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In Economics, labor force is all the nonmilitary people who are officially employed or unemployed.

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Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment.

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People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work.

` Low Wages is the lowest hourly. . daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers.

` Poor Working Conditions-Inadequate physical facilities and occupational safety measures. exposure to hazardous chemicals.unreasonable work schedule.if not absence of opportunity for personal and professional growth.and unstable employment status .limited.unjust compensation. inadequate leave benefits.

sexual harassments.Inhumane practices of employers include failure to implement wages and compensations as prescribed by law. illegal dismissals.and other problems emanating from poor working conditions. .physical abuses.` Inhumane Treatment.

` Absence of Job Security. .First is the escalating number of unemployed workers who command cheap wages for limited and small number of employment opportunities. Second is the advent of automation that displaced and replaced many workers because employers choose speed and accuracy in production rather than the creative efforts that shall flourish once labor is relieved from the drudgeries of work.

Thousands of workers take fobs that neither utilize nor enhance their skills and academic training.even domestic helpers are not an uncommon sight nowadays.drivers.clerks. .messengers.` Underemployment.College degree holders performing functions that used to be reserved for janitors.

the trade union movement is still weak.The organized sector of the Philippine labor force is still a minority.6 M actual labor force. Although the number of unionized workers is rising.` Unor ganized Labor Force. As a result.it has not gone beyond 13%of the 22. . with a fluctuating and unstable membership covering only a small percentage of the workforce.

Some deprive women of equal opportunities for careeradvancement.` Discrimination. Age consideration is another discriminating factor. .the issue of racial discrimination has become a disturbing reality for Filipino overseas workers who are forced to take menial jobs as domestic helpers and laborers even if their educational attainment and experience prove that they are over-qualified for the work they take. Finally. Although the Labor Code defines the legal age brackets for employment.many establishments still prefer employing workers who are neither too young not too old.

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208 38.7 2010 60.854 63.5 92.829 64.262 6.7 19.102 2.2 7.820 35.992 7.116 34.3 .657 37.238 2.Labor Force Statistics Indications Household Population 15 Years Old and Over (000) Labor Force (000) Employed (000) Underemployed (000) Unemployed (000) Labor Force Participation Rate (%) Employment Rate (%) Underemployment Rate (as % of Employed) Unemployment Rate (%) 2009 58.3 92.7 7.3 18.

` Unemployment.a condition wherein an employed individual¶s work is insufficient to fulfill his needs .a jobless condition ` Underemployment .

cyclical unemployment will be low because total economic output is being maximized. When economic output falls. When business cycles are at their peak. as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP). The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of spending and consumption in the overall economy. .the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor to employ all those who are looking for work. the business cycle is low and cyclical unemployment will rise.` CYCLICAL.

An example of structural unemployment is the technological revolution. Computers may have eliminated jobs.Unemployment resulting from changes in the basic composition of the economy. . These changes simultaneously open new positions for trained workers.` STRUCTURAL. but they also opened up new positions for those who have the skills to operate the computers.

As a result this person does not take other work. For example. resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employers or from workers and employers having inconsistent or incomplete information. a first-time job seeker may lack the resources or efficiency for finding the company that has the job that is available and suitable for him or her.always present in the economy. temporarily holding out for the better-paying job.` FRICTIONAL. .

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no matter what the reason. is caused by the worker being unwillingly laid off (fired). ` . Involuntary unemployment.` Voluntary unemployment is unemployment caused by the worker choosing to be unemployed. on the other hand. such as willingly quitting a job.

received by workers in exchange for their labor. usually financial.` A wage is a compensation. .

` The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. . Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations. and many countries have no minimum wage.

.00 per day basic wage increase to all minimum wage workers in the private sector in the region. NCR-15 b/ Effective 01 July 2010 Grants a P22.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES National Capital Region (NCR) a/ Per Wage Order No.

. 2011) Grants an additional P12.00 COLA per day.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) a/ Wage Order No. RB-CAR-14 b/ (Effective January 1.

RB 1-14 b/ Effective 20 January 2011 Grants a P5. and integration of the existing P10.00 or P8.00 per day wage increase to all private sector workers and employees receiving the minimum wage rates in the region.O No. RB1-13 into the basic pay.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION I (Ilocos) a/ Per Wage Order No.00 COLA under W. .

00 COLA under W. RBIII-14 into the basic pay.O.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION III.00 per day to all minimum wage earners/workers and employees in the private sector in the region. No. . 2010 Grants an integration of P10. Central Luzon a/ Per Wage Order No. RBIII-15 b/ Effective November 22. and a new COLA increase of P14.

00 per day wage increase to all minimum wage workers and employees in the private sector across the area classification . IVA-14 b/ Effective 15 January 2011 Grants a P17. CALABARZON a/ Wage Order No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-A.

RB IV-B-05 b/ (Effective: November 11. 2010) Grants a P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-B. . MIMAROPA a/ Per Wage Order No.00 wage increase to all private sector minimum wage workers in the Region.

2011 .00/day wage increase and integration of the P7.00 COLA under W.00 effective March 1. No.P6.P5. BICOL a/ Per Wage Order No.O. RBV-13 into the basic wage Non-Agriculture . 2011 Agriculture . RBV-14 b/ Effective: 01 November 2010 Upon effectivity .` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION V.P8.00 effective March 1.

00 basic wage increase to all minimum wage earners in the private sector in the region. RBVI-18 b/ Effective 12 August 2010 Grants a P15. . Western Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VI.

` .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VII.00 basic wage increase per day to all minimum wage workers in the region. 2010 Grants a P18. ROVII-15 a/ Effective September 1. Central Visayas Per Wage Order No.

RB VIII-14.O. . No. RB VIII-15 b/ Effective 16 June 2008 Provides a P10.00 COLA per day in addition to the existing P8. Eastern Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VIII.00 COLA under W.

RIX-I6 b/ Effective 09 September 2010 Grants P15.O.00 per day wage increase.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IX. RIX-15 into the basic wage. and the integration of P15. Zamboanga Peninsula a/ Per Wage Order No.00 COLA under W. . No.

O.00 wage increase per day . RX14 shall be integrated into the basic pay .Effective October 1.00 COLA under W. Northern Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION X. 2010: P13. RX-15 b/ Upon effectivity: P12.

. RB XI-15 to all private sector minimum wage earners in the region. No. RTWPB-XI-16 b/ Effective 01 September 2010 Grants a P21. Davao Region a/ Per Wage Order No.O.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XI.00 per day wage increase in addition to the existing COLA under W.

RB XII-16 b/ Effective: 31 October 2010 .Integration of COLAs under W.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XII Central Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.O. RBXII-14(P5.New COLA of P10.00). RBXII13 (P11.00 COLA per day effective 01 April 2011 .00) into the basic pay . Nos.00) and RBXII-15 (P5.00/day upon effectivity and additional P5.

00 per day wage increase.00) COLA under W. The P10.00 from the Twenty Three Pesos (P23. 2.O No. RXIII-10 b/ Effective 25 August 2010 1. A P10.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XIII Caraga a/ Per Wage Order No. . RXIII-09 shall be integrated into the basic daily minimum wage.

ARMM-12 b/ Effective 20 August 2010 Provides P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.00 wage increase in the basic wage .

Salary is paid. In most years.` Salary is a fixed amount of money or compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed. in a bi-weekly paycheck to an exempt or professional employee. an employee¶s salary is paid in 26 even paychecks over the course of the year. most frequently. .

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