What is Training?
‡ Training ± a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees¶ learning of jobrelated competencies
± Competencies ± knowledge, skills or behavior critical for successful job performance

‡ The goal of training is for employees to:
± master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in training programs, and ± apply them to their day-to-day activities

Knowledge :- It is an organized body of facts , principles , procedures, and information acquired overtime. Declarative Procedural Strategic

Skills :- The capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience. A person¶s skills are reflected by how well she is able to carry out specific actions, such as operating a piece of equipment, communicating effectively, or implementing a business strategy. There are two levels of skill acquisition :Compilation Automaticity Attitudes :- Attitudes are employee beliefs and opinions that support or inhibit behavior.

A competency is a set of knowledge , skills , and attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks. In the broadest sense, a job is broken down into a set of tasks, and the competencies required to perform the job are determined through an analysis of the of the tasks. A competency is more than just KSAs: it is the ability to integrate and use the KSAs to perform a task successfully. Example :- Carpentary

TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION Training is a set of activities, whereas development is the desired outcome of those activities. Training is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs, development refers to the learning of KSAs. Education is typically differentiated from training and development by the types of KSAs developed , which are more general in nature. Training is typically focused on job specific KSAs, education focuses on more general KSAs related , not specifically tailored , to a person¶s career or job.

Training is to be used to gain a competitive advantage, company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. Intellectual capital includes:1) Basic skills ( skills needed to perform one¶s job). 2) Advanced skills ( such as how to use technology to share information with other employees ). 3) An understanding of the customer or manufacturing system. 4) Self ±motivated creativity.

High-Leverage Training
‡ Linked to strategic goals and objectives ‡ Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective ‡ Compares or benchmarks the company¶s training programs against training programs in other companies ‡ Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning

Continuous Learning (1 of 2)
‡ Requires employees to understand the entire work system including the relationships among:
± their jobs ± their work units ± the entire company

Training and Performance ‡ Emphasis on high-leverage training has been accompanied by a movement to link training to performance improvement ‡ Training is used to improve employee performance ‡ This leads to improved business results .

and trainees . managers.Training and Performance: Today¶s Emphasis (1 of 2) ‡ Providing educational opportunities for all employees ‡ An on-going process of performance improvement that is directly measurable ± not one-time training events ‡ The need to demonstrate the benefits of training ± to executives.

training managers.Training and Performance: Today¶s Emphasis (2 of 2) ‡ Learning as a lifelong event ± senior management. and employees have ownership ‡ Training used to help attain strategic business objectives ± helps companies gain a competitive advantage .

providing lifelong solutions for people with chronic heart and neurological diseases. . Medtronic is the world leader in medical technology .EXAMPLE :. In the Medtronic Asia/ Pacific location. Medtronic engages employees in learning and development . which links them to the company mission of restoring many people to full and productive lives and of making sure that products are available to patients who need them. a developing managers¶ programme placed more emphasis on cultural awareness because the managers were from many different locations and backgrounds.Medtronic is a good example of a company that uses high ± leverage training. for example .

Step 2 is to ensure that employees have the motivation and basic skills necessary to master training content. Step 5 is to develop an evaluation plan. Step 3 is to create the learning environment that has the features necessary for learning to occur. Step 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the training content to their jobs. Step 7 is to evaluate the program and make changes in it . .The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. Step 6 is to choose the training method based on the learning objectives and learning environment. which is necessary to identify whether training is needed. Step1 is to conducted a needs assessment.

Training Design Process .

ISD refers to a process for designing and developing training programs. The training design process sometimes is referred to as the ADDIE model because it includes :1. Implementation 5. Design 3. Evaluation . Development 4. Analysis 2.The training design process is based on principles of Instructional System Design .

Instructional System Design (ISD) ‡ Refers to a process for designing and developing training programs ‡ There is not one universally accepted ISD model ‡ ISD process should be: ± systematic ± flexible enough to adapt to business needs .

Assumptions of ISD Approaches (2 of 2) ‡ Evaluation plays an important part in: ± planning and choosing a training method ± monitoring the training program ± suggesting changes to the training design process .

The development of a Web ± based training program focusing on teaching managers skills needed to run effective business meetings provides a good example of use of the instructional design process. .EXAMPLE :.

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (1 of 2) ‡ Globalization ± offshoring ‡ Need for leadership ‡ Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital focus on link to business strategy ‡ Attracting and retaining talent ‡ Customer service and quality emphasis .

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (2 of 2) ‡ Changing demographics and diversity of the work force ‡ New technology ‡ High-performance models of work systems ‡ Economic changes .

Companies without international operations may buy or use goods that have been produced overseas. to learn the corporate culture as well as the secrets of brewing flavorful coffee. or compete with foreign ± owned companies operating within the US.It has affected not just businesses with international operations. In contrast to the computer and printer manufacturer Hewlett ± Packard which hired its foreign workers 20 years after its founding in 1939.Procter and Gamble Starbucks in China New managers were sent to Tacoma .GLOBALIZATION :. hire employees with diverse backgrounds. Washington. Globalization also means That U. Globalization is not limited to a particular sector of the economy or product market. Example :.S companies may move job overseas: offshoring refers to the process of moving jobs from the United States to other locations in the world. . search engine Google employed people outside the US just 3 years after its 1998 start.

train . administrative.THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP The aging of the workforce and globalization mean that companies will need to identify .Management development programs of IKEA. Companies need to both identify employees with managerial talent and help potential new managers develop the skills needed to succeed. e-learning programme 3) The Next Generation Store Manager Program . and develop employees with managerial talent. The Swedish ± based home furnishing retailer that has its US headquarters in Pennsylvania. Example :. 1) Job ± Rotation 2) Self ± paced . and managerial occupations will experience the greatest turnover due to death or retirement. Executive .

They include: ± human capital ± customer capital ± social capital ± intellectual capital .Intangible Assets ‡ Cannot be touched and are nonmonetary. however equally as valuable as financial and physical assets.

Social capital refers to relationships in the company. work related know. . and work relationships. social capital and intellectual capital. life experience . knowledge. Intellectual capital refers to the codified knowledge that exists in a company. customer and competence . energy and enthusiasm that the company¶s employees invest in their work. Customer capital refers to the value of relationships with persons or other organizations outside the company for accomplishing the goals of the company. Human capital refers to the sum of the attributes. Training and development has a direct influence on human and social capital because it affects education. inventiveness.The intangible assets consist of human capital. Training and development can have an indirect influence on customer and intellectual capital by helping employees better serve customers and by providing them with the knowledge needed to create patents and intellectual property.

It develops and markets specialty chemicals.Intangible assets also contribute to a company¶s competitive advantage because they are difficult to duplicate or imitate. Renaming it knowledge transfer department to better match the service it is supposed to provide. . Buckman also changed the focus of the company¶s information systems department . The company rewards innovation and knowledge creation and exchange by including the sales of new products as part of employees performance evaluations. Example :.South west airlines Buckman Laboratories is known for its knowledge management practices .

HUMAN CAPITAL Tacit Knowledge Education Work related know how Work related competence CUSTOMER CAPITAL Customer relationships Brands Customer Loyalty Distribution Channels Social Capital Corporate culture Management philosophy Management practices Informal networking systems Coaching / mentoring relationships .

.INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Patents Copyrights Trade secrets Intellectual property.

and retaining knowledge workers ‡ A management style of developing and empowering employees ‡ Capability to adapt to change ± Learning organization ± embraces a culture of lifelong learning. developing.Increasing Intangible Assets ‡ Increase human capital by focusing on attracting. enabling all employees to continually acquire and share knowledge .

FOCUS ON LINK TO BUSINESS STRATEGY As the importance of intangible assets and human capital are increasing. that is . its plans for meeting broad goals such as profitability . IBM has adopted an on ± demand business strategy that requires the company to more quickly respond to customers needs and help them do the same for their clients. market share . and quality. Example :.A good example of how a company has linked training and development to business strategy is IBM. . managers are beginning to see a more important role for training and development As a means to support a company¶s business strategy.

ATTRACTING AND RETAINING TALENT :. Example :.Between 2004 and 2014 . or 13 percent: .9 million . Retention is an important part of talent management . It is also important for companies to try to capture the valuable knowledge that is Leaving. new workers will be needed due to replacement. . Talented employees are looking for growth band a career path. employment is expected to increase by 18.NASA Engineers are designated as NASA Discipline Experts. Training and development is a key to attract and retain talented employees.

customer excellence requires attention to product and service features as well as to interactions with customers. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a company wide effort to continuously improve the ways people . meeting specifications and reducing complaints. machines and systems accomplish work. Customer ± driven excellence includes reducing defects and errors . As a result . How the company recovers from defects and errors is also important for retaining and attracting customers. Customer driven excellence includes understanding what customers wants and anticipating future needs. For that you need training to happen.CUSTOMER SERVICE AND QUALITY EMPHASIS Companies customers judge quality and performance. .

Core Values of Total Quality Management (TQM) (1 of 2) ‡ Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers ‡ Every employee in the company receives training in quality ‡ Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring. rather than being detected and corrected .

Core Values of TQM (2 of 2) ‡ The company promotes cooperation with vendors. and customers to improve quality and hold down costs ‡ Managers measure progress with feedback based on data . suppliers.

created by public law.The emphasis on quality is seen in the establishment of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and the ISO 9000:2000 quality standards. .S. company can receive. To become eligible for the Baldrige. is the highest level of national recognition for quality that a U. The Baldrige award. a company must complete a detailed application that consists of basic information about the firm as well as an in depth presentation of how it addresses specific criteria related to quality improvement.

000 points .Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination Leadership Measurement Analysis and Knowledge Management Strategic Planning Human Resource Focus Process Management Business Results Customer and Market Focus Total Points 120 points 90 points 85 points 85 points 85 points 450 points 85 points 1.

ISO 9000:2000 quality standards ‡ The ISO 9000:2000 standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Geneva. Switzerland ‡ ISO 9000 is the name of a family of standards ± ISO 9001 ± ISO 9004 .

. 2. manufacturing . ISO 10015 has two key features. installation . Example :. ISO 10015 Is a quality management tool designed to ensure that training is linked to company needs and performance. 1. and customer service. ISO 10015 requires companies to use appropriate design and effective learning processes. Companies have to determine the return on investment of training to company performance.ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive standards because it covers product or service design and development. A group within the ISO has drafted a standard for employee training.ISBN ± International standard book number. ISO 9004 provides a guide for companies that want to improve. It includes the actual specification for a quality management system.

Six Sigma process ‡ The six sigma process refers to: ± measuring processes ± analyzing processes ± improving processes ± controlling processes .

000 employees trained in Six Sigma Since 1996.Example :. and Green Belts who lead and teach teams that are focusing on ever ± growing number of quality projects. Master Black Belts.GE is to have less than 4 defects per million in every element of every process GE businesses perform. when the Six Sigma quality initiative was started. . Today GE has over 100. Training is an important component of the process. Six sigma involves highly trained employees known as Champions. Black belts . it has produced more than 2 billion in benefits for GE. The first companies to achieve ISO 10015 certification are in CHINA and Switzerland.

The work force will be older and more culturally diverse than at any time in the past 40 years. reaching 162. The training programs to help immigrants acquire the technical and customer service skills required in a service economy. The Asian and Hispanic labor force increases due to immigration trends and higher than average birth rates. .1 million by 2014. By 2014 the work force is projected to be 80% white. 16% of the labor force will be of Hispanic origin. 12% African American. 8% Asian and other ethnic or cultural groups. which is composed of people who are either working or looking for work. The civilian labor force is projected to increase by 14.7 million b/w 2004 and 2014.CHANGING DEMOGRAHICS AND DIVERSITY OF THE WORKFORCE Population is the single most important factor in determing the size and composition of the labor force.

Training plays a key role in ensuring that employees accept and work more effectively with each other. This gives employees opportunities to find the area in which they best like to work. To successfully manage a diverse work force. . managers and employees must be trained in a new set of skills. Example :.Marriott recognizes that most employees don¶t want to stay in an entry level job such as house keeping . So Marriott trains employees to handle wide variety of positions and rotates them periodically to new jobs.

training and developing employees of different ages. educational backgrounds. physical abilities. and races .Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (1 of 2) ‡ Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds ‡ Coaching. ethnicities.

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (2 of 2) ‡ Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender. ethnicity. or physical handicap ‡ Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be creative and innovative .

Technology also allows companies greater use of a contingent work force. New technologies allow training to occur at any time and any place.NEW TECHNOLOGY Advances in sophisticated technology along with reduced costs for the technology are changing the delivery of training. making training more realistic and giving employees the opportunity to choose where and when they will work. .

New Technology ‡ Internet has created a new business model: ± e-commerce ‡ Advantages of technology: ± reduced travel costs ± greater accessibility to training ± consistent delivery ± ability to access experts ± share learning ± creating a learning environment ± greater use of a contingent work force .

Through technology, the information needed to improve customer service and product quality becomes more accessible to employees. This means that employees are expected to take more responsibility for satisfying

the customer and determining how they perform their jobs.
One of the most popular methods for increasing employee responsibility and control is work teams.

EXAMPLE :- Kinko¶s , the world¶s leading supplier of document solutions and business services with 1,100 location in nine countries , has changed. Because Kinko¶s stores are geographically dispersed , the company has had to struggle with costly training programs offered in multiple locations to prepare employees for new products and services. Kinko¶s adopted a blended learning approach including internet instruction, job aids, Virtual classroom training and mentoring. Capital One , a financial service company , uses an audio learning program that allows employees to learn through their iPods at their convenience. The company has also developed a mobile audio learning channel. The channel supplements competency based programs, leadership and management Programmes.

High-Performance Models of Work Systems
‡ Work teams ± involve employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service ‡ Cross training ± training employees in a wide range of skills so they can fill any of the roles needed to be performed on the team ‡ Virtual teams ± separated teams relying almost exclusively on technology to interact and complete their projects

Example :- Canon is using a procedure called concurrent engineering in which production engineers work together with designers. This procedure makes it easier for these workers to exchange ideas to improve a product or make it easier to manufacture. WHAT ROLE DOES TRAINING PLAY ? Employees need job specific knowledge and basic skills to work with the equipment created by the new technology. Technology is used to achieve product diversification and customization, employees must have the ability to listen and communicate with customers. Interpersonal skills, such as negotiation and conflict management, and problem solving skills are more important than physical strength , coordination, and fine ± motor skills ± previous job requirements for many manufacturing and service jobs. Example :- The learning and education department of PwC has 190 employees located in 70 offices in different cities. These employees work together on virtual teams that range in size from 5 to 50 people.

The 2004 ASTD Competency Model .

develops . obtains . The professional specialist designs. and evaluates learning and performance solutions to support the business.The model describes what it takes for an individual to be successful in the training and development field. . managing the learning function. they do spend time in the other areas too. The training professionals spend most of their time in designing learning. and monitors the effective delivery of learning and performance solutions to support the business. business and management competencies. The learning strategist determines how workplace learning can be best used to help meet the company¶s business strategy. and coaching . The project manager plans . and personal competencies. The foundation competencies include interpersonal competencies. delivers . delivering training. The business partner uses business and industry knowledge to create training that improves performance.


To conduct a TNA first . there is a need to accomplish several Things:1. . A TNA is important because it helps determine whether training can correct the performance problem. The TNA to ensure to provide the right training to the right people.TNA ( training needs analysis ) is a systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required. Need analysis occurs when actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected organizational performance (EOP). Increase the chances that the time and money spent on training is spent wisely.

2. 3. Increase the motivation of participants A TNA will provide a benchmark of the performance levels and KSAs that trainees possess prior to training. This will allow you to demonstrate the cost savings or value added as a result of training. Determine the benchmark for evaluation of training. . These benchmarks will let you compare performance before and after training.

Analysis Phase Input Organizational Analysis Objectives Resources Environment TRIGGER Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) < Expected Organizational Performance (EOP) Process Output Training Needs Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP < AP And Causes of PD Non Training Needs Operational Analysis Expected Performance (EP) Person Analysis Actual Performance (AP) .

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified ± Part 1 of 2 Performance Discrepancy YES Is it worth fixing? YES KSA Deficiency YES Reward/ Punishment Incongruence YES Inadequate Feedback YES Obstacles in the System YES Choose Appropriate Remedy Change Contingencies Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles .

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified ± Part 2 of 2 Performance discrepancy is worth fixing AND is due to a KSA deficiency Choose Appropriate Remedy Job Aid Training Practice Change the Job Transfer or Terminate Change Contingencies Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles .

etc. Labor Inventory This source helps HRD identify where training is needed because of retirement.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 1 of 5 Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs This source suggests where training emphasis should be placed. Achieve a goal to become ISO certified and allow $90. turnover.000 for this effort. . Examples 1. Objectives and Budget 2. age. 30% of our truck drivers will retire over the next four years. Organizational Goals Maintain a quality standard of no more than one reject per thousand.

Suggestions f. Organizational Climate Indicators Sources of Data a. Labor-management data These ³quality of working life´ indicators at the organizational level provide indicators of organizational performance gap Implications For Training Examples These indicators relate work participation or productivity and are useful in discrepancy analysis and in helping management set a value on the behaviors it wishes to improve through training b.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 2 of 5 3. Turnover d. Absenteeism e. Productivity High absences in clerical staff . Grievances Items related to productivity are useful in determining performance deficiencies Seventy percent of grievances are related to behaviors of 6 supervisors c.

Attitude surveys Surveys are good for locating discrepancies between organizational expectations and perceived results . Short-term sickness Line workers¶ attitude toward teamwork is poor i.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 3 of 5 g. Accidents Accident rate for line workers increasing h.

Quality of product c. Waste Wasted steel has increased by 14% since the company began using parttime workers .Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 4 of 5 Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs Can help document difference between actual performance and desired performance Labor costs have increased 8 percent in the last year Number of rejects has increased by 30% since the new batch of workers began Examples 4. Cost of labor b. Analysis of Efficiency Indices a.

Change in system or subsystem New or change equipment may require training The line has been shut down about once per day since the new machinery was installed. 6. MBO or Work Planning and Review systems Provides actual baseline performance data on a continuous basis. Management Requests Or Management Interrogation One of the most common techniques of identification of performance discrepancies Production managers indicates a drop in quality since the layoffs 7.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 5 of 5 5. From these measures the company is able to determine improvement or deterioration or performance .

Introduction (1 of 2) ‡ Effective training practices involve the use of an instructional systems design process ‡ The instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment .

and ± whether trainees are willing to learn . it is important to determine: ± what type of training is necessary.Introduction (2 of 2) ‡ Before choosing a training method.

involves ‡ determining the appropriateness of training.Needs Assessment (1 of 2) ‡ Process used to determine whether training is necessary. Needs assessment involves: ± Organizational analysis . given the business strategy ‡ determining the resources available for training ‡ determining the support by managers and peers for training .

and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks . skill. skill.Needs Assessment (2 of 2) ± Person analysis ± involves: ‡ determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge. or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem ‡ identifying who needs training ‡ determining employees¶ readiness for training ± Task analysis ± involves: ‡ identifying the important tasks and knowledge.

CAUSES AND OUTCOMES OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT Reasons for pressure points Lack of basic skills Poor performance New technology Customer requests New products Higher performance Standards New jobs Out comes What trainees need to learn Who receives training Type of training Frequency of training Organizational Buy versus build training analysis decisions Training versus other HR options How training should Person Task Analysis be evaluated. analysis Who needs Training? .

Example :.A delivery truck driver whose job is to deliver anesthetic gases to medical facilities. contaminating the hospital¶s oxygen system. . Why did the driver make this mistake. which is clearly a performance problem. The driver mistakenly hooks up the supply line of a mild anesthetic to the supply line of a hospital¶s oxygen system .

Key Concerns of Upper.and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment Upper-Level Managers Organizational Analysis Is training important to achieve our business objectives? How does training support our business strategy? What functions or business units need training? Midlevel Managers Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Trainers Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? Person Analysis Who should be trained? Managers? Professionals? Core employees? For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service? How will I identify which employees need training? Task Analysis Does the company have the people with the knowledge. or other characteristics are necessary? . ability. and ability needed to compete in the marketplace? What tasks should be trained? What knowledge. skills. skills.

Another source of information for companies that have introduced A new technology is the help desk that companies often set up to deal with calls regarding problems. Example :. Knowledge. and conditions under which the job is performed. trainers . trainers often do not have job incumbents to rely on for this information . Example :. and equipment designers can provide information regarding the training requirements. 3. skills . 2. Conditions under which the tasks have to be performed. and abilities required for successful task performance. . academics.Texas Instrument was trying to determine how to train engineering experts to become trainers for new engineers. managers.For the newly created jobs. or deficiencies in documentation . tasks. uses academics or trainers who are familiar with course content. software or systems. Example :. technical experts. and even customers or suppliers who are knowledgeable in regard to :1. Example :. simulations . an Illinois company that develops courseware for training information technology skills.Netg. deficiencies in training.SMES are employees . Necessary equipments 4. Training issues including tasks to be performed. Rather technical diagrams .

.4.Call centres. Example :. Online technology is available to monitor and track employee performance. This information is useful for identifying training needs and providing employees with feedback regarding their skills strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3) Technique Observation Advantages Generates data relevant to work environment Minimizes interruption of work Inexpensive Can collect data from a large number of persons Data easily summarized Disadvantages Needs skilled observer Employees¶ behavior may be affected by being observed Requires time Possible low return rates. inappropriate responses Lacks detail Only provides information directly related to questions asked Questionnaires .

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3) Technique Interviews Advantages Good at uncovering details of training needs Good at uncovering causes and solutions of problems Can explore unanticipated issues that come up Questions can be modified Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to explore Questions can be modified to explore unanticipated issues Disadvantages Time consuming Difficult to analyze Needs skilled interviewer Difficult to schedule SMEs only provide information they think you want to hear Focus Groups Time consuming to organize Group members provide information they think you want to hear Status or position differences may limit participation .

.Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3) Technique On line Technology ( Software ) Advantages Objective Minimizes interruption of Work Requires limited human involvement Disadvantages May threaten employees Manager may use information to punish rather than train . Limited to jobs requiring interaction with customers via Computer or phone.

The Needs Analysis Process Person Characteristics ‡ Input ‡ Output ‡ Consequences ‡ Feedback Organizational Analysis ‡ Strategic Direction ‡ Support of Managers. Peers & Employees for Training Activities ‡ Training Resources Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training? Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model ‡ Work Activity (Task) ‡ KSAs ‡ Working Conditions .

peers. and employees support training activity ± what training resources are available .Organizational Analysis ‡ Involves identifying: ± whether training supports the company¶s strategic direction ± whether managers.

customers.Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (1 of 3) ‡ How might the training content affect our employees¶ relationship with our customers? ‡ What might suppliers. or partners need to know about the training program? ‡ How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business? ‡ Should organizational resources be devoted to this program? .

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (2 of 3) ‡ What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed? ‡ What features of the work environment might interfere with training? ‡ Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program? .

g teams) are likely to have greater training budgets and conduct more training. .Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (3 of 3) ‡ Will employees perceive the training program as: ± ± ± ± an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time? Example :.Companies that believe learning contributes to their competitive advantage or that have adopted high performance work systems( e.

Example :. One way to identify training resources is for companies that have similar operations or departments located across the country or the world to share practices. Example :. Manufacturing sites.S . time . . it has 3 possible strategies for dealing with the computer ± literate employees. The team has made some valuable contributions. including the development of a new operator training standard.If the company is installing computer ± based manufacturing equipment in one of its plants. and expertise for training.Pfizer Pharmaceuticals created a ³ virtual learning team ³ to promote the sharing of ³ best practices ³ in technical training among its U. a 10 step method for teaching and evaluating the skills of employees who make drug products or operate machinery.TRAINING RESOURCES It is necessary to identify whether the company has the budget.

the type of service the company is seeking. and the date when proposals must be received by the company. expected date of completion of the project . funding for the project . the follow-up process used to determine level of satisfaction and service . A request for proposals is a document that outlines for potential vendors and consultants the type of service the company is seeking. .Many companies identify vendors and consultants who can provide training services by using requests for proposals. the type and number of references needed. the number of employees who need to be trained.

Process for Analyzing the Factors That Influence Employee Performance and Learning .

Input also refers to the resources that the employees are given to help them perform. A major pressure point for training is poor or substandard performance. Employees have the personal characteristics ( ability. 2. beliefs. .Person analysis helps to identify employees who need training . how . and attitudes. Consequences refer to the type of incentives that employees receive for performing well. ability . This process involves determining employee¶s readiness for training. Output refers to the job¶s performance standards. Readiness for training refers to whether :1. attitudes. The work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance. Input relates to the instructions that tell employees what. and motivation ) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job. Person characteristics refer to the employees¶ knowledge. whether employees current performance or expected performance indicates a need for training. that is . skill. Feedback refers to the information that employees receive while they are performing. and when to perform.

± Situational & Social constraints are determinants of performance & motivation . career interests. and goals ‡ Input ± employees¶ perceptions of the work environment.Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (1 of 3) ‡ Person characteristics ± cognitive ability ± reading ability ± self-efficacy ± awareness of training needs.

Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (3 of 3) ‡ Output ‡ Poor or substandard performance can occur on the job because do not know at what level they are expected to perform. ± standard to judge successful performers ‡ Consequences ± positive consequences/incentives to perform ± few negative consequences to perform ‡ Feedback ± frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed .

Person Analysis: Self-Efficacy ‡ Employees believe that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training program ± The job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the past ± The training environment can also be threatening to people who have not received training or formal education for some length of time .

Increasing Employees¶ Self-Efficacy Level (1 of 2) ‡ Letting employees know that the purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetent ‡ Providing as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training .

Increasing Employees¶ Self-Efficacy Level (2 of 2) ‡ Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs ‡ Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program .

‡ Should only be undertaken after you have determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training . skills. and abilities required to complete the tasks.Task Analysis ‡ Task analysis results in a description of work activities. including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge.

Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks 4.Steps in a Task Analysis 1. skills. Identify the knowledge. Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job 3. or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task . Select the job(s) to be analyzed 2.

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (1 of 3) ‡ Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the job ‡ Task analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasks ‡ Use more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis .

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (2 of 3) ‡ For task analysis to be useful. information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs) ± SMEs include: ‡ job incumbents ‡ managers ‡ employees familiar with the job .

the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company¶s goals and objectives ± These may not be the tasks that are the most difficult or take the most time .Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (3 of 3) ‡ In deciding how to evaluate tasks.

Scope of Needs Assessment ‡ Time constraints can limit the length and detail obtained from needs assessment ‡ The scope of the needs assessment depends on the size of the potential ³pressure point´ ‡ You will be able to anticipate training needs if you are attuned to the: ± business problems ± technological developments ± other issues facing the organization .

Learning: Theories and Program Design .

.Introduction (1 of 2) ‡ Conditions necessary for learning to occur: ± opportunities for trainees to practice and receive feedback ± meaningful training content ± prerequisites trainees need to successfully complete the program ± allowing trainees to learn through observation and experience.

. to identify learning outcomes ‡ Understanding learning outcomes is crucial ± they influence characteristics of the training environment necessary for learning to occur ‡ The design of the training program is also important for learning to occur .Introduction (2 of 2) ‡ For learning to occur it is important to identify what is to be learned ± i.e.

These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.What Is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. .

facts. and bodies of knowledge ± includes specialized knowledge employees need in their jobs ‡ Intellectual skills ± include concepts and rules ± critical to solve problems. serve customers. and create products .Learning Outcomes (1 of 3) ‡ Verbal information ± includes names or labels.

± Training programs may be used to develop or change attitude because attitudes have been shown to be related to physical and mental withdrawal from work . .Learning Outcomes (2 of 3) ‡ Motor skills ± include coordination of physical movements ‡ Attitudes ± combination of beliefs and feeling that pre-dispose a person to behave a certain way ± important work-related attitudes include job satisfaction. commitment to the organization. turnover and behaviors that impact the well being of the company. and job involvement.

Learning Outcomes (3 of 3) ‡ Cognitive strategies ± regulate the process of learning ± they relate to the learner¶s decision regarding: ‡ what information to attend to (i.e.. pay attention to) ‡ how to remember ‡ how to solve problems .

Learning Theories
Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories

Need Theories

Expectancy Theory Information Processing Theory Adult Learning Theory

Reinforcement Theory (1 of 2)
‡ Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors
± positive reinforcement ± negative reinforcement ± extinction ± punishment

Reinforcement Theory (2 of 2)
‡ From a training perspective, it suggests that the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive (and negative) for learners to: ± acquire knowledge ± change behavior ± modify skills ‡ Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors. ‡ Behavior Modification is training method that is primarily based on reinforcement theory.

Social Learning Theory (1 of 3)
‡ Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable ‡ Recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated ‡ The models¶ behavior or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer

Social Learning Theory (2 of 3) ‡ Learning new skills or behavior comes from: ± directly experiencing the consequences of using behavior or skills. or ± the process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior ‡ Learning is also influenced by a person¶s selfefficacy ± self-efficacy ± a person¶s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills .

Social Learning Theory (3 of 3) ‡ Self-efficacy can be increased using: ± verbal persuasion ± offering words of encouragement to convince others they can learn ± logical verification ± perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered ± observation of others (modeling) ± having employees who already have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees ± past accomplishments ± allowing employees to build a history of successful accomplishments .

Processes of Social Learning Theory Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Processes Match Modeled Performanc e ‡ Model Stimuli ‡ Trainee ‡ Characteristics ‡ Coding ‡ Organization ‡ Rehearsal ‡ Physical Capability ‡ Accuracy ‡ Feedback ‡ Reinforcement .

Social learning theory emphasizes that behaviors that are reinforced will be repeated in the future.Learners are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in positive outcomes. Social learning theory is the primary basis for behavior modeling training and has influenced the development of multimedia training programs. .

Goal Theories Goal Setting Theory Goal Orientation .

Goal Setting Theory (1 of 3) ‡ Assumes behavior results from a person¶s conscious goals and intentions ‡ Goals influence behavior by: ± directing energy and attention ± sustaining effort over time ± motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment .

unchallenging goals ‡ Goals lead to high performance only if people are committed to the goal ‡ Employees are less likely to be committed to a goal if they believe it is too difficult .Goal Setting Theory (2 of 3) ‡ Specific challenging goals result in better performance than vague.

Goal Setting Theory (3 of 3) ‡ Goal setting theory is used in training program design ‡ It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives ‡ The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans .

Goal Orientation (1 of 3) ‡ Refers to the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation ± learning orientation ± relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a task ± performance orientation ± refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to others .

Goal Orientation (2 of 3) ‡ It affects the amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (motivation to learn) ‡ Learners with a high learning orientation: ± direct greater attention to the task ± learn for the sake of learning .

Goal Orientation (3 of 3) ‡ Learners with a high performance orientation: ± direct more attention to performing well ± devote less effort to learning ‡ Trainees with a learning orientation: ± exert greater effort to learn and use more complex learning strategies than trainees with a performance orientation .

and ± communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs ‡ If the basic needs of trainees are not met. ‡ Suggest that to motivate learning: ± trainers should identify trainees¶ needs.Need Theories ‡ Help explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes ± need ± a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time. they are unlikely to be motivated to learn .

Adult Learning Theory ‡ It is based on several assumptions: ± adults have the need to know why they are learning something ± adults have a need to be self-directed ± adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation ± adults enter into a learning experience with a problem-centered approach to learning ± adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators .

Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training Design Issue Self ± concept Experience Readiness Time perspective Orientation to learning Implications Mutual planning and collaboration in instruction Use learner experience as basis for examples and applications Develop instruction based on learner¶s interests and competencies Immediate application of content Problem ± centered instead of subject ± centered .

The Learning Process This material asks three questions: 1. What are the physical and mental processes involved in learning? 2. Do trainees have different learning styles? . How does learning occur? 3.

The Learning Process: Mental and Physical Processes Expectancy Gratifying Perception Generalizing LEARNING Working Storage Retrieval Long ²Term Storage Semantic Encoding .

THE LEARNING CYCLE Learning can be considered a dynamic cycle that involves four stages : ‡Concrete experience ‡Reflective observation ‡Abstract conceptualization ‡Active experimentation .

The Learning Process: Learning Styles .

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (1 of 2) ‡ Employees need to know why they should learn ‡ Employees need meaningful training content ‡ Employees need opportunities to practice ‡ Employees need to commit training content to memory ‡ Employees need feedback .

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (2 of 2) ‡ Employees learn through: ± observation ± experience ± interacting with others ‡ Employees need the training program to be properly coordinated and arranged .

Training Objectives ‡ Employees learn best when they understand the objective of the training program ‡ The objective refers to the purpose and expected outcome of training activities ‡ Training objectives based on the training needs analysis help employees understand why they need the training ‡ Objectives are useful for identifying the types of training outcomes that should be measured to evaluate a training program¶s effectiveness .

A statement of what the employee is expected to do (performance or outcome) 2. A statement of the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform the desired outcome (conditions) .A training objective has three components: 1. A statement of the quality or level of performance that is acceptable (criterion) 3.

Training Administration Involves: (1 of 2) ‡ Communicating courses and programs to employees ‡ Enrolling employees in courses and programs ‡ Preparing and processing any pre-training materials such as readings or tests ‡ Preparing materials that will be used in instruction ‡ Arranging for the training facility and room ‡ Testing equipment that will be used in instruction .

Training Administration Involves: (2 of 2) ‡ Having backup equipment should equipment fail ‡ Providing support during instruction ‡ Distributing evaluation materials ‡ Facilitating communications between trainer and trainees during and after training ‡ Recording course completion in the trainees¶ records or personnel files .

similar tasks. facts.Internal and External Conditions Necessary for Learning Outcomes (1 of 2) Learning Outcome Verbal Information (Labels. and strategies Verbal description of strategy Strategy demonstration Practice with feedback Variety of tasks that provide opportunity to apply strategy Intellectual Skills (Knowing how) Cognitive Strategies (Process of thinking and learning) . and propositions) Internal Conditions Previously learned knowledge and verbal information Strategies for coding information into memory External Conditions Repeated practice Meaningful chunks Advance organizers Recall cues Link between new and previously learned knowledge Recall of prerequisites.

Internal and External Conditions Necessary for Learning Outcomes (2 of 2) Learning Outcome Attitudes (Choice of personal action) Internal Conditions Mastery of prerequisites Identification with model External Conditions Demonstration by a model Positive learning environment Strong message from credible source Reinforcement Motor Skills (Muscular actions) Recall of part skills Coordination program Practice Demonstration Gradual decrease of external feedback .

the trainer . Selecting and Preparing the Training Site. and any visual displays. and has good visibility for trainees to see other . b) It is quiet . private. . offers enough room for trainees to have adequate work space. c) It has sufficient space for trainees to move easily around in . and free from interruptions.Considerations in Designing Effective Training Programs: 1. A good training site offers the following features :a) It is comfortable and accessible. The training site refers to the room where training will be conducted.

Lighting. green.a) Details to be considered in the training room i) Noise ii) colors :. Black and brown shades will close the room. Selecting Trainers . blues and yellow are warm colors. glare and acoustics. ii) Seating arrangement Fan type seating Class room Seating Conference Type Seating Horse shoe Arrangement 2. wall and floor covering .It should be square in shape. meeting room chairs. Variations of white are cold and sterile. iii) room structure :.Pastel hues such as orange.

How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and Instruction Conducive to Learning: Creating A Learning Setting Preparation Classroom Management Engaging Trainees Managing Group Dynamics .

Program Design .

. so as to enable the trainees to learn the maximum from training course is called training design.Designing the training Programme ‡ Technique of arranging the course content in a logical manner.

Program design includes considering the purpose of the program as well as designing specific lessons within the program. Each course may contain one or more lessons. Course parameters.Programme design refers to the organization and coordination of the training program. A training program may include one or several courses. 2. Objectives 3. A detailed lesson plan . Effective program design Includes :1. A lesson plan overview 4.

Course objectives. the content. time . description of the audience. or lesson objectives relate to goals of the lesson. and the standards. and name of the trainer. Programme objectives are broad summary statements of the purpose of the programme. the conditions .The course parameters refer to general information about the training program including the course title. Goals of the course. These objectives are more specific than the program objectives in terms of the expected behaviors. statement of purpose. Objectives :-Within a training program. location . there are usually different types of objectives. prerequisites . .

instructor activity (what the instructor will do during the session ). . The lesson plan includes the course title.The detailed lesson plan translates the content and sequence of training activities into a guide that is used by the trainer to help deliver the training. target audience. ask questions) and any prerequisites. Learner activity (e.g listen. practice . time of session. learning objective. lesson plans include the sequence of activities that will be conducted in the training session and identify the administrative details. Topics to be covered. The lesson plan provides a table of contents for the training activity. Lesson plans also help to ensure that both the trainee and trainer are aware of the course and program objectives. That is .

It matches major activities of the training program and specific times or time interval.In developing the lesson outline. trainers need to consider the proper sequencing of topics. . Completing a lesson plan overview helps the trainer determine the amount of time that needs to be allocated for each topic covered in the program. Lesson plan overview :.

because from the start they see and get to practice the complete task. Sequencing is the process of how to group and order the content of training. . This holistic approach is more meaningful and motivational for learners .Design Theories Elaboration theory is a macro theory of design. It is only relevant only for complex tasks. It is based on a holistic alternative to the part/whole sequencing that is usually followed in training.

Two sequencing strategies are possible : topical and spiral. Simplifying conditions method is based on the notion that for all complex tasks. the learner moves to the second level and so on . Spiral sequencing requires learning the basics of the first task. After completing the basic understanding of all tasks. Topical sequencing requires the complete learning of one topic before moving to the next task. simple and more complex version exists. the learner moves to the second level of the first task to do the same thing. .

which is still representative of the task as a whole.The SCM is based on two parts :Epitomizing :. .It is the process of identifying the simplest version of the task. Elaborating is the process of identifying progressively more complex version of tasks.

Comparison of Topical and Spiral Sequencing 1 of 2 Topical Sequencing Topic A Topic A Module 1 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Topic B Spiral Sequencing Topic B Topic C Module 1 Module 1 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Topic A Module 2 Topic B Module 2 Topic C Module 2 Chapter 5 144 .

no interference from other topics Built in synthesis and review Interrelationships are more obvious and understood Disadvantages Once learned you move to the next topic and the first is forgotten Disruption of learners thought process when move to next topic Spiral Chapter 5 145 .Comparison of Topical and Spiral Sequencing Advantages Topical Concentrate on topic.

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction ± Part 1 of 2 Instructional Event Gain attention Informing the trainee of Goal (objectives) Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Present the material Relation to Social Learning Theory Attention Attention Retention: Activation of memory Retention: Activation of memory. cognitive organization Chapter 5 146 . symbolic coding.

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction ± Part 2 of 2 Instructional Event Provide guidance for learning Relation to Social Learning Theory Retention: Symbolic coding/ cognitive organization through guided discovery Retention: Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement Elicit performance (practice) Provide informative feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer Reinforcement Chapter 5 147 .


the task very often contributing directly to the output of the department. Off-the-job training requires the worker to undergo training for a specific period away from the work place.On-the-job training generally takes place in the normal work situation. .

More time available 2. 4. 4. . Easier to obtain full attention of trainees 5.Trainee¶s specific difficulties are easier to explore.Learning can be controlled. Trainee can establish work relationships from the start. Off the job 1. Productive in terms of department¶s work. No additional staff needed 3.On the job 1. 5. 3.Relaxed atmosphere more conducive to learning. not simulated. 6.No special facilities needed 2. Real life situation . Able to test hypothesis and ideas in low risk environment.

8. Off the job Improve morale and motivation for self ± development. No transferability of training required. No ³ off ±the ± job¶ cost involved.On the job 7. .

. 2.job 1. Difficulty of transferring learning to work situation. 3. Cost lost in departmental budget. Generally more time ± consuming. 4. Lack of time due to pressure of production. Often involves traveling costs and inconvience. 4. Psychological pressures on trainee due to exposure before experienced workers. Difficulty of accommodating trainee idiosyncrasies.the. 6.Cost of external facilities. Risk to machines . 3. Artificial sheltered environment . Off.Difficulty of simulating work problems.etc and increase in scrap due to lack of experience. 5. 6. Part-time instructor may lack skill in training. equipment.On ± the Job 1. 5. 2.

employee of an organization´. he can keep learners interested. . By altering the training method the trainer uses delivery . Combination of different methods of training contributes to the effectiveness of the training programmes. Trainers use a variety of training methods during delivery to facilitate learning. activate different learning style and enhance comprehension and retention. There are many training methods available and the trainer should be proficient in using them to help meet learners¶ needs.Training Method Definition Training method is defined as ³systematic procedure or techniques by which a skill is developed in a person.

panel Discussion. workshop Seminar symposium. etc. Transactional analysis Achievement motivation games Brain storming sessions . Conference.Classification of training Methods Knowledge based methods On the job training Method On the job training Job rotation Guidance and counseling Syndicate groups Simulation Methods Role play Case method Lecture Extension talk/talk Group discussion Skill based Methods Assignments Practice after demonstration Task performance Skill teaching Role plays Workshops Experiential Methods Sensitivity Management games In basket exercise Buss session.

while the group¶s role is to listen. their advantages. Lectures are unidirectional because the trainer is the primary communicator who conveys the information to the group. disadvantages. confidence and convenience. etc. Content and timing of the lecture can be planned in detail well in advance.Important Training Methods There are lot of training methods used by trainers depending on their competence. . lecture method is preferred. This method is suitable for large audiences¶ where participation is not wanted. some of the important training methods. applicability. are :Lecture or Presentation Method This is traditional training method. When the purpose is informational.

The lecture method is also useful when training involves many learners. lecture can be an appropriate method. This method is very cost effective. If the purpose of training programme is to raise awareness or supply information.Advantages of Lecture Method The primary advantage of lecture method is that it is an efficient way to transmit a large amount of information to learner in short time. Lecture is a method is which information can be communicated instantly. It is very easy to organize. .

Another way to improve traditional methods is to reduce how much time your spend on them. The review and regular summarizing heighten the effectiveness of the lecture method. Efficient learning demands concentration on the part of the learner. Making Lecture Method Effective Lecture method can be improved by encouraging the audience to take notes.Limitation/disadvantage The audience¶s role is passive and audience feedback is limited. Use of visual aids largely improves the effectiveness of lecture. . By this the lecture becomes more interactive and retention is higher. The trainer can ask questions frequently during a lecture to enhance the learner involvements.

. This added communication has much greater power than the lecture. The lecture uses a lecturette to provide trainees with information that is supported . It has the characteristic as the lecture but usually lasts less than 20 minutes. reinforced.A good lecture is well organized and begins with an introduction that lays out the purpose of the lecture and the order in which topics will be covered. and expanded on through interaction among the trainees and between the trainees and the trainer. A shorter version of a lecture is called lecturette.

.Trainers can achieve more complex learning objectives ± such as problem solving ± through the use of logically sequenced lecturettes followed by immediate discussion and Questioning.

´ The trainer conducts a group discussion with purpose of solving a problem. . questions. Advantages of group Discussions Method A group discussion usually effective in engaging learners and encouraging participation. establishing a consensus or for exchanging ideas. Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits resulting from the discussion method.Group Discussion Method The group Discussion is defined as ³the process of reaction and counter reaction between two or more than two persons on a common subject with the objective of achieving some specific conclusion or results. Ideas or issues presented to the group for consideration and verbal exploration. getting feedback sharing experiences. Group discussions centre around problems.

etc. if the trainer has handled the situation and environment properly. jarring personal conflict. Sometimes the discussion may be so lengthy that meaningful result neither may not be achieved. may not happen in group discussion. In some cases the trainees get off the track or one trainee dominates the discussion. One of the obvious disadvantages of group discussion is when many trainees may like contribute at the same time or when trainees are verbose. those the other trainees feel that the discussion was a waste of time.Disadvantages of Group discussion Method Behavioral problems like hurting feeling. .

Close ended questions 5. Reverse question The trainer should remain neutral as far as possible to make the group discussion a successful method. To stimulate the discussion the trainer may pose questions to the group that build interest or elicit opinions. consuming more time without any purposeful agenda etc. Overhead questions 6.Making group discussion Method Effective The trainer should announce well in advance about his intentions to use group discussion methods. Trainers should be familiar with a number of question types. Physical setting like seating arrangement also plays a very important role in making this method a successful one. Open ended questions 4. 1. . This will communicate to the trainees that they are expected to participate. Direct questions 2. can be addressed by skilled facilitation by the trainer. Relay questions 3. The problem of ³one man domination´. This methods works best chairs are arranged in a circle or with other seating arrangement that encourages trainees to look at each other.

The trainee is usually presented with a written ( or a videotaped) history. . and the issues faced by a real or imaginary organization or organizational unit. The learning objective is to get trainees to apply known concepts and principles and discover new ones. key elements. The trainer should convey that no single solution is right or wrong and many solutions are possible.Case Studies Case studies attempt to simulate decision making situations that trainees might find on the job. The solutions are not as important as is trainees¶ understanding of the advantages and disadvantages that go along with the solutions.

. communication and presentation skills especially when the trainees are asked to report their findings to the group. As the case study methods throws open different approaches. It facilitates analytical skills and communication of the skills of the participants. In addition to developing analytical and problem-solving skills may facilitate the development of teamwork. This method helps in developing cooperation and interpersonal skills among the participants. This method facilitates synthesis of several conceptual principles resulting in a plan of action.Advantages of Case Study Method Pooling of the knowledge and experiences of the group of people analyzing the case is possible. alternatives and solutions to problem the participant is given a variety of solutions. Others¶ point of view is made known in the discussion and one starts appreciating other¶s point of view paving way for possible behavioral and attitudinal changes.

Disadvantages Case study method does have certain disadvantages: The case study method is time consuming compared to other direct methods. . in which trainees are given only a brief description of the problem and must gather additional information from the trainer by asking specific questions. A variation of the case study is the incident process. Some case studies may be difficult for trainees to comprehend and imagine the situation as it happened when presented in presented in written form.

opinions . Trainees are provided with a description of the context ± usually a topic area. and so on. Structured role plays provide trainees with more detail about the situation and more detailed descriptions of each character¶s attitudes. their objectives . Spontaneous role plays are loosely constructed interactions in which one of the participants plays himself while the others play people with whom the first trainee interacted in the past . and the problem they each face. and group decision ± making. conflict resolution . a description of their roles ( e. or will in the future. emotions. The degree to which a scenario is structured will depend on what the learning objectives are .ROLE PLAYS Role Play is an enactment ( or simulation ) of a scenario in which each participant is given a part to act out. . structured role plays even include a scripted dialogue. needs . concerns).g . a general description of a situation. This type of role play is used primarily to develop interpersonal skills such as communication. Some times .

After the characters interact for a period of time. The different trainees are asked to exchange places with some or all of the characters. analyzing the interactions and identifying learning points. one group of trainees role plays for the rest. In a single role play . providing a visual demonstration of some learning point. The role rotation method begins as a single role play. rather than to develop specific skills.It is used to develop insight into our own behavior and its effect on others. the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. This format allows both a common focus for all trainees and Demonstrates several different ways to approach the roles. These trainees then pick up where the others left off. Other trainees observe the role play. . and what can be learned from it. A multiple role play is the same as a single role play except that all trainees are in groups. Following the role-play each group analyzes the interactions and identifies learning points themselves. with each group acting out the role play simultaneously.

this method reduces the resistance of the participants. . as editing is possible at any point of time to fit the particular situation. When conducted skillfully by the facilitator. 6.¶ Awareness about the effect of feelings. etc. 2.Role Reversal where a person plays a role opposite to what he usually is in real life. This method creates active participation. life demonstration of problem situation in non-threatening atmosphere for trainees. 3. Advantages of Role-play Method 1.This method is flexible. Participants. 5. imitation of the desirable behaviors. 4. through analysis and conceptualization this method helps the trainees in their learning. By practicing the desired skill. In this method the participants get a chance to not only know about their personal feelings but also get chance to learn how others feel about it. is increased by use of this method.

. describe and explain.This method can be an effective way of avoiding the ³real life´.The role-players are able to explain cultural differences simply and clearly.It develops the learners¶ ability to perform before an audience (very useful when addressing meetings or any situation involving face-to-face communication). demonstrate. With a few exceptions the entire ³acting´ is performed by the learner. 12. It helps improve the learners¶ capacity to analyze information. dangers of the ³trial and error´ approach. 11. which leads to a better understanding of other person¶s points of view. This method gives a chance to assume the role and personality of another human being.As a participative learning method it involves the learner both physically and emotionally. Role-play method offers participants an opportunity for developing hard to obtain experience in dealing with complex real life situations. 10.7. 8. 14. 13. 9. drama and fun to a formal training programme.This method can add variety.

role-play trains the learner to argue reason. a cooperative member or a trade union official. Thus a shop assistant can put herself µin the shoes of a dissatisfied customer. the learner is able to experience the other side of the issue involved. 16. 17.By playing roles opposite those played in real life. 18. Like a case study.15. In any of these roles the learner experiences the feelings of the person he is simulating and gains insight into that person¶s concerns his dilemmas and the attitudes that shape his point of view. like a case study. It is therefore stage for the learner to try out new ideas without suffering adverse consequences. persuade and defend his ideas and decisions. It helps the learner identify and correct faults or weaknesses in human performance. . Because a role-play is only a simulation. This is immensely useful in management training. role-play facilitates learning by simulated experience rather than reading or listening to a description. or manager can play the role of a discontented employee. the dangers and consequences of committing an error are not the same as in real life situations. behavior and attitudes.Also.

and the effect of his attitude and arguments. It also helps him to learn to face criticism and to take credit.A role-play helps the learner understand his own personality and communication skills.19. thus facilitating a multi-way process of communication. . A role-play removes the psychological barrier between learner and instructor and between learners themselves. 20.

4.The preparation and presentation of a role-play will demand much time from both trainer and trainee. 6. 2.Some role-played participants are too timid or self-conscious to act a role successfully.Disadvantages 1. 7.The trainees may discount the value of their learning due to the artificiality of the situations depicted. which jeopardizes the seriousness of learning¶s.It requires very skilful management or µdirecting¶ by a trainer who is capable of handing the interpersonal dynamics and µumpiring¶ the discussions involved. . Role-playing loses some of its effectiveness when the audience is too large. 5. 3.Over personalizing the problem areas is another disadvantage of the role-playing method.Role-playing methods sometimes deteriorates into play and fun.

rules. company. .Management Game Method :Business games are simulations that attempt to represent the way an industry. or unit of a company functions. The system then provides feedback about the effect of their decisions. They also reflect the actual operations of a particular department in a specific company. Or a specified number of trials are completed. and principles derived from theory or research. after which trainees are asked to make another decision. This process continues until some predefined state of the organization is reached. Trainees are provided with information describing a situation and are asked to make decisions about what to do. Typically they are based on a set of relationships.

7. Games provide practical.. 9. experimental learning. Learners often want to explore more issues and seek new information related to the experience they have been through. 6. . More inter-departmental cooperation and greater awareness of functional relationship. Evidence of new attempts to define departmental goals of functions.The techniques enable one to break the common barrier associated with traditional student trainer relationship.Advantages of Games Techniques 1. 2. 5.Management games help in increasing the motivation of the learners. 8.Improvement in technical performance. 4. Management games help in developing problem analysis and decision making skills. Exercise of better or more confident leadership. Management games that encourage divergent solutions may be useful in the development of creativity. 3. Grater awareness of competitive factor.

learn the most. Though the experience of actually using these methods. Games excite and motivate one to play. Games generally teach one the usefulness of mathematical models and the use of computers. those trainees who are most interested and those who participate the maximum in the simulation.Management games present trainers and student with novel situation. Disadvantages It is a time consuming method. who administers the simulation game. Consequently. may considerable affect the learning. attitude change and enjoyment of trainees. Usually. which cannot be solved by ³cook book¶ knowledge or conventional wisdom. They are fun and trainees enjoy them. They challenge the ingenuity and ability of learners. . The trainer. Management games provide for group enjoyment. participants tend to lose feat of them. which perhaps caused them to avoid their use in the past. a level of freshness and novelty is generally maintained. Trainees as well as trainer may be unfamiliar with the method.

µin-basket¶ methods as the name implies is usually filled with what manager would find on his desk such as ± reports. . The in-basket exercise places the trainees in a real life situation where they are asked to perform typical management tasks and activities they faces on a day-to-day basis. etc. memos. from the above it is clear hat this training method in very profitable used in leadership or management development training programmes. letter. set priorities and make decisions on issues given in the exercise.In-Basket Exercise Method In-basket exercise method is an interactive simulation in which learner¶s analyze information. During the simulation it is videotaped and learners are assessed against pre-determined competences such as time management. problem solving and decision-making.

Quality and people issues could be also the theme of in ±basket exercises. Time management skills are developed as time pressure as in real life situations is in-built in the exercise. organizing and planning.Advantages of In-basket Exercise In-basket exercise method facilitates skill development in the areas of problem solving. . Provides concrete subjects for practical work and discussion opportunities for active participation.

corporate culture. it may undermine the confidence of trainees. etc. 2. If handled insensitively by the facilitator. Reality is difficult to duplicate in an in ±basket simulation. 4. which could affect their decisions. . in-house policies.Developing effective in-basket exercises is very difficult and requires extensive instructional design work.The trainers are asked to react to situations unaware of critical issues like organizations¶ history. working relationships..It is time consuming to produce. time and financial resource. 3.Disadvantages of In-basket Exercise 1.

This conference method is suitable for acquiring conceptual knowledge and helps in clarifying doubts. Literally conference means consultation.Conference Method The conference method is usually a highly structure device for conveying message or a messages on a large scale. The attendance to the conference is usually voluntary. The members are enthusiasts in that particular subject an they brought together to share their expertise and to plan. Audience of several hundred people delegate with common interest from a wide cross section of the society attend the same seeking an opportunity to hear the views and comments of authorities in areas covered. This being so the delegates should be able to get answers to questions on topics covered. Advantages of Conference Method Members usually discuss the topic of high relevance and common interest to them. .

as arrangements have to be made for the venue. etc. The method is very expensive. Find a skilful chairman to conduct the proceedings effectively is very difficult. .Disadvantages The attendance is often unpredictable. accommodation and catering.

teamwork. inter-group conflict resolution. T-Group training is designed to help each individual realize his own potential for growth more fully and to increase his ability to work effectively with others in a variety of situation. group and organizational processes. Variety of skills like self-awareness.A. T-Groups in India are mainly conducted by Indian society for Applied Behavior Sciences. . U.. Sensitivity training alternatively called as T-group (Training).Sensitivity Training Method Sensitivity training is otherwise called as µT¶ ±Group training. a training laboratory was conducted with the main objective of serving as a change agent. In 1947 in Bethel Maine.S. etc. interpersonal relations. d-Group (Development) L-Group (Learning ) or Laboratory training is an experience based learning ± learn by experience sharing particularly those generated by the group.

Sensitivity training is process-oriented training. The group in not defined. A trainer of the faculty has no formal role in the group in T-Group training. He worked with the participants as one of them. Sensitivity training is participant centered learning. . A major goal of sensitivity training is contribute toward the personal growth of the participants through the increased self-awareness and inter-personal competence. All of them are evolved through a natural process by the group. the leadership not offered by the trainer and the behavior is not prescribed. Sensitivity training is carried out in a laboratory where participants simulate conditions for effective functioning of the group in an unstructured manner.

Increased recognition of the characteristics of longer social systems. Self insight. Better understanding of other persons and awareness of one¶s impact on them. Greater awareness of the dynamics of change. . Better understanding of group processes and increased skill in achieving group effectiveness.Purpose of T-Group Training The following five factors are seen as broad purposes of T-Group training.

Increased understanding of how people act as individuals. Knowledge of how they could work together as a team leading to increased organizational effectiveness. This training may bring about: Increased self-understanding and self-respect. thereby leading to an improvement in behavioral skills. . Increased mutual understanding and trust among the participants.Advantages of Sensitivity Training One of the main advantages of training group session is that it enables the participants to achieve deeper understanding of him as well as increased sensitivity to others.

. Some trainers themselves do not follow all the unwritten conventions of laboratory training. It is very difficult to have competent trainers to handle laboratory training.Limitations of Sensitivity Training The group is expected to work on its own and there is no specific assignment of formal agenda. In the hands of trainer who is not fully competent such training can have adverse results and traumatic effect. which is a very limitation and author himself has such a direct experience. The group is left in vacuum and struggles to find some direction and common ground.

" The old adage still rings true. e-learning is used to access the educational facilities as they have to study online. anywhere. . mainly Internet or computer-based. usually connected to a network. no matter how it's done. and e-Learning brings with it new dimensions in education.Definitions of e-learning It is also defined as a planned teaching/learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies. Benefits of E-Learning "Good teaching is good teaching. to reach learners. giving the opportunity to learn almost anytime . e-Learning is an umbrella term that describes learning done at a computer. Some of the unique features of e-Learning are listed below. Lately in most Universities.

or on the road Read materials online or download them for reading later b) Cost and Selection Choose from a wide range of courses to meet your needs Degree.Benefits of e-Learning There are many significant advantages for the student who learns are available 24/7 You're unbound by place . not too fast) You're unbound by time . or just have fun! From art to zoology you can do it all online in a price range to fit your budget. learn a new at home. . learn a new craft. Vocational. Here are just a few to consider: a) Convenience and Portability Courses are accessible on your schedule Online learning does not require physical attendance Learning is self-paced (not too slow. work. and Certificate programs Continuing Education Individual courses Wide range of prices to fit your budget Go back to school to get a degree.

Studies show that because of this and the variety of delivery methods used to reach different types of learners.c) Flexibility Online learning accommodates the preferences and needs . f) Global Opportunities The global learning community is at your fingertips with online learning. the online environment is far easier (and often more comfortable) to work in since learners don't have to be's student-centered Choose instructor-led or self-study courses Skip over material the student already knows and focus on topics like to learn The student can use the tools best suited for his learning styles d) Higher Retention Online learning will draw the topics he likes and enjoy. The technologies used give online instructional designers the ability to build in tools that take you to resources you . e) Greater Collaboration Technology tools make collaboration among students much easier. retention is frequently better than in a traditional classroom. Since many projects involve collaborative learning.


. Hambin(1970) defined evaluation of training asAny attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effect of training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. Evaluation is meant for improving training that is. it is an aid to training. This definition includes investigation before and during training as well as after training.Definition Evaluation is the collection of analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education or training as part of recognized process of judging its effectiveness. The purpose of evaluation is to create a feedback loop or a self-correcting training system. Therefore. its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have. it should be an integral feature of a training system.

Collect Material evaluation 4.Develop Evaluation lesson plans Design 3.Acquire 3.Define objectives Implemen Evaluation tation 1.Assessment Design 1.Interpret 6.Assess needs 2.Determine 2.Select trainer of 5.Select 1.Prioritize needs 1.Deliver evaluation the HRD programme criteria 2.Select programme methods 4.Schedule the results programme .

Since 1996 there is an increased awareness about accountability amongst the employees. . .Rationale for Evaluation Any good management practice dictates that organizational activities be routinely examined to ensure that they are occurring as planned and are producing anticipated results. Top management of different organizations is demanding evidence that the training departments are contributing positively to the bottom. etc. products or services. This is done to ensure that people. stay µon-track¶. processes . and could not find enough evidence that training programmes are responsible for providing a quantifiable return on the company¶s investment on training.line or profits¶ Executives were looking to improve the bottom line through various methods Like cost containment.

common categories are as follows  Questionnare or survey  Interiew  Test (either written test of performance test)  Focus groups  Observation of participants  Performance records .TYPE OF EVALUATION INSTRUMENT Data gathering device administered at different stages of training is called an evaluation instrument though there are a lot of varities.

Models of training Kirkpatrick model 1. Results :. Reaction :. Learning :. increased quantity of work etc. Behavior evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behavior. Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning experience. improved quality of work.e.To assess costs vs benefits of training programmes i. and this can be immediately and several months after the training. Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt.To asses whether job performance changes as a result of training. 2. 4.To assess whether the learning objectives for the program are met.To gather data on participants reaction at the end of a training programme. . 3. and their personal reactions to the training or learning experience. depending on the situation. Behavior :. organizational impact in terms of reduced costs.

etc. etc. 2.Gathering data resulting from the training interventions. competitiveness. appropriateness of training. and delivery of training programs. Process :.embraces planning.Longer term results associated with improvement in the corporation¶s bottom-line ± its profitability.IPO model 1. Outcomes :. .The input is taken such as trainee qualifications. Output :. 3. development . Input :. Availability of materials. 4. design.

Situation :. productivity .Measuring differences in quality . Impact :.Evaluating the difference between the pre and post training data. 3.TVS model 1.Collecting pre training data to ascertain current levels of performance within the organization and defining a desirable level of future performance. Value :.Identifying the reason for the existence of the gap between the present and desirable performance to find out if training is the solution to the problem. Intervention :. 4. . 2. service or sales all of which can be expressed in terms of dollars.

current or subsequent reactions in order to improve training. It was originally developed by Warr. Input evaluation involves obtaining and using information about possible training resources in order to choose between alternative inputs to training. intermediate And ultimate objective may be evaluated. Reaction evaluation involves obtaining and using information about trainee¶s expressed.CIRO¶S FOUR LEVEL OF EVALUATION OF Training Impact.They are :a) b) c) d) Context Evaluation Input Evaluation Reaction Evaluation Outcome Evaluation The context evaluation involves obtaining and using information about the current operational context in order to determine the gap that training might help to bridge. Four general categories of evaluation are described in the CIRO approach . During context evaluation 3 types of objectives like primary objective. . Bird and Racham.

Outcome evaluation involves obtaining and using information about the outcomes of training in order to improve subsequent training. .

Phillip¶s Five Level ROI Framework LEVEL Brief Description a) Reaction and Measures participant¶s planned action reaction to the programme and outlines specific plans for implementation. knowledge b) Learning or attitude changes. . Measures skills.

Level 3. Return on investment Brief Description Measures change in behavior on the job and specific application of training material. Job Application 4. usually expressed as a percentage. Measures business impact of the programme. Business results. Measure the monetary value of the results and costs for the programme. 5. .

Return on investment Brief Description Measures change in behavior on the job and specific application of training material. Measures business impact of the programme. Job Application 4. Measure the monetary value of the results and costs for the programme. usually expressed as a percentage.Level 3. Business results. 5. .