiimiz olan, hikmeti aktarmay
deniyor.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

tebliler proceedings

210

Sözü Ona brakyorum:
"Bana tarif edilmeyeni
Bilirim, hep
et' dedin.

Bu nasl mümkün

olur Devletlim?

olmadan

oldurur,

muhalin

hapm imkan tarayla

tararsn.

Ama gene

de insaf et Devletlim, bende o
ateleri

talan su gibi akn, bulutlan kaskat dondurucu,
nerede, söyle nerede?

bahar rü^anna çevirici kudret
et,

A.caba tarif edilmeyeni

derken, yedi cehennemiyakp

kül edecek bu gönül ateini

mi dile getirmemi istedin? A. h

Devletlim, sana evvelce de söylemitim.

Güneler doar

batar, yllaryllan, devirler devirleri kovalar;

dünya

seyrinde,

kainat devrinde, sadk

köleler gibi,

amadan,

durup dinlenmeden, eskiyip yenilenir, l^e bu biryandan ölüp

biryandan dirilen cihan, yiitlerin kuvvetleri, cihangirlerin paklan,

^eka

ve

idrak

hamlelerinin harikalan

ile

mâmur olup

ahenklenirken, her ^orluuyenen, her mükili

baaran insanolu
dile getireme^

bir

ak gönlünün o kendini ve kainatyamaya verenyankln
de bu

If^in ver Devletlim, i^in ver

akam,
'

lafî^a gelmet^ bir

kyametin

karsnda

her

flaman ki gibi derin derin susaym.

1

Vvo^-K

1^

^

"
''

^'f-t>v

KADIN vr WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
212

The

Spiritual

Path in Samiha Ayverdi:

Some Tasawwuf Themes
in

and Metaphorical Meanings (Mazmun) used

Yusufçuk ^

Sadk

YALSIZUÇANLAR
by
at the" International

translated

This paper was presented

Symposium of

Women

and Sufism" that

was organized by the Turkish Women's Cultural Association, Istanbul Branch, honoring
late

Samiha Ayverdi's Centennial Birthday on December

16, 2005.

]Vhen a

wall, (true friend

of Allah,

saint), is

asked what tasawwuf (sufism)

is,

he

replies; "It is Allah's killing the

you within you, giving You eternal

life."

We will be
a state
difficult to

discussing this challenging topic. Moreover,
lost in

we

will talk
is

about

which we have completely

modern
is

times and which

most

put into words. Folk poets allude to
it is

this

when

saying,

"What

a difficult state

to

be a lover." Here
(Love).

another word whose meaning
last section

has completely changed: A.shq

Ibn Arabi declares in the

of Fusus al-Hikam that Love

is

the longing of the fraction for the whole,
desire

and

in reality

all

loves result

from the

of the created for the Creator.
real,

Any love, whether directed
or the sound
is all

towards the opposite sex, the

the deviated

manifestations of Divine Love. Moreover Ibn Arabi

interprets the passion of

women towards men as

being in deep love with

one's country.
I

There

is

another word: Ta'wil (explanation or interpretation).

would once again

like to

emphasize our helplessness when confronted

o
N
CO -J

with these words whose meanings have changed, which have lost their
contextual background and which for us have
associations.

no manifestations or

It

would not be incorrect
religion.

to say that tasawwufis the inner
this is its

(esoteric)

dimension
explicit
T3
CD

of

Or we

can say that

most comprehensive and

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
213

definition. In this context, for instance,

"Lm mavjuda
with Him.

ilia

H^' means
exactly the

that,

there

is

nothing but He/There

is

only

He and

that in the beginning there
It is

was only Piim and there was nothing
True Being,

else

same

today and will be so tomorrow. In other words, the
is

''wujud-i haqiq'\ the
all

His. Accepting anything but

Him
as

in

existence implies

hidden polytheism. This idea
ilaha
illallah'".

may be thought

an inner meaning of "I^

Tasawwuf
(the

explains the inner dimension of
first

all

celestial religions. It is said
is
'^

by some that the
Divine
light

existence

which AEah created
call this

nur-i Muhammadi''

of

Muhammad). Gnostics

the creative principle of
of

the universe. "Hakikat-i

Muhammedi"
light).

(the Reality

Muhammad)

is

the ink

with which being
creates
is

is

written.

Others say

that, the first thing
is

which AUah

the pen and nur (Divine
written.
(Be!).

The pen

the

pen of power with

which beings are
the

word "Kun"

The ink-pot is "nun" which is the last letter of The ink of the ink-pot is "nur-i Muhammadi" In
says, "I

a declaration
still

of the Prophet he
''

was

a

prophet while

Adam was
celestial

between water and mud." Therefore, the messengers of aU

reügions with the attribute of
worship)
is

cevamiü'l- kelim" (the speaker in allplaces of

Muhammed

(pbuh).

As

a

matter of
all

fact,

he expressed both the
''Fatihd'

ultimate

end of the word and the sum of

words by bringing the
all

(Opening chapter of the Qur'an)

which
starts
(the

is

the pearl of
it.

sayings. Fatiha

means

the conquerer.

The Qur'an

with

It is

the door to the Divine

Truth.
(the

It is

"Ummu'l- Qur'an"

mother of the Qur'an), ''Fatihatü'l Qur'an"
is

conqueror of the Qur'an).

Then, the word

He. The word which

is

fed

by

Him may have

the

same function of His

clearing the veils

between us
literature,

and the Divine Truth. However, when we speak of tasawwuf

we

allude to Ibn-i Farid's poetry
his ecstacies
it is

which he wrote

after

coming

to himself

from

which had

lasted for eight to ten days.

These poems
because

are such that
is

impossible for a

modern person

to interpret. This poetry

such that orientalists admit their

own

incapacit}^ in this matter

the

poems of gnostics like Ibn-i Farid
'^

are nothing but mushahada (contemplation

or revelation) in the

alem-i

melekuf

(spiritual or intellectual world).

The Sheikh
are just

Akbar, Ibn-i Arabi,

who

has written approximately eight hundred works,
all

says in his Fütuhat al-Makkiya (Meccan Revelations) that

his

works

one of

his

thousands of revelations he has experienced in the spirimal

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

jrfN
214

i9

world.

When we
Yasavi,

discuss

works of tasawwuf, we

are entering such an area

of

study involving such figures as Rumi, Niyazi-i Misri, Sheikh Badraddin,

Yunus Emre and Sheikh
this is the

Galib.

These words

are the translation
in worldly

of the truth-which belongs to the world of meaning- written
language and
reason

why

their language appears enigmatic.

The

poet says

"We

speak from the Mantiku't-Tayr^^ dictionary of the Absolute,
us,

no one understands

we have become

mysterious." This, in
to listen to
it

reality, is
spirit.

a speech without tongue or ear.

Thus one has

with the

We could never really comprehend how these words that open the secrets
of meaning when listened to by the ear of the
in today's language.
spirit

could be expressed

The author of Mantiiku't-Tayrwnte.^ with Divine letters. All of his words come from the treasures of the Qur'an, which are under the throne of Allah. Nobody knows to whom that door will open. It may even open to a beloved poet who has managed to live in the midst of modern fires without burning.
Various views are put forward regarding the origin of the word

suft.

The

most acceptable one
tribe

is

the one

which

is

related to Bern's- Suffe tribe. This

had dedicated themselves

to the protection
in charge as a

of Kaaba before the

Qur'an was revealed. They were
the Kaaba,

of the security and cleaning of

which they considered

form of worship. "Suj" meant
wore
a plain

wool

in Arabic

and those belonging

to this tribe

woolen
sensitivity

cloak. Dervishes are called sufi attributing to these people

whose

towards the Kaaba continued after they met Islam and lived

like Sufis.

^
'î:

According to another view, Hz.

Ali,

who

is

one of the

sultans

of the

knowledge of "marifa" (gnosis), was the leading name for tasawwuf
tradition in relation to

>
*?;

Hz.

Muhammed. That

is

why

there are

many

gnostics and sufis
genetically.

who

relate

themselves to Hz. Ali either spiritually or
Qur'anic verses and the Prophet's words

'^

According to
levels

Sufis,

nj

have various
levels

of meaning. Not everyone can penetrate into these

^
-J

of meaning which the Qur'an and the Hadiths comprise. The ones

who
{arifs)

see reality in the outer appearance reject this claim.

However, gnostics

share the view that the Qur'an has seven different levels of meaning.
level

The seventh

of meaning

is

only

known by Allah but human

beings
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
215

can reach the other
"nafs", asceticism

levels.

This

is

only possible through struggle with
is

and purification which

commanded by
is

the Qur'an

and the Prophet. (Some

Sufis even say that there

no bottom of the meaning sea
"If seas were ink

of the Qur'an and interpret accordingly the Quranic

verse,

and trees

were pens, writing the verses of the
following verse of

Rabb

(Lord) would not come to an end". The
is

Mawlana, "Our drunkness

notfrom grapes, there

is

no end

to

our drunkness. " may be suggesting the same meaning.)
interpretation of the Qur'an)

Ta 'wil (explanation and
requires a spiritual level,

or

tafsir (interpretation)

a spiritual station. In order to attain the inner richness

of Allah's words,

one should have completed his/her
purpose of
is

sayr-i suluk (spiritualjourney).

The
and
this this

a

human being is
perfected

to

be a

khalife (Allah

's

representative)

insan-i kamil, the

human

being.

Some

gnostics

{arifs) call

abd-i kulli, (complete servant). Insan-i kamil h a

miniamre of the universe. All

divine

names
is

are manifested in him. In other words, insan-i kamilim the

Qur'an, he

the twin of the Qur'an. Kamil insan

is

the representative of

Allah on earth.

He

treats Allah's creatures

with mercy and compassion.

He

receives "rahmet" (Allah's grace, compassion and mercy), gives

mercy

to

beings and protects the earth.
earth.
insan-i

He

is

the real representative of Allah
particles

on
of
live

According to Shaikh-i Akbar, aU beings on earth are
kamil In order for a

human

being to attain
This journey
(the

this level,

he has to

a spiritual journey, a miraj

(ascension).

starts

with ':^hd

(asceticism).

The

purification of nafs-el ammare

commanding or compulsive

self) is

only

realized

by continuous and conscious worship. The perfect model of Hz.
(pbuh)

Muhammed
virtue),

from the

early days

of Islam onwards has been

transmitted to loyal followers with respect to His ^hd, taqwa fear of Allah,

tawakkul (complete

trust in Allah), his

methods of struggling with

nafs,

compassion, principles and adab (manners) required for standing constantiy
at his

Rabb's presence. Basra and Qufa, which were centers of knowledge
also witnessed
life

and eloquence

an abundant

circle

of

^hd movement.

Leading a humble

as a servant

of Allah, being in complete harmony

with his thoughts and actions, capable of being patient and thankful, in
a way,

marks the inheritors of Hadrat

Muhammed as
remembered

a kamil

(perfected)

wall

(true friend)

and nabi

(prophet).

These

are

as wall, true friends

of Allah and we witoess the qualified examples among the sahabes (people

who üved by
^1

the Prophet and listened to His sohbets

(discourses).

Uveysu'l-

i

TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

KADN

VE

WOMAN AND
216

whose name has been addressed to specific spiritual station, is one of the most kamil (complete) examples. In a way, his isolating himself
Karani,

from people makes him
Malamatiyya
this frank
(the path

a source

of a disposition which
(gnostic)

will later

be called
is

of blame). Arif

or

sufi,

whatever he

called,

mu'min

(true believer)

takes Prophet

Muhammed's

life as

an

example.

He

always submits to Allah's will

power and has

purified his nafs

from

desires

and wants.

He owns
Sufi

a

life

fuU of tajaqqqur (contemplative

meditation)

and marifa

(gnosis).

embarks on the path by taking these
is

principles as basis.

He

continues in this path until his nafs
(divine light)

purified and
is

he becomes ready for the nur

of marifa

(gnosis).
is

There

no

end to

this path.

Although

arifs
is

say that tawhid (oneness)

the last state in

the spiritual journey, there

no end

to complete disappearance in the

absolute and infinite being of Allah.
Basri,

The

following words of

Hasan

al-

who

can be seen as a remarkable example of early period ^ahids

(who practice t(uhd), are clearly describing us the properties of a sufi.

'Tay

attention to

all

the attractiveness of this world. It
its

is

as soft as a snake
it,

when you touch but

poison

kiUs. If

you find
will

a taste in

leave

it

immediately because very few of them

be able to accompany you
instantiy.

through your path. The
tie

state

of the world changes

Don't you

your heart to the ever changing, impermanent and disloyal
in

companionship

your

patii!"

These expressions, which
of Hasan
al-Basri.

in a sense explain

what

t^uhdh, are taken

from

a letter

Basra has been the
is

home

to

many

îiahids like

Hasan

Basri.

Rabiam'l Adaviyya
walls

one of them.
early

Similarly,

one should mention two other important

of the

period; Junaid of
is

Baghdad and
Muhasibi
is

Hallaj-i

Mansur. Junaid of Baghdad,
as the Shaikh of the Path

who
and

a student
is

of

7\1-

also

known

he

also remarkable for the theoretical history

of tasawwuf
o.

In essence, the definition of tasawwuf which
yourself and giving you
life

says, 'Allah's killing

you

in

in

Himself"
is

is

a result

of tawhid^ principle

N
CO
-J

of differentiating the
Û\&fani,
will

baqi,

who

eternal in the past

and

in future,

from

who has

a beginning point in time.

The Qur'an
at

tells us:

"Everything

disappear except for those

who

look

Him"

This, in fact, sets the

of the principle of unity of Being. Sufis think Cenab-t Haqq is worthy of being addressed as the Being. They do not think the created
origin
CD

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
217

deserves this

tide.

The

created are in essence the manifestations of the

His names and
sea.

attributes.

This

is

an appearance
sea.

just like the

waves of the
it.

Waves

are not separate

from the

They

are a state of

All

creatures too, are a state
Allah. In this respect,
Allah's

which overflows from the absolute Being of
said that
all

it is

existence are the manifestations of

names and

attributes.

The meaning
night.

oîjilva (charm, grace),

which comes from the same root
bride's

as

tajalli (manifestation, self unveiling),

means

opening her face
is

at

wedding

This gives us the inspiration that existence
(two letters in

only Allah's "unveiling."
the
is

This emerges between kaf and nun
word kun). This
is

Arabic which make up

why some
nun.

arifs

say that the treasures of the Being

between ^^and

That

is,

with the

command of

kun, (Let there

be!)

the

archetypes of the Being are created and these are called ajan-i sabite
reality

(the

of things in the knowledge of Allah). This points to
place. Being's

an area of the Being
-as

beyond time and
is

coming into existence

an embodiment-

realized

by the manifestation of names and

attributes.

Bediuzzaman

indicates that the

means which

take a role in the period of the Being
arifs

coming into existence

are layered veils. Like other
(divine light)

he adds that Allah

has set seventy thousand veils of nur

and darkness between

Him and
the seen

the existence. According to Ibn Arabi, these veils are
nabi.

removed

from the eyes of the aW/and the
and the Unseen were
sufis see as the
to
lift,

Hz. Ali

says,

"Even

if the veil between

my

certainty (yaqin)

would not increase!' Hz.

Ali,

whom

door

to gnosis, implies here that these veils are

already

removed from

his eyes.

Because

Hallaj-i

Mansoor, unlike

his

contemporary J unaid of Bagdad, did not have the faculty for weighing
the nuroi marifa bestowed to his heart with the scales of shari'at (Islamic

Lmw, formal side of

Islam),
(I

he sacrificed

his body.

When his

murderers
is

said;

"Don't say

^ine'l

Haqq

am

Reality)

but say Huve'l Haqq (He

Haqq) and
insist that

be saved" he answered; "I

am

sa^dng exactiy the
is

same but you

He is

unseen

(gayb)"
is

This statement
a layered veil

a high level expression

of removing

the created which

between the existence and Allah because
is

Sufis like Hallaj think that seeing the existence
Hallaj

seeing Haqq. Although

was not

as fortunate as his contemporaries or sufi successors in

solving the

charm of

creation,

it

can be said that his fundamentalist

TASAVVUF

KADN

VE

WOMAN AND

_

jg jt)^
218

attitude has helped

expand the
book, The

frontiers

of the

sufi tradition,

A.

J.

Arberry in

his

story of

Muslim Mystics explains
to

how
all

the

movement of

;^uhdh.2iS

expanded from Basra

Qufe and

to

Islamic

nations and especially in the second and the second half of the eighth

century to Horasan, which has

become an important
in

center for political

and

religious

movements. The plan which destroyed Amawiyya and
Horasan. This
far

founded the Abbasi Caliphate was made

away province

where Budhism
Ibrahim
b.

first

began to

flourish,

belonged to the Balkh prince of

Atham (d. 160/777). Ibrahim b. Atham's asceticism has become a popular theme among Sufis and was compared quite often with the story of Guatama Buddha. The story of Ibrahim b. Atham is a story of spirimal awakening, which we see among all sufis. It is impossible for the
one
in the path to start his journey

without leaving
(deity

all

his possessions
to

which may lead

to an illusion

of Kububiya

with respect

man).

We

see

an interesting example of
his spiritual path at

this in

Ibn Arabi. Shaikh Akbar,
all

who

started

an early age, entrusted

his possessions to his father

and told him to

distribute

them among

the needy.

When his

father asked

the reason for such an action, he said,
of someone
claim."
else

"A

servant of

Allah who has a claim

on him

is

incomplete in his servanthood in the proportion of this

Stories similar to Ibrahim b.

Atham's have frequentiy been

told.

Aside

from the

theoretical history of tasawwuf, stories
as

which

are a rich source
sufis

of sufism serve
(created)

an evidence for the progress of the

from halk

to

Haqq

(haqiqa, reality).

The

sufi,

when living his

spiritual ascension,
first

should not leave any worldly possessions with him, as a
stripping

step to
this

away from the worldly possessions which belong to

world.

The

sufi,

who

approaches the door of repentance,

will start a

journey of

o
D
_

^hd, which means thoroughly performing the proper deeds

[amal-i saliha),

which constitute the worship part of
of Allah) points to a

religion.

Zuhd 2ind

taqva (peity,fear
nafs.

mandatory period of struggling with

This

is

a

^
^
"^

must

to have perfect certainty (jaqin)

and to be ready for witnessing
of
all

{mushahadd).

Apart from obligatory

religious duties required

Moslems
should

(fardB), nafila^

which help get nearer to Allah are the worships
and
sensitively.

sufis

"^ "^
to

perform

carefully

The

state

of khushu

fearfulness)

and huî^r

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
219

(tranquility) will
(recollection)

be realized by khawf (Jear) and
ysiird (repeatedprayers),

raja (hope).

Here, dhiqr
retreat, patience
(total

and

solitude

and secluded of
uhudet.

and gratitude
servitude) is

will raise the sufi to the reality

Ubudiya

used in expressing various indications of servanthood. The
this state in sufi

predominance of
station
poverty),

shows

that he

is

moving towards
2indfaqr

the

of

rida (contentment).

The

states

of ^'^

(insolvency)

(spiritual

which Hz. Jalani has placed
and functional ways.

in the center

of

his teaching, are the

most

effective

Ikhlas

(sincerity) is

a

must

to maintain integrity in this path. Ikhlas,
risala

which
a state
in

Bedi'uz-zaman has persistentiy stressed and written a

on,

is

of the servant in which he sincerely considers the consent of Haqq
everything.

As

in Malamis, this will result in the sufi

remrning to

his

pure

original state at birth.

The

state

of being a pure servant

will get the sufi

tojirasa

(insight),

generosity, perseverance, ^^r (nothingness)^ spirimal
(love),

conversation, muhahbat
marifa
(gnosis).

ashq (unconditional love), shavq (yearning, and
ikhlas, finds its

The

reality

of

expression in the Surah of
in the

Ikhlas as Ahadiyya. Ahadiyya

is

the absolute

Oneness of Allah
is

world

of Essence. In the world of disclosure, Allah

^ahid

(One);

however,

where there

is

no manifestation Allah
is

is

Ahad (Sole).

Living by rejecting
reality

anything but the presence of Allah
Bishr
b.

realized only

by the

of

ikhlas.

El Haris

el

Hafi

who

has lived through this path and

is

one of
style,

the remarkable personalities of the sufi tradition regarding his Hfe
is

another

name

in the

movement of

Malamatiyya

.

Once

a deceitful and

brigand native of Marv, Bishr, after complying with Islam's invitation, in
its

real sense, honestiy

adopted the doctrine of being indifferent to other

thoughts.

A half-legendary personality Zunnun-i Misri, who is
among
those

said to

have

known
is

old Egyptian hierogylphics and was familiar with Hermetic wisdom,

who

included the idea of "gnosis" to tasawwuf

Abu

Yazid

Bustami appears

at the

peak of gnosis and goes further

in the idea

of

tawhid with his following statement; "Praise be to me!

How great is my

Majesty!"

KADIN vt WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

.JTT^
220

According to Arberry
oi fanafillah

after

Abu Yazid

Bustami, one can see the doctrine

(union with Allah), as
is

completely developed having gained a

central position. It

not hard to

move on from

here to the expression

of "There
with his
result

is

nothing but Allah" and claim that the mystic has been united
nafs

^hh when

and the world are abandoned. As a compulsory
is

of the teaching of ^hd, the world
(true believer)

worthless and the rightful
is

occupation of the mu'min's

heart

only worshipping Allah.

As we have mentioned Harmatic wisdom,
mention the roots of
are
^hilosophia
(love

it

would be appropriate

to

of msdom).

The grounds

îot philosophia

formed by the

early period philosophers

of Athens

who

have benefited

from the Harmatic wisdom
quoted because the

The words of wisdom cannot be language of wisdom is symbols and silence. Only the
in Egypt.
its

ancient mutafakkirs (contemplative meditators) of Athens have gained the love

of wisdom from Egypt. Later, philosophy has gradually formed of diverging from hikma
philosophy?"
itself a
is

history
is

(wisdom). Heidegerr's question

of "What

stated with the

need to return to

its

origin

and

carries in

concern about philosophy's returning to wisdom or

at least the

love of

wisdom because wisdom
of
is

deals with the

Being not with the created.

As

a matter

fact, in his

writing about Hölderlin's poetry, Heidegerr
all

thinks poetry

the

most dangerous of

possessions {mulk) and describes

the 'function' of poetry as the decipher of the created's threat towards

the Creator.

In the special history of the theoretical Sufism, the Hujjat-ul Islam
of Islam),

(evidence

{^
"^

Imam-i Gazali, should be considered
a turning point in the history

as a milestone, just as

Ibn Arabi

is

2:
"t

of tasawwuf. Gazali's thoughts told

in his

book, AlMunqi^u Mined-Dalal 2itç. the products of

his spiritual life that

_^

he lived especially when he was secluded in the

Amawi Mosque, and

they

n
c/j

have not only played a role in driving back the strong criticism and
objections of the Islamic scholars and Salaffiyya
(early generations after

H^

-^

Muhammad) towards tasawwuf but
meditation).

also enriched sufi tafakkux (contemplative

>.

jc

o
05

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
221

Twelfth century
It is a

is

the period

when

various tariqas (sufipath) are formed.

period

when

a mursbid-hzs&d understanding of
tekkes, {sufi gatherings)
all

tasawwuf with
and hankahs

specific rituals

around
in

^viyas

(recluses cell)

became widespread
is

Islamic nations.

The

differentiation

among tariqa

made with
it

respect to their rituals rather than
tariqas

on

a level

of doctrine.

Actually,
{riyaca)

can be said that aU
n^yfs,

follow the methods of asceticism

and struggle with

specific dhiqr meetings

and actions towards

the refinement of the nafs as

commanded by

the Qur'an and Hadrat

Muhammed

(pbuh).

Dhiqr h the type of worship that focuses on

Sufi's attaining jvajd (ecstacj)

and destroying
{salat) is

idols belonging to either nafs or outside

of

nafs.

Nama^
and

the greatest dhiqr. Reading the Qu'ran itself

is dhiqr.

l^f^a-i Jalal

(The word of Divine Majesty, Allah) Kalima-i tawhid (La ilahe
shahadet (Islamic testimony of faith)

illallah)

and asma-i husna

(the

most perfect names of

Allah) have been strongly practiced by the sufis until today as a regular

worship for purification and transcendence.

The most important

figure in the theoretical history

of tasawwuf

is

undoubtedly the renowned gnostic from Magrib, Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi,

who is

also

known
its

as

Shaikh Akbar. Having inherited the

sufi tradition

before his time Ibn Arabi virtually reconstructed and gathered sufism

with regard to
marifa (gnosis)

doctrine and glossary.

The

area of his comprehensive

and tafaqqur

(contemplative meditation)

embraces
in the area

all

Islamic

knowledge. Although he has written

many books

oî fiqh, kelam

and

hadith,

he
al-

is

mainly

known

for his

famous books, Fütuhat al- Makkiyya
his followers. In a

and Fusus
sense,

Hikam with which he deeply influenced
say that
all

we can

sufi literature

develops and revolves around

these two books. His systematic

tafaqqur., his

methods of ta'ml (interpretation)
its

and

tafsir

(mde explanation for the meaning) inspired by the Qur'an and

treasures,

many

incidents he lived during his spiritual miraj

(ascension), his

theory and dictionary have been the source for numerous works during
the history of tasawwuf.
It

should principally be stated that Ibn Arabi owns

a special doctrine of walaya (sainthood).
saints {wall) at the

He

declares that

all

prophets are

same time and

their sainthood (walaya)

predominates

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

jTfN
222

their

prophethood

(nuhmva). Ali prophets are the manifestation

of the

Haqiqa-i Muhammadiyje.

He is

Hatem'ul Anbiya

(the last

of allprophets), as

much
he
is

as

he

is

hatemu'l awliya (the last of all saints).

Hadrat

Muhammed

has

four inheritors /followers in terms of sainthood. Shaikh Akbar states that

one of them.
(pbuh)

"It

is

doubdess that

I

am
is

the last inheritor of Hadrat

Muhammed
his

and the Messiah." This

one of the most objected

thoughts of the Shaikh. Ibn Arabi quotes a few incidents which mark to

being the

last inheritor.

Most of
all

these are in his Fütuhat. Ibn Arabi
Sufis following

has had a deep impact on almost

him even though he
on
sufis only.

had been objected and attacked by the accusation of blasphemy by the

Muslim

theologians. It

would be wrong

to see this effect

The Shaikh
to him.

has also affected scholars, philosophers, contemplators,

thinkers and politicians.

The books

that have

been interpreted most belong

Numerous

historical accounts,

commentaries and interpretations

have been written on Ibn Arabi. According to him, the universe has a
relative existence. It
It is
its
is

both an

infinite existence

and

a mortal annihilation.
it is

because

it

exists in the
is

knowledge of AUah that
its

everlasting

and

mortal annihilation
is i^ahir

due to

being external with respect to AUah.
Zahir and batin are the two basic
beings.

Allah

(apparent)

and

batin (hidden).

elements of Reality {Haqiqd) as
the Creator
is

known by human
same

Even though
of the

separate from the created, the accepted transcendence of
is

the Truth/Reality (Haqiqa)
universe.

the

as the accepted

immanence

Haqq (Reality) mirrors of beings. Haqq is the
That is,

is the

same as

the attributes manifested in the
is its

spirit

of the beings and the universe

outer appearance. Beings other than

AUah

exist

and

act

conforming

to

^
"=1:

the rules of things according to His wiU. His representatives are

Names

(Esma) or the kulli
facts,

(complete, all)

concepts.

The

beings of the world of

2''i:

before becoming apparent in the existing world, has existed in the

eternal

knowledge of AUah

as ayan-i sabite (an onthologic model)
It

and thus
can be said
(single,

were a fraction of the Divine Essence and Consciousness.
that ayan-i sabite
One),
is

nj 00
-J
•5:

a bar^akh (interworld)

between the wahid-i ahad

which

is

the absolute ReaUty and the existence.

Union

in the sense
Sufi's

of Being one with Allah can never be mentioned in Ibn Arabi.
perceiving his being one with
intelligence),

AUah can be mentioned. Aql-i evvel (first
is

which

is

the creating principle of the universe,

Haqiqa-i
CD

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
223

Muhammadiye. The perfect sign of
\nsan-i kamil,

this principle is in the insan-i kamil.

who is the miniature of the Reality, is also the essesnse of Hadrat Muhammed (pbuh), the perfect prophet and saint. Ibn Arabi thinks
that every wall
is

a kalima

of Allah. Kalima in
is

its

absolute meaning

is

Hadrat

Muhammed, who

the last of the prophets and the

first Reality.

All these individual kalimas are gathered in Haqiqat-i Muhammadiye.

Ibn

Arabi has written hundreds of books and has numerous followers.

Among

them, Qonavi,

Iraqi, Jüi,

MoUa Jami,

Most of
which
is

these have also written a

Konuk can be listed. commentary on the Fusus-al Hikam
Kaysari, and

the

most discussed book of the Shaikh. Shaikh Akbar's name,
thoughts are widely expressed in the Risala-iNur. Badiuzzaman
reality, a

works and

his

describes Ibn Arabi as a miracle of

marvel of the Qur'an and

the miracle of Islamic knowledge. Mawlana,
in his

who

Shaikh Akbar quotes
significant

books without mentioning
sufi tradition.

his

name,

is

one of the

names

of the

Hadrat Mawlana,

who exposed
this valley

the contemplative

and poetic dimensions of the Reality with

a perfect imagination,

commemorates
their footsteps.

the other

two names of

and

says; "Attar

was

the spirit/ Senai, his two

eyes/And

after that

period/

we came

following

Mawlana,

in a sense, completes the trivet

of the whole

fasau'wuf tradition after

Ibn Farid and Ibn Arabi.

Now we have three top
Among them,
the

names
and

in front

of

us.

These three wise

men

represent both theoretically

aesthetically, the

peak of the maturity in sufism.

world of Ibn Arabi provides us with abundant data for the

acknowledgement of tasawwuf knowledge.
Samiha Ayverdi
tasawwuf 's
to a sturdy

is

one of the purest and most unadulterated names
of
initiation in

in

tradition

modern

times.

She not only belongs

and

fertile

vein of the tradition in our times, but also has

continuously written numerous books in which she talks about the
exhilaration/ intoxication of tasawwuf. Yusufçuk
quite rich material
is

of special value

in her

and

spiritual world. Yusufçuk is a
its

unique work of modern
world. Yusufçuk, which

Turkish literature in terms of

language and

its

was

originally published in

1

946, contains short stories that can be
stories).

characterized as mesels (proverbs or educating

Ayverdi
his

is

a disciple

of

Kenan

Rifai

and

after him,

became

the

"mother" of

community

like

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF

jr?f^
224

the head of this order and she

is

the prolific author of

numerous books
and

including novels, stories, essays, research work, discourses, travelogues

and

diaries.

Even though

this tradition is a

branch of the

Rifai tariqa

has a relationship with the line descending from Hadrat

Ahmed-er

Rifai,

Kenan

Rifai

was nurtured by
Yusufçuk,

all

the traditions of

wisdom

including that

of Sheikh Akbar.

which is written in our times with the exhilaration
as a collection

of tasawwuf can be accepted

of

sufi writings

with their
style

metaphorical contexts, meanings, language, abstract thought and

of

expression. Ayverdi's mese/s are short, open-ended and non-tragic, with a

non- fictional construction. Her

first

mese/ starts with Fata
it

who

places the

"book of
story

the Universe" in front of her, opens
stories the

and

says "Read!"

Throughout the
is
is

author reads

this

book of

the universe.

Each

just like a page, a

sentence or a

word from

the book. Yusufçuk,

which

written with the drunkness of y4shq (Divine Love), reminds us that

in order for the
his
is

book of

the universe to be read, a person should read
to centre

own book
his

first.

The book seems

around

this

warning. This
his nafs
(se/f)

the expression of the fact that "the person

who knows

knows

Lord."

Knowing

one's nafs

is

realized at the level

when

the

Divine names manifest within oneself Gnostics say that of knowing the
to
nafs.

this is the

goal

A human being can know his
is

Rabb
its

(Lord) according

which Divine name

manifested and according to

level
is

of occurrence
putting her

in his nature at the time. Ayverdi keeps asking

"why she
Apru

bowl under the flood
It is

just like the child collecting

rains in her tray."

easy to find

some tasawwufi metaphorical meanings even
Kahmat
(Allah's grace). Allah

in this
tK
"^

question. Rain symbolizes

surrounds the
this

heavens with the attribute of Rahman (Compassion). Allah manifests in

world with
(Mercy).

this attribute
is

and

in the hereafter with the

There

no

restriction to

Rahman

(Compassion).

name of Rahim The bowl expresses
only thing a servant

;2
'^

the state of being ready to receive enlightenment.

The

::5

can do

is

to get ready,

and

this is called talep (requesting/ seeking)
is

and the

'^ <o

one
this

who

requests or seeks
the

called talip (the seeker).

We

understand from
that

word which has
realized

same meaning as murid (disciple)

human
is

beings

can only seek but the
but what
is is

real seeker is Allah.

Human beings
is

desire/wish for

the Divine wish/desire {murad). April rain the

one
is

-^ -q
«0

of the universal symbols. Mother-of-pearl

body and the

pearl

the

CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
225

heart.

The

April rains represent the root of the heart which does not

accept any limitations.

The

heart

is

the Divine center in the

human

being.

Nama^ {salat) and
is

haj

is

performed by turning towards the Kaaba which

the center of the throne.

A person during ^,^/^r inclines towards the
is

Divine center in himself which
house of Allah).

the heart.

The

heart

is

the Baytullah (The
fit

A hadith kudsi, declares
I fit

that "I could not

in the earth

and the

skies

but

in the heart

of the believing servant. Ay^erdi asks
knomng) she
says,

questions and then by making
"I

tajahul-i arif (acting as if not

know but

I still

ask".

Another

text in Yusufçuk starts with,
I

"Everyone

comes

to this universe for a victory,
itself gives

came only

to be defeated by You.

This sentence by

us a clue of the tasawwufi state of the heart.
Reality
is

The

greatest obstacle

between the human being and Divine

himself Unless the

human being

completely gets rid of himself, he

is

not

ready to receive Divine enlightenment. Ibn Arabi reminds us of the prayer

which our Prophet always makes

at prostration;

"Make me nurn\y Allah!"

According to him, our Prophet here means "Make

An —nur is
"take

one of the names of Allah and
and annihilate

me you my Allah!" saying "make me nut^' means
in

me away from me
is

me

your

infinite

and absolute

being. If prostration

the place at which

we

are nearest to Allah, then

we should completely annihilate ourselves. It is possible to understand Ayverdi's "I have come to be defeated by you" in this sense. In another text she says; "They asked your name. I told them. They said "We don't know Him. Who is He? I was about to lift the veil and show You to them, but having learned from You to be cautious, I decided not to and thought that even if I did, they wouldn't be able to see You because if they were of the ones who saw you, in past eternity {et^el), when the veils were removed, they would not say here "we don't know Him." And with iron
stick

and iron
is

sandals, they

would look

for

and find the only "unseen"

which

the only "to be seen" in the universe. Samiha Ayverdi in this text
reality in

of Yusufçuk, describes a magnificent
refers

one sentence. She often
calls

and returns

in the

book

to this

theme which she

the familiarit)^

of

eternit}^

"A

ring

was placed on the

finger of the crazy traveler of past

eternity

and he was
find
it.'

told, 'thieves will steal this ring

but you should
as
I

still

go and

What you
I

said

soon came

true.

As soon

opened

my
the

eyes in this world,

found ring had been stolen from

my finger. I was

KADIN vu WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
226

one
for

who had

not only caused
it."

it

to

be stolen but the one of Oneness
(tawhid) is

who had

to look

it

and find

Here, the

reality

being expressed.

Duality vanishes.

In another mesel^hich

is

another expression of the absolute

reality,

Ayverdi

reconciliates the reality

of "In the beginning there was only Allah and
is

nothing else was with him" with the information which

explained as

When time had not yet been created, humans were beings
mention." "You existed
water and
fire

not worthy of

when

the world

was

a formless mass,

when

soil,

were not yet

differentiated.

The

universe was not even

conceived and kneaded in the trough of creation." She mentions

man

as

being in the station of hairat (bewilderment) as a spectator of the absolute

Oneness and

a traveler

of

ashq:

"And

I,

with

my head

at

your door

step,

would see

my dreams

of love
''

as

your admirer." Most of Ayverdi's texts
coyness).

are written in the station of

na^' (playfulfamiliarity,
niyaî^ to

(She movesfrom
says; "I

"na^'

to

"niya^' (prayer)

andfrom

na^ back andforth.) She

cannot

resist

being without you today, make
tells

me

lose

my consciousness,
she attains
a form, a

make me drunk." She
this wish.

as a

cosmic

story, the events until

She

says; "Until

my spirit became captive in

hand held

my hand and showed me the suns, skies. And finally brought me to a
you
will

the planets and the peculiarities of the

universe and said: "Here
I

is

the place

be a guest.

.

.

this is the

world." Thus,

joined this noisy world
is

where everyone
of the of

strives

hard without seeing each other. This

the story

human

being descending from the absolute Being to the universe

multiplicity.

The human being

has

come from

the eternal silence to
until the stage

q,
"^C

the noisy earth.

And

he would

roll in this

uproar up

where

he gets drunk with water.

2;

Now,

let

us

remember an example

written at the stage of disdain in
it:

''î:

Yusufçuk

where wisdom speaks

in every text in

"I sat in front

of you

and opened

my hands to pray. How strange it is that aU my wishes withered
the leaves of a tree struck by blighting.
I

n
co

and

fell just like

don't

know why

you haven't informed
I

me

of

this
I

predestined result,

am

not the post of prayers,
sick.

am the

why you didn't say house of love?" One day Rabiatu'l-

^
>. ^^

Adaviyya gets

When she is

suffering in pain, Bayazid arrives suddenly.

He

asks,

"Why

are

you not asking for health from your Lord rather than

^
m
CO

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
227

suffer this pain? Rabia answers,

"When

this is

His desire,

why would

I

want the contrary?
Alavi,
is

Isn't this a

shame?" Prayer, according to Sheikh

al

unnecessary for the mature saints

who communicate
really

with Allah

directly,

through their hearts. This text of Ayverdi has

been written
self).

at a level
fact,

of high perfection. Gnostics

call this

the
is

^t

(Supreme

In

the peak of the journey in the spiritual path
is

the level of Essence.

This part

called Û\ç.fark-i avval. Saints
self)

who

ascend from the created
it is

state to ^atijja (Supreme
i sani.

descend again from there and

called fark-

The complete
illiterate, it
is

saints

who

have completed their
is

spiritual

path are

ummiyun, safiyyun and ^afiyyun. Contrary to what

assumed, ummlyun, does does not read or write.
to

not

mean

does not mean the one

who

Ummiyun

removing one's own perceptions. This requires
Safiyyun refers to the purity
it is

be open

and ready for the Divine Truth.

of the heart
will

and the memory. The mirror, unless
perfecdy reflect the Divine
reality.

pure and polished,

not

Becoming

^atiyyun refers to the realization

of

a

journey from the earth to the skies; from the

humane

reality to
^atiyyuns.

celestial reality.

The ones who complete

this

journey are called

Human beings

have descended to the earth. The holy word {kalam

kudsi)

of Allah has condescended.
journey symmetric of
is

Human

beings are supposed to realize a
they are
alive.

this

descend,

when

The person who

a f^atiyyun has arrived now, to the state Ayverdi expresses in the text

mentioned above.
mushahada

He

has

come

to a state

where he

is

occupied with

(witnessing

of

his

Kahh and the channels of communication
opened. For the one
is

between him and

his 'Rûhh are totally

who has become
of prayer but
(love

the object of witnessing his ^Kahh,

He
is

no more

a station

rather a house of love. This station

called muhahhatullah

of Allah).
at this

Muhahhatullah results with marifatullah (knowing Allah,
point,
it

gnosis).

Right

will

be appropriate to mention the
and shavq
(yearning).

stairs
is

of muhahhat

(love),

ashq
fly.

(unconditional love)

Muhabbat

the bird's trying to
is

Ashq is
the
his

the bird's trying to fly with

its

own

wings. Shavq
its

the highest

level that

of the

bird's trying to fly

even after

wing

is

broken. Because

one

who gets

to this level

knows
station

that he cannot get to his

Rabb with
al

own

wings, but only, his 'Kahh brings
is

him nearer with His name

Qarih.

A human being at this

füled with only ashq.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF

JJ*^
228

A text in
clarity:

Yusufçuk
girl!

telis

us about this reality with extraordinary purity and
first

when you first started school, was to teach you the letters. A litde later, you made exercises of assembling these letters and thus the words emerged. Then you put them
"Litde

The

thing your teacher did,

one

after the other

and sentences emerged. Thus you learned
School
is

to read.

Now you are a grown up.
classroom. Let

over.

Now you are

entering a

new

me

first

teach you the

first letters

of the knowledge learned

without any books or pencils: Smiling and feeling ashamed, "Here
daughter! These are the
first letters

my
of

of the book of Love." Ayverdi here,

not only mentions the
reality

batin (hidden)

and the ^hir

(apparent) extensions
well.

but the true nature of the profession of ashq as
is

The

apparent,

exterior,

the outer extension of the hidden, interior. Ibn Arabi, in his
''Shari'at (the formal side of Islam) is

Fütuhat says:
(Reality), it is

not the veü of the Haqiqa
shari'at itsclî in

haqiqa itself

One

should penetrate
that t^ahiris
it.

order to

move on
but
is
it is

to Realit}'." This

shows us

no

different than batin,

a

dimension, a direction of

That

is

to say,

moving on

to batin

essential

and

its

path goes through
batin.

t(ahir. It is

required that one should
in the path to ashq,

not stay
it is

at tiahir

but go into

Batin

is

ashq.

And

pain that confronts the
is

human

being. Ayverdi says,

'There

is

a letter

which
there

called pain that

you should

try to learn before the others

because
contains
the top

is

no word or sentence which has gained

a

meaning unless

it

this letter"

This reminds us of Hadrat HaUaj-i Mansur

who

is at

of those
a martyr

who
of

have gotten drunk with the wine of ashq and

who became

ashq.

He

tells

Hadrat Junaid of Baghdad
dies,

him
day,

in his cell a

few days before he

who comes to visit "When they kill me the following
and take off your
sufi

you go back

to your madrasah (theological school)

khirkah (outer garment that dervishes wear) and wear the cloak of a mudarris
(professor)

because becoming a martyr

is

inevitable in the path

of Love.

Two raqats (sections) of W^/ which is performed with ablutions made with his own blood is a precept in this profession. The word pain alludes to
the martyr in the path of ashq. This concept arises
says; 'to die

from the hadith which
finally calls

before you

die'.

Samiha Ayverdi in her example you come across
out that
a clause

out to the

littie girl

as follows: "If

which does
place in the

not include pain, don't be scared;

just cry

this

has
is

no

book of ashqV This

is

also called bala

(trouble, grief).

Bala

also a

concept

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
229

of

initiation.

In the same way, Hadrat Hallaj said, "Sultans, after conquering

a climate, (land, property),

burn with the desire of conquering a new
for

climate,

land.

However, we have been burning

many

years with the

hope of

come from you. It is possible both to read hala as a divine favour, grant of Rabb and interpret it in the meaning of hali (yes) as well. And this is demanding rida (contentment). The station of rida, not only
a hala that will

includes Allah's being content, satisfied with the servant but also the
servant's being content with Allah. This station
is

one of the highest
suggests that rida

levels

of perfection. Yunus Emre,
a station that
it is

in

one of

his

hymns

is

such

very difficult to attain and says, 'The beautiful lover,
that

haven't
rida,

I told
I

you
told

you cannot bear our torment? This
that

is

a morsel

of

haven't

you

you cannot

eat it?"

^da is
the

a servant's being content with everything

and accepting aU

manifestations of His
evil,

Rabb

as a grace. It is

adopting with heart and soul

poverty, loneliness, pain, separation, death, aU types of material

and

spiritual

problems and being

at

the station of gratitude. Samiha

Ayverdi, in an explanation in Yusufçuk seeps in the hatin of this and says,

"The

effort to replace the
[tasalli)

one that

is

gone with

a similar one.

.

.

This

is

the consolation
indifferent

of human beings! However, being more brave and
calls

one sometimes

the concubine

named

'consolation'
rests his

{tasalli}-

which human beings hug

blindly,

whose chest one
its

head on or

whom they call to
gajlat (unawareness).

their service-

by

name he met

at his eternal identity';
is

When
is

the inner reading of this text
reality

done,

it

will

be

understood that the hidden
realit)'

of 'consolation'

is ria'a

and the hidden
Being content
'I

of unawareness
is

tawakkul

(complete trust in Allah).
is

with Allah
the radi

not consolation. ¥dda

the secret of the Haqiqa

become

(consent)

of

my

servant and

my

servant

becomes

radi

of Me'. Or,
raa'/l"

the secret of the exclamation

"O

najs.,

Return to your Rabb being

^afs ascends to the station of
during
its

rida after

completing the loss of elevation
is,

descent into the world with a symmetric journey, that

a

spiritual ascension.

The

naJs,

returning to
self).

its

Rabb

in this state, has
is,

become

safiyya (pure, complete, perfected

However, unawareness
is

the servant's

forgetting his Rabb. Sufis say that the servant

not free of unawareness
is

unless a bit of the feeung of ego/ self

is left.

The one who

unaware

KADIN VE WOMAN AND .._ TASAVVUF TAS A WW Ü F

û ^O
^JA
230
the

cannot

attain the state

of tawakkul (complete

trust in Allah). Tawakkul'vs,

human

being's not interfering because the obstacle
is

between the human

being and his Rabb
Saqati told Junaid of
sin

himself

The

following statement which Sariyyu's
this

Baghdad describes

meaning, 'There

is

no bigger

than your

own

self" Resembling consolation to a female slave in the

text,

Ayverdi makes not only the art of personification but also refers to

the seductive nature of consolation.

In another text about ashq, the emphasis on
place.

its

distinctive function takes
(tyrant).

Ayverdi expresses
its

this

with the word mustabit
all ties.

Ashq in
quality.

fact,

builds

own

ties

by tearing down

This

is its

cosmic

Ayverdi

says:

"We

were talking.
is

One of us

asked:

-Who

the

most tyrannical ruler history has ever recorded?
every mouth. Yiowever, the

A

different

name came outfrom

owner of the question was
me:

not satisfied with any of the answers.

Our eyes metjustfor a moment. He said to
too.
sciid,

-Why

aren'tyou saying anything?

You say something,

As a matter of fact I was getting ready to speak.
-Ashq (Divine Love)!"

Slowly I

Ayverdi, in expressing this
forever in
its

reality,
its

mentions that ashq

is

ruling ever
rival.
is

and
she

throne and in
fact,

sovereignty without any
is

In

fact,

emphasizes the

"Whatever there
says,

in this

cosmos

ashq (Divine
this, this

Lovef and

in the

end she

"Do you deem

it

worthy to leave

The essential nature of the Being is ashq. The secret of existence is ashq. The universe is born from ashq. There is haqiqat-i Muhammadiye in the center of the Being. All loves come from the love of Muhammed (pbuh). The poet is talking about this secret by saying, ''Muhabbat (love) results from Muhammed. What results from muhabbat without Muhammed.?" In a text in Yusufçuk, Samiha Ayverdi mentions the fact that we are the wind of the breath of Great Rahman who has molded the human being
evident victory and go far away?"

from

clay

and blown from His breath:

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
231

am asking you my friend, who has invited me to this worid? My mother and my father? God forbid! They are nothing but only poor instruments at the disposal of eternity. My master wanted to show a miracle; He went
'I

and picked up
it

a handful

of

soil

from

a

mountain, molded
it.

it

and threw

to the world after blowing His breath into

child

of

a

mother and

father.

They gave

mud became the her my name. I am not lying.
This
this breath, this

I

am the wind
I

of His breath and the owner of

voice that

have

left

thousands of universes for the sake of Him, has called me.'
manifestation of the

In

this expression, the

human being is being mentioned.

Hadrat Aziz
tells

Mahmud Hudai, in his book ""The Self Manifestation in Muhammad'
"I

us this eternal story. In a well-esteemed Hadith Kudsi by sufis, our

Rabb commands,
of

was

a

hidden treasure.

I

loved to be known.
being, as the

I

created

aU living creamres with this secret."
all

The human

most noble

the creation,
is

is

the last in self-manifestation because the

human

He is the essence, the summary of the Being. He is the heart of the cosmos. He is the khalife of Allah on earth. Allah has blown into the human being from His breath. Rahman's (the Beneficient) breath is the spirit of the human being. The remaining is bones and hair. Sufis
being
the
fruit.

mention the tanat^l (condescension) of the

spirit in

the body.

The

spirit is
it

imprisoned in the cage of the body. This imprisonment brings with
desire for the spirit to die before dying

the

and

to

become
is

free.

Adamah' means
the

red sand in Hebrew.
soil.

Adam,

that

the

The word human being, is
clay

kneaded from the red

Some

say

Rahman has kneaded the

of

One day at His time is like thousand years for us. Allah has kneaded the mud of Adam with both hands. That is, w\xhjamal (Beauty) 2indjalal (Majesty). Two hands of vMlah
human
being for four thousand years.
are

both

right hands.

That

is,

what

is

dominant

in Allah

is

the dimension
six

of y^/^^/ because AUah,

after creating the

heavens and the earth in

days, has covered the throne with His attribute
stay except

of Rahman.

No being can
says, "Allah's
calls

His being Ruhman. This

is

why Hadrat Ibn Arabi
to the clay

both hands are His
to the Master
earth,

right hand." Ayverdi, in the rest
is

of the text

out

of the breath which

blown

and descended the

and

says:

'How unrefmed and

inexperienced a

does forgiving thousands of universes for the sake
a big deal if this voice detached

man I am. What of Him mean? Is it

me from my home, country and sovereignt)'?

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
232

Who am I to oppose to this invitation? The master of the command who
is

impossible to be spoken about or to be described, did not have the

heart to leave

my hand, when dragging me to
me.

this

world holding

my arm,
do
I

so

He came with

What more can

I

ask for,

tell

me, what

else

want?"

As one of

the consequences of this wish, Samiha Ayverdi mentions about

sajda (prostrating during salat) in

another Yusufçuk
his

story. Sajda is the place

where the servant meets with
place).

Rabb. This

is

called a

man^l (haltinghis

The

servant, obeying the

command

"Prostrate yourself and draw

near (unto AllahJ in the Surah Alak (The

Clot),

comes down towards
servant.

Rabb.

And

his

Rabb condescends towards His
This
is

And

a halfway

encounter

is

realized.

called mani(il vj'ixh the indirect

remark of the

word nu^l (descend).
Ayverdi
or the
says:'

My Rabb! Do
prostrating?

they suppose that

I

put

my head on

a stone

soil

when

No!

My bowing head at that rigid place is

dispersed in the soft waves of your ash(^' This sentence has in fact a rich
area of reference and

symbolizes

many possible readings between lines. Sajda uhudiyyat (servanthood). The bowing of the servant for prostration
open
to
at the last third

symbolizes Rahman's descension to the world sky
night.

of the

Some

say Allah condescends to the world sky at the last third of

the night and cries: Ts there anyone wishing

from me,

I will

give his wish.'

Salath a mutual
hadith kudsi.

silent

prayer between the servant and his Rabb. In another
'I

Our Rabb commands:

made
it

salat a

mutual

silent prayer

between myself and

my

servant.

Half of

belongs to
this,

me and the

other

half belongs to him. Ibn Arabi,

on account of

mentions for example
says that the first

the

wisdom of

Fatiha's being obligatory in salat

and

three verses of the surah belong to Allah and the other four belong to the

servant because the verse,

"You alone do we worship and from you alone
and concerns
his

do we seek aid" belongs
(bending position during

to the servant

Rabb. Qiyam

(standing position during salat) symbolizes Rububijja (being Rabb),
salat) is

Kuqu

a bart^akh

(interworld).

Man is

trying to

completely abandon the limits of his egoism and be overwhelmed by his

Rabb

at sajda.

Samiha Ayverdi explains

this state

of submergance
is

as

"getting lost in the soft waves of divine ashq^ This getting lost

a blessing.

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
233

in another

text,

Ayverdi speaks about

this as follows: "it is useless to

warn

or to give advice to

human
in

beings or try to get the moral of the story.
like the

Advice pours down
in this world.
its

abundance
is

April rain,

it

flows like a flood

However, where
this
is

that shell (mother-of-pearl)
pearl.
will

which
is

will

open
with

mouth and change
it.

drop into a
that eye

Every incident
decode and

a story

a moral in

But where
writing.

which

spell this intricate

and mysterious
examine our

This warning reminds us that

we

should self

nafs

before the day of judgement comes. There being the
is

moral of the story in every incident
in the

from the meaning sea of an

ayat
tells

Quran. All beings are an
is

ayat^

an evidence of Allah. Everything

us

Him. There

nothing that does not recollect

Him with

Praise.

Thus,
are

beings and incidents which are each a kalimat of the

book of cosmos

messengers of the

haqiqa.

Ayverdi in a story in Yusufçuk brings us face to face with the
nothingness by merely removing
"There
forces
is

reality

of

all veils.

a hand which knocks on
attention
".

the door of

my feelingsfrom

time to time

and which

me if I pay no
areyou?

I ask

Him,

-Who

What do you want?
hand is extended inside. I
doesn't

Instead of an answer a

think. I think at great length
desire for

what

toput in

this palm

who
life)

ask for money or have

a possesion or the

rit^q (necessities of

and as I cannot end my

thoughts at a decision, I repeat
voice

my

question with anger.

He says

"Nothingness" with a

which
still

is

offended perhaps
its

by

my

absent-mindedness, forgetfulness or unaimreness but

not diminished in

effectiveness

or sweetness.

Nothingness

in the dictionary

of

initiation is annihilation.

Concepts

like

humility, ^^r, (spiritualpoverty), fault etc are also involved in the spiritual

world of
poverty
Allah.

this

concept. This path, which

is

the

way of

humility and spiritual
safest
is

is

the

most

effective, the shortest

and the

means

to attain

Baqa passes through j^»^. Everything or Being

attained by

nothingness.

Rabb does not appear before

the

The human being approaches his becomes nothing. His worth for his Rabb increases. Although it seems on the surface that this text is an examination of material existence /wealth
nothing.

human being who becomes Rabb as he diminishes and

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TASAWWUF
234

and non-existence /no wealth, the
the end, Ayverdi says 'what
is

reality

of faqr is being expressed. At
is

given at the state of Being

not nothingness

so
I
is

I

cannot

give...

And

at the state
it."

of nothingness thereis no Being that
fact that

can say "come and get

Here Ayverdi points out the

Being

only attained after nothingness.

The language of wisdom
in Yusufçuk.

is

symbols and

silence.

We meet with this reality
the sheath

"Don
of

't

tell

me

to

speak. I want to keep silent today. I

had my words in

my

enlightened heart.

Don 'tpush me

to

speak. If I comply withyou
cut.

andpull them

out, the fingers

of the one who touches them will he

" Silence is also a state

and

a wall at

some point

in the mystical journey stops

by

it.

Solitude

is

the
starts

country of silence anyway. There,
to speak. Speaking
is

man

keeps
is

silent

and the Divine

of the heart which

the divine center in the

human

silence.

Once

Hallaj

Mansur

said,

"The speaking of tongues comes

with the destruction of hearts."

Ayverdi continues and reminds us that a
heart should not be told: "Don't
tell

reality

which

is

not born in the

me

to speak.

You
I

speak.

You

tell

me

what

I

am.

From which

corner of which sky have

dropped into the

world? This seems
or keep
silent.'

like the interpretation say:

of the warning; 'speak favorably

Great people

"Pain makes you cry and ashq makes you
is

speak. Speech does not attain maturity unless there

muhabbat

(love).

Speech which
Ayverdi
tells

is

not mature does not involve goodness."

us this reality as follows:
I

"My Lord, I am grumbling,
burning with your
fire

shouting,
leaves

moaning, and crying out when

am

which

me with no strength. There are people listening to me even if they think I am hopeless. I am insane. My Lord, is it possible to wither with your
fire

but not burn, burn but not cry out or moan? But what should

I

do

with the pain of not speaking
in
it

when

this fire

makes the one who drops

when it is a handful of ash in the manisfestations of Being? When an unknown wind drags speech, cry and complaint to unknown places? Tell me, teach me at least the language of the moment
look
like itself

of resurrection.'

KADIN VE WOMAN AND TASAVVUF TA5AWWUF
235

Almost

all

texts in Yusufçuk are full

of the concepts and meanings of the
is

dictionary of initiation. This
lived in

work which

written by a wali writer

who

modern

times should be read and interpreted in the tradition of

takka

(sufi house)-t2LS2.-wwui literature.

This collection of texts which require explanation, try to pass on the

wisdom

that

we have

lost. I

am

leaving the

words

to her:

"You told me

to describe

that which

is

undescrihahle.

How could this he possible? I
is the power

know that you make possible

the impossible.

Where

in

me

to

make

those

stones like flowing water, freeing the clouds like stones or convertingfire into spring
wings. Tell

me

where

is

that power'?

When you
into ashes?

told

me

to describe that

which

is undescribable,

didyou want
hells

me

to talk

about the fire of the enlightened heart which will burn the seven

and turn them
born, suns

Oh

Devletlim,

(My Governor) I have

toldyou before.
its

Suns are

set, years followyears,

periods follow periods. The world in

movements, the cosmos

in its rotation get old

and restart like

loyal slaves without taking

a

rest or without

any confusion.

When

this

world which

is

dying

and is born at the same time gets prosperous and

harmonious by the power of the bravemen, the strength of the conquerers and the
wonders of the
intelligence

and perception. Mankind who has overcome

all hardship

has succeeded in all obstacles cannot talk about his burning, loving heart which has

plundered itself and the cosmos.

Tet me Devletlim (My Governor),

let

me

keep deeply silent as usual tonight in front

of the resurrection which cannot be spoken about

DPNOT:
^

Ajrverdi, Samiha. Yusufçuk. 1946.

Kubbealû Publications, Istanbul

/'

J(v
SZuvwsm^i
rjaat- s^n-.w

slâmî gelenek Allah 'in Âdem 'e öyle seslendiini
bildirir;

"Ben rahmetimi kulun Havva

nm ahsnda
bir

senin için topladm " ve "Ey Âdem,

mümine

kadndan daha hayrh
Tasavvuf!

bir

rahmet olamaz".
i

bak açs bu sözleri öyle yorumlar;

Allah rahmetiyle insann nefsini var etmitir.

Eer o nefis, mutmain mertebesine ulap mü'min olursa beerî insan makamna yükseltip, Allah 'm
ondaki
tecellîsiyle

mükâfatlandrr ki, bu da en
Dolaysyla tasavvufta dii
nefsi,

hayrh

rahmettir.

erkek akh temsil eder. Ve nefis büyük mutasavvf

Ken 'an

er-Rifâî'nin

buyurduu gibi; ikâyet edilmesi

deil bilâkis ükredilmesi gereken tekâmül frsatdr
Nihayet

diyebiliriz ki
ki Allah
'in

'Ey Allah'n

CemâU olan
tecellîlerinin

kadn, sen

Rahmet ve Rahîm
erkek ve

b

kaynasn. Eer Yaradan

kadn

kutuplarda görünüp kendinden kendine

âk

olmasayd, onu nasl tanyp idrak edebilirdik?"

Cemâlnur Sargut

#
ISBN 978-605-5902-00-1

''\

y

9

786055 902001

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