This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Kite Runner
by Khaled Hosseini
Historical, Political and Cultural Contexts.
A Presentation of: http://nedahmed.blogspot.com
This work is dedicated to Afghan Refugees in Pakistan.
The Kite Runner
Historical, Political and Cultural Contexts.
The Kite Runner
► The Kite Runner is the first novel by Afghanistani American author Khaled Hosseini Published in 2003.
First novel to be written in English by an Afghan National
► Title is derived from an old Afghan hobby “Gudiparan Bazi” or Kite Flying ► It is a unique Afghan pastime
About the author:
Khaled Hosseini was born in 1965 in Kabul. He Attended Santa Clara University, Cal. Graduated from UC San Diego School of Medicine in 1996. His specialty is internal medicine. Where his medicine father was a diplomat and his mother taught Farsi and history. The family left Afghanistan in 1976 when Hosseini’s father was posted to the Afghan Embassy in Paris. Following the 1978 coup and the subsequent Russian invasion, the Hosseinis emmigrated to the United States, receiving political asylum in 1980. The family settled in San Jose, California where his father initially found work as a driving instructor, later becoming an Eligibility Officer dispensing welfare to needy families, many from the Afghan
The Kite Runner is a 2007 film
directed by Marc Forster based on the novel by Khaled Hosseini. Though most of the novel is set in Afghanistan, these parts of the movie were mostly shot in Kashgar, China due to the dangers of filming in Afghanistan at the time of the making of the movie. Much of the film's dialogue is in Dari (Afghan Persian) (with English subtitles), and English. Most of the actors involved with the film, including the child actors, are native speakers. Filming wrapped up on December 21, 2006 and the movie was expected to be
The Kite Runner (Film)
► The novel maps the journey of the Amir, the narrator ►The story takes place in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States from 1975 to 2003.
Amir belongs to: ► A wealthy family whose father is a businessman ► The dominant Pashtun ethnic group ► The dominant Sunni religious group Amir tells the story of his friendship with Hassan. ► Hassan and his father, Ali, are Amir’s servants ► He is a low-caste ethnic Hazara ► He belongs to the minority Shi’it religious denomination ► He is the victim of discrimination due to his religious
► Ironically, he is also Amir’s half brother AMIR AND HIS GUILT FEELING: ► Amir overwhelms with guilt when allows Hassan to be beaten by the neighborhood kids and Watch him being assaulted by one of those boys SEPARATION: ► Hassan and his father leave Kabul for Hazarajat ► Amir and his father flee Afghanistan for Pakistan and
AMIR PAYS HIS DEBT TO HASSAN: ► He returns to Afghanistan in search of Hassan ► While in Pakistan, Amir finds out that Hassan and his wife were killed by the Taliban regime ► They left a son behind by the name of Sohrab AMIR ARRIVES AT KABUL ► He discovers that Sohrab has become the victim of sexual assault by Assef. ► Assef is a neighborhood boy who also molested Hassan
► The Kite Runner leaves one feeling, a terrible Sadness for the Afghan people. ► Afghans have suffered at the hands of foreign invaders and their own people throughout the history of Afghanistan and particularly in the past 30 years. ► In The Kite Runner, Khalid Husseini brilliantly tells their story within a
Background to The Kite Runner
To better understand an appreciate the context of The Kite Runner, basic understand of Afghan history, politics, and culture is necessary.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: ► For majority of its history, Afghanistan was at a crossroad of many civilizations and empires and a cockpit for contests between rivals ► These rivals and empires included Achaemenid, Ancient Greece, Mauryan, Sassanian, Arabs, Mongol, Mogul, and Safawid ► The Safawids ruled in western Afghanistan and the
In the eastern Afghanistan, including Kabul ► The Uzbaks controlled northern parts of Afghanistan
EMERGENCE OF AFGHANISTAN:
► The nation of Afghanistan began to take shape in 1747, after centuries of fragmentation and rule by invaders. ► Ahmad Khan was crowned king by
► Afghans refer to him as Ahmad Shah Baba, Shah=King and Baba = Father of Nation ► Ahmad Shah belonged to the Saddozai clan of Popalzai sub-tribe of Abdali or Durrani tribe (a Pashtun ethnic group) ► Saddozais ruled Afghanistan from 1747-1826 ► The Mohammadzai clan of Barakzai sub-tribe of Abdali or Durrani tribe ruled 1978. Dost Afghanistan from 1826-
The Emergence of Afghan Nation
The Abdali or Durrani Rulers
► ► President Mohammad Daoud was the last ruler. He was the Prime Minister from 1953-1963 Took power from the last Afghan king in 1973 in a coup with the help of Afghan communists and changed Afghanistan to a Republic, 1973-1978 Deposed by the Afghan communists in a bloody coup in April 1978 King Zaher Shah is still alive at the age of 93. He is given the title of “Baba.”
► ► ►
Factors Contributing to Disunity of Afghans
INTRODUCTION: ► Afghan rulers tried to build a strong state ► Strong central government would be able to initiate economic development and modernization of the Afghanistan. ► However, several factors made the above task difficult THE GREAT GAME: ► Rivalry between British India and Czarist Russia for
The Great Game - I
► Russia perceived Afghanistan as prime invasion route to wealthy British Indian Colony and warm waters of Indian Ocean. ► The British also concluded that whoever controlled Afghanistan could potentially dictate India’s future ► The presence of Russia envoy ► Afghan rulers became pawns in the convinced British/Russian British that Afghan king was Great friendlier Game
to Russians ► Thus, the British invaded Afghanistan in 1839 and replaced the
A Buffer State
► Eventually Shah Shuja was killed by Afghans and the exiled king reascended the throne. A BUFFER STATE: ► The imperial rivalries did not permit either to establish itself in Afghanistan ► Toward the end of the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state between Russia and Britain. ► Both Britain and Russia agreed to transform the
A Buffer State
be British found a king who would favorable to their policies and acceptable to both Afghans and Russia ► He was Abdur- Rahman Khan ► Afghanistan emerged as an entity in 1747, however, its internal unification WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: was completed under this king ► Ultimately Afghans resented the continued British presence in Afghanistan and King Amanullah declared its independence in August,
A New Game: The Cold War
The Soviet Union and United States became the dominant powers after World War II. ► The two world powers sought influence around the world, including Afghanistan ► Afghanistan regained its status as a pawn of superpowers ► This superpower rivalries during the Cold War led to further disintegration of the Afghan state.
COMPETITION BEARS ARMS:
► Afghan government needed to modernize its armed forces to: Maintain internal security
A New Game: the Cold War Political And Economic Development:
When the U.S. government rejected Afghan request for arms, Afghans turned to the Soviet Union ► The Soviet Union not only provided Afghanistan military hardware, but also built several airports and thousands of Afghans went the Soviet Union for military training. ► Most of the officers either joined the Afghan Communist Party or became sympathetic to it. ORIGIN OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY: ► The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was formed in 1965
The People’s Democratic Party
► Noor M. Taraki and Hafizullah Amin were the leader of Khalq
► Babrak Karmal was the leader of Parcham ► Parcham helped the last Mohammadzai, Daoud, oust the king in a coup in 1973. ► Daoud declared himself the president and included members of Parcham in his government. ► Once consolidated his power, Daoud
► become too independent to be tolerated.
The People’s Democratic Party that Daoud had The Soviets concluded
THE SAUR REVOLUTION: ► The Soviet KGB reunited the two factions of the PDPA ► A prominent PDPA leader, Mir A. Khyber, was assassinated in April, 1978. ► His murder led to a bloody coup on April 27, 1978. ► The coup leaders renamed the country the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Foreign Minister, respectively: ► Several months later, the Khalq faction temporarily succeeded to sideline the leaders of the Parcham faction of the PDPA. ► Intense power struggle started between leaders of the Khalq, Taraki and Amin. ► Amin supporters assassinated Taraki in October, 1979 ► Amin instituted a program of radical ►The Islamic green socialism and flag was brutal oppression replaced
(The Communist flag.) (The Islam flag readopted by of the Karzai’s government.)
The Saur Coup of 1978
by a close copy
Amin’s Social Reforms
SOCIAL REFORMS: ►
► ► ► ► Land reform: limited land ownership by a family to 14.3 acres of land. Reducing bride-prices or dowry to 300 Afghani or $6.00 Prohibiting arranged marriages Prohibiting marriage for women under 16 years and for men under 18 years of age. Outlawed usury
OPPOSITION AND RESISTENCE TO REFORMS: ► ► These reforms challenged the prevailing traditional and Islamic values and sentiments of Afghans. The regime encountered bitter resistance.
Resistance to Reforms
►When Amin failed to contain opposition, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and installed to power the leader of the Parcham faction of the PDPA, Karmal, in December, 1979. ►Amin was assassinated by a special Soviet commando unit while was entertaining his guests at the opening of the new presidential palace. ►Most Afghans viewed Karmal as ►In order to gain legitimacy, Karmal rolled the backed most of puppet and refused to flag. Amin’s reform, including a new Afghangrant his regime legitimacy. Karmal regime’s flag ►Instead they joined the
► Opposition took the form of a religious jihad or holy war, a war in defense of Islam against the atheist regime of kabul. ► The oppositions established their headquarters and bases in Peshawar, Pakistan. ► They were made up of seven militarypolitical groups. Here are the pictures of some of the 1 leaders:
The CIA and the Arabs
The CIA launched a major covert operation to help the Mujahideen defeat communism. ► The CIA placed ads in Arab newspapers to recruit young Muslims to join the Afghan “holy war.” ► The CIA eventually provided the Mujahideen with the decisive weapon of the war, the Stinger missiles in 1986. ► Eventually the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan on February 15, 1989. ► The last Afghan Communist ruled several more years.
► Mujahideen assumed power from the last Afghan Communist in April 1992. ► Mujahideen could not agree among themselves about the sharing of power. ► They turned their guns against each other and the country became engulfed in a civil war and was divided in several independent zones, each with its own warlord. ► Kabul was also divided into zones of occupations and turned it into an armed camps.
► The word “Taliban” is the plural of and Arabic word, Talib or someone who seeks religious knowledge before he becomes a preacher in a mosque. ► They were the sons of Afghan refugees in Pakistan and attended Pakistani schools of theology ► Became active in October 1994 in Qandahar and continued there advances in the country with help of Pakistan ► By 1997 they held about 90 percent of the Afghan
► the country ► The banished the warlords and forced them to the northeastern corner of the country and formed the Northern Alliance ► Restored law and order but through rigorous enforcement of Islamic punishment: public beating, flogging, amputation of hands, and stoning to death. ► The Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and Suppression of Vice was the powerful arm of the Taliban government. ► The ministry issued strict religious decrees that denied
The Taliban’s Achievement security in They brought relative peace and
The Taliban and the World Reaction
Only three countries recognized the Taliban government: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan
► Initially, America gave a lukewarm support to the Taliban ► We hoped the regime would be a partner in oil-pipeline UNOCAL or Union Oil Company of California
The new game, Cold War, between the U.S.A. and the former Soviet Union brought death and utter destruction to the country. ► Over 5 million Afghans abandoned their homes and went into exile in other countries. ► Close to 1.5 million lost their lives ► Many left their homes for secured areas of the country.
Other Factors Which Contributed to a Failed State in Afghanistan
A DIVERSE NATION: ► Afghanistan is a nation of groups with disparate ethnic, religious, and tribal traditions. ETHNIC DIVERSITY: ► Over 30 different ethnic groups. They are not contained within Afghanistan. ► Pashtuns are the dominant ethnic groups, who account for about 38 percent of the population and ruled Afghanistan for most of the history of
► ► ► 13 Hazaras consists of about10 to 15 percent Uzbaks consists of about 9 percent Others (Turkmen, Aimaq, Baluch, Nuristani) percent.
Baluch Uzbak Pashtun
► Afghanistan has two dominant religious groups, the Sunni, or the so-called orthodox Islam, and Shi’ite or the so-called heterodox. ► Sunni constitutes 85 percent of the population and Shi’ite consists of 15 percent of Afghan population ► Shi’ites consider Ali (r.a), the cousin and sonin-law of the Prophet, the legitimate successor ► Shi’ites developed their own conception of Islamic law and practices. ► In the past Shi’ites had been persecuted in Afghanistan.
► Tribalism is the most important traditional institution ► Tribes provide a sense of solidarity, security, and political power to their members ► For most ethnic groups, especially Pashtuns, tribal identity and loyalty precede national identity and national consciousness ► Tribes follow and live by their own tribal code. ► Pashtuns call their tribal code Pashtunwali ► Pashtunwali sets the limits of acceptable behavior and governs the relations between tribes.
Pashtun Tribal Code
►Jirga or council of a form of local government and makes decisions in all disputes ►Badal or revenge is based on the principle of “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” It gives everyone the right to balance justice. ►Melmastia or hospitality requires that a traveler must be received and cared for and the host must protect him
►Nanawati or asylum must be given to the deadliest enemy who has voluntarily placed himself in one’s power and requested a safe haven. ►Nang or honor or bravery or one’s self-esteem All offense committed against one’s honor will be dealt with.
► ► ► The Kite Runner tells the sad story of Afghan people. They have suffered at the hands of foreign invaders and their own people I have attempted to explore the causes behind the Afghan tragedy and elaborated on the following
► ► ► ► ► The Great Game The Cold War Heterogeneity of Afghan Society Tribal tradition The result was the failure of Afghan state.
A work dedicated to Afghan Refugees in Pakistan.
For more than two decades Pakistan hosted the largest single refugee population in the world. It was estimated that 1.1 million refugees remained in refugee camps at the start of 2003, after more than 1.5 million repatriated the previous year. In addition, an unknown but substantial number of Afghans were known to live in Pakistan's urban areas. It was decided by the Tripartite Commission to close three of the camps established after 11 September 2001 early in 2004. Repatriation in the previous two years had reduced the populations and the locations, without any water, made them hard to maintain. Afghan refugees in Pakistan are not a homogeneous group. They fled to Pakistan in several waves starting with the Soviet invasion of their country in 1979. They came from different parts of Afghanistan and have various ethnic backgrounds. The last refugee wave - nearly 300,000 Afghans -reached Pakistan after the attacks of 11 September 2001. Conditions for Afghan refugees in Pakistan differ greatly. Some still live in tents, others in mud house settlements that look like the villages they left behind. Those in the camps established after the 11 September attacks receive food assistance through the World Food Programme while all the camps receive medical and education support. In urban areas, few Afghan refugees are fully integrated and well-off. The majority of urban refugees are in slum areas of Pakistan's major cities, barely surviving on casual labour. Understandably, the unprecedented rush of Afghans seeking to
With Afghans returning by the thousands, Pakistan currently witnesses the largest repatriation movement in modern history
A Presentation of: Naveed Ahmed email@example.com http://nedahmed.blogspot.com
For Feedbacks: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com http://nedahmed.blogspot.com
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.