Interview Tips .::. DotNet/C#/ASP.Net Questions .::. C/C++/VC.Net Questions.::. Database/SQL Questions 1.

What’s the difference between a primary key and a unique key? Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn’t allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only. 2. Write a SQL Query to find first Week Day of month? SELECT DATENAME(dw, DATEADD(dd, - DATEPART(dd, GETDATE()) + 1, GETDATE())) AS FirstDay 3. How to find 6th highest salary from Employee table

SELECT TOP 1 salary FROM (SELECT DISTINCT TOP 6 salary FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC) a ORDER BY salary

4. What is a join and List different types of joins. Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table. Types of joins: INNER JOINs, OUTER JOINs, CROSS JOINs. OUTER JOINs are further classified as LEFT OUTER JOINS, RIGHT OUTER JOINS and FULL OUTER JOINS. 5. How can I enforce to use particular index? You can use index hint (index=index_name) after the table name. SELECT au_lname FROM authors (index=aunmind) 6. What is sorting and what is the difference between sorting and clustered indexes? The ORDER BY clause sorts query results by one or more columns up to 8,060 bytes. This will happen by the time when we retrieve data from database. Clustered indexes physically sorting data, while inserting/updating the table. 7. What are the differences between UNION and JOINS? A join selects columns from 2 or more tables. A union selects rows. 8. What is the Referential Integrity? Referential integrity refers to the consistency that must be maintained between primary and foreign keys, i.e. every foreign key value must have a corresponding primary key value 9. What is the row size in SQL Server 2000?

you have to choose your option depending upon your requirements. attempt to acquire a lock on the other's piece. SELECT. but it won't log the deletion of each row. A livelock also occurs when read .760 (Intel X86) Dec 17 2002 14:22:05 Copyright (c) 1988-2003 Microsoft Corporation Enterprise Edition on Windows NT 5.. each having a lock on one piece of data. What is the use of SCOPE_IDENTITY() function? Returns the most recently created identity value for the tables in the current execution scope. SQL Server detects the situation after four denials and refuses further shared locks. TRUNCATE TABLE also deletes all the rows in a table.. 12. which makes it faster. What are the different ways of moving data/databases between servers and databases in SQL Server? There are lots of options available. where a request for an exclusive lock is repeatedly denied because a series of overlapping shared locks keeps interfering. 17. SQL Server detects deadlocks and terminates one user's process. which makes it slow. 16. Some of the options you have are: BACKUP/RESTORE. How to determine the service pack currently installed on SQL Server? The global variable @@Version stores the build number of the sqlservr. detaching and attaching databases. logshipping. 10.0 (Build 2195: Service Pack 3) 11. TRUNCATE TABLE can be rolled back. eg: Microsoft SQL Server 2000 . 14. INSERT. creating INSERT scripts to generate data... unless one of the user processes is terminated.INTO.8. so the deletion of each row gets logged in the transaction log. What is the purpose of UPDATE STATISTICS? Updates information about the distribution of key values for one or more statistics groups (collections) in the specified table or indexed view. How do you transfer data from text file to database (other than DTS)? Using the BCP (Bulk Copy Program) utility. BCP.8060 bytes. What's the difference between DELETE TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE commands? DELETE TABLE is a logged operation. What is a LiveLock? A livelock is one. 15. replication. Of course. DTS.exe. What is a deadlock? Deadlock is a situation when two processes.SELECT.00. which is used to determine the service pack installed. 13. Each process would wait indefinitely for the other to release the lock. instead it logs the deallocation of the data pages of the table.

click on 'Startup Parameters'. What is Transaction? A transaction is a sequence of operations performed as a single logical unit of work. What is DTS? Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2000 Data Transformation Services (DTS) is a set of graphical tools and programmable objects that lets you extract. What are defaults? Is there a column to which a default can't be bound? A default is a value that will be used by a column. 19. Enter a value of -m in the Parameter. Consistency. What is Isolation Level? An isolation level determines the degree of isolation of data between concurrent transactions. The isolation level required by an application determines the locking behavior SQL Server uses. 22. What are the constraints ? Table Constraints define rules regarding the values allowed in columns and are the standard mechanism for enforcing integrity. NOT NULL . 21. 18. 25. and consolidate data from disparate sources into single or multiple destinations. UNIQUE. 23.Go to SQL Server Properties by right-clicking on the Server name in the Enterprise manager. SQL Server 2000 supports five classes of constraints. A logical unit of work must exhibit four properties. to qualify as a transaction. transform. it provides failover support. A lower isolation level increases concurrency. not between servers within a cluster. Conversely. and Durability) properties. CHECK. MS DTC coordinates committing the distributed transaction across all the servers enlisted in the transaction. if no value is supplied to that column while inserting data. 24. forcing a write transaction to wait indefinitely. but at the expense of data correctness. FOREIGN KEY. Does SQL Server 2000 clustering support load balancing? SQL Server 2000 clustering does not provide load balancing. How to restart SQL Server in single user mode? From Startup Options :. 20. a higher isolation level ensures that data is correct. you need software that balances the load between clusters. Isolation. IDENTITY columns and timestamp columns can't have defaults bound to them.transactions monopolize a table or page. but can affect concurrency negatively. The default SQL Server isolation level is Read Committed. PRIMARY KEY. To achieve load balancing. Under the 'General' tab. called the ACID (Atomicity. all of which are supported by SQL . SQL-92 defines the following isolation levels. What is DTC? The Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS DTC) is a transaction manager that allows client applications to include several different sources of data in one transaction.

where transactions are completely isolated from one another). Serializable (the highest level. Repeatable read.Server: Read uncommitted (the lowest level where transactions are isolated only enough to ensure that physically corrupt data is not read). Read committed (SQL Server default level). © Copyright 2004-06 Trivandrum Microsoft Usergroup .

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