TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

What is Training?
‡ Training ± a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees¶ learning of jobrelated competencies
± Competencies ± knowledge, skills or behavior critical for successful job performance

‡ The goal of training is for employees to:
± master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in training programs, and ± apply them to their day-to-day activities

Knowledge :- It is an organized body of facts , principles , procedures, and information acquired overtime. Declarative Procedural Strategic

Skills :- The capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience. A person¶s skills are reflected by how well she is able to carry out specific actions, such as operating a piece of equipment, communicating effectively, or implementing a business strategy. There are two levels of skill acquisition :Compilation Automaticity Attitudes :- Attitudes are employee beliefs and opinions that support or inhibit behavior.

A competency is a set of knowledge , skills , and attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks. In the broadest sense, a job is broken down into a set of tasks, and the competencies required to perform the job are determined through an analysis of the of the tasks. A competency is more than just KSAs: it is the ability to integrate and use the KSAs to perform a task successfully. Example :- Carpentary

TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION Training is a set of activities, whereas development is the desired outcome of those activities. Training is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs, development refers to the learning of KSAs. Education is typically differentiated from training and development by the types of KSAs developed , which are more general in nature. Training is typically focused on job specific KSAs, education focuses on more general KSAs related , not specifically tailored , to a person¶s career or job.

Training is to be used to gain a competitive advantage, company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. Intellectual capital includes:1) Basic skills ( skills needed to perform one¶s job). 2) Advanced skills ( such as how to use technology to share information with other employees ). 3) An understanding of the customer or manufacturing system. 4) Self ±motivated creativity.

High-Leverage Training
‡ Linked to strategic goals and objectives ‡ Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective ‡ Compares or benchmarks the company¶s training programs against training programs in other companies ‡ Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning

Continuous Learning (1 of 2)
‡ Requires employees to understand the entire work system including the relationships among:
± their jobs ± their work units ± the entire company

Training and Performance ‡ Emphasis on high-leverage training has been accompanied by a movement to link training to performance improvement ‡ Training is used to improve employee performance ‡ This leads to improved business results .

managers.Training and Performance: Today¶s Emphasis (1 of 2) ‡ Providing educational opportunities for all employees ‡ An on-going process of performance improvement that is directly measurable ± not one-time training events ‡ The need to demonstrate the benefits of training ± to executives. and trainees .

training managers.Training and Performance: Today¶s Emphasis (2 of 2) ‡ Learning as a lifelong event ± senior management. and employees have ownership ‡ Training used to help attain strategic business objectives ± helps companies gain a competitive advantage .

In the Medtronic Asia/ Pacific location. providing lifelong solutions for people with chronic heart and neurological diseases. .EXAMPLE :. Medtronic is the world leader in medical technology . Medtronic engages employees in learning and development . for example . a developing managers¶ programme placed more emphasis on cultural awareness because the managers were from many different locations and backgrounds. which links them to the company mission of restoring many people to full and productive lives and of making sure that products are available to patients who need them.Medtronic is a good example of a company that uses high ± leverage training.

Step 6 is to choose the training method based on the learning objectives and learning environment.The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. Step 2 is to ensure that employees have the motivation and basic skills necessary to master training content. Step1 is to conducted a needs assessment. Step 3 is to create the learning environment that has the features necessary for learning to occur. Step 7 is to evaluate the program and make changes in it . Step 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the training content to their jobs. . Step 5 is to develop an evaluation plan. which is necessary to identify whether training is needed.

Training Design Process .

Development 4. The training design process sometimes is referred to as the ADDIE model because it includes :1. Analysis 2. Evaluation . Design 3. Implementation 5. ISD refers to a process for designing and developing training programs.The training design process is based on principles of Instructional System Design .

Instructional System Design (ISD) ‡ Refers to a process for designing and developing training programs ‡ There is not one universally accepted ISD model ‡ ISD process should be: ± systematic ± flexible enough to adapt to business needs .

Assumptions of ISD Approaches (2 of 2) ‡ Evaluation plays an important part in: ± planning and choosing a training method ± monitoring the training program ± suggesting changes to the training design process .

.The development of a Web ± based training program focusing on teaching managers skills needed to run effective business meetings provides a good example of use of the instructional design process.EXAMPLE :.

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (1 of 2) ‡ Globalization ± offshoring ‡ Need for leadership ‡ Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital focus on link to business strategy ‡ Attracting and retaining talent ‡ Customer service and quality emphasis .

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (2 of 2) ‡ Changing demographics and diversity of the work force ‡ New technology ‡ High-performance models of work systems ‡ Economic changes .

Companies without international operations may buy or use goods that have been produced overseas.GLOBALIZATION :. Washington. In contrast to the computer and printer manufacturer Hewlett ± Packard which hired its foreign workers 20 years after its founding in 1939. search engine Google employed people outside the US just 3 years after its 1998 start. . or compete with foreign ± owned companies operating within the US. to learn the corporate culture as well as the secrets of brewing flavorful coffee. Globalization is not limited to a particular sector of the economy or product market. hire employees with diverse backgrounds.S companies may move job overseas: offshoring refers to the process of moving jobs from the United States to other locations in the world.It has affected not just businesses with international operations. Globalization also means That U. Example :.Procter and Gamble Starbucks in China New managers were sent to Tacoma .

Example :. The Swedish ± based home furnishing retailer that has its US headquarters in Pennsylvania. e-learning programme 3) The Next Generation Store Manager Program . 1) Job ± Rotation 2) Self ± paced . and managerial occupations will experience the greatest turnover due to death or retirement. administrative.THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP The aging of the workforce and globalization mean that companies will need to identify . Companies need to both identify employees with managerial talent and help potential new managers develop the skills needed to succeed. Executive . train . and develop employees with managerial talent.Management development programs of IKEA.

Intangible Assets ‡ Cannot be touched and are nonmonetary. however equally as valuable as financial and physical assets. They include: ± human capital ± customer capital ± social capital ± intellectual capital .

knowledge. Training and development has a direct influence on human and social capital because it affects education. Intellectual capital refers to the codified knowledge that exists in a company.The intangible assets consist of human capital. energy and enthusiasm that the company¶s employees invest in their work. social capital and intellectual capital. Training and development can have an indirect influence on customer and intellectual capital by helping employees better serve customers and by providing them with the knowledge needed to create patents and intellectual property. customer capital.how and competence . and work relationships. inventiveness. Human capital refers to the sum of the attributes. work related know. . Social capital refers to relationships in the company. life experience . Customer capital refers to the value of relationships with persons or other organizations outside the company for accomplishing the goals of the company.

.Intangible assets also contribute to a company¶s competitive advantage because they are difficult to duplicate or imitate.South west airlines Buckman Laboratories is known for its knowledge management practices . It develops and markets specialty chemicals. Example :. Buckman also changed the focus of the company¶s information systems department . Renaming it knowledge transfer department to better match the service it is supposed to provide. The company rewards innovation and knowledge creation and exchange by including the sales of new products as part of employees performance evaluations.

HUMAN CAPITAL Tacit Knowledge Education Work related know how Work related competence CUSTOMER CAPITAL Customer relationships Brands Customer Loyalty Distribution Channels Social Capital Corporate culture Management philosophy Management practices Informal networking systems Coaching / mentoring relationships .

.INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Patents Copyrights Trade secrets Intellectual property.

and retaining knowledge workers ‡ A management style of developing and empowering employees ‡ Capability to adapt to change ± Learning organization ± embraces a culture of lifelong learning. developing. enabling all employees to continually acquire and share knowledge .Increasing Intangible Assets ‡ Increase human capital by focusing on attracting.

. market share .FOCUS ON LINK TO BUSINESS STRATEGY As the importance of intangible assets and human capital are increasing. and quality.A good example of how a company has linked training and development to business strategy is IBM. Example :. IBM has adopted an on ± demand business strategy that requires the company to more quickly respond to customers needs and help them do the same for their clients. its plans for meeting broad goals such as profitability . that is . managers are beginning to see a more important role for training and development As a means to support a company¶s business strategy.

Between 2004 and 2014 . Training and development is a key to attract and retain talented employees. .ATTRACTING AND RETAINING TALENT :. Retention is an important part of talent management .9 million . or 13 percent: . Talented employees are looking for growth band a career path. It is also important for companies to try to capture the valuable knowledge that is Leaving. Example :.NASA Engineers are designated as NASA Discipline Experts. employment is expected to increase by 18. new workers will be needed due to replacement.

customer excellence requires attention to product and service features as well as to interactions with customers. machines and systems accomplish work. For that you need training to happen. Customer driven excellence includes understanding what customers wants and anticipating future needs.CUSTOMER SERVICE AND QUALITY EMPHASIS Companies customers judge quality and performance. . Total Quality Management (TQM) is a company wide effort to continuously improve the ways people . How the company recovers from defects and errors is also important for retaining and attracting customers. As a result . Customer ± driven excellence includes reducing defects and errors . meeting specifications and reducing complaints.

rather than being detected and corrected .Core Values of Total Quality Management (TQM) (1 of 2) ‡ Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers ‡ Every employee in the company receives training in quality ‡ Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring.

suppliers.Core Values of TQM (2 of 2) ‡ The company promotes cooperation with vendors. and customers to improve quality and hold down costs ‡ Managers measure progress with feedback based on data .

company can receive. created by public law. a company must complete a detailed application that consists of basic information about the firm as well as an in depth presentation of how it addresses specific criteria related to quality improvement.S. To become eligible for the Baldrige. . The Baldrige award. is the highest level of national recognition for quality that a U.The emphasis on quality is seen in the establishment of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and the ISO 9000:2000 quality standards.

Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination Leadership Measurement Analysis and Knowledge Management Strategic Planning Human Resource Focus Process Management Business Results Customer and Market Focus Total Points 120 points 90 points 85 points 85 points 85 points 450 points 85 points 1.000 points .

Switzerland ‡ ISO 9000 is the name of a family of standards ± ISO 9001 ± ISO 9004 .ISO 9000:2000 quality standards ‡ The ISO 9000:2000 standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Geneva.

manufacturing . ISO 10015 requires companies to use appropriate design and effective learning processes.ISBN ± International standard book number. Example :. Companies have to determine the return on investment of training to company performance. A group within the ISO has drafted a standard for employee training. 2. and customer service. ISO 10015 has two key features. ISO 10015 Is a quality management tool designed to ensure that training is linked to company needs and performance. 1. ISO 9004 provides a guide for companies that want to improve. installation . . It includes the actual specification for a quality management system.ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive standards because it covers product or service design and development.

Six Sigma process ‡ The six sigma process refers to: ± measuring processes ± analyzing processes ± improving processes ± controlling processes .

it has produced more than 2 billion in benefits for GE.Example :. Six sigma involves highly trained employees known as Champions. Black belts . . Training is an important component of the process.000 employees trained in Six Sigma Since 1996. Today GE has over 100. when the Six Sigma quality initiative was started. and Green Belts who lead and teach teams that are focusing on ever ± growing number of quality projects.GE is to have less than 4 defects per million in every element of every process GE businesses perform. The first companies to achieve ISO 10015 certification are in CHINA and Switzerland. Master Black Belts.

8% Asian and other ethnic or cultural groups. The civilian labor force is projected to increase by 14. . reaching 162.CHANGING DEMOGRAHICS AND DIVERSITY OF THE WORKFORCE Population is the single most important factor in determing the size and composition of the labor force. The training programs to help immigrants acquire the technical and customer service skills required in a service economy.7 million b/w 2004 and 2014. 12% African American. By 2014 the work force is projected to be 80% white.1 million by 2014. 16% of the labor force will be of Hispanic origin. The Asian and Hispanic labor force increases due to immigration trends and higher than average birth rates. The work force will be older and more culturally diverse than at any time in the past 40 years. which is composed of people who are either working or looking for work.

So Marriott trains employees to handle wide variety of positions and rotates them periodically to new jobs. . To successfully manage a diverse work force.Training plays a key role in ensuring that employees accept and work more effectively with each other.Marriott recognizes that most employees don¶t want to stay in an entry level job such as house keeping . managers and employees must be trained in a new set of skills. Example :. This gives employees opportunities to find the area in which they best like to work.

ethnicities. educational backgrounds. and races . training and developing employees of different ages. physical abilities.Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (1 of 2) ‡ Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds ‡ Coaching.

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (2 of 2) ‡ Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender. or physical handicap ‡ Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be creative and innovative . ethnicity.

Technology also allows companies greater use of a contingent work force. New technologies allow training to occur at any time and any place. making training more realistic and giving employees the opportunity to choose where and when they will work.NEW TECHNOLOGY Advances in sophisticated technology along with reduced costs for the technology are changing the delivery of training. .

New Technology ‡ Internet has created a new business model: ± e-commerce ‡ Advantages of technology: ± reduced travel costs ± greater accessibility to training ± consistent delivery ± ability to access experts ± share learning ± creating a learning environment ± greater use of a contingent work force .

HIGH PERFORMANCE MODELS OF WORK SYSTEMS
Through technology, the information needed to improve customer service and product quality becomes more accessible to employees. This means that employees are expected to take more responsibility for satisfying

the customer and determining how they perform their jobs.
One of the most popular methods for increasing employee responsibility and control is work teams.

EXAMPLE :- Kinko¶s , the world¶s leading supplier of document solutions and business services with 1,100 location in nine countries , has changed. Because Kinko¶s stores are geographically dispersed , the company has had to struggle with costly training programs offered in multiple locations to prepare employees for new products and services. Kinko¶s adopted a blended learning approach including internet instruction, job aids, Virtual classroom training and mentoring. Capital One , a financial service company , uses an audio learning program that allows employees to learn through their iPods at their convenience. The company has also developed a mobile audio learning channel. The channel supplements competency based programs, leadership and management Programmes.

High-Performance Models of Work Systems
‡ Work teams ± involve employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service ‡ Cross training ± training employees in a wide range of skills so they can fill any of the roles needed to be performed on the team ‡ Virtual teams ± separated teams relying almost exclusively on technology to interact and complete their projects

Example :- Canon is using a procedure called concurrent engineering in which production engineers work together with designers. This procedure makes it easier for these workers to exchange ideas to improve a product or make it easier to manufacture. WHAT ROLE DOES TRAINING PLAY ? Employees need job specific knowledge and basic skills to work with the equipment created by the new technology. Technology is used to achieve product diversification and customization, employees must have the ability to listen and communicate with customers. Interpersonal skills, such as negotiation and conflict management, and problem solving skills are more important than physical strength , coordination, and fine ± motor skills ± previous job requirements for many manufacturing and service jobs. Example :- The learning and education department of PwC has 190 employees located in 70 offices in different cities. These employees work together on virtual teams that range in size from 5 to 50 people.

The 2004 ASTD Competency Model .

and monitors the effective delivery of learning and performance solutions to support the business. The training professionals spend most of their time in designing learning. develops . and coaching . The business partner uses business and industry knowledge to create training that improves performance. . The foundation competencies include interpersonal competencies. obtains . The learning strategist determines how workplace learning can be best used to help meet the company¶s business strategy.The model describes what it takes for an individual to be successful in the training and development field. they do spend time in the other areas too. delivering training. The professional specialist designs. delivers . and evaluates learning and performance solutions to support the business. business and management competencies. and personal competencies. managing the learning function. The project manager plans .

TRAINING NEED ASSESMENTS .

To conduct a TNA first . A TNA is important because it helps determine whether training can correct the performance problem.TNA ( training needs analysis ) is a systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required. Increase the chances that the time and money spent on training is spent wisely. The TNA to ensure to provide the right training to the right people. . there is a need to accomplish several Things:1. Need analysis occurs when actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected organizational performance (EOP).

Determine the benchmark for evaluation of training. 3. Increase the motivation of participants A TNA will provide a benchmark of the performance levels and KSAs that trainees possess prior to training.2. This will allow you to demonstrate the cost savings or value added as a result of training. These benchmarks will let you compare performance before and after training. .

Analysis Phase Input Organizational Analysis Objectives Resources Environment TRIGGER Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) < Expected Organizational Performance (EOP) Process Output Training Needs Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP < AP And Causes of PD Non Training Needs Operational Analysis Expected Performance (EP) Person Analysis Actual Performance (AP) .

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified ± Part 1 of 2 Performance Discrepancy YES Is it worth fixing? YES KSA Deficiency YES Reward/ Punishment Incongruence YES Inadequate Feedback YES Obstacles in the System YES Choose Appropriate Remedy Change Contingencies Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles .

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified ± Part 2 of 2 Performance discrepancy is worth fixing AND is due to a KSA deficiency Choose Appropriate Remedy Job Aid Training Practice Change the Job Transfer or Terminate Change Contingencies Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles .

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 1 of 5 Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs This source suggests where training emphasis should be placed. Objectives and Budget 2. Achieve a goal to become ISO certified and allow $90.000 for this effort. age. turnover. Examples 1. Organizational Goals Maintain a quality standard of no more than one reject per thousand. Labor Inventory This source helps HRD identify where training is needed because of retirement. 30% of our truck drivers will retire over the next four years. etc. .

Turnover d.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 2 of 5 3. Grievances Items related to productivity are useful in determining performance deficiencies Seventy percent of grievances are related to behaviors of 6 supervisors c. Labor-management data These ³quality of working life´ indicators at the organizational level provide indicators of organizational performance gap Implications For Training Examples These indicators relate work participation or productivity and are useful in discrepancy analysis and in helping management set a value on the behaviors it wishes to improve through training b. Suggestions f. Organizational Climate Indicators Sources of Data a. Absenteeism e. Productivity High absences in clerical staff .

Accidents Accident rate for line workers increasing h.Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 3 of 5 g. Short-term sickness Line workers¶ attitude toward teamwork is poor i. Attitude surveys Surveys are good for locating discrepancies between organizational expectations and perceived results .

Analysis of Efficiency Indices a. Waste Wasted steel has increased by 14% since the company began using parttime workers .Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 4 of 5 Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs Can help document difference between actual performance and desired performance Labor costs have increased 8 percent in the last year Number of rejects has increased by 30% since the new batch of workers began Examples 4. Quality of product c. Cost of labor b.

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance ± Part 5 of 5 5. Management Requests Or Management Interrogation One of the most common techniques of identification of performance discrepancies Production managers indicates a drop in quality since the layoffs 7. Change in system or subsystem New or change equipment may require training The line has been shut down about once per day since the new machinery was installed. From these measures the company is able to determine improvement or deterioration or performance . 6. MBO or Work Planning and Review systems Provides actual baseline performance data on a continuous basis.

Introduction (1 of 2) ‡ Effective training practices involve the use of an instructional systems design process ‡ The instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment .

and ± whether trainees are willing to learn . it is important to determine: ± what type of training is necessary.Introduction (2 of 2) ‡ Before choosing a training method.

Needs assessment involves: ± Organizational analysis . given the business strategy ‡ determining the resources available for training ‡ determining the support by managers and peers for training .involves ‡ determining the appropriateness of training.Needs Assessment (1 of 2) ‡ Process used to determine whether training is necessary.

skill. skill. and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks . or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem ‡ identifying who needs training ‡ determining employees¶ readiness for training ± Task analysis ± involves: ‡ identifying the important tasks and knowledge.Needs Assessment (2 of 2) ± Person analysis ± involves: ‡ determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge.

CAUSES AND OUTCOMES OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT Reasons for pressure points Lack of basic skills Poor performance New technology Customer requests New products Higher performance Standards New jobs Out comes What trainees need to learn Who receives training Type of training Frequency of training Organizational Buy versus build training analysis decisions Training versus other HR options How training should Person Task Analysis be evaluated. analysis Who needs Training? .

A delivery truck driver whose job is to deliver anesthetic gases to medical facilities. .Example :. which is clearly a performance problem. Why did the driver make this mistake. The driver mistakenly hooks up the supply line of a mild anesthetic to the supply line of a hospital¶s oxygen system . contaminating the hospital¶s oxygen system.

skills. and ability needed to compete in the marketplace? What tasks should be trained? What knowledge. skills. ability. or other characteristics are necessary? .Key Concerns of Upper.and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment Upper-Level Managers Organizational Analysis Is training important to achieve our business objectives? How does training support our business strategy? What functions or business units need training? Midlevel Managers Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Trainers Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? Person Analysis Who should be trained? Managers? Professionals? Core employees? For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service? How will I identify which employees need training? Task Analysis Does the company have the people with the knowledge.

Conditions under which the tasks have to be performed.Texas Instrument was trying to determine how to train engineering experts to become trainers for new engineers. uses academics or trainers who are familiar with course content. Knowledge. or deficiencies in documentation . tasks. skills .Netg. Rather technical diagrams .For the newly created jobs. and conditions under which the job is performed. trainers often do not have job incumbents to rely on for this information . Necessary equipments 4.SMES are employees . an Illinois company that develops courseware for training information technology skills.Another source of information for companies that have introduced A new technology is the help desk that companies often set up to deal with calls regarding problems. and equipment designers can provide information regarding the training requirements. 2. and even customers or suppliers who are knowledgeable in regard to :1. Training issues including tasks to be performed. managers. technical experts. Example :. Example :. academics. 3. software or systems. simulations . deficiencies in training. Example :. and abilities required for successful task performance. trainers . . Example :.

Example :.4. . Online technology is available to monitor and track employee performance. This information is useful for identifying training needs and providing employees with feedback regarding their skills strengths and weaknesses.Call centres.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3) Technique Observation Advantages Generates data relevant to work environment Minimizes interruption of work Inexpensive Can collect data from a large number of persons Data easily summarized Disadvantages Needs skilled observer Employees¶ behavior may be affected by being observed Requires time Possible low return rates. inappropriate responses Lacks detail Only provides information directly related to questions asked Questionnaires .

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3) Technique Interviews Advantages Good at uncovering details of training needs Good at uncovering causes and solutions of problems Can explore unanticipated issues that come up Questions can be modified Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to explore Questions can be modified to explore unanticipated issues Disadvantages Time consuming Difficult to analyze Needs skilled interviewer Difficult to schedule SMEs only provide information they think you want to hear Focus Groups Time consuming to organize Group members provide information they think you want to hear Status or position differences may limit participation .

Limited to jobs requiring interaction with customers via Computer or phone.Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3) Technique On line Technology ( Software ) Advantages Objective Minimizes interruption of Work Requires limited human involvement Disadvantages May threaten employees Manager may use information to punish rather than train . .

Peers & Employees for Training Activities ‡ Training Resources Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training? Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model ‡ Work Activity (Task) ‡ KSAs ‡ Working Conditions .The Needs Analysis Process Person Characteristics ‡ Input ‡ Output ‡ Consequences ‡ Feedback Organizational Analysis ‡ Strategic Direction ‡ Support of Managers.

Organizational Analysis ‡ Involves identifying: ± whether training supports the company¶s strategic direction ± whether managers. peers. and employees support training activity ± what training resources are available .

or partners need to know about the training program? ‡ How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business? ‡ Should organizational resources be devoted to this program? . customers.Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (1 of 3) ‡ How might the training content affect our employees¶ relationship with our customers? ‡ What might suppliers.

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (2 of 3) ‡ What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed? ‡ What features of the work environment might interfere with training? ‡ Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program? .

Companies that believe learning contributes to their competitive advantage or that have adopted high performance work systems( e.g teams) are likely to have greater training budgets and conduct more training.Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (3 of 3) ‡ Will employees perceive the training program as: ± ± ± ± an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time? Example :. .

Manufacturing sites. The team has made some valuable contributions. it has 3 possible strategies for dealing with the computer ± literate employees. time . Example :.TRAINING RESOURCES It is necessary to identify whether the company has the budget. . and expertise for training. One way to identify training resources is for companies that have similar operations or departments located across the country or the world to share practices.Pfizer Pharmaceuticals created a ³ virtual learning team ³ to promote the sharing of ³ best practices ³ in technical training among its U.If the company is installing computer ± based manufacturing equipment in one of its plants. including the development of a new operator training standard. Example :.S . a 10 step method for teaching and evaluating the skills of employees who make drug products or operate machinery.

the type and number of references needed. . expected date of completion of the project . and the date when proposals must be received by the company. the follow-up process used to determine level of satisfaction and service .Many companies identify vendors and consultants who can provide training services by using requests for proposals. the type of service the company is seeking. the number of employees who need to be trained. funding for the project . A request for proposals is a document that outlines for potential vendors and consultants the type of service the company is seeking.

Process for Analyzing the Factors That Influence Employee Performance and Learning .

Employees have the personal characteristics ( ability. how . 2.Person analysis helps to identify employees who need training . skill. beliefs. Readiness for training refers to whether :1. Input also refers to the resources that the employees are given to help them perform. Feedback refers to the information that employees receive while they are performing. and attitudes. Input relates to the instructions that tell employees what. This process involves determining employee¶s readiness for training. Output refers to the job¶s performance standards. and motivation ) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job. that is . . ability . The work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance. A major pressure point for training is poor or substandard performance. Person characteristics refer to the employees¶ knowledge. and when to perform. whether employees current performance or expected performance indicates a need for training. Consequences refer to the type of incentives that employees receive for performing well. attitudes.

and goals ‡ Input ± employees¶ perceptions of the work environment. career interests.Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (1 of 3) ‡ Person characteristics ± cognitive ability ± reading ability ± self-efficacy ± awareness of training needs. ± Situational & Social constraints are determinants of performance & motivation .

± standard to judge successful performers ‡ Consequences ± positive consequences/incentives to perform ± few negative consequences to perform ‡ Feedback ± frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed .Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (3 of 3) ‡ Output ‡ Poor or substandard performance can occur on the job because do not know at what level they are expected to perform.

Person Analysis: Self-Efficacy ‡ Employees believe that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training program ± The job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the past ± The training environment can also be threatening to people who have not received training or formal education for some length of time .

Increasing Employees¶ Self-Efficacy Level (1 of 2) ‡ Letting employees know that the purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetent ‡ Providing as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training .

Increasing Employees¶ Self-Efficacy Level (2 of 2) ‡ Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs ‡ Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program .

Task Analysis ‡ Task analysis results in a description of work activities. ‡ Should only be undertaken after you have determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training . skills. including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge. and abilities required to complete the tasks.

Steps in a Task Analysis 1. skills. or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task . Identify the knowledge. Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks 4. Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job 3. Select the job(s) to be analyzed 2.

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (1 of 3) ‡ Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the job ‡ Task analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasks ‡ Use more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis .

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (2 of 3) ‡ For task analysis to be useful. information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs) ± SMEs include: ‡ job incumbents ‡ managers ‡ employees familiar with the job .

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (3 of 3) ‡ In deciding how to evaluate tasks. the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company¶s goals and objectives ± These may not be the tasks that are the most difficult or take the most time .

Scope of Needs Assessment ‡ Time constraints can limit the length and detail obtained from needs assessment ‡ The scope of the needs assessment depends on the size of the potential ³pressure point´ ‡ You will be able to anticipate training needs if you are attuned to the: ± business problems ± technological developments ± other issues facing the organization .

Learning: Theories and Program Design .

Introduction (1 of 2) ‡ Conditions necessary for learning to occur: ± opportunities for trainees to practice and receive feedback ± meaningful training content ± prerequisites trainees need to successfully complete the program ± allowing trainees to learn through observation and experience. .

e.Introduction (2 of 2) ‡ For learning to occur it is important to identify what is to be learned ± i.. to identify learning outcomes ‡ Understanding learning outcomes is crucial ± they influence characteristics of the training environment necessary for learning to occur ‡ The design of the training program is also important for learning to occur .

What Is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes. .

and create products .Learning Outcomes (1 of 3) ‡ Verbal information ± includes names or labels. facts. serve customers. and bodies of knowledge ± includes specialized knowledge employees need in their jobs ‡ Intellectual skills ± include concepts and rules ± critical to solve problems.

Learning Outcomes (2 of 3) ‡ Motor skills ± include coordination of physical movements ‡ Attitudes ± combination of beliefs and feeling that pre-dispose a person to behave a certain way ± important work-related attitudes include job satisfaction. commitment to the organization. . turnover and behaviors that impact the well being of the company. and job involvement. ± Training programs may be used to develop or change attitude because attitudes have been shown to be related to physical and mental withdrawal from work .

Learning Outcomes (3 of 3) ‡ Cognitive strategies ± regulate the process of learning ± they relate to the learner¶s decision regarding: ‡ what information to attend to (i.. pay attention to) ‡ how to remember ‡ how to solve problems .e.

Learning Theories
Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories

Need Theories

Expectancy Theory Information Processing Theory Adult Learning Theory

Reinforcement Theory (1 of 2)
‡ Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors
± positive reinforcement ± negative reinforcement ± extinction ± punishment

Reinforcement Theory (2 of 2)
‡ From a training perspective, it suggests that the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive (and negative) for learners to: ± acquire knowledge ± change behavior ± modify skills ‡ Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors. ‡ Behavior Modification is training method that is primarily based on reinforcement theory.

Social Learning Theory (1 of 3)
‡ Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable ‡ Recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated ‡ The models¶ behavior or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer

Social Learning Theory (2 of 3) ‡ Learning new skills or behavior comes from: ± directly experiencing the consequences of using behavior or skills. or ± the process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior ‡ Learning is also influenced by a person¶s selfefficacy ± self-efficacy ± a person¶s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills .

Social Learning Theory (3 of 3) ‡ Self-efficacy can be increased using: ± verbal persuasion ± offering words of encouragement to convince others they can learn ± logical verification ± perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered ± observation of others (modeling) ± having employees who already have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees ± past accomplishments ± allowing employees to build a history of successful accomplishments .

Processes of Social Learning Theory Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Processes Match Modeled Performanc e ‡ Model Stimuli ‡ Trainee ‡ Characteristics ‡ Coding ‡ Organization ‡ Rehearsal ‡ Physical Capability ‡ Accuracy ‡ Feedback ‡ Reinforcement .

Social learning theory emphasizes that behaviors that are reinforced will be repeated in the future.Learners are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in positive outcomes. Social learning theory is the primary basis for behavior modeling training and has influenced the development of multimedia training programs. .

Goal Theories Goal Setting Theory Goal Orientation .

Goal Setting Theory (1 of 3) ‡ Assumes behavior results from a person¶s conscious goals and intentions ‡ Goals influence behavior by: ± directing energy and attention ± sustaining effort over time ± motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment .

Goal Setting Theory (2 of 3) ‡ Specific challenging goals result in better performance than vague. unchallenging goals ‡ Goals lead to high performance only if people are committed to the goal ‡ Employees are less likely to be committed to a goal if they believe it is too difficult .

Goal Setting Theory (3 of 3) ‡ Goal setting theory is used in training program design ‡ It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives ‡ The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans .

Goal Orientation (1 of 3) ‡ Refers to the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation ± learning orientation ± relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a task ± performance orientation ± refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to others .

Goal Orientation (2 of 3) ‡ It affects the amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (motivation to learn) ‡ Learners with a high learning orientation: ± direct greater attention to the task ± learn for the sake of learning .

Goal Orientation (3 of 3) ‡ Learners with a high performance orientation: ± direct more attention to performing well ± devote less effort to learning ‡ Trainees with a learning orientation: ± exert greater effort to learn and use more complex learning strategies than trainees with a performance orientation .

‡ Suggest that to motivate learning: ± trainers should identify trainees¶ needs. they are unlikely to be motivated to learn . and ± communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs ‡ If the basic needs of trainees are not met.Need Theories ‡ Help explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes ± need ± a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time.

Adult Learning Theory ‡ It is based on several assumptions: ± adults have the need to know why they are learning something ± adults have a need to be self-directed ± adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation ± adults enter into a learning experience with a problem-centered approach to learning ± adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators .

Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training Design Issue Self ± concept Experience Readiness Time perspective Orientation to learning Implications Mutual planning and collaboration in instruction Use learner experience as basis for examples and applications Develop instruction based on learner¶s interests and competencies Immediate application of content Problem ± centered instead of subject ± centered .

Do trainees have different learning styles? . What are the physical and mental processes involved in learning? 2. How does learning occur? 3.The Learning Process This material asks three questions: 1.

The Learning Process: Mental and Physical Processes Expectancy Gratifying Perception Generalizing LEARNING Working Storage Retrieval Long ²Term Storage Semantic Encoding .

THE LEARNING CYCLE Learning can be considered a dynamic cycle that involves four stages : ‡Concrete experience ‡Reflective observation ‡Abstract conceptualization ‡Active experimentation .

The Learning Process: Learning Styles .

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (1 of 2) ‡ Employees need to know why they should learn ‡ Employees need meaningful training content ‡ Employees need opportunities to practice ‡ Employees need to commit training content to memory ‡ Employees need feedback .

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (2 of 2) ‡ Employees learn through: ± observation ± experience ± interacting with others ‡ Employees need the training program to be properly coordinated and arranged .

Training Objectives ‡ Employees learn best when they understand the objective of the training program ‡ The objective refers to the purpose and expected outcome of training activities ‡ Training objectives based on the training needs analysis help employees understand why they need the training ‡ Objectives are useful for identifying the types of training outcomes that should be measured to evaluate a training program¶s effectiveness .

A statement of the quality or level of performance that is acceptable (criterion) 3.A training objective has three components: 1. A statement of the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform the desired outcome (conditions) . A statement of what the employee is expected to do (performance or outcome) 2.

Training Administration Involves: (1 of 2) ‡ Communicating courses and programs to employees ‡ Enrolling employees in courses and programs ‡ Preparing and processing any pre-training materials such as readings or tests ‡ Preparing materials that will be used in instruction ‡ Arranging for the training facility and room ‡ Testing equipment that will be used in instruction .

Training Administration Involves: (2 of 2) ‡ Having backup equipment should equipment fail ‡ Providing support during instruction ‡ Distributing evaluation materials ‡ Facilitating communications between trainer and trainees during and after training ‡ Recording course completion in the trainees¶ records or personnel files .

facts. similar tasks. and strategies Verbal description of strategy Strategy demonstration Practice with feedback Variety of tasks that provide opportunity to apply strategy Intellectual Skills (Knowing how) Cognitive Strategies (Process of thinking and learning) .Internal and External Conditions Necessary for Learning Outcomes (1 of 2) Learning Outcome Verbal Information (Labels. and propositions) Internal Conditions Previously learned knowledge and verbal information Strategies for coding information into memory External Conditions Repeated practice Meaningful chunks Advance organizers Recall cues Link between new and previously learned knowledge Recall of prerequisites.

Internal and External Conditions Necessary for Learning Outcomes (2 of 2) Learning Outcome Attitudes (Choice of personal action) Internal Conditions Mastery of prerequisites Identification with model External Conditions Demonstration by a model Positive learning environment Strong message from credible source Reinforcement Motor Skills (Muscular actions) Recall of part skills Coordination program Practice Demonstration Gradual decrease of external feedback .

. Selecting and Preparing the Training Site. and any visual displays. the trainer . and free from interruptions. A good training site offers the following features :a) It is comfortable and accessible.Considerations in Designing Effective Training Programs: 1. c) It has sufficient space for trainees to move easily around in . private. The training site refers to the room where training will be conducted. b) It is quiet . and has good visibility for trainees to see other . offers enough room for trainees to have adequate work space.

ii) Seating arrangement Fan type seating Class room Seating Conference Type Seating Horse shoe Arrangement 2. Variations of white are cold and sterile. green.It should be square in shape.a) Details to be considered in the training room i) Noise ii) colors :. iii) room structure :. Selecting Trainers . blues and yellow are warm colors.Pastel hues such as orange. wall and floor covering . Black and brown shades will close the room. glare and acoustics. Lighting. meeting room chairs.

How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and Instruction Conducive to Learning: Creating A Learning Setting Preparation Classroom Management Engaging Trainees Managing Group Dynamics .

Program Design .

so as to enable the trainees to learn the maximum from training course is called training design. .Designing the training Programme ‡ Technique of arranging the course content in a logical manner.

A lesson plan overview 4. Program design includes considering the purpose of the program as well as designing specific lessons within the program. A training program may include one or several courses. A detailed lesson plan . Course parameters. Effective program design Includes :1. 2. Objectives 3. Each course may contain one or more lessons.Programme design refers to the organization and coordination of the training program.

prerequisites . . time .The course parameters refer to general information about the training program including the course title. Programme objectives are broad summary statements of the purpose of the programme. Goals of the course. the conditions . or lesson objectives relate to goals of the lesson. the content. These objectives are more specific than the program objectives in terms of the expected behaviors. Objectives :-Within a training program. and name of the trainer. Course objectives. and the standards. description of the audience. location . there are usually different types of objectives. statement of purpose.

lesson plans include the sequence of activities that will be conducted in the training session and identify the administrative details. Learner activity (e.The detailed lesson plan translates the content and sequence of training activities into a guide that is used by the trainer to help deliver the training. That is . target audience. practice . . time of session. Lesson plans also help to ensure that both the trainee and trainer are aware of the course and program objectives. learning objective. The lesson plan includes the course title. instructor activity (what the instructor will do during the session ). ask questions) and any prerequisites. The lesson plan provides a table of contents for the training activity.g listen. Topics to be covered.

.In developing the lesson outline. trainers need to consider the proper sequencing of topics. Lesson plan overview :.It matches major activities of the training program and specific times or time interval. Completing a lesson plan overview helps the trainer determine the amount of time that needs to be allocated for each topic covered in the program.

Design Theories Elaboration theory is a macro theory of design. This holistic approach is more meaningful and motivational for learners . It is based on a holistic alternative to the part/whole sequencing that is usually followed in training. It is only relevant only for complex tasks. because from the start they see and get to practice the complete task. . Sequencing is the process of how to group and order the content of training.

Simplifying conditions method is based on the notion that for all complex tasks. simple and more complex version exists. After completing the basic understanding of all tasks. the learner moves to the second level of the first task to do the same thing. . Spiral sequencing requires learning the basics of the first task. Topical sequencing requires the complete learning of one topic before moving to the next task. the learner moves to the second level and so on .Two sequencing strategies are possible : topical and spiral.

Elaborating is the process of identifying progressively more complex version of tasks.The SCM is based on two parts :Epitomizing :.It is the process of identifying the simplest version of the task. . which is still representative of the task as a whole.

Comparison of Topical and Spiral Sequencing 1 of 2 Topical Sequencing Topic A Topic A Module 1 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Topic B Spiral Sequencing Topic B Topic C Module 1 Module 1 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Topic A Module 2 Topic B Module 2 Topic C Module 2 Chapter 5 144 .

Comparison of Topical and Spiral Sequencing Advantages Topical Concentrate on topic. no interference from other topics Built in synthesis and review Interrelationships are more obvious and understood Disadvantages Once learned you move to the next topic and the first is forgotten Disruption of learners thought process when move to next topic Spiral Chapter 5 145 .

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction ± Part 1 of 2 Instructional Event Gain attention Informing the trainee of Goal (objectives) Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Present the material Relation to Social Learning Theory Attention Attention Retention: Activation of memory Retention: Activation of memory. cognitive organization Chapter 5 146 . symbolic coding.

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction ± Part 2 of 2 Instructional Event Provide guidance for learning Relation to Social Learning Theory Retention: Symbolic coding/ cognitive organization through guided discovery Retention: Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement Elicit performance (practice) Provide informative feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer Reinforcement Chapter 5 147 .

TRAINING METHODS . TECHNIQUES AND AIDS .

. the task very often contributing directly to the output of the department. Off-the-job training requires the worker to undergo training for a specific period away from the work place.On-the-job training generally takes place in the normal work situation.

6. Easier to obtain full attention of trainees 5. Real life situation . not simulated. Trainee can establish work relationships from the start. Productive in terms of department¶s work.Relaxed atmosphere more conducive to learning.No special facilities needed 2. Off the job 1. 4. 3. . No additional staff needed 3.Trainee¶s specific difficulties are easier to explore. 4.More time available 2.Learning can be controlled. Able to test hypothesis and ideas in low risk environment.On the job 1. 5.

No transferability of training required.On the job 7. Off the job Improve morale and motivation for self ± development. No ³ off ±the ± job¶ cost involved. . 8.

Often involves traveling costs and inconvience. 6. 4. 2. 3. 6. Off.On ± the Job 1. Lack of time due to pressure of production. 3. Psychological pressures on trainee due to exposure before experienced workers.the.Difficulty of simulating work problems. Part-time instructor may lack skill in training. 5.job 1. 2. Risk to machines . Cost lost in departmental budget. 5. Difficulty of accommodating trainee idiosyncrasies. . 4. equipment.Cost of external facilities. Difficulty of transferring learning to work situation. Artificial sheltered environment .etc and increase in scrap due to lack of experience. Generally more time ± consuming.

Trainers use a variety of training methods during delivery to facilitate learning. . activate different learning style and enhance comprehension and retention. he can keep learners interested. Combination of different methods of training contributes to the effectiveness of the training programmes. employee of an organization´. There are many training methods available and the trainer should be proficient in using them to help meet learners¶ needs.Training Method Definition Training method is defined as ³systematic procedure or techniques by which a skill is developed in a person. By altering the training method the trainer uses delivery .

Transactional analysis Achievement motivation games Brain storming sessions . etc. workshop Seminar symposium.Classification of training Methods Knowledge based methods On the job training Method On the job training Job rotation Guidance and counseling Syndicate groups Simulation Methods Role play Case method Lecture Extension talk/talk Group discussion Skill based Methods Assignments Practice after demonstration Task performance Skill teaching Role plays Workshops Experiential Methods Sensitivity Management games In basket exercise Buss session. panel Discussion. Conference.

Lectures are unidirectional because the trainer is the primary communicator who conveys the information to the group. etc. Content and timing of the lecture can be planned in detail well in advance. confidence and convenience. .Important Training Methods There are lot of training methods used by trainers depending on their competence. while the group¶s role is to listen. disadvantages. are :Lecture or Presentation Method This is traditional training method. lecture method is preferred. When the purpose is informational. This method is suitable for large audiences¶ where participation is not wanted. their advantages. applicability. some of the important training methods.

. This method is very cost effective. The lecture method is also useful when training involves many learners. It is very easy to organize. Lecture is a method is which information can be communicated instantly.Advantages of Lecture Method The primary advantage of lecture method is that it is an efficient way to transmit a large amount of information to learner in short time. If the purpose of training programme is to raise awareness or supply information. lecture can be an appropriate method.

Limitation/disadvantage The audience¶s role is passive and audience feedback is limited. By this the lecture becomes more interactive and retention is higher. Efficient learning demands concentration on the part of the learner. The trainer can ask questions frequently during a lecture to enhance the learner involvements. . Use of visual aids largely improves the effectiveness of lecture. Making Lecture Method Effective Lecture method can be improved by encouraging the audience to take notes. Another way to improve traditional methods is to reduce how much time your spend on them. The review and regular summarizing heighten the effectiveness of the lecture method.

The lecture uses a lecturette to provide trainees with information that is supported . A shorter version of a lecture is called lecturette. reinforced. and expanded on through interaction among the trainees and between the trainees and the trainer. This added communication has much greater power than the lecture. . It has the characteristic as the lecture but usually lasts less than 20 minutes.A good lecture is well organized and begins with an introduction that lays out the purpose of the lecture and the order in which topics will be covered.

.Trainers can achieve more complex learning objectives ± such as problem solving ± through the use of logically sequenced lecturettes followed by immediate discussion and Questioning.

Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits resulting from the discussion method. getting feedback sharing experiences. establishing a consensus or for exchanging ideas. Group discussions centre around problems. . questions. Advantages of group Discussions Method A group discussion usually effective in engaging learners and encouraging participation. Ideas or issues presented to the group for consideration and verbal exploration.´ The trainer conducts a group discussion with purpose of solving a problem.Group Discussion Method The group Discussion is defined as ³the process of reaction and counter reaction between two or more than two persons on a common subject with the objective of achieving some specific conclusion or results.

jarring personal conflict. One of the obvious disadvantages of group discussion is when many trainees may like contribute at the same time or when trainees are verbose. may not happen in group discussion. etc. Sometimes the discussion may be so lengthy that meaningful result neither may not be achieved. In some cases the trainees get off the track or one trainee dominates the discussion.Disadvantages of Group discussion Method Behavioral problems like hurting feeling. those the other trainees feel that the discussion was a waste of time. if the trainer has handled the situation and environment properly. .

consuming more time without any purposeful agenda etc. To stimulate the discussion the trainer may pose questions to the group that build interest or elicit opinions. Direct questions 2. This methods works best chairs are arranged in a circle or with other seating arrangement that encourages trainees to look at each other.Making group discussion Method Effective The trainer should announce well in advance about his intentions to use group discussion methods. This will communicate to the trainees that they are expected to participate. Relay questions 3. Overhead questions 6. Physical setting like seating arrangement also plays a very important role in making this method a successful one. 1. Close ended questions 5. Reverse question The trainer should remain neutral as far as possible to make the group discussion a successful method. . Trainers should be familiar with a number of question types. The problem of ³one man domination´. Open ended questions 4. can be addressed by skilled facilitation by the trainer.

The learning objective is to get trainees to apply known concepts and principles and discover new ones.Case Studies Case studies attempt to simulate decision making situations that trainees might find on the job. The solutions are not as important as is trainees¶ understanding of the advantages and disadvantages that go along with the solutions. The trainer should convey that no single solution is right or wrong and many solutions are possible. key elements. and the issues faced by a real or imaginary organization or organizational unit. The trainee is usually presented with a written ( or a videotaped) history. .

Others¶ point of view is made known in the discussion and one starts appreciating other¶s point of view paving way for possible behavioral and attitudinal changes. It facilitates analytical skills and communication of the skills of the participants. In addition to developing analytical and problem-solving skills may facilitate the development of teamwork. This method helps in developing cooperation and interpersonal skills among the participants. alternatives and solutions to problem the participant is given a variety of solutions. As the case study methods throws open different approaches. communication and presentation skills especially when the trainees are asked to report their findings to the group. This method facilitates synthesis of several conceptual principles resulting in a plan of action. .Advantages of Case Study Method Pooling of the knowledge and experiences of the group of people analyzing the case is possible.

Disadvantages Case study method does have certain disadvantages: The case study method is time consuming compared to other direct methods. in which trainees are given only a brief description of the problem and must gather additional information from the trainer by asking specific questions. A variation of the case study is the incident process. Some case studies may be difficult for trainees to comprehend and imagine the situation as it happened when presented in presented in written form. .

ROLE PLAYS Role Play is an enactment ( or simulation ) of a scenario in which each participant is given a part to act out. conflict resolution . Some times .g . structured role plays even include a scripted dialogue. emotions. Spontaneous role plays are loosely constructed interactions in which one of the participants plays himself while the others play people with whom the first trainee interacted in the past . their objectives . a description of their roles ( e. and the problem they each face. and group decision ± making. The degree to which a scenario is structured will depend on what the learning objectives are . Trainees are provided with a description of the context ± usually a topic area. Structured role plays provide trainees with more detail about the situation and more detailed descriptions of each character¶s attitudes. and so on. opinions . a general description of a situation. . This type of role play is used primarily to develop interpersonal skills such as communication. or will in the future. concerns). needs .

analyzing the interactions and identifying learning points. . the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. rather than to develop specific skills. with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. Other trainees observe the role play. The different trainees are asked to exchange places with some or all of the characters. These trainees then pick up where the others left off. one group of trainees role plays for the rest. The role rotation method begins as a single role play. A multiple role play is the same as a single role play except that all trainees are in groups. This format allows both a common focus for all trainees and Demonstrates several different ways to approach the roles.It is used to develop insight into our own behavior and its effect on others. After the characters interact for a period of time. In a single role play . and what can be learned from it. providing a visual demonstration of some learning point. Following the role-play each group analyzes the interactions and identifies learning points themselves.

Advantages of Role-play Method 1. is increased by use of this method. life demonstration of problem situation in non-threatening atmosphere for trainees. as editing is possible at any point of time to fit the particular situation. imitation of the desirable behaviors. In this method the participants get a chance to not only know about their personal feelings but also get chance to learn how others feel about it. through analysis and conceptualization this method helps the trainees in their learning.This method is flexible.Role Reversal where a person plays a role opposite to what he usually is in real life. 5.¶ Awareness about the effect of feelings. 3. 4. etc. . 6. By practicing the desired skill. This method creates active participation. this method reduces the resistance of the participants. 2. Participants. When conducted skillfully by the facilitator.

12. 13. 11. 14. demonstrate.This method can add variety. describe and explain. Role-play method offers participants an opportunity for developing hard to obtain experience in dealing with complex real life situations. which leads to a better understanding of other person¶s points of view. . dangers of the ³trial and error´ approach. drama and fun to a formal training programme.The role-players are able to explain cultural differences simply and clearly.7.This method can be an effective way of avoiding the ³real life´.As a participative learning method it involves the learner both physically and emotionally. 8. 10.It develops the learners¶ ability to perform before an audience (very useful when addressing meetings or any situation involving face-to-face communication). 9. This method gives a chance to assume the role and personality of another human being. With a few exceptions the entire ³acting´ is performed by the learner. It helps improve the learners¶ capacity to analyze information.

the learner is able to experience the other side of the issue involved. like a case study. Like a case study. It is therefore stage for the learner to try out new ideas without suffering adverse consequences. a cooperative member or a trade union official. the dangers and consequences of committing an error are not the same as in real life situations. role-play trains the learner to argue reason. 18. behavior and attitudes. Thus a shop assistant can put herself µin the shoes of a dissatisfied customer. This is immensely useful in management training.15. persuade and defend his ideas and decisions. or manager can play the role of a discontented employee. . 17. Because a role-play is only a simulation.By playing roles opposite those played in real life. In any of these roles the learner experiences the feelings of the person he is simulating and gains insight into that person¶s concerns his dilemmas and the attitudes that shape his point of view. It helps the learner identify and correct faults or weaknesses in human performance. role-play facilitates learning by simulated experience rather than reading or listening to a description. 16.Also.

20. thus facilitating a multi-way process of communication. . A role-play removes the psychological barrier between learner and instructor and between learners themselves.19. It also helps him to learn to face criticism and to take credit.A role-play helps the learner understand his own personality and communication skills. and the effect of his attitude and arguments.

6.It requires very skilful management or µdirecting¶ by a trainer who is capable of handing the interpersonal dynamics and µumpiring¶ the discussions involved. 4.The preparation and presentation of a role-play will demand much time from both trainer and trainee. 7.Over personalizing the problem areas is another disadvantage of the role-playing method.Role-playing methods sometimes deteriorates into play and fun.Some role-played participants are too timid or self-conscious to act a role successfully. 5. 2. Role-playing loses some of its effectiveness when the audience is too large.The trainees may discount the value of their learning due to the artificiality of the situations depicted. . 3.Disadvantages 1. which jeopardizes the seriousness of learning¶s.

after which trainees are asked to make another decision. rules. They also reflect the actual operations of a particular department in a specific company. company. This process continues until some predefined state of the organization is reached. or unit of a company functions. Or a specified number of trials are completed. . Typically they are based on a set of relationships. and principles derived from theory or research. Trainees are provided with information describing a situation and are asked to make decisions about what to do. The system then provides feedback about the effect of their decisions.Management Game Method :Business games are simulations that attempt to represent the way an industry.

. Management games that encourage divergent solutions may be useful in the development of creativity. Evidence of new attempts to define departmental goals of functions. 6. 4. Learners often want to explore more issues and seek new information related to the experience they have been through. 2.Improvement in technical performance. 9. 5. Games provide practical. Exercise of better or more confident leadership. experimental learning. 3.Advantages of Games Techniques 1. 7. Management games help in developing problem analysis and decision making skills. Grater awareness of competitive factor.. 8.Management games help in increasing the motivation of the learners. More inter-departmental cooperation and greater awareness of functional relationship.The techniques enable one to break the common barrier associated with traditional student trainer relationship.

Usually. . Trainees as well as trainer may be unfamiliar with the method. Management games provide for group enjoyment. attitude change and enjoyment of trainees. who administers the simulation game. Games generally teach one the usefulness of mathematical models and the use of computers. The trainer. which perhaps caused them to avoid their use in the past. participants tend to lose feat of them. a level of freshness and novelty is generally maintained. learn the most. which cannot be solved by ³cook book¶ knowledge or conventional wisdom. Though the experience of actually using these methods. those trainees who are most interested and those who participate the maximum in the simulation. They challenge the ingenuity and ability of learners. Disadvantages It is a time consuming method. may considerable affect the learning. Consequently.Management games present trainers and student with novel situation. They are fun and trainees enjoy them. Games excite and motivate one to play.

etc.In-Basket Exercise Method In-basket exercise method is an interactive simulation in which learner¶s analyze information. letter. memos. µin-basket¶ methods as the name implies is usually filled with what manager would find on his desk such as ± reports. The in-basket exercise places the trainees in a real life situation where they are asked to perform typical management tasks and activities they faces on a day-to-day basis. . from the above it is clear hat this training method in very profitable used in leadership or management development training programmes. problem solving and decision-making. During the simulation it is videotaped and learners are assessed against pre-determined competences such as time management. set priorities and make decisions on issues given in the exercise.

. Provides concrete subjects for practical work and discussion opportunities for active participation. Time management skills are developed as time pressure as in real life situations is in-built in the exercise. Quality and people issues could be also the theme of in ±basket exercises.Advantages of In-basket Exercise In-basket exercise method facilitates skill development in the areas of problem solving. organizing and planning.

Disadvantages of In-basket Exercise 1.The trainers are asked to react to situations unaware of critical issues like organizations¶ history. time and financial resource. . corporate culture. it may undermine the confidence of trainees.. 2. 4. Reality is difficult to duplicate in an in ±basket simulation. If handled insensitively by the facilitator. working relationships.It is time consuming to produce.Developing effective in-basket exercises is very difficult and requires extensive instructional design work. which could affect their decisions. 3. etc. in-house policies.

. This being so the delegates should be able to get answers to questions on topics covered. Literally conference means consultation. This conference method is suitable for acquiring conceptual knowledge and helps in clarifying doubts.Conference Method The conference method is usually a highly structure device for conveying message or a messages on a large scale. The members are enthusiasts in that particular subject an they brought together to share their expertise and to plan. The attendance to the conference is usually voluntary. Audience of several hundred people delegate with common interest from a wide cross section of the society attend the same seeking an opportunity to hear the views and comments of authorities in areas covered. Advantages of Conference Method Members usually discuss the topic of high relevance and common interest to them.

Find a skilful chairman to conduct the proceedings effectively is very difficult. . accommodation and catering. The method is very expensive.Disadvantages The attendance is often unpredictable. as arrangements have to be made for the venue. etc.

interpersonal relations. . In 1947 in Bethel Maine. etc. U.Sensitivity Training Method Sensitivity training is otherwise called as µT¶ ±Group training. teamwork.A. d-Group (Development) L-Group (Learning ) or Laboratory training is an experience based learning ± learn by experience sharing particularly those generated by the group. inter-group conflict resolution.S. T-Groups in India are mainly conducted by Indian society for Applied Behavior Sciences. a training laboratory was conducted with the main objective of serving as a change agent. group and organizational processes. Variety of skills like self-awareness. T-Group training is designed to help each individual realize his own potential for growth more fully and to increase his ability to work effectively with others in a variety of situation. Sensitivity training alternatively called as T-group (Training)..

All of them are evolved through a natural process by the group. . Sensitivity training is participant centered learning. A major goal of sensitivity training is contribute toward the personal growth of the participants through the increased self-awareness and inter-personal competence. He worked with the participants as one of them. The group in not defined.Sensitivity training is process-oriented training. A trainer of the faculty has no formal role in the group in T-Group training. Sensitivity training is carried out in a laboratory where participants simulate conditions for effective functioning of the group in an unstructured manner. the leadership not offered by the trainer and the behavior is not prescribed.

.Purpose of T-Group Training The following five factors are seen as broad purposes of T-Group training. Greater awareness of the dynamics of change. Increased recognition of the characteristics of longer social systems. Self insight. Better understanding of group processes and increased skill in achieving group effectiveness. Better understanding of other persons and awareness of one¶s impact on them.

. This training may bring about: Increased self-understanding and self-respect. Increased mutual understanding and trust among the participants.Advantages of Sensitivity Training One of the main advantages of training group session is that it enables the participants to achieve deeper understanding of him as well as increased sensitivity to others. thereby leading to an improvement in behavioral skills. Knowledge of how they could work together as a team leading to increased organizational effectiveness. Increased understanding of how people act as individuals.

which is a very limitation and author himself has such a direct experience. Some trainers themselves do not follow all the unwritten conventions of laboratory training. . It is very difficult to have competent trainers to handle laboratory training. In the hands of trainer who is not fully competent such training can have adverse results and traumatic effect.Limitations of Sensitivity Training The group is expected to work on its own and there is no specific assignment of formal agenda. The group is left in vacuum and struggles to find some direction and common ground.

. mainly Internet or computer-based. Some of the unique features of e-Learning are listed below. and e-Learning brings with it new dimensions in education." The old adage still rings true. usually connected to a network. Benefits of E-Learning "Good teaching is good teaching. Lately in most Universities. e-Learning is an umbrella term that describes learning done at a computer. giving the opportunity to learn almost anytime .Definitions of e-learning It is also defined as a planned teaching/learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies. to reach learners. no matter how it's done. anywhere. e-learning is used to access the educational facilities as they have to study online.

Here are just a few to consider: a) Convenience and Portability Courses are accessible on your schedule Online learning does not require physical attendance Learning is self-paced (not too slow. learn a new craft.courses are available 24/7 You're unbound by place . learn a new skill. work. and Certificate programs Continuing Education Individual courses Wide range of prices to fit your budget Go back to school to get a degree. not too fast) You're unbound by time .study at home. or just have fun! From art to zoology you can do it all online in a price range to fit your budget.Benefits of e-Learning There are many significant advantages for the student who learns online. . or on the road Read materials online or download them for reading later b) Cost and Selection Choose from a wide range of courses to meet your needs Degree. Vocational.

Since many projects involve collaborative learning. e) Greater Collaboration Technology tools make collaboration among students much easier.it's student-centered Choose instructor-led or self-study courses Skip over material the student already knows and focus on topics like to learn The student can use the tools best suited for his learning styles d) Higher Retention Online learning will draw the topics he likes and enjoy. Studies show that because of this and the variety of delivery methods used to reach different types of learners. f) Global Opportunities The global learning community is at your fingertips with online learning. The technologies used give online instructional designers the ability to build in tools that take you to resources you . retention is frequently better than in a traditional classroom.c) Flexibility Online learning accommodates the preferences and needs . the online environment is far easier (and often more comfortable) to work in since learners don't have to be face-to-face.

EVALUATION IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT .

Evaluation is meant for improving training that is. . it should be an integral feature of a training system. Hambin(1970) defined evaluation of training asAny attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effect of training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.Definition Evaluation is the collection of analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education or training as part of recognized process of judging its effectiveness. The purpose of evaluation is to create a feedback loop or a self-correcting training system. This definition includes investigation before and during training as well as after training. Therefore. its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have. it is an aid to training.

Assess needs 2.Develop Evaluation lesson plans Design 3.Define objectives Implemen Evaluation tation 1.Collect Material evaluation 4.Select 1.Select programme methods 4.Acquire 3.Assessment Design 1.Prioritize needs 1.Select trainer of 5.Determine 2.Schedule the results programme .Deliver evaluation the HRD programme criteria 2.Interpret 6.

processes . . stay µon-track¶.line or profits¶ Executives were looking to improve the bottom line through various methods Like cost containment. and could not find enough evidence that training programmes are responsible for providing a quantifiable return on the company¶s investment on training. Top management of different organizations is demanding evidence that the training departments are contributing positively to the bottom. etc.Rationale for Evaluation Any good management practice dictates that organizational activities be routinely examined to ensure that they are occurring as planned and are producing anticipated results. products or services. . Since 1996 there is an increased awareness about accountability amongst the employees. This is done to ensure that people.

TYPE OF EVALUATION INSTRUMENT Data gathering device administered at different stages of training is called an evaluation instrument though there are a lot of varities. common categories are as follows  Questionnare or survey  Interiew  Test (either written test of performance test)  Focus groups  Observation of participants  Performance records .

3. and this can be immediately and several months after the training. . depending on the situation. Behavior :.To gather data on participants reaction at the end of a training programme.Models of training Kirkpatrick model 1. Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt. and their personal reactions to the training or learning experience. improved quality of work. Behavior evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behavior. 4. organizational impact in terms of reduced costs.To assess whether the learning objectives for the program are met. Learning :. Reaction :. Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning experience. increased quantity of work etc. 2. Results :.e.To assess costs vs benefits of training programmes i.To asses whether job performance changes as a result of training.

Process :.The input is taken such as trainee qualifications. development . . design. etc. appropriateness of training. 3.embraces planning.etc. Output :.IPO model 1. Input :. 4. 2. competitiveness.Gathering data resulting from the training interventions. Outcomes :. Availability of materials. and delivery of training programs.Longer term results associated with improvement in the corporation¶s bottom-line ± its profitability.

Intervention :. 4. Value :. Situation :. service or sales all of which can be expressed in terms of dollars. 3. Impact :.Evaluating the difference between the pre and post training data.TVS model 1. 2. productivity .Identifying the reason for the existence of the gap between the present and desirable performance to find out if training is the solution to the problem.Measuring differences in quality .Collecting pre training data to ascertain current levels of performance within the organization and defining a desirable level of future performance. .

intermediate And ultimate objective may be evaluated. Bird and Racham. Input evaluation involves obtaining and using information about possible training resources in order to choose between alternative inputs to training. It was originally developed by Warr.They are :a) b) c) d) Context Evaluation Input Evaluation Reaction Evaluation Outcome Evaluation The context evaluation involves obtaining and using information about the current operational context in order to determine the gap that training might help to bridge. Four general categories of evaluation are described in the CIRO approach .CIRO¶S FOUR LEVEL OF EVALUATION OF Training Impact. . Reaction evaluation involves obtaining and using information about trainee¶s expressed. current or subsequent reactions in order to improve training. During context evaluation 3 types of objectives like primary objective.

.Outcome evaluation involves obtaining and using information about the outcomes of training in order to improve subsequent training.

Measures skills.Phillip¶s Five Level ROI Framework LEVEL Brief Description a) Reaction and Measures participant¶s planned action reaction to the programme and outlines specific plans for implementation. . knowledge b) Learning or attitude changes.

Return on investment Brief Description Measures change in behavior on the job and specific application of training material. . usually expressed as a percentage. Business results. Measures business impact of the programme. Job Application 4.Level 3. 5. Measure the monetary value of the results and costs for the programme.

Job Application 4. usually expressed as a percentage. Return on investment Brief Description Measures change in behavior on the job and specific application of training material.Level 3. 5. Measures business impact of the programme. . Business results. Measure the monetary value of the results and costs for the programme.

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