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MASTERS IN ART tE^\)c Cngratimgs of GERM A N SCHOOL .

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I'OHTHAIT OK IliTHKK Diirer painted this IIY II I MSKl.' |.1-. and a I.(. l)lai Hi- is f'. a fine gold-fmliri)idfrcd shirt cut 6tri|M-d cap.lirssc.isliii. MAIIKIII carct'iilly txtiutcil .lack and white cord. i through a window in .Luk and white place by a l.l. A violet mantle. an is seen a landscape with snow-capped hills. held in "'"''^ «"••' l'»rdrrrd with thr nt\ k. a low in one shoulder.n.HH . falU over tiglit-tittiiit.I.itr. the background His gray gloved hands rest on a parapet.il>ly in k. AI.iir IIA of' III) t.l liiu-ii hiiiiM-lt" wlu-n hr was twrnrv-six years old.

its love of pure craftsmanship. like V^erocchio's and Leonardo da Vinci's. All the fifty-seven years of his life he lived in one "that venerable city. Part 15.MASTERS IN ART m'brtt'bt ^iixtv BORN 147 1: DIED 1528 GERMAN SCHOOL only of Diirer's engravings. His paintings were considz. to whom Anton Koburger was godfather. my Fatherland. both excellently. is taken from an article by Albert Fleming in The English Illus- The present monograph in treats ered in Masters Art. busy with his wonderful ambrv. of all places north of the Alps. In 1471. Volume trated Magazine for 1890. Nuremberg was the supreme type of a free town. through nearly four hundred years. with an ever-widening splendor of — — repute. 1471. Nuremberg so clearly defined. His work is wrought in the clear light of a godly and quiet life. within its limits. my housewife bore another son. She was a Venice clothed in homespun. above certain all. or sacrament house." Diirer's art life began. its instant sacrifice of grace to truth. All the trade of the East paused at her gates. Prudentius' day. whose carving greets you still in the old city. the Friday in Holy Week. after me. Veit Stoss. onal of list of great men when Albrecht Diirer came as the corThere was Peter Vischer. who made boots and verses. and its quaint mingling of austerity and playfulness." I know of no life city. Teuton always. with stubhave a definite national IN Diirer we elements ever struggling type. against born Gothic spirit he expresses the old northern delight in the grotesque. was the ideal birthTrue always to the emperor. and. The following biographical sketch." as he called himself. "the inspired brazier. Nuremberg. Diirer was one of a family of eighteen. not defiled by pride nor soiled by luxury a hfe so beautiful in its serene completeness that it shines down upon us still. in which will be found a fuller and more detailed account of his life and further criticisms of his art. Adam had produced a long all. a Hans Sachs. true always to herself. amplified in parts. Kraft. Already the city place for an artist. and he called him Albrecht. Athe of the Renaissance. his father register his Thus with quaint precision does coming into the world: "At six o'clock on St. in the [107] . as Diirer's.

he savs. perhaps. notably several of the series on wood known as 'The Great Passion. from whom he learned the technicalities of his art. suspicious. Vittore Carpaccio was in his prime. in the usual commercial fashion." but after a time jealousies arise. scolding. Diirer resisted the influence of Italian art.' which introduced a new epoch in the art of wood-engraving. from whom Diirer learned much in the science of the structure of the human bodv. a certain wealthy burgher. The charge against her rests mainly on a memoby her husband's old friend. and they find that he does not lean enough to the "antique.' In the autumn of 1505 occurred Diirer's memorable visit to Venice. Giovanni Bellini was then very old. and almost the whole series of the twenty designs. eager letters brightwrote ten letters home to his friend Pirkheimer ened by a kind of lumbering humor.' and that. Directly he returned home." but Bellini." In 1498 appeared Diirer's sixteen great woodcuts of the 'Apocalypse. At first he finds many good fellows among the artists at Venice. so that it "holds one's heart up. Many other engravings mav be assigned to this period. He says in effect that Agnes worried Albrecht into his grave. as Vasari savs.24 training of a goldsmith's MASTERS workshop IN ART his father's. and in a few weeks Albrccht found himself married to prcttv Agnes Frey. alone permanently but is now rehabilitated. After that he was apprenticed to the painter and engraver Michael Wolgcmut. also on wood. and Andrea Mantcgna. hitherto she has been ranked as a shrew. one Hans Frey. whose death prevented their meeting. He was weary with work and greatly desired change." but posterity has repeated what the Venetians said. round whom a tremendous controversy has raged. "It is good and beautiful in color. that form *The Life of the Virgin. he himself chronicles his wanderings in four bare lines. but this so vexed him that he painted his great picture of the 'Feast of the Rose (iarlaiuls. rable letter written — — [108] . and the result of the influence of the half Venetian. just after Diirer's death. where the works of Martin Schongauer (then just dead] impressed him. the Italian engraver. These were soon followed by the famous copperplate of 'Adam and Eve. Perhaps he went to X'enice. After his three years' appren- was o\er Diirer went on his IVanderjahre and traveled for four one knows whither he journeved. Wilibald Pirkheimcr.' completed some years later. certainly to Colmar. and at last reached Venice. He himself says. but magnificent still. and Titian and Giorgione were young but already waxing famous. No with the elder Diirer. but candidly owns that he would for his part "prefer a light woman who behaved in a friendlv wav. for his son. and his forgeries.' a demonstration of Diirer's theories of human proportions. half German artist. silenced them. sees and honors and said trulv that Diirer was better in engraving his work. to such a nagging. They said than in color. Jacopo di Barbari (called in Germany Jacob Walch). treated ticeship years. — in Durcr's case. He admits that she was virtuous and pious. though his eyes are dim with ninety years. he had war in his heart against fraudulent Marcantonio. pious woman. to Diirer's great regret. So he borrowed money of Pirkheimer and fared forth on horseback. From Venice Diirer vivid.

the Heller 'Assumption' must have been Diirer's greatest achievement in actual painting. and armor and head-gear. and in the emperor's honor. The famous picture was not destined to last five hundred years. what he gave to his hosts and what they gave him. "for five hundred years. Vienna. Death. and records how they showed him a golden sun and a silver moon. In his diary he has carefully recorded his daily expenses. nor was Heller to venture to varnish it. in whose favor the Nuremberg artist stood high. and upon his commission." In 1509 came the painting of the famous 'Assumption of the Virgin. Quaint traditions used to be re- peated (till Professor Thausing disproved them).' another series of thirty-seven woodcuts forming 'The Little Passion.' Linked with this picture is the no less famous correspondence between Diirer and the man who gave him the commission one Jacob Heller." as was said of Sir Walter Raleigh. still is. one of which.' and the other was an allegory called 'The Tri- immense work umphal Car of the Emperor Maximilian. and would rap overhead if she found him idling over his work. "he could toil terribly. how many prints he sold.' now in the Imperial Gallery. and what 'The Adoration of the Trinity. Death. But he never did idle: from 1507 to 1514 no less than forty-eight engravings and over one hundred woodcuts were produced by Diirer. and strange [109] .' 'The Knight.ALBRECHT DURER affected him. He had kept fresh the healthy faculty of wonder.' and 'St.'* Between the years 1514 and 1519 Durer was engaged upon work for the Emperor Maximilian. and ' — the Devil. Diirer set off on a him his wife and her maid Susanna. and Diirer was greatly pleased with the good work in it. Jerome in his Study. and above all.' a 'Knight. Diirer wound up the matter by saying that henceforth he should stick to his engravings. 25 pupils In 1507 he journeyed home. and and apprentices gathered round him. and the Devil. else he would become a beggar." but holy water was not to be sprinkled on it. For this august patron he decorated with his own hands with marginal arabesques the celebrated 'Prayer is still preserved at Munich.' tour in the Netherlands.' which in wood-engraving in two parts." he wrote to Heller. "It will last fresh and clean.' and the celebrated copperplates of Melancholia. Jerome. but still we are compelled to indorse the opinion of those Venetian painters who said that he was greater at engraving than at painting. the year following the death of the emperor. composed of ninety-two blocks. the picture was finished. a rich merchant of Frankfort. A dozen men have given us pictures more wonderful than these. Among his principal engraved works executed at this time may be mentioned the series of sixteen plates known as 'The Passion on Copper.' "Verily.' or a 'St. was to represent when put together 'The Triumphal Arch of the Emperor Maximilian. At last. designed an Book of Maximilian. but in all the wide realm of art no man has arisen who could give us another 'Melancholia. taking with In 1520. and all the other high and stately junketings. Bearing in mind what 'The Feast of the Rose Garlands' may once have been. telling how the thrifty Agnes had a peep-hole made in the ceiling of his studio. for it was burned at Munich in 1674. after many angry letters. where he formed a school. the banquets he went to.

John. 1528. and so gentle was his departure that his friends hardly knew the moment of his death. my heart as these things. They carried him out to the quiet cemeterv of St. and Albrccht Diirer inherited. The man's character comes out in his works — his imagination. the man ^ his time. like Luther. What a generation of engravers had done indifferently well. were eagerly bought. He busied himself with scientific on copper. . the rich Franconian fields. "in all the days of thing that so rejoiced curiosities. 1 he public mind of Europe was quickening for a great re\ olution. and of Walch were glanced at with ignorant admiration and awe.26 clothes. Often Diirer said and wrote that perfect truth in art was never to be attained in this life. and in that struggle Diirer as an artist took a conspicuous and honorable part." for he ends and was often swindled. his grave cast of thought. partly to Hans Griin. with engraving him down. The tools were ready to the hands of the workman when the workman appeared. and Diirer possessed the instinct and skill to use them. . and on April 6. yet he served truth strenuously all his davs. and the life of Diirer was coincident with one of the stormiest periods in its history. He was not the first of the race of engravers. But illness now pressed him ch^se. that distinction belongs partly to Martin Schongauer." he adds. "I am a fool at Nuremberg. which he presented to the town of Nuremberg. with a genius all his own. along the road lined by Adam Kraft's solemn Stations of the Cross. the result of their lifelong labors. These men had shown by their use of the graver what could be done upon wood. and with the execution of the famous now in the Munich Gallery. AZ N I E ' 1 87 8 ALBRECHT DURER was. that Albrecht Diirer did superlatively well. It was coincident with the great struggle between light and darkness. MASTERSINART and "never. and appearing at a time when Europe was stirring itself from the sloth and superstition of ages. Diirer laid life days. dedicating to her service the ferxor of his youth and the assured skill of his ripened years. have I seen anyHe bought all kinds of by saving. as spring brightened paintings of the four 'Apostles. . and partly to Jacob Walch. of Griin. but already a barjiain.' down the burden of his long laborious he had dreaded death. his engravings traveled far and near. [1101 . and treasured with intense appreciation where the sheets of Schongauer. but towards the end he grew to welcome its approach. and his grotesque earnestness of manner. He was the Luther of art. The vear which he saw the light was the year in which Caxton set up his printing-press in Westminster Abbey and the Pope sent Saxonarola to the stake." Diirer lived for seven years after his return to sickness had begun to break writings. the busy hand and head were weary. my life. his truth- fulness. All through %\)t ^xt of Biircr CHARLES I'EBODY in 'THE (JENTLEMAN'S M A of c. between knowledge and ignorance.

In the slightest thing that passed from his graver. and his in color. reproduced them south of the Alps with rare precision and finish. he will appear an artist of extraordinary merit. he put his heart and soul into whatever he did. Jerome' engraved in 1514. for form. — — EDWINWILEY <THEOLDANDTHE NEW RENAISSANCE' the spirituality of Diirer's nature. and the worst of his faults are set off by the firm and delicate touches which marked every piece that Diirer's technical skill is a skill that has seldom been has been well said that. mingled with touches of character worthy of the Flemish painter Teniers. its lack of grace and loveliness. and throughout his life acted rigidly up to his own maxim that art and nature ought to be interchangeable terms. . as they still stand. and the multiform variations of light and shade. That power and earnestness which shattered the fabric of the greatest hierarchal tyranny the world has ever known are evident in the nil] . The Italian engraver.ALBRECHTDURER 27 and these. — — . Even in the crudest of his designs a rich and tender fancy is distinguish- able through the quaint symbolism of his subject. as a fresh revelation. it surpassed. his love for the real was so intense that it became at times a more or less unattractive mannerism. and. Spain. The harshness and ruggedness of the German life of his day. quite alone. and imbued in every line with the religious spirit of the time. are re- DESPITE vealed in his art. make the skill of an engraver rank with the fine arts. in drawing. marked them with Diirer's initials. and that perfect art is the highest expression of nature. . if we merely consider his command of the graver as well as the neatness and clearness of his stroke. . and for this reason he fails to approximate ideal beauty. yet through its very uncouthness at times shines the glory of superb genius. are distinguishable in all that he did. . all the honor that the cartoons in the Vatican brought to Raphael. as well as in the most finished production from his easel. they brought him all the honor that oil-paintings brought to the brothers Van Eyck. and the woodengravers who flourished in Italy and Germany in the sixteenth century owed Diirer was indeed all their excellence to his example and inspiration. His woodcuts are equal to the best of those of Hugo da Carpi. in execution almost all the reputation that he enjoyed beyond the gates of his native city was derived from the circulation of his prints. not only for the time in which he lived. . As a painter the first to men whose works were superior to successful rivals he had many rivals but as an engraver he stood alone. but at any period of the art that has succeeded him. It seemed as if he could not get beyond the confines of his daily life. and ence of over four centuries it would be difficult to find a more perfect specimen of executive excellence than the 'St. These engravings of Diirer stood. Marcantonio. and Belgium the originals were to manifesting the exquisite works of art in themselves be seen everywhere hitrhest crifts of imagination. in Florence. and in Rome. Even after the experi- came from his burin. with his keen eye for effect. In Germany. They were a fresh revelation to the world. . and all the honor that the glories of the Sistine Chapel brought to Michelangelo. and sold them in Venice. France.

and here and there in his work it gleams forth clear and radiant. teaching also that "art lies in glorify who can draw her out obtains her. Like that other great thinker and painter Michelangelo. Here' was no half-hearted endeavor. R. and the other German painters reveal the same tendency to err in the direction of strength rather than of delicacy. for they attack every one who." OP' least one the artists whose names are in everybody's mouth. . not only in time. Diirer humbly How much of this realism is custom and artistic tradition. and to temperaments like Diirer's with tragic insistence. no sacrificing of the meaning to the method. which beset the Diirer student are manifold. The Teutonic melancholy of his nature. man's hand. she will your art. and of a peRembrandt. I 1 1 2 I . and. for the Holbeins. It seems as if it were even more difficult to understand him than the older artists still farther removed from us. was in Diirer's soul.28 MASTERSINART this work of charm. yet always divinely hopeful. and whither bound?" These were the questions that surged in upon the man standing. no jesting with eternal verities. He holds us by the sheer magnetic force of his genius even . yet which nature. KOEHLFR all ' CROL I E R C L U B C A T A LO G U E OF DUREr's ENGRAVINGS'' understood. once obtained. "Whence came we. repulses at first bv his apparent ugliness." Another trait that Diirer had in common with Michelangelo was the tremendous seriousness of his art. The light of beauty. as he was. when more ideal treatment of ideal themes fails to have lasting due to personal idiosyncrasy and how much is difficult to determine. and evil held him as they have held 'mankind since the 'human mind awoke to their realization. and propose to him their insolvable riddles. yet it is true that Diirer is not the only one guilty of this fault. the painters of Germany were also reformers. that they went to the other extreme and glorified the common and the ugly. death. either as critic or historian. and to the specialist in prints brings many a sore trial through the Protean shapes which his plates assume in the way of" states. or harmless wanderer. it . caused him ever to wrestle with life's great questions. with Diirer it is different. and so supremely did they hate evil. to . Schongauer. Max Allihn is quite right when he says of some of his compositions that they "may be fittingly likened to the sphinx of the old legend. . Diirer is the culiar kind. it ' Courtesy of the Grolicr Club. who always comes up in the mind as Durer's rival in the fascination which he exercises upon those who venture within the reach of his influence. enters the realm of art. however. of vitality rather than of ideality. upon the threshold of the modern world questions that had gained sad emphasis from the long years of struggle just past. ." but as to the subjcct-matterof his compositions. come — S. The problems of life. always foiled. even though it might be clothed in tissues of silver and gold. Along with Martin Luther. ascribes his noble genius to divine inspiration. The difficulties But is as easily understood as the conversation of a neighbor of to-ilay. deepened in a mind so intense.

With Faust. which still further helped to mar Diirer's art." While. he quite agrees with Raphael: "But what Beauty may be. an undefined longing for the new out of which the modern world was to rise. is neither the one nor the other. and at These older men were of we are equally vanquished if we look him from a modern point of view. that I know not. which included ever evasive visions of beauty. more broadly speaking. however. the favored son of the south had at least retained through vicissitudes of the dark ages all the an instinctive feeling of form and refinement which his northern brother had never possessed. the two might be reconciled and enjoyed together. is thoroughly modern. In spite of the fact that he was just engaged in seeing his book on proportions through the press when death overtook him. the other. that of the scientific investigator. when. Diirer thirsted for knowledge. which he would not have time enough to draw were he to live a hundred years or more. and the vain hope that by returning to the dead past. we may hope to understand by contrast. the man of facts. although foreign to us.. which was racked and confused by conflicting desires: the love of. or. We think we have divined his innermost thoughts by approaching him from the side of the middle ages. lo and behold. we suddenly find ourselves face to face with an idea with which the middle ages had nothing to do. To the limitations which bound all the intellects of his time there were added those which inhered in his race. and there is [113] . however. Diirer. there must finally be added in the case of Diirer still others which arise out of the individuality of the artist himself. It was his never-tiring endeavor to find the key that would unlock the secret of beauty in the human form and put him into the possession of the ideal measurements according to which might be constructed a perfect body. He was a German. and quite as often he warns the young artist that the truth is in nature. he is both. if it does not lead to intellectual death was no exception. Raphael was content to follow his artistic instinct. by similarity. . therefore. however. Over and over again he repeats. and the endeavor to reconcile them. that of the artist. and thus present a unity which. and we understand him. To these racial difficulties. It was the old vain struggle after the absolute. ture of our troubles. old ideals. leading at and Diirer disenchantment. However the spirit of classical antiquity might be misunderstood on the other side of the Alps. in the many drafts for passages in his theoretical works which he! left behind. breast: one. But the difficulties which the age in general interposes are measurably increased in Diirer's case by his nationality. that makes him so thoroughly typical of his age. on the other hand. or rather. It was the conflict between these two tendencies. As to beauty.ALBRECHT DURER but also in feeling. 29 first And therein we may possibly find a the clue to the na- same metal throughout. and inability to get away from. . that the artist is full of figures inside. precisely. the reasoner. Rembrandt. a Northerner. he also might have sighed that two souls dwelt within his . as embodied in the Rome of antiquity. he acknowllast to — edged to his friend Pirkheimer that only late towards the evening of life had he learned to esteem at its true value the simplicity of nature. burning with a constant yearning for the visual embodiment of his longings. It is this.

and the universal estimation in which he is held would still be unexplained. and the answer received is this: It is a patent fact that most of Diirer's designs. It is precisely their cnigmat-. of vague idea and definite form. there left to explain Diirer's fame and the value univerworks? There is probably no other artist who is so freely That he really was criticized as Diirer by even his most ardent admirers." what. living in the sixteenth century in a like burgher community Nuremberg. ical character which proves to be their strength. compelled to work for markets and fairs. If. Noting all his limitations. the argument just advanced might be open to the charge of begging the question. 1 he story of Diirer's struggles. even while they are not in the least understood assurance that the admiration expressed by those who have not taken the pains to study them is not all mere lip service. which is that part of his work by which he is most widely known. being redeemed only by all these points are equally concareful and conscientious workmanship ceded. that most of his compositions are that he rarely. however. attained beaut\ next to impossible to understand. and Diirer is sure to be amongst them. and worse than all. which are the outcome of his speculations and his stri\ ing after the absolute. if ever. this apparent enigma is not insolvable. which tended rather to lead men away from than towards art. together with what an anomaly! "Lebkuchen" and nuts and even less esthetic things And." the true artist to whom the greatest need of life was to gi\e form to that which was in him. Diirer had no other claim on the public in general. have to continue our questioning. draw ugly naturalistic figures. ask whomsoever you please to name to you the six greatHere is anest artists of the past. we see him. And yet. and our hearts go out in pity towards the man who bravely carries on the unequal struggle. is due. even in his defeats. shall. however. not a painter in the modern sense of the word is all but universally admitted-. the spirit that yearned for the truth and longed it may be asked. almost from the very beginning of his career. hampered in himself by the racial shortcomings. to the curious mixture of allegory and realism.30 MASTERS Moved by IN ART on his no denying art. To the real student of other enigma. is commonplace and has the flavor of market ware. There is — We — [114] . in the sense now under consideration. and it expresses itself in his art. is sally set upon his -. exercise a strong fascination over a welcome the beholder. that much of his engraving. so that we are ready to sympathize with him. The man "full of figures life is a sad one. to him who knows the story of his aspirations and his Diirer. where his wares were exposed to the gaze and the criticism of peasants and lansquenets. — — to see ideal beauty. therefore. intensified by those of the individual discussed above! It is truly an ele\ating spectacle to see so much achieved under such terrible limitations. which characterizes them and invests them with the charm of a \ivid dream. that his speculative labors exerted a deadening influence these conflicting impulses. and others of like ilk. inside. moreover. and this enigmatical character. and this is more especially true of his engravings. and listening to all the "ifs" and "buts. again. at the commencement of the Reformation. seemingly the greatest of them all.

and developed it both on copper and on wood in special manners of which the technical success is still the highest mark reached in each special line. great at the be. perhaps. unmoved by the questionings and doubts. McClure Co. the is chiefly in Diirer's engravings that we are able to get an insight into communicate. or so intangible in itself. the hopes and the despair. to intending. [115] . of genius. restless in the pursuit of knowledge. and we must him. however. forms out of which all individuality is are united with unpictorial ideas. by the S. but as he obtained control of his material he gave to his work the result of continuous outside study. which crowd upon a single picture he in visits legends from those shadowy lands reserved for the the monotonous storv of every-day life. the more careful giving them expression. To this new art of engraving he gave some_ of the characters of painting. and striving ever to fathom the surrounding mysteries. lest any fragment should be lost. is The more subtle and diversified his fancies. wrongly so- grasp it. Hence the strange variety of forms. the real and the imaginary. his first work being little distinguishable from that of others. the wonderful mixture of the sublime and the homely. and seldom able to divest himself of them. and yet their meaning is so hidden to us. as striking as the delicacy of skill and the strange capacity for copying nature. — — But in this — — RICHARD FORD HEATH 'ALBRECHT DURER* Perfect in detail and marvelous in execution. courtesy of McC/ure's Maga-zine. Diirer's mind was full of the fantastic shapes which appear in the creations of his pencil. And yet it is in the ruder work that one can best gauge the extraordinary quality of mind brought to ordinary IT is ^Copyright. that this fascinating incongruity is not of Diirer's We be careful. It is the called idealized forms has been generalized — — that is to say. therefore. and the result an unutterable insipidity from which Diirer's realism happily saves him. He progressed slowly. has never decreased. but it is conscious it is not naive wherefore it betrays itself as spurious and is condemned. which afflict a nature dissatisfied with the conditions in which it exists. not to impute wrong motives unconsciousness again lies part of the fascination of his work a fascination which it shares with much of the work of the primitive Italians it is naive.^ ginning. There is incongruity also in much of the most modern art. each one conveys a lesson often too deep for minds unaccustomed to introspection. relieving JOHN LA FAROE 'MCCLURE'S MAGAZINE' 1902* by engraving that Diirer made a reputation which. he was rewarded by revelations which he strove to IT depths of his character. and acquired a firm confidence which is.. 1902. In it. must not forget. that it evades us at the very moment when we hope to lack of this contrast between intangible essence and tangible form that makes all later allegory so distasteful.ALBRECHT DURER such intense outward able to 31 life in them that it seems almost impossible not to be comprehend them. Given to melancholy thoughts from his earlier years. S. Humble and faithful in his search after good.

and that the great artist has dignified the study by beauties of texture and line. as accessible to the common likings and kindiv feelings of the multitude as they seem to the special lovers of art masterpieces of design and examples of technical fitness. . all of which are just developed as Diirer begins to draw. perhaps. In Diirer's works "Nuremberg's hand goes through every land. 'The Life of the Virgin. as if in a record of those things that one feels assured of in dreamland. but on the contrary. They are. He has mentioned himself the effort to recall the wonders of his dreams on waking. Whate\ er may be the hidden causes upon which his own efforts worked. Not that Diirer was guilty of error in this.' without timidity or fear of comparison in technique. Perhaps the very fact of a more humble material allowed Diirer to display in some of these. which for thousands of years have never aimed at a national.32 MASTERS We IN ART I little think to-day of the practical use of his religious popular work.' gave cheap pictures. that the number of his imaginings was greater than he could possibly record. The reason of the superiority of Italian expression in art is the extreme antiquity of its origins. It is useless to describe these great and simple works of art the woodcuts. — We — — . The national or race side of any work of art is its weakness." according to the proverb. perhaps. The images of the words are translated literally into facts with the vision of actual sight. to become a painter eipial to his extraordinary capacities. A single copy is worth more than pages of admiration or explanation. human expression. and yet more. and to make of such details both an interesting addition and a manner of continuous progress in study. His fortunes were so shaped by duty as to prevent his having obtained the desire of his lije. This in the other engravings those on copper which are carried to extraordinary finish of accuracy. at a general. rather. simple to every artist. . f 1 Hi] . images with the ordinary public of Catholic countries.' as later 'The Passion of Christ. is so great that to an artist accustomed to analyze the original form of conception it might almost seem that the study is the main thing. His personal expression is not exactly Teutonic. What is called German is probably nothing more than a form of less lengthy civilization. a grasp of imagination unsurpassed by the etiorts of any artist at any time. than in the great engravings on copper) the passionate desire to reproduce in every piece of work something studied or observed. He made for the ordinary public a number of woodcuts. liut the history of engraving cannot be understood without him. as if the most precious and most difficult was the easiest. and now ranking with the great works of less humble appeal and materials. may note in them (though less. and also the fact. the only designs which seem adequate to the prophetic poetry of the text. that of his Hungarian ancestry. perhaps. then accepted by the public as in the run of trade. and notably in the great 'Apocalypse. The work of his life is behind every print we see. This demand began with the invention of engraving and printing and the improved manufacture of paper. But the German side of his work is its limitation. but his habits were those of his training (a training struggling into shape). by an impression of poetry powerful as the finest verse or musical sound. he is one of the world's great masters.

and it was in his earlier rather than in his later years that he portrayed mythological themes. Moreover. these works enable us. Before him wood-engraving had been restricted almost exclusively to outline.' of 1513. . The inventive draftsman and the actual engraver of woodcuts were. generally speaking. Of these the most remarkable perhaps of all. better than do his woodcuts. however not less than a hundred executed by his own hand are a more direct record of his personal impressions and method than the woodcuts. . and intrust the cutting to others skilled in that special kind of work. So that. and his fame quickly spread far beyond the limits of his own country. more clearly than in Diirer's engraved works do we find interpreted the feelings and the trend of thought of his day. and his original interpretation and rendering of life. however. and of any period. and the Devil.' of the year 1514. In them we can best study his many-sided genius. — — . Religious subjects occupy the most prominent place in his achievement. admitting that he might have been as great as the greatest of the Italians if fate had so ordained that he had lived in Florence or in Rome and had had opportunities to study the antique. imparted to the woodcuts tone. to follow the progress of his development in style and drawing. Diirer's engravings on copper. It was by engravings and woodcuts that his fame was first and most widely known. he was a reformer in this branch of art. Nowhere.ALBRECHT DURER ALFRED WOLTMANN AND KARL WOERMANN 33 'GESCHICHTE DER MALEREI* most thoughtful. . and the most interesting. It cannot be denied that Diirer laciced that purity and simplicity of form which gives the greatest Italians their higher ranlc. his profound mind. we mean only the drawings that he made for them. after his first visit to Italy the influence of Mantegna becomes apparent. . closely allied to which are the allegories in which he shows himself to be a true son of his time. in adapting his designs to the conditions of the material and technique. . In his early productions we see the stiff and awkward forms of Wolgemut's school. but if the importance of an artist's influence is to be estimated by the independence of his genius always taking into consideration the conditions of his life and period Diirer's very peculiarities may be said to have made him what he is to German art. the | — — . His greatness was fully recognized by his contemporaries. and Diirer was accustomed to draw on the block with the pen or brush. by introducing light and shade. which was frequently colored afterwards by hand but Diirer. when we speak of Diirer's woodcuts. By his skill. and the purely German 'Knight. are the 'iMelancholia. and finally being led by his own individual love of nature and feeling for style to an independent conception and an intrinsically German Renaissance. instead of colorino-. Death. Never did an artist struggle more earnestly than did Diirer to master and artist A LBRECHT DURER was the J~\ the most imaginative German most original. indeed. . and under that of Jacopo di Barbari we find him eagerly studying the laws of human proportions. . two different persons. The Italians regarded him as the greatest foreign artist of his time. [117] .

slight sketch even a delicately executed on parchment sufficed . remains to this day an unsolved enigma. making it fundamentally his own before giving it expression. ever drew every stroke with such conscientious fore- We thought as did Diirer in his best time. It was for this reason too that engraving. "reveals [1181 the figure of a robed . The oftener we return to the study of Diirer the appreciate him.: 'MELANCHOLIA' I'LATEI ENDLESS it speculation has been aroused bv this most famous of Diirer's in spite of the many thet)ries advanced as to its meaning. in spite of the intense idealism of his conceptions. more we care for him and His beauties seldom lie on the surface. and also in his unbounded reverence for nature. or a to give expression to his thoughts. Edwin Wilev. and ungraciousness characteristic of the school in which he grew up. however. which. . in spite of much superficial ruggedness. It is for this sitions impress us to this day as being the best — reason that his nay. all that he derived from others he absorbed and assimilated. The original measures a trifle engravings. everything that he touched seeming impress us as being absolutely original to be stamped with his own individuality and with his unmistakable nation- — . In his Netherlands diary Diirer a title that is speaks of the print (executed in 1514) as the 'Melancholy' and according to the opinion of Professor inscribed on the picture itself Thausing and others. made him one of the most realistic artists that have ever lived. especially of landscape. invariably the force of his individuality is more powerto express his ideal of truth plainly as the vast We ful than any outside influence." writes Mr. — Cije CnstatJinss of Biirer OKscRir rioNS of thk ri. ality. see the traces of this struggle in the differences of style resulting from foreign influences. angularity. or pen-and-ink drawing. but — — over nine by seven inches. yet the freedom and purity of style achieved by his Italian contemporaries undoubtedly left some mark upon his work. No one who considers his work as a whole. "The picture. can fail to feel that. and that his sketches and studies. but the deeper we penetrate into his art the grander does he appear. .34 MASTERSINART mass of his studies and beauty. perhaps.ATi. It was. see this in his seemingly fruitless speculations on the value of numbers in the proportions of the human figure. absorbing it into his mind as a lasting intellectual possession. the only — way of compotreat- ing their subjects. While he inherited the hardness. Diirer is one from the German of the few great masters of all races and of all times. a water-color. his scientific writings prove this as and his finished works. characteristic of Durer that he never was an imitator. but the independence of his mind and his strongly marked nationalitv constantly triumph. it is the first in a series of engravings typifying the 'Four Temperaments' (see plates vi and vii). No artist in all the world.

As on a magic screen. and the fruitless instruments that they create. Diirer has revealed in concrete form that divine unrest. Scattered about the feet of the woman are the tools of carpentry and other crafts. stands near a great block of stone hewn into a strange shape. This picture is the reply of a profoundly imaginative mind to the question. the brain. a dead and dreary waste of water laps the wharves of a deserted city. This was the age that sought to solve the deepest mysteries of life. which will not permit the soul a moment's surcease from activity. . At her feet sleeps a great wolf-hound. Around the base of a monumental structure. but could not bring to their solution aught save the hand. so when necromancy fails to tear aside the curtain that hangs at the threshold of the unknown. hope. it may be taken as a vision of a mood that comes not seldom to the artistic and creative mind. and as a profound though unconscious commentary on the spirit of the Renaissance itself. mingled with apparatus for alchemy and necromancy. In the far background. lit by the mingled light from a rainbow and a fearful comet. The one here reproduced. where new suns are growing into being.ALBRECHT DURER 35 woman with wide-spreading wings. across a dark and sullen sea. five bear the date of the previous year. bearing keys and a purse at her girdle. her head wreathed with a garland of spleen wort. a magic square. bearing a scroll upon which is inscribed the legend melencolia.' is an early example. desolate. The methods of natural science are appealed to with no result but wonder growing upon wonder. has flown to the uttermost confines of the world. that unceasing quest for change. She is gazing. and is considered the most remarkable composition of the whole series. hang an hour-glass. but crowds it on and on to new and ever new endeavor. All these have been tested. and a silent bell. and even dares to wing its way through unimagined depths of space. empty balances. Some of the undated prints for this series were probably executed several years before their publication. and lose his own soul?'" . "In this size.' because of their by ten and three-quarters inches wide. with the look betokening a wearied brain. "Whatever may have been in the artist's mind when he drew the many symbols of this picture. yet ofttimes endeavor that was fraught with disastrous consequences or furthered by ignoble means. 'What is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world. based on visions. which apparently rises from nowhere and leads to nowhere. 'Christ Bearing the Cross. and the mind sits among her idle playthings. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS" PLATE II Great Passion. IN twelve large woodcuts known as 'The of They measure fifteen inches high the year 1511 Diirer published a folio volume of the completed series [119] . the mind. In the figure of the sad-eyed woman we have the embodied soul of an age that had tired itself out with great endeavor. Across the strangely lighted sky flies a horrible batlike creature. both demon and beast. . lost. just behind the winged figure. dies. A ladder. but still the mind knows itself but as a speck of the finite submerged and lost in the infinite. while an unhappy looking Cupid makes idle marks upon a slate. borne upon its great pinions.

" writes Professor Thausing." Of the fifteen woodcuts of this series. one drawing a bow. Koehler. In it 'Babylon the Great' is Rome. It represents the vision of the four horsemen. they were animated by a new spirit. But it is just this double limitation of the space which proves so uncommonly cficctivc. and of the tail of the last one. and represented. It is a sermon preached to the men of Nuremberg of the year 1498. whose worn-out jade limps haltingly along. described by Saint John in the sixth chapter of Revelation. but as a withecclesiastical authorities are the victims of the destroying angels. . for it concentrates the attention upon the headlong course from left to right. another brandishing a sword. The influence of it goes beyond almost anvthing that he did later. but the delicacy and over-elegance of the former become more virile under the hands of Durer. •THEFOUR HORSE MENOFTHEAPOCALYPSE* PLATEIII "TT^OR a the lover of Durer's work. brandishing the infernal trident. " Durer was the to adopt from Schon- gauer's large engraving the motive of Christ sinking on his knees. "one pub- X^ lication stands out from among all the other woodcuts of his early period. The fourth horseman." writes Mr. there is a vivid impression produced upon the spectator of the impetuosity of the rush forward. and is all arranged as it were on the surface. S. by showing only the forepart of all the horses. after [120] . This is the volume of prints illustrative of the Apocalypse. and makes it look swift and unending. Its composition has more of a plastic than a pictorial character. the pope and all On page page Diirer pours forth the vials of wrath upon the heads of men of his own day." "Not only is this one of the finest designs of 'The Great Passion. while a soldier has become a model for subsequent representadrags him along by a rope tions of the same scene. and thi> attitude a stone as he turns his head back towards the holy grasping the cross." writes Professor Thausing. M. and in the nobility of the faces. The book has nothing antiquarian about it. indeed. Conway." . is Death. are accoutred in the fantastic costume of the day. especially of Christ and of some of the women. so much so. the vision of St. His 'Apocalypse' is the first considerable work of art which strikes a blow for the Reformation. the other supporting his weight on women. "this justly famous design has never been surpassed. without any background.'" writes — one arm — Mr. and the third swinging a pair of scales behind him. each measuring about fifteen and a half inches high by eleven and a quarter inches wide. . The riders themselves. Schongauer seems to be upon the young artist here.36 MASTERS IN ART first print. it makes no attempt to realize the Apocalypse as he of Patmos saw it. an impression which Diirer heightens in a masterly manner. looking angrily forward. W. R. Though Durer's designs were not altogether original. "but of all Durer's works put forth in the shape of prints. John being merely the text. like a basrelief. monument of the artist's genius in its own line never surpassed. that the margin cuts otf part of the head of the foremost horse. Besides this. not as a skeleton. the one reproduced in plate III is the most celebrated. "For simple grandeur.

a radiant vision of Christ on the Cross appeared before him between the antlers of a white stag that he was pursuing. Placidus. as the artist in his diary repeatedly makes mention of the captain of the guards of the his plate as 'St. EUSTACE' St. as were the other 'Passions. and Diirer's engraving is frequently called 'St. The group on the right represents the 'fourth part of the earth. each about four and one-half inches high by two and three-quarters inches wide. especially noted for prowess in the chase. though never." Falling upon his knees. a Nuremberg housewife. It has been placed as early as 1497 and as late as 1509. Hubert. however. a fat merchant. So delicate is the workmanship of 'The Passion on Copper and so full of feeling the portrayal of the subjects of these " poems of deep emotion. whose [121] . and received the name of "Eustace. under the form of a gigantic dragon. or as some say of the stag itself. together with his wife and two sons. filled with awe. "Lord. The majority — — ' of engraving. was heard saying. One day while hunting in the forest. is a mistake.' which is to be slain. measuring thirteen and a half inches high by ten and a quarter wide. It is Diirer's largest and most elaborate plate.' This. answered. with staring lidless eyes." A similar story is told of the French St. "Why dost thou pursue me? I am Christ whom thou hast heretofore worshiped in ignorance. Hubert. about to engulf within its yawning mouth an earthly crowned head. Behind him follows Hell.' in book form. a shrieking peasant. It includes the various classes of society of that day. consisting of sixteen small designs. indeed. and in the following year the entire set. and." SCENESFROM'THEPASSIONONCOPPER' PLATEIV in SOON after Diirer's return from Venice gravings on copper illustrative of the plates for this series. as IN this engraving Diirer has represented the legend of Placidus. <ST. but immediately upon his return home he was baptized.ALBRECHT DURER 37 ered old man. the latter.' Authorities differ as to the date of the execution of this engraving. The two scenes here reproduced 'The Agony in the Garden' and 'The Descent from the Cross' are both early productions. and the voice of Christ. bears the earliest date of any of the series. a frightened burgher. Roman Emperor Trajan." that the series ranks among the highest achievements in the art 1507 he began a set of enof the Passion of Christ. in the extreme right-hand corner. and evidence a greater freedom of pictorial expression. PLATE V Eustace. and called forth extravagant praise from the older writers. Eustace. was published.' were completed in 1512. a valiant he was called before his conversion to Christianity. these plates are more spontaneous. or. I believe!" nor did the prospect of the suffering which he was told he should be called upon to endure for Christ's sake shake him in his resolve to become a Christian. known as 'The Passion on Copper' or 'The Engraved Passion. hence confusion has arisen. a tonsured head. Although not equal in mechanical perfection to those executed later.

is the second of a scries of four plates (of which the 'Melancholia' and 'The Knight. side. Ephrussi calls attention to the striking effect of light in the plate. and notably Rembrandt. in the words of Vasari. and we feel. The engraving. author of the Vulgate. simply speaking of the plate in his diary as 'The Horseman. one of the simple the presentment of subin its need no explanation. one of the greatest of Diirer's works. The learned father of the Church is here shown in his quiet study. the latter the ever faithful follower of St.it the horseman represents Franz executed [122] ." The Bible. lie sleeping side by one of peace and contentment. and marking bright spots upon the floor. estimate the work less highly.' Various interpretations have been suggested. has always been one uf the most popular as it is one of the most beautiful of Diirer's works. The sun streams through the leaded window-panes. though waylaid by death and the horrors of hell. in was 1513. Jerome. and shows the artist at the height of his creative power and technical skill. engaged in his work. and by careful execution of each separate detail. so successfully obtained that "only later the Dutch.HT. both in design and execution. that engraving. some writers believing it to portray a robber-baron going forth on a marauding cxpeiiition attended by specters of death and sin. falling on the table and on the various objects in the room. and now IT has been few works by Diirer sogenerally supposed. who was loud in his praise of this plate. Recent critics. however. JEROME IN HIS STUDY' is PLATE this VI suggested. a cardinal's hat and an hour-glass hang on the wall. which was published in 1514. It measures nine and one-half inches high by seven inches wide." •ST. AND THE DEVIL" PLATE VII THIS celebrated engraving. Death. DEATH.38 MASTERSINART only adverse criticism was that the background was too dark." The atmosphere is •THE KM(. it has been said th. Jerome. attained to such marvelous skill in this ject as to — respect. that "in this branch of art there could not well be imagined anything better. The room is a faithful representation of a medieval German interior. where a dog and a lion. a crucifix stands on the table. and is the earliest example of that combination of etching and engraving frequently employed by Diirer in his later work. fearless and undaunted. and the Devil' are the only others that were completed) intended to represent the 'Four Temperaments' St. others that it represents a Christian knight riding on. again. Diirer himself has given no explanation of the intended meaning of the subject. lighting up the figure of the saint. story of St. and Professor Thausing's judgment has been indorsed that "the invention and arrangement are far surpassed by minute delicacy of technique. Jerome being chosen to typify the meditative or scholarly temperament. and on the broad sill of the window is a skull emblem of mortality. From the oak ceiling a huge gourd is suspended. or Latin translation of the — was a favorite one in Diirer's day.

— — <THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH THE MONKEY" PLATE IX " all the Virgins of Diirer." Professor Thausing has endeavored to prove that this engraver was Wolgemut. the most beautiful and dignified.' to which the Melancholia and the 'St. probably executed about 1500. Rinck by name. who lost his way and encountered death and the devil. the loveliness of which was early recognized. Diirer's teacher. and that Wolgemut's plates of the inches wide. SCENES FROM 'THE LITTLE PASSION' 1 PLATE VIH Diirer published. R. typified by the knight as the man of action. As plausible an expla- nation might be that the ape was introduced merely as a decorative accessory. Jerome' (see plates I and vi ) also belonged. entitled both admirable examples of Diirer's skill in the *Christ as the Gardener' art of engraving on wood. known as 'The Little Passion. others that it is a plaything for the child. and that the letter S signified sanguinicus. The engraving.' Of this series two designs are reproduced in plate viii 'Christ Taking Leave of His Mother' and Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. The simplicity of treatment and the expressive presentment of the Bible narrative as told in these woodcuts made this series one of his most popular works. which measures about six inches high by four and one-third is one of Diirer's early plates." writes Mr. and gives evidence ot the touch of a workman already skilled in his art.ALBRECHT DURER von Sickingen. or it may perhaps be quite safe to say. Vasari speaks of the figure of the horseman as "the symbol of human force. each measuring about four by five inches. but also in the breadth and airiness of the landscape. placed before on the tablet in the corner of the picture. Its [123] .' in which the story of the redemption is related in greater detail and in a more popular manner than in either 'The Great Passion' or 'The Passion on Copper. a famous knight of the Reformation. handling is of the utmost simplicity and delicacy. might stand." and in old catalogues we find it stated that the engraving depicts a Nuremberg soldier. for either of 39 artist's whom the letter S. The original print measures nine and a half inches high by seven and onethe date ' quarter inches wide. in book form and with accompanying and exIN planatory verses in Latin written by a Benedictine monk named Cheli5 1 1 donius. Doubts have been expressed regarding the originality displayed by Diirer in this and in some other plates of which versions exist by an engraver whose signature is "W. "this is J~\." The presence of the monkey has been variously accounted for. a set of thirty-seven woodcuts. S. Professor Thausing is of the opinion that the plate was intended to form the third of a series illustrative of the 'FourTemperaments. not only in the figures of the Virgin and Child. one of the most beautiful and dignified. Koehler. the sanguine temperament. some commentators believing it to symbolize AMONG the devil. which in his hands first became a recognized medium in black and white for pictorial representation. or perhaps the friend Stephan Paumgartner.

40 MASTERS IN ART gram were Jacopo di repeated subjects were the originals. while Mary sits. but made by other engravers were based not upon "W's" ver- upon Diirer's. one of the most charming and naive of the set. Max Lehr and Mr. St. Betrayal. but argument advanced by an equal Germany as Jacob number of critics. Dancing Pe. Crucifixion. Lady on Horseback. Great Fortune. Offer of Love. Sidney Colvin and others indorse Professor Thausing. Prodigal Son. George. are equally strong. Joseph is hewing a piece of timber into shape with an axe. S. Descent from Cross (Plate iv). Penance of St. among be mentioned Dr. with a few exceptions. Penance of St. Great Horse. Turkish Family. George on Horseback. Professor Springer believes that the " Barbari. that the author of the prints bearing the signature "W. Eustace (Plate v)." was Wenzel von Olmut/. Holy Family in Egypt. St. Philip Single Prints: The Ravislier. "The fugitives. PI. while those bearing the pupil's monocopies. Sinion. The Man of Sorrows. Nativity." In the sky God the Father and eight The original woodcut measures nearly twelve inches high by about and a half inches wide. The Man ENGRAVINGS ON — — [1241 . St.\ as OF'The all Diirer's engravings on wood the series of twenty plates known Life of the Virgin' has retained to the greatest extent the popit ularity that enjoyed in the artist's own day. but for who was known Walch. Hercules. St. 'THEREPOSEIN EGYPT' ATE. when the series appeared in folio form. Christ mocked. St. the designs were cut and. down on the scene. the engraver the W" stood. and that they are copies from originals by Diirer. a troop of little angels busy themselves with childlike energy in picking up and clearing away the chips which drop from Joseph's carpentry. Paul. Descent into Hell. The represents the repose of the Angels are grouped around the head of the cradle. others bring toys to amuse cradle. St.. Christ bearing Cross. Three Genii. Standard-bearer. Christ before Pilate. Little Fortune. Little Courier. Jerome. The Passion on Copper (series of sixteen prints): of Sorrows (title-page). John Chrysostom. Monstrous Pig. Foot-soldiers and Turk. Entombment. Peasant and his Wife. St. Mr. First published in 1511. St. St. Pilate washing his Hands. Little Horse." writes Knackfuss. one reason for their conclusions being the fact that nearly all of the copies of the whom may subjects in question sions. Peter and St. The Dream. Christ scourged. in quiet enjoyment of a mother's happiness. "are busied about their daily work not far from the steps of an abandoned. not for in Wolgemut. Promenade. Tliomas. Coat of Arms with Death's Head. R. Apollo and Diana. Sebastian (bis). The Cook and his Wife. Resurrection. Agony in the Garden (Plate iv). Sorceress. A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ENGRAVINGS BY DURER COPPER. Christ before Caiaphas. Koehler. Ecce Homo. Adam and F>e.isants. half dilapidated house. the infant Jesus the Holy Spirit look when he wakes from sleep. near which a jet of water plashes into a tank. The Witch. St. Virgin and Child with Monkey (Plate ix). Anne and the Virgin. Amymone. Four Naked Women. Holy Family with Dragon-fly. Bartholomew. issued separately about seven years before that date. Satyr's Family. spinning beside the print here reproduced. Jolm healing the Lame Apostles (series of five prints): St. Tliree Peasants.

Paul and St. Worship of Dragon. Christ bearing Cross. Study of Nude Figures DRY-POINTS. Crucifixion. Circumcision. St. Ascension. Triumph of Elect. Assumption of Virgin. Beheading of John the Baptist. Supper at Emmaus. Christ bearing Cross (Platen). The following list includes the most important books and magazine articles that treat of his engravings. Triumphal Car of Maximilian. Triumphal Arch of Maximilian. Nativity. Christ as the Gardener (Plate viii). Christ mocked. Christ before Herod. Virgin by Wall. St. Holy Family (series of sixteen woodcuts): Vision of St. Melancholia (Plate i). Anthony. The Ravishment. Annunciation. Samson. Deposition. Christ scourged. Woman clothed with the Sun. Christ taking Leave of his Mother (Plate viii). Babylonian Woman. Christopher. Francis. Christ scourged. Jerome by Willow-tree. Bagpipe-player. Mary of Egypt. Martyrdom of Ten Thousand Saints. Sudarium. Visitation. Descent of the Holy Ghost. Christ condemned. Betrayal. Salome with Head of John the Baptist. John. Christ before Annas. Mass of St. Christ before Pilate. Holy Family with Rabbits. Christ mourned. Mount of Olives. Marriage of Virgin. Melanchthon. Virgin on Crescent. Christ appearing to His Mother. Incredulity of St. Betrayal. Erasmus ETCHINGS. Virgin crowned by two Angels. Frederick the Wise. Christ bound. St. Rhinoceros. Adoration of the Magi. Last Supper. Knight. Angels of the Euphrates. Agony in Garden. Angels who hold the Winds. Jerome in Grotto. Christ mourned. Virgin with Apple. exclusive of the literature treating primarily of his engravings and drawings. and the Devil (Plate vii). Pirkheimer's Book-plate. St. Justice. Entombment. John directed towards Heaven. Death. with the exception of Prof. ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. Patron Saints of Austria. Resurrection The Little Passion (series of thirty-seven woodcuts): Christ crowned (title-page). Gregory. Nativity. John commanded to swallow the Book. Washing of the Feet. Holy Family with Angels. St. Catherine. Anthony. Christ taking Leave of his Mother. Adoration of the Magi. Descent into Hell. John (title-page). Adoration of Virgin The Great Passion (series of twelve woodcuts): Christ mocked (title-page). St. Calling of St. Resurrection. St. Coat of Arms. Angel appearing to Joachim. Entry into Jerusalem. Joachim's Offering rejected. Albert of Brandenburg. St. Knight and Soldier. Presentation. Christ nailed to Cross. Christ before Caiaphas. Virgin crowned by Angel. Last Supper. Death and Soldier. Adam and Eve. Calvary. Wilibald Pirkheimer. Repose In Egypt (Plate x). St. was given in the number of Masters in Art devoted to the paint- of a more general character. John. Martyrdom of St. Virgin as Queen of Heaven. John.''*|'. Expulsion from Paradise. Annunciation. Christopher. Distribution of Trumpets. Moriz Thausing's impor- [125] . Descent into Hell. Combat with Dragon. Four Horsemen (Plate in). St. which. Two Portraits of Maximilian. Christ crowned. St. Virgin with Pear. Coat of Arms with Cock.ALBRECHT DURER . Martyrdom of St. Christ among Doctors. Breaking of Fifth and Sixth Seals. The Cannon. Angel with Sudarium. — — — — — — Biirer 33tbltograpf)p a list of the principal books and magazine articles dealing with durer as an engraver ings of Diirer (Part 15. to which have been added a few works A BIBLIOGRAPHY of Durer. Christ presented to the People. Head of Christ. Virgin nursing the Child. Jerome in his Study (Plate vi). St. Binding of Satan Life of the Virgin (series of twenty woodcuts): Virgin on Crescent Moon (title-page). Birth of Virgin. Jerome. Volume 2). Virgin with Child in Swaddling-clothes. Crucifixion. St. Last Judgment Single Woodcuts: The Bath. Christ driving Money-changers from Temple. Entombment. Onuphrius and St. Sudarium held by Angels. Little Crucifixion. Three Saints. Death of Virgin. Ecce Homo. Flight into Egypt. . Christ crowned with Thorns. George. Apocalypse St. Presentation of Virgin. Veronica. Three Bishops. St. Joachim and Anna at Golden Gate. Agony in Garden. Christ on the Cross. Thomas. Hercules.

Diirer und tier Umrissstich 'Die Krcuzigung' McClure's Magazine. Untersuchungen 1843 Sandrart. MASTERS IN ART were not inchidcd in tlie previous Durer number of this Scries. Nashville. Halle [i 899-1 900]. 1903 Zucker. H. Heidelberg. 1861 Koehler. J. 1887: J. at the Boston Museum of Fine Koehler. 1893 MarC. [Cambridge] 1893 Ollendorff. Frankfort. K. J. C. — xjLN. W. London. La Grande Passion. with Introductory Notes by Campbell [1875] Eckenstein. Geschichte des deutschen Kupferstiches und Holzschnittes. Strassburg. Colvin. B. Leipsic. 1874 Thausing. J. Note sur la pntenduc trilogic d' Albert Diirer Gentleman's Magazine. Beitriige zu Diirer's Weltanschauung (in Studien Diirer. 1675 liber Diirer. 1900 LiJBKE. L. Halle. A. Diirer Portfolio. Diirer's Apokagraved Work of Diirer. Foster's translation of Vasari's < Lives'). S. 1898: L. Diirer. 1897 Lehrs. Geschichte seines Lebens und seiner Kunst. F. RusKiN. 1902: The Earliest Etching 1874: Peacock. v.A. S. K. The Engravings of Diirer Repertorium fDr Kunstwissenschaft. Wiesbaden. C.J. Diirer et ses dessins. ALLIHN. Cust. Allegorical Engravings of Diirer H. 1898 over. Munich. Lc Peintre graveur. 1885 der Wiesbadener Gesellschaft fiir bildender Kunst. 1808 in Basel. D. 1887: M. 1893 RusKlN. W. G. 1901 Passavant. Diirer's Kupferstichwerk.•4. Grinnn. ausgestellt von lyptischer Reiter. Dcrdcutsche und niederlandische Kupterstich des fiinzchnten Jahrhunderts Zeitschrift fur in den kleineren Sammlungen. London. Paris [1902] Oechelhauser. v. Diirer. 1895: H. London. etc. Revelation de St. ACADEMY. Diirer' s Kupferstiche. 1893 zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte). Munich. For a more comprehensive bibliography of the artist tlian it is possible to give in the present limited space the reader is referred to Dr. A. F. 1891 Middleton-Wake. Die Passionsdarstellungen Diirers. 1888 Lange. Barhari und Diirer bildende Kunst. 1889: A. Diirer. Burckhardt. 1884 (also Thode. 1843 Sallet. 1892 Dt Vasconcellos. 1900 Wiley. 1866-67: H. Paris. 1893 Lippmann. v. 1894: L. H. Hans Wolfgang Singer's Versuch ciner Diirer Bibliog* raphic' (Strassburg. 1902 Retberg. Ephrussi. London. Diirer's Kupferstiche und Holzschnitte. B. E. Ariadne Florentina. D. 1870: S. Leipsic. Diirer's Kupferstiche.W. Prime. dite Apocalypse. La Farge. 1902: J. i 88 Zusammenhang von Werken Diirer's mit der Antike. G. Teutschc Academic. Boston. Weber. Berlin [1902] gravers of Prints (in Mrs. 1901. Ephrussi. Lc Peintre graveur. A. Berlin. New York. F. R. G. Nuremberg. Vienna. Wenzel von Olmiitz. Riehl. Berlin. F. Berlin. 1877 Dobson.v. M. Durer' s schriftlicher Nachlass. London [1902] Dodgson. The Old and the New Renaissance. Utrecht et public par Amand-Durand. Diirer'sAufenthalt — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — W.. R. Regensburg. Der Jahrbuch der preussischen kunstsammlungen. Catalogue of the EnGUILLIER. etc. 1890: M. Diirer e a sua influencia na peninsula. London. Paris [1878] T»^ DiJRER Society Publications. W. Diirer's Engravings Frankfurter Zeitung. 1862 New York. La —— — — magazine articles The Connoisseur. 1871 unditalienischeKunstcharaktere. his Teachers. 1881: C. Jean. Duplessis. A. 1871 — Bartsch. Nuremberg.. Kupferstichen und Gemaldcn. The Little Passion of Diirer. Diirer als Kupferstecher Fortnightly Review. Lchrs} Die erstc Jahrespublication der Internationalen Chalkographischen Gesellschaft. H. Holzschnitten. Diirer. M. CEuvre de Diirer reproduit Duplessis. Notes on Diirer Gazette des Beaux-Arts. tant study of Diirer. Justi. Catalogue of Diirer's Engravings exhibited at the Arts. Lehrs. Deutsche R. Utrecht [18 ] Weber. 1868 Rapke. 1903). and his Followers. H. 1865 Weale. Der alteste Kupfcrstich Diirers. etc. B. I 898 ^/ J^y. L. J. Catalogue of Exhibition of Diirer's Engravings. I. Leipsic. Marcantonio and Other EnEnde des Xix Jahrhunderts). The Little Passion of Diirer. Diirer (in Werckshagen's Der Protestantismus am an English translation) Vasari. Singer.and FuHSE. HanC. M. July 11. Diirer. Diirer's sammtliche Kupferstiche. V. V. A. — — — i : — — . 1894. Scott. Die Perspektiveund Architekturauf den Diirerschen Handzcichnungen. GrolicrClub. M. Dresden. Oporto. 1882 HoFF. Durer-studien. Nuremberg [189-] ^LiJTZON. Springer. A. 1889 Leitschuh. Der Kupfcrstich. Holt. Colvin. J. Springer. Hausmann. P. Strassburg. his Rivals. Berlin. 1877: S. Modern Painters.

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three sizes J1. JANU.1. This picture copyright. Boston Send for 1904 booklet of University Tours. BUREAU OF ( 201 -.1.A Kiel. '. and so on.OMMEO FEBRUARY 5 2 . Studying Art. 6 X 13.. 1904.N I. Part 1. We should be glad to : K*&mt3jffllui5tratEaiItoiioflrapt)3 A partial list or the artists to be considered in ' Masters io Art during the forthcoming. Sargent. $'>. 2. I . The Copley Prints are recognized by the most distinguished artists as the best art reproductions made in America. '^^%'^^^S^Zf. If not this particular one. VOL. Music. JO . The numbers which have already appeared in 1904 are : Part Part 49. $'. ISSUE FOR ^pril WILI. They are excellent for gifts and for the adornment of one's own walls.0O. other subjects in our list mightinterest you. by VOL." by Ethel Wright.\KENDON Street Boston I l. ig04." The Prints may also be obtained through the art <?// number Hotto NUMBERS ISSUED IN PREVIOUS VOLUMES OF 'MASTERS IN ART' stores. Vedder.entitled "AN EASTER OFFERDIG. and History. is reproduced in the genuine ©mTeu May we not send it to you on approval? It comes in 4 x 10 inches.1 . We send "on approval.S |i I . . PART GRKLZE r H 1. Volume will be found on another page of this issue. 50. TRtAI OK Masters in Art readers among our patrons. Send 15 cents (stamps) for our complete illustratecl catalogue (200 illustrations) including works by Abtx?y.J5.ARY KRA BARTOI. 8 x 'Jl.'.. an attractive and accomplished example of modem art. Curtis & Cameron.M M I '1.VflERSITY TRA 'EL Ci.MASTERS IN ART z HIS PICTURE.

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If you are going abroad for a Bicycle Trip. send for " BICYCLING NOTES FOR TOURISTS ABROAD. $50..500 tons. S." 10.. the question of durability. : To ROTTERDAM via BOULOGNE (France). .000 tons " CANADIAN. Infinite care is taken in producing World Brand Silverware. . Our beautiful catalogue is free for the asking. ^ ^ HOUGHTON ^^^—^—^-^ Passenger Manager." 10. Winter Rates.300 tons. $65 and upward From to BOSTON First Cabin Only. Round Trip." and "STATENDAM. DAM." 9. is an assured fact." 9. please mention .. HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE One of the most comfortable and moderate-priced routes to the Continent. With the excess amount of silver plate in all of our goods. $90." " RYN"NOORDAM.301 tons." 11. 314 hours from Paris.500 tons " CESTRIAN. 'T'HERE -•- ular attention. ROUND-TRIP DISCOUNT. Corner Masters in Merchants Art Row In answering advertisements. 15 Main St. Splendid new steamers in service: S.MASTERS IN ART are many reasons why World Brand Silverware should commend itself to your particOne of the many: Its s7iperior Jifiish. "POTSDAM. Immense new tw^in-screw steamers now in service " ROTTERDAM. ." 13. EUROPEAN PASSAGE COMPANIES' OFFICES (Bu'™Dmo) 84 State St. INDIA BUILDING. The American Silver Co. BOSTON LEYLAND LINE LIVERPOOL.500 tons "DEVONIAN. " WINIFREDIAN." 9. .000 tons " BOHEMIAN. Conn." 8. 84 STATE ST. likewise. Bristol. Summer Rates.000 tons each.. to give to our goods a finish that will show the unmistakable pains taken in the manufacturing of our goods when compared wath other makes on the market selling for the same price.

etub.00 net. but also an important essay in each part on some phase of modern written by an acknowledj. Separate parts. with deckle edge. of Rutgers College. $1. ^The thirty subjects are divided into three series often prints.00 per portfolio of ten prints Send ten cents for list sample print and complete of subjects ^. reproductions are extraordin. They are printed with a plate-mark and engraved title. Water-Colour.oo net." " I'urchasers of this interesting art. MASS. The size of the engraved surface is about 5 j4 x 8 inches. 67 Vth Avenue. John C. and they have been remarkably The collection as a whole promises It is a handsome publication. Complete in portfolio. successful in their aim. of to-day. ern aspect of Artistic Lithography. IN ^These directly PHOTOGRAVURE made exquisite photogravures are from intaglio plates from original negatives. Part VII.i authority. and the price is a modest one. IBinon 146 Oliver Street $c eompanp BOSTON. giving of the early men and the far more brilliant qualities of WDrlc like that of Mr. eig/jt ptirts. $l. please mention Masters Ari . Part II." The New York Sun: "The The Review ok Reviews: form of the publication is excellent. They are throughout ade<]uate. work obtain not only a choice collection of pictures.irily good. The publi>hthe reproduction of the latter's 'Jaguar and Maiaw' is one of the best plates of the sort we have ever seen." JOHN LANE. The modThe future development Part III. The prints are large and clear and lightly strung to- gether so as to be easily separable from the text. DEPT. Etching and Dry Point. C For /. Part /^/. Wi.r. Swan. Each series is enclosed in a substantial portfolio. A series of Essays by eminent authorities on the various graphic arts full-page plates in colour and otherwise. The development and practice of English Part IV. EVERY ARTIST'S LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE ART OF OUR TIME 1 2x16 inches. Price. with descriptive text by Dr. The art and practice of Monotyping in Colour. —The modern aspect of Wood — — The Pencil and the Pen The New York Tribune: "The perfectly the simpler textures — — — — as instruments of art. Indeed. NEW YORK in In answering advcrti«:mciits. of Oil-Painting. printed on 9 x I 2 specially made etching paper. by Dr. Part VIU. to be of considerable value. Part 1. $y.MASTERS IN ART in IHIRTY selected StiTlij=^= ELSON PRINTS of the great masterpieces in Italian Painting. Part V. Van Dyke.. Van Dyke. illustrated by 48 Engraving.—Pastels. ers have set out to secure something like facsimiles of the works selected for illustration.

Helen Hamblen Scholarship.^^^iVr ONE INTERESTED K. C. irustration. • PUBLISHERS Send 2c. ^ATLOVV PRices DesiONeo JTO Gfte^ • 9[rc|)itectural anti Urns ciiixx^$ eM8LAZON£D IN CORRECT 5TyLe flAddressesand Resolutions engrossed and illuminated for Club and Society Committees. BUREAU OF UNIVERSITY TRAVEL 201 Clarendon Street. F. to May 28th.. Boston SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS • art i^catiem^ of Cincinnati ENDOWED Money for HIGHER EDUCATION in ART BOSTON.A. 111.MASTERS IN ART l^ett) ^i5?. Director. Painting. EMILY DANFORTH NORCROSS 36th year: Sept. BATES & GUILD 42 CO.. J. Prizes in money awarded in each department. Every detail Slow is adapted to making the study profitable and enjoyable. Decorative and Applied Art. IN ART may do well to write best. Chase Susan F. MASS. 1903. New York For further particulars in reference to the School... CO. Miniature. a circus of one fastSir' moving ring. H. 42 Nassau Rockford. etc. Frank Duveneck Thomas S. round EUROPE AS A LABORATORY TVO some. $25. Director. please mention Art . References required of all students. No. stamp for illustrated cataloeue.. Painting. Noble V. Bissell Clifford Carlton Douglas John Connah Howard Chandler Christy Robert Henki F. L. HOWARD WALKER DIRECTOR Miss DEFT. *iBOOK LOVtRS. Europe is a gay casino. etc. No requirements for admission to any of the classes. CHAUNCY STREET. PRATT CROSS Modeling W. Sargrnt Theodora W. Parties limited to tVrite fur Prospectus giving general flans and Jiftji-six itineraries. Spi-cial Classes for Advanced Work in Portraiture.S. Composition. Cincinnati. DOUGLASJOHN CONNAH. itineraries. and in Normal Art Work. Thayer for circulars for the latest and the Drawing:. Fry For Drawing. Miller ) • For Preparatory Drawing.Artistic Composition. A. apply to SMITH & PORTER PRESS BOOtcPL-ATES. New York <Sk. Meakin C. GEST. Anatomy. B. Scholarships Year's Tuition. J. 28th. or Artistic Shading. University Travel considers it a Laboratory for studying the development of art and general culture. St. VV. Foreign Scholarship Men and Women. 9rt publications IS NOW READY AND A COPY WILL BE MAILED ON REQUEST - ' • ' • • • - Ames 20} RoIIinsorv Broadway. OF DESIGN For Twenty-eighth Year and terms address the manager circulars Caroline A. as leaders. Ohio. H. Address AIR BRUSH MFG. . Nowottny L. Anna Riis "j For Modeling For If^ood-carving For Design and China Painting C. Lord Henrietta Wilson > Kate R. Luis Mora Kenneth Hayes Miller Elisa a. Illustration.. 1904. U. inspiring specialists BOSTON twenty members. INSTRUCTORS E. 57 West 57th Street. BOSTON Masters in In answering advertisements. €f)e iorh ^cfjool of ^rt (chase school) INSTRUCTORS William M. EMERSON Anatomy Perspective Ten Free Scholarships. K.00 SCHOLARSHIPS Paige for TARBELL BENSON PHILIP HALE Drawing and Painting. to others. K.. etc. OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF ' ' • _ OROeR FOR. Barnhorn Wm. E.

French. combined something of Raphael's grace. and will represent the art of the Italian. MONG ARTISTS TO BE d. continuing to present in its text all the features of previous years.American painter of portraits in ^UcronCBf. and printing that may make its illustrations more faithful and beautiin interest. Coloni. The famous .m J\^ L tL K^ IIN AKl For service practical work for saving time.ifted upon Dutch ihr nia>ler of modern genre-painting. GtTman.> renew expiring subscriptions l)romptly. who witli his own intuitive sense of symmetry. the greatest master of engraving the world has seen. fiiiclitv m. that their of the magazine may not be broken. The Smith Premier Typewriter Co.inini. of M. as heretofore.. while an American painter will be treated in the magazine for the first time. and English schools.llnili(^.\ portrayer of the m. science of composition. while. Flemish. Series to be devoted C^Durcr's ©nffraUinge. gt CJFra TREATED DURING THE YEAR MAY BE NAMED 'Ih. complete no other typewriter quite equals ^^e A this little is SmitK book explaining be sent it I Premier just I why so will i)n request. tllHll^ ot 111- .\r\ . <L In general plan 'Masters in Art' will remain unchanged. rhe first numiur of the wholly to engravings will have for it^ subject the unmatched copperplates and woodcuts of Albrecht Diirer. . CL'S^OplCP. Dutch.idonnas and Holy ^•'. The English painter of dogs and other who expressed the emotional natures of the beasts he portraved.il days. ful reproductions.inter ^PintariCCbiO. please mention M.iis. and tender feeling.. who elevated pageantry to the height C^Lantlfirrr. and in the charm of its pictures the forthccjiiung volume of the magazine will not be surpassed by any of its predecessors. advantage will be taken of every improvement in photography.xsriKs in . and of most serious art.iftri660nirr.inners and cus- liay in scenes of wonderful decorative qualit>.>m French grace gr. 4I_ The artists chosen for subjects will range in date from the quaint. Ill . ^ Subscribers are advised files t. engraving. 1H3 Devonshire Street B( ! Mi m^ssmssssissssssssisssms^^ssssssss^ssssisssi^ prospectus 'iWastcrs in Art' for 1904 €HE IN list of painters to be presented during 1904 it Art' Series — makes — in 'Masters the fifth year of the already certain that in variety. •fiartOlOmmCO. whose art was the mo>t gorgeous of all the Venetian school. primitive painters of the fifteenth century to those of our own time.friar p. Better ask about to-dav.iiU- \vli. for long and satisfaction.mswering :uivertisemenis.


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'64 (E3494sl0)9412A General Library University of California Berkeley . ^y BOOK IS DUE BEFORE CLOSING TIME )ATE STAMPED BELOW JArt 9 '66 u^ I RtiC JftW 9 6 6 -8 P it LD 62A-50m-2.YD 32032 LIBRARY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN THIS DEPT.

PIANOS HE QUARTER- GRAND It is a perfect Grand piano with the sweetness and qualadapted to the ity of the larger Grands limitations of the average room. jm ^ ^ m MADE SOLELY BY CHICKERING PIANOFORTE MAKERS : ^ SONS ESTABLISHED 1823 Masters in 812 TREMONT STREET. please mention Art .-* — It is than the larger Uprights. . BOSTON In tniwering advertiiemcnti.^ It costs no more than the large Upright.^ It occupies practically no more space than an Upright. -* It a more artistic piece of furniture than an weighs less can be moved through stairways and spaces smaller than will admit Upright. jm It even the small Uprights.

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