92
JOY The
cor

92
2?he

J5iTt|

-

.

2

55

history of the conqueror

D

DDD1 DMD713L D

DEC
I'iAr?

2 6 19.63

fa

"'*

PL

THE HISTORY OF
THE WORLD-CONQUEROR

ENTHRONEMENT OF OGEDEI
From
a very old

MS.

of Rashid-ad-Din in the Bibliotheque Nationale

THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUEROR ly c Ala-ad-Din 'Ata-Malik JUVAINI Translated from the text of Mirza Muhammad QAZVINI ly JOHN ANDREW BOYLE.D. MASSACHUSETTS . Ph. I HARVARD UNIVERSITY 1958 PRESS CAMBRIDGE. VOL.

has been revised by Professor V. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS UNESCO COLLECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE WORKS PERSIAN SERIES Published in accordance with an agreement between University of Tehran. In compliance with the regulations of this translation UNESCO and the UNESCO.(1958) by MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PRESS Quotation from or reprinting of this work in the United States of America is forbidden except by written permission of the exclusive licensee. Minorsky Printed in Great Britain .

THIS TRANSLATION IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED TO MY WIFE. MARGARET ELIZABETH .

.

the punishment was very and it falls with especial severity upon historians. moreover. a historian in the best Moslem tradition. Mongols none is the Mongol conqueror of Baghdad. intelligent and clear. a man of wide interests and of literary accomplishment. and many of them had their whole course changed by it. But hitherto his scholars. severe . Sooner or later he has to depend upon translators. But the historian who attempts to tell Its story is faced with essential sources in a greater number of languages than any one human being can be expected to know. He knew of the chief actors in the dramatic stories that personally many he told. He was.FOREWORD or not the Bible legend Is true that it was Man's presumption in building the Tower of Babel which caused the multiplicity of languages In the world. The have never been translated from and expansion of the Mongol among the most important events of later medieval There was barely a country in Europe or Asia that history. was not In some way affected by the Mongol onslaught. whose works will be useless to him Empire are unless they are exact. the destruction of the headquarters of the Assassins at Alamut. the writers who have left contemporary accounts of the Of more Important than Juvaini. Anyone who wishes to trace the major events In history must WHETHER be himself an accomplished linguist or translations that are often inaccurate Indirect references to must put his reliance on and out of date or on works that rise their original tongue. He enjoyed the confidence of the H-Khan Hiilegu. He himself was intimately connected with one of the most interesting episodes in the story. STEVEN RUNCIMAN vii . I hope that it will be read not only by the specialist students of the Mongol expansion and of the strange sect of the Assassins but also by everyone who finds pleasure in reading history. is work in its full A entirety has only been accessible to Persian and worthy translation of his history into English therefore a very welcome contribution to historiography.

.

and . VIII. 48 own belief.34 40 44 IV. XV. .70 . . and the beginning of the power empires and kingdoms of the kings of to .91 . vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS xii xv xxxvi xxxix xlv PART ONE DOXOLOGY INTRODUCTION I. VII. Of the sons of Chingiz-Khan V. . which he promulgated III.CONTENTS PAGE FOREWORD. . Qayaligh and Fulad. . (God's mercy le upon him /) . Ala-ad-Din Muhammad * . 3 4 Of the Khan's condition of the Mongols before the time of Chingizrise to II.. . . advance of the world-conquering Khan against the .23 . Steven Runciman .. together with an account of the rulers thereof the reason for the attack on the countries of the Sultan Of the 74 77 81 XL Of XII. X. . Temur Malik .61 .. . 53 IX. 95 ix .. Chingiz-Khan's passing to him of the the world : a brief account thereof power . Of Kuchliig and Toq-Toghan Of the martyred imam... . . ly The Hon. countries of the Sultan and the capture of Otrar Of the XIIL Of the advance of Ulush-Idi against Jand. Of the conquest of the land of the Uighur and the submission of the i-qut VI. of Khotan .. of that region . Of the laws power which Chingiz-Khan framed and after his rise to rise 19 the yasas . ... Of the the story of . Of the further history of the Uighur Of the origin of the idi~qut and the land of the Uighur according to their . conquest of the regions of Almaligh. A short account of the conquest of Transoxiana .. XIV. and the conquest 86 capture of Fanakat . and Khojend.

.191 . passed into the . . III. Ghur . TWO Of the origin God make of the dynasty of the Sultans of Khorazm (May example bright their II. hands of Sultan Muhammad 327 . How the kingdom of the Sultans of . 270 271 XLL OfChaghatai PART I. . Of the conquest of Bulghar and the territory of the As and . Of the accession of Giiyiik Khan to the throne of the Khanate 248 XXXVII. Of the deeds and actions of Qa'an XXXIII. Of the return of Chingiz-Khan XXIV. Of the accession of the World-Emperor . Of Princess Oghul-Ghaimish and her sons .262 XXXVIII. . XIX. . . . Of Tushi and the accession of Batu in his stead 266 XXXIX... Khitai and the conquest of that country .315 . XVII. Of Fatima Khatun 244 XXXVI. 277 accession of 'Ala-ad-Din . . Of the expedition of Torbei Toqshin in search of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din 138 141 Siibetei in pursuit XXV. XXVIII. Of the /). XXL XXII..169 Qa*an to the throne XXX.CONTENTS PAGE XVI. . . . Of the houses and dwelling-places of Qa'an 236 XXXIV. of the Khanate and the power of World-Empire . XVIII. Of and Bashghird . XXVII.. . the Rus the horsemen of the Keler 268 XL. . Of the XXVI. . . Of Toregene Khatun 239 XXXV. XXXI. . 150 153 Of Merv and the fate thereof Of what befell at Nishapur XXIX. Of the capture of Bokhara Of the rebellion of the Tarabi Of the conquest of Samarqand Of the fate of Khorazm Of the departure of Chingiz-Khan to Nakhshab and Tirmiz Of Chingiz-Khan's crossing of the river at Tirmiz and the taking of Balkh 97 109 115 123 128 130 133 Of Chingiz-Khan's turning to do battle with the Sultan XXIII. expedition of Yeme and of Sultan 142 Muhammad A brief account of Toli's conquest of Khorasan . XX. . Khorazm-Shah .201 XXXII.178 Of the campaign of the World-Emperor Qa'an against . Of the second quriltd 196 .

354 in [Contmuei Vol. .. . . . . their rise to power and their destruction . . Of the accession of Mazandaran and Kerman VII. Of the X. II Frontispiece.CONTENTS PAGE Of what befell Kharmil after the Sultan's return V. . . Of the conquest of Transoxiana VIII. gilr-khan . .. .. . Enthronement of Ogedei illustrating this history will be Maps. on . .341 349 the IX.333 .340 . .336 .. Of Kozli and his latter end VI. . . .352 conquest of Kruzkuh and Ghaznin Khans of Qara-Khitai. Of the . .. . of this Three maps volume... . found at the end .. Of the Sultan's returning a second time to wage war IV.

which I approached at the suggestion and with the support of J.D. Arberry. The idea of the translation was his. H. has planned to Professor A. in collaboration with the University of Tehran. who at the in the first became acquainted with the of Juvaini . in the footnotes are far indeed from indicating the extent of my indebtedness to Professor Minorsky. that I to which I was introduced under his stimulating guidance nearly twenty years ago. time of his recent death.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WHILST recording the names of those who the preparation of this work I should like pay tribute to the memory of the late Professor have helped me in at the same time to H. The means of publication were provided by the United Nations Educational. thesis prepared under the supervision of Professor Vladimir Minorsky. Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. and it is a source of deep Tarikh-i-Jaban-Gusha regret to me that he did not live to see the translation of a work autumn of 1938. I afterwards continued to work on the translation with the encouragement of Professor Minorsky. Oriental Philology and the History of Religion in the University of Gottingen. It was in Professor Schaeder's Seminar in Berlin. and down to the time when the was actually in the press he was constantly answering my queries on historical. the chair of occupied. The initials V* M. then Professor (now Professor Emeritus) of Persian in the University of London. I used to send my version to him in instalments of a chapter or two at a time and he would check it against the Persian original . It was he too who revised the final draft of the translation in accordance with the requirements of Unesco. who took an active interest in its progress. and but for his help and inspiration it would translation never have been completed. xii . Schaedcr. geographical and linguistic problems. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. version of Part I was included in a A Ph.

In the early stages I had the privilege of frequent consultations with the eminent Iranian scholar. F. S.M. Professor of sity Library. Majdhub. Other scholars whom I consulted include Dr. K. Manchester . Dr.A.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS publish a series of translations from and into Persian. Professor of the History of the Natural Sciences in the University of Frankfurt-am-Main .B. O.C. then resident in Cambridge. Beirut Dr. Associate Professor of Far Eastern Languages in Harvard University. Professor Oxford . Professor of Central Asian Studies in the University of fessor London. L. Professor A. to enter into correspondence with Professor Cleaves. Professor Bernard Lewis. Lecturer in Arabic in the University of Khartoum . Laudian Professor of Arabic in the University of Gerard Clauson. Special Lecturer in Arabic in the University of Manchester . ProE. Henning. Professor O.E. Beeston. Professor of the History of the Near and Middle East in the University of London . the late Dr. W. Professor Willy Hartner. A. formerly Special Lecturer in Arabic in the University of Manchester. His Excellency Sayyid Hasan Taqizadeh. M. Sir .S. xiii Professor of the . dynasty of China. Meguid. Dr. A. Throughout the preparation of this work I have drawn upon the experience of specialists in many fields of study. who painstakingly answered queries my numerous also provided on Mongolian and Chinese problems and translations me with history for the of passages from the Ytian or sbih> the official of the Yuan the Mongol most part accessible only to Sinologists. formerly of the Department of Botany in the University of Manchester . Persian in the University of Cambridge. Kennedy. F.. D. Azzam. . Neugebauer. W. A. W. M. M. Latham of the UniverProfessor Reuben Levy. A. a source still The annotation of the History of by these contributions World-Conqueror has been much enriched from Professor Cleaves.G. Howarth. In the final stages I had the good fortune F. B. J. O. Associate Professor of Mathematics in the American University. and with the agreement of the Iranian authorities the Ta'rikb-i-Jaban-Gitfba was chosen as the first book of Persian literature to be translated into English in the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works..

T. in particular. Arabic in the School of Oriental UNESCO M.C. was always ready with help and counsel throughout the whole process of publication and the Printers. xiv in the production of this . Lowcock. Washington. II respectively. Price. two from the original Persian edition by the late Muhammad plates Qazvini have been reproduced as frontispieces to Vols. Smithsonian and Lieut-Col. in Brown University. the University of Manchester.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS History of Mathematics Island .E. H. Butler and Tanner. Barnes of the Literature Section of and my colleague Mr. I and the E.. Brice of the Department of Geography in the University of Manchester and were executed by Miss E.A. Secretary to the Manchester University Press. Messrs. Institution.. D.I. L.E. C. Centre. read through the manuscript of the translation and made a number of valuable suggestions. J. E.S. Beckingham also helped me with the proofreading. surmounted with complete success the difficulties of a text which presented many unfamiliar typographical problems. Mr. Luzac and Co. A. National Museum. Rhode Dr. Consultant in the History of Astronomy and Physics. Beckingham. Gibb Memorial and Messrs. Director of the Central Asian Research . I certain quotations from the The maps were planned with of Mr. Mr. M. Johnstone. For the prolonged loan of many works essential for my researches I am indebted to the India Office Library and the Libraries of the Royal Asiatic Society. To book all I who have been of assistance offer my warmest thanks. C. Providence. Jones.B. the School of Oriental and African Studies and. F. and African whom had previously consulted upon Arabic poets. By the courtesy of the Bibliotheque Nationale. Lecturer in Studies. the collaboration and advice W. the Trustees of W. T. C. M. Draughtswoman to that Department. B. G. Senior Lecturer in Islamic History in the University of Manchester.. J. Wheeler. as did likewise Mr. Mr. U. C.

now known as Jaghatai. the last of the Seljuq rulers of Persia. a contemporary of Juvaini. outside the gates was a maps. Here great caravanserai for the accommodation of merchants. the celebrated geographer. 105) the geographical part of his Nuzbat-al-Qulub refers to le Strange. As the name Juvaini implies his family was connected with the district of Juvain in Khorasan. c c THE AUTHOR in all ALA-AD-DIN Ata-Malik Juvaini was bom. the son of ar-Rabi% who succeeded the Barmecides in the service of Harun ar-Rashid and who. the Poets 169) mentions only Shams-ad-Din. This is probability. Nishapur The chief town was then Azadvar. upon the Khorazm-Shah Tekish when he passed through on his way to do battle with Sultan Toghril. 2 ad-Din. but Daulatshah in his Memoirs of (eel Azadvar as the birthplace of both brothers. The family from which they sprang was one of the most was the birthplace of the two famous c the vizier of the Il-Khans. it was that JuvainTs had waited great-grandfather. Yaqut. the date given by the Syrian historian Dhahabi1 and it accords with Juvaini's own statement that when he began to work on his history. Shams-ad-Din. 1 Most of the information on itself Juvaini's life is derived from the History of the World-Conqueror supplemented by the various sources gathered together by his introduction to the Persian text. i. lies to the north-west of in a valley between the Harda and Jaghatai mountains. Juvainis had held high office under both the Seljuqs and the Khorazm-Shahs .TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION I. Baha-ad-Din. in the year 1226. 1253. which he had visited. XV . during his residence in Qara-Qorum between May.e. and they claimed descent from Fadl. in turn. he was in his twenty-seventh year. and Ala- distinguished in Persia. describes Azadvar. a place which afterwards declined in importance but is still to be found on large-scale This district. as a prosperous little town with mosques and a bazaar. the historian of the Mongol invasion. 1252. Muhammad 2 Qazvini in Hamdallah in Browne. And here brothers. and September. (tr.

TRANSLATOR traced his pedigree Caliph. cannot have been with him at Akhlat. So often S INTRODUCTION c s back to a freedman of Uthman the third had they occupied the post of sabtihdivan or Minister of Finance that the title had become a sort of family surname. the secretary and Turkey. Houdas translates * Shams-ad- Din Muhammad's divan *. is related in the had pages of Juvaini. was The author's grandfather. At the end of his life the Khorazm-Shah appointed him sahib-divan and he was confirmed in this office by Muhammad's son. whose service he entered after Muhammad's Lake Van death. was the executor of Shams-ad-Din's In conformity with the dead man's wishes he caused his will. whom he accompanied on his flight from Balkh to Nishapur. 3 seems likely He was then about 40 he had been living quietly on that (text. and it How he intervened to save the life of the poet Vatvat. and in fact we know until some two nothing of Baha-ad-Din' s activities or whereabouts years after his father's death when we read of his It presence in Nishapur in Khorasan. He is died before Eastern Akhlat on the shores of in what now his master's siege of that town. 1230. Shams-ad-Din in the service of the ill-fated Muhammad Khorazm-Shah. during biographer of Jalal-ad-Din. remains to be transported to his native Juvain. was a secretary and favourite of Sultan Sanjar the Seljuq. which lasted. to his heirs. Juvaini's father. Muhammad. somewhat misleadingly. 324-5 title 195). from the I2th of August. as president du XVI . 8 This latter circumstance shows that his son. the reckless adventurer Jalal-ad-Din. Of Juvaini's ancestors Muntajab-ad-Din Bad?. See Nasawi tr. Baha-ad-Din. Nasawi. to the i8th of March. (sahilnKvcM). according 1229. to the historian Ibn-al-Athir. who was actually governor of Baghdad. while his property was conveyed. who incurred Sanjar's displeasure by his verses. it was borne by Juvaini's brother Shams-ad-Din who did in fact hold this office. years of age.'Houdas. was borne by Juvaini himself. the maternal uncle of his great-grandfather. though he was also Grand ? Vizier both to Hiilegii and to his son and first successor Abaqa . the Baha-ad-Din already mentioned. through trustworthy intermediaries.

used to make raids on the Nishapur area and kill the Mongol officials. * * then deputy to Chin-Temiir. that he would put them to death *. an Uighur Turk the ruined city. upon a mission to the Great Khan. was now In a state of titter chaos. the of Khorasan and Mazandaran.* he said to JuvainFs father. yarligh whit-divan of the lands *. Fortune. The province was not yet completely subdued and there was still sporadic resistance to the Mongols. In 1232-3 Chin-Temiir. Ogedei. with * he was evidently on intimate terms. which had suffered terribly during the invasion. To add to the confusion. is like a bird. demanding their return. disnewly appointed governor patched an officer called Kiil-Bolat with instructions to expel or destroy these forces. Marco or firman confirming *. with every honour.TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION the family estates In Juvain. On the news of his approach Baha-ad- Nishapur Tus. * He was a clever and ambitious man. and Baha-ad-Din was enrolled In the Soon Chin-Temiir made him sahibservice of the Mongols. Ogedei received * him tablet very favourably: Polo's his of authority * appointment as The return of the mission coincided with the death of ChinTemiir and Korgiiz was summoned back to Mongolia to report him a paiza. despite the assurances he 9 had given. who had seized a castle in the midst of fled to Din together with certain of the leading citizens of Meanwhile Kiil-Bolat. after driving off the had learnt of the fugitives in Tus. then but recently dead. he was disappointed. He sent to Farizani enemy. two adherents of Jalal-adDin. thinking. No one knows on which branch it will alight. he gave and a upon his the situation. the son and first successor of Chingiz-Khan. at no great distance of which it was a dependency. I will make the endeavour and find out what exactly has been pre-ordained and what is required by the revolution of the heavens/ So well did own whom B xvii . and Farizani. where they sought and found sanctuary with one Taj-ad-Din Farizani. from Nishapur> Khorasan. divan and in 1235-6 he accompanied Korgiiz. at once surrendered them to Kiil-Bolat. Kiil-Bolat received them his expectation. and opportunity to advance he determined to avail himself of this cause. If such was says Juvaini.

xviii . and father. and during his absence Bahaad-Din acted as his deputy. When he returned. Again he returned in triumph and territories. the grandpresent day Sinkiang. Before Arghun could continue on his journey to Azerbaijan he received news of intrigues against him in the Mongol capital . the decree of the Regent of the Empire. at his express desire. On this journey he was accompanied not only by Baha-ad-Din but also. who at this time was about twenty-two years of age.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION he succeed that he returned from Qara-Qorum as the virtual governor of these western. Baha-ad-Din s position was unaffected by his patron s downHe was confirmed in his office by Korgiiz's successor. who now. by Juvaini himself. The party had reached Taks. Princess Toregene. In the course of a tour of inspection Arghun had reached Tabriz in Azerbaijan. when he received a summons to attend the quriltai or assembly of the princes at which Giiyiik. having started on a third journey to Qara-Qorum he was met en route with the news of the Great Khan's death and returned to Khorasan. where he prepared a splendid banquet to welcome his return. In 1239. the residence son and successor of Chaghatai. was elected his successor as Great Khan (1246) . he was again in Mongolia. loaded with honours by the new Khan. and he determined to return thither without delay. he was shortly afterwards arrested and taken to Almaligh near Kulja in the of Qara-Hiilegu. fall. Ogedei's widow. the $abib-divan t acted as his during his absence JuvainTs deputy over all these territories. was appointed the ruler over an area which extended from the Oxus to Fars and Emir Arghun. just as he had done for his predecessor Korgiiz on a similar occasion some seven years before. at whose orders he was brutally put to death. by a included not only Khorasan and Mazandaran but also Georgia. Armenia and part of Asia Minor and Upper Mesopotamia. In 1241. the son of Ogedei. answering certain charges that had been laid against him . But having in the course of his journey antagonized one of the officials of the House of Chaghatai. Baha-ad-Din advanced to meet him as far as Amul in Mazandaran. Baha-ad-Din prepared a great feast to welcome him.

TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION
the present-day Jambul In Kazakhstan, when they were met with the tidings of Giiyiik's death, and at the advice of the Mongol

general Eljigltei

Arghun

returned to Khorasan to organize the

s provisioning of the armies under Eljigitef command, In the of 1249 he again set out on the eastward journey late summer and finally reached the ordu of Princess Oghul-Ghalmish, in

whom,
Empire.

as the

widow of Giiyiik, was vested the Regency of the His case was duly examined, his enemies discomfited

and Arghun himself completely vindicated. On the homeward journey the party (of which Juvaini was one) halted for a month or two at the o?<Htt of Yesu, who now ruled over the apanage of Chaghatai. It was here, near the present-day Kulja, only ten met his years before that Korgiiz, Arghun's predecessor, had untimely end. The party had arrived in Almaligh In the late summer or early autumn of 1250 when they left it was winter
;

and the roads were blocked with snow, nevertheless they made back in Merv in Khorasan. rapid progress and were soon
did not remain long in Persia. In August or to be September, 1251, he again set out for the East in order at the great qmltai which had assembled to elect the new present

Arghun

Khan. On this journey too he was accompanied by Juvaini. He had got no further than Talas when he received the news It was now mid-winter that Mongke had already been elected. and the great quantities of snow made travelling almost imposNevertheless he pressed on and finally reached Beshsible. which corresponds to the modem Baligh, the old Uighur capital,
Jimsa, a
here
little

to the north-west

of Guchen in Sinkiang.

From

sent on a message to inform the new Khan of his but the party did not reach the Mongol Court till approach,

Arghun

the

2nd May, 1252,

i.e.

nearly a year after

Arghun
the

Western lands and
instituted a

reported to the as a result of the discussions that followed

Mongke's accession. on the economic situation of Khan
in the system of taxation. it was not until August

Mongke
These

number of reforms

deliberations lasted so long that

or September, 1253, that

Arghun
n.

finally

took his leave. 4
capital that

during
4

this

lengthy stay in the
ii,

Mongol
xix

was Juvaini was
It

See, however,

598 and

155.

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
to commence work on a history of the persuaded by friends When the party set out on the homeward

Mongol

conquests.

journey he was presented by the confirming his father in

Mongke with
office

a yarligb and a paiza

of

sahib-divan.

Baha-ad-Din was now in

twenty years in the Mongols' The fiscal reforms were now this was not to be. private life, but into practice, and Baha-ad-Din, together with a being put over the governorship Mongol called Naimatai, was sent to take and Yezd. He had reached of Persian Iraq, i.e. Central Persia, the district of Isfahan when he was taken ill and died.
like Baha-ad-Din that Persia perhaps to administrators so many troublous ages. owes her survival through Dynasties rise and fall but there were always officials to be found
It is

his sixtieth year and after some service it was his wish to retire into

might

who, by cooperating with
falling into utter ruin

the

new

regime, maintained a kind
it

of continuity in the government of the country and saved
ancestors under the

from
his

and disintegration. Khorazm-Shahs, under

The

traditions

of

the Seljuqs before

them and perhaps under earlier dynasties also were upheld by Baha-ad-Din in a period of transition and after his death were carried on by his sons under a new dynasty, that of the Mongol
Il-Khans of Persia.
founder of that dynasty, Prince Hiilegii, a younger brother of the Great Khan, was now advancing westwards at the head of an immense army, his first objective being the destruction of c the Isma ilis or Assassins of Alamut. In Kish, to the south of

The

of Tamerlane, Samarqand, famous afterwards as the birthplace he was met by Arghun in November, 1255. Arghun had again been the victim of intrigues at Court and with Hulegu's encouragement he

now

set

out for

Qara-Qomm

to defend himself

The administration of the Western lands against his accusers. he entrusted, under Hulegii, to his son Kerei Malik, a certain
Emir

Ahmad

and Juvaini.

From

to continue in the service
his death.

of Hiilegii and

thence onward Juvaini was his descendants until

An
in

incident had already occurred which showed which he was held by the Mongol conqueror.

the esteem

A

certain

xx

TRANSLATOR

S

INTRODUCTION

Jamal-ad-Din, who was a party to the intrigue against Arghun, had handed Hulegii a list of the officials whom he proposed to accuse before the Great Khan. Hiilegu at once replied that these
were matters within Arghun's

own

upon

Juvaini's

name
it

in the

list,

competence. Then, coming * If there is a charge he added
:

against

him let

be stated in

be investigated here and

my presence so that the matter may now and a decision given/ Whereupon

Jamal-ad-Din withdrew his accusation and retired in confusion. The great army had now crossed the Oxus and was marching through Khorasan, where they passed by the town of Khabushan * which had lain derelict and in ruins (the present-day Quchan),
from the
first

incursion of the

Mongol army

until that year,
*

its

and buildings desolate and the qanats without water, '. still standing save those of the Friday mosque

no walls

Having

He of Khabushan. Juvaini drew his attention to the case to my words and issued a yarligb for the repairing of the listened the erection of buildings, the establishment of a bazaar,
qanats,

observed the King's interest and pleasure in restoring ruins/ c

the alleviation of the people's lot and their re-assembly in the town. All the expense of re-building he met from the treasury
so that

no charge

fell

Finally, in the late

upon the people/ autumn of 1256, the Mongols converged
*

from every side upon the Assassins' strongholds in Alamut, the of Qazvin. Rukn-ad-Din, the Eagle's Nest *, to the north-east last feeble successor of the redoutable Hasan-i-Sabbah, had been for time in the hope that the snows of winter would
playing

come to

his aid

and render a

siege impracticable

;

but the weather

remained unseasonably mild and, in the middle of November, he decided to surrender. For this purpose he asked for a yarligb this was drawn up by Juvaini, granting him safe-conduct and who must also have taken part in the actual negotiations. It the fatb-nama or proclamation of too who was
Juvaini

composed

final defeat and extirpation of the victory announcing the He also tells how with Hiilegu's permission he Assassins.

examined the famous library of Alamut, from which he *selected * those which many choice books whilst confiding to the flames related to their heresy and error and were neither founded on
'

xxi

TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION
tradition nor supported

by reason *. Of these latter works, however, he fortunately preserved an autobiography of Hasan-iSabbah, from which he quotes large extracts in the third volume of his history. With the destruction of Alamut accomplished Hulegii turned to his second objective, the conquest of Baghdad and the overthrow ofthe'Abbasid Caliphate. How Alau, the Great Lord of the Tartars/ captured the city of Baudac and starved the Caliph to death in a tower, all full of gold, silver and other
* *

treasures

of

fact,

in the pages of Marco Polo. In point the unfortunate Caliph was probably wrapped in a

'

may be read

and beaten to death with of their practice in the execution
carpet

Mongols* However, Marco Polo's version of the preliminary interview between Htilegii and the Caliph agrees very closely with the account given by the famous Persian philosopher Nasir-ad-Din Tusi, who had been in the service of the Assassins and who now accompanied

clubs, such being the
princes.

own

Hiilegii to

Baghdad.
later,

Juvaini too had accompanied the conqueror, and a year

in 1259, Hiilegii appointed him governor of all the territories that had been directly held by the Caliphs, i.e. Baghdad itself,

Arab

Hiilegii Iraq or Lower Mesopotamia and Khuzistan* died in 1265 but under his son Abaqa Juvaini retained his

Mongol Sughunchaq. For more than twenty years he continued to administer this great province and during this time did much to improve the lot of
the peasantry.

position though nominally deputy to the

Euphrates to
villages

He caused a canal to be dug from Anbar on the Kufa and the holy city of Najaf and founded 150 on its banks and it was said, with some exaggeration,
;

that he

had

restored the country to greater prosperity than

it

had

enjoyed under the Caliphs. Neither Juvaini himself nor his brother Shams-ad-Din, who united in his person the posts of Grand Vizier and sahib-divan,

was without

his enemies,

and during

their

long tenure of

office

there were several attempts to

encompass

their ruin.

However,

intrigues of this sort had left the brothers comparatively unscathed until the latter years of Abaqa's reign when a certain Majd-al-

xxii

TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION
of the Juvainis, succeeded in gaining the ear, first of Arghun, Abaqa's son, and then of Abaqa himself and laid against Shams-ad-Din the usual charges of being in

Mulk,

originally a protege

league with the Mongols* most formidable enemies, the Mameluke Sultans of Egypt, and of having embezzled large sums from the
Treasury.
suspicions,

Shams-ad-Din succeeded in allaying the Il-Khan*s and finding him immune from attack Majd-al~Mulk

now

turned his attention to his brother.

He

persuaded

Abaqa

that Juvaini,

during his governorship
in his house.

appropriated the
this

of Baghdad, had misenormous sum of 2,500,000 dinars and that

money was buried

In October, 128 I,
at

Abaqa was on

a hunting expedition in

Upper Mesopotamia Baghdad and Juvaini
;

intending to proceed to his winter quarters was sent on in advance to arrange for

accommodation and commissariat.

No

sooner was he out of

the old charge, and the IIsight than Majd-al~Mulk repeated certain of his emirs to follow Juvaini Khan at once dispatched and investigate the matter. They overtook him at Takrit and
'

informed him of
*

Abaqa s

orders.

I

realized

',

says Juvaini,

of prejudiced a deep impression on the King's mind, persons had produced " "
that the matter

was

serious, that the statements

and

that the

demand

for obtaining the

was merely an excuse money they purposed to take from me, with
for these

residues

which money,
house were
sioners

filled.

as they vainly believed, the water-tanks In be brief, I accompanied the commis-

my

To

from Takrit to Baghdad, where I handed over to them in my house and treasury, gold and silver, everything that was stones and plate, clothes and in short everything that I
precious

had

either inherited or acquired.'

s

He

then gave a declaration

in writing

that if thereafter so

much

as a dirbam

was found In

his

be held responsible and punished. possession he should brother Shams-ad-Din, who Learning of his predicament his was in attendance on the Il-Khan, at once hurried to Baghdad, collected from his own and his children's houses all the gold and what silver plate on which he could lay his hands, borrowed
5

E. G. Browne's translation.

See the English introduction to Qazvini's

text,

xxxix-xl.

xxiii

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
and offered all was now approaching Baghdad, in this wealth to Abaqa, who It was all of no avail the hope of propitiating him. Juvaini
valuables he could from persons of consequence

was held in confinement in his house while the Mongol officials searched for the money he was supposed to have buried, torturing his servants and digging up the graves of his children and kinsmen. Finding nothing they transferred Juvaini to the Qasr

Musanna
to

Abaqa.

to languish as a prisoner whilst they returned to report However, certain of the Mongol princes and

including Abaqa's favourite wife, intervened on on the I7th of December, 1281, Juvaini's behalf, and finally,
princesses,

the Il-Khan

was persuaded to order his release. This attempt having failed, Majd-al-Mulk now caused Juvaini to be accused of maintaining a correspondence with the Mamelukes of Egypt, and in March, 1282, he set out from Baghdad
to

Hamadan,

in the

company of the Il-Khan*s commissioners

in

order to answer this charge before his accusers. April, the party having just crossed the pass of

On

the ist of

Asadabad

near

they were met by certain of Abaqa's courtiers with news that the Il-Khan, finally convinced of Juvaini's good innocence, had restored him to favour and released his agents from custody. Upon reaching Hamadan, however, Juvaini and in the changed circumlearnt that Abaqa had just died This constances it was decided to retain him in confinement. finement was not of long duration, for soon there came the news that Tegiider, the brother of Abaqa, a convert to Islam and

Hamadan,

the

;

also by the Moslem name of Ahmad (he is the Acomat Soldan of Marco Polo), had succeeded to the throne and that one of his first acts had been to order Juvaini's release.

known

The new ruler was then in Armenia. Juvaini went to join him there and afterwards accompanied him to the quriltai that was held in the Ala-Taq pastures to the north-east of Lake Van, near the headwaters of the Eastern Euphrates. Here the new
governors

Juvaini received

were appointed to their various provinces ; and back his old governorship of Baghdad. Tegiider was informed of the activities of Majd-al-Mulk and his associates

and ordered an

investigation.

Majd-al-Mulk was found
xxiv

guilty

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
and condemned to death but before the sentence could be carried out he was seized and lynched by a party of Moslems and ' Mongols who fell upon him, even wounding one another in their struggle to reach him, tore and hacked him to and
pieces,

even roasted and

ate portions

of his
in

9

flesh.

This account of his

own triumph and
tracts

his enemy's discomfiture

which Juvaini has described the various intrigues himself and his brother. His own against end was now near at hand. There was open hostility between the new ruler and his nephew Arghun and because the Juvainis stood high in his uncle's favour and also because he shared the widespread belief that Shams-ad-Din had poisoned his father Abaqa, Arghun was determined to bring about their ruin.
;

concludes the second of two

Going

to

Baghdad he

revived the old charge of embezzlement

against Juvaini and began to arrest his agents and put them to the torture. One of these men having recently died he caused his body to be exhumed and flung upon the highway. Upon

receiving

news of this barbarity Juvaini, according to one account, was seized with a violent headache from which he

Dhahabi, however, his Whatever the cause, he died in Mughan or Arran on the 5th of March, 1283, being about fifty-seven years of age, and was buried in Tabriz. His death would not in any case have been long delayed. In the next year Arghun dethroned and succeeded his uncle; he ordered the execution of Shams-ad-Din and his four sons and soon the Juvaini family was all but extinguished.

shortly afterwards died. According to death was due to a fall from his horse.

II.

HIS

WORK

The History of the World-Conqueror was begun in Qara-Qorum in 1252 or 1253 ; and Juvaini was still working on it in 1260, when he had recently been appointed governor of Baghdad. In that year or soon afterwards he must have renounced the idea of
continuing his history, for there are no references to events subsequent to that date. Of the conditions under which much of

xxv

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
his

work was

written

we have
:

Juvaini's

own

testimony.

Com-

menting on the Mongol conquest of Khorasan he expresses himself

in the following terms

his

though there were a man free from preoccupations who could devote whole life to study and research and his whole attention to the recording of events, yet he could not in a long period of time acquit himself of the account

And

of one single

district.

How

much more

is this

beyond the powers of the present writer,

who,
halts,

has not a single despite his inclination thereto,

in the course of distant journeys, he snatches

moment for study save when, an hour or two, when the caravan
i,

and

writes

down

these histories

!

(I,

118;

152).

are

These conditions have left their traces on the history. Dates sometimes omitted or incorrectly given, and the author

Such faults are understandable occasionally contradicts himself. even more so in a work which in an unrevised work ; they are there is evidence to show was never completed.
In one
lines

early

MS.

(B) there

is

a blank equivalent to 7 or 8
(II,

of the

text at the chapter

on Arghun

262

;

ii,

525)

and a much longer blank (over a page) at the end of the chapter on Mongke's ministers (III, 89). These blanks, as Muham-

mad Qazvini
additions

suggests,

which were never made.
to

were probably left by the author for later There are also references to

non-existent chapters:
i,
*

151) in Vol. I

one on the capture of Herat (I, 118 ; and to at least five one on Chinqai, Carpinf s

protonotary *, (III, 58; ii, 158), one on Eljigitei, the Mongol commander who sent an embassy to Louis IX (III, 62; ii, ii, 590), and one on each of the missions to Mongke (III, 82
;

602)

in Vol. III. 1

Vol. Ill

itself is

evidence of incompletion.

In the original division of the text it formed the second volume of the work. The text is still so divided in at least three MSS. one of which (E) is based on a MS* contemporary with the and we have Juvaini's own testimony to this division author
;

in his introduction to Vol.
*

Ill,

where in summarizing the
*

contents of

the previous

volume

he enumerates the events

recorded in Vols. I and II of the text as found in most
1

MSS.

in order to avoid confusion with the

In the translation the three volumes of the Persian text are referred to as parts two volumes into which the translation itself is divided. Small roman numerals indicate the volumes of the translation.

xxvi

but they might well have been equal in size. tested 2 Mongol princes and in the course and the accuracy of his data may be by comparison not only with Rashid-ad-Din but also with 3 4 See the English introduction to Vol. such as no single by the later * people. an event which he survived by some twenty-seven years. possessed in the Middle 5 4 Ages . to quote Barthold. . . advantage of having twice visited Eastern Asia. is usually content to follow his predecessor almost word for word. as Qazvini * * suggests. For the history of Persia between the invasion and the expedition of Hiilegii he could based rely upon his father's reminiscences and his own recollections. 46. the sack of Baghdad c and the extinction of the Abbasid Caliphate. xxvii . either in Asia or in Europe. Ibidem. . have long been available in European translations.TRANSLATOR and in S INTRODUCTION the printed edition. Juvaini enjoyed the further in events. the exacting duties of the governorship of Baghdad allowed him no leisure for the continuance of his great 2 * history. himself a participant It is significant that Rashid-ad-Din. as we have seen. I of Qazvini's text. infinitely fuller account of the early life of Chingiz-Khan and more detailed than the earlier historian's. has not yet been valued at its deserts *. if the five chapters referred to above actually been written and if Juvaini as one would have expected had closed his work with an account of the culmina- had tion of Hiilegii's campaign against the West. 40. Most of his information regarding the Turks and Mongols must have been gathered at the courts of the of his journeys thither . Ixiii-lxiv. he became. 3 and in the West at least Juvaini has been overshadowed Rashid-ad-Din. In such a division of the text the second volume is much smaller than the first. hand Juvaini lived much nearer to the events he and much of his account of the invasion must be upon reports of eye-witnesses. Perhaps '. in dealing with the history of this period.' His work. Rashid-ad-Din was able sible to is to draw upon Mongol sources inacces- Juvaini . Barthold. his On the other describes. and in the end. a vast historical encyclopedia. Turkestan town to the Mongol Invasion. considerable parts of whose enormous compilation.

to a wider circle of readers. Much is inevitably lost in translation. whenever to the Euphuists. d'Ohsson. with the appearance of used in Europe until the 19th century not. but it was not until of Vol. Word-plays and these are not merely possible. Persian. in shape though perhaps entirely dissimilar in pronunciation. 1663) parts of Juvaini His work was at second hand. became accessible. in his Turkestan. is the only historian who has made extensive use of Juvaini's work in the original. Unlike the later Rashid-ad-Din. directly Western scholars also. Barthold. on which Qazvini's text is based. visual puns we understand them but what might be called two words puns. Juvaini was a master of what was already the traditional of Persian prose literature. whose language is plain and simple in the extreme. but with the events that culminated in the being concerned only actual invasion he does not touch upon the history of the Empire under Chingiz-Khan s successors. in an English translation. the unfortunately obliged to work of the Bibliotheque only one then in the possession Roy ale (now the Bibliotheque Nationale). xxviii being identical . 2nd edition jusqua Baron d'Ohssons 1834-5). In the English edition of his work he was able to consult the first two volumes of Qazvini's monumental edition of the Persian text .TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION the works of Western travellers such as Carpini. It is now presented. It is a style which disposes of style all the rhetorical devices known are indulged as in. Ill in 1937 that the whole of Juvaini the publication became accessible even to Orientalists. Histoire des Mongols depuis Tctinguis-Kban Timour Bey ou Tamerlan (ist edition 1824. which appeal to the eye only. to however. The at once became the great was freely utilized and subsequent historians. which still and certainly the most provides the best. Arab and by both contemporary In Pococke's Latin translation of Barhebraeus (Oxford. D'Ohsson was on an indifferent manuscript. survey of the whole Mongol period. which afterwards acquired the Since excellent MSS. Rubruck and Marco Polo and with the Chinese and native Mongolian History of the World-Conqueror invasions and as such authority on the Mongol sources. readable.

TRANSLATOR
The
text is interlarded

S

INTRODUCTION

with quotations from the Arabic and Persian poets, with verses of the author's own composition and with passages from the Koran ; and the chapters begin and end or are interrupted in the middle with reflections on such subjects

human wishes or the inexorability of Fate. However, Juvaini was a man of taste he had his rhetoric under some measure of control and could, when the occasion demanded
as the

vanity of

;

it, tell

In

his tale in the plainest and most straightforward language. this he differed from his admirer and continuator Vassaf,
*

who

has been described as being so ornate in style that one 5 could forgive the cannot see the wood for the trees'.

'We

*

author

*,

says E. G. Browne,

more

valuable as an original authority which it treats, but in fact it is as important as

on

readily if his work were less the period (1257-1328) of
5

it is

unreadable,

6

In Juvaini, on the other hand, there is often a point concealed even in what appears to be mere ornament. By quoting, for * Book of Kings *, the National example, from the Sbabnama or to feelings which it would have vent he was able to
Epic,
give

been impossible openly to avow.

III.

HIS POINT

OF VIEW

Ibn-al-Athir, in the preface to his account of the Mongol remarks that for invasion, of which he was a contemporary,
years

he had shrunk from mentioning that event as being too horrible to record. It was, he protested, the greatest calamity
actually in to echo such the Mongols' service, could hardly be expected and sentiments, and in fact he says much in his masters' praise the invasion as the fulfilment of the to

that

had

ever befallen

mankind. 1

Juvaini,

who was

even attempts
divine will.

justify

hand, he was a devout and orthodox Mohammedan, and his real feelings cannot have been materially Moreover, in Juvainfs different from those of Ibn-al-Athir.
5 6 1
II,

On the other

E. Denison Ross, The Persians, 128.

A

68. Literary History of Persia, III,
translation

For a

of the whole passage

see

Browne,

A Literary History of Persia,

427-8.

xxix

TRANSLATOR
case, there

S

INTRODUCTION
with the house of the Khorazmseen,

were traditional
grandfather
as

ties

Shahs
ended

his

we have

Muhammad

on

his flight

from Balkh

to

had accompanied Nishapur and had

of Muhammad's son, Jalal-ad-Din and he can hardly have looked back without regret upon the extinction of that dynasty. In fact, Juvaini, though denied the
his days in the service

freedom of expression enjoyed by Ibn-al-Athir, is at no great pains to conceal his preference of the Moslem past to the Mongol
present.

On
cities
all

the invasion itself he could of course express

no opinion,

but the wholesale massacres to which so

were subjected

are

always faithfully

many of the captured recorded together with

the accompanying atrocities.

famous
80-1
;

It is Juvaini too who tells the of Chingiz-Khan in the mosque of Bokhara (I, story Of the consequences of the invasion he speaks i, 103-4).

at times

with the utmost frankness.

He

twice

refers to

the con-

of hopeless desolation to which the conquerors had reduced his homeland, the once flourishing province of Khorasan He also refers to the i, 96-7, ii, 533). (I, 75 and II, 269; disastrous effects upon the pursuit of learning and then launches
dition

a

bitter attack upon the new generation of officials, the product of a great social upheaval (I, 4-5 To one member i, 6-8). of this class, Sharaf-ad-Din of Khorazm, he devotes a whole
;

chapter

(II,

262-82

;

the blackest of colours

525-46), in which he paints him in and assails him with the coarsest of abuse.
ii,

Sharaf-ad-Din, the son of a porter, had accompanied Chin* Temiir from Khorazm to Khorasan at a time when no reputable
*

scribe

was willing

*

to undertake the journey because

it

was

intended to lay waste a

Moslem country *.

He owed his advance;

ment
532).

to his

ii, knowledge of the Turkish language (II, 268 Another official received his appointment because he

could write Mongolian in the Uighur character, which, as * Juvaini sarcastically adds, is in the present age, the essence of
learning

and proficiency*

The Mongols

(II, 260; ii, 523). themselves, if one disregards one or

two oppro-

xxx

TRANSLATOR
brious references,
2

S

INTRODUCTION
is

are never

openly attacked, but there

perhaps

an undertone of irony, and
is

therefore

of disapproval,

in the various

allusions to their addiction to strong drink. Ogedei, for example, made to offer an apology for his inebriety. It was due, he
*

the onslaught of sorrow which arises from grievous chose to be drunk in order to find separation/ He therefore c The grievous separarelief from that sorrow (III, 4 ; ii, 550).
said, to
'

tion

he referred to was the

loss

of his brother Tolui, who, accordto death (III,
is

ing to

Juvaini, had drunk himself
real state

4;

ii,

549).

of Juvaini's feelings clearly revealed in the attitude he adopts towards the defeated Khorazm-Shahs. Muhammad is frequently criticized. His conquests are shown

But the

most

to

*

have paved the way for the Mongol invasion (I, 52 ; i, 70). His campaigns against the Qara-Khitai, in particular, were undertaken without regard to a warning that this people formed c wall between the Moslems and fierce enemies and a
* '

79 and 89 ; i, 347* 357). in the way of the Mongol Having removed every obstacle invasion he renders that invasion inevitable by commanding the ambassadors (I, 61 i, execution of 79).
left

great ought therefore to be

in peace

(II,

Chingiz-Khan's

;

the storm finally breaks, he is seized with panic and decides to disperse his forces and seek safety in flight ; and his is made to deliver a speech in which he strongly son

When

Jalal-ad-Din

cowardice of such a policy and volunteers to lead the armies in person against the invader (II, 127; ii, 397)Muhammad, in short, is blamed for having needlessly provoked
the protests against

invasion but also for having abjectly failed to repel in fact, is that of the disappointed partisan ; it. Juvaini's attitude, and only a partisan could write that Islam was heartbroken and the very stones wept tears of blood because of Muhammad's death (II, 117; &, 387)the

Mongol

Towards Muhammad's
is

son, Jalal-ad-Din, Juvaini's attitude

one of unreserved admiration.

He

a figure of great physical courage.
2

presented everywhere In the clash with Jochi,

is

as

II,

III,

to religion'); 133 (H, 403) ('Tartar devils') and 275 (539) ('strangers their [the Isma ills'] Maulana ... has become the serf of 141 (ii, 640) ('
tf

bastards').

xxxi

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
before the outbreak of hostilities, he rescues his father

who was

As (I, 51-2; i, 69). he plunges into the Indus after the final charge against the to proceed from the Mongols, the words of admiration are made d again himself (I, 107; i, 134-5)lips of Chingiz-Khan with Juvaini quotes from the Sbahnama, comparing Jalal-ad-Din Rustam, the mythical hero of the Iranians. Such quotations

in danger of being taken prisoner, in an apposite verse from the Sbabnama

and Juvaini

vents his feelings

An

by this device Juvaini is able to with Iran and the Mongols with identify the Khorazm-Shahs 3 Turan, the hereditary foe.
are not

of course fortuitous

;

But not every

allusion

is

hostile.

There

are passages in

Juvaini speaks of the Mongols in terms of high praise It is there is usually no reason for doubting his sincerity.
for

which and
;

clear,

had a genuine admiration for the military of Chingiz-Khan, of whom Alexander himself, he says, genius would have been content to be a pupil (I, 16-17; i, 24). He expatiates with enthusiasm on the efficiency of the Mongol army, and he its powers of endurance and its excellent discipline
example, that he
;

compares
to

it

in these respects with the forces of Islam, very

much
praises

the

latter's

disadvantage

(I,

21-3;

i,

29-31).

He

the

Mongol

amongst of the Moslems
ceremonial

princes for the spirit of harmony that prevailed them and here again contrasts their behaviour with that
(I,

30-2 and

III,

68;

i,

41-3,

ii,

594).

He

commends them

also for their informality

and avoidance of

(I, 19 ; i, 26-7). Despite his strong Mohammedan he speaks with apparent approval of their tolerance prejudices in matters of religion (I, 18-19; i, 26). And finally he has

much

to say

of

their protection
4
*

Several of the anecdotes
actions
3

and patronage of the Moslems. in the chapter *On the deeds and

of Qa'an

are

concerned with the kindness shown by

II, 136 and 139 (ii, 406, 409), where by this means Chingiz-Khan is likened to Afrasiyab, and I, 73 (i, 95), where a quotation from the Shahnama * serves to illustrate Temiir Malik's boasting about his victories over the Turanian

Cf.

host'. 4

See

I,

161, 163, 179, etc.

(i,

204, 206, 223,

etc.).

xxxii

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION
the jovial, good-natured

Ogedel

to

Mohammedans

in

distress.

nephew, Mongke, during whose reign the History * of the World-Conqueror was written, it is stated that of all the sects and communities he most honoured and respected the people of Islam, upon whom he bestowed the most alms and conferred
*

Of Ogedei's

the greatest privileges
at

Juvaini speaks of him times in terms hardly distinguishable from those applied to
(III, 79).
;

And

Moslem rulers (I, 85 and 195 i, 109, 239). He even upon him the exclusively Mohammedan title ofgbazi or
*

confers
*

victor

against the infidel with reference to his execution of a group of Uighur nobles who had plotted, amongst other things, to massacre the

Moslem population of Besh-Baligh

(III,

61

;

ii s

589).

Mongke's mother, too, Princess Sorqoqtani, is praised not only for her probity and administrative ability, but also for her
patronage of Islam

though a Christian she would bestow alms upon Moslem divines and had provided a large sum for the endowment of a madrasa or theological college in Bokhara
:

(III,

8-9;

ii,

552-3).

It

was not however
invaders
;

sufficient to record the

good

qualities

of

the

Mongol

as

an

official

to justify the invasion

itself.

in their service, Juvaini had This he has done by representing

the

Mongols

as the instrument

of the divine

will.

compares the invasion with the punishments visited on earlier peoples for their disobedience to God and in support of
this

He

analogy adduces a

baditb or tradition

of Mohammed to the
to be

by the sword Another badltb refers to the horsemen whom (I, 12; i, 17). God will send to exact vengeance on the wicked ; and nothing is easier than to identify these horsemen with the Mongols (I, And to drive the point home, the Conqueror him17 i, 24).
effect that the destruction of the

Moslems was

;

self,

declare that he

in a speech directed to the people of Bokhara, is is the scourge of God (I, 81 ; i, 105).

made

to

This divine mission of the Mongols was particularly manifest
in their destruction of the foes of Islam.

who

dispatched them c

against Kiichlug, the xxxiii

Thus it was God Naiman ruler of

TRANSLATOR
Qara-Khitai,

S

INTRODUCTION
Moslem
divine

who had
;

crucified a
;

upon

the door

of his madrasa (I, 55 i, 73) and the people of Kashghar, when the Mongols had expelled their persecutor and restored freedom of worship, perceived the existence of this people to be one of the mercies of the Lord and one of the bounties of divine grace
' *

(I,

50;

i,

capture of
defeat

God's purpose was also revealed in Hiilegu's 67). the Isma'ili stronghold of Alamut, which Juvaini

compares with the conquest of Khaibar, i.e. the Prophet's and extermination of his Jewish adversaries at Khaibar near Medina (III, 138; ii, 638). But their mission was not merely negative ; their conquests actually had the effect of extending the boundaries of Islam.
transportation of craftsmen, saved by their skill from the fate of their fellow townsmen, to new homes in Eastern Asia,

The

and the thronging of merchants to the new capital at QaraQorum had introduced a Moslem population to regions to which the True Faith had never penetrated (I, 9; i, 13-14).

Even the manner of
status
i,

massacres were a blessing from God ; for by the their death the slaughtered millions achieved the
the privileges of martyrs to the Faith (I, 10
;

and enjoyed

and
*

question Juvaini's sincerity 15). share the indignation expressed by d'Ohsson at arguments
les

And

here at least

we may

faits

que

pour demontrer que c'est pour le bien des Musulmans Mongols sont venus les egorger*.

How is one to reconcile these seeming contradictions on the one hand, the candid recital of Mongol atrocities, the lament for the extinction of learning, the thinly veiled criticism of the conquerors and the open admiration of their vanquished
opponents;
institutions

and on the other hand, the praise of Mongol and Mongol rulers and the justification of the invasion
?

as

an

act

of divine grace

The

contradictions are, however,

apparent only. Juvaini's sympathies did indeed lie with the defeated dynasty ; he had been brought up in the traditions of the Perso-Arabian civilization which the Mongols had all but
destroyed;

and in

these circumstances he could scarcely be a

xxxiv

TRANSLATOR

S

INTRODUCTION

whole-hearted supporter of the new regime. But the old order was dead and gone there was no hope of its resuscitation ; and it was necessary to reach some kind of compromise. Without
;

of the picture Juvaini says whatever he truthfully can in the Mongols* favour. He extols their military and social virtues and rightly attributes the Moslems* defeat to the neglect of those virtues. He makes much of their
therefore glossing over the darker side

destruction of anti-Moslem forces such as the Buddhist QaraKhitayans and the heretic Isma'ilis. He stresses the favourable

adopted by certain of the Mongols (and it is to be noted that in this respect he speaks only of specific individuals) towards the Mohammedan religion. And finally he endeavours to prove that the Mongol invasion was foreshadowed in the traditions of
attitude

Mohammed and
the divine will.

that

it

was in consequence a manifestation of

These theological arguments may not always conviction, but their object is clearly to reconcile the author carry and his readers to the inevitable. In short, Juvaini is a Moslem
raised in the

the

new

tradition striving to adapt himself to conditions but everywhere betraying the prejudices and

pre-Mongol

predilections of his upbringing.

XXXV

NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION,

Etc.

IN a translation intended primarily for the general reader I have simplified the spelling of Oriental words by dispensing with the

marks conventionally employed to indicate the Persian or Arabic orthography. For the same reason
diacritical
' ' *

precise
I
*

have
emir
*

adopted such Anglicized forms as

vizier

\

cadi

and

in preference to wazlr (vazir), qddl (qazi) and amir. The Holy Book of Islam is called the Koran rather than the Qur'an and

Muhammad,
bearers

the Prophet to the form

whom

it

was

revealed

Mohammed

rather than

Muhammad

being reserved for all other

of the name.
other

On the

hand

it is

often desirable, in the interests of the

specialist, to indicate the exact spelling of words (and in parIn the case of Persian ticular names) in the Arabic character.

and Arabic words

this

end has been achieved by

spelling

them

in the index in strict accordance with a system of transliteration which is basically that approved by the Royal Asiatic Society,

The same system is employed in the case of words enclosed in round brackets in the text of the translation it is also employed, though with less rigid consistency, in the footnotes. In the text itself, as has already been stated, the diacritical marks are omitted* Also the spellings Khorazm, Khoja and Khaf have been adopted in place of the more correct Khwarazm, Khwaja and Khwaf.
;

Sometimes, as

for

the Persian original,

example in discussing a corrupt spelling in it is difficult to dispense with the use of the
a substitute for that script I have resorted to

Arabic script. an alphabet of

As

capital letters

which

differs

from the system of

employed in that alif is always rendered and yS by Y that denotes alif mamduda A, waw by by and that jf, C, X, 2, and P are equivalent toj, ch> kh, only The omission of diacritical points is zhj $h and gb respectively. indicated in two ways. When the loss of the dot or dots makes the Arabic letter identical with another letter of the same shape, xxxvi
transliteration otherwise

W

;

A

;

) been and there A more complicated example etc. Here YY (or BB could equally well actually a corruption of S.) Is is YYQAQ. In K. wdw and yd as matres lectionis it can give some approximate idea of the pronunciation. is i. i. . dots beneath the yd have been omitted and it could equally well be read as any other letter of the same shape. In An SYALAN example or two will make (for this I. When however there is no undofted letter of identical shape the corrupt spelling is Indicated by means of italics. the footnotes and No between / and represented by e. tion is made however between Turkish a and e (<?). In quoting Far Eastern sources I have spelt Mongol words with sonfe according to the system of the late Professor xxxvii Pelliot. occurrence in the The Perso-Arabic alphabet is of course incapable of adequately reproducing all the Turkish and Mongol vowel sounds although by the use of the hard and soft consonants and of alif. the first of and the whole is a be written 9 the final corruption Q F Q N is a corruption of &QAN. both being the text.e.e. (The dot beneath the here equivalent to chim has also been lost but this Is shown jim by the use of H. Roman QRDWAN QZDWAN identical with ra.e. clear. SYALAN. the letter in italics being either the Roman equivalent of the letter that appears to be meant or else any letter of the required shape chosen use at of Italics random. Kenchek) the dot over the nun has (for Siyalan) the two KNHK lost KNf is a similar ambiguity. Similarly the distinction notes ignored in the text though it is always observed in the case I is and that index. Following such indications I have spelt all Turkish and Mongol words in the index as far as possible in accorddistincance with the phonetic laws of the two languages. Thus represents a corruption of (Qizhthe omission of the three dots over the zba making it duvan). the corresponding undotted letter.e. Shuqan ! The same their first system Turkish and Mongol used to Indicate the Arabic spelling of words.NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION the equivalent of that other letter Is written. This is done in the footnotes upon text. i. not only in the case of Turkish words but also in the of Mongol words when the Arabic spelling indicates the old pronunciation still survived.

original appear in the XXXVlll .NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION slight modifications. alphabet is transliterated as follows : abjrdezesfzbilkbtskbdzgb m y f cb n sh o cb* p j t s v t r ts w p* U d f. Arabic phrases and passages in the translation in italics. whilst for Chinese I have used the Wade- Giles method of The Armenian transcription.

XXXIX . People. the Tale of the Three School-fellows" and the wasaya of the Nizam al-Mulk '. A History of the Georgian ARBERRY.. A.. Ramsay Wright. 1920 and 1924.. Mediaeval Researches from London. C. 'Abdallah J. *. ]. 4 and Cambridge. 13247 1945-6. HJAS.. E. On the Titles Given in Juvainl Mongolian Princes HJAS. vols. 1902 and 1906. Barhebraeus : AM Wallis Budge. Hinz. Paris. London. G. Kiya W. Tehran. 1932. A. * BSOAS. R. E. See Kashghari.. commonly known as Ear Hehraeus. London. ed. New Series. A Year amongst the Persians (3rd ed. Iru and Mam in the Secret e ' History of the Mongols to Certain '.. 1950.. 1931. 1932 . Wiesbaden.. E. 1928. ed. 1934- BLOCHET. ed. BARTHOLD.. Salihani. and tr. Ta'rikb-i-Baibaqi. D. BROWNE. ed. 1952. 1890. 1945. IN THE TRANSLATOR'S NOTES of the Unhappy Valley Oxford. Tankh mukhtasar ad-duwal. W. the Beirut. See Rashid-ad-Din. The sar-gudhasht-i sayyidna.. : Sind : a re-interpretation b. ed. Baihaqi. See Kashghari. Oxford and London. Sa'di. Eastern Asiatic Sources. (GMS. H. The Book of Instruction in the Elements Biruni of the Art of Astrology ly Abu'l-Rayhan Muhammad tin Ahmad al-BMnt. : F. E.. E. 2 vols. See Rashid-ad-Din.. and tr. JRAS. 2 vols. 17 (1954). 1888.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS QUOTED ABBOTT. " BOWEN. Abul-Fazl: Kiya al-Mazandarant. Cambridge. See Omar Khayyam and ATALAY.. Ghani and Fayyaz. The Chronograpby of Gregory Hebrew Physician. 19 (1956)- BRETSCHNEIDER. I. J. W. BROCKELMANN. Ibn al-Tiqtaqa and the Tartkh-i-Jahan-Gushay of Juvayni '.XIV/i (1952). L.. BENEDETTO. See Marco Polo. V). Die Resald-ye Falakiyya des 'Abdollah fan Muhammad ibn ALLEN. Muhammad b. Histoire des Turcs d'Asie Centrale. BEREZIN. A. B. 1 Faraj.). See also GIBB and BOWEN. London. 9 A. London. * BOYLE. 1924.. A Literary History of Persia. N. to Turkestan down the Mongol Invasion.

sous le JA nom EGHBAL. Grammatik (2nd GIBB.. 1901. HJAS.... Encyclopaedia of Islam. M. and BOWEN. and tr.. ou Batiniens de connus la Perse. J. Le Livre des Rots.. Blake and R. A. in and William de Rulruquis. 1877-84. 12 See also MOSTAERT and CLEAVES and the Secret History of the Mongols. and DOWSON. 1929 . Question. 3 vols. London. London.). 4 Leiden. E.. tr. ELIAS. The Mongolian Documents in the Musee de Teheran '.. Persia and the Persian Daulatshah: E. . H. 12 (1949). 1920. Histoire de fArmfaie des origmes d wji> Paris. t i860. Part J. K. 1838-78 . The Mongolian Names and Terms in the History of the Nation of the Archers ' * by Grigor of AkancV HJAS.. SIR Geschichte des chinesischen Reicfres. Leiden. JA. W. L'Empire des Steppes.. G. 1913-36. 1942.. Islamic Society and the West. to CORBIN.. 2 vols. 1930-52. Berlin. * Essai sur ttustoire des Ismaeliens ou Batiniens de la Perse. N. The Golden Bough (3rd ed.. II. Die Geheime Geschichte (i949). L'Empire Mongol. Paris. A. See Nasir-i-Khusrau. 1900. Macan. Paris. in The Journey of William of Ruhruck to the Eastern Parts of the World. Paris. Documents sur Fhistoire des Ismaeliens London. plus d* Assassins '. an heroic poem. 12 Altturkische vols. 1950. ed. ed. London. 1892. 1867-77. R. 18 (1955). 5 vols.. 1829 J.. The History of India as told by its own London. Frye. A.. Bury). A. Rockhill. Mohl. N. R. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (ed. The History of Grigor of Akner the Nation of the Archers (The Mongols) by Grigor of Akanc* *. London. Berlin. 16 (1953). O. c J. ' The Texts and Versions of John fa Piano Carpini A. Beazley. Calcutta. Firdusii The Shah Nameh . xl . HJAS. Review of E. See Muhammad Haidar. CURZON. van den Wyngaert. : GR0NBECH. Ser Marco Polo : Notes London. R. HJAS. Vot I. SIR H. tr. GABAIN. HJAS. * R. P. London. F. plus connus sous le nora d* Assassins '. * and Addenda Sir Henry Yule's Edition. der Mongolen... See Tha alibi. and Vullers. VON. 1947. I. FRAZER. G. 12 (1949). GIBBON. CORDIER. CLEAVES. 1900 . 1950.).BIBLIOGRAPHY Carpini: C... 1856. ed. 8 vols. 1911-15. FRANKE. 7 vols. ELLIOT S Sir H. Haenisch.. Likr Regum qut inscnbitur Schahname.. Paris. J. The Historicity of the Baljuna Covenant '. ed. Copenhagen. in W. ed. GROUSSET. ed. vols. 1944. 1900. E. 1941. Historians. The Tadhkbirdttt *sb-Shu ara. DEFREMERY. Sinica Franciscana If Quaracchi. H. 4 vols. W. Firdausi : T.. M. Le Conquerant du Monde.. H. 1939. ed. LORD. Browne. C. f ed. 7 vols. Komanisches Worterluch..

SIR W. London. Browne. 1907-9. Volume III (facsimile of a MS. Thus denotes Qazvinf s MS. The Gates of India. 3 vols. L. Hudud al-Alam. S. 1216) by Abridged Translation of the History of Muhammad b. HOUTSMA. W. H. 1921. V. HouTUM-ScHiNDLER.. SIR T. E. An Talaristdn compiled about AH. Asia Major. Juvaini : Mirza Muhammad Qazvini... W. 1953. ed. treatise on geography. 1931 . History of the Mongols. Qazwm in 740 (1340) the (GMS. HOLDICH. 4 vols. Turks and Afghans (Vol. orientalisches documents Ein f Handelsunternehmen im b. 1919. l-Balkht (GMS. 1897. The Hague. 1928. Oxford. Minorsky (GMS. Old Series. Ibn-el-Athiri Chronicon. These have been represented in the footnotes to the translation by Roman capitals in the ordinary alphabetical order. II). 'Three 19 Ibn-al-Athir : of Ch'ien Ta-hsin's Poems on Yuan History*. Hamdalkh G. New E. Les Ouigbours a Fepoaj4e des Cinq Dynasties d'apres 1955. HJAS.). 1937. 1955. le Ibn-al-Balkhi f G. Sir E.. in the Bodleian). Old Series.. Imperial Gazetteer of India. La Haute-Asie. 613 (A. Stephenson. 1948. Leiden.. Ho WORTH. 9 The Zoological Section of Hamdullah al-Mustaufi al-QazwM3 London. tr. Strange and R. le Strange.. G. IX (1933). an anonymous Persian English with Commentary by London. See also the Kalam-i-Pfr. Paris.D. of the Cambridge History of India). f See also the Sheng-wu ch in-cheng lu and the Yuan : shih.. Muhammad Kiya... Ross ed.jtm. - Isfandiydr (GMS. tr. The Order of Assassins.. D. See also Abdallah b. 1876-1927. and tr. ed. The Fdrsndma of Ibnu Series. vols. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY - HAENISCH.. (GMS. London. Old J. : Tornberg. Welt chinois.. SIR H. See also the Secret History of the Mongols. HAMBIS. zain. XXIII/2). (Qazvini has distinguished the various MSS. London. W. 14 : J. 15. London. on which his edition is based by means of the Arabic letters in their abjad or numerical order. Die ietzten Feldziige Cinggis Han's und sein ostasktischen "Oberlieferung *. IVANOW. 2. London. al-Hasan b. J. A. Cambridge. London. XVI/i. London. R. 1894. M.. * Nuzhatu-l-Qulub of les HAMILTON.. quod perfectissimum Leiden. London. Paris. 1910.. Ill s Tod nach der HAIG.. Studies in Early Persian Ismailism.. ed. New XI). HINZ. 3). inscribitur.. 1916 and 1937. HODGSON. ed. 1905. Ta'rikh-i-Jahan-Gusbay ofjuwayni. The Ta'rikh-i~Jahdtt-Gusbd of *Ald'u 'd-Dln *Ata-Malik~i-Juwayni. C. 1928. Eastern Persian Irak. alif9 A C G xli . Die des Orients. T. Nicholson. his MS.. 1949. M. 44 (MSS. Ein turkhch-arabisches Glossar. and so his MS. Fraser 154 and Ouseley Add.. Jahrhundert *. I). 26 vols. translated into Series. s The Geographical Part of the Nuzbat-al-Qutil composed by Hamd-Allah Mustawft of Series. 1851-76. 1912. Leiden. Ibn-Isfandiyar G. HUNG.

L. MARQUART (MARKWART). Calcutta. STRANGE. different wording. der * Cuwayni's Bericht iiber die Bekehrung der Komanen in Bang-Marquart.. Rodwell. tr. Divan. A. 1935Kashghari: B. and the his tr. Nassau Lees. Cambridge.. I (1953). 1881. The Tahakdt-i Nairn. LAMBTON. J. ' LEVY. tr. Bombay.. BSOS.BIBLIOGRAPHY * on. London. tion The three volumes of Qazvini's edition called Parts* in the transla9 are referred to in the footnotes whilst small itself.. 1938. 1940. The Mongol Wars with Hsi Hsia (1205-27) The Rise of Chingis Khan and Marvazi : V. R. Aung> Leiden. Minorsky. Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de Courteille. D. London. G. Kdami Pir. 1905. London. LE The Mohammadan Dynasties. C. S. Ankara. MARTIN. Some observations on the significance of Heresy in the History of Islam Studia Iskmica. * Civil and Military Review in Fars in 881/1474 '. E. SPAW. 1865.. ed. See the Yilan shih. : J. Mas'udi: A A X xlii .. tr. LANE-POOLE. 9 vols. 1894.. Atalay. See Rashid-ad-Din. s The Travels of an Alchemist^ London. London. Raverty. 1914. A. Uighuren*. 9 Islamic Society in Persia (Inaugural Lecture). Baltimore. Ivanow. LEWIS. Wehrot und. The Account of the Isma'ili doctrines in Rashid al-Din Fadlallah '. Sharaf al-Zaman Tahir Manwzt on China. Jahangir Aq-Qoyunlu *. G. Abdorrasuli. 1954- ANN K. '. 1901. 1939-41 . Kasyans c A.. (In translations from the Koran Rodwell's The Koran (Everyman's Library). ed. 1861-77. 1912. Conquest of North China. Mafoudi: Les Prairies d'Or. Caucasica III : The Alan Capital *Magas and the Mongol Campaigns '. Paris. H. Waley. M. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. IX (X937-9)... DMn : Koran Venice. Uber das Volkstum Berlin. V. Studies in Caucasian History. Ostturktsche Dtakktstudien. version has usually been followed KRAUSE. Divanu Lugat-it-Tiirk Tercumesi. 1931.) Roman by means of capital Roman numerals numerals indicate the two volumes of the translation Juzjani: W. texte et traduction par C. Brockelmann.. London. XIV/2 (1952). * MINORSKY. BSOAS. 1950.) except in cases where the context required a F. 1909. A History of Egypt in the Middle Ages. BSOS (1940-2). \JRAS Turks and India. B. MitteltUrkiscber Wortschatz nach Mahmtid alLuyat at-Turk. tr. ed. * SoyurgM of Qasim b.. ed. 3 vols. S. JRAS. The ' the Jami* al-Tawarikh of Origins of l$ma fii$m } c Cambridge. Kalam-i-Pir : W. 1942. 1928.. London. Budapest and Leipzig. Li Chih-ch'ang: A. The Tabaqat-i Nasiri. 1930... 1864. 1953. Kirakos of Gandzak: Kirakosi Vardapeti Gandzakets'woy Hamarat Patmut'iuw. Tehran. Khaqani: KHETAGUROV. 1316/1937-8.. and tr. tr. ' f 1942. H.. London.

M. V. Histoire du Sultan Djekl ed-Din Mankotirti.. PRESCOTT. 1931. The Mirza Muhammad Hddar. Horde W. Odoric. A. Peking 9 1934' Une Le ville I..). London.. Minovi. H. (The references are to the page et numbers of the Les mots a h siecies'. rhistoire de la fOr s Paris. Polo. Nasir al-Din Tusi on Finance.) initiale. and tr. II.. Muhammad Haidar : N. London. Kirk). C. The Travels of Marco Sir H. Transcaucasica '. Polof London. X t 9 9 (1940-2). MOSTAERT. BSQS. Marco: L. la Chine du Nord sous 193^- les Mongols*. A. 1907. J. xliii . 1834-5. Yule. Tehran and Paris. 1304-7/1925-8. ed. KtatrtJamfal-'Hikmtttom. E. MINOVI and MINORSKY and VERNADSKY. D... 1891-5.BIBLIOGRAPHY * MINORSKY. and CLEAVES. 3 TP.. tr. History of the Conquesnf Mexico (ed.. : A Literary History of the Araks.. 1930. Elias. London. 1920. A propos des et la Comans '. Neuf notes sur des questions d'Asie Centrale le TP 1929- 'Notes sur Notes sur ' "Turkestan" de M. 4 vols. 1950- Sur un passage du Cheng-wou ts'in-tcheng lot* . Whinfield.). ed. tr.. in the Middle Ages (2nd. Benedetto. Mo in. of Nasawi: O. van den Wyngaert. A.. 1913.. Corbin and M. JA. Yule.. London. and E. The Quatrains of Omar tr. ed. * MOSTAERT. '. 2 vols. Sir H.. Divan. ". London. 2 vols. 1903. Khayyam. SIR C... M. NICHOLSON.. 1949 .. 13 Sur quelques passages de YHtstoire secrete des Mongols? HJAS. PELLIOT. London. * ed. dans I. A. and The RtM'tyat of Omar Khayyam. D'OnssON. (1950). The Book of Ser Marco Polo (srd.. Tehran. * MINOVI. ed. in Sitiica Franciscana I. musulmane dans de Seroctan *. tr. * P. 1895. H. Les Mongols Papaute Revue de I'Orient CMtfat. BSOS. tr. in Cathay and the Way Thither... V. Paris. Marvazi. XXIV * (1924) and XXVIII (1931-2). See also the Hudud al-Alam. Dughlat. tirage~a-~part. ed.. OMAN. and tr. Arberry. 1883.. Histoire des Mongols depuis Tchinguiz-Khan jusqua Timour Bey ou Tamerlan (2nd. London. : 1953. Ts'ai Yuan P'ei Anniversary Volume (Supplementary Volume I of the Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology of Academia Sinica). A History of the Art of War : The Hague and Amsterdam. R. F. secretes vaticanes. ed. W. I. Houdas. le mongol } des XIIP XIVa ' JA 1925.. Ross. aujourd'hui amuie.' K W. JA 1930. X (1940-2). and MINORSKY. 1924. Friar 1929. Omar Khayyam A. * Trois documents mongols des Archives Tariklj-i-Rashidi HJAS f 15 (1952). ed. Barthoid'. Nask-i-Khusrau f H. XXIII (1922-3). 'The Turkish Dialect of the Khalaj . JA. Quaracchi. 1927. 1889. ed. II. ' vrai nom TP t See also the Secret History and the Sheng-tvu cb'in-cheng lu. 2 vols.). ed.

I. Histoire I. Inschrift Die chinesische Kara Balgassun '. O. STARK. Venice...BIBLIOGRAPHY QUATREMERE. xllv Vardanay J. Histoire des Shahnama. . A. Volume I (Translation) . Leiden. ed. Quaracchi. (GMS. Massachusetts. * Kings and Beggars.. ed. Berezin. Leningrad.. Samuel.. 1896. Tha alibi 1908. 1921. in-~ch$ng In : Sheng-wu ch P. Histoire secrete des Mongols. 9 Sbomik Mongols letopisei. 1929. tr. JRAS. H.. 1928. RAVERTY. i. W. ed. H. The Rahat-us~Sudur iva Ayat-us-Surur New London. Die dtturkischen Inschriften der Mongolei. D... tr. f London. Die Geheime Gescbichte der Mongolen (2nd. Forgotten Persian Poet of the Thirteenth Century '. Siberia ed. London. Vienna. Djami (1858). Tatimmatul-'Yatimab. The Persians.. Die Mongolen in Iran (2nd. RADLOFF. Khetagurov. 1316/1937-8. Petersburg. G. Rubruck: W.. : 2 vols. 1891. ed. des de k Perse. 1952. London. Sa di c : A. Die Goldene Horde. E. VQ1AO. GescUcbte Wassaf's. tr. E. Tehran. 1934. See Rashid-ad-Din. . ed. Helsingfors. L. Mdzandardn t (CMS. ed. Slornik letopisei. tr. and Astarabdd RABINO. Pelliot. 1948 . 1952 1836. Rockhill. . Add.. SMIRNOVA. W. D. The Valleys of the Assassins and Other 1934- Persian Travels. and tr. W.. ed. II). Ross. Old Series.. JLeipzig. in Sinica Parts of the World. tr. Moscow. 1862. Blochet. Eghbal. Biistan-i-Sa dtf Tehran. ed. See Firdausi. ed. Kfta^mustatab-i-VassSf (lithographed ed. 1951.. SPULER. a Record of Travel. A Juzjani. 1957. 1949.. The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern A. Hambis. auf dem uighurischen Denkmal in Sodltl fnno-ottffienne. Mlmoires de k Secret History of the Mongols : F. ed. V E.). r : A. W. Freya. Paris. cam- pagnes de Gengis Khan.) f Bombay. 1856. Petersburg.. and tr. Pelliot and L. 1895. See Rubruck. See * ROBERTSON. SCHLEGEL. SIR E. 12^9/1852-3. The Secret History of the Mongols. . Rashid-ad-Din: I. et-Tevayikb (CMS. Leipzig. G. S. 1943. and f tr. XVIII). Quatrernere. E. TURNER. and tr. Arberry. W. Das Kudaktu RADLOFF..). 23 Moscow. Muhammad e Ali Furughi. ed. New Series. Ravandi : Muhammad Series. Vardan: Vassaf : Vardapeti Hawak'umn Patmut'ean. and tr. Climbing and Exploration. P. Uigburiscbe* Spracbdenkmaler. Oxford.). VII (1861). See also Juvaini and Muhammad Haidar. Tbeil I St. I. XIII (1868) and XV (1888) A. von Hammer-Purgstall. B. 1912 B% . S. Cambridge. Paris.. E. tr. 1955. J.. London.. Iqbai. 1. and MALOV. London. 1900 ROCKHILL. van den Wyngaert. 7628 (British Museum MS. 1945 . Haenisch. London. Berlin. St.. Smirnova. 1928.. W. See Rashid-ad-Din. N. O. 1951- Fmndstana 1. Sbornik letopisei'. Cleaves. 1931. VII).

WALEY.. * Ancient Russia. la Studies. See Pelliot. : Histoire des campagnes de Gmgis Khan. Biruni. See Omar Khayyam. Society... E. Hambis. A. Geschicbte der Mongolen oder Tataren. by Professor Minorsky of Juvainfs chapter on Chingiz-Khan. f Campagnes Sbeng-wu cb in-cbeng lu. See also Odoric and Polo. YAQUT: Yuan sbih : F. Cathay and tbe Way Tbftber (ed. G. . and FENG. A.. K. 1949. J. ($07-1125).BIBLIOGRAPHY VERNADSKY.. ABBREVIATIONS BSOAS BSOS : : Bulletin of tbe Scbool of Oriental and African Bulletin of the Scbool of Oriental Studies. CHIA-SHENG. Liao WOLFF. Gengis-Kban. 1866-72. DE.. 1948. WRIGHT.. : Muhammad Toung Pao..) VLADIMIRTSOV.) YULE. A. Cordier). Odoric and al luldan. Juwaini's Version of Chingis Khan's yasa \ Amides k Flnstitet Kondakov. New Haven. Vladimir Minorsky. Paris. GMS: HJAS : : Gibb Memorial Horde d'Or Harvard Journal of Asiatic : Notes sur rhistoire de Horde d'Or. London.. de glntalogie et de cbtovologie pour rbfstoire de i'lslam. xlv . H. Paris. MM*gam and tr. 1841. Le regime social des Mongols. See WYNGAERT. 1954. ZAMBAUR. JA Journal Asiatique. See Li Chih-ch'ang. New Haven. A Personal Narrative of aJourney to the Sources of the Rsver Qxus. Heidelberg. Le cbapitre CVI1I du Yuan cbef Leiden. 1939. (The translations supplied by Professor Cleaves are from the Po-na~pen edition of the text. Hanover. 1948. 1872. (Trudt) Vostocbnago Otdeleniya VOIAO: Imperatorskago Arkbeologlcheskago Obsbchestva. A. ed.Q.. Manuel 2 vols. L. Le 6 vols. Royal Asiatic Qazvini. See the Series. WOOD. XI (1939). V. Brussels. B. History of Chinese Society : WHINFIELD. 1922. JKAS Journal of tbe : M.M. 1953. Wiistenfeld. 4 vols. Studies. VAN DEN. WITTFOGEL. E. SPAW: TP : : Sitzungslerichte der preussiscben Akademie der Wissenscbaften. Breslau. Cmgis Han. ed. London. cbapitre Rubmck. Leipzig. O. RAMSAY. E. (Contains a translation the yasas of sostave velikoi yas'i Cbingis kbana. 1915-16. Philadelphia. See Carpini. O The Mongols and Russia.. 1945 tr. CVI1 du Yuan Leiden. cbe. 1927. R. Krause. SIR H. 1943..

.

THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUEROR .

.

He is outward. He hath no companion. the seal of the prophets. Whose : wisdom and munificence His oneness lieth existence bestoweth the lights He is the Maker. Mohammed the Elect a blessing out of which the scent of true devotion reacheth the nostrils of the lovers of holiness and from whose fragrance the supreme Pleroma. He is one. and the plenteous rain of April Is but one drop in the sea of His bounteousness . and is loved alike by the real and is sought alike lovers of truth and by idolatrous Infidelity libertines ' and Islam walking this way. and the known Inventions of His nature are but one tale of the perfection of His power . and the imagination and understandperfection . . He is the Pardoner. because of His divinity. He is generous. and the glittering sword of the Tartar was the instrument of His severity. qualities give He is the Provider. and at His table. and the purpose of the diversity of tongues countless blessings the melodious nightingale singeth a thousand songs . Him before Whom men of of is prostrate themselves. and the proof . He is eternal. and In praise of His . the Compassionate. saying. those that keep to the middle in the valleys by of true guidance and by those that travel hurriedly through the wilderness of passion . ing cannot attain to knowledge of His glory.[DOXOLOGY] In the name of God. the Merciful. In agreement with them that dwell in the garden of D 3 . and the zephyr of His favour hath been the source of the endurance of every lover He is the Avenger. monotheist and atheist (mulhid) are as one He is the Creator. unto Him Whom men worship. the light of the pupil of men of insight. He is alone.' And may the blessing of His praise descend upon the flower of the garden of creation. Thanksgiving and praise unto Who is necessarily existent. He is mighty. and the minds of the wise are astounded at the greatness of His He is inward. in each of the atoms of created things He the Protector. and Is to thanks for His strange and wonderful works .

tales of Nushirvan's of Faridun's 4 traditions were hidden thereby and the wisdom seemed effaced. and Fortune smiled.THE HISTORY OF upon his and holy spirit pure And upon the chosen ones of his people and the followers of his friends and household. the Khan of all and triumph over the banner and may his august shadow extend over all mankind and I beheld the effects of that justice whereby all creation hath recovered and bloomed again. The breezes justice 3 is also used by Carpini (Mengu) and Rashid-ad-Din always uses the native form. for that sweetheart hath appeared. 49. 157) has Mongke and in another (I. wherein I Look to the effects of commandment of the Lord God's meny. 4 . and there befell me the honour of kissing the threshold of the Court of the World-Emperor. 2 3 Nushirvan. Mengii Qa'an may victory foes of state and faith be fastened to his x fulfilled the smile because of the weeping of the spring clouds . This latter form occurs regularly in E (written KA) in place of the Mengii (MNKW) of the text. actually a figure of Indo-Iranian mythology. the source of the blessings of peace and security. MWNK MWNKKA) MWNKW. is always repre- sented in Persian literature as the personification of justice. Koran. This.e. bow He maketh the earth to live after its death! 2 The eye of insight was ennobled by contemplation of that justice and the ear of truth adorned with the cry of O The 1 lovers. which however in one place (I. i. just as young plants and trees will ! Khans. 195) the hybrid form (written * Both mongke and mengu are adjectives meaning eternal *. Mongke. who are stars in the heavens his law of righteousness and stones cast at the demon of iniquity be the jewel of purity and the gem of praise that is adorned with truth and that shall endure for the length of days and nights ! contentment^ scattereth the largesse [2] of benedictions ! [INTRODUCTION] In the year 650/1252-3 Fate was kind to me. appears in the National Epic as the slayer of the tyrant Zahhak (Dahak) and the founder of a pre- Achaemenid dynasty. the Sassanian ruler (531-578). that ravisher of hearts hath appeared again. viz. the Commander of the Earth and the Age. Scatter your hearts. Rubruck (Mangu). 4 Faridun. xxx. Khusrau I. the Turkish form of the name.

The blast of his shining sword cast fire into the harvest of the abject foe. and the revolution of the vile wheel. the youth of youthful fortune and aged resolve. for fear of of his rigour and fury. and in order to preserve the chronicles and annals of his reign I should compile a record such as would abrogate the verses of the Caesars and erase the as easy as resting at traditions of the Chosroes. the subjects and servants of his Court raised the throne of his pavilion to the Pleiades . and were themselves overthrown by the Arabs. 5 it is not hidden from the eloquent and the wise. When in this manner and wise I had beheld the magnificent .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of the north wind of his comprehensive equity perfumed the entire world and the sun of his royal favours illumined the whole of mankind. 5 I. But because of the fickleness of Fate. the and the accomplished. who overthrew the 5 . the toil of travel to whose august presence was home. some of my faithful friends and purehearted brethren.e. and the influence of the reeling heavens. each he lament for what was in my heart of us sure of his brother's lamenting. and the variance of the chameleon world. [3] suggested that in order to perpetuate the excellent deeds and to immortalize the glorious actions of the Lord of the Age. colleges of study have been and obliterated and seminaries of learning have vanished away the order of students has been trampled upon by events and crushed underfoot by treacherous Fate and deceitful Destiny. tasted the fatal potion and the hand and majesty blinded the eye of sedition. opponents. that the bloom and lustre of the face of literature and the brilliance and prosperity of scholars is due to the patrons of that art and the protectors of that Now learned craft Would that I knew whether I should ever see a man ! as a companion from whom fair praise was inseparable Then would I lament and and his heart. his severity and awful presence of him that bruiseth the lips and seareth the brows of illustrious kings. I should compose a history. and being subjected to dispersion and destruction they . they have been seized by all the vicissitudes of toils and tribulations. Parthians the Persian dynasty of the Sassanians (229-652).

meadow of the wise. because But in former days when the necklace of the empire of learning and the claimants thereto were strung together on one string When pleasure the vicissitudes was fresh and youth propitious. it And when a hero encounters death. a poet of the Hamasa. the location of desirable things and good works.Q. seems that but for 7 eulogy he might never have been torn. and they only are 6 7 Mutanabbi (M. it is well known and fully established that the endurance of good fame is the occasion of eternal life.) 6 .). earth. the spring-abode of the talented. would compile in verse and prose works concerning the kings of the age and the worthies of the era and would write books about them. was that sublime poets and eloquent writers. the earth hath been divested of the adornment of the presence of those clad in the gown of science and those decked in the jewels of learning and letters . the thoroughfare of the proficient and : the drinking-place of the ingenious the pearl-raining words of e the Prophet have a tradition on this subject Knowledge is a tree which hath its root in Mecca and leareth its fruit in Khorasan ') to-day.THE HISTORY OF and they have hidden have been exposed to flashing swords themselves behind the veil of the earth. For to the man of insight. But to-day the surface of the earth in general and the land of Khorasan in particular (which was the rising-place of felicities and charities.Q. All learning must now be sought beneath the all the learned are in the belly of the earth. (M. for memory of the hero is Us second 6 life. I say. the [4] Therefore It the rendezvous of the accomplished. and amongst of fortune men had no eye for thee the most learned In the world the sons of and the most excellent amongst Adam would direct their attention to the perpetuation of fair remembrance and the keeping alive of noble customs. Arabic and Persian. the fount of learned men. who with the eye of reflection considereth the end and conclusion of affairs. Yazid al-Harlthl. .

) one who warms himself*. the traces of right effaced and the foundation of nolle deeds is about to collapse.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR left of whom indeed it can be said e : But others have come in their place after their them who Imve made an end of prayer and have gone lusts. We have been plagued by successors who in their blindness used combs for their heels and towels for their combs. xix. every traitor a mighty lord and every valet a learned scholar.Q. and I am left amongst a posterity like the skin of a scatty man* My father the sahib-divan Baha-ad-Din Muhammad b. Huraith. every cruel man a carpet-spreader a person churl a chief. They consider the Uighur language and script to be the height of knowledge and learning. of consequence . Every market lounger in the garb of iniquity has become an emir every hireling has become a minister. 60. perhaps something like shivering wretch meant. And many people regarded it as a trade but I was restrained therefrom by my religion and my 1 office. every a deputy treasurer and every boor a minister of every rogue state . n a mustaufi and every spendthrift [5] an inspector . every stableboy the lord of dignity and honour and every . Rabfa al-AmM. 7 . (M. competent man. They regard lying and deception as exhortation and admonishment and all profligacy and slander bravery and courage. 10 Ba'ith b. is * * 9 Labld b. every nobody a somebody.Q. Muhammad Us al-Juvaini may the lofty tree of excellence continue green in resting-place and hath a qasida on of virtue continue to gaze upon Urn ! this subject of which the following are the first the eyes two lines: Have and truth have been pity on me. one ' 11 The text has mustoljf.) of the poets of the Hamasa. every much riches and every porter in every camel-driver elegant from of Fortune's aid.' 8 after own Those are departed under whose protection it was pleasant to live. every knave a vizier and every unfortunate a secretary . easy circumstances by reason 8 Koran. (M.

Q. for God hath sealed their harts '/ 4 and they deem vituperation and sottishness to be the consequences of a scatheless mind. the mighty are subservient to the base by compulsion and the dis- criminating are captive in the hands of the ignoble. no. one of the poets of the From a qasida by Abul-'Ala al-Ma'arri. which is the famine year of generosity and chivalry and the market day of error and ignorance. traditionists are the victims of calamities. more 12 like their to ascend the highest and explore the ( in accordance with the saying People are * age than their parents t in the flower of my youth.) .^ handed down of yore grown The noble and grief gave yielded themselves to chastisement and up their breasts to lamentation. Like the sea which drowneth every pearl and on which carrion Jloateth ever. From talented this it may be known what labours the wise and the must perform lowest scales. Or like the scales raise which lower everything of just measure and everything of light weight. / have seen the age which raises every base person and lowers every person of noble qualities . And 13 14 'Amr b. Hamasa. evil firmly established. xvi. the free are beggars and the liberal outcasts .Q.) Koran.THE HISTORY OF The such as were pedigrees of people cannot be compared with the pedigrees that have with the grass . (M. (M. In such an age. the ingenious are exposed to danger. the good are sorely the tried and in the performance of noble deeds the virtuous are twisted in the snare of tribulation. ignorant How in much did we yearn to praise that age ! when we were engaged blaming this 13 present age They up consider the breaking of wind and the boxing of ears to ' proceed from the kindness of their nature. from sorrow The back of learning was utterly broken that day when these ones leant their backs upon the cushion. the wise the prisoners of shackles and the perfect overtaken by disaster . the noble are portionless and the important of no account . al-Hudhail al-'Abdi. wicked and while the vicious and foolish attain the riches they desire .

strive to acquire knowledge. And now years. that discretion. My little son. i. hasten to gather the fruits of thy Hast thou not seen on the chessboard how a pawn. what is beyond the river '. and things have reached such a pitch that Seven have been joined unto twenty of hath abstained from excess. the territory west of the Oxus. is the halter of the frenzy which is the bridle of the impetuosity of youths. as I have several times visited Transoxiana 15 In * Arabic Ma wara-an-nahr. the presentday Uzbekistan and South Kazakhstan with parts of Tajikistan and Kirghizia. it is my years and discretion idle to regret it is profitless to and lament the waste of the days of study just bemoan and bewail the days of idleness. hath gained the upper hand. Transoxiana of course. which young men. I complied with the words of cay contemporaries and coevals. and in the management of affairs and the transaction of business neglected the acquisition of knowledge and heeded not the advice of my father (may God lengthen his and place a wall between him and misfortunes /). if it bestirs itself in its journeyings. However Well-wishers give advice but it is only the fortunate who take it. becomes a queen ? edifices Our illustrious ancestors have founded us lofty If we strengthen them not with our labours. of a surety these edifices will collapse. 9 . and ! as Alas that the years should have passed so suddenly this life dear as my there soul should have passed thirty What pleasure is now ? And a if there be pleasure.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR which should be the season for laying the foundations of virtues and accomplishments. lit. is hundred goblets for a loaf when the wedding-feast over! 15 Nevertheless. the present-day Turkmenistan). hath made its of and advancement of appearance. who were the brethren of devils [6] and before I was twenty years of age I was employed on the work of the Divan. corresponded more or less to the later Russian Turkestan (excluding. advice which life is the jewel of the unadorned and the exemplar of the wise : desires.e.

which is a definite complying command. 9). Otherwise it is difficult to understand why the author in the fath-nama he composed on the capture of Alamut (see below.e. i. 631) should f refer to Juvamfs History of the World-Conqueror '. since for ten years I . I could not refuse and held it necessary to carry out the behest of dear ones. they cover the feebleness and my language and style with the train of forgiveness have set and 16 cancellation. and have observed certain the site circumstances and have heard from certain creditable and trust- and as I saw no escape from worthy persons of bygone events with the suggestion of friends. my *. According to Ramstedt and Pelliot it means Oceanic * Khan *. The title assumed by the Mongol chieftain Temiijin. Ibn-Battuta. et la Papauti [23]. deficiency of by way of kindness.e.e. which is to the confines of Machin 17 [7] and farthest of the throne of the kingdom and the abode of the race of Chingiz-Khan's 18 posterity and the middle bead of the necklace of their empire.^ may the evil eye the courtyard of their glory and may the be far removed from edifices of nobleness and sublimity be constructed with their being ! men of learning and beneficence that.THE HISTORY OF and Turkestan 16 China.Q. i. ii.) IO . followers . the Manji of Marco Polo. sea *. the land of the Turks to the east of Transoxiana. 3. 20 From a poem in the Hamasa by an unknown author. Universal Ruler *. f n. Chinggis. I therefore reduced to writing all that was confirmed and verified and called the whole of these narra. and I was a leader without was emptied. Southern China. Les Mongols (loc. And my It befitteth it was part of my misery that I was alone in leadership. tions Juv ami's History of The land the World-Conqueror. The normal spelling of the name in English (Genghis Khan) and French (GengisKhan) appears to be due to the example set by Voltaire. and not simply The History of full title the World-Conqueror. p. viz. i. foot in foreign lands and have eschewed study * and the leaves is of the sciences meant the Turkish By Turkestan. It is based n. form Tengiz-Khan. ultimately on the spelling of the name in the Arabic script. actually uses the pronunciation. * See below. Machin. called also Manzi. 35. VII. 19 This. appears to be the of the work. See Gibbon. chingiz being a palatalized form of the Turkish * CNGZ XAN. tmgiz (tangiz) See Pelliot. (M. The Cyngis of Carpini and the Chingis of Rubruck represent the native Mongol as Pelliot points out dt. 4. and Mongol 17 18 territories Turkistan.

my dance is Question not to my my or my rhetoric. viz. with the eye of rancour and envy. I gain nothing and lose nothing if he reflect upon these discourses styles [?] .) II . One of the lines by 'Abdallah b. See the Kttab-d-Agharii. AbuTalib in which he reproaches his friend Husain b. 76. *Ubaidallah b. which occasioneth [8] and causeth faults. announced in various and compositions. (M. and giveth rise to vices and defects.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR have become ' woven over by the spider erased from the page of the mind * and the pictures thereof Like the writing writ upon the surface of the water . whereof the and if he origin is baseness of mind and meanness of nature not with the regard of complaisance and loyalty. 'Abdallah b. but if he consider these matters honestly and sincerely as one that taketh the middle course thereof Provided I ' for the lest of things is the middle am content to hear the burden of love and h and are 21 22 saved therefrom.Q. 72. 'Abdallah b. irregularity in ability my : style. xxv. with dignity . understanding times. verily my the tune of the And the if in the regions ' of excess and deficiency let I have trodden pathway of latitude. verse. if a keen-sighted man of pure and moderate. f 3 wherefrom no man remaineth exempt. J them be pleased to consider the force of the And when they pass by frivolous sport they pass on purpose of recounting these tales and declaring and delineating the shape of events compriseth two objects. Mu'awiya b. which gaze seeth misdemeanours in a fair light and holdeth sackcloth for is fair . who brocade The eye of contentment is Hind to every defect. XI. and that they lay not the finger of criticism upon the false steps. for every courser stumMeth . If thou perceivest calligraphy. look not upon these matters nature. for the 21 As for the spiritual advantage. lut the eye of anger giveth rise to faults aa . Ja'far b. which then the veil of doubt and Koran. the achievement of spiritual and temporal advantage. Abbas.

for thee there this curtain. 12 . Koran. 213. the Sage hath created nothing vain In the world whatever whatever is is gone and whatever is to come and must be so. tale in rhymed prose. appeareth in this world of growth and decay is dependent upon the decree of a powerful Sage and hingeth upon the will of an absolute Potentate.THE HISTORY OF suspicion lifted and from his his sight. 24 The I. ii. Whose deeds are the rule of wisdom the prerequisite of excellence and justice . the 26 maqaw. vii. a kind of picaresque 125. no way through But whatever can be reached through reason or tradition and is not remote from the imagination and understanding is limited 23 Koran.e. the covering of mistrust and uncertainty will be and it will not remain concealed and hidden heart that whatever from mind and of good or evil. And God "for Badi of in c Hamadan God's . of weal or woe. 25 saith in one ' treatise : His mil and pie not with to 26 Him in multitude in Oppose not His own land . it God Almighty you! 23 bath said: Haply ye 24 love a thing though : le bad for And Master Sana'i Take saith either hope or fear. Thy soul is is ignorant of this secret. celebrated mystic poet who flourished in the first half of the twelfth century. 25 Badi*-az~Zarnan (fiooy). and when such events occur as the devastation of countries and the scattering of peoples through the adversity of the good and the triumph of and the evil there are wise saws rolled f up inside them. doth the earth is it such of His servants as He pleaseth has the He give as a heritage "! is secret is Whatever a sea into which no man know- ledge or the wisdom to plunge : what people can fly over that horizon or what understanding or imagination can pass through that valley ? Whence am For none [9] I 2 whence the word of the secret of the kingdom ? knotveth the Uftden save only Got. an Arabic writer and the creator of a new literary genre.

believers in the one God have bent their steps thitherwards and this reason the candle of the Faith reached the farthest countries of the East. Man) 29 I. Merv. and the kingdom of my people shall reach what was allotted to me thereof should come to pass in the appearance of a strange army ? for the abundance of the lights of the sunbeams seems no more strange than dampness from water or heat from fire. and : First. (see below. We For did not die until through jugglery we saw the dawn at midnight. miracle than that after six hundred ' And odd the tradition The earth was allotted to can there be a greater years the fulfilment of me and I was shown the East and the West thereof.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR to two kinds : Prophecy. and keepers of animals and many who from the farthermost West. that their numbers are computation. Herat and Nishapur eastern Persia. Khorasan was then much larger than the present-day province of northOf its four great cities of Balkh. and reared the The names of two goddesses worshipped by the ancient Arabs.e. and built mansions and castles. theology. and their settled. whose ears had not been charmed by the sound of the takbir and the azan and whose soil had not been trodden save by the unclean feet of the wor27 whereas to-day so many shippers of al-Lat and al-'Uzza. visiting every region and every city. Banner of Islam is raised higher and the lit brighter . Merv (the modern is still in Persian territory. and the sun of the creed of Mohammed casts its shadow over countries whose nostrils had not been perfumed by the scent of Islam. p. 28 27 13 . Arab Iraq or Lower Mesopotamia and Persian 'Iraq or Central Persia. but every light that shineth because of the darkness is exceeding marvellous and wonderful. the manifestation of the miracle of the secondly. and made homes there. acquiring fame and seeing strange sights. and have cast away the staff of travel in those regions and decided to abide there. from the two Iraqs. 29 from Syria and the other lands of Islam have wandered in the way of trade and commerce. and have settled down. Some are those of Transoxiana and Khorasan as craftsmen who 28 at the beyond time of the conquest are those calculation or were driven thither in the levy . 151) only the last is in Turkmenistan and Balkh and Herat in Afghanistan.

related to this age and to those who into the of the polytheists.THE HISTORY OF cells schools.e. and others. and it is believed by the amongst 31 the idolaters (whom in their they call toyiri) that before the settlement own language of the Moslems and the performance of the takUr and the iqamat (may God maintain and perpetuate them /) the idols used to converse with them f ' the Satans will indeed suggest to their votaries (to wrangle with you) 32 but because of the inauspiciousness of the coming of the Moslems they have grown angry with them and will not say a word be. tao<j$ttf lit* man Way '. it seeth from the multitude of believers in the One God a vast city and in the midst of the darkness a bright light ascetic order . Buddhist priests. a place where in every moment without difficulty the eye begins to see the beloved. the divs begin to flee conies to from every region. 30 Koran. and established where the learned teach and instruct and the acquirers ' of learning profit thereby 3 : it is as though the tradition : Seek knowledge even in China live in this present era. as is the nature of the sunbeams. some have fallen hands of the Moslems in the baseness of servitude and have attained the dignity [10] of Islam. 14 . 33 IM. ii. wherever the eye roameth. 69. falsehood a thing that vanished) *. which appear in the rocks and through which lustrous jewels are made manifest. 83 Wherever the lights of the power of truth shine forth the darkness of infidelity and iniquity is dis- truth is come and falsehood is vanished persed and destroyed like the mist of the sun. vi 121. xvii. 83. which resisteth not the elevation When Man the dawn of the power of truth begins to blow. for ' God hath sealed up their mouths! And : indeed so it must * is verily. of Islam over against the houses of idols. 31 I. And because of the auspiciousness of the blessings of the people of the faith. when the ray of the lights of true guidance had influenced the stony heart as for the children And of the quality of "They are like rocks or harder still V have acquired the glory of the faith. * The Turkish word of the toyfa is a borrowing from the Chinese 82 Koran. the Tuini of Rubruck.

Hi. And of those endued with insight they have received a warning and an admonishment.. [n] As for the temporal advantage.THE WORLD. and the heart which tbou didst frighten was thy panegyrist. it is that whoever peruses as for the survivors these discourses and traditions (which are free from the semblance of boasting and the suspicion of lying. nay they are alive with their Lord'. JWi. by the flashing sabre * of the sword is the eraser of sins they have been rendered heavy of scale and light of weight from the burden of the loads and the load of the burdens which they had acquired in a life of perfect ' security and f ease and repute not those slain in God's path to fa dead . will take for the commandment of the Lord: pattern and exemplar 35 It is not yourselves with your own hands into win! And throw that whoever yields and the yasa and custom of the Mongols submits to them is safe and free from the terror and disgrace of their severity. . They have exempted the most learned of every religion from every kind and dispensed 85 #. such a man. peace I) 3 a people that have no share of good fortune.CONQUEROR As which for those who after the dignity have attained to the degree of martyrdom. tte : God shall assert religion 163. of Prophecy is the most excellent and of degrees in the Court of Glory. Moreover. I say. 19*.** And the ttood which tbou didst cause to flow In thyself was glorious. the the saying of Mohammed this whom Verily. ii. they oppose no ? faith or religion how (upon through can one speak of opposition proof of which assertion ' is rather they encourage them. for what room is there for untruth seeing that these tales are too clear mortal man to and manifest make a mistake regarding them ? for Perchance until the day of judgement these words shall not grow old amongst the wise) and discovers the Mongol whatever they his ' therein the parables of the strength and might of army and the agreement of Fate and Destiny with set their hands to.

hath been joined to worldly power followers and adherents. the pride of riches and the arrogance of prosperity from carrying out the commandments of God (glorious is His power and exalted instigated thereby to set their hands to sin because he seeth himself possessed of riches His word !) and have been impelled and f verily. Let as they let you and place their lives prowess and property in the stronghold of immunity and the asylum of security for [12] God guideth whom He pleaseth into the straight for they are endued with terrible ' . in whom . and none may speak amiss of them. 38 path/ Since in every age and century men have been prevented by the petulance of wealth. 36 I. and the reign of the Emperor Mengii Qa'an. and horsemen and the dignity of Islam so many of their now that the Piebald Horse of the Days : thighs of their ' command. in the age of Noah in the age (upon whom be peace /) there was a general deluge hath been meted out . 63. lean thou 37 and should ' : yield and submit . 209. and Turks be as long ' desist from rebellion and fiowardness the Shari'at in accordance with the words of the the Lord of be. 6-7.THE HISTORY OF of occasional tax 9 (*avarizat) and from the inconvenience of contributions (mu an). World. particularly the imams of the faith of Mohammed.e. 38 IUI. the ii. and as a warning to those endued with insight a calamity or castigation hath overtaken them in accordance with their sins and misdemeanours. when especially now in are several princes of the family (urugh) of Chingiz-Khan. there his children and grandchildren. 16 . xcvi. that men f And if they commandment of the Lord also to it . viii. Itii. man is insolent * 39 therefore for the admonishment and chastisement of every people a punishment fitting to their rebellion and in proportion to their infidelity. their pious foundations and bequests for the public use and their husbandmen and ploughmen have also been recognized as immune. In view of the foregoing it is necessary on the grounds of reason. 37 39 Koran. tame between the should comply with the is 36 lean to peace. Thus. their servants have been with the jewel of the glory of the faith decorated and adorned that their numbers are beyond calculation or computation.

' (M. And I asked Him not to put their fane And Gabriel told me that the me. people. the common What is restrained by whose feet are bound with u would have their hands freed. 65. the when he comes to the following verse in the sura of the It is He who hath power to send on you a punishment Say : from above you' of God (God quotes these words of the Prophet ' I asked God not to send upon Mess him and give him peace /) . 1 And when the time caoie hath been recorded in the Qisas^ for the reign of the Seal of the Prophets (for whom let there be the most excellent of devout prayers!). the of Thalabi.e. were to remain in abeyance and men were content with that which is promised in the next world everything would be confused. (Koran.) e 41 I. vi. or from beneath their feet. 40 This is apparently a mistake for Hud. amongst them. (Hid. Zamakhshari.e. ' the source Cattle : The learned Jarallah 42 in his commentary. is one of the best known com- mentaries 48 44 on the Koran.. 63. which is the immediate menace. 71.Q. Qfeaf-d-AntiyS or Tale* of the Prophets 42 I. and essential that if the threat of view of reason it is necessary destruction 3 of the sword.) 17 .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of as the and in the punishment of the people of *Ad same way every nation hath undergone punishments such metamorphoses. the name of a prophet who was sent to warn the Arabian people of 'Ad. ( A reference to the well known who Koran. he besought offered up the Lord of Majesty and Glory to grant that all the different punishments and calamities which He had sent to every nation on account of their disobedience might be remitted in the case of his own nation and this honour hath been for his nation of their other excellencies but not as regards the punishment of the sword. Ixxxyii. 43 from above them. the nobles would authority \ remain in the corner of calamity and the nook of tribulation . And He granted it unto me. whose work. the Kashshaf. as Thamud/ .) Thamud was the name of another people to whom a prophet called Salih was sent. baliih : Those who are restrained by authority are more than those are restrained by the Koran. and He prevented my nation a punishment And from the point of my nation would be by the sword. Kashshaf. concerning which his prayer attained not the manifestation of acceptance and hit not the target of admission. plagues of noxious creatures and the like.

xi. ' and when they die they wake and recover from the drunkenness 45 *7 Ibid. whatever befalleth was the will of God (holy are His names /) that these people e should be roused from the slumber of neglect Men are asleep. for without this instrument the gates of justice [13] and equity.Q. whispering of Satan love O f off by the coquetry of the beloved. 12.. JiE. life can one spend one's this ? In a show justice way more wretched than : Except those who believe and do and few indeed are they '.THE HISTORY OF and some of wherein resideth the advantages of 'And dire evil. 25. which have been opened and flung wide 5 would be by 'And we have sent down the book and the balance V bolted and barred and the order of men's affairs would of a sudden be deranged. xxxviii. 48 the things that are good and right . 119. 46 48 Hid. God will not change 46 His it gifts is to men. And from this it is clear. 49 Mutanabbi. they change what is in themselves* And f : glorious cities Word the when stated without ambiguity in His Lord was not one who would destroy the thy inhabitants were righteous?*' The whisperings of And 7 Satan drove them far from the path of rectitude and the highway was borne off by the came and reason was borne of righteousness. well as advantage. to men 45 would be rendered null and void. Koran. And when a period years had to all creation an abundance Prophet of desires were the cause of rebellion of hundred odd passed since the mission of His of wealth and a superfluity and estrangement: till ' verily . (M.) 18 . 23. And how many the crimes have "been committed ly fools and ! punishment has fallen on the innocent 49 To us It complain of fate is useless. xiii. Ivii. and the darkness of doubt arises.. is our own doing. Infidelity came and religion . as we have sent ' down iron. thou who art Ignorant of the latter end. that whatever was predestined in the beginning of time is for the benefit of the servants of God (glorious is His power and six universal His dominion /).

xxxv. though their stations be widely different. Fortune seeketh him and neither abundance of gear nor excess of accoutrement can save the unfortunate one from losing even that which he hath. (M. and then by means of praiseworthy qualities and laudable properties bring into a position of equilibrium . yet neither scarcity of equipment nor feebleness of condition prevents the fortunate Whoever hath been man from attaining his goal prepared for Fortune. God knoweth end Verily. service bird of good omen. understandeth/ 50 which He administereth according to the time ' and in agreement with nature. that the miracle of the faith of Mohammed should come to pass as the culmination thereof. Ascribed by 'Aufi in his Jawamr-al-HMyat to a secretary in the Malik-Shah called Muzaffar Khamaj. ments and constitutions of His servants and [14] understandeth the use of drugs. and ruthlessness. OF THE CONDITION OF THE MONGOLS BEFORE THE TIME OF CHINGIZ-KHAN*S RISE TO POWER WHEN the phoenix (huma) 1 roof of one man its abode. just as a skilful healer in dispelling base diseases maketh use of scammony in his purgatives seeth fit to apply correctives.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and of ignorance and so be a warning to their posterity and children . the one in the zenith of good fortune and the other in the nadir of abasement. and of prosperity wishes to make the the owl of misfortune to haunt the threshold of another. and vengeance. though he seek her not. so that the constitution be not wholly turned aside from its original state and utterly changed.Q. 28. and dispelleth the humours in accordance with it and then nature and the Greatest Physician is well aware of the tempera. and daring. and that He should prepare a certain person. is actually the Lammergeyer.) 2 1 The htmat a of E 19 . 50 Koran. something of which has been mentioned in the foregoing. and make his nature the receptacle of all manner of power.

. he failetb \ For if and might. 'And that was easy Fate has shown herself becoming princes 3 unto God/ Upon a crown of honour that adorneth on the foot of a freeman a chain of shame that him. 'whilst the Emperor Frederick II in a letter to Henry III of Engknd QUl. then would power the houses of former kings to another . xk) expresses * * the hope that the Tartars will be driven finally down into their Tartarus/ 20 . of the Tartars . 8 Koran.THE HISTORY OF 'Exertion unaided by fortune is illusive! Nor may the counsel of ' man lay the hand of protection upon his brow . [15] prisoners and princes prisoners. faileth. and neither the multitude of their troops nor the strength of their resistance was of any of this there is still clearer proof and plainer evidence avail. iv. nor per- severance nor counsel could aid them . and wealth. and the bead of a slave dtsfigureth him. This comthe name Tatar was due to the importance assumed by that prehensive use of the See Vkdimirtsov. in what manner and how the world was stirred up by them. This term in Juvaini (as the Arabic equivalent Tatar in to Ibn-al-Athir and Nasawi) always refers to the Mongols in general and never the original Tatar. 4 and their origin and birthplace. ro-ii. months both in length and breadth. 19 and 20. so that they are rightly called Tartari or Tartarians. rivers drum of and how desire found themselves before position they the greatness of Chingiz-Khan and his flow in the to-day the waters of prosperity and the army of affliction and sorrow has fallen upon the stations and relays of opponents and insurgents. craft. 4 In Persian Tatar. In Europe people in the I2th century. kind to that people. 34 and 167 . Gengis-Khan. a tribe to the south-east of the Mongols proper. which same were mighty Chosroes and illustrious kings and of their . and affluence could accomplish and empire never have passed from aught. be prospered. neither craft. when one considers in what circumstances and they beat the posterity. but when be and when he pmperetk. word was associated with Tartarus or Tartara and Matthew of Paris (JRockhill. And in the instance of the Mongol people. poured forth like devils xv) tells how the countless army from the Tartarus. and xxxiii. but when the time of the decline of their fortunes was arrived. . In the east it marches The home of the Tartars. is whose area is a journey of seven or eight an immense valley.

See Grousset. Their clothing was of the skins of dogs and mice. p. that the second variety by the conditions under which it grows *. immorality and debauchery (foq va fujur) as deeds of manliness and excellence. which are so barren that herbage of no kind will grow on them '. the Siberian Cedar (Pirns cembra). The Tangut were a people of Tibetan origin who had founded a kingdom in see Grousset.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR with the land of Khitai. suggested in a letter dated the * is simply a form of the first dwarfed As for the pignons. 172-8. I. whom I am 17th February. North-Western China. which I take to be identical with the qusuq of Kashghari. Kashghari's Arabic equivalent is jillwz. The Selenga. The Khan of Khitai used to demand seize goods from them. their wine was mares' milk and their and dessert the fruit 10 5 6 of a tree shaped and besides which no like the pine. 1954. which is translated by Brockelmann and * ' Atalay as hazelnut : in actual fact. period the Uighur Turks had ruled in Mongolia itself but they then been expelled by the Kirghiz and had settled in the various oases to earlier the north of the Tarim. * IV. Northern China. as was already suggested by Marquart. Dr. 10 QSWQ. 89-90. in the north with the Qirqiz and the river Selengei and in the south with the Tangut 9 and the Tibetans. 55. According to Loudon. 2274 & se & tnere are tw '. 233-6. it is simply the Arabicized ' * chilghuza pignon '. fruit of the edible pine '. the Kirghiz Turks. 490. they were not united with one another. which they call other fruit-bearing tree will grow Marco At an had 7 Polo's Cathay. which covers rocky moun- O. who at that time inhabited the region of the Upper Yenisei. The qusuq_ * again in Chapter VII. varieties of this tree. they are to-day a favourite delicacy of the Russians. gives an amusing account of the vast consumption of these nuts on the Trans-Siberian Railway 21 . of the Department of Botany in the University of Manchester. Arboretum et Fruttcetum Britannicum. Turner. indebted for the above reference. where it is described as a tree shaped like a pine whose leaves in winter resemble those of a cypress and whose fruit is like a pignon (chilghuza) both in shape and taste '. On their destruction by Chingiz-Khan Le Congulrant du Monde.e. Siberia. 8 9 SLNKAY. Some of them regarded robbery and violence. to tains W. L*Empire des Steppes. sibirica. as was pointed out to me by Professor Henning form of the Persian tree is referred to in a letter dated the I4th October. and there was constant fighting and hostility between them. 1954. It is in fact. Howarth. Before the appearance of Chingiz-Khan they ruler. 5 in the west with the country of the 6 7 8 Uighur. &uwayni*s Bericht utter die Bekehmng der Uighuren. Each tribe or two tribes lived separately had no chief or .e. a lofty tree not found beyond the Lena and pygmaea. i. and their food was the flesh of those animals and other dead things .

their victuals. on account of is nothing else of a great emir amongst them was that sign his stirrups were of iron . ' and fruits of the sort which they shall choose V 1 and their drink (pure wine) sealed . lessly felled by greedy collectors. much cheapened [16] that were the former taken back to the mine or quarry they would sell there for more than double the price. the seal 12 so it has come to pass that the whereof shall fa musk *. are ruthOne family will gather as much as 10 cwt. for all the merpresent chandise that is brought from the West is borne unto them. a cwt. or by shaking the trees. thousand tons are collected in a good season. while. from the desert of poverty into a palace of delight and their raiment from abiding torment into reposeful pleasances ' The flesh of of silk and brocade. Tomsk being the principal market for their sale. abundant.e. to 15*. in remote spots. of nuts in one day during the season. there where. The privation and misfortune until the banner of Chingiz-Khan's fortune was raised and they issued forth from the straits of hardship into the amplitude of well-being. from which one can form a picture of their other luxuries. coals to Newcastle. and their beverages flow like the River Oxus. world is the paradise of that people . while to take fabrics thither is as to bear fabrics have been so to a present of carraway-seeds to Kerman or an offering of water Oman. 22 . And bound in the farthest East is untied in their and purses are filled from their treasuries. 5 and 6. Ivi.' Turner is of course describing conditions IQS. and ends about at the 11 Koran. 13 Moreover. and in the mountainous localities of the Kuznetsk From five to six districts. and their everyday garments are studded with jewels and embroidered and in the markets of their residences gems and with gold and that . Ixxxiii. centuries old. from a prison into a garden. 21 and 20 (in that order). huge trees. 12 Koran. the nuts being sold wholesale at The harvest in the forest begins about the loth of August the middle of September. And they continued in this indigence. which is houses wallets . The cones are obtained by climbing. be found. turn of the century.THE HISTORY OF In that region to : it grows [even] on some of the mountains. the excessive cold. birds of the kind which they shall desire. their food and fruit being . everyone of them has laid out fields and are everywhere appointed husbandmen. and goes on * to say that they are obtained in the northern parts of the Governments of Tomsk and Mariinsk. 13 I. too.

15 I. the May God Almighty grant his posterity. 37~45- . $Ort 8. as Pelliot has TP. round about seventy-five which is two thirds. the Turkish name for these ingots. could not [previously] afford to make himself a cotton their and And whoever bed will trade with silver lalkb them 14 for fifty at a time. who is a most wise and just monarch. See chapter has been translated There is sostave velikoy yasi Cbtngfs. 190-2. And as for the other tribes their affairs also have been well ordered destiny firmly established.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Through the splendour of the daily increasing fortune and under the shadow of the august majesty of Chingiz-Khan and his descendants the circumstances of the Mongols have risen from such penury and indigence to such abundance and affluence. 1930. and 1936.e. It is the iascot of Rubruck. and in particular countless Mengii Qa'an.e. English O 1939. thousand or thirty thousand gold or Now the Misb is worth fifty misqals of lB mkni gold or silver. so that all that has been recorded touching the practice of the mighty Chosroes of old and all that has been written the Pharaohs and Caesars concerning the customs and usages of from the page of his own mind was by Chingiz-Khan invented 14 An ingot of gold or silver. 80. also an G. yastuq. Amides de I'lnstifat Kondakov. 1939translation by Professor Vernadsky in. shown. yastuq. Brussels. xi. He uphold his in the pursuit of a prosperous life may years . like the Persian falisb. 156) ' ' was a piece of silver weighing ten marks .khana. standard of dinars. he does not seem to have known of the gold lalish. which. An iascot according to Rubruck (Rockhill. by some ruler called 1 This into Russian by Professor Minorsky. struck Rukn-ad-Din. clemency towards mankind ! OF THE LAWS WHICH CHINGIZ-KHAN FRAMED AND THE YASAS WHICH HE PROMULGATED AFTER HIS RISE TO POWER 1 GOD Almighty in wisdom and intelligence distinguished and Chingiz-Khan from all his coevals and in alertness of mind above all the kings of the absoluteness of power exalted him world . Horde i. is a misreading of *ia$toc. means literally 'cushion*. Vernadsky.

he utterly destroyed. and power. children. and the kings and nobles of every country by reason of the arrogance of pride and the insolence of vainglory ' had reached the very zenith of Vainglory is my tunic. whereof each was the faghfur 2 of the time and the Chosroes of the age. who was so addicted to the devising of talismans and the solving of enigmas. with few troops and no accoutrement. and of the cities and countries of the world * The one of the 3 Facfur of Marco Polo. with tradition of perusing records or the trouble of conforming while all that pertains to the method of sub- jugating countries and relates to the crushing of the power of enemies and the raising of the station of followers was the product of his lect. a single man. the Persian translation titles of the Emperor of China. and reduced and subjugated the lords of the horizons from the East unto the West . armies. and of [17] all the talismans for the taking of strongholds he would have found none better than blindly to follow in his footsteps : whereof there can be no clearer proof nor more certain evidence than that having such numerous and powerful foes and such mighty and well-accoutred enemies. 24 . lands and : There has been transmitted to us a tradition of the < traditions of God which says Those are my horsemen . together with all his followers. endow Chingiz-Khan with the strength of might and ' the victory of dominion Verilyf the might of the Lord is great indeed 3 '. through territories. Alexander. would have been his pupil in craft and cunning. son of God ') of Koran. Ixx. then did God.THE HISTORY OF without the toil . had he lived in the age of Chingiz-Khan. And so it was that when the world by reason of the variety of its creatures was become a raging sea. (lit. that man. partisans. he sallied forth. own And understanding and the compilation of his own intelindeed. and whoever presumed to oppose and resist him. station the greater part 2 and when through pride of wealth. in enforcement of the yasas and ordinances which he imposed. 12. and pride my cloak '. in accordance with the above-mentioned promise. them shall I avenge me on those that rebelled against me' nor is there a shadow of doubt but that these words are a reference to the horsemen of Chingiz-Khan and to his people.

when the were united to him. or a great army is mobilized. whereof mention has resistance. then wherever there was a king. and that these These yasas and ordinances should be written down on rolls. as a proof of which statement may be cited the fate of the various cities. as . he abolished reprehensible first customs which had been practised by those peoples and had enjoyed recognition amongst them . what know we write thus tion or violent threats. or a ruler. In the messages which he sent in all directions calling on the peoples to yield him allegiance. would * If ye submit not. who used to menace their enemies with the size of their territory and the magnitude of their equipment and supplies the Mongols. : . while for every crime he fixed a penalty. Wherever a khan [18] ascends the throne. And since the Tartar peoples had no script of their own. or the governor of a city that offered him the him he annihilated together with his family and kinsmen and strangers so that where there had been a hundred thousand people there remained. In accordance and agreement with his own mind he established a rule for every occasion and a regulation for every circumstance . There many of these ordinances that are in conformity with the Shari'at. and established such usages as are were praiseworthy from the point of view of reason. he never had recourse to intimida- was the custom with the tyrant kings of old. been made in the proper place. nor surrender. followers. or the princes assemble and begin rolls are called [to consult together] concerning affairs of state and the adminis- tration thereof they thereon. the Great Book of Yasas and are kept in the treasury of the chief princes. without exaggeration. as their uttermost warning. tribes At the time of the Mongol beginnings of his dominion. truction produce these rolls and model their actions and proceed with the disposition of armies or the desof provinces and cities in the manner therein prescribed.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR encountered him with rebellion and hatred and countries refused to yield of Islam* from the allegiance (and especially frontiers of Turkestan to uttermost Syria). on the contrary. not a hundred souls alive . . he gave orders that Mongol children should learn writing from the Uighur .

lit. But though they have adopted some religion they still for the most part avoid all show of fanaticism and do not swerve from the yasa of Chingiz-Khan. but these are now a minority. op. others selecting idolatry and others again cleaving to the ancient canon of their fathers and forefathers and inclining in no direction.THE HISTORY OF thereof? The Ancient God. several of them have chosen a religion according to their inclination.. Being the adherent of no religion and the follower of no creed. namely. and preoccupation with titles. As for his children and grandchildren. Dei stabile et illius qui faciem Deus scit. dt. He knoweth/ 4 If one reflects upon them f their signification. Ixv. others embracing Christianity. and excessive aloofness and inaccessibility . that of Khan or Qa'an. while the other sons letter to 6 and his brothers are addressed ma 4 Cf. t [168]. * Koran. rather he honoured and respected the learned and pious of every sect. like the Turkish ' ogbul and the Mongol kotetin. ix. [one sees that] these are the God Almighty that put their trust in words of hath said 3 God And for him tbatputteib his trust in Him God mil fa all-sufficient 5 so that of necessity such a one obtains whatever he has borne in his heart and yearned after. Christians It is one of their laudable customs that they have closed the doors of ceremony. some adopting Islam. va agav dtgar kunad \kunif\ And et if ye do otherwise. which things the fortunate and the mighty. [i<5]. and the preference of one faith to another. (Pelliot. recognizing such he eschewed bigotry. and the placing of some above others . prince*. Lc. to consider all sects as one and not to distinguish them from [19] one another.* to the 5 6 Les Mongols et si k Papaute Cf.) what know we letter ? God knoweth. too the of Baichu totius terre continet Pope non . conduct as the way to the Court of God. For this use of the Persian pkar. [128]). and attains his every wish.* (Itift. the ending of Giiyuk's * cbi damm khudai danad. 26 . . tu preceptum audieris illud nos nescimus 3. son *. so also did he hold the and idolaters in high esteem. also Pelliot. c : Innocent IV.Q. When are customary with one of them ascends the throne of the Khanate. than which nothing more is written [in official documents] . . And as he viewed the Moslems with the eye of respect. in the sense of* prince of the blood see M. II. he receives one additional name..

as well as provisions of For a month. he issues orders that the troops stationed around his headquarters and in the neighbourhood of the or&us shall make preparations for the chase. II. also Friar Odoric's account of Khan's great hunting matches '. paid great attention to the chase and used to say that the hunting of wild beasts was a proper occupation for the com- He manders of armies and that instruction and training therein was incumbent on warriors and men-at-arms.* 27 . And when they are not engaged in warfare. how they hunt it. making no difference between Sultan and commoner . 234-6. they gather together in a great multitude and surround the district in which they know the game to be. they first send out scouts to ascertain what kinds of game are available and whether it is . 7 Ladies (khavatin) and the concubines. not for the sake of the game alone. scarce or abundant. and gradually they come closer to each other till they have lattues : with among them as in an enclosure. and they set out together with the Royal food and drink.) Cf. but also in order that they familiarized with the handling of the bow and the endurance of hardships. and then they shoot them * the (Rockhill. avoiding all superfluous titles and formulas. shut up the game in their arrows. For when the Mongols wish to go a-hunting. mounting several men from each company often in accordance with instructions and distributing such equipment in the way of arms and other matters as are The right suitable for the locality where it is desired to hunt. and write only the gist of the matter in hand. up to the great emirs. or three they form a Rubruck speaks of these * When they want to chase wild animals. and entrusted left wing and centre of the army are drawn wing. And write only the simple name. in what manner they array themselves and after what fashion they surround it according as the party is great or small. Cathay and the Way Thither. or two. [who should learn] how the huntsmen come up with the quarry. may become accustomed and inured to they are ever eager for the chase and encourage their armies thus to occupy themselves . Whenever the Khan sets out on the hunting and great hunt 7 (which takes place at the beginning of the winter season). Yule.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR by the name they were given at birth. and this applies both to commoners and to the likewise in directing their correspondence they nobility. both in their presence and in their absence . 71.

they dismount upon high ground in the centre of the mrge to after watch the princes likewise entering the ring. Several days pass in this troops. Thereupon they collect together all the game that they have bagged. wolves intimate with hares. and dispatch messages to the Khan to inform him of the condition of the its it quarry. a minute inquiry is made into the cause and reason. Ixxxi. and often even put to death. contracted to a diameter of ropes together and to a halt all around ring is now filled come the ring. any game should break through. 28 . And if. and the commanders of thousands. standing shoulder to shoulder. taking care [20] lest any escape from the ring. by day and by night. then. the ring has been so much con- When tracted that the wild beasts are unable to stir. whither it has come and from bind whence has been started. unexpectedly. is left manner . they cast felts over them . offer up for his well-being and intercede for the lives of the remainprayers ing animals asking that they be suffered to depart to some place nearer to grass and water. the commanders and the them. 8 old men and Koran. they drive the game in this manner. and in due order. first the Khan rides in together with some of his retinue .THE HISTORY OF hunting ring and drive the game slowly and gradually before them. scarcity or plenty. hundreds and tens are clubbed therefor. like a flock of sheep. humbly approach the Khan. And if (for example) a man does not keep to the line (which they call nerge) but takes a step forwards or backwards. 5. For two or three months. then. The with the cries and commotion of every manner Finally. severe punishment is dealt out to him and is never remitted. while the troops when the ring has been two of game and the roaring and tumult of every kind of ferocious ' beast all thinking that the appointed hour of And when the . or three parasangs. and if the enumeration of every species of animal proves impracticable they count only the beasts of prey and the wild asses. the noyans. after he has wearied of the sport. mid * leasts shall le gathered together 8 is come . when nothing of the game but a few wounded and emaciated greybeards stragglers. lions becoming familiar with wild asses. hyaenas friendly with foxes.

any of the kings that were lords of the nations ever attained like the army of the Tartars. Lesser Keiken. Horde d'Or. e possible identity with the Equius of Rubruck. In the region of Almaligh 10 and Quyas u Chaghatai constructed a hunting ground in the very same manner. 152. 11 cit. Pelliot. 185. in the city of Armalec in the Middle Empire of Tartary '. 139). was situated in Semirechye. set free . 2. in order to view the scene. and gates set into it so that much game might enter it from a great distance and they might hunt it after the manner described.e. according to Kashghari. 76. all that is left With of Adam regard to the organization of their army. Hudud. a goodly town . It was Qa'an that commanded that between the land of Khitai and his winter quarters a wall should be built of wood and clay.. authority QWYAS for the QNAS and QWNAS of the text. counting of the slain and sparing of the survivors is after the same fashion. it can be read in no history and is recorded in no book that an army 9 I. 31-2. the Apple-Orchard *. 393) and two rivers. for the spelling Quyash. so Ogedei (Ogetei). 175). also Wyngaert. from the time down to the present day. See my article. 29 ... but Kashghari distinguishes * between Quyas the township (jasdka) and guyasb sun *. because in the neighbourhood of the battlefield are a few broken-down wretches. in 1339 or 1340 that the Franciscan martyrs met their end. Now war with its killing. It was here. the Greater and the Reading QYAS and There is also MS. so patient of hardship. see the Iki-Ogiiz of Kashghari. suggests its it to the Ili (III. when the greater part of the climes are at the disposition and command of the seed of ChingizKhan. Quyas. and indeed analogous petitioners for justice. lay beyond Barskhan (I. Ill. See I suggest that Qa'an was Yule. the second son and first successor of Chingiz-Khan. Histoire des Turcs. where posthumous title of Ogedei.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR g during the reign of Qa*an they were hunting one winter in this fashion and Qa*an. in Barthold. in every detail. in the Vicariat of Cathay or Tartary. * in the valley of the Ili. 510-11. not far from the present-day Kulja. flowed from n. had seated himself upon a hilltop . whereupon [21] A friend has related how beasts of every kind set their faces towards his throne and from the foot of the hill set up a wailing and lamentation like that of Qa'an commanded that they should be and the hand of injury withheld from them. On the Titles Given the injumm to Certain Mongolian Princes. op. which were Saracens speaking Persian' (Rockhill. * 10 Almaligh or Almali'q. in which and Minorsky. 277.

and many other useful things. Even when they are actually engag e d in fighting. needles. great and of battle becoming swordsmen. indeed. in time and ing of rebels is for that business. It of a peasantry. archers and lancers and advancing in whatever manner the occasion requires. It is also a peasantry in the guise of an army. Nastr al-Dm Tusi on Finance. 30 . for lions. * 14 In Turkish post horse *. also. while any service which they used present devolves upon their wives and those of * Originally equivalent to the Arabic mar&'i pasturage levy' this term was afterwards applied to irregular levies in general See Minorsky. Whenever the slaying of foes and the attacksmall. donkeys and camels. little be missing. purposed. whether qupcburj occasional taxes ('avarizat). This is. noble base. ropes. will not * Persian proverb also : An hunt or attack any animal. and wool. and if only a the day of review. .THE HISTORY OF its commanders both in and this not in hope of wages and adversity prosperity fiefs nor in expectation of income or promotion. being liable to all and rendering without complaint whatever 12 and adversity they are free is an army after the fashion manner of contributions (mu'an) is enjoined upon it. they specify all that will be of service from the various arms and implements down to banners. the maintenance 13 with (ikhrajat) of travellers or the upkeep of post stations (yam) the provision of mounts (ulagh) 14 and food (*ulufat) therefor. yielding milk. In misfortune from dissension and opposition. when attacking and assaulting. so long as they the best way to [22] organize an army to grateful for comforts. so obedient and . and the yank of Marco Polo. There is a overfed dog catches no game \ and it has been said c What army Starve thy dog that it may follow thee! in the whole world can equal the Mongol : army ? In time of action. are not hungry. those responsible are severely punished. On equipment. ls The iam of Rubruck. all of them. and in the days of peace and security they are like sheep. there is exacted from them as much of the various taxes as to is perform when 12 expedient. 783-4. they are like trained wild beasts out after game. they display their mounts and pack animals such as and every man must provide his share according to his ten or hundred. who however takes the word as meaning the officer in charge of such a station.

twinkling of an eye before or after obedience and submissiveness is such that if there be a commander of a hundred thousand between whom and the Khan there is a shall not retard and if he but commit some fault. 15 has been so reviewing and mustering of the army that [23] they have abolished . 32. appointing one of the ten to be the commander of the nine others. and so on down to the commanders of tens. For they all the people into companies often. be required. who in turn apply to the commanders of thousands. There is a true equality in this . bought with stable. he takes it from him. different it is with other kings who must speak cautiously own slave. 31 . 16 money.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR them that remain behind. In Turkish 'ten thousand*. if in an emertiimen *. they apply to the comgency any man or thing manders of tumen .the registry of inspection arranged The (daftar-i-arz) and dismissed the officials and clerks. while from among each ten commanders one has been given the tide of* commander of the hundred '. order is issued that so many thousand men must present themselves in such and such a place ' at such and such an hour of that it (their appointed time) They day or night. over * whom they have whom they call commander of the appointed a commander 16 In accordance with this arrangement. 86-7. his wife goes forth in person and performs that duty in his stead. How to their and if gold be required. the Khan dispatches a single horseman to punish him after the manner prescribed if his head has been demanded. And so it is with each thousand men and so also with each ten thousand. 17 And they arrive not a an hour . vii. Benedetto. Koran. : off. work be afoot in which a and if the man himself be absent. as soon as to say nothing of when they place their 17 own Marco Polo's account. Thus if man has his share of forced labour (bigar). he cuts it distance of sunrise and sunset. each man toils as much as the next. all the hundred having been have divided placed under his command. no attention being paid If there is a sudden call for soldiers an to wealth or power. he has ten horses in his 15 Cf. and thy shall not advance it' Their the appointed hour. and no difference is made between them.

as opposed to the iartz. no man can give refuge to another if (for the commander be a mander or 18 Lit. and none presents himself on the battle-field. make up depart to another unit than the hundred. months and years are required to equip an army and it takes a brimful treasury to meet the expense of salaries and allotments of land. the former items in kind entered in the right-hand (i.* replied the why shepherd [24]. but on the day of combat their ranks are everywhere vague and 18 uncertain. was time see liable to fluctuation it was finally and perhaps to very considerable depreciation by the converted into cash and so became lariz. while he that received him is severely punished. 28.esala-ye Fakkiyya. these two terms On 'Abdallah b. and more often than Whenever not he actually rises in rebellion and insurrection or are themselves attacked these kings prepare to attack an enemy by an enemy. . Die R. Muhammad b. wherein each commander. For nor may And this reason example) he does not permit the meanest prince. This is a parable to be applied to their armies asked there are none in the flock/ . ! 5 A * * Said the accountant asked the * : How many sheep remain c * ' * ? Where ? shepherd. 315. thousand or ten to which he has been assigned. Kiya. is In the I register. shepherd was once called to render an account of his office. nor can another commander entice him away. then they cannot displace him. Jahrbundert. declares.' and at the time of inspection they impersonate one another in order to their full strength. and none becomes and bariz were terms of accountancy. I have so and so many men.' : That.e. on the referring to hash from beginning to end. .THE HISTORY OF an army under his command and he attains to wealth and power. the man who transferred is executed in the presence of gressed the troops. leader. bariz * : . in order to increase the appropriation for his men's * pay. When they draw their pay and allowances the soldiers numbers increase by hundreds and thousands. Therefore no man can take liberties with his com. yasa is Another that no man may if this order be transhe seek refuge elsewhere. Em orientalhches Hawlelsmtemehmen im 15. The point seems to be that -the value of the hasbv entry. the first) column of the their ranks are hctshv battle-field/ ledger whilst the latter referred to the final cash entries in the left-hand column. also Hinz. person to take refuge in his company and so avoids a breach of the yasa. .

. All this each two tumen having to they shared out amongst the tiimen. they 19 20 also have established a census accustomed fashion Koran.e. 33 . they so supply one yam. collection see Benedetto. often all the Tartars dominions. These too make their selection. assigning and beasts as well as food. and it was also necessary to transport East and from the Far East to the goods from the West to the West. Every year the and whatever is missing or lost has to be replaced by inspected. the yea.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR damsels are found In the army and dispatched from the tens to the hundreds. times he [i. Put them away with kindness. makes a whom 21 and those of virgines throughout he retaineth vnto himselfe. 20 when the extent of their territories became broad and are fair to look c ' vast Again. to recount sengers with regard to the sparing are all of which would delay us too long. with the census. and upon those that are deemed worthy and Furthermore. For an account of the practice under Qubilai ' Carpini ed. and important events fell out.' For an account of the working of this system in China 152-7. drink and other necessities. in accordance and exact the charge.' ablyf And they cause them to attend on the Royal Ladies until such time as it pleases them to bestow them on others or to He with them themselves. 114-16. . 121 : . ii. Emperor] his men. Beazley. . 229. it became essential to ascertain the activities of their enemies. Thus. and each man makes a different choice op to the commander of the tumen. see Benedetto. Cf. 21 yam Since all countries and peoples have come under after their their domina- tion. when moonlike they are gathered together upon they recite the words Keep them honour19 1* and upon the other. Therefore throughout the length and breadth of the land and made arrangements for the upkeep and established they yamSj thereto a fixed number of men expenses of each yam. the peasantry. others he bestoweth vpon he meanes to keepe. that messengers need make no detour in order to obtain fresh mounts while at the same long time the peasantry [25] and the army are not placed in constant distribute inconvenience. who makes his choice also and takes the maidens so chosen to the Khan or the princes. etc. Moreover strict orders were issued to the mes- of the mounts.

and Grousset. it is else tamper with it. The native pronunciation (Hiile'u) is represented by the of Marco Polo. may anyone no account is the given to his apprentice or his slave. the inheritance taxes were in force in all that region I swept away that system and abolished the imposts that had been levied in the countries of Tustar 23 and Bayat. 34 . district of Khuzlstan (north of the Kerkha). the Hulawu or Holawu of the Armenian sources and the of Juzjani. For an account of his career previous to his invasion of the West see the Secret History. Shustar in Khuzistan. be it much or little. On property of a dead man admitted to the such a procedure as inauspicious. to record each of which would delay us too long.) a very brief summary with no mention of the vicissitudes of his his rivalry with Jamuqa or his campaigns against the Tatar. nor And if he have no heir.e. ciation Aku 23 HLAW I. : THE 22 tribes is to-day and clans of the Mongols are many but that which most renowned for its nobility and greatness and has HWLAKW. the qupcbur charges also. Rashid-ad-Din tr. 24 There are many other yasas. Juvaini's spelling perhaps indicates the Turkish pronunof the name. treasury. (V. we have therefore limited ourselves to the mention of the above. they estate do he leaves. Srmrnova. the Merkit 24 1 The life. Vladimirtsov.M. Le Conqutrant (tu Monde.THE HISTORY OF and and the equipment of yams together with the expenses entailed and the provision of fodder this in addition and over and above all this they have fixed to ordinary taxes classified . They have a custom not interfere with the that if an official or a peasant die. westermost It is in fact early and the Naiman. for they regard When 22 Hiilegu appointed me to [the governorship of] . and everyone into tens. [in] CHINGIZ-KHAN'S RISE TO POWER AND THE BEGINNING OF THE PASSING TO HIM OF THE EMPIRES AND KINGDOMS OF THE A BRIEF * ICINGS OF THE WORLD ACCOUNT THEREOF . hundreds and thousands required military service . GengisKhm. Baghdad.

perhaps of Turkish origin. i. 220). There are. and M. 128) among by Rashid-ad-Din (Berezin. Saq'iyat. S AQYT. the Kereit tribes. See Grousset. 95. This accounts for Rubruck's statement (Rockhill. His real name was Toghril (To'oril in Mongol). and secondly OngKhan. not after the Jirgin as in Berezin.' F 35 . 6 the ruler of the Kereit and the e *Saqiyat. His people. the SAQYZ of the text being an amendment due to the editor) we should read the form here adopted. Saq'iz.' bore the name of Temiijin 3 until the time Chingiz-Khan f ft 4 he when. t wang 117-20. PelHot suggests that for the of the MSS. and is there followed by a blank. of. in. Bombay ed. Both forms are possible but Temujin is the older and is the form used in the Secret History. who identified Ong is the Mongol pronunciation of the Chinese prince conferred on him by the Chin in recognition of the part he had played in one of their campaigns against the Tatar. In * * the first place the Turkish for eight is not safz but sekiz. surpassed the other tribes in strength and dignity and was stronger than they in gear and equipment and the number chieftains 2 Actually the Qlyat or Kiyat were a sub-division of the Mongol clan of the Borjigin. V. which give Temiirjin. 116-17.Q. viz. i. 177. 558. * In fact the Unc Kan of Marco Polo.e. the Saqiyat (or Sakait is The name as he calls them) appearing after the Qonqiyat. dt. 6 The printed text has SAQYZ.e.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR 2 precedence over the others is the tribe of the Qiyat. 122 SAQYR . mentioned Khetagurov. as PelHot has pointed out (Campagnes. they lived along the Orkhon and Tula between the Khangai and Kentei mountains. far from being the ruler of the Naiman. perhaps because it occurred in only one of his MSS. were Nestorian Christians . the Chinese sources and Rashid-ad-Din he was so called after a Tatar chieftain Temujin~0ke whom his father had brought in as a prisoner at the time of his birth. two decisive objections to this theory. the Yuan shib and the Sbng-wu cb'in-cbcitg lu. ' and in place of the blank is the short sentence : They also are a tribe. was the bitter enemy of that people and was constantly at war with them. According to the Secret History. is The name * iron 4 6 Koran. op. 114 and 249) that Chingiz-Khan had actually been a blacksmith. in accordance with the decree of Be/' and it fr/ became master of all the kingdoms of the habitable world.. (which also occurs in Vassaf. corresponding to the SAQYAT. r#. Grousset. 3 Reading TMWjYN with B and C for derived from ttmur * the TMRjYN * of the text. On his early career see the Secret History. In Khetagurov the tribes are listed in a different order. omitted in Berezin's text (VII. the Kereit. 122).. of which the forefathers [26] and ancestors of Chingiz-Khan were the -and from which they traced their descent. In those days Ong-Khan. The Unc of Rubruck and him with title Prester c John. and VII. reproduces a note by Blochet to* the effect that Saq'iz is the equivalent of Naiman because saqtz * means eight in Turkish as does naiman in Mongol. ii. would and means blacksmith *.

he thought to remove him by craft and guile and to hinder by fraud and treachery God's secret design in fortifying him. and there was a feeling of friendship between them. and in the humbling of the of each lord of fortune his harshness and ferocity did the pride work of Fate. Ong-Khan's men should make a night attack upon Chingiz-Khan and his followers and thus free themselves from their the deed since his fears. in the ambushes of private audiences they put out the story of his power and pre-eminence and repeated the of the inclination of all hearts towards obedience and In the guise of well-wishers they kept these allegiance to him. It was agreed. while eyes were anointed with the collyrium of sleep and mankind was rendered negligent by repose. until all affairs of state were dependent upon him and all OngKhan's troops and followers controlled by his discipline and The sons and brothers of Ong-Khan and his courtiers justice. he used to Ong-Khan. by reason of the nearness an3" severity had the visit of their confines and the proximity of their territories. two youths in 36 . that at dawn. They made every preparation for . When Ong-Khan and his valour. splendour beheld his counsel and discernment. Day by day he raised his station and position. Since it was impossible to attack him and [27] break with him tale openly. and favourites became envious of the rank and favour he enjoyed : they accordingly cast the nets of guile across the passage provided by opportunity and set the traps of treachery to effect the blacken- ing of his name.THE HISTORY OF of his men. therefore. and were about to put luck was vigilant and their intention into action but his fortune kind. stories fresh until Ong-Khan too became suspicious of him and was doubtful as to what he should do . he marvelled at his courage and energy and did all that lay in his power to advance and honour him. And in those days the Mongol -tribes were not united and did not obey one another. he became in the onslaught Uke a roaring lion and in the melee like a trenchant sword. in the subjugation of his foes his rigour taste of poison. ^Upon every occasion. and fear and dread of his courage and intrepidity became implanted in his heart. ^When Chingiz-Khan rose from the grade of childhood to the degree of manhood. majesty.

124-6. however. The Historicity of the Baljuna Covenant. he made them tarkhan. from princes down to slaves. op. As for those tent-pitchers. 11 In the end Chingiz-Khan with his small army routed Ong-Khan with his This event occurred in the great host and won much booty. 4. in the Secret History as Kishliq. Three of Ch'iert Tahsws Poems on Yuan History. 10 It is not clear from the sources whether Baljuna is the name of a river or of a lake. Turks. 1203 according to the Yuan shih (Krause. moved a did not take the 9 short distance away. Travels of an Alchemist. one of them named Kishlik 7 and the other Bada. Hung. This is probably a reference to the encounter at Qalqaljit-Elet. The story of those who drank the water of the Baljuna not recorded in the Secret History. The 8 I. whether base or noble. as M. on the con- queror on See Waley. suggests. cit. 20-24. He at once sent off his family moved away. fled to Chingiz-Khan and informed him of the badness of their faith and the uncleanness of their treachery. tents with them. 126". op. 11 None of the other sources mention any fighting at Baljuna. grooms. t 46). n. the upshot of the matter was that Ong-Khan set off in search of him with a large force of accounts 9 they at men. There is a spring [in that region] which they call Baljuna: 10 here they joined battle and fierce fighting ensued. Though the the tents and followers and had differ here as to whether they then returned or whether once took up the pursuit. where Chingiz-Khan ' * a vktoire a la Pyrrhus. Pelliot. Taziks and Indians. The name appears in Rashid-ad-Din as Qishliq (QYLYQ) and Qi'shliq was still in attendance his return journey from the campaign against the West. 45-7. all who were with Chingiz-Khan at Baljuna. at. Campagnes. Neither the Secret History nor Rashid-ad-Din mentions the attack on Chingiz-Khan's deserted encampment. Tarkhan are those who are are recorded. which. 157-6*0. and doubts have been cast on its authenticity. Grousset.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Ong-Khan's service. the Secret History.. qui fut peut-6tre une defaite (Pelliot. 8 When at the appointed time. Grousset. in the dawn. 7 or The text has KLK. * 171-2.e. must be a corruption of KSLK KSLK. 12 won See 170-1. river* is See Smirnova. dt.Q. while Chingiz-Khan had but a small force with him. 118. 13 I. See now.e. 12 and the names of all who took part therein 13 year 599/I202-3. two youths. discusses the problem of its identity at some length and reaches the conclusion that it is to be sought somewhere along the lower course of the Kerulen.. 37 . op. Srnirnova. the enemy charged down upon the tents they found them empty. because it is clear from the context that they An interesting reference to Juvaini's sources. but see now Cleaves. 21).

is perhaps to be explained as an imagined derivation from the * * * Turkish Qonghur chestnut-coloured '. and held in high esteem at the courts of kings. 406-7) . their posterity also and that this order to the ninth should be observed with generation* down two To-day there are many people descended from these persons. Finally all the latter's fell family and retainers. n'est attestee nulle part et ne repose sur rien. that Borte. 14 15 A forest tribe on It the Onggirat of of Mongolia. and to whom the booty whenever they so wish is surrendered : they may enter the royal presence without leave or permission. and the very tent-pitchers and camel-drivers attained to great dignity. The Qonqirat of Rashid-ad-Din and to this tribe. La forme Kunkurat". the western shores of Lake Baikal. 16. he dispatched troops to pursue him. in order to prevent Ong-Khan from rallying. they all for the rest obtained high rank. in turn. should not be called to account therefor. Juvainf s spelling of the * " name is interesting. even his wives and daughters. such the Qonqurat. bay '. and they are honoured and respected in every country. Several times they joined battle. adoptee comme correcte par Howorth. other tribes also as the and all that came 15 to tender submission. and on each occasion he was victorious and Ong-Khan defeated. et qui a passe* par exemple dans Elias et Ross. rebellious. which form. Pelliot remarks (Campagnes. II. horses and He commanded and accoutrement more than could be counted or computed that [28] whatever offence they might commit they . 14. while others rose to great offices of state and became famous throughout the world. some became kings of the age. and he himself was slain. also gave them troops and slaves and of cattle. As of those that took part in this battle. in the extreme east was 38 . into And when his fortune Chingiz-Khan's cause prospered and the stars of were in the ascendant. 703.THE HISTORY OF taken on every campaign exempt from compulsory contributions. Chingiz-Khan's hand . The Tarikb~i-Ra$kicli. Chingiz-Khan's first and chief wife. When Chingiz-Khan s army had been s reinforced. were admitted to the number of his commanders and followers and were regarded with the Oirat u and eye of indulgence and favour. I. and at horse '. the Secret History. he dispatched envoys to the . QNQWEAT. belonged.* In fact it goes back to the form used by Juvaini. he struck the breath from while as for the refractory and their bodies with the whip until all the tribes of calamity and the sword of annihilation .

of for the BT Teb-Tengri. See below. that he never rose again. last ruler . 17 he engaged in altercation with one of the princes . dragged See also Grousset. And gradually he conquered other kingdoms also. was actually a sort of title. Thus he too grew and many followers having gathered around him. meaning . as shall be the hereinafter separately mentioned. who in 1123 expelled by the Khitan (Liao) Dynasty from Northern China. * had posted 18 * three men in the doorway altun to one side and broke his backbone. See Grousset.> 229-32. Then he established new laws and laid the foundation of justice. L'Empire Mongol. Golden King of Marco Polo. and whichever of their customs were abominable. and that prince. In fact no Chin Emperor was put to death by Chingiz-Khan and the reference is perhaps to the suicide gold : the of the p. 292. threw him so heavily upon In the ground short. Le. and subjugated the country.e. he dispatched ambassadors there in person. Emperor of Khitai. 39 . of which has been mentioned At this time there arose a man of whom I have heard from cold that prevails in trustworthy Mongols that during the severe those regions he used to walk naked through the desert and the * God has spoken with mountains and then to return and say : me and " has said : I have given all the face of the earth to Temujin and his children and named him Chingiz-Kfaan. - i. Temiige-Otchigin (the Otegin of Juvaini). like cUn in Chinese. op. 17 According to the Secret History. of the dynasty in 1234 during the reign of Ogedei. he abolished. there strong . Reading TB Most Heavenly *. arose in him of a banquet. Chingiz-Khan used implicitly to follow. 9 225-8. this was Chingiz-Khan's youngest He and Teb-Tengri full brother. 245. the ' Chin Emperor. wrestled for a while in the Khan's presence and were then ordered outside. the shaman's real name being Kokchii. cti. Chin was the dynastic title adopted the leaders of the Jiirchen. in Turkish. One day in the course the desire for sovereignty. and slew Altun- Khan. such as theft and adultery. when the tribes to Khitai. in the midst of the assembly. tit. something in the previous chapter. 18 had and afterwards went these regions had been purged of rebels and all become as his army. him they fell upon Teb-Tengri.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR were of one colour and obedient to his command. Temuge 16 TNKRY TNKRY the text. 195 also Grousset. op. * Bid him administer justice in such and such a fashion/' They 18 and whatever he said [29] called this person Teb-Tengri. a people of North Manchuria.

4 AWKTAY. of Carpini. tKe eldest. usual form of the 3. \His both male and female. eldest wife an elder wife and precedence. Given his death the On the Titles Jwaini to Certain Mongolian Princes.by-hi$ Now according to the children of one father so that the child of was Yesiinjin Beki. is name Tolui. Carpini has the form Occoday. discusses this name at considerable length but reaches no definite conclusion as to the pronunciation or meaning. .. 3 JTTAY. By this wife accorded greater preference Chingiz-Khan had four sons who* is Jiad risked their lives in the execution of great affairs and glorious! actions and were to the throne of the kingdom as its four pedestals ind to the palace of the khanate as its four pillars. 2 So spelt by Juzjani also . In the Secret History he is called Ogodei or Okodei. For each of Tushi. n. See my article.. 1 custom of the Mongols the rank of the is in proportion to that of their mothers. p. 10. DWY. Nasawi has The Tossuc TWSY. 35. Pelliot. 147. When organization of troops the matter of Ong-Khan been disposed of [30] and the tribes of the and had some by Mongols had.THE HISTORY OF PV] OF THE SONS OF GHINGIZ-KHAN CHINGIZ-KHAN had muchj&sug* WJKCS and concubines. h^e^^CWn^-I^an had selected a special office. Toshi or Tushi. Juvaini's spelling is interesting in view of the statement of Rashid-ad-Din that upon * * use of the^word toll mirror was declared taboo. 3 who came next to him. called. which is a great sport with the Mongols and held in high esteem by them. Pelliot. suggests that the name may be a derivative of "Oke. Perhaps Juvaini confused her with Hulegii's wife Yesiinjin. To 2 while to Chaghatai. Jochi or Jiichi. Horde d'Or> 10-27. both the enforcement thereof and the reprimanding 4 and chastisement of those [all that contravened it. It is apparently the Turkish form of the native Jochi. and and Toli 5 he promoted to the command and the equipment of armies. In the Secret History he is called Cha'adai: the Chiaaday. fell the administration of the yasa and the law. the second element of Temujin-Oke. the name of the Tatar prisoner after whom Chingiz- Khan was 5 TWLY. Ogetei he selected for that called for] understanding counsel and for the administration of the kingdom . etc. the mother of his successor Abacja. in The See above. Campagnes. he assigned hunting and the chase. 40 . or Tosuccan of Carpini. The pronunciation is uncertain and may be either Toshi. 1 Actually her name was Borte.

not even mighty warmultiplied riors are able to break it but in impotence withdraw their hands he said : A turning to his sons therefrom. And thereafter he was wont to urge the strengthening of the edifice of concord and the consolidation of the foundations of affection between sons and brothers . also Hambis. though your men of great strength and might. and helpenemies be meets. of the snake of many heads. There is no reason. Then So it is with you also. See Grousset. L'Empire Mongol. La Haute-Asfe. he divided the tribes and peoples of the Mongols and the Naiman. It is in fact much older still being Aesop's fable of the husbandman and his 'quarrelsome sons. yet shall they not the victory over you.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR choice and some by compulsion. But if there be no leader among gain you. ii. were in fact Mongolized Turks. athletes were unable * to break them. inhabited the region to the west of the Khangai. and used continually to sow the seed of harmony and concord in the breasts of his sons and brothers and kinsfolk and to paint in their hearts the picture of mutual aid and assistance. As another and long. where it is related ( 19-20) not of Chingiz-Khan himself but of his mythical ancestress. And he continued to add to the bundle until there were so many arrows that even . therefore.Q. and M. 6 who interesting distinction in view of Pelliot's theory that the Naiman. frail arrow. however. 58 and 59. and companions submit themselves and to whose com- mand that they yield obedience. for the story is also to be found in 7 An This anecdote it is that the Secret History. Then he took two arrows and broke them also. and sons. Alan Qo'a. between the aforesaid sons and to each of his other younger sons and to his brothers and kinsmen he allotted their share of the armies. And by means of parables he would fortify that edifice and reinforce those foundations. been reduced to his command and rendered submissive and obedient to his orders. as you brothers support one render stout assistance one to another. 593-4. 6 as well as all the armies. when it was the heads desired to creep into a hole in order to bitterly cold. when it is and supported by its fellows. to whose counsel the other brothers. a very old story and is related in Tabari of the famous Umayyad general Muhallab. 41 . 30 . for supposing that Juvaini drew on other than Mongol sources. One day 7 he called his sons together and taking an arrow from his quiver he broke it in half. there comments is briefly repeated below. then your case will be like unto One night.

) 42 . But it . sons and daughters. He agrees (loc. the Cailac of Rubruck. 461. as each head entered the hole another head would oppose and in this way they all perished. Thus to Otegin Noyan. not here the actual town of Bulghar. 10 In Persian of Khiva. granda children and uncles have their share of power and property . and although authority and empire are apparently vested in one man. son as inheriting the Mongols. The ancient Chorasmia and the later Khanate The Khorazm Oasis is now divided between Uzbekistan (Khorezm Oblast) and Turkmenistan (Tashauz Oblast). But another snake.e. Tushi. When during the reign of Chingiz-Khan the kingdom became of vast extent he assigned to everyone his place of abode. 9 lord of the fire (hearth) '. i. They afterwards always abided by this principle. which had but one head and a long tail. Khwarazm. proof whereof is that the World-Emperor Mengii Qa'an in the second quriltai apportioned and divided all his kingdoms among his kinsfolk. See Vladimirtsov.e. 11 Saqsm was a town and territory on the Volga. from the land of the Mongol ot-Angin) I. from the left bank of the Volga *. and brothers and sisters.THE HISTORY OF ward off the chill. cit. 115 Km. was the title of the youngest Father's yurt. 12 Le. district. Horde d'Or. the territory of the Volga Bulghars. lay a to the west of the modern Kopal. 165-74. (Minorsky.' And there were many such parables which he adduced in order to confirm in their minds his words of counsel. is The position of the town discussed at length with Marquart that by Pelliot. 8 to some of his grandchildren he apportioned his brother. Le regime social de$ little Qayali'gh or Qayaliq. * * Qt-t\gm (in from the Turkish ot re and tlgm lord*. on the lower reaches of the Volga. which were preserved from the fury of the cold. namely him who is nominated Khan. from the regions of QayaUgh 9 and Khorazm 10 ritory stretching 12 n and and as far in to the remotest parts of Saqsin Bulghar that direction as the Chaghatai received the territory extending 8 * hoof of Tartar horse had penetrated. entered the hole and found room for his tail and all his limbs and members. which they call yurt. [31] yet in reality all the children.e. territory and in the To his eldest son. i. he gave the terregions of Khitai. Hudud.t 169) it was situated 40 days downstream from Bulghar. * of which the ruins are situated near the village of Bolgarskoye. 60. in the Spassk south of Kazan and at 7 Km. * Tcmiige-Otchigin.

also. 14 Reading n.. 43 . The capital of Ogetei. is insignificant "The children and grandchildren of Chingiz-Khan 1 are more than (maqam)t ten thousand. he. Of Qobaq Pelliot. The form any for m . f Now the purpose of these lakranH^Brstorie^ 'i^thlTTheimellfgent man may learn 13 AYMYL. Ala Kul. likewise. (Us Mongols et la Papaute. how brother falls upon brother and son record To concerning meditates the ruin of father till and conquered and their authority is ( of necessity they are vanquished downfallen and overthrown. says: *Dc meme qu'Emil survit comme nom de la riviere Emil. the south of Chuguchak. lay [32] adjacent thereto. much was to show the harmony which prevails among them as compared with what is related other kings. Giiyiik rate the form used in the Secret History. view of Mongol 16 In 17 Chapter XXXIIL Koran. dt. between 15 an account of that other fief to his own son Giiyiik and gave . Qobaq est encore aujourd'hui " des cartes allemandes) a 1'Est de 1'EiniL le nom d'une riviere Qoboq (" Chobuq C'est essentiellement la vallee de ces deux rivieres qui constituait Fapanage % propre de Gtiyuk. original homeland.CONQUEROR Uighur to Samarqand and Bokhara. army our purpose in relating this them all is impossible. and indeed this spot the middle of their empire like the centre of a circle. form or at KYWK. you! world andjutterly annihilated their enemies. lest dispute not *?/ God Almighty hearted and hath said success : And yejecome faint- Whereas by mutuaTaM* your and assistance those khans of the children of Chingiz-Khan that succeeded him on the throne have conquered the whole go from. the heir-apparent. into the Emil is It was the name of a in river. 48.equipment. : territory. yurt.* 15 Juvami Kiiyiik is perhaps preferable is the native the Cuyuc of Carpini and the Keuchan of Rubruck. during his father's reign was his 14 but when he of the Emil 13 and the Qobaq yurt in the region ascended the throne of the Khanate he removed it to their Khitai and the land of the Uighur. [206]-[207J. flowing name of a town (the Omyl of Carpini) in the region of the Emil. 2) for the QWBAQ with QWNAQ of the Pelliot text. and his place of residence was in Quyas in the neighbourhood of Almaligh. What we have related is but an part of the story. each of whom has his own position and. viii.THE WORLD. Mongol times. 16 Tolfs his various dwelling places has been recorded separately.

t also Mostaert and Cleaves. also Grousset. ground. Trots documents mongols des Archives secrttes vaticanes. op. which means lord of fortune.THE HISTORY OF without the pain of experience and be edified by the study of these discourses. cut off his head and hurled it to the dt. 44 . The Chronicle Hsieb Family of Kao-ch'ang. and founded an empire in Eastern Turkestan.e. the instigator of this attack upon the Qara-Khitai agent. (see previous note). somewhat account of the sbahna's end is given in a Chinese source. pp. 18). 238).e. and the Emperor sent him a sbahna 1 3 named Shaukem. p. Chapter XIII). 354-61. 24). *. i. Lord of the ulus '. i. he too entered the noose of allegiance and accepted the payment of tribute . the Karakitai sive nigri Kitay of Carpini (Wyngaert. were the Qara-Khitai terms corresponding to sbahna. 'Holy Majesty*. followed him up the stairs. chronicler Grigor (310 and 312). 488. p. This name was given to a branch of the Khitan who migrated westward after the overthrow of their dynasty by the Jiirchen (see above. Chinese sources and to Rashid-ad-Din According both this event to the (Smirnova. 619-73. different of the See Wittfbgel and Feng. * * 2 Lit. and Wittfbgel and Feng. is a title which the Uighur took over from the earlier Basmil. the Idu'ut Lord of Fortune of the Secret History. History of Chinese Society : Liao. Histoire des Turn. visor etc. the representative of the conqueror in conquered territory responsible in The word is used in the same sense in particular for the collection of tribute. the Black Khitai. 3 The Arabo-Persian word sbahna is used by Juvaini as a synonym of the Turkish lasaaq and the Mongol darugba or darttghachin (see below. 37. apparently representing a higher rank than sbao-cbien. whereupon a certain Bilge. 219-22. See Barthold. 39. 105. 4 This Shaukem. At that time the idi-qut was a certain Barchuq. L'Empire des Steppes. once he was name with Mi lord '. which occurs for example in the compound ' ally ijf-qut (cf. [V] OF THE CONQUEST OF THE LAND OF THE UIGHUR AND THE SUBMISSION OF THE IDI-QUT THE Uighur 1 Turks call their ruler icti-qut. n. t 666. op. When the sbao-cbien was surrounded he took A refuge in a tower. title sbao-cbien ' Shaukem is * actually the Chinese junior super- This and cbien-kuo state supervisor *. 152) took place in 1209. when During the spring 2 [the Emperor of] the Qara-Khitai subjugated Transoxiana and Turkestan. n. basqaq. On their history see below. the 4 Armenian AWKM. See Wittfogel and Feng. cit. Actu* * Juvaini has evidently confused the first element of the owner *. 88). name Ulush-Idi (see would be * qut-idi.

but Tarbai is corrupted to Tatari Temiir. often forms the second element of proper names. Here however Darbai and his companion are represented as the envoys. 6 QRA XWAjH. * period as Chinanch-Kath. I. 45 . Horde d* Or. i. 7 QTALMS QYA (reading QYA for the QTA of the text). See above. VII. Umar Chingiz-Khan showed every honour to 7 e these ambassadors but intimated that the idi-qut should haste to present himself in person. 133. he dispatched 8 9 Oghul and Tarbai. and their names are given Aighuchi" (Smirnova has Bargush instead of Bugiish) and AlghinElsewhere. *the "id'i-qut's town*. so that he became an object of detestation both to the nobles and to the common Chingiz-Khan had made himself master of Khitai and the fame and report of his victory had been noised abroad. but c below. the Carachoco of Marco Polo. the veil of their honour . p. to the latter Qut-Almish-Qaya. not of the ifa-qut. As the result of their embassy own ambassadors to the Khan. began to behave with tyranny injustice. in order to announce his rebellion [33] against the Qara-Khitai and his allegiance to the world-conquering Emperor Chingiz- When Khan. lay some kilometres to the east of Turfan in what is now the Chinese province of Sin45 kiang. 238. an earlier known See Minorsky. 152) he also appears as Darbai (spelt DRBAY. 148) Rashid-ad-Din gives the same names as Juvaini for the idi-qttfs in Berezin's text ambassadors. which both Berezin and Smirnova read as Durbai) and is accompanied by one Alp-Uniik (?) means he 8 or Alp~t)tiik (?). 15-16. 26. In Rashid-ad-Din (Berezin. The ruins are still known as Idi'qut-Shehri. Hudud. Qocho or Qara-Khoja. (TATARY) and Tatar in Khetagurov's translation and the latter has changed Qut-Almish- Qaya into Kalmish-Kata. To judge by his name he must have been a Mohammedan. n.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR firmly established In his office. 70. This word normally means used to translate the Turkish laltgb at ' village ' . as Pelliot has pointed out. * * * Qut-Almish that has received fortune (majesty) . Khetagurov. qaya rock *. Smirnova. The Darbai of the Secret History. 9 TARE AY. Prince 'Umar. in his chapter on the Uighur (Berezin. perhaps identical with the Al-Buiruq of the Secret History. 6. i. p. n. 164. the idi-qut sends his as Bugiish-Ish but of Chingiz-Khan himself. 271. the Chinese town *. XV. Then. where he is accompanied by At-Kiraq (or Al-Buiruq). The latter obeyed this make com- mand with 5 it is alacrity.e. treating the idi-qut and his commanders with and contumely and rending people.e. the idi-gut gave orders that Shaukem should be encom5 6 passed in a house in the town which they call Qara-Khoja and that the house should be pulled down upon his head. and upon his arrival witnessed the fulfilment * Jib. where town '.

who translated the passage for Radloff. 33. this FDAQ. After the capture of Otrar.e. below. n. TRBAY. Finally. 164).THE HISTORY OF of all the promises that had been made to him and returned from thence loaded with honours. 12 11 the royal standards reached the original encampment and also. When the princes Chaghatai and Ogetei proceeded to their posts to lay siege to he too accompanied them. When the army set out 10 the idi-qut received orders to present himself against Kiichliig. had recognized that 'LAF must See Khetagurov. in what the banks of the 46 . with E. that Tamerlane died whilst 12 on his way for to attack China. n. pp. Chingiz-Khan marched against the Tangut. as is suggested Toqshin who 13 by was has i. I. and that region . he 10 in fulfil- KWCLK. has confused person with the led the expedition against Banakat. 170 and 185). Reading YS'WR 92. M. 409. 79-80) . in his index. When he returned from that campaign. he was allowed to have a retinue of his tribe. family and servants. This person. with warriors from the Uighur country. and he too was sent with them. that Chingiz-Khan's envoys were murdered (see below. is probably identical with the Torbei sent across the Indus in pursuit of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din. 148. See which D TWRTAY. * has *LAF. In obedience to this command he joined Chingiz-Khan with three hundred men and rendered him assistance. V.Q. the earlier Farab. where feftiggest his possible identity Alaq who with Mam Ba'atur of the Jirgin (Secret History. are situated on the right bank of the Syr Darya near the mouth of the Aris. Barhebraeus has the or form is is TLAQ. like B and E. in 1405. A. Zhukovsky. Amu district on Darya. when Chingiz-Khan set out in person against the lands of Sultan Muhammad he was again commanded to mount horse with his army. TWRBAY. In the corre- sponding passage in Rashid-ad-Din. Yasa'ur 13 and Ghadaq 14 led an army to Vakhsh 15 Torbei. 11 The ruins of Otrar. and it was here. 417. Chapter 14 XXIV. The same form occurs in all Khetagurov's MSS. For the career of Kiichliig the Naiman see below. Vakhsh was also the name of a Vakhsh. Chapter VIII. Berezin's text (VII. for the YSTWR of the text. on the eastern frontier of Muhammad Khorazm-Shah's empire. : he reads 'allaf and translates corrupt ' provider of fodder for the [army] animals *. On the other hand. And when Otrar. 1m and in the Secret History of the Mongols. Tk e Vakhsh is a right-bank affluent of the Oxus now Tajikistan. which he translates as pro visions for the campaign*. It was here. 6. represent a proper name. Qadaq Barthold. See my article. Turkestan.

so Professor Cleaves informs me in the letter I. this lady was the daughter of Ogedei : she is nowhere mentioned as the daughter of Chingiz-Khan. 47 . in fulfilment of his father's . 2. slightly to the north-west of Guchen. 19 Reading KSMAS. Princess Alajin. Princess calls Akun. that in neither passage is there any indication that the princess was not actually married to Barchuq. who therefore gave his daughter (Rockhill. 419. Chapter 109 (tie 36). i. Her betrothal or marriage * to the Uighur ruler was known to Rubruck : These lugurs used to inhabit the cities which to their * king/ of Juvaini and Friar find first obeyed Chingis chan. His son Kesmes 19 then presented himself at Court.) In in 1. ir4-3v as Yeh-li K'o-tun (El-Qadun). as Hambis has suggested. 1955. Hlstohe fas Mongols.) This statement. The text has * 1. * When Five Towns* from the Turkish lesb * five' and hdtgb or rather kJfy *town*. in which latter case. 4.e. 133.) *Filia Chingis in uxorem data est Regi Merkitarum. and betrothed one of his own daughters to him. 17 Besh-Baligh was situated in the present-day Sinkiang. in the table facing 73).' (Rockhill. which has the authority bath of the Far Eastern sources. command he bestowed Alton [34] Beki 17 upon him but he had not yet arrived at Court when she died.. Le chapitre CV1II. the which C KSMAYN * The meaning of name would appear to be of the text in he that does not cut '. 233. 16 Lit. 114-5^ (2vs). Perhaps 4. ALAjY ALAJYN referred to in the previous note. Cleaves. set out from Besh-Baligh 16 with his army In order to join him. Le. Qa'an ascended the throne. William would seem to have been misinformed on this point. Rashid- her Altan Beki (Khetagurov. qadun (i. qatun princess*) was probably substituted by the editor for altun. says nothing of her marriage has for the to the 'iti-qut in place of the deceased Altun Beki. n. non autem Uigurorum. and he returned to Besh-Baligh. loc. as Yeh-li An-tun td'f-qut Barchuq. but before she was delivered up to him the i&i-gut was no more. dt.' 18 (Wyngaert. of Harvard University. d'Ohsson. Chapter (El-Aldun) and in the table of imperial princesses. The Yuan sbth.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR merit of orders. to whom I am indebted for these references to the Yuan sbib> remarks in a letter the dated the 2nd August. In recognition of these praiseworthy services Chingiz-Khan distinguished him with extraordinary attentions and favours. W. has been disputed by Rubruck's editors. After some time Qa'an betrothed Alajin Beki 18 to him. 149) and El-Aid or Il-Alti (Smimova. The Al-Altun of the Secret History ( 238). n. for I can no record of Chingis having given one of his daughters in marriage to an Uighur prince. i. The name appears to be the feminine form of ala mottled *. 149. Owing to the death of Chingiz-Khan this daughter remained behind . In the Yuan sbib she is referred to in the biography of ad-Din 122 (ts'e 38). 2 and Le. Professor F.

slew the shao-cbien of the Qara- See Mostaert and Cleaves. became [VI] OF THE FURTHER HISTORY OF THE UIGHUR ALTHOUGH this chapter ought to be placed after that on the accession of Mengii Qa'an. Chapter XXXIV. After a short space Kesmes likewise passed away and at the command of Queen Toregene 20 his brother Salindi 21 took his place and was called idi-qut He was firmly established on the throne and f held in high esteem and the giver of success is God \ idi-qvt . p. 1956.THE HISTORY OF the idi-qut and married Alajin Beki. (litigcbi). 3 I. Bolmish-Buqa. Bala the titikcU 4 See above. and one of the ministers of the kingdom Bala Bitikchi tempted the ('like leing ever attracted mto like'). an Uighur and an idolater. . Saqun and The widow of Ogedei and the Regent of the Empire. the title of Bilge Qut conferred upon the Bilge Khitai. Trots documents mongols des Archives secrttes 488. also above. he idi-qut with many promises and with countless inducements . 4. and that they should fit out an army of fifty thousand men to render assistance in case of need. the Scribe. vaticanes. Apparently Salindi. 1 These 3 persons dispatched to the idi-qut* a certain Bala Bitikchi. 44. Reading BYLKAQTY for the BYLKAFTY who of the text. Professor Cleaves informs me in a letter dated the 6th February.e. 1 On the conspiracy 2 against Mongke see below. Cf. this 20 and its their Of the Uighur nobles that were privy [35] to 6 4 5 conspiracy were Bilge Quti. there arose dissension because of the treachery which certain people were meditating. When the empire of the universe had been settled upon the World-Emperor Mengii Qa'an. suggested among the Moslems in Besh-Baligh other things that the Uighur should slay all environs. nevertheless as the general arrangement of this history favoured its insertion in this place it seemed appropriate to observe this order. See below. . pillaging property and leading their children captive . that the Chinese transcription of the title (Pi-li-chia-hu-ti) may equally well represent Bilge QutL For the use of quti. n. 21 SALNDY.

of the text. Tegmish 9 by name. identical with the Saghun of Kashghari has 403). when being involved in an left altercation * : exclaimed Do with one of the Moslems in the market-place. under the pretext that he was going to Ghaimish. Saif-ad-Din sent a . Cf. mil lessen the grace that was given ly In order to carry out this plan and accomplish this intention. news had arrived of the accession of the World-Emperor days and the change in the affairs of the conspirators became manifest. his fortune '. S AQWN. Oghul-Ghaimish. 9 Perhaps from the same root as Tekish or Tegish. 146. D BWLMS Apparently BWLMYS BWQA and as E TWKMYS BWQA BWLMYS for the name Turks. Khoja and Naqu.e. 49 . and blacken the face of their lives and Idkech. For Bulrmsh or Bolmlsh a personal see RadlofF. (I. thus constrained by circumstances. the widow of Giiyiik and the Regent of the Empire (on whom see below. The spelling uncertain: E ANDKAj. ' lit. . He concealed what he had heard until a week later. 7 discomfit the army of Islam. abandoned that idea and set out on the journey to Court. was in Besh-Baligh and the Moslems informed him of these words. first element of name. at. Chapter XXXVII) and her two sons. The idi-qut. and the troops of the Uighur were assembled. had been eavesdropping one night and had overheard their plans and schemes. He sent for Tegmish and questioned him concerning the riddle which he had spoken in the midst of the altercation. in the sense of * His Highness for the ' * or His Majesty * see Radloffi Uigurische Sprachdenkmaler. Princess TKMY. a title 7 8 given to the chief men of the Qarluq is AYDKAj. op. Pelliot-Hambis. Now one of the slaves of Bilge Quti. for you have but three days at that to live. ffxy They will quench the glory that was kindled ly God . Campagnesf 91. a trusted minister of the Court and a man of lofty position and high rank. 5 A the 6 Reading has BWLMYS. I. Tegmish for his part disclosed the real state of affairs and the Now during these two plot and design of those malcontents. 8 the idi-qut pitched his camp upon the plain.' Now time the Emir Saif~ad-Din. the name of Muhammad Khorazm-Shah's father. he your worst now.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR It was agreed that they should spring from ambush in the precincts of the mosque upon a Friday when the congregation were engaged in prayer.

THE HISTORY OF messenger to fetch returned and him back. but recounted the exact time and place of the meeting and with names of those that took part in it They were overcome and consternation [36] and bereft of wit and reason. he was. but I have preferred the reading MNKWBWLAD based on the MNKWBWLAZ and the MNKBWLAT of C and D respectively. in accordance with their sticks until at last custom. toM or Mat II. heard of the messenger's approach. 50 . before their * 10 In Turkish court of criminal investigation 11 and B The text has World-Emperor Mengii Qa'an. Tegmish then conducted Bala Bitikchi to the yarghu. After much clamour and wrangling on the part of the idi-gut and his accomplices they the fear gave written declarations in attestation of their innocence. he too should be reckoned in the number of the culprits and his also taken life and property should be forfeit. in order that it may be thoroughly discussed and investigated in * : 9 the great yarghu. There being no other course open to them they denied the matter and disclaimed all knowledge of it. as did Tegmish in support of his own statement. was sent in advance with the messenger to report this affair at Court. stripped stark naked and beaten with drumhe declared the truth of the matter concerning their conspiracy against the as it had been declared by but detained. 10 Tegmish. When he denied the charge. He was then dismissed and Tegmish was sent back with the envoy When arrival the latter he set off '. and should any intrigue be disclosed and revealed. who withdrew nothing from his statement. Hereupon Tegmish arose It would seem that this affair cannot be decided in and said Besh-Baligh. Let us go to the Court of the World-Emperor. idi-qut He was ordered to He halted for a halt and wait while but the did not appear. they were confronted with Tegmish. and when he and his followers came into the presence of Saif-ad-Din. 247-50. for the Mi-qut and his followers. MNKFWLAD MNKWFWLAD. n in order to fetch the Mengii-Bolad idi-gut. Written undertakings were from the other Uighur of note to the effect that should any one of them have had knowledge of this matter and concealed it. just Tegmish. is Turkish form of the Persian fulal or fuUd * steel *. accordingly.

asked. 13 who said: But persisting in his former error he would not confess the words that had passed between them. 33. he answered.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR for it Court by a different road. text has Mengeser below." said.j confessions had been obtained from them see all [38] and MNKSAR. In the face of the idi-qut he recounted all that had been said from beginning ' to end. Bilge-Quti too. As the idi-qut A wooden press was then fastened on his forehead. On 368-9. "Is not ff He said. cit. in Besh-Baligh. The two or three others that remained were questioned separately. first ii. They so twisted his hands that he fell upon his face in exhaustion. whereupon his bonds were loosened and he was removed some distance away. since lala in Arabic means * Koran. xlvi. for the element of the name. Art thou * Bala ? 14 And as his name was Bala. a word-play involved. calamity*. he too returned in the footsteps of the idi-quL Mengeser 12 Noyan then began the inquiry. The idi-qut. Thereafter they were all brought into the presence of one another and without the imposition of bonds and chains were questioned as to the making of their league and covenant of conspiracy and conjuration. Bala Bitikchi was then brought in. G SI . A BKM. where [37] each of the After Tegmish had been lording Uighur (who were in fear of their lives) pHed him with bribes and rendered him all manner of services. 578-81. The jailer loosened the press and in punishment for this action received seventeen stout blows upon the posterior (mouze*-i-izar). after enduring all manner of questioning. also PelUot-Hambis. and after sipping the unpalatable cup of the roughness of Tartar rods they vomited forth and declared what was hidden in their breasts. idi-gut still persisted * denied the charge recourse was had to torture and questioning. spoke the truth and avowed his guilt. him with Bolmish-Buqa. believe!" When 12 op. Aye> ly our Taste then the punishment for that ye would not this it in " cc truth ? They said. The in his denial They then confronted and would make no confession. Nought will avail thee but the truth/ * ' They Lord. Yes/ Then the idi-gut also confessed. 13 Here the is D BWKM 14 There 15 and E TKM BKMY. in great astonishment.

And thus was this country cleansed of the mark of the guile of these wicked infidels and of the impurity of their religion. when Barchuq died (2v8). the widow of Tolui and the mother of Mongke. and his two accomplices Bilge Quti and Idkech were sawn in half. of the conspirators and their taken out on to the plain with some others and naked in preparation for his execution. Now Bala Bitikchi trial was one of the officers of Ghaimish. me in the letter quoted above that Barchuq in the Yuan shih. elder sons. the common people. The opening Caliph Mu*tasim. the day on which they had thought to attack the true believers.) 19 Le. vi. Koran. pp. Worlds I 17 The faithful All praise h to God.THE HISTORY OF had been submitted to the firm judgement of the Monarch of the Face of the Earth. as an almsgiving for her long life those who had that day been condemned to death all received their pardon. the brother of the ili-qut. on a Friday. 108-9.Q. line Salindi). impious people was cut J ' And the uttermost part of that off. on whom see below. the Lord of the were exalted and the idolaters down- trodden by the grace of God Almighty. At the time of the their evil intent. were brought out on to the plain and of the mighty World-Emperor was put into 16 Ogiinch. with his own hand severed his head. he was succeeded by his two 17 18 Kesmes and 45. Qubilai and Hiilegii. And so he escaped from under the sword. Chapter 122 (ts'e 38). 31. There is no mention in the biography of an elder son (or. But Beki 19 stripped being ill and her illness having grown worse. n. previous to the punishment for of this secret plot divulgement he had been held in confinement and had despaired of his life. The truth shineth forth lions and the swords leware ! are bared : beware of the of the 1B thicket. idolaters. of a qasida by Abu-Tammam in praise of the 'Abbasid (M. Professor Cleaves informs Jit-gut in the biography of the second ^4-513. he gave orders that the idi-qut and his accomplices should be sent back to Besh-Baligh together with the messengers. both rnonotheists And and the command execution. Sorqoqtani Beki. 52 . who is obviously JuvainFs Ogiinch. according to Juvaini. it is stated that son Yii-ku-lun-ch'ih (Ugiiriinchi). 16 He was now AWKNj.

the case of a criminal life It is is who custom of the Mongols in worthy of death [39] but whose the has been spared to send him into the wars . Or else they send him on an embassy to foreign peoples who they are not entirely certain will send him back : or again they send him to hot countries whose climate is unhealthy. all his animate and inanimate possessions. and Almighty bestowed upon him the nobility of Islam. Since Saqun was not deeply involved in the conspiracy and as he had connections with the Court of Bate. And thus.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Ob ! and bow it often did the feU to grout narrow to tb was yet possible escape from amongst tbe lances I his because clemency had been previously ordered. In this case too. blood remained unshed. who had drawn attention to the conspiracy. were seized and distributed. As for Tegmish. what is found in their books regarding their beliefs and religion which we offer as matter for astonishment and not as truth and certainty. 53 . his servants and cattle. I. he received tokens of favour and benevolence. 1 German by Salemann This chapter has been translated into French by d'Ohsson. These events took place in the year 650/1252-3. arguing that if he is fated to be killed he will be killed in the fighting. but his wives and children. 429-35* anc^ in Radloff. Das Kutaktv Bilik. [VII] OF THE ORIGIN OF THEIDI-QUT AND THE LAND OF THE UIGHUR ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN BELIEF 1 AFTER writing their history we have recorded something of . he escaped with a hundred and ten stout blows upon the posterior. He was given his brother's office Ogiinch arose and and the title ofidi-qut. After the dust of this sedition had settled God went to Court. xU-xlix. on dis- account of the heat of the climate of Egypt and Syria they patched Bala Bitikchi upon an embassy to those parts. Theil I.

of which the name is Ordu-Baligh 7 though it is called Ma*u-Baligh. Notes* sur le Turkestan' amongst the Uighur. * i. opposite the gate. ' from the Mongol ma'u bad * and the Turkish lal'igh or This is perhaps the famous trilingual inscription (in Chinese. an Iranian hero. the Khan mentioned on the Qara-Balghasun Buqu inscription (see below. so they continued for five And hundred 4 Buqu Khan. the Turkish qara tiler * ' 3 Lit. Thirty rivers have their each river there dwelt a different people. and in the well a great stone tablet with an inscription engraved upon it. pp. 9) under Manichaeism was introduced ' the other hand. who may originally have represented Iranian tribes hostile to the teachings of Zoroaster.e. in which he appears as the ruler of Turan and the hereditary foe of the Iranians. Bkck Rock from black tier and qprum * rock *. after the manner [40] of other peoples they appointed a chief from their midst and yielded him obedience. sees in historical figure. 6 There are also the ruins of a town and a palace on the banks of this river. 22. well. the hillside near Qara-Qorum. 5 regards Buqu as Juvaini's spelling of Biigu. was imprisoned by Aftasiyab in a well.e. Pelliot. 7 legendaire des Ouigours*. the * Orkhon. this well is said to be and that of Bizhan. BartMd. lalfy Bad Town town *. there lie stones engraved with inscriptions. n. Quwayni's Beridt die Bekehrung Uigburen. See Grousset. During the reign of Qa'an these stones were raised up. Qara-Balghasun. the Turks. the old Uighur * * capital. 9 2 ARQWN. for translations of the Chinese 54 . had by the time the Epic received its final form in the Sbabnama of Firdausi been identified with a more recent enemy. 8 Outside the ruins of the palace.THE HISTORY OF the opinion of the Uighur that the beginning of their 2 generation and increase was on the banks of the river Orqon. and also a great stone. Turkish and Soghdian) in praise of the Uighur ruler Ai tengride qut bulrrush alp bilge. now which we have seen ourselves. 6 Bizhan. It is whose source flows from a mountain which they Qorum . sources in mountain. a figure in the National Or * 8 I. on. 486-7. L*Empire des Ste$$t$. Now it is 5 and there are ruins of a Afiasiyab ance of years until the appearsaid that Buqu Khan was . an whom On de M. 174. He and lis followers. * le nom du premier roi plus ou moins Afiasiyab is Epic. and a well was discovered. also. upon after that the Uighur forming two groups upon the Orqon. When their number Increased. 4 Marquart. 54-5. 3 the town that was built by Qa'an In the is call Qara- present age also called It.

and 11 12 gams or shamans (see below. That inscription. whose leaves in winter resemble those of a cypress and whose fruit is like a pignon (cbilgbiiza) both in shape and taste . the mound : they heard sweet and pleasant sounds like singing. however. . : was their writing that was engraved on the stone [and this is what was written:] In that age two of the rivers of Qara-Qoram. 14 Le. n. Marquart. 21. Denkmd soever (as was already pointed out by Marquart. op. cti.e. May it perhaps be that the Qara* Balghasun inscription is rather to be identified with the stones engraved with ' mentioned immediately before ? For a inscriptions description of the monument as discovered by the Russians (the actual stele was broken into six pieces) see RadlofF. QMLANjW. n. Between the two trees there 15 arose a great mound.) 55 . welcher auf den Baum fallt. op. 10 There is a blank in all J and i. RadlofT. regards Qamlanchu as an entirely mythical locality. . shaped like a pine (nSzb). and day by day the strange sight. text. MSS. for this part of his edition). knows Qamlanchu only as 'the name of a small town near Ikt-Ogiiz'. Die altturkischen Inscbriftm far Mongolel. 497) to the miraculous birth of Buqu or to his various conquests. Le. 23) V The Tula. 490. flowed together in a place called Qamlanchu 12 and close together between these two rivers 3 there stood two trees the one they call pj^/ which is a tree . Der wunderbare Lichtstrom. 10). the Siberian Cedar. 286-91. while it refers at some length to the conversion of the Uighur to Manichaeism by missionaries brought from China. Utcr das Volkstm der Komanen. reading 15 * 13 TWZ See above. TWTLA can hardly be right. but no one was able to read it* Then it people were brought from Khitai who are called l . the Birch. 242. makes no reference whatuigburischm in Die km Schlegel. tit.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR The order was given that everyone should present himself in order to decipher the writing . . the former being a tributary of the Orkhon.> 283. one called the n and the other the Tughla Selenge. He points out that there is in fact no confluence of the Tula and the Selenga. which have QAMAN. the other they call toz. . chmesische Inschnft auf and Kara Balgvsun. K (not utilized by M. and a descended on it from the light sky.* (Marquart. which has but this QAMAAN. III. On seeing this and respectfully Uighur and humbly they approached filled were with astonishment . p. with E for the of the TWR text. ist edit mankhaisch. And every night a light shone to a distance of thirty paces around that mound. except C. 59. 59-60. Kashghari.Q. wodurch dieser befruchtet wird und fiinf Anschwellungen bekommt. Quwayni's Bericht. p. the mound grew tribes greater.

Rashid-ad~Din*s reference to Biigii Khan (see above. and the people pointed to those two trees. 247. The chiefs of the tribe came the knee of fealty. and as they left they gave each boy a name : the eldest they called Sonqur Tegin. the fourth Or Tegin and the fifth Buqu Tegin. and your names endure for ever T 16 All the tribes of that region came to view the children and showed them the honours due to the sons of kings .THE HISTORY OF until just as with pregnant women at the time of their delivery.) The legend was known to Marco Polo . The trees ground to their parents * then broke into speech and said : Good children. held in high esteem by the Uighur and many [other] tribes. and that 16 who we sbib For the Chinese version as given in the Yiian remarkably close to Juvaini) see Bretschneider. the third Tukel Tegin. they also showed respect in which the trees grew. the second Qotur Tegin. 17 In Old Turkish ttgin or tigin means 'lord* or 'prince*. I.) (which is TWKAL D TWKAK ' . the Uighur] say that the king. p. 54. 4). call esca! (Benedetto. who first ruled them. moreover he knew strength the tongues and writings of the different peoples. May your lives be long. have ever trodden this path. while the people performed as they the ceremonies of service and honour. to view this marvel and in reverence bowed When the wind cells blew upon the children they about. 73. adorned with the noblest virtues. they said. ' was a great ruler in ancient times.e. They found Buqu Khan features all of of mind and judgement . was not of human origin. 17 After considering these strange matters the people agreed that they must make one of the children their leader and their king. They [i. They approached the trees and made such obeisance as dutiful children make and honour to the . In the case of Tukel I read with for the of the text. but was born of one of those swellings that the sap produces on the bark of trees. gathered strength and began to move At length they came soon forth from the all and were confided to nurses. Therefore to be superior to the other children in beauty and Cf. observing their duty to their parents. n. sent by God Almighty. a door opened and inside there were five separate tent-like cells [41] in each of which sat a man-child opposite the mouth of : each child hung a tube which furnished milk as required . while above the tent was extended a net of silver. for they were. As were weaned and were able to speak they inquired concerning their parents. 139. who relate of him that he was born of a tree *. (Kheta' gufov.

when he the form of a maiden came down through lay asleep one night in his house. and they brought many people from 18 all sides to their home on the Orqon The Persian word is vague : it is applied to-day to the Magpie and the * Jackdaw. while he himself with three hundred thousand men marched against the Khitayans. i.e. 19 * Lit. and with so much booty as was beyond measure or computation. and they spoke with each other.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR all were of one accord that he should be made feast they gathered together. and the like number of men under Tukel Tegin against the Tibetans . L Empire f its Steppes. Be diligent and zealous in this work. God Almighty and rolled sent him three ravens (zagb) 18 that knew all tongues . she said to him : From East to West shall be thy domain. And where they conversed for a space of seven months and twenty-two days he resorted thither every night. when the maiden bade him farewell. he departed with the riiaiden to a mountain which they years. 129. 57 . I. Protector. and care for the people/ Hereupon he assembled armies and dispatched three hundred thousand picked men under Sonqur Tegin against the Mongols and the Qirqiz . Cathay and the Way Thither. and so and placed him on the throne of the Khanate. Some rime later. the second night she came again . Grousset. similarly equipped. was received in audience by Istemi. six call On Aq-Tagh. See Yule. Each returned in triumph from the place to which he had been sent. under Qotur Tegin against the Tangut . leaving his other brother behind in his stead. held a Khan . 209. Thereafter he spread out the carpet of justice the scroll of oppression . the Turkish aq white* and Uq or identical with the Ektag ( Aq-Tagh) of Menander Perhaps ' * the T'ien Shan. and on the third night. Upon the last * night. the ruler of the Western T'u-chiieh (552-75). and his retainers and up domestics and followers and servants were many. in a certain hollow in which mountain range White Mountain' from %i Zemarchus. but in his fear he feigned to be still asleep. [42] and wherever he had a matter on hand thither the ravens would go to act as spies and bring back news. a hundred thousand men. 'the mountain*. following the advice of his vizier. the ambassador of Justin II. 19 together until the break of dawn. the smoke-hole and awakened him .

which is corrupt. : Mankhaer. And when they had come where they saw men with animal limbs they knew that beyond this there was no inhabitable land and they returned home bearing with them the kings of the different countries to a place . etc. saying : stone. 20 except the So in the text. 20 clothed in white and holding a white staff. He received each of them with the honour befitting his station. the ruins of Balasaghun are situated QR BALYF of the text) name Quz-Baligh (I read QZ BALYF for the 24 kilometres to the south-west of Tokmak]. 6*2. which is now called 21 and sent out his armies in all directions. The verbs relating to the apparently plural subject are in the singular except in two MSS. op. cit. . for this part of his edition. clothed in white and holding white staves.Q. which follows except MSS.Q. When he had come to the boundary of Turkestan he beheld a pleasant plain with abundance of grass and water.. He himself settled here and founded the town of Balasaqun. J also has 'asaba staves for the *asa staff* of the text. which is likewise the reading of J and K. The whole * ' * Then Buqu beheld in passage ought then perhaps to be translated as follows : a dream some 1000 persons. 3. which have the plural forms. A. who handed him a jasper . then shall the four corners of the world be under the * shadow of the banner of thy command/ His vizier also [43] dreamt a similar dream. In the morning they began to prepare his army . this passage 486. etc.* ' This is how it was understood by Salemann and Marquart except that * * Salemann's text has 'isabdha turbans instead of'asaba so that the 1000 men are ' * * described as wearing white turbans and not as holding white staves *. 64-5. 58 .' precise position of Balasaqun (BLASAQWN) or Balasaghun is not it lay somewhere in the See Barthold.THE HISTORY OF and built the town of Ordu-Baligh and the whole of the East came under their sway. On Marquart. comments * : Jene 1000 Manner sind augen- scheinlich 21 The known fa lures. leaving space . A have E and reads sbakhst pir ra. seems also to have bazar ra. whom they presented to Buqu Khan in that place. and he set out for the regions of the West. . erweist .. Histoire valley of the Chu. Then Buqu Khan beheld in a dream an aged man. which were not consulted by M. ulusb being synonymous with baity 'town') or Quz-Ordu (I. All the other e sbakhst bazar ra or shakbsf bazar some 1000 persons *. (C and D). . used by M. 182. In the Quz-Baligh of twelve years they had conquered all the climes. nowhere a single rebel or insurgent. As for the it should be noted that according to Kashghari Balasaghun was also known as Quz-Ulush (I. [According to Smirnova. n. . 124). If thou canst keep this stone shaped like a pine-cone. wie schon ihre Kleidung . the two Bodleian manuscripts.

they heal their sick.) 24 In Arabic * the craving of the pathic*. they had from ancient times yielded obedience to the words of these qam .) C : 26 See above. 28 qm is a Turkish word. op.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR king of India. and so it is that they never assemble unlucky days an army nor begin a war without their assent and long since (the Moal) would have gone back to Hungary. and even now their princes [44] still believe in their words and prayers. 31. and if they engage upon some business they will conclude nothing until these 25 And in a similar manner astrologers have given their consent. 14. but the diviners will not allow it. We have questioned certain people regarding * these qam. he presence. cit.* (Rockhill. and so came back to his former place of abode. 489. 59 . and they say We have heard that devils descend into their tents by the smoke-hole and hold converse with them. as there reason for the idolatry 22 of the Uighur is that in those days they knew the science of magic. the experts in which art z there are still to this day among the they called qam? The Now Mongols people that are overcome with ubna^ and speak vain things. See Marquart. and so all their princes are called cham. 240. p." (Rockhill. because their government of the people depends on divination. and claim that they are possessed by devils who inform them of all things. and when the Mongols had no knowledge or science. It is confused by Rubruck with khan or qa'an : * All soothsayers are called cbam. whom. And it is possible that evil spirits are intimate with some of them and have intercourse with them. 108. these people we have mentioned are called qam . he decided to return from thence . n. toyins 22 but-parasti.. Khan was idolatry. Buqu dispatched a [of that country] and summoned the When they arrived he confronted the two might choose the religion of whichever party sense parties so that they Here used in the of Buddhism : * ' but idol is derived from Buddha. each. because of his hideous appearance. Their powers are at their strongest just after they have satisfied their natural lust in an : unnatural way (az manfaz-i-Uraz)? In a word. the religion of Khitai Now messenger to the 26 to him. upon no longer any obstacle in his path. * 25 the statement of Rubruck They [the diviners] predict lucky and for the undertaking of all affairs . tribute would not admit to his kingdoms and fixed a He sent them all back to their was Then.

and none more hostile to Islam.. and so they are punished for their deeds. And so he deceived them until he had dug up the ground and fetched out the children. But then ignorance is * [everywhere] in the ascendant : they say that which they do not' had read certain noms. friend has told us that he read in a book how there was a man. They say that the people of to-day existed several thousand years ago : the souls of those that wrought good deeds and engaged in worship attained a degree in accordance with their actions. but excellent Now homilies are likewise to be found in it such as are consonant with the law and to refrain faith of every prophet. nom is the Greek i Uighur and Mongol languages : to-day book *. slander and injury to their fellow-creatures (fujur)j descended into vermin. and placed his own children in it. 27 and The toyins call a reading from their [holy] the nom contains their theological speculaconsists of idle stories and traditions. and commanded them to do likewise. Then he brought people to see this wonder. libertinism murder. who made a hollow in the space between the two trees. Our purpose in recording them was to expose the lived happily until the time when he these lies which we have recorded are ignorance and folly of this people. [45] And but few out of many and but a hundredth of what might have been related. the qam were completely they When dumbfounded. Their dogmas and doctrines are manifold. urging like. while the souls of those that had engaged in debauchery (foq). or prince. As for Buqu Khan he passed away. For this reason the Uighur adopted idolatry as their religion. and worshipped it. or beggar . book tions nom. to return men to avoid injury and oppression and the good for evil and from the injuring of animals. etc. at. or peasant. and most of the other tribes followed their example. And there are none more bigoted than the idolaters of the East. 27 A The Buddhist the ordinary dbarma. the most typical is that of reincarnation. beasts of prey and other animals .THE HISTORY OF defeated the other. See Marquart. such as that of king. and lighted candles in the middle of it. into the * which passed through Soghdian it is Mongol word for Ice. 60 .

) IT The name itself is unquesIT II. [VIII] [46] OF KUCHLUG AND TOQ-TOGHAN Chingiz-Khan had * 1 WHEN son * defeated Ong-Khan. See above. the it name of the antagonist of Tamerlane. Pelliot.e. The tribes and peoples of the Uighur. and in the present chapter Toq-Toghan stands sometimes for the father and sometimes for the son. the screaming of camels* the barking and howling of dogs and beasts of prey. Toq-Buqa and Toq-Temur as being of 68. 16. the bleating of sheep. 67-71. And from that time their posterity have been princes. (E has tionably to be identified with that of the Merkit chieftain. the ' It is a tree which cometh up from xvii. the twittering of birds and the whimpering e * of children.Q. the tatter's succeeded in escaping together with some others that had * 28 I. it fruit as were the with heads of Satans . 2 the son. 101). 30 is fastened five the cry of kocb. which is an accursed tree. 62-4. * And wherever they halted them Besh-BaHgh : m they gradually became one long and wide space. to stop '. However the form of the name as it occurs is in Juvaini seems to different meaning : * have been modified by Turkish speakers " to give * it an entirely * the falcon that has eaten loc. and here that cry was silenced . And that family tree. to be fixed *. tit. the lowing of cattle. Horde d'Or. Its \tt the tree is az-Zaqqum. derived from the Mongol-Turkish verb toqta-. 62). when they listened to the neighing of horses. and they call their prince idi-qut. 30 Cf..e. the Toqto'a Beki of the Secret History and the Toqta of Rashid-ad-Din. discusses its etymology and concludes that like Toqtamlsh. and lo I the damned shall surely eat of and Jill their bellies xxxvii. Finally they came to the plain where they afterwards built Besh-Baligh. in all this heard the cry of kocb. it! (Ibid. refers to the analogous frequent occurrence in the and names of Yuan shih. Pelliot himself. Kiichlug was 61 . 47. kocb I 28 and would move on from f their halting-place. p. As to the identity of the person called Beki with one of his sons (Qodu or by this name Juvaini has confused Toqto'a Qul-Toghan) . and here they settled down and built quarters and called upon the wall in their houses. from toq satiated toghan falcon '. n. e * the cursed tree of the Koran (Koran. not of Juvaini's mistake is pointed out by M. kocb ! would reach their ears. i. * toqto-. 1 TWQ AN TWQ AN.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR After Buqu's death he was succeeded by one of his sons. its fill '. bottom of hell. move. move ! * 29 Besh-Baligh meaning literally Five Towns *.

of the ruler of the Qara-Khitai. Kiil Chor). who simply states (Smimova. 354) is khan of khans '. Ong-Khan. kiil which is given * ' as a proper name (Kiil Tigin. the of the Naiman. gur-khan occurs in the Secret History also as the title assumed by the Mongol Anti-Caesar Jamuqa ( 141) and Giir-Khan was the name of the uncle of Ong-Khan who deposed him for murdering his brothers ( 66-7). The mean* ing of the title according to Juvaini (II. 205). 3 These details are not in Rashid~ad-Din. ruler History. the Coirchan of Rubruck (Wyngaert. He struck the road for Besh-Baligh. See the other hand. 5000. while those of his tribe that had 3 Now some say accompanied him were scattered far and wide. The spelling ktir-kban is perhaps preferable for Juvaini. the Secret History gilr always translated by the Chinese fu universal '. milsethe out. i. They say of the jw-itof he called one of his followers and pretending himself to be a groom sat at the entrance at first the time they went to the^r4k/i. 28-9. . 151-2. Or. Histoire des Pelliot-Hambis. caught sight " side ? They of Kushlug and said: "Why passage 62. 1955) sees the Chinese title humg-lou 'empress*. the following account of Kiichliig's that when Kushlug reached the ordu by his own name when JRashid~ad-Din (Smirnova. Giirbesii [the jWBwfr wife] came have you not brought him inbrought him in. Barthold. she had a daughter called Qunqu. Toqto'a was killed and Kuchliig fled to the giir-kban. Campagnes. 97 n. Neuf notes sur des questions d'Asie Centmle. means 'brave'. Krause. After his father's death in battle (in 1204) he had fled to his uncle Buiruq and upon the latter's death had made common cause with Toqto'a of the Merkit In 1208 (or 1205 according to the Secret History) they suffered a crushing defeat on the upper reaches of the Irtish. but according to one report he went of his own free will 5 In any case. kur. the ruler of the Kereit. 248. Cf. See the Secret 198. has is absent MYLSH. MS. where he wandered in the mountains without food or sustenance.. means glorieux according to Pelliot. and die gur-kbans emirs were offended. 186) from Besh-Baligh to Kucha. In that Kuchliig proceeded ^giir-khan was the title Smirnova. and from thence he came to Kucha. He suggests that nikse (for which the B. but of Tai-Buqa or Tayang-Khan. The gurkbcm or kur-kkm was then the Universal. Gtirbesii was the gtir-khan's eldest wife. the Heroic or the Glorious Khan. Three days later she was given in marriage to him. She was so masterful that she would not allow the loghty to be put on her.M. 210. 7628. by Gabain only 5 An interesting reference to sources. i. 180) gives * meeting with the glir-khatt .e. he remained for some time in the gur-khans service. Turcs. sees in the first element of the title the Old Turkish fair or fail is * On according to Kashghari. 4 that a detachment of the gur-khans soldiers took him prisoner and bore him to their master. who fell in love with Kushlug.THE HISTORY OF a large following. 180 and 254. She declared that instead of a loghteq she would wear a nikse like the women of KhitaL* In Qunqu Professor Cleaves (I quote a letter dated the aist October. i. 'heroic*. 86.

'Implying Merkit tribe ! that Kiichliig. along the southern shores of Lake Baikal. I shall not deviate from the as far as in path he prescribes and me lies I shall not twist 9 my of neck from the fulfilment of whatever he commands. they are scattered throughout giir-khan the region of the Emil. p. 262. <Si. Toq-Toghan. and is molesting them. who was also 7 a chief of the Mekrit and had fled before the fame of Chingiz-Khan's onslaught had likewise allied himself with Kiichliig. p.e. If I receive permission. all those in the army of Qara-Khitai that had some connection with him. i. text) may be a Chin or Jiirchen word. n. And when the report of his rise was noised abroad. already falsely described as a Kereit. Kiichliig and the Merkit after the former had established 63 . 6r. and to seek the protection of Chingiz-Khan. By such deceitful blandishments he cast the giir-khm into the well vainglory. he ravaged and plundered his territory. 2. 2. And from all sides And he assaulted divers his tribesmen assembled around him. and to find in his favour security When the Sultan 6 from the gur-kbans * : evil. There is no evidence in the other sources of any alliance between himself in Semirechye. retreating. and plundered them. now attacking and now .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and began his revolt against the the other princes to the east commenced to rebel. n. On the identity of Toq-Toghan see above. was also a The Merkit (Mekrit is a less usual spelling of the name) were a forest and inhabited the region of the Lower Selenga. in Qayaligh and in Besh-Baligh . turning upon the gur-kbw. On the headgear known Sultan Muhammad Khorazm-Shah. Then. set out to join him. striking one after another and so places he obtained a numerous army and his retinue and army was multiplied and reinforced. n. See above. And when the latter had presented him with numerous gifts and bestowed upon him the title of KScblSfKban} he leapt forth like an arrow from a strong bow. hearing of the Sultan's conquests he sent a succession of ambassadors to him urging him to attack the And from Berezin's 6 I. as a boghtaq or loghtagh see below. I everyone [47] will collect assist My them and support together and with the help of this people will the giir-kban. It seems likely that in this instance Toqto'a Beki himself is meant and that the reference is really to his and Ktichlug's earlier collaboration upon the Irtish. and so he penetrated to the region of the Emil and Qayaligh. then said Kiichliig to the people are many . p.

who were some distance away. so that him from the between them they might make an end of him. it was Qunqu. in which the region or a mountain-range.THE HISTORY OF gur-kban from the west while he himself attacked east . 87) Presumably the Ozkend on the Syr Darya between Suqnaq and Jand (see is meant here. relative clause is not in Smirnova. p. while the . Now the Naiman are for the most part Christian . most of whom are occurring both in Berezin's text (XV. but it can also mean ' edge * *. who converted Kiichliig to Buddhism. set about reorganizing his kban had returned from his mitted excesses against Then. all the giir-kban's and Kashghar should be surrendered to kingdom to Almaligh him while if Kuchliig took the lead and bore off Qara-Khitai. According to the passage from Rashid-ad-Din quoted above. but by is Fanakat (or Banakat) lay on the right bank of the Syr Darya near the mouth * ' the river of Fanakat the Syr Darya itself probably meant. Being they sent their armies [48] against Qara-Khitai from either side. dispersed to their homes . . the first to conquer and destroy. If the Sultan was . and taking him by surprise made him prisoner and seized his kingdom and his army. The spelling is element of the name is probably the Turkish uch * * translated by near *Chinuch could be case *Chinuch might be a 11 (far kanar-f) usually means a river. 8 should be his. 10 The text has HYYNWH. . Elsewhere Rashid-ad-Din attributes his conversion to a wife described as 'a girl of the . 9 below. n. 5. p. 64 . but in any case not the Ozkend in Farghana (now quite uncertain but the second * * Uzkend in Kirghizia). . were routed and he plundered the gur~kbans 9 and passed from thence to Balasaqun. then all Kiichliig won the lead . they joined battle near * Chinuch 10 and Kiichliig was defeated and the greater part of He returned to his own country and his army taken prisoner. but this maiden persuaded him to turn idolater like herself and to abjure his Christianity. so that the border of . . the daughter o(thegur~kban and Gurbesii. treasures in Ozkend Here the gtir-kban was encamped. 11 8 of the Angren (Ahangaran). 60) and in Smirnova (182).'. He took one of their maidens to wife. border *. The 1 phrase on on banks of. hearing that the gw~ war with the Sultan and had comthe population. Kiichliig fell upon him like lightning from a cloud. the troops of the gur-kban. the first blank people. 62. whilst his army had forces. the territory to the river of Fanakat thus agreed and having formed a compact on these terms.

here Kiichliig proceeded to Khotan.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR With Ay Mol-like face thou bast didst made me thy worshipper. so that they were all assembled in one place and under one roof with the inhabitants. Turkestan. 185. if it he without wilfulness. Finally he took him by surprise in his hunting grounds and put him to death. He betook And depravity were made manifest . at every harvest time. and cruelty. Kiichliig released him from custody and sent him back to Kashghar but the nobles of that place plotted against him and slew him at the gates before he could set . 401. 65 . himself thither with his army . oppression. giving them the choice between two alternatives. Thereupon Kiichlilg. foot in the town. and the pagan idolaters accomplished whatever was their will and in their power. See Barthold. 75. p. ' But who shall fa a forced partaker. and injustice. Pelliot. According to Jamal al-Qarshi name was Buzar. and in every house in which there was a householder he quartered one of his soldiers. their crops would send with fire. either to From adopt the Christian or idolatrous creed or to to don the garb of the Khitayans. and a great dearth had made its famine. And since it was impossible go over to another religion. and appearance. and seized that country . his troops to devour and consume them When prevented from for three or four years [49] they had been gathering in their corn. whereupon he compelled the inhabitants to abjure the religion of Mohammed. and the populace were distressed with they then submitted to his command. formerly raise up troubles for me. and none was able to prevent them. by reason of hard necessity they God Almighty bath clad themselves in the dress of the Khitayans. 'Tis no wonder that the fae of leaven consumctb my liver seeing that be deserved the fae who worshipped an Idol and bast charmed me who he was firmly established in the kingdom of QaraKhitai he went several times to war against Ozar Khan 12 of When Almaligh. Horde d'Or. said : 12 his On Ozar (AWZAR) see below. The rulers of Kashghar and Khotan had previously risen in rebellion and the son of the Khan of Kashghar had been held prisoner by the gtir-khan.

It was as though the arrow of prayer hit and acceptance . nay rather it was entirely wiped out. Khetagurov. though Heat/en may work its will upon all? Art Thou not aUe to seize him ? Seize him then. One of Khotan.THE HISTORY OF ant not in transgression verily. 13 Koran. * The people had of Kashghar relate as follows When they arrived they not yet joined battle. b. when Pharaoh became proud and haughty. for when Chingiz-Khan set the target of answer out to attack the countries of the Sultan [50] he despatched a group ofnoyans 16 to remove the corruption of Kiichlug and lance the abscess of his sedition. he drove the great imams out destroyed. in Khotan. 194) it was the famous general Jebe (Yeme in Juvaini) who was sent in pursuit of Kiichliig. Secure from the vicissitudes of Fortune. 146. and the 15 kingdom shall have been freed.Q. sought nothing of us save Kiichliig. merciful! The muezzins* believer call to prayer were broken off. who sent up prayers that were blessed with fulfilment. on to the plain and began to discuss religion with them.) in which he satirizes Abu- 'Abdallah al-Jaihani the Samanid. 183. poem by Ahmad Abu-Bakr Katib (M. 66 . 202 and 237) and Rashid-ad-Din According to the Secret History ( (Smirnova. thy Lord is 13 indulgent. the imam Ala-ad-Din ff Muhammad ventured to dispute with After undergoing torture he was door of his college. saying: O rendered insolent ly Lord. the Knowing. arriving one after another. and endless oppression and wickedness were extended over all the slaves of the Divinity. 14 Thus was the Moslem cause brought to a sorry : him pass. of their number. And each group of Mongols. Thou wert Who with art the Kind. when he turned his back and set his face towards flight. and fled away. and didst plunge him in the sea until he perished. as will be hereinafter crucified upon the described. this How then is it man who is not shown to me treading another path than that which he hath ever trodden. Kiichliig was at that : time in Kashghar. kind. vi. 14 In Chapter 16 From a 16 IX. and and the worship of monotheist the schools were closed and and One day. king what he possessed.

Then we knew the existence of this people to be one of the mercies of the one of the bounties of divine grace/ Lord and And when Moslem Klichliig fled. and may as the source of Victoria. also Cordier.* Juvainfs Darra-yi-*DirazI and *Sarigh-Chopan do not however is Darazukhan * seem to be identical and the latter conceivably the district of Sarhadd. According to the Secret History ( 237) he was * Wood captured in Sariq-Qol (the text has Sariq-Qun. 175. and wherever he halted.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and permitted the recitation of the takUr and the azm. which has Sarigh Chupan (SRYF and of the text (see the preceding note) Darazukhan. 194. Tbe Book of Ser Marco Polo} I. Smirnova.e. The Kashghari call it Sdrigh Cbupdnf On for the WRARNY * CWPAN) CWPAN) tended Elias comments (op. The other. 179 and 183) and has usually been identified with the Sarikol Rashid-ad-Din range in Western Kashgharia. but see Pelliot. The valley of the Upper Panja (i. 353-4) to Sarigh Chupan (SARYF and adds that the people of Badakhshan call the frontier [between Badakhshan and Wakhan] Dardzukbdn. more northerly route lay along the valley of the Pamir River which rises in the Lake Oxus. all his soldiers that sojourned in houses in that town. 17 When he drew near to 18 he mistook the road (as it was right that *Sarigh-Chopan. have followed this route. 18 i. " ef de M. The same name occurs in RashidNotes sur le Turkestan ad-Din (Smirnova. Yellow Cliff*. n.. And the Mongol army set out in pursuit of Kuchlug . is may have been some point along the former. and that it points to the long narrow valley of the upper Panjah. and so they chased him like a mad dog until he came to the borders of Badakhshan and entered the valley which is called Darra-yi-*Dirazi. 354. the one of the two alternative routes for Marco Sarhadd river or Ab-i-Vakhan) Polo's journey to Kashghar from the West. Barthold. long regarded after its discovery by it is also possible that Kuchlug in his flight from Kashghar. In view of these considerations Smirnova has suggested H 67 . It should be noted however that * the frontier of agrees with Juvaini that Kuchlug was captured and killed on * * Badakhshan (Khetagurov. Ser Marco Polo : Notes and Addenda. 38 and 39. i) : I expect that the term inDarazi-i-Wakbdn or Dardz-Wakban. dt. 17 Reading DRAZY for the WRARNY of the text (for which D has WRAZY). See Yule. and caused a herald to proclaim in the town that each should abide by his own religion and follow his own creed. the Valley of *DirazL for the E Reading^SRl CWPAN See the following note. they would come up to him . dL. has SRX CWPAN) SRX JWYAN in accordance with the version of the text (for which of this passage In Mirza Haidar (Eiias-Ross. 179 and 183) and that the valley * is therefore presumably located further west (darra) which is called Sariq-Qol than the Sarikol. were annihilated in one moment. Mirza Haidar refers elsewhere (op. like quicksilver upon the ground. sometimes known in modern days as Sarigb Chupan or Sarbad. 292).e. 55).

7) that the reference may Kol * perhaps be to the region around the Sanghi. darrd] of Sir-ikol *. even towards them the valley . advances day by day in prosperity and If consideration. These are Kiichliig and his followers. vi. Some Badakhshani huntsmen were hunting in the neighbouring mountains. As * * though it be not his own religion. . and raised up other generations to succeed Thus the region of Kashghar and Khotan up to an area which was under the command of the Sultan became subject to the world-conquering Emperor Chingiz-Khan. (179-80. took him prisoner and handed him over to the Mongols. we shall ask nothing more of you/ These men accordingly surrounded Kiichliig and his followers. 6. Koran. called also by the Russians Zor Kul. n. and this suggestion finds support in the fact that Wood's * Kirghiz informants called the valley of the Pamir the durah [i. Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Source of the Oxus.e. A It would appear 19 therefore that Kiichlug's flight westward like Polo's journey eastward lay along the one or the other of these two possible routes. while whoever fosters it. who cut off his head and bore it away with them.THE HISTORY OF he should do) and entered a valley which had no egress. the Yellow Lake *. the Mongols came to an agreement with the hunters. lights [51] at It God a candle. If you capture Kiichliig and deliver him up to us. Lake Victoria. was of a rugged nature and the going was difficult. How many generations have we Almighty hath said : them ? We had settled them on the earth as we have destroyed before not settled you. f and we made the rivers to fow heneath their feet : yet we destroyed them them! 19 in their sins. 332. See Wood. The people of Badakhshan received endless booty in jewels and money. and we sent down the very heavens upon them in copious And God rains. They caught sight of Kuchliig and his men and turned while the Mongols came up from the other side. whoever blows only burns his beard. And be it remarked that whoever molests the faith and law of Mohammed never triumphs. and so returned home. (or Sar-i Kol).e. escaped from our grasp. who have men/ they said.

and its tributary the Kemchik. and each army own or quarters. 21 Reading QM KMfiK for the QM KBfiK of the Qam-Kemchik i.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR he had seceded from Kiichliig doting and had gone to the region of Qamascendancy Kemchik. the Upper Yenisei. The Mongol army then withdrew. or rather Kem-Kemchik was the territory between the Kern. when Jalal-ad-Din repelled the attackers and bore him out of that strait. [52] and he was nearly taken prisoner. 22 Sbahwma ed. but the reference probably to the meant and not Toqto'a Beki (see above. i. 23 is is Here Qodu i) Qul-Toghan 6r. and the right wing of both armies routed its opponents. I beheld the like whole of the inhabitable globe in bkckness a miserable hovel mightest truly have said that it was a black pavilion its head unto the highest heaven. The rest of the Mongol army was emboldened by this success. n. What Is finer than a furious male lion. As they returned they were followed by the Sultan. 23 For a fuller account of the battle see below. 1632. the flight of the MerMt after text. its the sword of combat. Vullers. Thou raising Thereupon they sheathed rested in 20 p. when by the disappearance of the greater luminary the face of the world became as black as the face of evildoers and the back of the earth as dark as the belly of a well. and though they refrained from giving battle. the Sultan could not for As Toq-Toghan 20 the latter's : withhold himself but set his face towards the wilderness of error and hallucination. 2408. at the time when the shadow of the earth lay in ambush for the steed of light.e. and the fighting lasted the evening prayer. 21 In the trail of his flight Chingiz-Khan dispatched his eldest son Tushi with a large army in order to destroy him he cleansed away his evil and left no trace of him. Last night. 69 . battle on the Irtish. As he was not rebuffed by admonishments they prepared for action. they attacked the centre where the Sultan was stationed in person . Both sides attacked. his loins ? girded before his father 22 And till the battle continued all that day.

As for the Sultan. to an accursed Devil. and every ' beginning its end. he charged the inhabitants of these parts to forsake their pure Hanafite faith for unclean heathendom. and he had assayed of the extent and size of the Sultan's that there remained no intermediary screen to had not been removed nor any enemy that could offer resistance. rays of the : After truth hath been made manifest. And as this door would not give way. as it was he also that destroyed other khans and princes.and the Christian monks. in his strength. he kicked it with his foot. MUHAMMAD OF KHOTAN MERCY BE UPON HIM !) (GOD'S AFTER Kiichliig had conquered Kashghar and Khotan and had abandoned the law of Christianity [53] for the habit of idolatry. 70 . whose delay or postponement is inconceivable. But everything has its limit. and ruthlessness. The pen bath dried up with respect to what already is! [IX] 'ALA-AD-DIN OF THE MARTYRED IMAM. yet he loosened the foundations of his power and was the first to attack him. and to turn from the light of Guidance to the wilderness of infidelity and and from allegiance to a merciful King to subservience darkness. and tyranny he wished to convince by proof and evidence the Mohammedan imams. do they hope to undo itj truth that is louni with a knot of which there is no undoing ? Meanwhile. he mobilized his armies and advanced against the Sultan. and that they came also their bravery and learnt knew Chingiz-Khan. and fury.THE HISTORY OF And when army. For though he did not achieve the complete destruction of the gur-khan. and by force they were compelled to don the garb and headdress of Error the sound of worship and the iqamat was abolished and prayers and takbirs were hushed. foes. of dreadful during the time that he cleansed the world he might have been called Chingiz-Khan's vanguard (yezek) that swept away everything in front of him.

who ap* proached Kiichliig. tbou dost 1 but build upon a crumbling slops. As and the martyred imam adduced decisive proofs. [54] and words of that bewilderment and shame overpowered the deeds wicked man . will not give in to me. The truth-speaking imam.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR And when thou bopest for the mpossiUf. lut the false doth stutter. poured from his lips. and in this strain he delivered a whole discourse. unfit to be uttered regarding the Holy Prophet. and turning towards said : them he In all this crowd what man affairs Is there who will dispute with me concerning was convinced that none of those present would dare to refute his words and disprove his argument and even though anyone should make a begin. But from that multitude there arose the Heaven-aided shaikh.' Con- sternation. e vinced that * if the covering were uncovered. Ala-ad-Din Muhammad of Khotan (may God illuminate his tomb and increase Us reward /) . con- the absence of courage speech enchained. girded the belt of truth about the loins of veracity and began to dispute about religion. and neither wrath nor punish- ning. Dust or ignore his puerilities and absurdities certain . an elegy on his son. 71 . the fire of wrath arose from . his voice rose . ' For the truth speaketh clearly. so that his tongue was severed and his Foul ravings. 1 From a poem by the well-known poet Abul-Hasan 'AU b. seated himself. but would certify his and confirm his falsehoods. the imam in very deed. Muhammad at-Tihami. yet for fear that fag lies of his violence he would fire restrain himself f and not attract to himself the up its death of calamity nor be like [the sheep] 3 with its own hoof . ignorant. A proclamation was made In the town. communicated thousand that all that * and his command was wore the garb of science and piety should present themselves upon the plain. More than three illustrious imams assembled there. I should not le more c and urged on by religious fervour was unable to tolerate but exclaimed. and fears * ment ? For in his corrupt mind he of religion and state. knowing that Kuchliig's presence and existence was but truth prevailed over falsehood and the wise over the nonentity and the beatified imam confuted the accursed Kiichliig.

and then the most excellent. 38.THE HISTORY OF be In thy mouth. ' of that prideful he gave to abjure Islam and embrace unbelief and * infidelity. be it cure or be it hurt/ And if poison from the hand of his beloved reaches the palate of the lover's soul. who will feed me and like give 3 me 3 to drink And this imam of Mohammed was as Salih among the people of Thamud. away become with bis predictions ! 2 The the alighting'place of the divine light will not home of a devil. xxiii. and then the next most excellent.' then the 'Affliction is enjoined and He was as patient as Job. in conformity with the verse. like Joseph in the well of their tastes prison. and struggled true lover. and says : For the when in the sweetness of love he and a boundis sweet. 72 . hungry and food and sustenance was withheld from thirsty. Away. 40. p. thou accursed Kuchliig ! When command these hard words reached the ears Guebre. accounts it a fresh gain * All that comes from thee less felicity. See above. n. 4 The prophet (peace he upon Urn I) hath saints. besides being a Christian saint has also 3 become a Mohammedan prophet. George of England. One may mistress. said : the tortures overcome with grief as was Jacob and tried with of Jirjis. upon the prophets. although he was a guest at the table of I shall pass the night For several days with my Lord. thou enemy of the ' faith. eat poison from the hand of a silver-breasted from the sweetness of his taste he discovers the sweetness of honey and sugar in the bitterness of colocynth and aloes and says : If I were givtn poison to drink by the hand of my Moved. 17. moment who [55] it has greater confidence in 4 Jirjis is St. and worldly ' him. he was kept naked and fettered. the sting of suffering. from her hand poison would le an agreeable drink And when 2 a luminous heart receives its light from the niche of the divine lamp. every Koran. that 'Ata-ad-Din should be seized and forced that unclean wretch. that lewd unbeliever.

men of godly fear 3 will fa the future mansions ! letter surely for Will ye not then 5 comprehend? And of the so he passed hereafter. intimidation and chastisement and his outer form had not deviated from that of that which his inner essence namely. for such affairs may be fraught with danger. Finally. and already in this world he event And when this remove the evilness 5 Koran. in order of Kiichliig. to had fallen out. this may be a shield against the blows of calamities. inquiry. and for the dung-hill verdure of this present world. Friend hath gone to friend. certainty. nor can it ever be imprisoned in the fire of hell ! that it is a complete fraud and a notorious fault to exchange the permanent for the evanescent.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR faith. from the prison of the world to the paradise and flew from the lowest alighting-place to the highest abode. in a short space dispatched the Mongol army against him. which is but the sport and plaything of children. confirmation and door of his school which up his soul to God. Forsake thyself that thou mayst come to the street of thy beloved. vi. and instructing his fellow- creatures that faith cannot be destroyed by the punishments of the dust-heap of this transient world. even though it be racked and tormented with the pains of torture. after they had tried every wile that lies in the nature misguided people promises. is God Almighty and hath said: Life in this world but a play and a pastime . Dost thou for thorn seek union with thy beloved? Then court affliction. threats. and rose may both be together. they crucified him upon the he had built in Khotan. 73 . God Almighty. to barter away the comforts and pleasures ' of the world to come. inveiglements. lover to lover what in all the world is more beautiful than this ? If a man place his arm around the neck of his purpose. 32. and he delivered chanting the creed of His oneness and composed o was bound up with faith.

the Sultan of Khotan also revolted ing The giir-khan led his army against him and at against him. conquered. 74 .THE HISTORY OF tasted the omened life Us rest! wicked deeds and punishment of his foul and and in the hereafter the torment of hellfire. in the (Rockhttl. he might rid himself of him once and for all while if he yielded obedience but treated .' [X] OF THE CONQUEST OF THE REGIONS OF 1 ALMALIGH. xxvi. 42. Fulad or Pulad river Bore (it * is the Persian far Bretschneider. that ( God Almighty find out what a hath said : But shall they that treat them unjustly 6 lot awaiteth them. . perhaps in the fertile valley ' tdf which discharges itself into the Ebinor '. according to from lake Sairam. . Arslan-Khan obeyed his command and Moslems gently hastened to present himself before him. of the facturing arms*2 Like Ozar of Almaligh the ruler of Qayaligh was a Qarluq Turk. This he did the same so that if he too with the motive of putting him to death should rebel like the other chieftains. 6 1 But one ofthegiir-khans Koran. QAYALIGH AND FULAD TOGETHER WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE RULERS THEREOF J DURING Arslan-Khan the reign of the gur-khan the ruler of this area was one 2 who was assisted in the government of Qayaligh. II. Hududj 286-97. the and showed no energy in the campaign also he might withdraw his neck against Khotan. thereof by the shahna of the gtir-khan. who had formerly occupied territory farther to the West. not very word for steel ') was situated. time sought aid from Arslan-Khan. On the Qarluq. And True Guidance hath his ill- Ill k Heresy hath learnt. see Minorsky. 228. on this pretext from the noose of life.) Chu basin. When the giir-kban's fortunes began to decline and neighbouring princes were breaththe fire of rebellion. 137. It is the Bolat of * ' * where the Teuton skves of Buri were digging for gold and manuRubruck. since the the Hanafite faith cannot te destroyed.

who had long been on terms of friendship and intimacy with him. whose name was Ozar 4 and who used to steal the peoples' horses from the herds and to commit other criminal actions. the giir-kban's agent having become tyrannous and cruel in his treatment of the people. obtained his son's appointment in his place. thy house and thy children will also be The best course for the welfare of thy children will extirpated. informed him * of the gtir-kbans intention. And so he continued until he took Almaligh. He then used to enter the villages. which is the chief town of that region. sending a sbabna to accompany Such was the state of affairs for some time. p. and if in any place the people refused to yield him obedience he would seize that place by war and violence. Old Turkish meant chamberlain See above. On several occasions Kiichlug marched against him. be for thee to drink poison and so to escape from the affliction of an ill-omened life and an iniquitous ruler. as he had promised. and was encouraged with expressions of favour and attention . as Kiichlug and to announce his own enrolment amongst the He servants and liegemen of the world-conquering Emperor. Shamur. and added : If he makes some attempt against thee.* Having no other refuge or asylum. a man of great valour. him with honour. n. And in Almaligh there was one of the Qarluq of Quyas. MWR TYANKW. Shamur Tayangu by name. 75 . and subjugated the whole dismissed he also captured Fulad.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR 3 commanders. he was slain by ArslanKhan's son. 12. and was defeated every time. 65. Thereupon. where he was received with marks of special condescension and favour. until the fame of Chingiz-Khan [57] and his rise to power was diffused abroad. with his own hand he sipped a fatal potion and gave up the ghost. I will then be thy instrument and will establish thy son in thy place. at 8 Chingiz-Khan's 4 command tayangu in he became allied in * marriage to *. who then made his way to the Court of ChingizKhan. such as highway robbery etc. whereupon he sent a messenger to Chingiz-Khan to report on country. He was joined by all the ruffians of that region and so became very powerful. and the giir-'kban him.

God-fearing man and gazed with the glance of reverence upon ascetics. but his son. points out. this must be. Chingiz-Khan bade him refrain from the chase lest he and should unexpectedly become the prey of other huntsmen he presented him with a thousand head as a substitute for game of Nevertheless. until one day. proceeded to Court in person. that our treasures are [58] * become somewhat depleted. The people of Almaligh closed their gates and joined battle with them.THE HISTORY OF the foundations of his servitude had been in obedience to the orders of Chingiz-Khan he strengthened. which he presented to the Sufi. having been distinguished with all manner of honours. sheep. 5 As He 235. I day a person in the garb of the Sufis approached am come upon an embassy to thee from the Court of Power and Glory. Now therefore let Ozar give aid Ozar to refuse/ by means of a loan and not hold it lawful arose and made obeisance to the Sufi. when he returned to Almaligh. Ozar. devoted himself to hunting. As for Arslan-Khan. : After Ozar's death his son Siqnaq Tegin obtained the royal good will: his father's office was bestowed upon him. not the Arslan-Khan who had poisoned concludes that Arslan-Khan must have been rather himself. was a pious. and my message is thus. an 76 . When he departed. It different version of Chingiz-Khan's rektions with the rulers of Qayaligh. The Secret History. who trapped in his hunting-grounds by bound him in chains and bore him off with them to the gates of Almaligh. being taken unawares.Q. Then he ordered one of his servants to bring a * Make balish of gold. their upon the road. being unable to withhold himself from that sport . although rash and foolhardy. Tushi. and he was given one of Tushfs daughters to wife. he was the troops of Ktichliig. suddenly received news of the arrival of the Mongol army the gates of Almaligh and slew they turned back from prisoner But in the meanwhile they had and . he again As . and was kindly received there. saying thou hast communicated to Him thy excuses to the Master after my duty/ Whereupon the Sufi took the gold and departed. gives a somewhat hereditary title than a name. while tears rained down from his eyes. One him saying. 5 he was sent back to Qayaligh and he M.

2 decided to journey together to the countries of the East. journey he passed away.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR too received a royal maiden in marriage. articles of dress were a great amongst them and the advantages of trading with them well known. 77 . 9. p. uncertain. And there were not settled in any town [59] and since the Mongols was no concourse of travellers to them. The spelling is The name of a Tajikistan. he joined him with his men and rendered him great assistance. was honoured by Chingiz-Khan and was On the homeward his He was succeeded by son in the [XI] OF THE REASON FOR THE ATTACK ON THE COUNTRIES OF THE SULTAN IN the latter part of his reign he had brought about complete peace and quiet. Siqnaq Tegin. according to Barthold. and had achieved the extreme of prosperity and well-being. cottons. 64. Ahmad of Khojend. 1 the son of the Emir Husain and Ahmad Balchikh. confirmed in the governorship of Almaligh. 113). n. And when Chingiz- Khan marched against the Sultan's empire. 6 Apparently 0:zkend on the Syr Darya. See above. 1 2 3 Now Leninabad in cloth manufactured in the village of Zandana (or Zandan. He was then however favourably received and promised one of the Khan's daughters in marriage. Turkestan. too. For this reason three persons. some fourteen miles north of Bokhara. in the uttermost West or the farthermost East. and having assembled an immeasurable quantity of merchandise goldembroidered fabrics. and security and tranquillity. One of ArsknKhan's children is still alive. zanfanicbi 3 and whatever else they merchants and rarity was not until his general Qubilai had marched against the Qarluq that ArslanKhan came to do homage. The text has BALHYH. year 651/1253-4. thither merchants would bend their steps. Mengii Qa'an gave him the fief of Ozkend 6 and because of the claims of his father to their gratitude he held him in high honour. the roads were secure and disturbances allayed: so that wherever profit or gain was displayed.

Then their merchandise brought to distributed as plunder. and his he sent for his companions and had him in its entirety.* These words were accepted that for each lalisb balish and approved. their habitations rebels. Balchikh demanded three lalish of gold for pieces of fabric each of which he had bought for ten or twenty dinars at most. Their companion his wares purchased at were shown to all three. while upon whatever merchandise was worthy of the Khan's acceptance should be sent to him together with the owner. Although [60] the Mongols importunately inquired as to the value of their * wares the merchants refused to fix a price but said : have We brought these fabrics for the Khan. the qaraqchis were pleased with Balchikh's fabrics and other wares and accordingly dispatched him to the Khan. each of them. and Chingiz-Khan commanded piece of gold-embroidered fabric they should be paid a of gold and for every two pieces of cotton or zandanichi a of silver. and that his wares should be listed (Jar qalam avarUa) and then person detained. At the time of these merchants* return Chingiz-Khan ordered his sons* noyans and commanders 78 to equip. Having opened out and displayed his merchandise. and for their dignity and comfort would erect them clean tents of white felt . was also called back and the same prices and honour and favour . Ahmad For in those days the Mongols regarded the Moslems with the eye of respect. He demolished and the whole region purged of had then posted guards (whom they call qaraqchis) the highways and issued a yasa that whatever merchants arrived in his territory should be granted safe conduct.THE HISTORY OF thought suitable they set their faces to the road. When this group of merchants arrived on the frontier. By that time most of the Mongol tribes had been defeated by Chingiz-Khan. but to-day on account of their calumny one of another and other defects in their morals they have rendered themselves thus abject and ragged. and exclaimed : Chingiz-Khan was enraged at his boastful talk Does this fellow think that fabrics have never * been brought to us before ? And he gave orders that Balchikh should be shown the fabrics from the stores of former khans that * were deposited in his treasury. two .

engage in commerce there and so party They obeyed his command. Then Chingiz-Khan * sent the following message to the Sultan : Merchants from your country have come among us. * On remarquera et que 'inalftq signifie prince titre en jaghatai (a peu pres soi un I. not knowing * The * It is the text has JQ. On this Turkish name Pelliot-Hambis. Without pausing to think the Sultan sanctioned the shedding of their blood and deemed the seizure of their goods to be lawful. He therefore placed them under arrest. 6 Now amongst the merchants was an Indian who had been acquainted with the governor in former times. or title see Turkmen (Turcoman) 79 . gbtytr or rather gayir being the equivalent of the Eastern qadtr. (Pelliot. the governor of that town one Inalchuq.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of a or three persons from their dependents and give them capital balisb of gold or silver.) 5 Princess Terken (or Tergen. and [61] being rendered proud by reason of the power and might of his own Khan he did not stand aloof from this at him nor have regard to his own interests. On account Ghayir-Khan became annoyed and embarrassed. 5 and had the party arrived at Otrar. * AYNAL AYNAL JWQ and E AYNAL CWQ. received the title of Ghayir-Khan. spelt TRKAN).e. each dispatching two or three people from his retinue. B diminutive form of the Turkish word ml. so that in this way four hundred and fifty Moslems were assembled. 4 who was a kinsman of the Sultan's mother. the same time he conceived a desire for their property. CampagneSj 89-91. and the pus of sedition and rebellion removed/ When was Terken Khatun. that they might proceed with this to the Sultan's territory. and that henceforth the abscess of evil thoughts may agreement between be lanced by the improvement of relations and us. aussi Hen qu'un nom/ pourrait done" etre en " k Turkestan de M. acquire strange and precious wares. * 6 I. And we have likewise dispatched to your country in their company a group of merchants in order that they may acquire the wondrous wares of those regions . the Mighty Khan '. and we have sent them back in the manner that you shall hear. and sent a messenger to the Sultan in Iraq to inform him about them. 52-3. Notes sur comme ml) BartMd.e. He now addressed the latter simply as Inalchuq .

Having acquainted himself with the state of affairs and ascertained the position of his friends. saying I was not the author of this trouble alone to the * : . nay rather he desolated and laid waste a whole world and rendered a whole creation without home. Our property was plunder. turned his face towards the earth and for three days and nights offered up prayer. bared his head. and our counsels hut the advice of one another. Khan went up 80 .THE HISTORY OF that his own life that the bird of his prosperity would become unlawful. money and goods . property or leaders. For every drop of their blood there flowed a whole Oxus . to the Khan and and the whirlwind of anger cast dust into the eyes of patience and clemency while the fire of wrath flared up with such a flame that it drove the water from his eyes and could be quenched only by the shedding of blood. clothing. And they drove away our leasts of burden and led off our chargers beneath loads that crushed their saddles. our affairs in a state of anarchy. what had been acquired by purchase and stored up in treasuries. made his way informed him of what had befallen his These tidings had such an effect upon the Khan's companions. in retribution for every hair on their heads it seemed that a hundred thousand heads rolled in the dust at every crossroad. Before this order arrived one of the merchants devised a stratagem and escaped from the straits of prison. and would be lopped of feather and wing. He whose of deeds. nay a crime. To this hath Fate condemned some of her people . and our hopes in vain . soul hath understanding looketh to the capital Ghayir-Khan in executing his command deprived these men of their lives and possessions. he set his face to the road. [62] In this fever Chingiz- summit of a hill. Loads of furniture. mind that the control of repose and tranquillity was removed. and in exchange for every dinar a thousand qintars were exacted. the calamities of some appear a feast to others.

Bizhan's picture is still painted on the walls of palaces he is in the prison of Afiasiyab. while whoever plants the grant me from the strength to exact vengeance/ hill. hundreds and tens. . disposed the two wings and the vanguard. Sultan because of the harshness of his disposition and the violence And of his custom and nature was involved in grave danger . the fugitives from his army. as has been previously mentioned. he first sent an army to deal with their mischief and sedition. proclaimed a new yasa. And since Kiichliig and Toq-Toghan. lay across his path. the great emirs. so that he might prepare for war and equip himself with thrusting and striking weapons. He then dispatched envoys to the Sultan to remind him of the treachery which he had needlessly occasioned and to advise him of his intention to march against him. meditating action and sapling of opposition by common consent gathers the fruit so the beatified thereof namely repentance and regret. If thou doest evil. and in the end his posterity had to taste the bile of punishment therefor and his successors to suffer the bitterness thou dost punish thyself. the noyans and the thousands. and in the year 615/1218-19 commenced the march [63] With youthful Turkish warriors whose onslaught left the thunder neither sound nor fame . [XII] OF THE ADVANCE OF THE WORLD-CONQUERING KHAN AGAINST THE COUNTRIES OF THE SULTAN AND THE CAPTURE OF OTRAR WHEN had his settled the dust of the seditions of Kiichliig and Toq-Toghan and the thought of them had been dismissed from mind. Now it is a fully established fact that whoever sows a dry root never reaps any harvest therefrom. of adversity. Si . he equipped and instructed his sons. the eye of Fate is not asleep.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Thereupon he descended making ready for war.

collaborated with 1023-6 and 1054-5) he afterwards Tolan Cherbi in the capture of two forts in what is now Northern Afghanistan.Q. Muhammad al~Ghazzi in praise of the Turks. 82 . ' excuse \ he came to the region of Qayaligh. and had then been distinguished with favour) of self set out from thence with his own men in the Khan's retinue.THE HISTORY OF Had the bouse of they passed hurriedly by Qarun. the citadel.) According to Juzjani (Raverty. was multiplied. the outworks (fail). by 1 he would not have had nightfall for very indigence the wherewithal of a meal 2 They were bring archers who by the shooting of down a hawk from the hollow of the ether. had given Ghayir-Khan fifty thousand men from his auxiliary (limnl) army and had sent Qaracha Khass[64] Now the Sultan Hajib. from amongst he 3 princes of that country Arslan-Khan (who had previously accepted submission and servitude and had guarded himself When punishment by humility and contempt and riches. 1004. First of all they came to the town of Otrar With awesomeness such that the lightning dared not step forward nor the thunder preach aloud. a famous qasida by Abu-Ishaq Ibrahim b. and from Almaligh Siqnaq Tegin with men that and by these the number of his troops were veteran warriors against the severity of his . the Korah of the Old Testament. But first he dispatched a party of envoys to the Sultan to warn him of his resolve to march against him and exact vengeance For be that warnetb hath an for the slaying of the merchants. And from Besh-Baligh there joined him the idi-qut with his followers. was proverbial for his great riches. and the town wall had been well 1 2 From Qarun. 3 (M. to his aid with another ten thousand : moreover. marriage-night and considered the pricks of lances the kisses of fair maidens. They pitched his tent (bargah) in front of the citadel. an arrow would and on dark would cast out a fish nights with a thrust of their spear-heads who thought the day of battle the from the bottom of the sea.

when the position Qaracha Ghayir about surrendering and sent to desperate. towns. of countless hosts and splendid troops. the c^ln-Ahg h (Haenisch. 39. temporary The Chinese sources. * ' c sea fay* boiled Vullers has ti-junM bamm the plain was set in motion \ 5 Le. army that was charged with the investment As cavalry could be used on every side. Feldzuge Cin^ts Han's und Pa-erhKrause. It lay somewhere the right bank of the Syr Darya. His eldest son he sent to Jand and active and Barjligh-Kent 7 with soldiers . the garrison kept up a continuous battle and resisted for a space of five months. i 8? . the sea boiled with the noise of the drums.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR strengthened. where looking forth he bit the back of his hand in amazement at the unexpected For he perceived that the plain had become a tossing sea sight. BARJLYT KNT. of the people of Otrar had become Finally. and when the troops were assembled there. Chingiz-Khan dispatched 5 each of the leaders in a different direction. 37) state simply that Jochi attacked Yang-chi-kan (Yangi-Kent). With his finger he pointed to the army on the plain. 633 and 642. Die *Shabnama ' ed. 527) and the Yuan sbib (ffi#v 530. Vullers. Juzjani and NasawL See Barthold. leaving Ogetei and Chaghatai in command of the of Otrar. questioned 11. the earth ebony. The Jand and Sughnaq. ready for battle within the for his part. a there host to which was no end. while the air was full of clamour and uproar from the neighing of armoured horses and the roaring of mail-clad lions. town. and a great quantity of instruments of war collected having made everything Ghayir-Khan together. 4 The army formed all several circles around the citadel . He himself proceeded against Bokhara. For K-juskSl & 1 Turkestan. The air became blue. See Chapter XIII for a detailed account of this expedithe contion down the Syr Darya. 473. while a number of 6 several tiimen his of brave commanders were Khojend and Fanakat. posted infantry and cavalry at the gates and himself mounted the wall . which is passed over in complete silence by Moslem historians. Tushi (Jochi). Ibn-al-Athir. chen (Barchin) and other letzten 6 The ruins of Jand are situated not far from Kzyl Orda (the former Perovsk) on 7 Barchin of Carpini and the Parch'in (the Venice between edition has the corrupt form Kharch'in) of Kirakos. Sbfagwu seln Tod.

and the Mongols looted whatever goods and wares there were to be found. As for Ghayir. If/ he * said. princes * Thou hast been unfaithful to thy own Finally. Naya'a of the Ba'arin. the groom of Ong-Khan's son.. Thus Kokochii. examine them closely in every manner. both wearers of the veil and those that donned kulah and turban.THE HISTORY OF delivering up the town to the Mongols. * how shall we excuse our treachery. Jamuqa. were beheaded for their the other hand. M9. but waited until When the sun became its invisible to the skirt world and the dark night drew 8 over the day. Vullers. we are unfaithful to our master (meaning the Sultan). (Secret History. he sallied forth with the greater part of his army from the Sufi- Khana Gate. knowing conciliation to * be inexpedient. a bitter enemy of Chingiz-Khan. to the princes together fit him The saw to : Therefore neither can we expect fidelity of thee/ They caused 9 . he continued to struggle with all his might. 474.. for his part. 1. who had 200.) So too the betrayers of the Conqueror's great rival. did not persist in his argument. Senggiim. On persuaded his father and brother to release a captured Tayichi'ut chieftain. When The darkness of the East was dispersed by a perpendicular line from the radiant morning. Accordingly. companions while all the guilty and innocent of Otrar. (ttid. 653. (Itid. together with twenty thousand brave men and him and all his to attain the degree of martyrdom Shahnama ed. and under what pretext shall we escape from the reproaches of the Moslems ? Qaracha. and [65] he knew of no loophole through which he might escape. the night The Tartar army entered by the same gate during and took Qaracha prisoner. were driven forth from the town like a flock of sheep. 188. they declared master in spite of his claims on thee on account of past favours.) pains. This was typical of the Mongols' attitude in such cases. they bore with some of his officers. was executed by Chingiz-Khan for 9 8 having left his master to perish in the desert. and would not countenance surrender. But Ghayir knew that he was the cause of these troubles and could not expect his life to be spared by the Mongols .) 84 . was actually rewarded for his conduct.

either to serve in the levy as And long as one of them had breath in his . (M. And those of the common people and artisans that had escaped the sword they bore away with them. to Samarqand they proceeded thither From Muthallam a qasida by Mutanabbi. after he had tried many wiles. Meanwhile his companions had attained the degree of martyrdom and he had no arms left. no one remaineth in world for ever.Q. he was led into the snare of captivity and was The citadel and the firmly bound and placed in heavy chains. but together with his two companions he still would not surAnd as the soldiers had been ordered to take him render. and for this reason many from the Mongol army were slain.Q. in obeying this order they prisoner might not kill him. a poet of the Hamasa. and not to slay him in battle. and still he continued to do battle and would not turn tail and flee.) 85 . clamouring on our side and on 11 theirs. walls were levelled with the street and the Mongols departed. and made many attacks. The lances are the clamour of hungry crocodiles.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR lion-like warriors he took refuge in the citadel . And so the battle went on for a whole month [66] until only Ghayir and two others were left. this young and old. and felled many men. had come from Bokhara 10 11 when Chingiz-Khan (hashar) or to practise their trade. Riyah al-Murri.) b. Maidens then handed him bricks from the wall of the palace and when And these too were exhausted the Mongols closed in on him. And (M. and in accord- ance with the verses The taste of death of death in in a despicable cause is like the taste a gnat cause We are all destined to die. body they continued to fight. they set their hearts upon death and having bid themselves farewell sallied forth fifty at a time and spitted their bodies upon spears and swords. The Mongol army entered the citadel and confined him to the roof.

have AYDY). On the Titles Given in Juvaini to Certain Mongolian Princes.. 1 1. Tumen-Aryk 86 .THE HISTORY OF also. Turkestan. 13 hand [XIII] OF THE ADVANCE OF ULUSH-IDI l AGAINST JAND.. see Vladimirtsov. upon approaching the town of Suqnaq. 171) with the J$-jut9 the ruler of the Uighur. the Ulus-Idi of Rashid-ad-Din. lie some six or seven miles north of the in Kazakhstan. whom no can as weapon repel. whom no guile can prevent. 1234. just he too had delegated emirs and troops to represent him in the other armies. 512. known as Sunak-Kurgan. is the way of high Leaven . Le regime social des Mon&ols. he put this intention into action and hastened off with a band of warriors like unto Fate. they caused drink the cup of annihilation Such it him and don in the Kok-Sarai the garb 12 to of eternity. in the one holds a crown. which lies Apparently a suburb of Samarqand surrounding a palace of this name (which was afterwards given to a palace built for Tamerlane). In the month of . Vullers. 2 SQNAQ. and Ulus-Idi has been identified by Berezin (XV. was bestowed upon Jochi after his death to avoid the mention of his real name. The ruins of Sughnaq or Si'qnaq. Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. r) with Jedei Noyan ' of the Manqut tribe. As for Ghayir. 416. or to Death. 179. 412. (Jochi). where I suggest that this tide. i. 13 Sbabtutm ed. in the other a noose. AND THE CONQUEST OF THAT REGION THE world-obeyed command of the world-conqueror ChingizKhan had been issued to the effect [67] that he should free that region from the hands of enemies and that he should be accompanied by emirs representing each of the sons and kinsmen. Turkestan. Tushi See my article.e. and by Barthold (Turkestan. 199-201) has represented the former as a general in joint command with the latter.. 124 et $eq$. On the ulus or * peuple-patrimoine as distinct from the of land. post station of (for ALS AYDY which B and D ALWS See Barthold. Not realizing that Ulus-Idi and Jochi were one and the same person. 'the lord of the uks'. also below. 148-52. See Barthold. like Ulugh-Noyan in the case of Tolui. the ywt or apanage mwtuq. n. First 12 2 of all.

87 . in reality. and advancing from thence the Mongols took Ozkend 4 and Barjligh-Kant. that assault was the cause of the opening of their jugular vein and that violence was the reason appointed time for the death of f all that multitude. by virtue of his acquaint- followers.. the Mohammedan trader whom the Mongols of Ozkend is tered at Baljuna. For seven days they proceeded as he had commanded and took the town by storm. enflamed with the fire of anger. closing the door of forgiveness and mercy and in avenging one single individual expunging from the life record of almost every trace of their existence. This Hasan Hajji. op. the rogues. op. place The government of that that was entrusted to the son of the murdered Hasan Hajji that he might gather together the survivors still remained in odd corners . cit. p. not known : See Barthold. water^hoh! When Ulush-Idi received tidings of he turned his standards against Suqnaq. 4 See above. 179. the garrison of which town 3 consisted mainly of rogues Hajji. probably encoun- Hasan was already suggested by Barthold. may Jiave been 5 ANAS.) and n. at. to be identified with Asan. 4. and shouting (shaman va aubash va mnud) of the town raised an * 'Allah akbar ! did him to death holding action for one of holy war and desiring a great reward for . as and ruffians (mnud va 414. 9. When the is at hand. conquering Emperor and was enrolled In the tanks of his After delivering his message. the camel hovers around the this. dt. the slaying of this Moslem. The (Secret History. 17 miles from the river and 20 from the post station of Ber-Kazan. 64 it X79ruins of Ashnas (known as Asanas) are situated on the left bank of the Syr Darya. where since [68] the people made no great resistance there was no general slaughter. he sent on Hasan Hajjl 3 In advance as his envoy.. In his capacity of had long been attached to the service of the worldmerchant. rascals and their ruffians uproar. Having entered Suqnaq he communicated his message but before he came to the advice. op.. n. he ordered his troops to fight in relays from morn till night. 5 They next proceeded against Ashnas. 182. whereas.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR on the banks of the river near Jand. is aubash). See Barthold. and. The precise position situated in the Kara-Tau mountains. ance and kinship with the Inhabitants he was to give them advice and call upon them to submit so that their lives and property might go unscathed.

chin true iron *. Chin-Temur. elsewhere (Blochet. Rashid-ad-Din states in one place (Khetagurov. He used conciliatory language but warned them against showing hostility. the commander-in-chief. The common people raised 8 to give Chin-Temur like Hasan an uproar and attempted an unpalatable potion. ingenuity. Qutlugh-Khan. Returning those to life Ulush-Idi he recounted his experiences. } 415. and he concluded a with them saying that he would not allow the foreign army treaty to interfere with Jand. and described also the weakness and impotence of the people and the divergence of their views and passions. 8 I. n. 482) that he was a Qara-Khitayan. When crossing the river made across the desert the Mongols received tidings of his departure and of the evacuation of Jand by his forces. Barthold.e. Qara-Khitai amongst the poisoned both like Hasan Hajji and like Hasan. suggests that he was probably indebted to the for his education or else may have been a Qara-Khitayan living Ongtit. who was by one of his wives. kindness and conciliation allayed their passions by recalling the affair of Suqnaq and the fate of who had murdered Hasan Hajji. JNTMWR. complied with the proverb He that escapeth with his head hath gained thereby ': he rose up like a man. Cf. For his further history see below. in a speech fraught with shrewdness. the op. and femur The name * is Turkish and means True Iron ' * from *. ' When and towards Khorazm. the * name Edgii-Temur Good Iron as also compounds with Mad steel '. the son of *Ali. 6 turned his back in the night-time. the attempt on his and its aversion by flattery and soft words. The inhabitants were pleased with the advice and the agreement and did him no injury. i. 6 7 * Although the Mongol army had * The * expression must be used ironically. 141) that he belonged to the Ongiit tribe. together with a large army which the Sultan had assigned to the defence of that district. news of these events arrived in Jand. . 37) he reproduces Juvaini's statement (II. 8*. dt. Kiil-Bolat (* Glorious Steel ') and MengiiBolad ('Eternal Steel'). they sent Chin-Temur 7 upon an embassy to the inhabitants. set his face to the road. Since there was no absolute leader or governor in Jand. each man spoke according to what in his eyes seemed right or expedient.THE HISTORY OF who fought very bravely so that the greater part of them were martyred. perceiving their intentions. 218. ii.

but where it is described as the reading of G.) into splinters !' (Prescott. 89 . No one was hurt on either side. has adopted Kara Kom desert to the north-east of the Sea of Aral (not to be confused with the other Kara between Khiva and Merv). Safar. On the 4th of 616 [2ist of April. apart from closing the gates and seating themselves festival. viz. . which battery-train in demolishing the buildings might take the place of the regular . and the besieged. a similar soldier who episode during the siege of Mexico in 1521. * to mount the walls of a fortress ? However. on the walls and embattlements like spectators at a since the greater preparations for battle. vii. saying. But. At length the work was finished. it rose high and perpendicularly into the air. History of the Conquest of Mexico. Qara-Qorum.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR intended [69] to rest at Qara-Qum 9 and not to attack Jaad 9 for this reason they turned their bridles thitherward and directed their attention towards the capture of that town. The Mongols afterwards brought the inhabitants out of the town. ch. 1219] they halted in front of Jand. when the possible made no And How had been built and the Mongols laid their scaling-ladders the citadel. For nine days and nights propelled. they too were moved to action and began to against set a catapult in motion . and identified it with the in II. and since they had withdrawn their feet from battle they laid the hand of mercy upon their heads and spared their Eves though a small number of the chief men. The machinery was set in motion . and.Q.e. 37). descending whence it sprung. sides . instead of taking the direction of the Aztec buildings. catapults and scaling-ladders upon it. and the rocky fragment was discharged with a tremendous force from the catapult. * had served in the Italian wars undertook to construct a sort of catapult. but a heavy stone in falling to earth smashed the iron ring of the very catapult by which it had been bridges Thereupon the Mongols scaled the wall from all and threw open the gates. 10 Cf. now looked with terror for its operation. broke the ill-omened machine Book VI. and the army busied themselves with filling the moat and setting up battering rams. . who with silent awe had beheld from the neighbouring azoteas the progress of the mysterious engine which was to lay the remainder of their capital in ruins. of great size. of the citizens had never had any experience of warfare. . the place of residence of the Qanqli"*. 10 9 The text has QRAQRWM. M. QRAQM. part c is it they marvelled at the Mongols* activities. who had been insolent to Chin-Temiir. The inhabitants of the town. a machine Kum A for discharging stones * . * i. were put to death. 101 (ii. .

It is however also and identify him with the Benal possible to read TAYNAL. lie * to the south of the Syr-Darya. The Mongolian Names and Terms. Yangi'-Kent (as in the corresponding passage in Rashid-ad-Din. 13 some ten thousand in number. This Tainal Noyan is probably the same as the T'enal Nuin of Grigor. fifteen miles from Kazalinsk '. who was marching quench the flame of their disorder and in advance. at. See le Strange. 311. returned to sedition and slew the greater part of them. while they looted the town.THE HISTORY OF they kept the inhabitants upon C the plain. 200). Lanis of the Eastern Caliphate. fortress of Jan Qal e a. See Cleaves. in Turkish New Town : the lankint of CarpinL Its ruins. op. in Turkish Turkmen) are the earlier Both the Seljuqs and the later Ottomans belonged to this branch of * the Turkish family. tit. 296). He became firmly established in this and came to be held in high repute . 430. now known as Jankent. Khoja to the government and They then appointed administration of Jand and entrusted the welfare of that district to his care.e. It is who the modern Charjui in Turkmenistan. for He captured the town [70] and left a sbahna there. and until the Decree of Death for his dismissal went forth from the Palace of Fate.) (in Persian Turkman. 13 op. more commonly known as Amul (not to be confused with the Amul in Mazandaran) was situated on the left bank of the Oxus about 120 miles to the north-east of Merv. were commanded to march against Khorazm with As A Tainal 14 Noyan at their head. BAYNAL accompanied Ghormaghun into Albania and Georgia (Grigor. 15 Amiiya. The name according to Deny means something like Turk The Turcomans Ghuzz. See Cleaves. 303. 403-4. This 'AH Khoja was a native of Qizhduvan u near Bokhara and had entered the service of the before their office rise to AH Mongols long power.. 14 See Minorsky. 12 11 Q2DWAN for the QRDWAN of the text The present-day I. band of Turcoman nomads. Tainal. 415-16. HuM. though some escaped by a hair's breadth and together with another army reached Merv and Amuya. 15 Reading Gizhduvan in Uzbekistan. about three miles from the former Khivan (Barthold. After a few days* march their unlucky ascendant caused and instigated them to slay the Mongol whom Tainal had set over them in his stead and to break into rebellion. he continued to occupy that post. To the town of Kent 12 there proceeded a commander with one tiimen of troops. Ulush-Idi he proceeded to Qara-Qum. Smir* * nova. pur sang*. 90 . 415-16.

[XIV] OF THE CAPTURE OF FANAKAT AND KHOJEND AND THE STORY OF TEMUR MALIK 1 and Taqai 2 with an army of five thousand men were dispatched to Fanakat The commander of this place was Iletgii 3 Malik. 233. 3 All three generals are mentioned in the list of commanders of a thousand in 202 of the Secret History. after the break with 120) : he belonged to the Suldiis Pelliot-Hambis. some the sword and others by a shower of arrows. 256). after there had been actual hostilities between the two rivals. the father of Teb-Tengri.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR where their numbers were greatly increased. he had ( like Siiyiketii joined Chingiz-Khan immediately tribe. 187). at. according to which Siiyiketii attached himself to Chingiz-Khan on the morning after the latter's breach with Jamuqa. came with his seven sons to declare his allegiance ( 130). With an army of Qanqli 4 he fought a pitched battle for three days. as shall be recorded in the proper place. As for Taqai (TQAY). Campagnes. 39). closely Cangle of Rtibruck) 91 . n. According to Rashid-ad-Din (Khetagurov. p. whereas it was not till some time later. His name means simply Temiir the malik '. citl). Alaq (ALAQ) was the brother of Naya'a of the Ba'arin (on see above. that Monglik. Sogetii (SKTW). also Khetagurov. L'Empire Mongol.. while the latter by surrender. 4 The Qanqli Turks were and the (the Cangitae of Carpini associated with the Qipchaq or Comans. 168) he was the brother of Kokchii or TebTengri. 255. not le Roi de fer as it is translated by Grousset. God willing. the shaman (see above. 8 On the spelling of his Jamuqa name see AYLTKW. Sogetii When the sun cast his lasso to the heights. and the Mongols made no progress until on the fourth day ALAQ NOYAN. op. This is however inconsistent with the facts as given in the Secret History (be. and Fate rose to high heaven their opponents begged Soldiers for quarter and came forth to make and burghers (arlab) were placed in separate groups whereupon the former were executed to a man. the Siiyiketii Cherbi of the Secret History (on the spelling see PelHot- 1 * * * whom Hambis. p. 84. 9. . belonged to the Qongqotan ( 120).

Now Temiir Malik had built twelve covered-in barges. Over a every ten detachments often of the Taziks there officer : was set Mongol foot they had to carry stones a distance of three and the Mongols. and they would engage in fierce conflicts. They therefore drove the young men of Khojend thither in a forced levy (hasbar) and also fetched rein- forcements from Otrar. it with a thousand fighting men and famous When the Mongol army arrived they found it impossible to capture the place immediately since it could be reached neither by bowshot nor by mangonel. 5 difficult and the moment had come to win at the time when the loaf-like disk of the The chief hero of the Sbahwma. all formed into detachments of tens and hundreds. When the They tried to situation had become fame or merit shame. they arrived before the town. unaffected by arrows. advanced Mongols Khojend. parasangs. the damp felt of the covering being smeared with clay kneaded with vinegar. Bokhara. he had a tall stronghold and had entered warriors. of 5 whom it might be said that had Rustam groom. while eye-holes had been left shoot [to on from]. both arrows and mangonels were though employed. The commander of the then citadel The on When was Temiir Malik. and keepers of hunting animals (a$hak-i-javarih) [71] were [to artisans assigned appropriate employment]. where the stream divides into fortified two arms. lived in his age he would have been fit only to be his In the middle of the river. by night he used to make surprise put a stop to this harrassing. so that fifty thousand levies and twenty thousand Mongols were assembled in that These were place. but to no avail. on horseback. and attacks on them. dropped these stones into the river. As for the fire. The craftsmen. 92 .THE HISTORY OF were drafted into hundreds and tens. Every day at dawn he would dispatch six of these barges in either direction. Samarqand and the other towns and villages. familiar to English readers from the Sobral and Kustam of Matthew Arnold. being and stones naphtha which the Mongols threw in the water he used to get rid of it all . the citizens took refuge in the citadel and found salvation from the calamities of Fate. and the young men amongst those remaining were pressed into the levy (hashar).

After he had fought in this manner for several days. in order to . When news of him reached ears of Ulush-Idi. and wherever they appeared in force there he proceeded in the barge and repelled them with arrows which. but still resisted. that still accompanied him had been slain and he had no weapon left save three arrows. he stationed troops in Jand. did not miss their mark. and fled like fire upon swift horses. took his baggage away from him. he turned to the desert. he was pursued by three Mongols. he embarked his luggage. so that one might have said [72] A lightning Jlasb has down the curtain of plunged into the darkness pulling night. 93 . wielding his sword And when the baggage had been removed some like a man. to the district of Jand and Barjligh. one broken and without a point. which he had prepared for the day of escape. Shooting the pointless arrow he blinded one Mongol in the eye. and so they continued. The army moved along the banks of the river. like Destiny. on either side the of the river. whilst he for his part would send on his baggage in advance and remain behind to do battle. a fash like the brandishing of a polished sword. held flash up torches men mounted and sped along over the water like a : of lightning. And so he drove the boats on until he came to Here the Mongols had drawn a chain across the river impede the boats. who grew daily stronger. The Mongol army followed close at his heels. Temiir Malik received tidings of the army awaiting him: and when he drew near to Barjligh-Kent. upon which he said to the * I begrudge using them I have two arrows left. most of his men had been killed or wounded and the Mongols. goods and kit on seventy boats. while he himself and a group of his a barge. two others : Fanakat. constructed a bridge of boats and held ballistas in readiness. He was left with only a handful of When the few followers.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR sun became food in the belly of the earth and the world from darkness was Uke a wretched hovel. though to no avail. He stuck it one blow and passed the armies attacking hitn from either side until he came through. leaving the water. distance he would follow on.

With a group of men he proceeded to the town of Kent. Le chapitre CVII. Arriving in Farghana he lived for several years in the town of Osh. When [73] he they are only . when these troubles had subsided and the Shahristana. the love of home and country were the cause of his return. considered it he set out after the inadvisable to remain any longer in Khorazm. According Qadan. QDQAN. would not accept him but story denied his identity.* And he sent for the slave. Temur approached him and said: * If you sawst thine own father. by the good will of the . nay he was urged thereto by heavenly decree. who His : I was but a suckling should not recognize him. as does also the to Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. on the upper reaches of the within the Soviet Republic of Kirghizia. with deposits had been made. After some years. * wouldst thou The son here replied I from him. slew the Mongol sbatma and retreated. There he met with his son. he gave proof of his abilities . he joined on the road to Sultan. and some other persons. who. It is in your best and so save your lives/ The Mongols accordand he reached Khorazm and again prepared ingly withdrew for battle. 71). had been granted (soyurghamisbt) his father's goods and possessions. for And wounds of Time had been healed. certified that it was indeed whom was noised abroad. whom a time. marks on Temiir's body. who calls him Yuan sUh (see Hambis. he was ordtt he sixth son of Ogedei and was brought up in the of his uncle Chaghatai. 7 now text. and all manner of words having passed between them Qadaqan questioned him concerning his fighting with the 6 Mongol army. to On this account he conceived the idea of Qa'an and being viewed with the eye of his condescengoing sion and mercy. 7 who ordered him to be put in bonds.THE HISTORY OF when interest to retire enough for you two. while the Sultan was moving to and fro. Court of Batu. 13). but after a while he departed for Syria in the garb and character of a Sufi. Upon the road he met with Qadaqan. Reading AWS for the ARS of the lies Syr Darya. But there is a slave would know him. 94 . to whom. know him again ? when I was parted ' seeing the he. 6 and being advised in the places of pilgrimage of the present state of affairs he used constantly to visit Khojend. Osh.

In the Mujam-al-Buldan the Apostle of authority of Huzaifa b. 95 . Vullers. 1 The work of Arab of geographer. Yaqut. and escaped from the There is no refuge from death ani no escape therefrom. it is thou that and thou too that mendest. in replying more that are In his to all he neglected the ceremonies of respect incumbent on those that speak in the presence of royalty. See also the Introduction. 1.. It is encompassed with Sbabnama ed. xxxii. 9 The wound proving dust-heap wilderness of to fatal he was removed from this transient the Abode of Eternity. 1 stated on the it is Samarqand. districts and but the kernel and cream thereof are Bokhara and townships. The stars bear witness thereto by feet. strange are thy deeds.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Sea and mountain have seen illustrious heroes how : I dealt with the of the Turanian host. and Qadaqan having questioned him closely. xxix 10 and 9 1155. the celebrated IW. which was the reply the arrows which he had discharged on that former occasion. a contemporary Juvaini. O breakest world. Ife*4 503. recognised him. [74] He writhed in agony and then heaved a sigh. he ceased to think of good or ill. pp. which city is named Bokhara. L 9^4. 10 [XV] A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF TRANSOXIANA comprises many countries. 488. anger Qadaqan let fly an arrow. 502-3. al-Yaman of Merv that ' God (God be gracious to him and gmnt him peace!) said: There TRANSOXIANA shall fa conquered a city in the 8 Kborasan beyond a river which is called Oxus . 489. my 8 valour is the whole world beneath my now The Mongol whom he had struck with the broken arrow. regions. 11..

is confirmed by the fact that the affairs of this world are relative ' f and that some evil is lighter than other . $26. so that at the present time. its dead. [75] as had been inscribed by the pen of Destiny in the roll of Fate. he contented himself with slaughtering and looting once only. As for the adjoining territories that were subject to these towns or bordered mission. in 658/1259-60. its people are Heavenand whoso shall sleep upon a bed therein shall he like him that draweth his sword in the way of God. It was the news of this victory over the Moslems that gave rise in Europe to the legend of Prester John. wherefrom shall be sent seventy thousand martyrs. as has been said : Under all slave [of circumstances gratitude best befitteth the God]. Chingiz-Khan came to these countries in person. or. but he had not yet soothed his breast with vengeance nor caused a river of blood to flow. and a tomb of the tombs of the prophets. shall be assembled beyond this city there lieth holy ground. therefore.THE HISTORY OF God's mercy and surrounded by His angels . each of kinsfolk! whom shall intercede for seventy of his family and We . with the martyrs. When. the prosperity and well-being of these districts have in some cases attained their original level and in others have closely approached it. and did not go to the extreme of a general massacre. on them. Turkestan. which there Qatavan. And beyond it lieth a city which aided . And afterwards. wherein is a fountain of the fountains of Paradise. See Barthold. called And 2 upon the Resurrection Day. which countries are afflicted with a hectic fever and a chronic ague : every town and every village has The reference is to the disastrous defeat of Sultan Sanjar the Seljuq by the Qara-Khitai in 1141 on the Qatavan steppe to the east of Samarqand. for much evil is worse than [simple] evil. and a garden of the gardens called of Paradise is . he took Bokhara and Samarqand. since for the most part they tendered subthe hand of molestation was to some extent withheld from them. i. It is otherwise with Khorasan and Iraq. shall give a particular account of the fate of these it two cities and as for the authenticity of this tradition. The tide of calamity was surging up from the Tartar army.e. the Mongols pacified the survivors and proceeded with work of reconstruction. 2 96 . is Samarkand.

85-6. which are plainly written on the pages of those countries and are clearly visible in the affairs of the inhabitrecords of freshness ants thereof. 97 . [XVI] OF THE CAPTURE OF BOKHARA IN the Eastern countries it is the cupola of Islam 1 and is in those Its environs are adorned regions like unto the City of Peace.) Barthold. and Yalavach abolished 4 compulsory service (muan) in the levies (hashar) and the dxng as their unerring also the burdens and superfluities (*avarizat). with the brightness of the light of doctors and jurists and its Yalavach was afterwards appointed by Ogedei to the governorship Northern China. op. Blochet. Khotan. Kashghar and Transoxiana.. n. 'army* (it forms the second element of janissary. i. in Ottoman Turkish -you dm. 396". so that even though there be generation and increase until the Resurrection the population will not attain to a tenth part of what it was before. history thereof may be ascertained from the records of ruins The and midden-heaps declaring palace walls.Q. how Fate has painted her deeds upon In accordance with the general expectation the reins of those countries were placed in the competent hands of the Great Minister Yalavach and his dutiful son the Emir Mas'ud Beg. See Rashid-ad-Din ed. at. who according to Nasawi was one of the leaders of Khitai. (M. Baghdad. ''the new army') is used by Juvaini in the sense of irregular forces collaborating with the Mongols.e.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR been several times subjected to pillage and massacre and has suffered this confusion for years. suggests the identity of Mahmud Yalavach with Mahmud the Khorazmian.e. And the truth of this statement of occasional imposts is to be seen in the and prosperity (the glittering East of their justice and mercy). The Secret History also 263) refers to Mahmud Yalavach and his son as Khorazmians (Qurumsht). ( 4 The Turco-Mongol word &tng 'soldier*. 1 I. 3 Mahmud of Chingiz-Khan's embassy to Sultan Muhammad. 3 By and struck the judgement they repaired the ravages thereof e face of opponents with the saying. 3. The &mggist may not repair what time hath ravaged*. and his son Mas'ud to that of Uighuria.

(Barthold. 407. and considered the bowl of war to be a basin of rich soup and held a mouthful of the sword to be a beaker of wine. he arrived unexpectedly before the town. 215. beheld the surrounding countryside choked with horsemen and the air black as night with the dust of cavalry. fright and panic overcame them. This word closely resembles a word in the language of the Uighur and Khitayan idolaters. the World-Emperor. when the king of the planets raised his banner on the eastern horizon. being accompanied by Toll alone of his elder sons and by a host of fearless Turks that knew not clean from unclean.THE HISTORY OF surroundings embellished with the rarest of high attainments. 4 and in the morning . 2 3 At this juncture. i.) 98 . Turkestan.* But at the time of its foundation the name of the town was Bokhara is from ttukhar. and closed the gates. lit. last Le. When the inhabitants thereof who were unaware of the fraudulent designs of Destiny. Bumijkath. He proceeded along the road to Zarnuq. i62n. but they were aided by divine grace so that they stood firm and breathed not They betook * themselves to the citadel and dread prevailed. See Marquart. The old Soghdkn name Bumich-Kath. and This fear thinking. having completed the organization and equipment of his armies. (Kirakos. lukbar. 3 Chingiz-Khan.) It is also mentioned (in the spelling Zufnukh) as the first stage after Otrar on the return journey of the King of Little Armenia from the Court of Mongke. the Buddhist vibam or monastery. opposition. arrived in the countries of the Sultan and dispatching his elder sons and the noyans in every direction at the head of large forces. is perhaps a single detachment of a great army and a single wave from a raging sea/ It was their intention to resist and to approach calamity on their own feet. as the last station before the bank of the Syr-Darya '. in accord'land town'. [76] Since ancient times it has in every age been the place of assembly of the great savants of every religion. Wehrot und Aung. * 4 Zarnuq is mentioned in the description of Timur's march from Samar- qand through the Jiknuta defile to Utrar [Otrar]. who call their places of worship. which are idol-temples. 'capital'.e. Now the derivation of which in the language of the Magians signifies centre of learning. he himself advanced first upon Bokhara.

saying I am such- and-such a person. any harm should befall any one of them. dispatched Danishmand Hajib upon an embassy to them. Thus were the people's minds and they withdrew their feet from the thought of transgression and turned their faces towards the path of advantage. When the people. at the inflexible command of Chingiz-Khan. to draw you out of the whirpool of destruction and the trough of blood. in an hour's time your citadel will be level ground and the plain a sea of blood. He dispatched a messenger to summon them to his Because of the great awe in which the Emperor was presence. When these came where the Emperor's cavalry had halted. after the security they people had gone forth to meet the Khan and obeyed his command. your lives and property will remain in the stronghold of security. If you are incited to resist in any way. were in the category of Satan were minded to do him harm and * : 'r whereupon he raised a shout.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR ance with his constant practice. had heard his words. The battle has reached thus far. they did not refuse to accept 9 his advice. K 99 . the retribution on his head. both nobles and commoners. Some of the mischief. 6 Koran. 20. [77] It is ChingizKhan himself who has come with many thousands of warriors. The chief men of Zarnuq sent forward a delegation bearing to the place presents. to announce the arrival of his forces and to advise them to stand out of the way of a dreadful deluge. who 5 gotten mastery over them'. knowing for certain that the flood stemmed by their obstructing his passage might not be nor might the quaking of the mountains and the earth be quietened and allayed by the pressure of their feet. a Moslem and the son of a Moslem. which bore the brand of veracity. Seeking God's pleasure I am come on an embassy to you. he asked about their leaders and notables and was wroth with them for their dilatoriness in remaining behind. Iviii. And so they held it proper to choose peace and advantageous to accept advice. thereof should be set at ease. But by way of caution and obtained from him a covenant that if. inhabitants. But if you will listen to advice and exhortation with the ear of intelligence and consideration and become submissive and obedient to his command.

25. [78] who had a perfect knowledge of the roads and highways. and the watcher on the walls thought that they were a caravan of merchants. They . while the rest of the people were suffered to return home. The citadel was turned into level ground and after a counting of heads they made a levy of the youths and young men for the attack on Bokhara.e.e. when the day of that people was darkened and their eyes It is dimmed.) 7 was proceeding in advance of the main Tayir Bahadur forces. (In the year 649/1251-2. until in this manner they arrived at the gates of the citadel of Nur. distance to repel him and 6 I. 8 9 Now I. According Smirnova. be he who he might both such as that everyone in Zarnuq An donned kukb and turban and such as wore kerchief and veil. 100 . 7 The Dayir of to the latter (Khetagurov. should go out of the town on to the plain. and her keenness of sight was such that if an enemy attempted to attack her she of several stages would descry his army at a and would prepare and make ready off. gave the place the the name of Qutlugh-Baligh. 275) he belonged to the Qonqotan. drive him And so her enemies achieved nought *the Fortunate Town*. led them on by a little frequented road which road has ever since been called the Khans Road. When he and his men drew near to the town of Nur 8 they passed through some gardens. the Secret History the Blue-Eyed Woman of Yamama. See Nicholson. so that them with mercy and clemency and spared order was then issued they were once more of good heart. 9 She had built a lofty castle. the story of Zarqa of Yamama. Mengii Qa'an in the company of the Emir Arghun we passed along this very road. A Literary History of the Arabs. They at once arrived he treated proceeded to his presence. and when they their lives. ( 202) and Rashid-ad-Din. one of Turcomans of that region.THE HISTORY OF the quaking of the held a tremor of horror appeared on the limbs of these people like members of a mountain. During the night they felled Then holding the the trees and fashioned ladders out of them. ladders in front of their horses they advanced very slowly . 168. Nurata in Uzbekistan. 6 A guide. when journeying to the Court of .

else how should trees move ? They neglected to watch or take precautions. he commanded that they should surrender the town to 10 When 10 Siibetei arrived they great who was approaching Nur with the vanguard. Khetagurov.. The feelings of the inhabitants were conflicting. Le Conqiilmnt du Monde. Bahadur sent believe that the World-Conquering had . XXV the Secret History his tribe (ilil. [Finally one of them] commanded that be cut should down with their branches and that each horseman should hold a * tree in front of him. and on the other Emperor Chingiz-Khan hand they were apprehensive about the Sultan. and on the third day their foes arrived. In set. IOI . Siibetei. and overcame them. some being in favour of submission and surrender while others were for resistance or because they did not [to take any action]. [79] Tayir Bahadur gave his consent and was satisfied with only a small offering. complied with this command and Mongol general. the people of Nur closed their gates . They were therefore uncertain what course to take. Thereupon Zarqa exclaimed: a strange sight : the likeness of a forest is moving towards * us/ Her people said : The keenness of thy sight hath suffered I see some hurt. After the envoys [sic] had been honoured with the Emperor's acceptance of their offering. 340-6. See below. name is spelt Sube'etei. 257-61 and 515-21. L'Empire Mongol. returned to Chingizalso GrousKhan by way of the Qipchaq Steppe. and took Zarqa prisoner.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR but frustration and there remained no stratagem which not tried.. He then went his own way . SBTAY. crossed the Caucasus and. and so declare their submission refuge in servitude and obedience. The who together with Jebe (Yeme) swept across Northern Persia in pursuit of Sultan Muhammad. Finally. 159).arrived in person. and the people of Nur dispatched an envoy in the manner that had been agreed upon. ? To be brief. he belonged to the Uriangqat 120. and slew her. and Tayir an envoy to announce the arrival of the WorldConquering Emperor and to induce them to submit and cease resistance. after defeating the Russians on the Kalka. after much coining of ambassadors it was agreed that the people of Nur and going should prepare an offering of food and send it to the Lord of were afraid the Age and seek together with an envoy. Chapter .

The name is preserved in the ruins of Qal'a-yi-Dabus somewhat to the east of Ziaddin.THE HISTORY OF delivered up the town. 442. They replied that these amounted to 1500 dinars . they meet him bearing suitable [presents] in the way and offerings of food (nuzl). See Barthold. for the TRTW nuzl. The Turkish tuz$u. light (nur) : a pun on the name. 14 he it encamped before the gates of the citadel. They executed this order. When Chingiz-Khan arrived. And then they pitched the king's pavilion on the 15 plain in front of the stronghold. 474. 1. 14 In February according to Ibn-al-Athir and Juzjani. The word occurs in Grigor (300) in the form tzgbu. and that husbandry as they they should go out on were so that they to the plain leaving their houses exactly might be looted by the army. 97. army entered the town and bore The Mongols abided by this agreement and did no harm to any of them. The people of Nur then selected sixty men and dispatched them. together with 11 to render Il-Khoja. 102 . the son of the Emir of Nur. op. Vullers. Half of this amount was produced from the women's ear-rings. See also Cleaves. Chingiz-Khan distinguished them with royal favour and asked them what fixed taxes (mdl-i-q&mn) the Sultan drew from Nur. 617 [March. The Mongolian * * 13 Lit. And so were the people of Nur delivered from the humiliation of Tartar bondage and slavery. and in the beginning of Muharram. regained its splendour And from thence Chingiz-Khan proceeded to Bokhara. 12 See Barthold. like means *food offered to the passing traveller*. such as sheep and cows. I22o]. and they gave security for the rest and [finally] paid tuzgbtt to the Mongols. dt-> 400- 15 Sbabttama ed.. and Nur 13 and prosperity. 651. its of the text. to Dabus assistance to the went of forth to I2 Mongols. and he commanded them to pay this sum in cash and they should suffer no further inconvenience. Reading Arabic equivalent TZIW op. Names. and the off whatever they found there. 11 Dabus or Dabuslya ky on the highroad between Bokhara and Samarqand. dt. Hereupon an agreement was reached that the people of Nur should be content with the deliverance of the community from danger and the retention of what was livelihood and the pursuit of absolutely necessary for their and agriculture.

Khan was said to be a Mongol and to have ied from ChingizKhan and joined the Sultan (the proof of which rest with their author) . the first of the Qutlugh-Khans of Kerman. See Grousset. the people of Bokhara opened their gates and closed the door of strife and battle. 19 KLY XAN.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR [80] his troops were more numerous than ants or locusts. See C has KWR XAN. who as the head of a confederation opposed to his former friend received On the other the title ofgur-khan. 18 ^76. also Barthold. he was the Grand Equerry (amir-akhur) of the Khorazm-Shah. op. (M. Le Consultant du Mon$e> 132. that this XMYD ii. 17 BWR. See Nasawi tr. whereupon his son Toli dismounted and ascended the pulpit. His full name was Ikhtiyar-ad-Din Keshli or Kiishlii.) 103 . 206-10. 409. When these forces reached the banks of the Oxus. who town and the citadel He rode into the Friday mosque and pulled up before the ma^suta. as a consequence of which his affairs had greatly prospered. was the palace it has been suggested by Barthold." KokKhamid-Bur. Houdas. ties Giir-Khan. See Grousset. each like a billowing sea.Q. being And Detachment after detachment arrived.e. in their multitude beyond estimation or computation. 119-20. the patrols and advance parties of the Mongol army fell upon them and left no trace of them. Chingiz-Khan asked 16 those present whether this i.*** On the following day when from the reflection of the sun the plain seemed to be a tray filled with blood. was no other than Chingiz-Khan's old rival Jamuqa. He was a Qara-Khitayan and the brother of Baraq Hajib. Perhaps Harold-Pur. The imams and notables came on a deputation to Chingizentered to inspect the Khan. 191 and 205) . according to the native sources he had been executed by Chinglz-Khan many years before the campaign against the West. SWNJ XAN. At sunrise twenty thousand men from the Sultan's auxiliary (Uruni) army issued forth from the citadel together with most of the inhabitants . then patience the lest and wisest course. tit. 20 a From aasida by Abu-Firas al-Hamdani. and Histoire Turcs. Turkestan. 1@ and other officers such as being commanded by Kok-Khan 17 18 Sevinch-Khan and KcshK-Khan. below. When it is impossible to /lee is from destruction in any manner.. and encamped round about the town. hand. and Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. 62 and 80.

21 who was the chief leader of the sayyids of Transoxiana and was famous for his piety and asceticism.THE HISTORY OF of the Sultan . they brought the cases In which the Korans were kept out Into the courtyard of the mosque. who was one of the most excellent world may God render pleasant the resting-places and said Maulana. where they cast the Korans right and left and turned the cases Into mangers for their horses. Be silent it is the wind of and we have no power to Chingiz-Khan left the town he went to the festival and mounted the pulpit . and as the multitude that had been gathered there moved away the leaves of the Koran were trampled in horses* hoofs. he asked which were the wealthy amongst them. tit.. reads Zandl with B 22 Anvari. while the Mongols raised their voices to the tunes of their own songs. shaikhs. * : : O Lord * ? 22 Maulana Imamzada answered God's omnipotence speak/ that bloweth. the imams. ii. the Emir al-Hasan Zaidi. and executed their commands. After which they circulated cups of wine and sent for the singing-girls of the town to sing and dance for them . 104 . After an hour or two Chingiz-Khan arose to return to his camp. and. 639. (ZNDY). Then he too got down from his horse. the dirt beneath their own feet and their Imam Jalal-ad-Din and 'All b. Barthold. also below. they replied that It was the house of God. the people having been assembled. Quoted 21 D and E. [81] Meanwhile. The text has RNDY. sayyids. 410. op. fill our horses* bellies/ Whereupon they opened all the magazines In the town and began carrying off the grain. what state is this ? ' : savants in the of them loth That which I see do I see it in wakefulness or in sleep. doctors and scholars of the age kept watch over their horses in the stable under the supervision of the equerries. Two hundred and eighty persons were designated (a hundred and ninety of them being natives of the town and the rest strangers. and mounting two or three The countryside is empty of steps of the pulpit he exclaimed * : And fodder. musalla When So according to C. In that moment. turned to the learned imam Rukn-ad-Din Imamzada.

and. luminary.) 105 . tarn duces quam alii debeant obedire. * " from roots (Turkish las. / (Wyngaert. Both I' Or. * * who affixes a seal. they began to exact money from these men. then began a speech. .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR viz. Reading text. not molest them. If you had not committed sins.* Then he asked them who were their men of authority and each man indicated his own people.e. 220) and also by Carpini Horde : [*bascacos] sive prefectos suos quibus oportet ut ad nutum alicuius civitatis vel terre non faciunt eis ponunt in terra illorum quos redire permittunt. n. and that you have committed for these these sins. know the great ones among O said already) he addressed them as follows. 72-3. 86. There is no need to declare your property that is on the face of the [82] tell me of that which is in the belly of the earth. TRKY C and E for the YZKY On yaute *a 9 patrol ) of the 24 n. he con* tinued his discourse with words of admonition. 44. God would you/ When not have sent a punishment like me upon he had finished speaking in this strain. and when they delivered it up they did not torment them by excessive punishment or demanding what was beyond their to pay. p.e.and Mongol daw-) meaning to press * the people but of one i. As it was impossible 23 to accomplish this purpose with by employing the (i. describing the resistance and treachery of the Sultan (of which more He enough has been * people. but not in the sense of one who presses '. in which. oppresses. Et si homines quod voluntisti bastaki [*bascaki] opponunt quod sint Tartaris infideles . although not subjecting them to disgrace or humiliation. The Mongols and Russia. I say it is If you ask me what proof I have the punishment of words. I. The Turkish term was used by the Russian chroniclers * Bastacos (see Vernadsky. 3) The Turkish and the Mongol darugba or of the Turkish and Mongol terms are derived equivalent of the Arabo-Persian sbahna (see above. because 1 great am God. ninety merchants from various places and led him. To each of them he assigned a Mongol or Turk 23 as lasqaq 24 in order that the soldiers might earth . . Chingiz-Khan had given orders for the Sultan's troops to be driven out of the interior of the town and the citadel. the identity in meaning darugbachi(n)* see Pelliot. would the rising of the greater bring a party of notables to the at audience-hall of the World-Emperor. the guards power And every day. that you have committed great sins. saying.

now became the captives of abasement and were drowned in the sea . while from the belly of the furnace sparks shoot into the air. ed. Muhammad ar-Rashidi al-Laukari. is a hmter. Quoted in the Tatimmat-al-Yatfma. u Of the 25 butt of a Qanqli no male was spared who stood higher than the whip and more than thirty thousand were counted Cadi Abul-Fadl By the Ahmad b. fear of their lives. an4 Kok-Khan in particular. with the exception of the Friday mosque and some of the palaces. (M. II. he now gave orders for all the quarters of the town to be set on fire. and man is wujht but a Iark.THE HISTORY OF townspeople and as these troops. who were the chief men of the age and the favourites of the Sultan and who in their glory would set their feet on the head of Heaven. and on the Inside. engaged in many battles he overthrew several persons and alone repelled a great army. who in bravery would have borne the palm from male in each attack lions. were as and doing battle. ballistas and pots of naphtha were set in motion. and they stood excused before God and man. and their khans. The moat had been filled with animate and inanimate and raised up with levies and Bokharians the outworks (fasti) had been captured [83] and fire hurled into the citadel. within several days the greater part of the town had been consumed.. It was like a red-hot furnace fed from without by hard sticks thrust into the recesses.) See EghbaTs IO6 . the garrison made sallies against the besiegers.. 77. and since the houses were built entirely of was wood. And on either side the furnace of battle was heated. Fate phyeth with the mmUni the game of the sticks with Ml game of the Or Fate the wind Mowing (know thou !) a handful of millet. were erected. and making night attacks as much possible. Then the people of Bokhara were driven against the citadel.Q. But finally they were reduced to the last extremity. of annihilation. For days they fought in this manner. leaders and notables. bows bent and stones and arrows dismangonels charged . which were built with baked bricks. being in fighting. resistance : was no longer in their power. On the outside.

xx. Chingiz-Khan but the youths and full-grown men that were spared their lives .e. because of the desolation. dt. TWA. those scattered . Finally. all After the capture of Samarqand Chingiz-Khan appointed [84] to the command and governorship of the district of Bokhara. they sapped.WORLD-CONQUEROR amongst the their nobles slain . the citadel slender as the reduced to slavery. but cf. while the site of the town became like fit for ' ' a level plain Now one man had escaped from Bokhara after its capture and had come to Khorasan. all and the walls and outworks inhabitants of the town. TMA. men and women* such service were pressed into a levy (hasbar) for the attack on Samarqand and Dabusiya.e. they slew. Hatim of Tayyf. Chingiz-Khan then proceeded against Samarqand . they burnt. He was questioned about the fate * of that city and replied They came. I. 85-7. when. is And indeed summed up and 27 that has been written in this chapter epitomized in these two or three words. 106. and the people of Bokhara. 107 . by the order of the World-Emperor. 87. the latter-day Hatim. levelled the ugly and were driven out on to the field of the mwalla. the variant spelling apparently Tamsha. below. a pre-Iskmic Arab famous for his generosity and I. Koran. the keys of government were placed in the solicitous hands of and dispersed in nooks and crannies were by the magnet of his justice and clemency attracted back to their former homes. they plundered and they departed/ Men of under: standing who heard this description were all agreed that in the Persian language there could be nothing more concise than this speech. 26 27 which might also be read Tne text nas i. When the town and had been purged of with the dost. the of and their womenfolk. He proceeded thither and the town Tausha Basqaq made some little progress towards prosperity. and from all parts of the world people turned their faces thitherward for because of his the Minister Yalavach. 28 Le. Tusha or Tosha. 28 Qa'an. op. See Nicholson. hospitality. were scattered* -like the constellation of the Bear and departed into the villages. whilst their small children. Tausha the Iwqaq.

She was the younger daughter of Ja-Gamhu. And that territory regained its splendour and prosperity and the affairs thereof recovered their lustre. viz. edifices of lofty porch and firm foundation that were built Two in this place 21 at this Sorqotani 29 I. like a good prayer. by Pelliot in his article. Hulegii and Arigh Boke. Qubilai. the brother of Ong-Khan. 3. the flourishing of science and the students thereof and the establishment of pious endowments. See above. [85] period are the Madrasa-yi-Khani built by and the Madrasa-yi-Mas'udiya. authority for a form SRQWTNY. shines forth like the sun in the mercy of Mahmud and the pearl of that sea. etc. name which appears as Sorqatu in the Secret History and Sorqoqtu in Rashid-adDin and is an adjective in -to from a word sorqaq> sorqoq or sorqan ' birthmark *. The meaning of Sorqaqtani. which history. also the reading of Barhebraeus in both his Syriac and his Arabic I see in this form. is therefore * she that has a birthmark '. the concourse of savants. Le vrd nom 66-7 and 133. It is the feminine form of a Cmpagnes. is but there is MS. town was on the increase. Sorqotani. Tolui. nay it and its territory became the home of highest pitch and noble and the place of assembly of patrician and the Suddenly in the year 636/1238-9 a sieve-maker of Tarab in district of Bokhara rose up in rebellion in the dress of the of rags.THE HISTORY OF solicitude the prosperity of the reached its the great plebeian. and she became die mother of Mongke. the ruler of the Kereit. 29 and the common people rallied to his standard.. Sorqoqtani of Rashid-ad-Din and Seroctan (*Soroctan) of Carpini. After the final defeat of that 31 30 Le. p.e. in each of the Sufis. people and finally things came to such a pass that orders were given for the execution of all the inhabitants of Bokhara. the feminine of a form Sorqotu corre- 108 . the multitude of movable and immovable wealth. But the Minister and by his sudden calamity. averted their evil fate mercy and solicitude repelled from them this And to-day no town in the countries of Islam will bear comparison with Bokhara in the thronging of its creatures. by dint of which mercy and compassion everywhere form the carpet of justice and munificence. the text has everywhere (except in one inprincess is discussed at length see also stance) SRQWYTY. 97. Sorqaqtani of the Secret History. And day by day the bounty of God's favour. Yalavach. Yalavach and his son Mas'ud. 30 namely Mas'ud. The name of this de Serotan. As lor the form of die name in Juvaini. n. Mahmud The people Chingiz-Khan gave her in marriage to his youngest son.

Tw& 109 . in one place the Soiqoqtani of i. convince the ignorant and the vulgar. claim . saintliness For in Transoxiana and Turkestan many persons. a sieve-maker. in which there dwelt a man named Mahmud. and it may be that the normal of this form. he asserted that jinns held converse with him and informed him of what was hidden. Under these circumstances the people of Bokhara regained some comfort as well as relief from subventions and May God Almighty adorn the surface of the with the continuance of the Just King's being and with the splendour of Islam and the Hanafite faith similar burdens. And indeed two their lofty pillars and trim courts at once adorn and with Bokhara. 219) the text has is also a corRashid-ad-Din. especially to have magical powers and when anyone has a pain or falls ill.M. Saturn and Mars. On the other hand. SRQWQTNY. they visit him. it said that in stupidity and ignorance he had not his This man began to sham and counterfeit piety and was and claimed to have powers of magic (pan-dan). ruption SRQWQYTY. (H. SRQWYTY 1 This chapter is the subject of an article by A. Lc. XVII.e. Yakubovsky (Vosstiwyt v 123%) in Instit. summon the exorcist (pankbwan). every day a thousand students are while the professors are the greatest In of the age and the wonders of their day. Vostokovel. (V.) 2 I. 1936. perform dances and similar nonsense and in this manner women.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR which studies. nay they are an ornament and delight to all Islam.e. spending to the Sorqatu of the Secret History. earth ! [XVII] OF THE REBELLION OF THE TARABI IN the year 636/1238-9 malefic planets calculated that 2 l there in the house of Cancer. of whom equal. an insurrection arise. was a conjunction of the two and the astrologers had would break out and that perhaps a heretic would Three parasangs from Bokhara there lies a village called Tarab.

which were manifest on Mahmud. telling that ignoramus how his father had recorded and written in a book that from Tarab of Bokhara there should arise a mighty lord. by reason of his prejudice against the imams of Bokhara. In their actual presence he had blown a medicine from dogs* excrement into the eyes of one or two blind prepared persons how persons. or else this was a miracle of Jesus. By this deception the ignorant. what can the vulgar do but follow their ignorance ? And in fact the common people turned towards him. aggravated the disease of that madman and joined the band of his followers. both the whereupon most of nobility and the commonalty. his followers increased in number. 4 Jfe?v v. As God Almighty hath said : ff Thou didst heal the ttind and the leper" 4 As for me. who should conquer the world . It chanced that one or two of the persons that were brought to him in this way were found the [afterwards] to bear signs of health . This man. the treatment of my eyesight/ see I should concern myself with Now virtue in Bokhara there descent.THE HISTORY OF Mahmud's sister used to Instruct him in all the absurdities of the magicians (pan-damn) [86] which he would at once spread abroad. c and how they had recovered their sight. The emirs and tasqaqs that were in Bokhara consulted with one another as to the means present of quenching the flame of the turmoil and dispatched a messenger unrest 3 Koran. and since these words agreed with the calculation of the astrologers. and had Indicated the signs thereof. renowned for his whose laqab was Shams-ad-DIn Mahbubi. the whole and town and region turned towards him. I replied: The seeing were blind. the son of Mary. 'save them that shall come to God with a sound hart 3 In Bokhara I heard from several respectable and creditable '. and no one else. Now and wherever there was a paralytic or one afflicted In any way they would bring him to Mahmud. 89. and confusion became apparent. no. people turned towards him. xxvi. foolish man became even more puffed up with pride . if I should such things with my own eyes. 110 . and was a learned man.

Ill . Every person on whom there fell a sprinkling departed to his home smiling and contented. Turkestan. did not attention to him. I. [87] he turned to Tamsha. The emirs. of the people soon passed all bounds . and did him no harm . 107. but the common people were in the majority and that quarter of the town where he was lodged and the neighbouring bazaar were so filled with people The thronging that there was not even room for a cat to pass.* They were * afraid. Called Tausha above. grandees and chief men surpassed themselves in showing him honours and attentions. 126-7. to the Minister Yalavach. being strangers. under the the a blessing. and so he came to Bokhara and alighted at the palace of Sanjar-Malik. while all the time they sought an opportunity to slay him. 6 The ruins of the fortress of this name are 7 4 miles from TMA. is the older Khushufaghn. The onlookers. else I will command that without the intervention of human hand thy world-comprehending eye be wrenched out/ When the Mongols heard these It is certain that no one has advised him of words. Katta-Kurgan. he went up on the roof of the palace and rained down spittle upon them. he observed signs of displeasure in their attitude . p. perhaps everything he says is true. they said : our intention . out from Tarab. they went to Tarab and besought Mahmud to to Bokhara that the city also might be adorned with his presence. know who he was and paid In one gallop he reached the hill of Abu* Vazidan has not been identified. the Mongols'. See Barthold. and when they drew near to Sari6 and Pul. who was the senior they set * When said : Desist from thy evil intent. to acquaint of Meanwhile. One people's of the followers of his 7 error then informed him of those stole intention. and all at once he out of a doorway and mounted one of no 5 the horses that were fastened there. Sar-i-Pul. and as they refused to depart without his blessing and there were no ways of entry lei and it was equally impossible for him to come out. It had been arranged that when he reached Sar-i-Pel 5 near Vazidan he should be suddenly assailed with a shower of arrows.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR to Khojend situation. the Bridgehead situated '.e.

After some rime [the Mongols] sought that foolish man and could not find him. at any rate . nay of the age. 8 because he had no defect in reason or virtue . head of a town and its neighbourhood. and turning * men of God. the seed of the house of Burhan and the last of the race of Sadr-Jahan. consisting tribe heavenly 8 hosts. with weapon or tool. which from the name of its founder was entitled the house of Burhan*'/ see Barthold. Horsemen galloped in all directions in search of him. op. and set to work. Thereupon he sought the favour of the vulgar and dissolute * (*avamm va wntid) by speaking as follows My army is partly : visible. . alighted at the palace of Rabf Malik and sent for the sadrs.. until all at once they discovered him at the top of the aforesaid hill. they were nominated from amongst the (Itii. staff or club. On this dynasty of hereditary raises of the *f * . and of the town . at first. and day being Friday he re-entered the town. of the of the jinns. consisting of men. It is very probable that. grandees and notables of the town.. and in his stead to the office ofsadr. and partly fly invisible. saying : With one Abu-Hafs/ of great and stroke of his wings the Master (Khoja) has flown to And at once the reins of choice felt from the hands faces small.* 112 . and In one moment a crowd of people were gathered around him. The office of rals.* Upon that this all men in Bokhara turned towards him. dt. and the greater part of the people turned their towards the open country and Abu-Hafs. Burhan-ad~Din.) members of important local families. why do towards the people spoke as follows : and wait ? The world must be purged of the infidel. At the time of the evening prayer he rose up. And he appointed Shams Mahbubi he insulted most of the grandees and notables and besmirched their honour .THE HISTORY OF Hafs . you linger O Let each of you equip himself as best he can. The ra'Is was the chief person in the town and the representative of its interests through him the sovereign made known his will to the inhabitants. * The common people raised up a shout. [88] He superseded the chief of the sadrs. 234. They returned and reported his whereabouts. and gathered around Mahmud.. 326 and 353-4* was not infrequently hereditary from father to son . * which in the air. some of them he slew but others succeeded in escaping.

carpets and rugs.arms from the invisible*.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR which walk on also. the people formed themselves into large bands. ywts.Q. and whenever anyone said. has changed for the amongst his troops When his sister * : worse/ Meanwhile the emirs and 9 sadrs. I see nothing. (M. and the rogues and ruffians When And (runSd va at&asb) entered the houses of the wealthy to pillage and plunder. and in the same place they also The vulgar (*av$mm) agreed wich all fly in garments of white/ * 9 he said . and at this juncture a merchant arrived from Shiraz bringing four kbawars of swords. saw his pre-occupation with women [89] His cause. in accordance with the verse When she left : me she wasbeJ me. as though we W hen applying ourselves to ivbat was By way of seeking water into portions of a favour and a blessing the people divided this maund and a daramsang and made them into potions for the sick. the earth. As for the property they Mahmud (fajnqa) bestowed it on this man and that had obtained. and riches. she seceded from his faction. who had read the verse of Mutanabbi. and he would say : ! proof of my claim/ The were opened with the cudgel. the Sultan of peri-like maidens and heart- ravishing damsels and engaged in pleasant dalliance with them. his eyes look.) 113 . After that the people no longer entertained any doubt as to victory Friday the khutla was read in . c He also kept saying : God Almighty will send us . saying which came into being through me. And now initiated * 1 will to see the Look at the heaven and the earth that you amongst his followers to Behold in such-and-such a place they fly in green raiment. and shared it out and associates. In the morning he performed the ceremonial purification in a tank of water. the prayers were concluded he sent to the houses of the great to fetch tents. and that Mahmud's name as Sultan of Bokhara. suddenly retired to the company and set their hands When night fell.

especially if he was a tax-gatherer or landowner. the reins being loosened. The people of the country districts issuing forth from their villages fell upon the fugitives with spades and axes . which struck him in a vital part. set their hands to plunder and rapine. Apparently 8. At the end of one week Ildiz n 12 Qorchi arrived with a large army of Noyan and Chigin the vulgar 10 Now Kcrmke. Nevertheless. people or of their other opponents. one of their number let fly an arrow. 114 . lord as in ot-chigm. the Mongol form of tight See above. as Karminiya. and whenever they came upon one of their number. n. the Tarabi and Mahbubi standing in their ranks without weapon or breast-plate* Now it had been spread abroad among the people that whoever moved a hand against Mahmud would become paralysed (kbwbk) . p. too.THE HISTORY OF * 10 \ assembled in Karminiya. and they withdrew their hands from battle and set their faces towards flight. * ' "AYLDZ. wind arose and the dust was stirred At up this juncture a strong to such an extent that they could not see one another. made preparations for battle and marched to encounter the Mongol army with a band of market loungers clad only in shirt and izar. while another of them shot Mahbubi also but no one was aware of this either of his own Flight . The enemy thought that this was one of the Tarabfs miracles . and nearly ten When the followers of the Tarabi returned * from the pursuit. their followers and the rabble (*wamm va aubiish) became and at once. they fitted out an army of such troops as could be mustered from every side and advanced on Bokhara. until he re-appears his two brothers Muhammad < and Ali. shall be his vicegerents/ These two ignorant men proceeded after the manner of the Tarabi . They followed the Mongols as thousand were slain. The Master has retired they could not find him and said: into the unseen . consequently this army too were somewhat slow in stretching their hands to sword and bow. 12 KYN. Both sides put themselves in battle-array. Mahmud. and calling together the Mongols that were stationed in that area. they seized him and battered in his far head with their axes. 42. with the Tarabfs army at their heels.

were driven out Into the open . . which had no possibility of And because of that endeavour he earned praise and thanks. exertion matter should be referred to and insistence he agreed that the Qa*an and that whatever order he might give should be put into execution. saying Because of the wickedness of a few how can you slay so many thousands ? And how can you destroy a city which we have so long endeavoured to tooth of revenge : * * : restore to its prosperity because of a few ignorant people * ? After much importunity. A pun on Mas'ud. and satisfy our appetite. 15 When he arrived he checked and prohibited their massacring and looting.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Mongols. discharge of arrows both and about twenty thousand others The next day. Mahmud means praiseworthy * '. saying Again we will strike a blow. were also slain on this occasion. and carry off their property and their children. At the first misguided fellows were killed. so that the latter passed over the fault forgiveness and spared their lives. 14 15 Mahmud Yalavach's. after the swordsmen of dawn had cloven the skull of night. Afterwards he dispatched messengers to the Emperor and exerted great efforts. mof'uJ. the most pleasant of his lands in fertility of 13 Le. both men and women. and the Mongols sharpened the and opened the jaws of greed. men [90] Again these foolish persons advanced into the open country and drew op in battle-array com- pletely unarmoured. and turn these people Into fuel for the fire of calamity. [XVIII] OF THE CONQUEST OF SAMARQAND IT was the greatest of the countries of the Sultan's empire In width of territory. the people of Bokhara. the name of Mahmud's son.* It was only the divine grace and favour that through the agency of Mahmud's 13 mercy rendered the end of this disturbance as 14 and the ascendant of the town once praiseworthy as his name more auspicious.

Q. 5 Tazik or Tajik was the term applied by the Turks to the Iranians.Q. a celebrated hero of the National Epic. the control of firmness having slipped from his hands and the attraction of constancy having been replaced by that of flight. 116 . ' Abbad : (M. he is ordered by his father to make war on Rustam. 7): three of the elements having been mentioned the fourth must somehow be mentioned too. the most delectable of the paradises world among the four Edens. 2 is A country whose stones are jewels. 117. by of this common consent. who were the Sultan's 61ite and such 4 of the brazen body felt the prick of their that had Isfandiyar arrows and the thrust of their lances. Attributed by Yaqut apparently Abul- Fath Busti 2 It is The word (M. 3 withdrew from the conflict. If it is said that a ^aralise is to h seen in this is world.e. 5 under Samarqand--to Busti. then the paradise of ibis world Samarkand. n. with their khans. O tbon who comparest the land of Balkh therewith. Actually taztk or tazi is a Persian word and was applied by the Persians themselves to the Arabs : hence Ta-shikf the Chinese name for the Arabs. Cf. who soon after meets his own end through the treachery of a brother. its its water embraced in the favour its of the North wind and earth by fire the force of exhilaration has acquired the property of the [91] of wine. the modern Tajikistan. are to cohcynib and candy equal one mother? 1 is Its air inclines to mildness. while perplexity and doubt had taken abode in his nature . s From a qasida by Abu-Sa'id ar-Rustami the poet 4 is praising Isfahan. whose soil is musk and whose ram water strong wine. Thus to Samarqand he has assigned a hundred and ten thousand men. he deputed the protection of most of his lands and territories to his generals (qwvid) the Sultan When and allies (ansar). in praise of Sahib b. who had refused to accept the new religion . introduced in accordance with the figure known as tw&sttb (see below. and the skying of Isfandiyar is the last geste of the aged hero. 1 The rest of the army consisted of fifty thousand Taziks. The son of Gushtasp. p. i. he would have had no resource but [to acknowledge] his weakness and [beg for] quarter.) Isfandiyar.) * for fire * does not occur in A and is not required by the sense.THE HISTORY OF soil and. of whom sixty thousand were Turks. the patron of Zoroaster.

When his sons had disposed of the affair of Otrar. he left troops to besiege them. they too arrived with a levy raised in that town they chose the Kok-Sarai for that direction he drove before . Turning his reins in set at rest him a great levy raised in Bokhara . and when his mind had been by the capture of that city. The whole passage is * qastta figure called tanasul * : the mention of'ftl . ' * bishop *. the citadel had been greatly strengthened. as in Sarmolested them i-Pul and Dabusiya. an example of the * by Badf-az-Zaman of Hamadan in praise of Sultan Mahmud (M. In addition to all this. Chingiz-Khan arrived at Otrar the news had been spread abroad of the strengthening of the walls and the citadel of Samarqand and the great size of its garrison and everyone was of the opinion that it would be a matter of years before the town could be taken. First of all. that they might not avert their faces from attack and assault.* to be a protection (f&rzin-kand) 7 to the king*s horse and foot upon the field of battle. and whenever the villages on his path submitted. . several lines of outworks (ftfil) had been drawn around it. Moreover. Who twisted columns mi pkyel with Ani won coats of mml that exhibited colours.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR each of whom was in himself the Rustam picked men of the age and the cream of the armies. king *. he concerned himself with the question of Samarqand. 7 Lit. e From a ' ofGhazna. together with twenty elephants of perfect shape and <V-like appearance. he in no way but wherever they offered resistance. When surrounding country before proceeding against the town. he advanced against Bokhara [92]. * involves the introduction of the other chessmen * * ask in chess elephant ' * horse or knight *. the walls And had been raised to the Pleiades and the moat sunk through the dry earth to the water beneath. farzin (in farzin-banf) rook '. pawn *. the numbers of the towns- people themselves were such as to be beyond computation. queen 117 .Q. * * jnyafa foot-soldier ' or ' ' and nOA cheek '. ' or shah ' face castle '. while he himself made no halt until he reached Samarqand. to say nothing of the citadel Following the path of circumspection he held it expedient to purge the .) a check to the king by the queen at chess *.

Many horse and foot were slain on either That day the Sultan's Turks engaged in constant skirmishes side. They stationed themselves in a circle round about the town. everyone retired to his quarters. 10 ALBAR. encamped round about the town. Lit. the third day.THE HISTORY OF Chingiz-Khan's encampment. Shaikh Khan. 118 . as they For a day or two Chingiz-Khan circled the town in person and in order to inspect the walls. the outworks and the gates At the this period he exempted his men from fighting. c the Taican of Marco Polo). But as soon as the deceitful shield-bearer again struck his sword upon the cloud of night. during same time he dispatched Yeme and Siibetei. had risen from the darkness of the pitchy night's smoke and on the nocturnal blackness had retired to the seclusion of a corner. When for the benefit of the earth the fee of heaven earth's was hidden by the smoke. and Alp~Er 10 Khan. is not to be confused with the Talaqan destroyed by Chingiz-Khan (see below. also. and sent Ghadaq . for the light with the Mongols before going out Finally. who were two of the great noyans and enjoyed his special trust. 13. This Talaqan (or Tayaqan. 132). See above. Talaqan near Qazvin. now the town and district of TaHfchan in the Afghan province of Badakhshan. 9 8 which There was also a district called lay between Balkh and Marv-ar-Rud. many men. when the flare of the sun's flame Finally. drew up opposite the army of the world-subduing Emperor and discharged their arrows. so of the candle flares up a little some of the Mongol army. while a thousand of their own number likewise fell. p. in pursuit of the Sultan together with thirty thousand men . 46 and n. Brave Man * from the Turkish alp * brave * and er * man ' * (<">). Noyan and Yasa*ur 8 to Vakhsh and Talaqan. The other troops arrived. both Mongols and levies. Bala Khan and some other khans made a sally into the open. p. were assembled together that their numbers exceeded those of the sand of the desert or drops of rain. [93] killing capturing others and carrying them into the town.

13 Sbabnama ed. were prevented from doing battle. while others. 12 I. Finally. on the next day its its When the shining sun spread raven of the firmament shed glory. but the Mongols did not turn tail. and divergent: some were their passions and opinions were desirous of submission and surrender. L 1049. and 13 the black feathers. 497. use than the foot-soldiers wounds and were of no more chess. because of the aura diffused by Chingiz-Khan. ' the Sun. whilst the king (rfwi). some. The queen * ' (farztk) ' does not appear in the translation but is found in the original in farzw-knd * * King-checking '. 7). the latter put the fearless and Another example oftanasub (see above. they threw in their elephants . 11 had length.e. they turned back trampling many people underneath 12 their feet. 117. were restrained from making peace. And when the path of combat was closed to them. arrows and were set in flight. stones his In the and and they of the discharge of mangonels and bows. and the Mongol army took up a From position at the very gates and so prevented the Sultan's troops from issuing forth on to the field of battle. when the Emperor of Khotan let down the veil over his face. the Mongol troops being bold and Samarqand irresolute in mind and 11 the people of counsel. 119 . by heavenly decree. also absent from the translation. closed the gates. * * * ' ' appears in sbab-savaran valiant knights : the horses and elephants are of * " * " * * course the knights and bishops and the rook is contained in the phrase w-tqftand (* did not turn tail *). inside troops assembled and made ready for . up the girth of combat and hostility until the prayer. p.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Chingiz-Khan mounted in person and a circle round about the town. n. on the liberated those that broke up received contrary with their King-checking arrows they were held in check by the elephants and the ranks of the When the elephants had infantry. while others feared for their lives . Vullers. and the two parties had become entangled on the chess-board of war and the valiant knights were no longer able to manoeuvre their horses upon the plain. they of At The by this people of Samarqand had been rendered apprehensive day's fighting.

only the cadi and the sbaikh~al-I$fam together with such as had some connection men and women with them and stood under leaving the town. could 120 . set free to forage for themselves. The Mongols then entered that its At day busied themselves with the destruction and and of the town and outworks. their hearts cut in Mongols departed from the town. The mahouts brought their elephants to Chingiz-Khan and demanded elephant fodder. when face. the unkind. The cadi sbaikb-al-Islam together with a number of wearers of the turban hastened to approach Chingiz-Khan : they were fortified and encouraged by the breakfast of his promises [94] and with his permission re-entered the town. they lit torches and continued streets their work there until the walls had free been levelled with the passage for horse and was everywhere and foot. Whereupon he ordered the elephants to be They were accordingly released [of hunger]. their protection were exempted from More than fifty thousand people were counted who remained under such protection. When the day had clad itself in the black garb of the heathen Khitayans. The inhabitants drew their feet beneath the skirt of security. the the citadel. He asked them what the elephants * lived on before they fell into captivity. brazen mirror before his On the third day. the greater part of the Mongols entered the town. They replied : The 9 grass of the plains.THE HISTORY OF idea of and the war out of their heads and ceased to resist. black-hearted juggler of the blue countenance held up the hard. and the in groups of a hundred were driven out into the open in the charge of Mongol soldiers . the time of prayer they opened the gate of the musalla closed the door of resistance. The Mongols and were cavities and the [other] troops busied themselves with pillaging. The Mongols then caused a proclamation to be made that if anyone sought safety in the corner of concealment his blood should be forfeit. many people who had hidden in cellars and [discovered and] slain. and the garrison of two with fear and terror. and the Mongols in no way molested them. and finally perished When the king of the heavens had sunk beneath the ball of the earth.

and discharging arrows and from either side they devastated the walls and outworks and laid waste the Juy-I-Arziz. made a show of valour and intrepidity : the citadel with a thousand desperate men he fought his through the centre of the Mongol army and joined up with the Sultan. 6g&rf. For ulagb 'post horse* see above. Ulagh together with some twenty of the Sultan's chief emirs. 14. where the Turks were separated from the Taziks and all divided into groups often and a hundred* They shaved projectiles A the front of the Turks* heads In the Mongol fashion in order to tranquillize them and allay their fears . 19 20 AWLAT. p. madan Dynasties. sun had and that night every male Qanqli was drowned In the ocean of destruction and consumed by the fire of perdition. hmhmas in Turkish means ITAY. of naphtha . 14 15 20 In which yarligb full mention is made of Le. rough '. 4 Alp Khan/ how- ever. 1S [95] During the space between the two prayers they took the gates and entered the citadel. thousand brave and valiant men withdrew to the cathedral mosque and commenced a fierce battle using both naphtha and The army of Chingiz-Khan likewise employed pots quarrels. and the Friday mosque and all that were In It were burnt with the fire of this world and washed with the water of the Hereafter. the Mongol army completely encircled the citadel. Turkestan. 121 . On Alp-Er Khan. 118. * * he that does not make peace SRSYT. An See Lane-Poole. p. " leaden watercourse see Barthold. 89 * and *. There were more than thirty thousand Qanqli and Turks. Then all in the citadel were brought out into the open. The saritgb means * hard *. 413. 30 and n. whose names are recorded in the yarligb which Chingiz-Khan wrote to Rukn-ad-Din Kart . Sarsigh 18 Khan and m " Khan. 85. but when the reached the west. * this famous See above. 252. 16 17 18 BR5MAS. commanded by Barishmas 17 Khan. progenitor of the Kart dynasty of Herat.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR neither stand and resist nor turn and flee. ie. when the heralds of the Lord of the planets rose up striking their swords. The Mohaminteresting reference to a written source: it would appear that Juvaini had examined this document in person. the day of their life drew to Its close. The next morning. maternal uncle'. Taghai Khan.

A A more after the capture the town.THE HISTORY OF all the leaders of armies and countries whom he crushed and destroyed. when 21 had raised its head the eagle which is the heavenly Jainshid of the earth and the fiery countenance above the mountain-tops the When of the sun was the round tray of the sky. i. So Jainshid is represented in historians he was sometimes identified with Solomon. several times in succession levies were raised in for and Samarqand and few only were exempted therefrom. pp. the Yima of the Avesta and the Yama of the Vedas. by the early Arab (Dahak). 1220. [96]. According to Juzjani (Raverty. In the present passage of course the name is simply a personification of the sun. these lit tip upon Chingiz-Khan levy. he imposed [a on these suppliants and deputed the collection of this sum to who belonged to the chief Siqat-al-Mulk and 'Amid Buzurg. And afterwards. as a thanksgiving permission shared the fate of the others nor attained because they had not the degree of martyrdom but had remained in the ranks of the ransom of] two hundred thousand dinars living. He is in fact a figure of Indo-Iranian mythology.. while the others he sent to Khorazm with his sons.e. a date 980) Samarqand fell on the loth of Muharram. 128-9) that of Samarqand Chingiz-Khan spent the tyring of that year near . and townsman had taken a sip at the cup of destruction. this reason complete ruin overran the country. 6i8. on the next day. Where are there men of insight to gaze with the eye of reflection and consideration upon the movements of deceitful Destiny and the trickery 21 and cruelty of the vainly revolving wheel . of them were chosen for their craftmanship. overthrown and skin by the usurper Zahhak the National Epic. consistent with Juvaini's subsequent statement (see below. town and the citadel equalled each other in ruin and desolation and many an emir* and soldier. the I9th of March. and thirty thousand distributed amongst his sons and kinsmen. who obtained town. 22 This event occurred in Rabi* I. until famous king of ancient Iran. 22 mistake for 617. i. while the like number were selected from the youthful and valiant to form a With regard to the remainder.e. May-June. He then appointed several persons to officials of SamarqancL be sbabnas of the town and took some of the levies with him to to return into the Khorasan. the people who had escaped from beneath the sword were numbered.

Dimishqi. but the headache therefrom wind. great shaikhs being assembled in one place with the Sultans of the age. 2 Koran. its original f while the inhabitants call Urganch. and its environs were receptacles for the raredes of the rime . its simoom. for ever that profit is but O heart. nor but a its its gain commensurate with its loss hour.) 123 .e. (M. its mansions were resplendent with every kind of lofty idea.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR they realize that its zephyr is not equal to . while on the other 1 its When Chingiz-Khan had completed Khorazm (Khwarazm) is applied here (as often) not to the region but to Gurganj or Urganch. its corners supported the shoulders of the great men of the age.Q. for this abode is only transient. to Muhammad b. under Khorazm. lament not. 3 Attributed by Yaqut. 'Unain adcapital. spiritual and temporal such was the state to of that country. xxxiv. 14. and its regions and districts were so many rose-gardens through the presence of men [97] of quality. name was Jurjaniya. for this world Is O only metaphorical . [XIX] OF THE FATE OF KHORAZM * THIS is the name of the region it . All that thou wshest is therein. me is Khorazm the best of lands may Its tain-giving clouds never be ttown away 3 / Happy is that its mans face which striplings I is greeted hy the shining faces of the conquest of Samarqand. Before the vicissitudes of fortune gracious it is the stood in the category of Goodly is the country9 and ' Lord ! 2 It was the site of the throne of the Sultans of the world and the dwelling-place of the celebrities of mankind . all the countries of Transoxiana were subdued and his opponents crushed in the mills of calamity. grieve not. and its treasure pain ? that its wine . soul. i. Old Urganch '. which lay on the site of the present-day Kuhna* Urganch (Kunya-Urgench).

so Jand and Bagligh~Kent were secured left in the middle like a tent whose ropes .THE HISTORY OF side the districts of that Khorazm was cut. the sipabsalar 'AH Durughini and a number of others of the same sort. he have been dispatched his elder sons. 6 In Nasawi (tr. And and assembly of mankind no they might refer upon the occurrence of untoward events and for the administration of affairs of state and the business of the commonweal. Since he wished to pursue the Sultan in person and to purge the countries of Khorasan of his adversaries. Khumar. Jochi did not take part in person in the siege of Gurganj. 158. 94) he Lies * is called Kuh-i-Durughan (' Mountain of mensonges *. ling for a day. 17. against Khorazm together with an army as endless as the happenings of Time and such that the mountains and deserts were filled with its numbers. contrary to the testimony of both Moslem and Far Eastern. Moghol Hajib. was still present and certain of the chief emirs had likewise remained behind. viz. by reason of his relationship to the royal house. of the notables of the town and the learned of the age as could be neither counted nor computed . [98] Besides these there were so many prolixity without utility. He commanded Tushi also to send levies from Jand as a reinforcement. p. Chaghatai and Ogetei. must at one time have included the election of a kind of May King '. *) a cause de F&iormite de ses 124 . but Khuinar Tegin. Houdas. and by whose agency they might resist the violence of Fate . while the number of the inhabitants exceeded that of grains of sand or pebbles. At that time Khorazm was deserted by [both] the Sultans. Jovaini's narrative that. 4 The princes proceeded by way as vanguard an army which and flew like lightning. 7 And they were heedless of the disorder and unrest prevailing since in all that great multitude leader had been appointed to whom 4 It would appear from all the other authorities. was with one voice elected Sultan and made a Namuz king. 7 Le. It would appear that the ceremonies of the great national festival oCNattruz. at* the vernal equinox. one of the leaders of the army and a kinsman of Terken Khatun. 5 See below. n. sending on ahead moved like evil destiny . 5 Er6 Buqa Pahlavan. to enumerate whose names were of Bokhara. or New Year's Day.

They made a promenade around the town and sent ambassadors to call on the inhabitants to submit and surrender. they caused Tartar horsemen and and prowess and war wall. who was one of the Sultan's chief generals. like wild game. towards the town. who arrived the of the town and busied themselves with driving off cattle. both tops. And to the end of that day they continued to struggle and fight. that after the mountain-top of these calamities would come other mountainwhole world of people. some short-sighted persons became exultant thinking that they had come in so small a party out of bravado and that they had ventured on such insolence by way of sport. which lies a parasang distant from the town. cries And in the same fever and excitement. horse and foot. Finally when they came to the Bagh-i-Khurram. now started. A certain Faridun Ghuri. but on the next day when the Turkish swordsman raised his head from the ambush of the horizon. They did not realize that this would be followed by calamities. to spring forth men of might and dread from the ambush of the They cut off the road before and behind and fell briskly upon them like wolves upon a flock without a shepherd. The Mongols. awaited them at the gate with five hundred men and preparing to resist deprived those accursed ones ( ? rujum) of the power to attack. rushed thoughtlessly out of the gates upon that A small troop. now cast a glance behind them and ran. with shouts and they cast themselves after them Gate [99] and advanced like fire As the sun began to set the strange army withdrew by way of caution . 125 . They dispatched flying arrows against that people and wielding sword and lance they drove them before them by nightfall they had : felled to the dust nearly a hundred thousand souls of fighting men. Chaghatai and Ogetei then arrived with an army like a flood in its onrush and like blasts of wind in the succession of its ranks. the fearless swordsmen and intrepid Turks spurred on their mounts and set their faces into the city by the Qabilan to a place called Tanura.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR in the world and of Fate's assault and of her of great and small. and thereafter torments. until suddenly they beheld a small horsemen like a puff of smoke.

126 . warriors climbed up and caused the earth to ring with their and The inhabitants opposed them shouts. they at once set their faces towards war and combat from every side of the town.THE HISTORY OF The whole army then encompassed the town as the circle encompasses the centre and encamped around it in the guise of Fate. drunk said: 8 f with the wine of adversity. is As their and occasionally they discharged a few arrows at one another. for fear of abasement his heart was cut in two. and raising a yell like thunder and lightning they rained down missiles and arrows like hailstones. Tartar army planted a standard on the top of the wall. which is * actually Turkish but * : seems to be derived from the same Arabic root as Itbamr in Arabic means 'drunken headache*. Finally. 8 There is a word-pky on Khumar's name. They busied themselves with the preparation of instru- ments of war such as wood. yells and uproar. and on this account even greater con- The and in disorder prevailed among the people. [100] ( God Almighty hath As thou livest. trees. Khumar. And since there were no stones in the neighbourhood of Khorazm they manufactured these missiles from the wood of mulberry custom. the reinforcements had arrived from Jand etc. They commanded rubbish to be collected and stuffed into the moat and then the levies were . khumr Koran. when the preparations for battle had been completed and the necessary instruments finished. He descended from the fusion gate.. they were bewildered in the drunkenness of their lust') beheld the slaughter which they wrought. cries. they daily pHed the inhabitants of the town with promises and threats. all the streets and quarters of the town : in every lane they engaged in battle and in every cul-de-sac they resisted stoutly. xv. inducements and menaces . O 9 Mohammed. moreover. and the signs of the Tartar army's victory agreed with his secret surmise . 9 wine in fact. 72. mangonels and missiles therefor. when. cunning was removed from his nature. and with the appearance of Destiny the face of counsel and deliberation was hidden from him. When the counterfeit Sultan and leader of the army. moved forward outworks and in a circle to demolish the foot (bi-jifg) of the cast earth into the eyes of the heavens.

which was the centre of battling men and the 10 Ztet. and scattered them with an utter scattering. town was the the inhabitants. . on earth and in the heavens. outside also. 10 Truly. until finally the whole Then they drove the people out into open those that were artisans or craftsmen. They therefore agreed among themselves to abandon the use of fire and rather to withhold from the people the water of the Oxus. grateful! The army then busied themselves with plunder and rapine and destroyed what remained of the quarters and houses. the weapons of war became more furious. so that not one was able to return. 127 . across which a bridge had been built inside the town. and borne e So we made them a tale. and the men that remained were divided among the army. Quarter by quarter.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR The Mongols meanwhile were fire to to quarters with pots of naphtha and sewing the another with arrows and mangonels. and to each fighting man fell the God Almighty bath said: execution of twenty-four persons. the houses with their goods and treasures were but mounds of earth. despaired of benefiting from the stores of their wealth. were separated from the rest. the sea of battle more raging and the winds of confusion more tumultuous. the Mongols took the town. [101] the children and the young women were reduced to slavery offinto captivity . and the Mongols. On this account the townspeople became more energetic in On the their action and more stubborn in their resistance. destroying the buildings and slaughtering in their hands. xxxiv. 18. to battle in the . And when the cloak of the sun*s light was being wrapped in the tyranny of darkness. Three thousand men from the Mongol army put themselves in readiness and struck but the inhabitants entrapped them at the centre of the bridge there. house by house. of whom there were more than a hundred thousand. Khorazm. they began to return to their encampment* In the morning the people of the town for a while applied themselves same manner and bared the claw of conflict with swords arrow and banner* By now the greater part of the town was destroyed . herein are signs to everyone that is patient.

pleasure was far removed from . quoted In a long story in the Ktok-al Agban . Turkestan.THE HISTORY OF venue of banqueting women. its houses and its its castles were reduced to desolation that the so withered were words We had been revealed concerning their condition. see Barthold. slaughter and bloodshed. Upon its parks e and pleasances the pen of all that is transient departetb* has written these verses: gardens that one would think * them tbdr gardens into two gardens n changed How Then many k>rsemen have dismounted in about us. 437. 13 which they joined with Khorazm in two days. in spite of the proverb ' Do as I have heard of such a quantity of slain that I did ' not believe the report and so have not recorded it. As for the fighting and killing. became the abode of the jackal and the haunt of owl and kite. time and To be brief. Zaid al-lbadi. such of the inhabitants as were artisans were divided up and sent to the countries of the East. on whose threshold Fate laid her head and which the pho-enix of Fortune made Its nest. To-day there are many places in those parts that are cultivated and peopled by the inhabitants of Khorazm. ' of litter fruit and tamarisk and some few jujule treesf f 12 Verses by Adi b. Two gardens '. KALYF KASF On op. preserve us from all the ills of this world and the torments of the world to come! was done ' before O [XX] OF THE DEPARTURE OF CHINGIZ-KHAN TO NAKHSHAB * AND TIRMIZ 2 WHEN 11 sons Chaghatai Koran. when the Mongols had ended the leading captive. a town on the Oxus (which still exists). 13 with Barthold. battle of Khorazm and had done with plundering. 3. the middle is of the morning Fate snatched them away for mch Fate.. to complete the quotation. for the Reading of the text. [102] he passed 15. n. Kalif. God. 128 . tit. 80. mixing wine with limpid water . Samarqand had been taken and he had dispatched his and Ogetei against Khorazm. xxxiv. The princes Chaghatai and Ogetei returned by way of Kalif.

and sapping. which here forms the boundary between 2 Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. and burning and sent armies into the whole of Badakhshan and all that country. and to destroy the fortress and citadel.) to the west of Baljuan on the old Hisar-Kukb text. and divided proportionately among the soldiers in accordance with their usual custom. I take this to be identical of Shuman. All the both men and women. Mangonels were set up on either side. and attacking. now Stalinabad. That region also he purged with slaying. where he passed the winter.M. suggests that the town may have stood on the site of the later Dushambe. and they rested neither day nor night from strife and warfare until upon the eleventh day the Mongols took the place by storm. commanded that they should rip open the bellies Chingiz-Khan of all the slain. 3 KNKRT. Htdud> 353. were driven out on to the plain people. ruins of the medieval city lie near the modern town of the same name (Termez) on the right bank of the Oxus. "When had done with looting and slaying he departed 4 to the region of Kangurt 3 and Shuman. 4 MAN for the SMAN of the district Kangurt lies (V. and rendered proud by the multitude of their troops. Minorsky. Upon arriving there he sent forward messengers to call upon the people to surrender and submit. would not accept submission but sallied forth to do battle. Reading road in Tajikistan.WORLD-CONQUEROR the spring of that year thence to the meadows of Samarkand and Nakhshab. When the summer had come to an end and the fattened and the soldiers rested. Oxus. gear and equipment. 1 Now The Karshi in Uzbekistan. encouraged by the strength of the fortress. then they were all slain. none being half of whose walls were raised up In the middle of the When sight of a the Mongols had woman who said to finished the slaughter they caught * them : Spare my life and I will give you a great pearl which I have/ But * I have swallowed it* the pearl she said : when they sought they Whereupon On this account iripped open her belly and found several pearls. with the town and 129 . the capital of Tajikistan. and conquered and subjugated they . he set out for Tirmiz. But the Inhabitants.

this occurred in the year 617/1220-21. because a census had to be taken. and in former time . there was no possible wile whereby they might ward off disaster. 15-1 6. But as Jalal-ad-Din was still casting confusion and disorder into those regions and riding his horse on to the field of rebellion and contumacy. was superior to other regions its territory was more spacious than that of other countries . lands and peoples was raging and the tempest of calamity had not come to an end.' [XXI] [103] OF CHINGIZ-KHAN'S CROSSING OF THE RIVER AT TIRMIZ AND THE TAKING OF BALKH BALKH. so that in all that region there was left no trace of his opponents. he gave orders Whereupon. professing submission The and chief men of the town came forward and bearing all manner of tuzgbu and presents. By the nau-tabar or new vibara meant the great Buddhist temple near Balkh.THE HISTORY OF the peoples. by reason of the multitude of its produce and its manifold kinds of revenue. the Mongols could place no servitude confidence in their professions of submission. on which see Barthold. As Firdausi says: He departed unto fair Balkli to that nau-ttalwr which time the worshippers of God Held in as much honour as the Arabs now hold Mecca. 1 is Sbahnama ed. 1 at that Chingiz-Khan crossed the river and advanced on Balkh. 11. and since Destiny held them captive. 1496. especially in the And since the sea of the annihilation of case of Khorasan. but most by severity . 130 . it was in the Eastern lands as Mecca in the West. Turkes77* * * ton. that all the people of Balkh should be brought on to the plain and numbered. some by kindness. And when All the season of winter drew to a close he made ready to cross the river. Vullers.

Q. 95. God Almighty bath said : no city which we will not destroy before the day of Resurrection or This is written in the Book! s chastise it with a grievous chastisement. small and great. boch men and women.) M . Ja'di. O hyaena. should be driven out on to the plain and divided tip according to the usual custom into hundreds and thousands to be put to the sword. And their mansions shall weep for them. Abu-Bakr 'Abdalkh b.THE could them not. 102. with wolves. He commanded them all to be killed and ' Twice will we chastise them! 4 fulfilled upon them the verse. Ja'far al-A$H. <5o. he found a number of fugitives who had remained hidden in nooks and crannies and come out again [after the Mongols* departure]. which were once accustomed to glory. on and abasement . 4 5 Attributed by Tha'aEbl in the Tatmmat-al-Yatim to I. the Mongols pulled it down and for a second time wiped out all traces of culture from And that region. [104] while to was a an irremediable pain.Q.) s Koran. @nd rtjme in to help dx jksb fay? of & man who bad no me Mm this " they cast fire into the garden of the city and devoted their whole attention to the destruction of the outworks and walls. And wherever a wall was left standing. (M. and that not a trace surrender availed should be feasted left of fresh or dry* For a long time the wild beasts on their flesh* and lions consorted without contention. he dispatched his son Toli with a large army to conquer the countries 2 From Nabigha ltefv ix. We began ty gazing on them with admiration and ended ly 5 gazing on them in astonishment After Chingiz-Khan had thus disposed of Balkh. who See EghbaTs ei. Eat and rend. Muhammad b. xvii. (M. Therefore Chingiz-Khan and that the population of Balkh. flourished under the later Samanlds. and vultures ate without quarrelling from the same table with eagles. * Thre is and mansions and palaces. """When Chingiz-Khan returned from Peshawar and arrived at Balkh.

palaces and forces . n. n. suggests that the place in question was probably the fortress of Rang in Gurzivan (Raverty. There is still a district of 8 Afghanistan called 9 Dumb and Gurziwan. was discharged from the town and hit a son of Chaghatai. who was the destroyer of all that people. The garrison of Talaqan continued to resist in this manner until after Toli had subjugated Khorasan and returned from thence with large when the size of the Mongol army was greatly increased and they took Talaqan by storm. TKAjK Barthold. TKjWK. 443. p. '. Though he dispatched messengers and envoys and called on them to tender submission. See Houtsma. Rashid- 132 . they bestirred themselves untiringly nor did the garrison rest from their exertions : both sides fought fiercely and Inflicted many wounds on their opponents. 273). and on both sides hands were laid to arrows and catapults. / Starting from thence the Mongols came to Bamiyan. 4. Mongols drew a circle about the citadel [105] and set The many catapults in motion . the inhabitants of which place issued forth in hostility and resistance. It is little he-goat 136) and (II. 68. 8 and on account of the resistance offered by the inhabitants of that place he tarried there a month until he took it and forced down the throats of its people that same draught of slaughter. Suddenly. which gave no respite. 9 the favourite grandchild e 7 See above. * 106. 9. i. 1003). by the thumb of Fate. Chingiz-Khan hastened to meet him. apparently Metiken. 228. Glossar. a Turkish word and means where it is spelt TKAjWK. leaving no living creature therein and destroying fortress and citadel. 197).THE HISTORY OF of Khorasan* whilst he himself turned against Talaqan. a quarrel. they would not give in but were inclined for nothing but strife and battle. The road lay through Gurzivan. dt. 6 The citadel of that place was called Nusrat-Kuh and apart from its own strength was crammed full of warriors prepared to earn a glorious name.e. Of a sudden there came tidings that Jalal-ad-Din had gained a great victory and vanquished Tekechiik 7 and the army under his command. i. rapine and destruction which other like peoples had tasted. He is called MATYKAN (I. and II. 118. houses. op. Spelt also TKJK (1. walls.

the together at Peshawar. 45. The name. 10 See above. 462. ii. the ancestors alike of the Khalji Sultans of Delhi and the Ghilzai Afghans of Qandahar. 426-34. n. He appointed Mama sources. p.WORLD-CONQUEROR of Chinglz-Khan* The Mongols made the to the town. see Minorsky. He Bad the Twn. mother's womb should be in Persian . and travelled two stages at a time. from mankind down to the brute beasts* should be killed that not even the child in its . 406-7. was a Khalaj Turk. The Turkish Dialect of the Kb&kj. and when It was taken Chingiz-Khan capture orders that every living creature. and Turcomans gathered On Khalaj. When Din he reached Ghazna he received tidings that Jalal-adhad departed from thence a fortnight since with the object of crossing the Indus. But the Sultan had been strengthened by the advent of Ighraq l and and he utterly defeated the which had been detailed to destroy him because of the army paucity of its numbers and the lack of reinforcements. which the is here alluded to. [XXII] [l06] OF CHINGIZ-KHAN'S TURNING TO DO BATTLE WITH THE SULTAN dispatched Tekechiik and a FROM Talaqan Chingiz-Khan group of commanders to put an end to Jalal-ad-Din. he conday as night. w And therein* name of Ma*u~BaEgh. is Yalavach to be ad-Din (Blochet. 1 Saif-ad-Din Ighraq 5. 86-7. leader of a large force of Khalaj (See below. discussed by PelKot. 133 . ii. and gave that henceforth it no living creature should dwell therein. and in his haste reckoned night as day. which means to this very day no living creature has taken up abode -This event fell out in the year 6x8/1221-22.) He had joined forces with Jalal-ad-Din and taken part in the Battle of Parvan. For a fuller account of the battle see below. MWATWKAN (? Mo'etuken). When other warriors from every side. so that it was impossible this defeat of to cook food. that no prisoner should be . 9 tidings sidered were brought to Chingiz-Khan. 161) calls him which does not occur in the Mongol and Chinese Horde d'Or.

He was brought a fresh horse. But Jalal-ad-Din was too them and withdrew. near the modern Kalabagh. When the Mongols saw him cast himself in the river they were about to plunge in after him. [107] Whithersoever he spurred on his charger.THE HISTORY OF the wind which of Ghazna. Vullers. Such a son must a father When dry 2 Isfandiyar gazed behind him. for his part. 134 . set his face to combat with the few men that were still left to him. 3 the Since Chingiz-Khan had ordered them to take him prisoner. He hastened from right to left and from the left charged upon the Mongol centre. but still he continued to fight like an angry lion. Like the lightning he struck upon the water and the like wind he departed. seeing that the day of action was arrived and the time of battle. 445-6. 1556. 2 Sultan's front and rear every side. He attacked again and again. Tvrketfatt. endeavour to take the Sultan alive. 1074. The Sultan. at Dinkot. but the Mongol armies advanced space to little by little leaving him less manoeuvre and less room to do battle. 1. quick and mounting it he attacked them again and returned from the charge at the gallop. he mingled dust with blood. On the was probably fought 3 of the Battle of the Indus see Barthold. But Chingiz-Khan prevented them. From excess of astonishment he put his hand to his mouth and kept saying have/ * to his sons. he descried him on the knd on site the far side of the stream. whilst he himself pursued Jalal-ad~Din like drives the clouds* until he came up with him on the banks of the Indus. they stood behind one another in several rings in the shape of a bow and made the Indus like a bowstring. army were sparing with their lances and arrows wishing to for execute Chingiz-Khan's command. It Sbahttama ed. Chingiz-Khan commanded his men to exceed themselves in battle and to The Mongol army and encompassed him on cut off the Meanwhile Chaghatai and Ogetei also had arrived from Khorazm.

the people of which made voluntary submission. He was adopted by Chingiz-Khan'$ 135 . QTQW. where such as were artisans were set on one side while the rest of their number were put to death and the town too was destroyed. the mouth of their Eves and they were given to nurse to Ibn5 Daya. 5 6 the Crow. the breast of death was put to male. 225) and the Sbeng-m Ginggs Han's imd sein Tod.* aM of Jalal-ad~Din*s army that were not drowned In the river were slain by the sword. to According 445. Die letzten Feldztige whilst he sent Ogedei downstream. 'Live in Rajab and 7 tbou sbalt see wonders! Chingiz-Khan proceeded along the banks of the river but sent Ogetei back to Ghazna. See Barthold. The Mongols sent in divers to bring up what they could out of the water.) after the defeat Ong-Khan as allies of the Chin. The word-play with daya nurse is lost in the translation. 7 Upstream according dfin-cbfyg lu (Haenisch. This event. His wives and children were brought before Chingiz-Khan. (Secret History. they were thrown to the carrion crows.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR He * said : Gall not this a man he is a raging elephant endued with pomp and splendour/ So he spoke and gazed thitherwards where Rustam his way. For the I. two lines see Sbahmma ed. been discovered as a young child in the deserted encampment of the of that people by Chingiz-Khan and 135. It Is bard for us that To Urn-Daya continues to that to wUcb the tear-ducts art jomei. that is. the Mongol commander at Parvan. 4 He first left Qutuqu 8 Noyan in charge of the captives II. at. He had Tatar This was Shigi-Qutuqu. * * 3575-6. and as for those were down to very sucklings. Nasawi on Wednesday die 24th November. which was one of the wonders of Destiny. The third line is not in Vullers. be brief. 529). I22i] $ [108] And there is a proverb which says. 8 Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova.. Ogetei ordered them all to be led out into the open country. to of. fell out in Rajab of the year 618 [August September.e. Vullers. Since the riches and wealth which the Sultan had with him consisted chiefly of gold and silver coin he had given orders that day for all of it to be cast in the river. 1693.

Chingiz-Khan ordered him to turn back and said that he would send other forces after destroying According to Rashid-ad-Din (loc. During that winter he took up quarters In the neighbourhood of Buya Katur. On the other hand it is also possible to read Gin instead Katur has been identified. However. dt. besides being the names of the Kurram. which has Kirman Karman of Raverty). See below. Swat and Chitral Agency. still continued the pursuit.. 107. loc. Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova.THE HISTORY OF and craftsmen. and Smirnova. 9 L Empire f m loc. i. 137) in a fortress which * Raverty calls Glban. locates the fortress of Gibarl in Bajaur in the Dir. See the Secret History. meanwhile* had arrived at Karman and 10 Here he received tidings that Jalal-ad-Din had Sanquran. 2. Amin MaHk drove this force back as far as Bust (the modern Qal'a-yi-Bist) and Teginabad (perhaps Qandahar). He left Chaghatai in and Chaghatai not finding him [where he expected] Karman. t n. at According to Juzjani (Raverty. The text should probably be emended to read GarmsJr * Harat the Garmsir and Herat *. because of the heat. 11 The ruler of that place. 461-2. Pul-i-Ahangaran. which is a town of Ashtaqar. Mongol. ' valley of the 11 Neither Buya Upper Kurram. who were to pass the winter in that place.e. whilst he himself returned by way of the Garmsir of Herat. are also the names of two villages in the wide open (BWYH KTWR) nor Ashtaqar (ATQAR). According to Juzjani (Raverty. In fact the Mongols had already on a previous occasion. ii. Smirnova. also the Sheng-wu cb'in-cheng lu. instead. sought his fathers permission to advance against Sistan. 10 the Reading SNQWRAK Ogedei fixed his winter quarters modern QalVyi-Ahangaran on the upper Herirud. The modern SYQWRAN Kurram Agency. p. and the Mongols then retreated in the direction of Herat and Khorasan. 136 . takes of the Helmand followed sent still Garmsir to be the region of that name along the middle course known as Garmsel.3 c dt. and Bretschneider. I.) or by his wife Borte according to Rashid-ad-Din (Khetagurov. Salar Ahmad. dt. 203. to provide the mother. 183. (SM. 1047) i. 225) says simply * * that Ogedei returned by way of the Garmsir (as does also D). for the Raverty (498-911) identifies Sanquran with the dura (valley) of the Shaluzan (Shaluzan in the Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1043. recrossed the Indus and buried his dead. captured it and other forts of the Koh-payah [hill-skirts] * and then for three months encamped in the Glbarl territory and the Koh-payah *. n. From Talaqan Chingiz-Khan had * * by way of the Garmsir to attack Amin Mafik at Ghazna. Grousset. this route a Mongol army Ghazna. i. 9 Chingiz-Khan.e. tributaries of two Shaluzan and Karman. Ho'eliin. 293) Ogedei. to this very region . 174)* At the great quriltd at the sources of the Onon in 1206 he was given the function of grand judge. 12 bound the girdle of submission about his loins and did all in his power army with victuals. 1043-5) Chingk-Khan advanced from the Indus to besiege Ighraq (c below. for the of the text. Raverty. Garmsjr[-i-]Hmt.

157 . 13 He advanced several stages. a word of this action. says not 14 text and Zana-Chatra in battle * * (ZANH TRH his translation. See Raverty. 454. lo. not a trace was left of the prisoners. 15 Assam and the Himakyas according to Juzjani (Raverty. [109] so that in each house there were ten to twenty prisoners. 12 Salar Ahmad is also unidentified. All the neighbouring peoples sent envoys and tendered their 14 Chingiz-Khan dispatched an ambassador to Rana also. the Salt Range) against whom an expedition was sent in 644/1246-7 to punish him for having acted as guide to the Mongols in the previous year. d. This was in Houdas" probably the successor of Nasawi's Rana *Shatra gols. By way of Bengal. Turkestan. 142). 143). in the neighbourhood of Peshawar. ' le seigneur du Djebel El-Djoudi V skin in by Sultan Jalat-ad-Din ($. Chingiz-Khan gave orders that every slave in every house should scour four hundred maunds of rice. upon which Chingtz-Khan killed. He also sent an army to beleaguer Ighraq in the stronghold which he had fortified. All of and the were employed in preparing food by scouring rice. 815) speaks of a kter Rana of the Jud hills (i. 13 Barthold. dawn. was afterwards rekted of Tamerlane) especially as * who was not in the habit of concealing the cruel actions of the MonJuzjani. 1046 and 1081).e. as he points out.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR On of the account of the insalubrity of the soldiers fell sick the strength of the There were many prisoners with them in that place. When the army had recovered its health Chingiz-Khan con- ceived the idea of returning home by a route through India to the land of the Tangut. Juvaini has taken the North Indian tide rana as a proper name.. Chingiz-Khan sent an army which seized and slew him. ic>74n. had also captured Indian slaves in that region. and the Indians. Juzjani (Raverty. See Raverty. and the climate agreed with their constitution. who at first accepted submission but did not remain constant. but as of Giban and identify it with the fortress in (103040) was imprisoned and put to death which Mas'ud the Ghaznavid and which was situated close to the Indus. of which he could not have been ignorant *. also 1074^. 13 submission. . They accomplished this task with great speed within the space of one week . is inclined to discredit the details of this story (which. etc. commanded that all the prisoners in the army should be The unhappy wretches had no idea of their fate one just before night.

in harmony with the cypress the willow from grief laid 16 head upon the Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. in the tore its garment and said. 289. Rugged mountains. 1. these and the report forests. bent its back to the heavy sigh * which it heaved at every dawn and called this stateliness its '. 17 The text has here Farshavat and elsewhere Parshavar. Accorddense ing to Juzjani (Raverty. a kind of unicorn. filled with regret for the violet-cheeked rose-faced ones. 'the town of Purusha '). in recollection of the graceful cypress-shaped ones. Haenisch. filled with longing for wanton glances. he turned back. caused him to retrace his steps. * I have bloomed '. an unhealthy climate and bad drinking water that the Tangut had risen in revolt were the reasons for his turning back. the clouds * rained tears from their eyes and said. 225) is more explicit. the trim cypress. verdure leapt up like the hearts of the sorrowful. garb of the sorrowful. and at the dawning of day nightingales mourned and lamented upon the branches of the trees in unison with in memory of the striplings who every turtles and ring doves in gardens and pleasances had poured out wine and driven year away care upon the petals of flowers and blossoms. According to the Yuan shib he had actually penetrated into Eastern India when the appearance of a fabulous animal. It is rain*. . 17 road by which he had come. the lily. the rose. 318. The form Peshavar (our Peshawar) was introduced by the Mogul Emperor Akbar. 1045-6 and 1081-4) ^ e had from his encampment in the Gfbarl (or Girl) area dispatched envoys to H-Tutmish in Delhi seeking permission to return through India . buming and examining the shoulder-blades of sheep (for an account of this form of divination see Rockhill. and returned by the and came to Peshawar. and he was still in that encampment. i. tit. See Krause. when the news arrived of the Tangut's rebellion. 187-8). I. d'Ohsson. 39.THE HISTORY OF there was no 16 road. n. [XXIII] OF THE RETURN OF CHINGIZ-KHAN WHEN the tidings of the coming of spring had reached every quarter of the inhabitable world. 531. donned blue and claimed that it was heaven-coloured . . Bretschneider. op. at that time the normal spelling of the name (the older Purushapura. [no] the rosebud. from sadness filled its cup with blood and made believe that it was a smile .

THE WORLD-CONQUEROR dark earth and from anguish at its fate its head. 8 to the Dasbt-i-QJfcbaq for the more usual Dasbt-i-Qipchafr the name given vast steppes stretching from the Dniester to the Irtish : it was afterwards applied to the territory of the Golden Horde. of whom there is no memorial but lamentation. Chapter XXIV. By way of the mountains of Bamiyan he rejoined his heavy 1 baggage which he had left in the region of Baghlan* He passed the summer in that pasture land and when the season of autumn was come he again took to the road and crossed the Oxus. at the dawn of day. After crossing the river he sent back Torbei Toqshin 2 in pursuit of the Sultan. 2 See below. bidding 3 him out from the Plain of the Qifchaq [m] * driving the game * in front of 1 him (which for the is most part was wild asses). the wine made a gurgle in its throat . for one moment Who has shown me a 2 face tinged with rose-blood this year J In such times as these what time has there been for roses this year Chingiz-Khan decided to return from Peshawar to his original home. saying. Fcllziige Cinggis op. 38. I am thcfarmsb of the meadow*. whence he sent a messenger to set summon his eldest son Tushi. Perhaps Baghlan and not Parvan Secret History ( meant by the plain of Baruan of the 257 and 258). None has opened his lips in mirthful laughter this year. that thou mayst hear Pahkvl song of the nightingale : It the laments the death of Isfandiyar. and the reason for his haste to return was that the Khitayans and the Tangut. Haenisch. That winter he abode in the region of Samarqand. 139 . Die ktzten Han's wu clfin-cheng lu (Haenisch. the river Pa-lu-wan of the Yuan sbtb (Krause. 531) and the SMngthe plain which the Mongols call Parvan' of Kashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. Look. at. profiting by his absence. strife the world has not rested from this year. and the lute and the embraced with melody. had grown restive and wavered between submission and insurrection. 529) and * mdsem Tod. 225).

757. See Prince Masalsky. well known for its cold climate. and the soldiers his sons mounted horse to disport Chingizthem- and the wild asses were driven before them. 'there was a the vast quantity offish 5 Now and birds here*. p. Qara-Kol. According to Barthold. When they came to a place called Utuqa. 64. 140 . for their part. and the winter had drawn to Finally. Chingiz-Khan determined the princes gathered around and held a quriltai. blossoms. each branded those he had taken with his own brand and let them go free. Turkestan. their father by the river of Fanakat. Among horses. but from excess of weariness the wild asses had become such that they could be taken by hand. they passed the summer in Qulan-Bashi. out on the journey and that they had been shod with 7 horseshoes. they would send Chingiz-Khan of swans. n. It was said that the hoofs of the wild asses had become worn Khan. was originally the name of the swampy region in which the Zarafshan finally loses itself. 8. and the world was become a rosebud with the signs of spring. To be brief. went to Qara-Kol to amuse themselves with the hunting of the swan every week. 5 and joined the presents his father. which he brought were his father's In accordance with command a thousand grey he had driven herds of wild asses from the Plain of the Qifchaq like so many sheep.M. and hither were brought a number of Uighur nobles they whom executed for a crime they had committed. 4 Then Chingiz-Khan * name of a town (Karakul) in Uzbekistan. 118.) QLAN TAY * skii fad. and the earth had donned a robe of flowers and . where Tushi came up from the other side to depart and remove. the Black Lake *. for the of the text. its close. Turkestim- 6 Reading QLAN BAY (V. lit. as a sample of their hunting. They gave chase. When they had grown tired of the chase and none but lean animals remained. fifty camel-loads when no game was left. Qulan-Bashi means Wild Ass's Head % 7 AWTWQA* Unidentified. after which they proceeded from thence until 6 they came to Qulan-Bashi. See above. The pass between the basins of the Aris and the Talas on the way from Chimkent to Aulie Ata (Jambul).THE HISTORY OF 4 Chaghatai and Ogetei. selves.

Punjab.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR departed from thence and in the springtime at his [112] [XXIV] OF THE EXPEDITION OF TORBEI TOQSHIN IN SEARCH OF SULTAN JALAL-AD-DIN I WHEN Chaghatal returned without having found the Sultan* Chmgiz-Khan deputed Torbci Toqshin.e. and 73 17' E. was appears in Houdas* translation. Beeston. 224. where it is described as a place of historical interest in the Pind Dadan On Khan tahsil of Jhelum District. here that Qubacha heard the news of Nandana see the Jalal-ad-Din's battle with the Rana of the Jud hills. it Debdeba-Ousaqoun). Dorbei the Brutal *. as is also the first element doubtless to be regarded as a corruption of BYH of Nasawi's 144. two bastions of large. 144. also the Impend Gazetteer of India. 2 a province of India which had previously been held by Qamar- ad-Din Karmani 3 but of which one of the had now made himself master. 743) this Qipchaq Turk purchased 141 .. identifies Din Tamar Khan QMn. and Rashid-ad-Din (Smimova. 2 The text has in both cases but for the name of the fortress B has BYH. the name of a Dorbet commander who had distinguished himself in an expedition against the forest people of the QoriTumat in 1217. in a remarkable dip in the outer Salt Range. situated 32 43' N. the future governor of Bengal (1244-6). also the above-mentioned article.e. 3. E and the Turkish form of Dorbei G Doqshin." 3 Smirnova. 534). to cross the Indus in his pursuit. the Bodleian MS. Torbei Toqshin took the 1 Sultan's commanders and wrought fortress of *Nandana 2 the Secret History of the Tliis chapter has already appeared in print in in article. to the Printer to the University of Oxford for a photograph of the passage) be regarded as corruptions of an original NNDNH YNDH. * 349. Torbei Toqshin advanced to the region of *Nandana. both of which forms most (i. n. am and indebted to Professor A. Nandana). 86. (text. together with two tumen of Mongol troops. Vol. a according to Juzjani (Raverty. well-cut sandstone blocks still remain. 405-6 and 410. person. which actu- In the case of the district also is ally occurs in Juzjani (Raverty. NNDH F. Iru and to the name Torbei Toqshin the text has Mongok. 178 and 255-6) . long footnote in Raverty (534-9). Of the fort. my Mm As everywhere have TWQYN * TRBAY TQSY for the or TWRBAY TQY It is second element but in II. L. latter Qamar-ad-Din KaimanI with Qamar-adHowever. XVIII. See the Secret History. formerly Keeper Fraser 154 (I of Oriental Books. as DBDBH WSAQWN It NNDNH. i. 14 miles west of Chao Saidan Shah. 240. and J.

2) he was in the with the Rana of the Jud Nanhills. and general belonged to the Besiit. of Karman. See Raverty. somewhat different version of this expedition see below. and arriving in Ghazna followed in the However. ii. discharged from his bow. when he became feudatory of Kanauj. no stones In Multan. the present-day Kurram Agency. 38) it was led not by Dorbei but by Bala of the Jakyir. which ing to 4 For a Yulduz held as a fief. so having plundered and massacred throughout the province of Multan and Lahore he returned from thence and recrossed the Indus. i.e. After the final defeat of the Tayichi*ut Jirqo'adai presented himself before the was 142 . When the mangonels were set in motion. according to the Secret History originally Jirqo'adaL He had fought under Jamuqa at the Battle of Koyiten (1201). In fact the Qamar-ad-Din in question is none other than Qubacha.THE HISTORY OF Then he turned against Multan.} 531. in the course of which an arrow. and in fact he may well have had some connection with Karman. According to Nasawi dana area at the time of Jalal-ad-Din*s (see battle above. 1 YMH. See also below. the ruler of Sind and the former slave of the Ghurid Sultan Shihab-ad-Din. according to Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. I follow Raverty (53611) in calling him Karmani. 414-16. n. great slaughter. 224) it was led by Dorbei and Bala jointly.e. 4 [XXV] OF THE EXPEDITION OF YEME 1 AND SUBETEI IN PURSUIT OF SULTAN MUHAMMAD WHEN Chingiz-Khan city arrived before Samarqand and threw a ring around the he received intelligence [113] that the Sultan fief till by H-Tutm!sh held no the reign of Razlya (1236-9). i. The famous were ( of the Tayichi'ut. who his name. vassals This is apparently the Turkish form of the also. * had wounded Chingiz-Khan's horse. a large part of the wall was demolished and the town was on the point of surrendering. so he ordered levies to be driven to build rafis of wood : There were from thence and launched upon these were loaded with catapult missiles he arrived before Multan the river. his father-in-law Die ktzten FeUzuge Cinggis Han's und sein Tod. the SMng*wu cb*in~cheng lu (Haenisch. ii. the great heat wake of Chingiz-Khan. Krause. a chestnut with a white muzzle '. 41 3 . rather than Kirmani. 498-500. it is found in Nasawi and Juzjani 147). name Jebe . 529) and the Yuan sbib (jbid. of Kerman. Accordthe Secret History ( 257 and 264). of the climate prevented his remaining longer.

if his life was spared. Jebe shoots back. he is sent in pursuit of the Naiman Kuchlug. 116-17. der It is stated by Wolff. who was sail to distinguish China and in Hungary. for unlike his comrade Siibetei.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR had crossed the river at Tirmiz and had part of his army and the chiefs of his household out the villages and countryside . join gather commanders Yerae and and from the troops that were him from every side. 155-6). that Jebe not long survive the great expedition across the Caucasus and round the Caspian. After the defeat of his people Jebe had gone into hiding. * with many such horses *. howfirst * ever. been accorded the honour of a biography in the Yuan sbih. the early fiiend and close companion of the Conqueror (the * Bo'orchu of the Secret History) gives chase on his leader's horse (the same chestnut with the white muzzle*) letting fly an arrow which misses its mark. Ultimately. to serve his new master faithfully and well Chingiz-Khan was pleased with his frankness.* So he chose from the Siibetei to chief of his pursue the Sultan. having risen to the command of a tumcn.. he is obliged to surrender. Cmpagtcs. L?Empire Mongol. dt. I. as a present for his master. Horde d'Or. Gtscti&tt did repeated by Howorth. like See PelliotSiibetei. * 2 Cf. but the fact seems likely Mongolen oder Tataren. in no. 15 1 : And from all the armies that accompanied him ChingizKhan detached men from all his sons in proportionate number. the throughleft of terror He * exclaimed : It is necessary to well rid of him before men make an end of him and be around him and nobles. 97. if the crime is pardoned. each of whom was to a thousand men of the Sultan's army as a wolf to a flock of sheep or a red-hot coal to a dry cane-brake. Conqueror. Jebe now vanishes from history. Kneeling before the Conqueror he confesses to the crime of having to provide the Khan killed his horse but undertakes. and himself enough. with him he selected proportionately 2 thirty thousand men. Borji. to commemorate his action and admitted him amongst his followers. loc. Questioned about the shot he freely admitted his responsibility but promised. n. gave him the name of Jcbc. also Pelliot. he remembers his promise and returns from that campaign bringing with him. hits and kills the horse and so makes his escape. that few him . Because he is a brave man (labafar) he is not only forgiven but made a commander often. 3. He is discovered by Chingiz-Khan in the course of a lattue. below. 194). p. and from each ten he designated one to accompany TolL* . gives a somewhat different version of his entry into Chingiz-Khan's service. Harnbis. and that he had crossed the river in a bewilderment. Rashid-ad-Din (Khetagurov. nor has he. Wolff does not quote his authority for this statement. which means 'weapon* or perhaps arrow* (see PelHot-Hambis. a thousand chestnut horses with white muzzles ! See also Grousset. When. 133.

three fortresses. 144 . also Pelliot-Hambis. 72. 5 See Gabain. And this was the first pawn that Fate set down upon the chessred. deputation to meet them and brought them tuzgbu and offerings of food. The Mongols. The notables of the town sent a First they came to Balkh. The tarn prince is an Uighur borrowing from the Chinese (t'at-fsu 'crown prince '). in consequence. laying their scaling-ladders the third day. Then taking a guide from amongst them. modern Turbat-i-Haidari in Eastern Khorasan. When they came to Zava. whereof they had never heard the like. against of the horizon was filled to the brim with the blood of the dawn- and hearing their assault upon all voices. in their lightheadedness fortresses to the beating of drums and tabors and opened their mouths in abuse and vitupera- The Mongols. From the sound thereof an earthquake shook Khorasan. turned perceiving their contemptuous behaviour back and made a strenuous On and left not alive whomsoever they saw . at the time when the goblet the walls. 3 the manner of smoke. the people were of Fate and the disasters seized with terror.) ' TAYS Y. Turkestan. 4 (Barthold. did them no harm and gave them a sbabna. they scaled the walls board of Oppression.> 94. and the first trick that appeared from under the thimble of the thimble-rigging Heavens. and being unable to stay they burnt and broke whatever was too heavy to carry. refusing to give them anything. 3 Panjab or Mela was a * well-known crossing place * ' near the mouth of the Vakhsh. [114] It was as this fighting and slaying were the clue to the calamities though of cruel Destiny. dt.THE HISTORY OF They forded the river at Panjab and pursuing and seeking him like a flood descending from hill to valley they hastened in . Since the Mongols were in a hurry they did not stop but rode on. but the people of the town closed their gates and paid no attention their 4 they sent forward Taisi words. 5 they asked for provisions (*ulufa) . op. And when the people of Zava saw the banners being borne away to and beheld they turned their hands within their tion. the backs of the Mongols. by way of vanguard. and from hearing of that event.

Yeme making for Juvain and Siibetei proceeding 10 11 to Tus Wherever the people came forward by way of Jam. calling opon them to submit and surrender and demanding provisions ( *ulufa) and offerings of food (twzl). shall submit.WORLD-CONQUEROR 617 and 1220]. W. of which the roins are situated a few miles to the north of Meshed* 11 Now Turbat-i-Shaikh Jam.e.. another name f s for the district of Zava. all the face of the earth from the going up of the sun to his going down I have it unto thee. of Zuzan. Yeme admonished them saying that they should eschew opposition and hostility and whenever a Mongol or a arrived they should welcome him and not Mongol envoy rely upon the stoutness of their walls and the multitude of their so that their houses and people property might go unscathed.* documents after this manner and town with promises. to the east of Turbat-i-Haidari on the Afghan border.* Farid~ad-Din and Ziya-alMulk Zozaoi. 35-6. This district. but those that of Rukhkh. Then they 9 left Nishapur. BanboU. the north-west of Nishapur. offered resistance were utterly destroyed. They dispatched three persons from the mass of the people to Yeme I. shall perish together with all his wives and children and kinsmen. 6 I. the home of Juvaini. 10 The name Tus was applied both to the whole district and to the town of Tabaran. therefore. shall be shown unto him and unto his wives and mercy children and household. 9 Notes sur U " attached by the Mongols to their documents see Turkestan" de M. At the beginning of Rabi* Siibetei arrived before bearing 8 by way of a token they gave the envoys an in the Uighur script and a of a yarligb of Chingiz-Khao 9 copy * whereof the gist was as follows: Let the emirs and ones And and making outward profession of submission..e. 7 I. and dispatched an to Nishapur Mujir-al-Mulk Kafi Rukhkhi. 8 On To this vermilion seal Pelliot. 145 . but whosoever shall not submit. indited The Mongols encouraged the people of the to tender submission. great and the numerous common people know this that . 7 who were the ministers and sadrs of Khorasan. given Whosoever. is now called Jaghatai. [115] they were spared. offerings and presents .

By all that quarter is perhaps meant all that part of the Quarter of Nishapur*. Herat and BalJkh. Lmis of th Eastern Calipbatt. or Unidentified. Nuqan and all n tendered submission and so were at once to the that quarter saved . is still preserved in Naughan.THE HISTORY OF (tuV) The eastern villages of Tus. the When he came to on account of the lack of attention shown by that great slaughter. and here 12 The name of Nuqan (or Nauqan). He also left troops to in which the Sultan's harem had taken beleaguer the fortresses 17 the siege continued until they were captured. Khorasan being divided into the four Quarters of Nishapur. * It is more likely however that the reference is to one of the four quarters or * See below p. the greenness of the and that people meadows the copiousness of the springs so pleased no harm and left a sbabna there* 13 him that he did Khabushan. Qumish Qumis was a A 146 . 17 For a fuller account of the siege see below. viz. a stronghold of the Assassins. especially where he ordered a general massacre. and Issuing forth at night they fought but a band some few were slain on either side. 18 castle in the mountains near Damghan. which was at one time the chief town of the district of Tus. refuge . small province to the south of the eastern extremity of the Elburz range. 382. When Siibetei came to Radkan. and Yeme slew many Meanwhile Siibetei had arrived before Damghan. 18 The notables of the town sought refuge in Girdkuh. in Amul. people. From Damghan the Mongols proceeded to Samnan. territories ' * ' 1S 14 The modem Quchan. The ruins of Isfarayin are now known as Shahr-i-Bilqls. while Siibetei hastened on by way of Qumish. 297* & 5into which Nishapur itself was divided. of Juvain Yeme then turned his reins towards By way 16 Mazandaran. Merv. and and since the inhabitants did not answer to their Hking they carried both In the town and in the neighbouring slaughter to excess villages. ii. See le Strange. and at the gates of the town. Kumish. n. 467. from thence they dispatched an envoy town Itself. 15 16 ADKAN or AYKAN. the name of a quarter of ' * Meshed. 120. of ruffians (mnud) remained behind refusing to surrender. carried out From thence he also the Isfarayin and Adkan 15 Mongols a great massacre. See Smirnova. came to Mongols wrought 14 and in Isfarayin. 3. people In Mazandaran.

When Yeme 21 Hamadan. turned back news reached him that a considerable portion of the Sultan's army had assembled at Sujas.t 229) Hlled 23 22 in the battle between Jalal-ad-Din and the Mongols near Isfahan. 25 The Moghan Steppe. 'Ala-ad-Daula of Hama- dan tendered submission. 258 and 516-17.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR they slew many they came persons] came forward and tendered submission. now lies for the most part within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan. according to Nasawi (tr. the name is perpetuated in the Plain of Khar. op. the season of winter arrived. that the Sultan had departed in the direction of Hamadan. Houdas. 21 19 His name is given by Nasawi (tr. sent presents of mounts and clothing and offerings of food.. Sujas was a small town. 13. 121) as 'Ala-ad-Daula ash- Sharif al-'Alawi. p. When the Sultan had been put to and came once more to Hamadan. and that year the roads were The Mongols When blocked up with the great quantities of snow. See Grousset. the Rhages of the Ancients. to Ray/ the cacli [together with ' And hastened from Ray came in his pursuit. then plundered and massacred throughout the of Iraq 24 and departed from thence to Ardabil. as in Khuvar of Ray also. flight. Then. to while Silbetei proceeded towards Qazvin and that region. It the Georgians. 24 I. they departed to Mughan 2S and passed the winter there. greater part which they took by siege slaughtering the inhabitants and pillaging their possessions. south of the Aras on the western coast of the Caspian. Persian Iraq. 29. Houdas. n. lie a few miles to the south of Tehran. 22 [116] headed by Beg-Tegin Silahdar and 23 he advanced against them and utterly Kiich-Bugha Khan. Yeme And when destroyed them. Khuvar of Ray (so called to distinguish it from another Khuvar in Pars) lay between Samnan and Ray . N 147 .e. 118) was sent by Sultan Jalal-ad-Din's brother Rukn-adDin against Jamal-ad-Din Ai-Aba and who was afterwards (jbtt. 20 The ruins of the famous city of Ray. Presumably identical with the Kiich-Bugha Khan who. See above. 1 22 1. a few miles to the west of Sultaniya. Yeme when 1 people. was presumably from this base that the Mongols launched their first attack on on whom they inflicted a crushing defeat near Tiflis in February. at. victims and drink and accepted a sbabna.

) It would seem therefore that Ai-Aba was actually his father's name and perhaps Juvaini's text should be read Jamal-aJ-Dtn-i-Ai-Aba. son of Ai-Aba. Nasawi says The province of Arran. immediately to the north of the Aras. See Minorsky. be apa. and a deaf-mute hence. The atakeg Khamush 28 came forward to tender submission and was given a letter and an d-tamgba. 148 . lie to the south-east of Shusha. and he was executed together with a number of others. by a natural mistake. in the Encyclopedia of Islam. according to Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. 29 physically separated The in Persian meaning not a word of his submission to the Mongols .THE HISTORY OF u and some others again began to stir Jamal-ad-Din Al~Aba sedition and unrest in Iraq and started a revolt. khamiisb Nasawi tr. 27 When spring came Yeme arrived in Iraq of the sbabna. Houdas. his name. Houdas. III. also baijan. See by the Republic of Armenia. They slew up the sbabtui who had been placed over Hamadan. a Russian member of the commission for the delimitation of the Ottoman-Persian frontier in 1848-52.. and I take the second to be aba bear * 96-7 and 146. availed him nothing. See Minorsky.Q. 30 and took Bailaqan. but it Jamal-ad-Din Ai-Aba came to avenge the slaying to offer submission. as lying to the south of the present-day Khurramabad in Northern Luristan. is the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan within Azerfrom which son of the it is Luristan. (Miller). 1 17 and 120) his full name was Jamal-ad-Din Muhammad b. (Houdas' text has ABY instead and Houdas. 28 The now M. i. Maragha and Nakhchivan 28 massacring the people in all these countries. 215-16. of which the greater portion now forms part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan. 227) it was Oz-Beg himself who bought them off. On the use of this latter word as a title see Hamilton. The Mongols then left Iraq and subjugated Tabriz. a vague word meaning among other things ancestor *. known as MH-i-Bailaqan d. the classical Albania. province of Nakhchivan. is at moon '. 31 30 Bailaqan was 1 at that time the chief town of Arran : its ruins. Jamal-ad-Din. the remainder belonging to the Republic of Armenia. ataltg Oz-Beg * silent '. has converted his name into Ibn of Abou Abeh. ky within the great triangle of land formed by the junction of the Kur and the Aras.e. Ai-Aba. From thence they went to Arran. According to Nasawi (tr. AY 27 Qal'a-yi-Gmt. and seizing *Ala-ad-Daula because of his having tendered submission they imprisoned him in the Castle of Girit. Les Ottigbwrs d I'epoque des Cinq Dynasties. The first * element of this Turkish * name it could however . * for which C has AY ABH. 471-2. 398. This castle is mentioned by Cherikov. 31 and 26 AYBH.

to send a delegation to conclude Of the ten notables whom he dispatched for this purpose one unfortunate peace. traversed the Volga and the desert and accomplished the circuit of the Caspian Sea. op. op. 31 Then to went on by and none remembered that any army had m or gone to war by this route. fate unless 34 and Qipchaq upon defeat Juvaini says nothing of the Mongols* encounter with a coalition of Caucasians their descending into the steppes . t 259-60 and 517-21. 194-5. according to Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. nay the power of And He is the servants*** is From become His and confirmed. vi. carried out a general massacre and borne olf great numbers of prisoners. 35 36 Koran. dt. inflicted tr. The army of Tushi were stationed on the Plain of the Qifchaq and that region . 36 32 Before entering Shirvan the Mongols had again invaded Georgia and a second defeat on the Georgians. loc. for that from an army there should go forth a detachment and smite so many kingdoms and kings and sultans. 195) Rashid-ad-Din says that the people of Darband presented tozght to the Mongols and tendered submission. penethrough the gates of Derbend. See Grousset. S4 the telling of this tale their might and prowess manifest. the Shirvan-Shah. having on all sides such foes and adversaries as no created being might resist or oppose. dt. man was put to death. this can mean nought but the end of one empire and the beginning of verified another.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of Shirvan. See Rashid-ad-Din tr. 228-9). at). Smirnova. Grousset. by an expedition which had never been attempted and has never been repeated/ (Gibbon. had on they guided the Mongols through the pass ! Elsewhere (Khetagurov. to invite the ruler of Shirvan. * 18. They had trampled on trated the nations which opposed their passage. 259 and 517. which Khetagurov. * * 33 This stratagem was.) 149 . but they had to a and so passed through. the Mongols way to Darband sacked the chief town of the province. nor does he mention their of the Russians on the Kalka. 10. 228. lay to the north of the Kur along the Caspian. The province of Shirvan. Shamakha. they linked up with them and departed thence to rejoin Chingiz-Khan. now forms part of Soviet their According to Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. VII. and the remainder were then threatened with the same Azerbaijan.

the people busied themselves with and citadels and laying in a stock of but after some time they became slack.THE HISTORY OF [lI7] [XXVI] A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF TOLI*S CONQUEST OF KHORASAN WHEN Sultan Mohammad passed through Khorasan Yeme and they pursued him in great haste with the speed of fire were In fact a whirlwind. through which a detachment of their forces did not pass. When they passed by. whereof the wind turned into dust whomsoever it overtook. both the Great Noyan ') was conferred upon Tolui posthumously to avoid the mention of his real name. and 1 1. like son Ulugh-Noyan 1 who in his severity was a flashing sword with the potency of fire. and there were few districts Siibetei . they showed no mercy but took the town and slew the inhabitants. or the fire of lightning which had flashed and gone out. wherever a province lay in their path. And whenever the people elected to submit. 146-8. And as they advanced. * meaning 150 . where I suggest that this title (or the purely Mongol On equivalent Yeke-Noyan. See my article. he deputed his to invade Khorasan. Mongolian Princes. they fancied that perhaps that host was a flood which had rolled by. and plying them with threats and menaces. while in his horsemanship he clouds. was and the lightning-flash which leaps out from the veil of renders the place where it falls like unto ashes. and the greater part of Khorasan lay across the path of their armies. the Titks Given in Juvaini to Certain Toli (Tolui). and departed. Ulugh-Noyan. or a whirlwind which had raised a dust-storm from the face of the earth. they gave them a sbabna with an al-tam$a as a token. rumours concerning the Mongol armies having somewhat died down.e. they dispatched an envoy to the people announcing the arrival of Chlngiz-Khan and warning them not to resort to war and frowardness nor refuse to accept submission. and the provisions. But wherever the people refused to submit and surrender and the place was readily assailable and easily attacked. When Chingiz-Khan crossed the river and turned in person strengthening their forts to the pursuit of the Sultan.

Tus.. There stood here. he set commanders over flank and himself proceeded in the centre. 28. IX.f Nisa (or Nasa) was situated near the of Ashkabad in Turkmenistan. n. including 1 Abivard. 326. inasmuch as other events fell out in those countries both before and after the arrival of the Mongols. are devoted to Merv and Nishapur. not later Barthold. istorii K than the beginning of the thirteenth century. See Tumansky. sending forward the van2 guard to reconnoitre. See Minority* HwUMj 5 327. west op. 2 7 Marachuq (the more usual lies on the Murghab. Baihaq/ Khaf. the stronghold (kreposf) of Taq. (IUd. menistan.M. their 5 several fates shall be related [hereafter] in detail As for the rest left of that region. known as Bavard. chapters (XXVII and no detailed account of the capture of Herat.THE no from all or trace. that if the wind of war in any way comes into falls into their being. and with respect to the three . xxvi. p. the and that not to or armies accompanied sons in detached men from all his Chingiz-Khan and fire from each ten he designated one to accompany ToH . of the Qahqa [Kaakha] station of the Transcaspian railway *. 7 dt. [118] the fetters of restraint are from the hands of their their choice. received the name of Yazir from the Turkmen tribe which settled there. in pre-Mongol times.O. Jajarm. Zap. Now Khorasan was divided into four cities: Balkh. He proceeded by way of Maruchoq. as has been separately mentioned . V. which. 301. he dispatched armies to the right and the and to the East 6 and the 8 West and subjugated it all. See the Introduction. In Turkish little Merv *. .} 8 of Bagir (Baghir) ' to the west About half way between omfaniya Turkestam. Whole is but there p. 13. 41 : Ashkabad and Qizil Arvat lie the ruins of the town of Durun. Nisa. Juvain. also at 8 Km. 3 Bagh and Baghshor. Yazir. 4 Chingiz-Khan destroyed Balkh in per- When son. Baihaq was the name of the Sabzavar district.) 10 9 Spelt in Persian Khwaf. just inside Afghan territory on the frontier with Turk- * Bagh and Baghshur station the " are two names of the same place. lay near the present villages of Abivard. Mervs Herat and Nishapur.) village (Minorsky. Its ruins lie near of QaTa-yi-Mor on the Tianscaspian Railway.other cities. 8 now spelling is Maruchaq). it and though the vast ocean be enemy they throst down into the bowels of the dark earth.* (V. Toli went forth.. XXVUI) * Abivard. 6 4 See above.

and their skin and bones crumbling dust . 151. came to the country of Sijistan. the region in Eastern Persia and 14 See above. p. And him. save despite his inclinations thereto. The Arabic name of Sistan Western Afghanistan. and from the surging [119] of creatures every one of them is an To and whole regions were rendered like the palm of the hand and the mighty ones that rebelled were crushed in the fist of calamities. present like 11 Now from the time ever day no king has identical with when Adam descended until this made such conquests nor has the been recorded in any book. moment for study. 5. free And though there were a man to from preoccupations. 14 and when he had joined her to her sisters he returned to wait upon his father. n. Jand and all that region were subjugated within two ocean. 13 (Seistan). study and research and his whole attention to the recording of events. months. Khorazm. plundering and world which billowed with the regions thereof became a desert. 12 Zurabad appears to be identical with Ziirabad or Zuhrabad. The last of all to suffer was Herat. has not a when in the course of distant journeyings he snatches a hour or so when the caravan halts and cities writes down these histories ! be brief. With one stroke a and by way of Herat they massacring. and the mighty were humbled and immersed Sarakhs and Zurabad : 11 12 13 in the calamities of perdition. Talaqan had not yet been taken when he joined and with his help that too was conquered. 15 In the margin of B someone has written in this pkce : KSstid tit niz wnivisbta U&. yet he could not in a long period of time acquit himself of the account of one single district nor commit the same to life who could devote his whole writing. then. Juzjani (Raverty.Q. and and the greater part of the living dead. 15 Sangan (Sangun) between Turbat-i-Haidari and Apparently Khaf. Would ' that thou too hadst not recorded ' it ! (M. in two or three months Toli subjugated with such populations that every borough thereof is a city. How much more is this beyond the powers of the present writer single who. 1038) states that the Mongols took the town after a siege lasting eight months and massacred the entire population. to the southwest of Meshed near the frontier with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.THE HISTORY OF Sanjan.) . fertility was laid desolate. ravaging.

WORLD-CONQUEROR

[XXVII]
OF MERV AND
FATE THEREOF

MERV was

of great and small.

the residence of Sultan Saojar and the rendezvous In extent of territory it excelled among the

lands of Khorasan, and the bird of peace and security flew over The number of its chief men rivalled the drops of its confines.

April rain, and its earth contended with the heavens ; its from the greatness of their riches, breathed the breath of equality with the monatchs and emirs of the age and set down the foot of parity with the mighty and haughty ones of the world.

A fair
Anl
name

knd and

a merciful

lord, <tni

a soil

whse day
its

bleeds ambergris;

when a man prepares
it

to

depart $xrefrom, fy

t/ery

1 forbids him to depart.

When Sultan Muhammad (God illuminate his example /) had deposed Mujir-al-Mulk Sharaf-ad-Din Muzaffar from the governorship and vizierate on account of an offence committed by his uncle and had entrusted that office to the son of Najibad-Din Qissa-Dar, 2 known as Baha-al-Mulk Mujir-al-Molk remained in attendance on the Sultan until the time when he fled from Tirmiz ; [120] when Kush-Tegin Pahlavan 3 approached the courtiers resident at Mcrv in order to sound their views and brought tidings of confusion and dispersion and the advent of a strange army. And thereafter came messages from
1

name Merv
not*.
2
*

Attributed by Tha'alibi in the Yatimat-ai'-Dabr to Abu-'Ali as-Saji The in the Arabic character may also be read ma-ran *go

MRW

(M.Q.) According to Nasawi (tr. Houdas, 168) Najib-ad-Din Qissa-Dar had been vizier of Jand*. As qtssa-ddr he was *le fbnctionnaire charge de recevoir les

la fin de la semaine il reunissait tout requetes, petitions et reclamations. son dossier ; il le portrait le jeudi soir a la salle de reception, et quand le sultan avait fini de Fexaminer, il le remportait avec les solutions donnees/ Nasawi
calls him asb-Sbabraz&ri, i.e. of Shehrizur in Mulk HajjL 8 The Kiich-Tegin Pahkvan of Nasawi

A

Kurdistan, and his son Baha-al-

(tr.

whom
is

(ttrid.j

229) he afterwards took part in the

Houdas, 115), according to battle between Sultan Jalal-

ad-Din and the Mongols near Isfahan. On this battle see below, ii, 436-7. * * simply a dialectical variant of the Turkish Mcb strength ', might '.

Msh

153

THE HISTORY OF
the Sultan adorned with signature and tqgbra and annotated with folly and impotence, whereof the contents and purport was that
the levies, soldiers

should take refuge in the fortress of Margha and that the dihqans and all that could not remove themselves should remain where they were and should, whenever
officials

and

a Tartar army arrived, go forth with ceremony to meet them and preserve their lives and property by accepting a shahna and obeying
their orders.

Now, when the King, who is, as it were, the heart, becomes weak in his limbs, how shall there remain strength in the members of the body ? And so timidity prevailed over events and fear over men, and bewilderment and uncertainty overwhelmed them. Baha-al-Mulk together with a great number of the nobles and but when he reached the military made every preparation;
he judged it inexpedient to remain there and set out for the castle of Taq-i-Yazir 4 together with some others. Others
fortress

again departed to various places according to their fancy, while those whose reins had been seized by Destiny returned to Merv.

deputy Baha-al-Mulk had left behind a man of the people who was the nayk. This man was inclined to surrender, and the $haikh-al-I$lam Shams-ad-Din Harisi favoured his idea
his

As

rectitude

but the cadi and the chief of the sayyids strayed from the path of and stood aloof. When it was confirmed that the army
Siibetei

of Yeme and

had reached Maruchuq, they

sent

an envoy

with tokens of submission and friendship.

At

this juncture,

a Turcoman,

who had

been the leader and

guide of the Sultan and whose name was Buqa, sprang up from a corner and, a number of Turcomans having gathered

around him, [121] threw himself unexpectedly into the city, where a number of people that were opposed to submission and
obedience to the Tartar army

made common

cause with him.
his face,

The

naqib

removed the

veil

of government from

and the

Turcomans of all
turned towards
4
I.e.

that region joined

up with Buqa.
fled

A number

of the inhabitants of Jand, 5

who had
by
8.

Merv

attracted

the

from the levy and had abundance of its wealth,
5

Yazir.

See above, p. 151, n.

See above, pp. 90-1.

154

WORLD-CONQUEROR
arrived at this time

and sought with him; and so he a large following. acquired of Meanwhile, the Sultan having found his rest on the

Abaskun, Mujir-al-Melk, now riding a donkey, now on foot, turned his reins and passed by the castle of Su'luk. 7 C Here the Emir Shams-ad-Din AH greeted him with honour and reverence ; and from thence he came to Merv, where he in the Garden of Mahiabad at the Sarmajan Gate. Some of the officers of Merv, who were his liegemen, came to him individually; but Buqa would not admit him into the town
being apprehensive of pressure from the common people. However, when a few individuals had gathered around him, they
8 suddenly, in the middle of the day, covered their armour with their cloaks and threw themselves into the town* The Mervian

levies at

to

him

once girded their loins in his service, and Buqa came alone and was pardoned. The Turcomans and Jandians

in the town, though numbering more than seventy thousand, also submitted to him. He thought himself in consequence superior
to the

ever in his brain;

rank of vizier, and his fancy kept the dream of Sultanship for his mother had been a favourite in the

had given to his father and who, at the time she was delivered up to him, was already with child. In short, when the report of his success was noised
harem of the Sultan
latter

whom the

through Khorasan, the lower classes (otAasb) [everywhere] turned towards him, and in the core of his heart the delusion

became implanted that the heavens could not revolve without winds move through the plains of the air. At this time the people of Sarakhs had accepted a Tartar and the sbaikb-al-Islam, who still had a sbabna and submitted
his leave nor the
;

leaning towards the Tartars, wrote whisperings to the cadi of
6 sukun : a word-play with Abutem, which Is here apparently not the port of that name but the Caspian Sea itself. Cf. below, ii, 385, where Muhammad * is said to take refuge on one of the islands of the Sea of Abaskun'. See also

Minorsky, Hudud, 386.
7

of Su'luk
8

According '

to

Hamdallah

*

(tr.

le Strange,
*

148) the

strongly fortified castle

ky

to the north

of the town of

Isfarayin.

pusbisbba,

which would normally mean

clothes", but cf. the use

in the sense of* armour* in Minorsky,

A

Civil an& Military Review; 164.

155

HISTORY OF
Sarakhs,.

who
this

his

kinsman*

informed of

of

[122] Mujir-al-Mulk had been but said nothing : until one

in the midst of a sermon from the pulpit in the cathedral mosque, there slipped from the tongue of the shaikh-d-Iskm the

words May the life-veins of the Mongols* enemies be severed Those present in the assembly were much exercised by these words and he himself was silenced, confused and bewildered, and said : Such words passed my lips without my volition and my thought and intention was the contrary of what I said/ But when the moment is ripe* a prayer comes to the lips in accordance f with the requirement of the time. God Almighty kith said, The
:
!

*

*

;

*

is

concerning which ye enquire!

9

These words

also reached the ear

of Mujir-al-Mulk and con-

firmed his suspicion; but he was related to the man, and he and was in himself a learned bore the name of shaikh-til-

Mm

man

;

and

so Mujir-al-Mulk

was unwilling

to touch

him with-

all the world might see and none might deny or refute. Finally, a letter in his own handwriting which he had written to the cadi of Sarakhs was retrieved from the messenger in the middle of his journey ; and when Mujir-al-Mulk read this letter he had him summoned and questioned him. He denied all the rumours and hints about his having dispatched the message. Mujir-al-Mulk then handed him the letter, which was Hke that of Mutalammis, 10 saying, "* Riad what tbou hast written.* "^ As for the sbaikb-al-Islam, when his eye fell on the writing, he became disturbed and confused. Mujir-al-Mulk ordered him to be taken away, and the officers (s&bangSn) laid hold of him and poured the fire of calamity over him; they cut him to pieces with their knives, took him by the log and dragged him face downwards to the

out the evidence of proof such as

Verily, the result of hypocrisy and guile is and the consequence of treachery and betrayal disastrous. grievous And on account of the submission of Sarakhs Mujir-

market place.

*

Koran,
I.e. it

10
(i.e.

xii, 41. contained the bearer's death sentence.

For the

story

of Mutalammis

Kifalhd-Aglmi ed. Bdinnow, XXI, 193. (V.M.) ' 11 Read thy book.* Koran, xvii, 15, where the meaning is :

Jarir) see the

continually sent troops
the town.

and

the

of

of TagMeanwhile Baha-al-Mulk had fled from the Here he approached i-Yazir and taken refuge in Mazandaran. the Mongols and the levy, informed them of the position in Merv and offered to go thither and reduce the town and to furnish eery year from eery house a linen garment for the full approval and [123] His words met with their treasury.

him to Merv together with seven Mongols. unaware of the developments in Merv and ignorant of Being the jugglings of Fate, he arrived full of greed and avidity in 1* where he received tidings of the taking of the Shahristana* town by Mujir-al-Mulk. He sent forward an officer to announce wrote a letter to Mujlr-al-Mulk whereof the [his arrival] and
they dispatched
*

contents were as follows

:

between us and apprehension
that
is

If there were formerly differences about the holding of office, all

no protection against the might of the Mongol army save in service and the acceptance of allegiance. Seven thousand Mongols together with ten thousand levies are I am allied with them; and they have approaching Merv, and 1S And to the ground. in one moment razed Nisa and Bavard between now, being moved by compassion and desiring concord

now

over and there

is

have sent forward runners to inform you hereof, so that and not cast yourselves you may refrain from persistence in strife and the oven of perdition/ into the whirlpool of destruction were divided Mujir-al-Mulk and the grandees and notables and distracted in their minds. The more in their
us, I

opinions

with Mujir-al-Mulk himself wished to disresponsible together the town; but they reflected that to rely perse and abandon
remote from prudence upon the word of an interested party was and wisdom. They therefore took Baha-al-MulFs messengers about the size of the aside, one by one, and interrogated them

army.

When

them and
12

truth of the matter, they slew they discovered the five hundred from the dispatched two thousand
It lay 3

Or

Shahristan.

miles north of Nisa.

See Barthold, Turkestan, 153,

n. 16. 13

Or

Ablvard.

See above, p. 151, n. 6.

157

OF
of the

Turks
the

to fight their forces.

When

and
in the

of

their dispositions they

of Tus,

The
with
as far as

and Baha-al-Mulk's officers bound Baha-al-Mulk and bore him
they put

him

to death.

and as far as Sarakhs; Mojir-al-Molk's army proceeded at the time of Yeme Noyan's the cadi Shams-ad-Din,
arrival,

tuzgbu [124] and had over Sarakhs to the Mongols, becoming matik and 14 from and receiving a wooden paiza governor of the town seized him and delivered him up to the Chingiz-Khan, they son of Pahlavan Abu-Bak Divana, who slew him in vengeance

had gone out

to meet

him with

for his father.

The rumours about the Mongols having by this time somewhat died down, Mujir-al-Mulk and the notables of Merv concerned
themselves with pleasures and amusements and gave themselves At this to the excessive drinking of wine. completely over the mlik of Amuya, arrived with juncture Ikhtiyar-ad-Din, that the Tartar army was besieging QdVyi-Kalat and tidings u and that a detachment of them had come to

QaTa-yi-Nau Amuya and were at his heels. Mujir-al-Mulk made Ikhtiyarad-Din welcome he joined the other Turcomans and took up
;

his

A
14

abode among them. Mongol army of eight hundred men
16

now
17

attacked the
arriving

town; but Shaikh Khan

and Oghul Hajib
tzX.

from
as

PAYZH.
calls

The Chinese j?W

On

these 'tablets

of authority',

Marco Polo
&f Sif

Mm&

them, P&k, I, 351-4, for

see Benedetto,

112-13.

See also Yule's note, The Soak

plates representing

two

silver paizas

found in

Russian

silver tablets: wooden paizas speaks only of gold and territory. were givm to minor officiak See Vernadsky, The Mongols ml Russia, 125-6

Fob

and 128.

known as Kalat-iQalVyi-Kalit most be the famous stronghold afterwards for a description of which see Curzon, Perm and tk Persian Question, I, Nadirl, not been identified. (V.M.). 126-40. QalVyi-Nau, 'the New Castle*, has 16 He had been one of the defenders of Samarqand. See above, p. 118.
15

Moghol Hajib. See Barthold, op. tit, be identical with the Oghul Hajib of Nasawi (tr. Houdas, 19) on whom the title of Inanch-Khan had been conferred. In the he is called Badr-ad-Din chapter specially devoted to this general (*WV 111-17) Inanch-Khan. He had been designated by Jakl-ad-Din to take part in the I58
is

17

He

referred to above, p. 124, as

433, n. 2.

He

appears to

Khorazm

two

fell

the rear of

the Mongols, overcame on the field. Some,

and

left

the
less

ied
the

were pursued by the Sellings Turks and Turcomans^ captured sixty of them and after parading toquarters of the town and the market places put

Shaikh

Khan and Oghul
18

Hajib

in

Dastajird. As for Ikhtiyar-ad-Din, the leader ; and forming a compact

Turcomans

among
to
stir

away from Mujir-al-Mulk and began
hearts

confusion that the face of the earth was

up such tumult and made as black as the
of the town,

of hypocrites, and

strove to take possession

a Mujir-al-Mulk received tidings of their intention to attack and took counter measures. thus unable to night Being

and their position having become insecure, bank of the river and set their hands to plundering ; they would come up to the gates of the town* pillage the villages and seize whatever they set their eyes on. It was at this juncture that Chingiz-Khan [125] dispatched Toll to conquer the countries of Khorasan with men of action and lions of battle and raising levies from the subject territories which lay across their path such as Abivard, Sarakhs, etc., they assembled an army of seven thousand men. Drawing near to Merv they sent four hundred horsemen across the ford by way of vanguard. These came by night to the bank where the Turcomans were encamped and watched their activities. Twelve thousand Turcoman horsemen were assembled there and used
achieve a victory
they retired to the
;

at every

dawn

to

go

to the gates in order to attack the

town.

and after the fall of the town had fled westward, first to the of Nisa and Abivard, then to Sabzavar and finally to Jurjan on the eastern region There shores of the Caspian, where he inflicted a defeat upon the Mongols.
defence of Bokhara,

no mention of his passing through Gurganj ; and yet elsewhere (tr. Houdas, 96) Nasawi, like Juvaini (ii, 401), speaks of his presence there at the time of Jalal-ad-Din's arrival from the West and even of his warning the Sultan of
is

a plot against his person. 18 Perhaps the Dastagird mentioned by Hamdallah lying on the road from Marv-ar-Rud to Balkh.

(tr.

le

Strange, 169) as

159

HISTORY OF
Upon
the
a jt~bkck night
neither
face
visible,

was washed with

pitch,

when

Mars was

18 nor Saturn, nor Mercury.

Mongols

silence.

laid an ambush In their pathway and waited in The Turcomans were unable to recognize one another

arrived in small groups the Mongols [in the dark] and as they cast them into the water and on to the wind of annihilation.

Having wind to

thus broken their strength the Mongols came like the their encampment and left the trace of the wolf upon

the herd.

And

thus the Turcomans, whose numbers exceeded

a mere handful of men. seventy thousand, were defeated by Most of them flung themselves into the water and were drowned,

while the remainder took to

flight.

For since the Mongols were

aided by Fortune and assisted by Fate, none was able to contend with them and he whose time was not yet come fled away casting

down

his arms.

The Mongols proceeded in this manner rill nightfall and collected on the plain a herd of sixty thousand cattle (including
the gates, as well sheep) which the Turcomans had driven from as other possessions, the amount of which was beyond com-

On the next day, which was the first of Muharram, 618 [25th of February, 1221], and the last of the lives of most of the inhabitants of Merv, Toli, that furious lion, arrived with an army like unto a dark night and a raging sea and in [126] * all warriors of multitude exceeding the sands of the desert,
putation.
great

renown*.

advanced in person to the Gate of Victory together with some five hundred horse and rode right round the town ; and
for six days they inspected the outworks, walls,

He

moat and minaret

reached the conclusion that the townspeople's sup[sic] a plies would suffice to defend them and that the walls were stout bastion that would withstand their attack.

m and

On

the seventh day,

When

the shining sun sought to cast his glittering lasso
lofty citadel,

from the
19

Skibmna

20

momm

:

ed. Vullers, 1065, 1. i. perhaps the turrets on the wall are meant.

1 60

THE
the
the

Gate,
the

They joined and attacking.
He
shield

two

ToH
his

dismounted in personhis

uttered a roar like a furious elephant,

above

head and showed

his

hand

il

and advanced upon them. And the Mongols attacked in his company driving them back into the town. Others from another gate but the Mongols stationed repelled the attack. And so the townspeople were nowhere able to achieve result and could not even pot their heads out of the gates. any Finally the world donned garments of mourning, and the Mongols took up positions in several rings around the fortifications and kept watch throughout the night, so that none had any means of egress. Mujir-al-Mulk saw no way out save surrender and submission. In the morning, therefore, when the sun had raised the black veil from his moonlike face, he dispatched Jamal-ad-Din, one of the chief imams of Merv, as his ambassador and sued for Being reassured by fair words and promises, he got quarter. together presents from the quadrupeds in the town horses, camels and mules and went to Toll [in person]. ToH questioned him about the town and asked for details regarding the wealthy and notable. Mujir-al-Mulk gave him a list of two hundred persons, and Toll ordered them to be brought into his Of the questioning of these persons one might have presence. e y said that the Earth quaked with her quaking 22 and of the digging * up of their buried possessions, both money and goods, that tbe
Earth
cast forth her burdens
23
'.

town and drove all the inhabitants, nobles and commoners, out on to the plain. For four days and nights the people continued to come out of the town; the Mongols detained them all, separating the women
entered
the

The Mongols now

how many peri-like ones did they from the men. [127] Alas How many sisters drag from the bosoms of their husbands
!
!

21 Shabaama ed. Vullers, 476,
.,

L

700.

2a

Koran,

xlix, i.

xllx, 2.

161

HISTORY OF
did they separate from their brothers ! How many parents were ! distraught at the ravishment of their virgin daughters

The Mongols

whom

they specified

ordered that, apart from four hundred artisans and selected from amongst the men and

some children, girls and boys, whom they bore off into captivity, the whole population, including the women and children, should be killed, and no one, whether woman or man, be spared.

The
and

levies*

the soldiers people of Merv were then distributed among and, in short, to each man was allotted the execution

of three or four hundred persons. The people (aAak) of Sarakhs in avenging their cadi exceeded [the ferocity of] such as had no

knowledge of Islam or religion and passed all bounds in the abasement and humiliation [of their fellow Moslems], So many had been Hied by nightfall that the mountains became hillocks, 24 and the plain was soaked with the blood of the mighty.

We

Ixiue

grown

oU
&t

In

a lanl

In

whose expanses one treads

on nought htf
striplings.

cheeks of maidens

md

the Ireasts

of

Then,

at Toll's

command,

the outworks were destroyed, the

with the ground and the maqsma of the mosque 25 to the sect of the greatest imam Abu-Hanifa (God belonging bam mercy on Mm I) set on fire. One might have said that
citadel levelled
this

rale

was in vengeance for what befell in the time of the righteous of Shams-ad-Din Mas'ud of Herat, the vizier of the kingdom
28
;

of Sultan Tekish
for the followers

who

caused a Friday mosque to be built

of the imam Shafi

V

7

which

fanatics set

fire

to

by night.

When
huge *
piles

the

Mongols had

finished plundering

and leading

seemed no more than hillocks when surrounded by the * * of dead. For MhM mountains M.Q. suggests the reading gwb8 * ditches ; but the emendation seems unnecessary. 25 Abe-HanSa an-Nu*man was the founder of the Hanifi sect, one of the four orthodox sects of the Sunnis.
26

a4 I.e. the mountains

On

Sultan Tekish, the father of
b. Idris ash-Shafi%

Muhammad

Khorazm-Shah,

see

below,

pp. 289-31527

Muhammad

was the founder of the

Shafi'i sect

of Sunni

Islam.

I62

He now together the sayyid with some other persons passed thirteen days and nights in the town. drem m ff m sm them m Jw The an evil plight that be fite people are in such died deserves to rejwce? Now sayyitk Izz-ad-Din Nassaba was one of the great and renowned for his piety and virtue. out of the noose of life and caused to drink the draught of annihilation. he too laid balm on 29 and all that the Mongols found there were drawn their wounds. arrived in Merv. wished to have belonging to the rearguard then arrived and of Merv. Here BRMAS hot elsewhere Note Juvaini's irony. and in this most of those that had previously escaped. Taking into counting the people slain within account only those that were plain to see and leaving aside those that had been killed in holes and cavities and in the villages and deserts. Ziya-ad-Din "Ali one of the of his who had been spared by to enter the town and be received orders those that reassembled out of nooks and crannies* The m as also left Barmas When the army departed. who had turned back from Yeme Noyan's army. They commanded therefore that each person should bring a skirtful Mongols .Q. In this manner many persons lost their lives.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR captive and massacring. of A share of slaughter. [128] those that had in holes and cavities came out again. Then they proceeded all they found of those along the road to Nishapur and slew who had turned back from the plain and fled from the Mongols when halfway out to meet them. and hereafter Taisi. they arrived at a figure of more than one million 28 29 * b. as BARMAS * : apparently he that does not go \ Attributed by Tha'alibi in the Yatimat-ad-Dabr to Abid-Hasan Muhammad Muhammad known Ibn-Lankak al-Basii (M.) . and there party of together some five thousand persons. of grain out on to the plain for the way they cast into the well of annihilation By Godf we live in violent times : sbcM k terrified.

Hereupon a to proceed to Bokhara. No one showed his face or treated him with any respect . One of the earliest quotations from 164 . his art and feet by Who has joined them In love and who has broken them in hate* the son of Pahlavan Abuuntil news arrived that Shams-ad-Din Divana had started a rising in Sarakhs. He himself did not show his face but rose in rebellion them well and s with them and repaired the walls and the citadel . [129] encamped the measure of whose lives was filled and number of ad-Din set persons* their fortune revosed.. and in revenge he slew numbers of people whom he found at the gate of the town. on the last day of Ramazan. He also sent the son of Baha-al-Mulk to them as a hostage saying that he was his and there the people own son. At this juncture a party of Mongol people rallying around soldiers arrived. town and sent some men to summon the notables. 1221]. who were Barmas. after taking out of the town outside. In Bokhara who Dashtabadi. [7th of November.THE HISTORY OF three f hundred thousand. thought that the Adma had received tidings flee. 618 Barmas came to the gate of the from Merv remained. Then he departed together with those that had accomwhom was Khoja Muhazzib-ad-Din panied him. a number of him. some and went over to him. *Izz~ad~Din quoted a quatrain of of the occasion: UmaM-Khayyam which was The form of So many a cup in which It has been It moulded together the drunkard does not hold lovely heads lawful to shatter. The Emir Ziya- The Emir Ziya-ad-Din and Barmas both remained in Merv out with a few men to suppress the rebellion . the sbahia died. When Ziya-ad-Din returned he entered the town under the for his departure and distributed pretext of making preparations the plunder he had taken amongst the people. Ziya-adKhayyam. etc. treat kept them with some When Kiish-Tegin Pahlavan arrived from the forces and together with large common people revolted the 31 Sultan retinue of began to invest the town. and the artisans. among followed him as far as Bokhara. He judged him for it expedient to rime. about the Sultan and was preparing a to They at once beat drum and rose in revolt.

op. 5. once reached the ears of Kiish-Tegin and Zipad-Din*s enemies. also Barthold.THE WGRLD-CO'NQBEEOE Din f realizing that his affairs could not a conflict of interests. The meanseems to be simply that Kiish-Tegin was about figurative language In fact to experience a reversal of fortune and not that his death was at hand. 449. thus negligent [of events] he received tidings of the 33 He retreated by night arrival of Qaracha Noyan in Sarakhs. Kiish-Tegin dispatched a party of men and followers entered the The news had him seized. * Ziya- prostitutes. 9. op. the town. When he came back and halted at at the gates [130] one of his town and told some person of his arrival. whereas the water of Destiny had burst the dam of his life and confined the water of his existence 32 in the wells of perdition. repair the fortifications. where he to lay Kiish-Tegin entered foundations. ing of this 33 The approach of the Mongols.' When he realized that Ziya-ad-Din had no money and there was nothing to be got from him. Then he demanded ad-Din said that he had given it to his money of him. After the death of Ziya-ad-Din he turned with an untroubled mind to his building and agricultural schemes and worked at the construction of a dam for the river. See above. according marched on Bokhara and killed the Mongol 115. text 84 The * 1 Sangbast is a village some 20 rules See Barthold. at. and men of trust who asked * They are/ he said. his water of life '. n. n.. he survived to take part in the Battle of Isfahan. who they were. but when the time came for action they deserted me and the brand of treason upon their foreheads.e. Houdas. ak-i~hayat. More * literally. was due to his having See Nasawi tr. While by way of Sangbast S2 34 together with a thousand picked (mufmd) * immortality *. Kiish-Tegin persons of quality before to-day are drawn up set you just as formerly they were drawn up before me. i. Nasawi. Some of the people of the town dispatched a secret letter to Ziya-ad-Din urging him to return to the town. has swg~pwbt to the sooth-east of Meshed. p. set out for the of with the party of Mongols that were in attendance on aed . KiishTegin deemed his death to be his own life and considered his destruction the survival of the realm. * tortoise 165 . improve agriculture and mend the dam. 153. 3. to sbahui. dt> 448 and n.

135 and n.. See above. Shigi-Qutiiqu. be. who had received the tide of Aq-MaEL They took the town within and putting camel halters on believers they led them off in strings of ten and twenty and cast them into a trough of blood* In this manner they martyred a hundred thousand after which they distributed the various quarters among persons the troops and destroyed the greater part of the houses. leaving Aq-Malik behind with a small force for The the purpose of laying hands on any persons that might have exercised prudence and escaped from the beak of the swordKush-Tegin himsel according to Nasawi. i. dL 38 Le. i. n. Hondas. 166 . generals then returned to their post together with the Mongol army. Within five days Torbdl arrived at the gates with five thousand men and accompanied by Humayun Sipahsalar.HISTORY OF his pursuit and overtook him at the greater part of his force . 92. attracted by the abundance of its wealth. palaces. . 87 TRBAY. Half of them continued their journey in order to carry out their orders. apparendy TWRBAY. 8. Qaracha went in Three or four days afterwards some two hundred horsemen. p. while the other half laid siege to the S7 to the generals Torfaci town and hurriedly and Qaban 3S in NaJkhshab reporting the gathering together of people at Merv .e. the Qaban who accompanied the Emir Arghun on a mission to China (ii. Cf. horsemen. See Hambis. fled first to Sabzavar and then where he joined forces with Oghul-Hajib Inanch-Khan* See Nasawi tr. [131] for at that rime strangers from aH parts. 506)* Qaban was also the name of a great grandson of Chaghatai. at. and the townspeople also out of patriotism were casting themselves into that well of stench. M arrived at Merv. 3S already suggested by Barthold. an hour . 115. while his deputies slaying 25 remained in charge of the government of Merv. kc. 88 Reading QBAN with E in place of the QBAE. As was to Juxjan. this general is probably identical with the Torbei Toqshin who had been sent across the Indus in pursuit of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din. If cbapitre CFII. mosques and shrines. E has TWRTAY. the Ciban of Marco Polo. had risen from their comers and turned their faces towards Merv. who were going to join Qutuqu Noyan. also Barthold. of the text.

When news of what had happened at Merv reached Nisaf a Turcoman 40 in that place collected an army of his tribesmen and came to Merv. See 167 . 40 'Umar 41 His name. Muhammad b. cU. the son of Pahlavan Abu-Bakr Divana. Panj-Dih 'Umax 44 b. 165). desiring to take Nisa/ the Turcoman proceeded thither with the greater part of his force [132] and laid 43 siege to the town. in Turkmenistan. pp. according to Nasawi (tr. Apparently Shams-ad-Din. t also 173-9. since gbttrak in Arabic means both *crow* and 'edge (of a cutting weapon)*. In this manner many more For forty-one days Aq-Malik continued this work returned whence he had come And in the town remained not four persons alive. Panj-Dih 41 and Talaqan to strike by stealth at the Mongols* baggage and carry off their cattle and horses. 2 time. Mas'ud. See Nasawi tr. and he had also made himself master of Khurqan and Abivard. 158 and 164. Marv-ar-Rud is is the modern Bala Murghab the (Panjdeh) further down * 42 There is a pun involved since msa (mw*) in Arabic means women *. during which time he constantly sent forces to Marv-ar-Rud. left down those that in Merv and its surroundings. Uc. again assumed the emirate of Mervf and the common people (*at/amm) rallied to his side. And the son of an emir.crow 3t by In a corner. 44 coming from the direction ** ghirifa-i-sbamstir : a pun. Hamza b. above. put practice the impious forms of When . a man called Arslan. Murghab in Afghanistan. Houdas. The townspeople went over to him and so ten thousand people were gathered around him and he was emir for the space of six months. was Taj-ad-Din b. all army had remained in the villages or departed into the deserts turned their faces towards the town. Hamza. 43 His full name was Nusrat-ad-Din Hamza b. from the roof. the governor of which was Nusrat When there was no At the same He continued the siege until Pahlavan. Houdas. no all remained untried a person from Nakhshab them played the muezzin and gave the call to that came out of the holes in which they and crammed into the Shihabi college.

Noyan with a hundred thousand men and began to torture and torment the inhabitants.) 168 . and whenever they found an emaciated person they slew him* Some few such wretches escaped and were scattered throughout the country and except for ten or a dozen Indians who had been resident in the town for ten years past there was no one left in the town. slaying all that And in his trail came Qutuqe their grain to be devoured. And the Khalaj of Ghazna and the Afghans. sparing not a single creature. of Nisa. called And in addition to all these calamities. It would appear however that the Turcoman was some distance from Nisa at the time of the attack 4e These Hues are quoted. In this manner they passed forty days and then departed . (M. which Barthold. who had been pressed into the levy. a person Shah together with a small band of ruffians searched all the holes and cavities. set their hands Some they to such tortures as no man has ever seen the Eke* laid on fire and some they killed with other torments. where the * third line has. scattered us takes to be the citadel like rain'. in the Mu'jam-al-Bttldan. Meanwhile Qaracha Noyan had come from Talaqan to attack the Turcoman and had suddenly appeared before Merv.THE HISTORY OF of Yazir. and in the town and the villages there remained not a hundred souls alive and not enough food even for these enfeebled few. suddenly way back (Jar Halfupon him.Q. O nights of Royal Merv when we were all ttnited ! God give tbee to drink We of the cloud of spring rains ! snatched Ate from the vldsskttdes and uncertainties of Fate whilst the eye of Intention was anointed with the cdlymm of sleep. Now the vicissitudes of Fate have awakened and renewed their intention* md have scattered them Mke ram w every 45 E has a blank after the word * * for casdc (qal'a). loc. instead of sayyarahum as in the text. . and he took to flight. He he found and causing again put salt on the burn. cit. he was attacked and slain by the miyin-i-rSb) fell 45 governor of the castle.e. under Merv. sayyaranaf i.

to the heavens.e. i. The verses are by Abul-Hasan al-Karaji and are quoted by Tha'alibi in the Tatimmt d-Yatim.Q. then there is ! For . then Nishapur by reason of qualities is like the pupil of the eye. who smote their heads and Arabic wm~d~m. Isa * Lit what the man is in the man. their hair disordered and dishevelled. contriving and employing devices.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR [133] [XXVIII] OF WHAT BEFELL AT NISHAPUR IF the earth are like may be compared skies.) 169 . and the terror of was apparent on the pages of his condition and Day Muhammad and dread were manifest in his speech. so that weakness and neglect gained complete mastery over his being and his cogitative and imaginative faculties were rendered incapable of inventing. One clad in black robes like mourners 1 * . if chore if it this and be a paradise be not a no paradise at alL Sultan the Last fear left Balkh for Nishapur. then the its stars and Nishapur. in the pupil of the eye '. 68. the man of the eye. And although by the centre of the earth things fall out such that if the picture thereof were imagined for one moment in the thoughts of the mountains their members would the influence of the heavens upon be shaken and their joints loosened for There have befall the all eternity befallen me calamities such that M 2 they days they muU facom m$t$ yet to all this there the likeness of dreams were added hidden and imaginary fears in and the semblance of omens. (M. 2 Attributed to Fatima. their faces scratched. night in [134] his sleep the Sultan had seen luminous persons. choice and Ami at Ait Nishtpur the ? * Is m tbc mii Semi is in Ac Hail to the town of Nishapur on the lace of the earth it is paradise. the daughter of the Prophet..) See EghbaFs ed.Q. Muhammad b. amongst these stars* is like the Fair Venus of the And if it be likened onto a its human being. (M. n.

170 . * In the midst of his flight. Then turning to thy grandfather Shams~ad~Din Sahib-ad-Divan he heaved a sigh If old age and adversity join forces and attack. he two cats. one white and one black. ifcs the modern Meshed. He stopped to watch. whilst and that of his enemy from the fight ofthese two cats. And and from the heat of the bowels and the agitation of the bile fluid there had broken out upon the skin of his members the pustules of scabies like bubbles in boiling water.Q. Ntjbt spreal upon It Is kr tent* uxrt tbou roused ty a mum m Effpthn willow? tern naming from tby eyes sbould jtoff that the mi k iml. be cured. fighting on the threshold.) ^gbalfya was a perfume composed of music. which is the dregs of the cup of Fate ? and by whom shall this knot be unravelled which was tied by the ** f revolving heavens ? To 4 be brief. Ae iwwi then was exile. For a time he gazed down on his beard.OF lamentation.. and *k distance tlwt heps one just in wt by reason of the victory of the hosts of cares and griefs the night of his youth had drawn near to the dawn of age. * He them who they were and they replied. marvelling at the tricks of Destiny. ft I. My a hilltop to take his rest. We arc Islam/ And similar things were constantly revealed to him. ambergris. a going to visit the Shrine of Tus. He determined to take an augury of his own fate At this time. his hair had turned white. having in this manner arrived before Nishapur. youth. father has related as follows : the Sultan halted one day upon whilst proceeding from Balkh. Probably by Abush-Shls al-KhuzTL The first line is introduced into one of his ^asHas by Manuchihri and attributed to this poet. (M. how shall this pain. and U&& in colour. prosperity and health disperse and flee.e. F&T m the of willow 41 fix Eff^m of reach. etc. and and ** said. and 6 from the gbaliy* 5 there had welled up a fountain of camphor. and when his enemy's cat was victorious and his own cat defeated. he heaved a sigh and departed.

indeed. may be saved/ since to quit their homes is. when that people reach this place. whereas if you disperse now it is possible that most of the people. he is closer to He us than our neck-vein B . or at least some of you. and the Sultan. Koran. had forded the river and were Jalal-ad-Din returned . 171 . 8 Koran. in order Siibetei 15 : * . 1220]. to mankind because of their love of country as the departure of the soul from the body and But Koran exile is likened unto grievous punishment. days reports about the Mongols had died down and the Sultan thought that they would be in no hurry to cross the river. * and depart* saying: Since multitude of assemblies cannot avert or repel the Mongol army. and since Destiny had laid hold nay had thrust her neck out of her collar to them 3 V they would not consent to disperse. during these fewpeople accordingly set to work. but when the latter had travelled one stage there came tidings that close at 7 Yeme and 3. lix. commanded nevertheless that although strength of arm would be of no avail nor the stoutness of fortifications be to any purpose. And when the Sultan realized and perceived that the acceptance of advice had no place in their hearts. they will spare no living creature but will put them all to the sword of annihilation and your wives and children will fall into the abasement of captivity . * hand. is the most truthful in that passage where He speaker saith: f And were it not that God had decreed their exile3 surely in this world in the Glorious Who would ' He have chastised them of their and skirts. . since. flight will then be of no avail. where from the and conceit in the days of his prosperity.on the of the nth of Safar 617 f [i8th of April. he of fear had the Tartar him he constantly frightened the people bemoaned the destruction of the fortresses which he had the town. and we are closer to him than his neck-vdb. they should necessary to repair and rebuild the walls. imagining that He urged the people to assist him in rime of trouble. which is the most iEustrious of lands [135] and the abode of the stirs of the kingdom. C i. He hold it The And recovered his peace of mind and dispatched Jalal-ad-Din to Balkh .

nth of Rabi I. mounted horse under the pretext of face to the road leaving the greater Mi F&r there left hr Ox fwn At iqs of b*& may 1 p*st 4OT fife Fakhr-al-Mulk Nizam~ad-Din Abul-Ma'aK Katib 'Ariz Zuzani together with Mujir-alJami and Ziya-al-Mulk Rukhkhi to administer the affairs of Nishapuir Mulk Kafi 'Umar He left in common. he suddenly died. who drove off several herds of camels. Sharaf-ad-Din. They made close inquiries of all they found also got A regarding the Sultan. They town to surrender. the Emir of the who was a courtier and a trusted (amif-i-mgli$) and had been appointed malik of Nishapur. was proceeding from Khorazm to take up residence in the town and take over the governorship. You are pursuing the Sultan : if you an defeat him. They were about a thousand horse: the Mongols slew them all. and Mujir-al-Mulk answered as * I govern this town on behalf of the Sultan and am follows old man and a cleric. the kingdom will be yours and I too shall be your then called the people : on 17* . three parasangs from overtook them galloped in their pursuit and the town. [136] When he had arrived of Nishapur. part hunting and set his of his retinue behind. They sent forward fourteen horsemen. The news of within two minister of the Sultan stages was concealed for fear his servants might plunder the own personal property. Mujir-al-Mulk went treasury and his forth as though to greet him and brought his servants into the town. inflicting torture forcing of the on their victims and diem to take an oath. and few horsemen news of Sharaf-ad-Din's retinue. When Assembly the Sultan departed. They did not wish to remain and departed in the wake his death of Sultan Muhammad. 617 [*4th of vanguard of Yeme and Subetei Noyan under e Taisi approached the gates of the town. the The next day.THE HISTORY OF not to the people. which was the May. 1220].

one Siraj-ad-Din. was the district of Quchan. In the meanwhile the levies of Shadyakh saying that they should surnot be deceived by idle words. Day by day their fresh armies arrived. realizing that 10 unbeknown to the citizens (arkab) and proceeded to Ustuva bullies (fattdnan) of Tus and told Qush-Temiir (who had been left the with three hundred horsemen in charge of the animals) of murder of the sbabna and the consequent disorders. not with that one head they had severed the heads of a great multitude and aroused from its sleep a great evil. who had been set over the artisans of Tus. the Noyan persons from amongst the middle class to make arrangements about the provision of food (*ulufa) and the rendering of other small services. the classical 'AaTavrjvij. slew the sbabm and sent his head to Nishapur. In 3 c accordance with the proverb. Yeme gave them a letter in the charged them their walls. He surprised Siraj-ad-Din. and wherever the people submitted the Mongols deposited baggage and left a When for some time the passing of Mongol armies had been frequent less and false that the Sultan had been victorious in Iraq. received provisions c and first of Rabi II Finally. rumours were current on men's tongues demon of On at several occasions the sbahna whom 9 the Mongols had left Tus sent messages to render [137] and rude answers from Nishapur. slew the greater part of them Temiir sent a left Ustuva for 9 10 Shadyakh was a suburb of Nishapur.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR servant. to give provisions to all that Uighur script and came and to destroy He then departed . a man from whom sense was a thousand parasangs distant. and they sent under their names way. who with three thousand men had seated himself in the court of command at Tus. Ustuva. 173 . He summoned the the cadi and the vizier . Qush- man to report the position to the noyans and himself Tus with his three hundred horse. on [6th of June] Ycme arrived in person. the temptation laid an egg in the brains of mankind. received He Tus under their leader. Evil makes the &&g to wbine.* They gave provisions to the departed. the sayyid Abu-Turab.

they made in battle.) Juzjani too speaks of the death of a son-in-kw of Chingiz-Khan before Nishapur. ie Toqachar. being weary of life frequent sallies and engaged wrestled with lions and despite the crocodiles they embarked they Until the third day they in boats only to be torn to pieces. i. Smirnova. On the various forms of the word see Mostaert and Cleaves. fiercely 11 In fact dis- By kfagm (KWRKAN) itself means * son-in-kw '. together with Aiajen (Arachan). foe he comments: Although kiiregen means "son-in-kw". Barthold. and was called Dalan-Turqaqtu (Khetagurov. refers He belonged to the Qonqirat tribe to him as a son-in-kw of Chingiz-Khan. Ulush-Idi Qochi) and Qa*an (Ogedei) are instances 174 . a son of the ruler of the Qonqirat and the husband of Chintz-Khan's fourth daughter. with the Toquchar (or Toqochar) of the Secret History ( 257) and Rashid-adDin (Smimova. was entrusted during the reign of Ogedei with the administration of the yms or post-stations (Secret History* 280). That Toghachar (TFAjAR) was a son-in-kw of Chingiz-Khan is confirmed by Nasawi (tr. or TFjAR. On of the to Certm Mongolian Princes. however. disobeying the injunction not to molest the territory of Malik Khan. he is clearly a different person from the Togjiachar who fell before Nishapur. where I suggest that Ulughthis Noyan (Tolui). and since their numbers were great and those of the Mongols less. Trots documents mongols Its ArcUvts vvticam. This same tide was afterwards borne by Tamerlane (Tlmur Guxakan) as the husband of a Chingizid princess. 163) or Dakn-Turqaq (Smirnova. the people of the town conducted themselves with furious courage. and who then. in pursuit of Sultan Muhammad. Toghachar is conceivably identical with Kiiregen Kuregcn. 70* Rashid-ad-Din seems to have been struck by the strangeness * of the name. 474. though without mentioning See Raverty. who was dispatched. Tiimelun. 992. Turkestan. 220). yet such was his name/ May it perhaps be that. was either relieved of his command (according to the former authority) or killed in an encounter with the mountaineers of Ghur (according to the ktter). in the wake of Jebe and Subetei.e. (Houdas calls him Tifdjar. 87). Neither authority. the Son-in-Law * ? See Titks Given m Jmmm my article. When n And fought from the Tower of Qara-Qush [138] and charged quarrels and arrows from the walls and ramparts. 163) Toqochar . Houdas. 423-4. his text having TFjAR for an original TQjAR. identifies Toghachar his name. See Rashid-ad-Din tr. Toghachar's name had become taboo with his death and that he was * referred to thereafter as Kuregen. and if he is identical with the Toqochar who.THE HISTORY OF and until the arrival of the main army occupied himself with destroying the fortresses of Tus. of Toghachax Kiiregen (who was the son-in-law the great emirs and ten thousand Chingiz-Khan) arrived with men as Toll's vanguard and rode up to the gates of Nishapur in the middle of Ramazan [November]. Toghachar. in accordance with the Mongol custom.

According to Nasawi (tr. 88 . ing to BWRKAY for the NWRKAY after a time sbtll ye surety kmm Its messtf. 2. 278) it is stated simply his name is spelt in the first instance (97) Burke In Khetagurov's translation but in feet but in the second (194) Nurke. of the text. dt. which he took Noyau. himself proceeded to Sabzavar. w divided It Toghachar's second-in-command. so that seventy thousand fighting. op. 52) elsewhere (ibid.. n. accompanied Jebe and Subetei on their great expedition * but died on that side of the river '. if as to the identity of Tiimdun*s husband. apparently to the east of the Oxus (Berezin. where their descendants were still resident in Rashid-adfurther on he adds a and Din's 203) that Tumeliin's husband states (NKKW) ALJW ANJW (DARKH) with Shinggii's father Darke.e. Ihave adopted the spelling Borke (i). > identifies him with Borke (BWRKH) of the Jalayir. accord- Rashid-ad-Din. Rashid-ad-Din*s also for He uncertainty elsewhere (Berezin. not realizing that after a time be sbatt When the army withdrew. See Pelliot.THE an of all that an evil chance which was to be the the fell was let fly arrow Toghachar his him without having made an end of in the course of the day and two The Mongol army retired of his and came to the town with prisoners escaped a the people thought that they had Whereupon deed.army had been unable to to assist The confusion arising from the use of so vague a tide as Kikegm account for the absence of any reference. Horde ffOr. command of the YRKA operations 175 . 202. 48. i. and Reading 424 and n. Houdas. i... Koran. had been sent into Khorasan together with Toghachar. ordering were counted that were buried. The other half of the corpses army went of the practice. west of Lake Baikal). the son of a Qpnqiiat emir called Afche riage to Shinggii of the text) with two MSS. who. See also Khetagurov. (DAYRKAY) Kiiregen. 12 13 * : yet day . apparently identical Cf. that he died VII. for BRKA) his text having 87-9) Borke (called Yerka by Houdas. in Rashid-ad-Din and the Far might Eastern sources. was a Qpnqirat called Dayirkei Me (M. to Tus fortresses Qush-Temiir and took the remainder which Qush-Temur's . Barthold. Into two after who was parts* He a general massacre. VTI.000 Onggirat. It would account very existence. * on the way*. and they were in joint which led to the capture of Nisa. and Khetagurov for the (reading and sent them into the Tomat country (to the or Darke Noyan. 200-1) that Cfaingiz-Klhan gave her in marKuregen. 162 and 164. Borkei its 1* '. appointed by Chingk-Khan to the 3. Alchu or to be identical with the Alchi Giiregen of Dayirkei (Darke) would appear command of the Secret History. uncertain : it is not attested in the Far Eastern the vocalization of the name is quite sources. xxxviii. to Toghacbar's violent end before Nishapur and even to his in fact he is a different person from Toqochar.

thither would send bravos to seize them.THE HISTORY OF 14 capture. When the spring of 618/1221-2 came round and Toli had finished with Merv. 1220] and the people massacred. their correspondent quantity feet were loosened and they lost heart. he reached him he When asked for quarter for the people of Nishapur. Perhaps we should read *Faz or *Fazh. C has fafar raft ta * he went to the gate and so . Bazh. . 15 Ibrahim al-Mughisi to Toli. they piled in heaps like a harvest. he set out for Nishapur.) Reading dwn with B. the people of Nishapur were engaged in open revolt . These the sword. and although Nishapur is in a stony region they loaded stones at a distance of several stages and brought them with them. The text has BDRNA.M. At dawn on Wednesday the 14 I2th of Safar [yth of April. that in the region He collected and dispatched so large an army of Tus they seized all the villages with one blow and reunited with their companions aU that had escaped He also sent a large army in advance to Shadyakh with the mangonels and [other] weapons [139]. . It was of no avail nor was he himself allowed to return. And As Nuqan and Sabzavar they were taken on the 28th [of Ramazan 26th of November. and wherever a detachment of Mongols appeared. in the end the Mongols took Qar and slew all its inhabitants. which does not seem to make sense. none knowing of his approach. 1221] Unidentified. the native 15 176 . and agreed to pay tribute. and for this reason most of them were in great distress. although the people of Nuqan and Qar offered fierce resistance and wrought countless deeds of valour. up and not the tenth part of them were The people of Nishapur saw that the matter was serious and same men they had seen before . They saw no hope [of that these were not the salvation] save in sending the chief cadi Rukn-ad-Din 'AH b. Le. and had three thousand crossbows in action on the although they wall and had set up three hundred mangonels and ballistas and laid in a of missiles and naphtha. pkce of Firdausl (V. for : Meanwhile. used. That winter prices rose very high in Nishapur and the people were prohibited to leave the town.' Qar.

ni line pierre en sorte k 1'ordre des Tatars. and on that day Toll himself had arrived within three parasangs of Changarak" The Mongols descended from the walls and began to slay and plunder . The Mongols looked for Mujir-al-Mulk and that he might the sooner dragged him out of a tunnel. And all that and to day until nightfall they continued to mount the walk the people down from the top. 17 vengeance not even cats and dogs should A daughter all 18 of Chingiz-Khan. dispersed amongst the palaces and mansions. [140] They then drove all the survivors. des prisonnien en surface en devint si lisse qu'on n*y trouvait Sur a craindre que les cavaliers n'ayant pas voir trebucher leurs montures y installment un jeu de mail. push the Saturday night all the walls and fortifications were By covered with Mongols . 17 Cf. car ils s'&aient refagies dans des sooterrains et 18 sous des gaieties aeusees dans le sol. who was the chief wife of now entered the town with her escort. p.THE the iercely until cup of the morning midday prayers on the of Friday. slew where the descendants of some of them 16 are to be found to this day. n. 177 . out on to the now it was commanded plain . and they finally put him to a disgraceful death. the Camel-Driven also ascended the fortifications. (V. Tumelun. In order be drawn out of the noose of life. Unidentified. 174. and that in the exaction of be left alive. 92 HNKRK * : of the text. La plupart d'y des habitants perirent sous terre. Houdas. he spoke harsh words to them .) frhfs avec des pelles . and in order to avenge Toghachar that the town should be laid waste in such a manner that the site could be ploughed upon. men and women. egaJJserent Ic sol Hi une motte. and which by the in the moat had been filled in several places and a was fiercer at the Gate of the wall And because the fighting Camel-Drivers and in the Tower of Qara-Qush and more warriors engaged in these parts. Toghachar. avec Fespoir d'echapper au danger/ See above. and the townspeople fought back.M. the Mongols raised It standard on the wall of Khusrati-Kushk and going op fought while a force from the Gate of with the men on the rampart . and they the survivors save only four hundred persons who were selected for their craitsmanship and carried off to Turkestan. Reading (SNKRK for the Nasawi tr. Perhaps his fourth daughter. II.

cd&miiks \wt enskvel it. 50. he left an emir with four hundred Taziks to dispatch in the wake of the dead all the survivors that found.OF They severed the of the slain from their bodies and In piles. hcme Uwlj my oefbf thing? its mustomd d&es mwl is Uke damp mandal in md its s&H like pounded musk [XXIX] [141] OF THE ACCESSION OF THE WORLD-EMPEROR QA'AN TO THE THRONE OF THE KHANATE AND THE POWER OF WORLD-EMPIRE holy are AFTER God Almighty His names and ' great His With somewhat of tte$mg$ in accordance with the words : and hinger^ and loss of wealth^ and lives> and fruits will we prove fear ' * had tried His servants upon the touchstone of calamity you and melted them in the I crucible of tribulation am in the fire of trial when thou causest clay to drip . their haughtiness fell at the feet of abjection . and wolves feasted on the breasts of sadrs . Flics The knl bob if if died for loss of tbm that bwc left U : as tbeujb thy JW hm its soul. keeping those of the men separate from of the women and children. eagles on mountain tops regaled themselves with the flesh of delicate women . After which* when Toii them up decided to proceed to Herat. professed humility like the earth. and the rows of the lands became a level plain Aye. ml to Us Mils b&ve hteetittg. I am on the stone of testing when thou assayest gold io<5. which in loftiness had vied with ment. rose gardens became { 1* \ furnaces . of houris. vultures banqueted on the throats. I 78 . abasefar mansions were castles after all removed from pleasure and prosperity. Abodes and dwelling places were levelled with the Saturn in their palaces. 19 Koran. lv 1 JW ii. dust.

to obedience and submission. and that all the different manifestations of His limitless charity and clemency should pursue and outstrip all the various distresses of His punishment in accordance with ' * * the text of mercy bath outstripped my wrath . for the mercy of the Pore Creator reaches everyone of His creatures though it be only a single atom. body I do not despair. I shall begin by describing in due order the accession of Qa*an. expressing myself with conciseness and brevity so that those that honour this book with their perusal may not reproach the author of these lines with garrulity [142] but may understand the purpose of this narration and learn in what manner Qa'an administered and protected the commonweal. necessary in accordance with both reason and tradition that the treasures of the mercy of God -great is His glory ! should again te !) said: hd luck shall not overcome be opened up and the ease and comfort of His servants again provided for . when my has to bear the burdens of camels. When come to an adverse period of my Hfc.THE and when in proportion to had each of them borne the the of of * and in of of its ance with the evilness of their actions and the ways had drunk the brimful cop of its like *. it the evil being ordained that every eeot its and every beginning end Is its Wlm $ fall is mjt c and [Mohammed] (upon whom One of * two pieces of good it became . how he reduced the other climes. and brought them under his control and command and affairs . Gradually and regularly the traces of this clemency became apparent and the signs and marks thereof evident and manifest* And the prefacing of these remarks and the laying of these foundations announces the tale of the transfer of empire to the Lords of the World Ogetei Qa'an and Mengii Qa*an. for the first My I attaineth to the last*. how p after his death Mengii Qa'an shored 179 up the building of . which were hesitating between hope and despair. some by threats and some by fair words.

4 KLKAN. 46. he 2 And after the whole region had proceed against the Tangut been purged of the evllness of his enemies and they had all been and subjugated. (Smirnova. Ogetel. the man of the Jurchen '. The Secret History ( 265) speaks letztm FeUzuge Cmggs Han's have been a fill from his horse during the winter of 1226-7. and 5 229. Haenisch suggests. s Jiirchetei 2 Ulugh-Noyan. Kolgen. have been typhus. and binding used daily to and loosing shutting and opening find the signs of valour and prowess In dealing with the affairs of the State and the defence thereof against the hand of foes. was the son of a Naiman concubine. also Minorsky. f 3 For the various Far Eastern accounts of Chingiz-Khan s death see Haenisch. the daughter of Dayir-Usiin. conquered to of the West to Chinglz-Khan returned from the lands carried out his intention to his old encampment in the East. c According to Jurchedei. name the second element of the I Qodon-Orchan of Rashid-ad-Din . Caucasica HI. 71.) JWRjTAY. which may source that mentions the direct cause of his contributory factor . the ruler of the Uhaz-Merkit. 72) Jikchetei or * the Manchurian *.OF justice Its and and strengthened the founda- tions May God Almighty ! of truth grant the success he alighted at Ogetei. And name of the quarter of kingship Qa*an bore the from the deeds he per^ allusion he used to paint the picture of this ' Idea In the hearts of his other sons like the picture on the stone '. 7. which is also compatible with Juvainfs op. 7 The and Orchan. He : called 4 * him his sons Chaghatai. 268-77. His mother was Princess Qulan. Dk L'Empirt Mm&l. but the only death is the kte (1601) Alton Tobcti* according to which he died of a fever con- of a Tangut town of Dormegei This fever. ml mn Tod. may ' reference to an incurable disease arising from the insalubrity of the climate*. n.) He was killed in Russia before Kolomna on the Oka. he was overcome by an incurable When disease arising 3 from the insalubrity of the climate. sowed the seed of this advice in their innermost and by suggestion and gradually minds. Rashid-ad-Din (Smimova. and addressed them as follows last For a detailed account of this campaign against the Tangut sec Grousset. 6 1 see in this See also below. 226 tracted in the (Blochet. And Chlnglz-Khan and the words he uttered was wont to deduce his fitness formed and in his for the throne and [to rule over] kings and armies. dt> 548.

according to Juvaini. 190. identifies Jiirchetei with the Pi-yin described in the Meng-Ta pd4u as the eldest son of Chingiz-Khan Hied in battle when the Mongols attacked Si-ching.Q. this was probably a different person of the same name. and be and not be subservient to one will it not be the fable of the snake with one head and the my of many heads (whereof mention this book)?'* has been made at the taginning When he had finished speaking these words and admonitions. Ta-t'ung in Shansi. 7 According to Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. 52. following note. Rashid-ad-Din states categoric* the earliest of all the ally in one place (Smirnova. In fact. p. 114. in 1213 or 1214. Elsewhere (M. 231-2) in the spring of 1227. as Pelliot has suggested in also died in childhood Sur un passage du Cbeng~wov b'wg-tcbtng lou. Le CVII. of Jurchetei and Orchan is particularly interesting. ChingLz-Khan's sons only this interview was still sons and * that the latter describes the Jurchetei as 'the youngest son* his article. who *. 31) and Grigot Jtivaiai's Qadaqan the (see above. Hazn an-Nahshali. He is not mentioned in the Far Eastern sources. 181 . the Conqueror specifically referring in his address to the absence of Chaghatai The presence. pp. dt. See also tk normal Qadan and Siban. 8 Bashama b. 117. was the son of a Tatar concubine. Jiirchedei of the Uru*ut. Nevertheless Pelliot himself. 419. Orchaqan. sons wish each of them to become Khan. 72). 41-2. ie. The form of the name in Rashid-ad-Din is For the Orchaqan use of such diminutive forms c the Ch'awrman and of (AWRjQAN). 89). of a truth* one of you the than can be the that by and has power of the State and up received so strong a foundation. 72) that the former died ' took place in progress. 923. Smimova.) 9 See above. Cgedei and Tolui were present. on whom see PelEot-Hambis. Ch'awrmaghan ti. whilst the war against the Tangut in a place called and of Onqon-Dalan-Quduq. p.f 169) he took part in the campaign of 1213 in North China of Chingiz-Khan.7) and Sibaqan (see below. tb*t mk tht Ms m k For like if all the ruler. 94* n. 919. If it Is me &. Jl is fa ad &sfa bm him. (M. EL 15) beside according to Rashidkui-Din (Smimova. also below. Tbc Mongolian Nmes. 147 and 236. who is several times mentioned in the Secret History and is the subject of a biography in the Yuan sMb. (see Cleaves.THE of my [143] Is ment. See Hambis. the Qodun-Orchang or Qoton-Orchaiig of the Secret History. and. op. (Khetagurov. p. Cmpqncs. viz.

you must make a confirmatory statement in writing that death you will recognize Ogetei as Khan. : to understand* is that Ogetei should ascend the throne of the excellency Khanate in my place because he stands out amongst you for the of his firm counsel and the superiority of his per- and that the government of the army spicacious understanding.OF are the of thai and their jw. 1639. commandment to every Our welfare and that of our followers is dependent upon wherewith the counsel of Chingiz-Khan is bound up. and suffer no change or alteration of what has been decided to-day in my presence. we bow king. and regard his command as the soul in the body. the aforesaid sons down and said. Vulkrs. your will be in agreement [144] that with your words and your tongues in accordance with your hearts. What is your advice. then/ said CKngiz-Khan. 2352. Sbftbmma ed. concerning this thought and I therefore * ing this advice ? the ground of They again laid the knee of courtesy upon and answered with the tongue of obedience. . and the success of our affairs is entrusted to his direction/ * If. my advice. *0ro: is Ac our to thy his thralls. my what is your thought concernsons. nor after my deviate 10 from my decree/ 1. and we art command and counsel. and the defence of the frontiers of the Empire and the people his auspicious advice and good counsel should be executed by make him my heir and place the keys of the Empire in the hand of his valour and ability.* 10 * If it is your wish to Chingiz-Khan then spoke as follows in case and luxury and to enjoy the fruits of pass your lives as I have lately given you sovereignty and wealth. fealty and submission * : Who hath the power to oppose the word of Chingiz- saying Khan and who the ability to reject its it ? Heaven opens her ear eye and Fate lends which thy counsel decrees.

by performing the miracle of restoring the life. Hhtoire fas Twcs. L''Empire <ks Steppes. On Batu see below. Horde <?'Or.e. 88-91.THE All Ogctei's In his a to Chingiz-Khan's from It he he on of the 4th of Ramazan.. 226-9. had dominated the steppes of Southern Russia for a period of nearly zoo years at the time of the Mongol invasions. Hordu. 29-30. See Mtnorsky. 315-17. it was necessary to hold an assembly and decide the question of the Khanate. has stolen all the glory of the miracles the world has earth to of Jesus kinsmen sent a reky of messengers to spread the tidings of the death of Chingiz-Khan throughout the world and to proclaim that In order that no harm might come to the Kingdom. like the earlier Khifchakh. Hordu or Ordu. Grousset. 469-70. Upon this each man left his ordu and set out for the quriltaL From the lands of the Qifchaq 12 came the sons of Tushi. Barthold. but e the Khuch'akh and Khiwch'akh of Kirakos and the Khwch'agh 13 HRDW. The Orda (AWRDH) of Rashid-ad-Din and (i. 241-2. They all and made preparations for this As soon as the chfllness of the air and the violence of the cold had abated and the earth was cheered and gladdened by the blowing of the gentle zephyr The The zephyr has adorned this worldly abode with green. advocates the spelling Ordii Orda. 624 [i8th of August. was the founder of the Khanate known as the White Horde In what is now Kazakhstan. Pelliot. Chapter XXXVHI. zephyr. The Motmrnadm Dynasties. the Hordu or Ordu of Carpini. Lane-Poole. become a pattern of the Hereafter. df. 1227]. the eldest son of Jochi. appears to be an Arabieized form of the name. 18 Bam. Juvaini's Qifchaq. 14 Khwch'agh) of Vardan. IS3 . <?>. 40). See Grousset. HttfiA?. baling 12 and the The Qipchaq Turks. known to the Russians as Polovtsi and to Byzantium West as Comans." princes then all set out for their Intending In the new year to hold the The which In the to Mongol tongue Is called qttriltai. 14 the aforementioned sons their 11 On the 2jth of August Men IE on the i8tL and according to the Ymn M- (Kraose.

Elchitci the other parts.. Noyan. He was Oiingiz-Khan's half-brother. 556-68. op. See PelEot.. 3 29-30. w Qobaq. Ulugh-Noyan and his younger of Chingiz-Khan. their uncle Otegin. the emirs side. besides occasional rulers of the Golden Horde. 17 to The Berca of Carpini and Barca of Marco A convert Mam. The election took pkce. n. for the gYBQAN of the text. from the Emil and the Tcmiir. be. Grousset. See Hainbis. at. in the brothers. In it is fact Siban may be a Christian name : PeUiot. Die GoUene Horde. 205. was the bitter enemy of the H-Khans 18 * of Persia and the ally of their most formidable adversary. the East] with Otchigin Noyan. of. where the text has YBAN). 120). He was tk son of Chingiz-Khan's brother Qachi'un. 51-2.e. at. Other foms of the name are HJigidei (Ynm stnb) and Alchidai (Secret History). in the district of Kode'e-AraL 184 . 121. smile because of the alighting of the Sun at the house of Aries and the air to weep through the eyes of the rain-clouds "Reading which PdBot. suggests that form of Stephen." Bcrke. as ruler ofthe Golden Horde. Yekii and Yesiingge were the sons of Chingiz- Of Khan's brother Jochi-Qasar. lf TTATYMUR. at. The Tuatemur. Tangut. of Carpini. op. Spuler. at. i 239-40. which also occurs in Juvaini (I.. SYBQAN of. TNKWT.f 474-8. dt. dt. according to the Secret History. From the line of this prince there sprang. ai AYLCTAY. The Tangqut (TANKQWT) of Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. Bcigiitei 22 * Yckii and * ai Yesungei . where mention is made of* the princes of the left hand [i. at. the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt.f or which was the ancestor of the Khans of Kazan etc.. See Grousset. Perhaps little Berke '. the Siban or Syban of Carpini and the Stican of Rubruck. at. from the East.. at. BRKH. 23 KLRAN. The later pronunciation of the name was Shiban. BRKjAR. is inclined to doubt the very existence. 233-5. the Turkish 0f. Sibaqan. the Tsars of Tiumen and the Uzbeg Khans of Bokhara and Khiva. 33-52. ^BYLKTAY. op. Wyngaerfs text has Chucenur. 46-7. would appear to be the diminutive of the normal Siban. 549-56. See PeUiot. r. dt. op. dt. Ogetei . See Lane-Poole. He and die Crimea. and from Noyan. Thuatamur. Polo. The Kerulen. which was converted into Shaiban because of an imaginary connection with the Arab tribe of that name. Cf. Yeku and Yesiingge at their head *. See Lane-Poole. W YSNKAY for the YKWB WRKAY of the text the corresponding passage of the Secret History ( 269).HISTORY OF and [145] ToghaSibaqan. 15 17 1S and that were stationed on every they As for were already All the above-mentioned persons gathered together in the 2S and when the world had begun to region of the Keliiren . op. Grousset. Berlce. Chaghatai. M Reading YKW op. a form of 44. 11 from Quyas.. op.

and gowfaess of Ufs They gathered tree some days they spoke of the affairs of the realm and Chingiz-Khan and read over again and again the written statements made by his sons that the Khanate should be settled on Ogetei. For the juibar * Mhsar mountains *. noyau* and emirs together with so large an that the plain was filled therewith and the desert straitened their multitude When If it we to its plunged into the sea. 1630. 11. And If it made for land. and all the with an unanimity unmingled with evil or strife said to after and the testament of princes In accordance with the command of Chingiz-Khan Ogetei : it behoves thee with divine assistance to set thy foot upon the hand of kingship in order that all the mighty ones may with one accord gird the loins of their lives * with the girdle of submission * M Shabwma text ed. VuHers. and greatness of desire.THE Jta wife fe mil ietf dr of ifi 7 i toM tff & f when. moreover. the herbs and flowers had in the meadows and for wonder thereat the ringdoves in and mead had sung a hundred songs in a thousand unison with the nightingales of in Now we [146] mask The air hapf>f is must drink sweet-tasting wine. stream* of the 185 . its vanguard Ml not luvt t Us rearguard enough space on lani for a single first hrsemm and revelled for three days and nights in with joy and delight. filed with x the of is is clamour and the eardh he that lias a menrf heart to s* all army with the princes. Its format part hindmost part enough water in the M mt sett I satisfy & single drinker. rising from the stream. This counsel they adopted. the impurities of deceit and envy remote from their secret thoughts of all feasted filled succession the jlower of 'deceit mi drew mar to the of union whose fruit mas ripening In a spot where they gave to drink abundance of pkaswre. (which Mohl also has) Vullers has 2372-3.

See Vernadsky. who and the other friar saw there about five thousand great and mighty men. donned each day new clothes of different colour 25 forty days they and quaffed cups of wine. The Mmg&Is mi RMSSM. yet more worthy than I Although Chingiz-Khan*s comare my elder brothers and uncles. and has seen. It should be noted however that the colours appear in a different order in the account of Carpinfs third day they were all in blue made by his companion. morning of the forty-first When dawn with augury of good fortune raised a world- And illuminating banner. 37-8. morning and evening. at the same rime discussing the affairs of the kingdom. the first day they Carpini's account of the election of Guyiik : [the Tartars] were all dressed in white purple.) According to Khara-Davan the wearing of white on the first day symbolized the participation of Jochi's tdus in the election of the Khan. on the purpk. is it is the youngest and Ulughand was ever in Noyan is the youngest son of the eldest ordu attendance on Chlngiz-Khan day and night. When the forty days had come to an end. how * may I succeed to the Khanate ? [147] All that day till nightfall they debated together with And in like manner for full gaiety and friendly emulation. 19. who arc was to this effect. And every day Ogetei in a different way and in a style at once subtle and correct expressed these same sentiments. who on the first day of the election of the king all appeared dressed in baldakin . they came to an agreement and made the election '. but neither on that day nor on the next. and then On it was that Coyuc came to the tent. when they wore red samites. they were dressed in red (purple) .OF and and * ears to obeying thy command/ Ogctcl replied as follows . and heard. and learnt all his yasas and customs. and on the fourth day in the finest baldakins. (Rockmission based on a statement told us orally that he ' Mi.* (Rockhfll. when they appeared in white samites.) 186 . Benedict the Pole. to accomplish this task* and more- over. Seeing that all these are alive and here present. the eyebrow of Abyssinia and the Chinese mirror arose was puckered from China into a frown. But on the third day. on the second day. * 25 Cf. 138-9. did they reach an agreement. in accordance with the Mongol custom. on the son from the eldest house that the heir of his father.

thou must with the aid of be established upon the throne of bdy is His sovereignty God and adorn after the world with justice their Finally. How- 26 Actually in 1229. And tkw wUest Jngwice to lie most excellent tffrqMHces where. 16-17). knelt three times to the sun outside the ordu . nearly two years ekpsed before the holding election (Blochet. i. 1228. i. Yuan sUb (Krause.THE the of all the resolved. in 1228. all the princes * having Ogetei and of one has to thy up to to said : This of all his sons and the binding and loosing. of the according to Rashid-ad-Din. though the election took pkce in ever. according to which (loc.e. Ulughyouthful Noyan took a cup. In M 626/1228-9 Chaghatai took his right hand and Otegin Ms left and by the resolution of aged counsel and the support of fortune established him upon the throne. Le. is a according to the astrologers and day suffer may we a favourable and auspicious time. 15) and it was then held in the Year of the Ox. he obeyed the father and followed the advice of his brothers much importunity on and beneficence/ part and much command of his and uncles. the then Chingiz-Khan and has tying and How or any change or alteration of his allow any transformation or violation thereof ? To-day. This is explicitly stated in the Secret History. and it being the year prosper by his being [148] Khan * ! And the hmty tbe Bonify if pcb &dom effaces. During 1228. according Tolui was Regent of the Empire.. eft) Ogedei was elected in the Year of the Rat. 187 . refusing on the part of Ogetei. and in accordance with the usual custom all the princes. saying. in service and obeisance to Qa'an. &b whre u Ay fife? ? *f Am do lut touch them And they named him Qa'an. and all present in and outside the Court thrice knelt down and uttered prayers. then re-entering they it would appear from Juvaini's narrative that the spring of the year immediately following ChingizKhan's death. ef &y j&ct is an adornment fa fcark. May the kingdom * accordance with their ancient custom they removed their hats and slung their belts across their backs . to the 1229 (ibid.e. 41).

HISTORY OF an assembly of mirth and sport and cleared the plains of merriment of the thorns of sorrow. The days from rest and quiet acquired the pleasantness of nights. The eyes of Time were brightened by the presence of Qa'an and the world by his influence became without hatred or anger. the 188 . All that beheld and striplings and that assembly its with its abundance of houris profusion of wine and milk exclaimed in : excess of astonishment By this thou shalt know how the highest paradise will be. and the nights from the geniality and brilliance of the fire of wine became despair like broad day. in their exquisite freshness and brightness resembling flowers and in their sweetness and purity Hke unto the verdure of spring. the earth is light because of his clemency. The wind is heavy because of his resolve. girded the zone of service about the loins of affection before the sun of the heavens of greatness and power. The Orion4ike. each of them richly endowed with fairness and beauty. Her face. sky. [149] Qa'an then ordered that they should open the deposits of the treasuries collected during so many years from the countries of the East and the West for the behoof of Chingiz-Khan. which is like a rose garden. and hopelessness again recovered its lustre. The trees filed with sap of peace and security after withering away were again and the cheek of Hope after being scratched by . while on the left were the ladies. and the princes. Her mail-like tresses arc the lasso of the neck of patience Her bow-shaped eyebrows are the crescent of the face of the . Heaven-assisted and powerful. world-ruling Emperor seated himself upon the ladder of vigilant fortune. Ha ajnbei^sis-scatteriBg ringlets are the elegance of the cheek of beauty. The realm hath a freslMaced market because the world hath a ruler like thee. is the spring of the world of the soul.

22. I. of aU he made a yasa that such ordinances and commands had previously been issued by Chingiz-Khan should be maintained. Now. and left in his treasuries for the morrow nor little. clad in precious garments and dispatched together with choice horses to join his spirit. at-Tammar al-Wasiti and in another place to Abu-Muhammad Lutfillah b. viel Gold und Juwelen hineingeworfen und ihm einige wie Sterne schimmernde Madchen mit Schrnuck und funkelndem Geschmeide zu BeiscHaferinnen gegeben. fair virgins. his troops and kinsfolk. 10 And when he had finished with these matters he began to concern himself with the administration of the kingdom and the management of affairs. graceful in motion and elegant in repose. from all sides there had First as 27 Attributed by Tha'alibi in the Tatimmat-d-Yttkn* in one place to Abd- Harith b. xm t 35* tr. von des Grabes Bedrangnisse und peinlicher langer Wefle Hammer-Purgstall. ornaments and fine robes. 87 tf Fw the U&n At mt foot for yaw. and secured. sweet in their beauty and beautiful in their ' glances. 97 : Verhangnisse verschonet bleibe/ 189 .THE total of which could not be the of ledgers. He closed the mouths of the of his of their advice and allotted his portion to and soldiers. 48. neither great nor small mt for & lay. in accordance with the custom of Verity me 2B he commanded that for three days in fathers with a religion \ succession they should prepare victuals for the spirit of ChingizKhan. 28 Koran..Q. 89. C Vassaf Es wurde nach mongolischem Gebrauche cine Grabstatte bereitet. and protected against the evils of change. delightful of aspect and of character. and alteration. von dem Grauen der Einsamkeit. And when he had done with feasting and bestowing r and ow presents. such that God hath promised to them that fear Him '/* they should select forty maidens of the race of the emirs and noyam to be decked out also that from moonlike with jewels. 29 Ibid. and II.) See Eghbal's L. al-Mu'a (M. 80 This custom was also followed in the case * of Hiilegii. noble and base f liege* master and slave* to each in accordance with his pretenmuch sions. xliii. and confusion. damit er von der Wilderniss der Finsternisse.

269. In Khorasan and Iraq the fire of strife and unrest had not yet died down and Sultan Jalal-ad-Din was still active there. Chormaqan is hardly recognizable in the Chirpodan. See Cleaves. But Qa*an said : * until the day of our accession hath which Every issued from the mouth of any man. 100. 39-. See Mostaert and Cleaves. 32 Cf. below. * (ZMt. 18) and would appear to represent oc Sonidei. 18. Secret Historyt Solangi North Korea or the North Koreans. 153-4. 196. etc.. The name means he of the swarthy complexion*. 8a Reading SBTAY for the SNTAY of the text. p. the of each of the of that prosecution and punishment 9 to his crime. the expedition under Jalayirtai referred to in the Secret History. Trots documents mongpls * wtkwes. the the name Sdnket man of the So'nit A man of this name His of Chormaghun's commanders. man shall be proportionate after decreeing these ytsts he dispatched armies to all the climes of the world. 303. This is perhaps 274. As appears from Gogor's History of the Nation of &e Archers. All of these campaigns shall be hereinafter described so that B1 JWRMAFW"N. also my article. 419.It is that the great general Subetei Bahadur is here meant. however far more name had originally C likely below. 473-4*) which however corresponds *. the Solangqas of the of Carpini and Solanga of Rubruck. n. to the SWNDAY of Rashid-as-Din (Blochet. but if from henceforth any man shall set foot to an action that contravenes the old and new ordinances and yam. actually appears in a list See Grigor. 301.. been Chaghatai but had been changed to Sonitei upon the death of a namesake. 469 and 471. we shall pardon and cancel it . of Carpini. To the lands of the Qifchaq and Saqsin and Bulghar he m and Subetei n Bahadur with a like army. Cyrjpodan. Khetagurov. Of the Titks Given injmml to Certdn Mongolian Princes.HISTORY OF come and Informers to report and make known the and governors. 81 with a number of emirs Thither he dispatched Chormaghun And and thirty thousand warriors. The Chormacjan of the Secret History. p. See Rashid-acl-Din tr. See also I9O . it is the diminutive form of the name Choraian. n. to Khan ies Archives secretes Pope Boniface VIII. the Kokedei who took part in an embassy from Ghazan KWKTAY. s4 SLNGAY. sent Koketet M he Likewise to Tibet and greater or [150] Solangai dispatched lesser forces : to Khitai he decided to proceed in person accom- panied by his brothers. The Mongolian Names.

As for Bakqasun. 3 [151] By the encircling disposition of their ranks they 1 a GescMte Steppes. 248. 285-90. 321-4. The army wt$ First ms ctwU W lei % the by Af mmtntm t@ps cntsbei of all they came to a town called *Khojanfu BakqaSun and beleagured it all round from the banks of the river QaraMiiren. having dispatched the climes of the inhabitable quarter* he carried out his intention of proceeding in person against the clime of Khitai. occurs several in apposition to the names of Chinese towns. 253 and 263) QRAMWRAN. and the hills were trampled underfoot by the stamping of the horses. the 2nd August. 1955. whose length and breadth wore beyond comprehension and whose shores and centre were indiscernible. See also Grousset. UEm^ire ies des cbinesfscben Ratte. billowing sea. this reading was su^ested to me by Professor Cleaves in a As he points out in a subsequent letter dated letter dated the I4th June. of be : God Almighty [XXX] WORLD-EMPEROE QA*AN OF THE CAMPAIGN OF AGAINST KHITAI ANB THE CONQUEST OF THAT COUNTRY l WHEN the crown of sovereignty had auspicioiisly upon had been armies to the head of the laid in the all World-Emperor and the bride of bosom of his ability. 291-4. IV. 2 For an account of this campaign based on the Chinese sources see Franke. or \ Mongd name Friar Odoric. 3 Ot/the Black River the 247. the Caramoran of Marco Polo and 191 . The plain from the press of the cavalry vied with the mountains. the Mongol word for *town* or XWjANFWBLQSWN XWjATBWNSQYN times in the Secret History ( 'city*. Ho Yeiow River.THE the if and of so will. the modem Pe-chou. L'Empire Mon&l. whither he was accompanied by his brothers Chaghatai and Ulogh-Noyan and the other princes* together with so leviathan-like warriors that the desert from the flashing of appeared their arms and the clashing together of their horses like a raging. 1955. of the for the Reading text Khojanfu represents the Chinese Ho-dhung fu. *%*# r tatypstt.

n. while their A ' youths and children were carried off in the bonds of servitude and sent to other places. whilst he himself slowly brought up the rear. 3r4. that is a corruption of Hobogetur. 427). as Professor Cleaves suggests in his letter. 18. dynasty. he sent back against them two of his generals. to the number of a tSmen. got tidings of the approach of the Mongol army. and for excess of weakness and terror the countrymen and townspeople with the fortunate was to At last all kid their heads on the threshold of the King's Court. When the the people of the town realized that to strike against goad would yield no fruit but repentance and to quarrel attract misfortune and was the sign of desertion [by Fate]. embarked in a ship they had built and fled away. senggiim. It is however more likely. * This was Aksung. the . and for the space of forty days they Turkish archers (who can. great number of the townspeople.THE HISTORY OF tip fresh fortifications fierce battles. perhaps Chinese Mang*dm 5. fought with the discharge of an arrow. n. (* BartboU. as Professor Cleaves points out in his letter of the I4th June. 251 tionably to he identified with the Qada of the Secret History ( unques(or who appears as Ho-ta in the is M f Chapter 2 (ts*e i). the name of a Chin general mentioned together with Qada in QMR NKWDR 251 of the Secret History. 192 . were 3 dispatched unto tbe Fin of -God and His Hell . the last ruler of the Chin QDAY RNKW Y RNKW) ' and QMR NKWDR. who had stretched their arms to combat. Notes sur general for SNKM. Ogetei sent Giiyiik in advance with ten thousand men. Yum Of these two Chin is generals the former. while the Khitayan soldiers. they asked for quarter. conceivably a corruption of * See Pdliot. As QMR NKWDR. Qadai Rengii and Qamar Nekuder 5 4 See above. Le. and Nekuder a perfectly good Mongol name Slave*. if they wish. Temtir.e. When 4 Altun-Khan. the Turkestm" M W. 39. RNKW fa and 252). who was the khan of those climes. The Mongolian Names. p. sew up the eyes of the heavens) charging to and fro with such effect that With every arrow that they let fly with the speed of a shooting star they hit the target. And when the Mongols on Ulugh-Noyan and departed from this town. QMR is perhaps a corruption the of TMR. " k is i. 45. see Cleaves.

had attempted to employ this same device against the forces of Chingiz-Khan . by placing bezoar-stones in water. Finally When tbe red Jewel of morning distinguished the white * from die black they beheld the head of one at the army of Khitai ' like a flock of sheep the tail of another tucked in on account of chill. For an account of the ptactice see Frazer. From this excessive summer chill. the Khitayan army were disheartened and dismayed and the Mongol army emboldened and exhilarated. not experienced in winter. 121-2). way they would bring the Mongol army to who could then hold a hunting review and passed in this finishing stroke. 193 . their the coldness of the weather feet huddled together in groups and the excessive heads and their 6 weapons frozen with ice like hedgehogs [153] and 'and tbon migbtest have seen tbe was the Turkish and j&fa the Mongol name for the magical process of The Naiman* rain. yai producing See also Grousset. L'Empire Mongol 112-13* Quatremere.. The Qanqli busied himself with his yd so that it began to rain behind the Mongols. Amongst the Mongols was a QanqH * * who was his art well versed in the science of yaif that is the use of the Ulugh-Noyan commanded him to begin practising and ordered the whole army to put on raincoats over their winter clothes and not to dismount from their horses for three days and nights. snow. 328-35.with a hundred rendered ovcr-conident by aroiy numbers and the fewness of the Mongols* s The and thai them and stood In a circle all round them. the Ulugh-Noyan realized that the belt of resistance had drawn right and that the Khitayans might be countered by and deceit for war is fraud and their candle extinguished with the wind of trickery. I. to which was added a cold wind. according to the Secrtt History ( 143) and Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. and on the last day the rain was changed to snow. Tbe GoUett Bovgb. with disastrous effects. etc. 305-6. which was such as they had rain-stone. but the storm they had raised turned against themselves. has collected together a number of references in medieval Mohammedan in modern times authors to this method of rain-making. Histofa fas Montis & Pent.

See Rashid-ad-Din ed. the master of the art of b. yd or rain-making. who were in the van with a hundred for the five As thousand thousand 10 men. the gait of partridges the appearance of peacocks and attacked them from every The falcon seized the dove with the beak side. box. Blochet. two baits of which have been quoted above. 11 This was appaiently an act of reprisal for the insulting references made by the Chin troops to the Mongols* womenfolk. Mks of tSot ftoKt-kartd mmgst them were tssolvcd Jy the twist of the soM-harted spear? with two aforementioned generals they escaped together men and cast themselves upon the water: with a discharge of arrows the Mongols laid them low and stretched them out on the black earth. of severity . the lion crashed the deer with the ckw of violence. 21 and 23. See above. a qasiJa [i. b. nay like charging upon a herd of dcerf they turned upon those laii m *. fire wind. of perdition on these abject ones and it was commanded that the greater part of the army should commit upon them the deed of the 11 companions of Lot. HoU fack and leware of the knee points wUcb are a thuket through which the serpent passed and returned Jfottht" 7 Koran. They did not pollute their swords with their blood but from the hell backs of their horses dispatched them to Aai the with their lances. p.) 194 . at-'Ala. and as for those two demon-like wretches. 7. praise From a $zw& of Abu-Ishaq Ibrahim Mukram above. according as they saw fit. 63 81-2]. though they crossed the water like the yet soldiers who had crossed beforehand cast the . (MQ. a Lc. 12 10 This seems to be inconsistent with the foe thousand From I. 8 and deer-necked ones with the eyes of wild cows. the 'Uthman al-Ghazzi in governor of Kerman. of men mentioned just The whole army numbered a hundred thousand men.HISTORY OF 7 $/ &0//0W thy bat fcwi rf* The jw/db* now ceased his yaif and the army issued forth behind them and like hawks falling upon a flock of pigeons. 193. of Abu-Ishaq al-Ghazzi.

IV. p. 81-2]. (M. For the at that in the town of Managing.e. 15 Juvaini gives a somewhat garbled account of the Chin Emperor's suicide. 16 Koran.They a to the the ears of the to l3 and of the Qa*an.) Q 195 . Ai-tsung was no longer in K'ai-feng having fled first to Kuti-te and then to Ts*ai-chou (the present-day Ju-nan) near the Sung frontier. So too altar the Battle of Uegnitz the victorious cut one ear off every enemy corpse they found on the battlefield . 15 round the house and e set fee to . which was then set on fire. I. See above. [154] then perceiving of fortune had left the mould of his kingdom and part of his army had been slain. 157. t And when Mongol army tbeir Thy of ml eyes ml ibcir ttf their morels % they plundered and pillaged exceedingly. he entered a house his wives and children. 14 continued to fight there. V. NAMKYNK. again by forces I. 17 Another line of the $wwk by al-Ghazzi in piaise of the Turks. Mongol and Sung 63 [i. op. either in accordance with his own previous instructions or by the subsequent command of a close kinsman. and wrought incalculable slaughter. he He too now arrived they turned Alton-Khan. See Franke. xxii. nine large bags of ears were collected *. n. * dispatching C Mongols 14 below. the present-day K'al-fifog.. the southern capital of the Chin.Q. Nan-ching. and took immeasurable booty. 270. so he was burnt is He bst this ml tfa This the win! the u entered the town. Tk Mongols ml Rmsmf 55. They also captured several other towns and took prisoner so many And moon-faced beauties. The Nanagrag of (Vernadsky. victorious and triumphant. both youths and maidens. 290. Hemmed in once and despairing of the possibility of further resistance he hanged himself in a palace or pavilion.) the Start History. turned his reins towards his 13 own or&j. e Ogetei left Aziz Yakvach in Khitai and. at. who were still with him* and the wood same to be laid all alive. that all the ends of the earth were rendered flourishing thereby and all men*s hearts laid desolate.

shal hereinafter read. * * the Su-Moal. su being the Turkish word for SWMTWL. that he can find no evidence in the Far Eastern sources that Qgedei sent an expedition against the Shui Ta-ta. and they Accordingly he dispatched messengers to summon all set out from their places of residence and In the year . and Professor Cleaves suggests that in term Jiirchen may perhaps include the Shui Ta-ta. n. 40-1). 1 A . id est aquatici MongoH* of Carpini (Wyngaert. 51). who appear have been a branch of that people and are often mentioned in association with them in the Yuan sMb. 3419 Lit. [XXXI] OF THE SECOND QURILTAI WHEN the Emperor. his high counsel and lofty resolve required that he should again call together his children and kinsmen so that in consultation with them he might confirm the old and new yasas and ordinances. Le. 93 5 26th August. had proceeded in triumph to his place of residence and the princes and emirs whom he had dispatched to the ends of the inhabitable quarter had all of them attained their goal and object and [155] returned pleased with their success.HISTORY OF armies against Manzi and to Solangai 18 and other regions such 1S as you as the lands of the Tangut. them. the Sumongol. at 18 This too could be a reference to the expedition under Jalayirtai. 175.*. in a letter dated the schneider. 1235. which were like the spring rain. 'Water Mongols'. . 269) and the Shui Ta-ta of the Chinese: they inhabited the eastern part of Manchuria. according to Rashid-acMDin (Blpchet. must be 632/1234-5 since this ^rfltm was held. p. as M. his mind set at rest regarding the conquest of Khitai. this instance the to There is a blank in and B. noble and base. 190. turned their faces towards the Court. hoc est Moal aquarum of Rubruck (iUL. 34) that Jakyirtafs expedition was intended to reinforce troops that had been previously dispatched against the Jurchen and Sokngqas. It is stated however in the passage from the Secret History referred to above (p.Q. . See above. and they might again dispatch armies to such countries as they saw fit. The correct year. n. might have their share of the gifts of his goodness and liberality. 190. points out. * 'water*. 1955. II. who was a Hatim in bounty and a Khusxau in affability. See BretProfessor Cleaves informs me. n. and all the princes and armies. in the Year of the Sheep. Tibetans and Su-Moghol .

constructed by the jinn for Ad. and the and beautified as are the Pleiades when was adorned by conjunction with the radiant They foil moon. nay. came also crowds of ncyans and emirs. The World-Emperor welcomed those of his kinsmen that were his elder brothers and uncles with every mark of respect. and deference. yellow jewel JW % roynl fifti the princes reached his Court. officials (arMlhi-asbgltiil) and local governors (ashab-HfmSl).the the was a the of I of the nm 2 f and the the of the munificent like the of the King. and veneration. [156] while as for his younger brothers and sons. he distinguished them with all manner of benevolence and with excess of kindness. And they had their heart's desire of the flowers and fruit of false Fate. It was as though of the togetlxr again on the after having teen long separated. and by the continuous favours of the coloured robes* and the and had had drunk the sip of well-being and verdancy The lie for far ff ^f f fcf Jlx if tk jfee raw $f /ie itf <? dv dt w de & <jf 1 fl rde. that is the enjoyment of all kinds of wanton pastimes. who were as his children. And the of tbehr fertile they and the garkns ofjlirtatum gmen with terk. And all present at the assembly and 2 A fabulous earthly paradise In the Shaddid the son of f deserts of South Arabia. and honour. as pieces of his liver. 197 . And for one continuous month in unison with like-minded relatives and with there And the assistance of kinsmen without compare he joined dawn to dusk and morning to evening in constant application to bowls and goblets and the handing round of cups by the hands of beauteous cupbearers.

[157] But he had made up his mind.HISTORY OF resident at the Court passed several days in sweet and pleasant content in the sanctuary of QaWs royal munificence. Mengii Qa*an.. ever seen closed. and and seekers of governorships (ifmal) and and all returned having attained their goal and appointments. kinsman and stranger. which was raised up by the action and power of God. yet with regard respect to age he to wisdom and dignity was in the rank of the elders of the age and of experienced to take part [in remarked upon Qa*an*s [decision] * All of us brothers and sons person] and said : veterans. he became rich. and complied with the following quatrain which I heard in Qara-Qoram : O What lifetime is certainly bet a few days* even the empire of the whole world for a few days best thou canst Enjoy thy share of life as thou whose is ? For these few days will pass away. together from every them upon small and great as the spring cloud rains scattering upon grass and trees. their wishes and desires. though in was in the first stage of youth. he charged each of his sons affairs and kinsmen with a after different to take part in parson and set his reins campaign and resolved once again in motion. ml At s&m cf &e eartb cM wt for tdp hcmse tbey were Ireming Aercm. and succeeded in the double of what they had in mind. all the valuables that had been gathered clime since the holding of the first qpriltai. who. how many turned to of state and the disposition of the armies. And since there were many parts of the climes where the wind of rebellion had not left men's brains. and received object. distributed man had and Tty fafrs ftml mtb 2fkr% m tmas if mhf&rtim. a pauper wealthy and prosperous ! And every obscure person became a man of great account. And from all the corners ofthe earth there had come merchants. When in this manner the feasting had come to an end. And Qa*an in his his usual practice wonted manner and in accordance with which no opened the doors of the treasuries. 198 . How many a poor man speculators. amongst all present.

( 3 199 . 115-23. like the Kerel of the Secret History 262 and 270). made prince their model and guide and each of them delivered a speech in the same manner until Qa*an too was convinced. Honk tQr. the foot of tyranny and oppression was shackled. the Hungarians. preparations for the journey and started out at the set appointed time. the hand of justice and munificence was opened and mandates and yasas were written to every side saying that no man should injure another nor the strong impose upon the weak. the South and the North. is a corruption of the Hungarian fe'mly 'king'. in of be we to commanded. Keler (KLAR). Qa'an he was exempted from the wearying of his Agents and scribes were dispatched to the regions that had submitted. were appointed to conduct this campaign and each departed to his own encampment with a large army of Taziks and Turks intending to When these aged They made out at the beginning of the coming spring. Drawn swords were sheathed. was designated to Thereupon each of the princes and a different campaign and they were dispatched to the East and the West.to thy to the and the set our difficulties. while Qa*an amusements* and the enjoyment of himself from the toil of travels and the Otherwise of what use are so ? and and and many At sm will Go fir the <rf mt words from the tongue of that incomparable had reached the hearing of those present. And since the tribes of the Qifchaq and the Keler 3 had not yet been completely crushed the chief attention was paid to the conquest and extirpation of Of the princes Batu. Mengii Qa*an and Guytik these peoples. As for person. Le. See Pelliot. The dust of disturbances and calamities subsided and all creation was secure. the name of the ruler being applied to his people. Qa'an's fame was spread by the north wind like a fragrant zephyr throughout .

all the races of mankind vied with one another in hastening to do him homage.THE HISTORY OF the plain of the world* travelled to every horizon [158] Thou it and the report of his justice and bounty and soared op like the Eagle. to his Court. & sad m th ml thy fme on .) again in III. and dallying with wdssitutes kst songstresses. 549). the Destroyer of Delights sprang out from ambush and unexpectedly discharged the arrow of Doom from the thumb of Destiny. it & For the remainder of his life he continued in this manner until suddenly on the 5th of Jumada II. Such is ever the wont of the Blue Circle : when it it sees a man without grie swiftly brings about his decline. 1241]. on account presents of a name and lame compared with which the mention of former kings seemed naught but a fable. And SO' he passed his rime and had his full share of the enjoy- ment of listening to songs. and from the uttermost lands. every fresh pleasure in the world. the by reason of the fair tales that were spread about him the people of every side chose from sincere desire to be his subjects and considered temporal happiness to consist in obedience and And They therefore dispatched messengers with allegiance to him.Q. 6 (ii. 5 The drinking-place of Life was If it muddied by the dust of Death. This ancient palace of Life would be pleasant to us if Death were not at the door. . were possible for there roses to exist moment would be a without thorns. 4 5 The opening Quoted line of a hunting poem * * by Abu-Firas al-Hamdani (M. 639 [nth of December. mmmL obeyed. What Ufe life that mbm kng ? Tto is when j@y is The days when I am honoured and my command these tbtt I reckm as my life. and quaffing purple wine.

The banners of And And the Mohammedan faith were unfurled in the farthest lands of infidelity the scent of Islam and the remotest countries of polytheism.e. son of Qais was a pre-Iskmic Arab famous for his clemency ZOl . so the extent of his empire reached from farthest Chin and Machin to the uttermost districts of Syria (Sbam). he dispatched of his fortune* as has to all and land. and most of the climes were purged of his The fame of his justice and beneficence became an in all on the ears and his favours and kindnesses like and forearms of all [159] His Court became an to all the world and his presence a refuge and to the whole earth. in the noose of life and the bed of security. During hk reign the reeling world came to rest and the cruelties of the implacable heavens were tempered.[XXXII] OF THE AND ACTIONS OF creation of WHEN the hand of the had the of the Empire upon the set forth. 2 Ahnaf the he was generous at all times. not merely on festive occasions. whose nostrils had not yet reached. that swift steed that had never been tamed. The fame of his justice caused the chaining of strays. As the lights of the dawn of his equity were without the dust of the darkness of evening (sbam). In the time of his Khanate Heaven. And opposite the temples of idols were reared up the shrines of God the Merciful. and nature and constancy twin sucklings at one breast. His bounty was general to all man- waited not for month or year. ' bounty occasioned the capture of wild beasts. and the clemency of Ahnaf 2 was as nothing compared with his. in the prospect of his mercy and compassion hope revived such as had survived the sword remained in every breast. 1 His being and generosity were two coursers running neck and neck* and his kind. The mention of Hatim Tai was abolished during his lifetime. ambled gently under the saddle of obedience to him. and the report of his 1 I.

since it appeared to be bash compared with the expenditure of his own actions.e. be &nl put fight uriA generals of his Court and the servants of his fortune led armies to the East and the West.HISTORY OF Because of the awe he inspired the froward were enslaved.e. and the pages of his letters stole the lustre from the sabres of cavalry. and marked as paid (taryn minibad) the fariz 5 of past traditions. entries in kind of which the ultimate cash value was doubtful. On the terms josi? and tsriz see above. n. mortal returned from his presence without his lot or share and no petitioner heard from his tongue the words No s No and 4 Abul-Fath BustL (M. which was wrong from beginning to end. 5 1. rejecting this saying of theirs: tbe kfag spfmts When Ms to tng*ff& w amusement. And he drew the line of cancellation through the sum total of the tales of former 4 kings. When and thou loosenest thine own bonds bound. cash entries. 32. p. Is half for rejoicing and half for acquiring are loosened. IS* 202 . His did the work of the sword. all In the distribution of predecessors. liberal he bore the palm from his Being by nature extravagantly bountiful and he gave away everything that came in from the farthest and nearest parts of the Empire without its being registered by accountant (mustaufi) or inspector (musbrif).Q. The world lame.) I. and by reason of the severity of his punishment the haughty were humbled. and in accordance with the verses. He to uriA fur letters . and when thou kindest thoti thyself art in opposition to the words of advisers and censurers. while Qa'an was able to dis- The pense with being present In person. Ms kmglm woe ml [160] he was ever spreading the carpet of merrymaking and treading the path of excess in constant application to wine and the company of peri-faced ones of gifts beautiful form.

From time to time the pillars of the Empire and the Court would object to his extravagance. as upon that were And no one went away his presence disappointed or frustrated. 8 6 7 A reference to the shape From a qasOa by first of the letter tim~atif used to wike Is * no ** 8 is For the Abu-Tammam. If I die with a good name. let alive by the per- us not tread the world In evil.) Hne see the Sbabwm ed. I need a name body there is death.Q. Firstly. [161] to keep himself petuation of a good name. since for the it is well. who is adorned with the it is of understanding. " towards IB. words are idle in two ways. and their their hearts will necessarily incline slave of kindness and the fighting and by reason of that beneficence the army will be saved the trouble of encountering and people them and spared much toil and hardship. (M. Qa*an would reply : 4 The censorious are devoid of the jewel of wit and undemanding. 203 61. saying that if there was no escape from this con- from ferring of gifts and favours it was incumbent upon him to bestow them on his servants and subjects.Q w came orff (if <?f aaf as Those in need their that to from fulfilled. went home with whatever of For the to of At r was f M? dun fe f Upon those that came from distant and rebellious he bestowed presents in the same way from near and subject (il) countries. Vullers. side wishes unexpectedly petitioners straightway had desired. Come. that light it faithful to even clearer since this world has notoriously been none but in the end has turned the back of cruelty beseems a wide-awake man. The second foe not in Vullers. let us by striving take every opportunity of doing good. L 528. because when the fame of our manners and customs has reached the rebellious. And . for fe Mm is the secondly. .

and [i] as though indeed they are but one out of a thousand.THE HISTORY OF And with die of olden rime were mentioned together customs and usages* and reference was made to their up and hoarding of gold and silver* he would say that those who deposited valuable treasures beneath the earth were devoid of their share of intellect and strong understanding. seeing that it could be neither the cause of warding off harm the day of nor the occasion of a source of advantage.) 204 . Even as in their sleep the Sultans much wealth as Is the tenth part of is of the age do not see what we bestow the as presents from what ready at hand. nor lay out washed garments upon the plain it being their belief that such actions increase the thunder and It is down in the yasa . who hear and read this history will regard ' It may be these state- ments as falsest \ belonging to the category of The fairest poetry is the In order to prove their truth we shall in a succinct manner free from the contingencies of detraction or hyperbole recount some few anecdotes wherefrom these statements may be fully confirmed.Q. * As for us. for no distinction could be made between that treasure and the dust.* are the acts of generosity of that those The above is but a brief account of his actions. for the sake we shall store up our nothing treasures in the corners of men's hearts and shall leave over for the morrow. We have given the silver and gold of whole world to mankind because they our risHess hand. laid litde out of much that in the season of spring and custom of the Mongols and summer no one may sit in water by day. nor wash his hands in a stream. treasures. of what assistance laid by and of what Wkrt are avail to would be them ? the treasures they th Kbtsrws. nor draw water in gold or silver vessels. Manabbi (M. When doom had arrived. tiwjirsi mgbty ones? en&rei They stortl up and the toctsttres M thy of our good name not.

in their herds and flocks is Similarly if an animal so struck. during which time nj when y u . from the flame of the fire of his anger he wished to commit the earth of his being tion and to cut off the source of his * to the life. wind of annihilaBut Qa*an said : shall To-day it is late and we are tired. in secret. he also told . sitting Chaghatai was zealous in enforcing the yasa and spared no one who extremely had deviated even slightly from it. they proceed in the same manner for several months. when we can inquire into his case and ascertain the reason for his violating our yasa! And he ordered Danishmand Hajib to take charge of the man till when his innocence or guilt might be discovered Danishmand. water where the 10 12 man had * been sitting and to instruct the Koran. for they say that God would he angered thereat. 19. One day Qa'an was returning from his hunting ground together with Chaghatai when at noon they beheld a Moslem in midstream washing himself. u and observed that f is struck Every year that one of by lightning they drive his tribe and household out fiom the tribes for a period of three years. 18. They will even beat those they find washing them. to have a talisb of silver the morning. Thunder they fear extraordinarily and when it thunders they wiH turn out of their dwellings all strangers. ii. When he caught sight of Now this man in the water. u IKl. lightnings and asjislxs may not enter the orfa of the princes. Rubruck : They never wash clothes.THE For in the the time from the r HFC of is It of it the end of and the clashing of the thunder lfcj into [162] &# is it ears fmr of r V afl d ^e it flashing iwifj of the J such has fif ulfffiwf fje? . and that it would thunder if they hung them up to dry. they hold a celebration (suySrmisbi) at the end of that month. C 205 . and thus hide themselves till it has passed away/ (Rock. wrap themselves in bkck felt. This man be held in custody until to-morrow. And when such a happening occurs they eat no food for the remainder of the month* and as in the case of their periods of mourning. thrown in the man.

and a written statement was taken from him that he would not that this man commit a with his treasures. similar action again. who. 'Uthman al-Ghazzi in praise of Abu-'AbcWkh. but by way of went to the spot and the balisb was taken precaution someone * To whom could it occur out of the water. the Qifchaq leapt down roof. Then Qa'an said : to meditate breaking our yast and commandment [163] or hakVbreadth therefrom ? But it seems to be a swerving single is a person of poor estate and little property and so has sacrificed himself for a single falifb* He commanded that the man should be given ten more hlisb in addition to the one . closed the animal after the Moslem securely and slaughtered two or three houses. had knife across the sheep's throat. took it home. to investigate. (M. lz When they first one should slaughter slit power they made a yasa that no animals by cutting their throats but should rose to A that open their breasts after the Mongols* own fashion.THB HISTORY OF when he was examined. to many obligations. 2O6 . bound him tight and bore him off to the Court drew the from the scribes of the World-Emperor. was for this reason that he had acted so On the next day the guilty man was examined in Qa*an*s presence. Kerman. life but acquired And so And property. which was than immense Anlfrm his far smrl there bkdes wfareutitb the freeman mas enskvd and [it] the careworn Vkwtd.) This anecdote is the governor of also recounted by Juzjani See Raverty. Qa*an to the excuse with the ear of acceptance.Q. he spoke as follows our yasa and this Turk man has observed the commandment of has infringed it. not knowing he was being watched by a Qifchaq.* The Moslem's life was spared and he was 13 From a qasufa by Ibrahim b. When he opportunity. awaiting his followed him from the market. 1107-9. the gates fashion in [the lane between] Moslem bought a sheep in the market. cam he not only escaped on this account freebetter men became the skves of this act. that this it say that he was his was a poor man with whole capital and that rashly. Qa'an examined the case and * sent out When the circumstances : were made This poor known to his clear intellect.

all these laid side the reason for this can only be the beneficence of the knoweth the station and rank of every nation . such as and also gold-embroidered webs pearls.. and * : by side so that it And And he said while the great things he commanded to be might be seen how great was the difference. rubies. but forthwith and be seen no more gain. of Badakhshan <D * has : . turquoises. . . . the the the jaws of the Khitai and no one had ever seen such as [164] wondrous Khitayan One of these plays consisted of tableaux of before. Who for a Moslem is forty according to which the blood-money In view of such proofs lalisb and for a Khitayan a donkey. .THE the was If one over to the of thy favour off its of Fate. 64) runs One of the rulers (nuM) of Persia (Irib-ztmim) sent a messenger . meant in this manner." sent a messenger to him and [iv] 3 can you make a laughing stock of the This crime you have committed ought to be A ' : Someone sent a messenger to him who was son of the ling (pSdsM} / The corresponding passage in RasWd-ad-Din (Blochet. etc. They replied that it represented a rebellious for that the armies were dragging them out of the lands Moslem. Qa'an ordered the show to commanded his attendants to fetch from the treasury be stopped and all sorts of jewels from the lands of Khorasan and the two Iraqs. . and arms from Bokhara and and garments. The poorest Moslem has many Khitayan slaves. and testimonies how ? people of Islam Count that as a total I will spare your lives. Creator. and likewise what was imported from Khitai. Qa'ae asked who this was to portray. and in the midst of which an old man with a long [iii] A troupe of players had come a turban face wound round to the tail his head was dragged forth upon his bound of a horse. small horses and other Khitayan garments products . depart from my presence in this neighbourhood/ certain ruler from . emirs of Khitai have not one Moslem captive. Tabriz . and Arab horses. it is also in conformity with the ancient yasa of Chingiz-Khan. being inferior to the others. punished.* 307 .

in due order were impressed the names of his Qa'an commanded the jewellers to leave the name it of Mohammed and if for luck's sake bet to erase the names of the sultans to set his own name after the name of the Prophet [v] learnt A poor man. sharpened pieces of iron into the shape of awls and mounted them on pieces of wood. 66-7. who was unable to earn a living and had tiidptact I) and that of Him Who sent him. sight The poor man told him of the weakness of his condition. [vi] An aged man. And taking them in his hand he Even this kind will serve for herdsmen to mend the said : seams in their qumiz 15 skins with.* * Qa'an repKed [166] in his heart during it : Since he must have cherished this wish long life and ever sought such an would be remote fiom magnanimity to send him opportunity. See RockhiU. came to Qa'an and asked for two hundred hdisb of gold to form a company with him. detailed account fermented mare's milk. [165] The name of Mohammed the Prophet of God was written on top of the stone. dwelling or abode. ic. Qa*an ordered him [to go back and] bring all the awls that the man had with him. from our presence disappointed and frustrated. no trade.THE HISTORY OF a desire to field him homage and obedience. and no one is acquainted with his condition. who gives a 208 . while beneath forefathers. he thought them unworthy of being presented to Qa*an and so left them with him and [returning] told what he had seen.* And for each awl he gave * the man a fatisb. sending among other gifts a polished ruby which had come down to him fiom the victories of his ancestors. of its manufacture. nor would this all his 15 qttnfe. Qa*an caught of him from afar and sent one of his attendants to him. He then sat down where the retinue of Qa'an would pass and waited. is the cosmos of Ruferuck. whereof even a hundred would hardly have been worth a barleycorn. But when the messenger saw his clumsy awls. whose strength had * : been exhausted by the revolution of days and nights. Said one of the courtiers The sun of this man's life has reached its and he has no children or grandchildren or any fixed evening. the smallness of his property and the largeness of his family and gave him the awls.

them to double the amount so that he might make half of and give the remainder to his creditors. 534. . Dhu-Yazan quoted in a long story in the Ktathd-A^bmL (M. His courtiers pointed out that the of no standing who had not a farthing of his man was a person own and owed debts Qa*an told it amounting to all that he had asked for. in Turkish mercial association with a ruler or great man. En ormfatiscbes Hmklsmternebmen.Q. See Minovi and Minorsky. gbrms m mm An ortaq hundred talisb. fmc of my to Ms t Ac M$ om deal. (M. Hinz. And it was written in the document that all the beasts of burden in that region could not raise up that treasure. partner *. These [viii] arts his capital of generosity art mt tw& cwps &/ mil.* when m- lie died.) praise of Saif * 18 lit. was a merchant who formed a comortaq. 788.) 17 From the well-known verses by Umayya b. An Nasfr al-Dm Tm on Fmwct.Q. c But Qa'an said : What need have we of a treasure laid up by another ? We bestow own He bath it all upon the servants of God Almighty and our subjects/ cms to the mi [ix] Us 18 slightest lmitf gmtest &f mbkb then is are Is tbtm Dtstmy. came to him and received a capital of five He went away for a while and then returned 16 Attributed in the Hmasa to Hatim of Tayyi*. Give his ff*f O fk Jto jwf fwll not ir % ON? Tif 0f ffo are few ilf Hill ie Mr & fk He shall not give np the ghost without The man had not yet received all the report hereof brought ffir accomplishing his desire. [vii] A person came to him and asked for Ive hundred some in connection with He ordered his petition to be granted. tlx m. Abus-Salt ath-Thaqafi in b.be of the he for God he wlf jwf / has to is us. The many tk persons to Qa*an*s threshold. 17 A document was found which told that in such-and-such a place in his dominions was a treasure that had been laid up by Afrasiyab.

Q.* uprooted and * scattered. When he returned the third time the UtikcUs were afraid to communicate his message. * have the people of which presented a petition saying. Give him as much as you gave him the first time but tell him to stop being wasteful and extravagant.* this * and devours money in such-and-such a country. Cf.* * asked Qa'an. Qa*an ordered again. and the people came thither and received shut. If is given for our creditors to be easy with us for a time. since those who take them from him are also our subjects. be the cause incurred a debt of eight hundred falifb. n. which had never been treasury. He was given another hundred balisb. which I haw emended to Buyids. He wastes * How.* said Qa*an. n. and if we leave things as they are the people will be ruined and homeless. 15. 2.* * with them. He therefore commanded a proclamation to be made and declared throughout the realm that whoever had a claim on them [168] should bring documentary proof or else the debtor should produce the creditor and he should receive cash from the And the door of the treasury.* They replied that he gave them to worthless persons and spent them on food* and Since the baUsb themselves are there/ said Qa*an. 19 20 From a qtwla by Ibn-al-'Amid. and our creditors are demanding payment. which will We of our undoing. Marco Polo's Taianfu for Tai-yiian fii. the famous minister of the The text has TAYM'W. n. On 210 . the other hand cf.) Le. The Bock cf Ser Marco Pok. was opened wide. Instead they * denounced his wastefulness and extravagancy saying. TAYNFW. first left him In a year's time the man and offering some unacceptto be given the same amount returned even poorer than the five time and gave some other excuse. Blochet. and drink.THE HISTORY OF saying that he had not one able excuse. (M. the money remains in our hands and is not scattered underfoot. we shall then be able gradually to repay them and shall not be an order If we order their creditors to be easy they will suffer a great loss. Tayanfu. k. * can one devour htlisb ? Anl I tml Um m mm offfmr m le& Ms rftum fejfrfw ml fomi Mm 20 Am m Ae [x] There is a town in the clime of Khitai called *Tayanfu. which was then the capital of the province of ShansL See Yule. 66-7.

far kwc m attachment Acrtto. 3-4). (Cf. Ogedei had no children by ha and this is perhaps the reason why she is not mentioned in die section 22 See the on his wives and concubines (Blochet.. And said Qa'an. According to Rashid-ad-Din (Khetagurov. to be creditor so received double the sum they had fe on? d* & ram is & jwl to dx [xi] When him two present. * the man. 218.Q. He is a poor man/ he will there receive Misb and clothing/ and cannot bear to wait till to-morrow. he was on his hunting ground None of his available. * Chaghatai too was enamoured of her and having sought her hand too late refused the offer of any other of his father's ladies as a substitute. Bdbq. ml art n& mj excuses! 22 At Qa'an's command she gave the pearls to the poor man. 211 (M. and at these/ accordingly He He 21 MWKA. 67. But as they were very precious she said : This man does not know their worth and value : it is like giving saffron If he is commanded to come to the to a donkey. 149-50) she was the daughter of the ruler of the Bekrin. The buyer was very pleased and * thought to himself: I have acquired two fine jewels fit for a is rarely brought such gifts as present to the Emperor. and he went away rejoicing and sold them for a small sum.THE . round about two thousand dinars.) She was evidently a woman of considerable the wife attractions. Give tben I ? They too will return to us in md U not stmff wben a kgggr ^gprmnkr. no debtor so . where it is stated that he * her more than all his other ladies '. took the pearls to the Emperor. p. * * rendered auspicious by conjunction Qa'an ordered these pearls to be given to whither should these pearls go the end. who gave her in marriage to ChingizKhan. ed. IV. After his death she became in accordance with the Mongol custom of his son Ogedei. below. or three water-melons.) . R SMnd-Hmasa. but or garments Moge M Khatun who the had two pearls in hot two of the Lesser Bear the radiant when moon. to-morrow. who loved her more than his other wives so that loved they were jealous of her*.

wherewith the stages are lightened to Urn that crosseth the foot. the reason If I commanded * that I be given this quantity of Misb I will deliver ten age : thousand arrows every year/ Said the Hatim of the Unless this poor fellow's affairs are entirely distraught and he of is in despair. and the pearls too have come back to us. What comfort.THE HISTORY OF that rime and Mdge Khatun was with him.Q. From a qasMa by Hahim 'Uthman al-GhazzL (M. him two arrows and knelt down afar off. Qa*an commanded his attendants to inquire into the man's condition and find out what he wanted. &t Ac m ml & tbet resembling eazb e&tr ?m mt the tw mmt ml so prmses Mb mn ml [xii] sea. do we derive from the presence of aU this money which has to be constantly guarded ? Let the heralds proclaim that whoever wants some laJisb should come and take them/ Everybody set forth from the town and bent their steps towards the treasury. Qa*an smiled and commanded an ox-wagon to be brought also* and the old man loaded the twlisb on it and went brought the balisb the old arrowsmith his way. Qa'an took the pearls Did we not say that they would come back to us ? The poor man did not leave us disappointed but gained his * said : end.* he said. each having obtained an abundant b. they all received what they asked 23 for and. The man said stranger brought : A * I am by trade an arrowsmith.) 212 . Let him be given a lalisb hundred so that he can mend his affairs/ When they was incapable of carrying them. And tlwu didst load him with wealth. rich and poor. he will not accept so contemptible an amount ttalisb in return for so many arrows. Master and slave. noble and base. and that is balisb it is have incurred a debt of seventy for the confusion of my affairs. 23 [xiii] At and the time when he ordered the building of Qara- the royal mind was busied with this scheme. greybeard and suckling. he Qorum one day entered the treasury where he found one or two fSmen * * of lalisb.* [169] And he distinguished the bearer with all kinds Wb*ercr sffjs of favours.

merchants began to come to his Court from every side. the cl&nls that if be 1 And be the manner of telling wkm sbedling their water wm almost Mm mn ^mr&m tf woM rm gptt* [xvi] When he seated himself upon the throne of kingship generosity was spread throughout the world.Q. And on this account they called the place Tuzghu8* Baligh. The number came to a the hundred and so he man a hundred If balisb. 1238. and whatever goods they had brought. 90.left his and tip for his <?iff out df i?f d* on? been no agriculture on account of the Qara-Qorum [xiv] Thae had in the of but his cold reign they began to rill the ground. Qa*an ordered the to be counted. A which he brought to Qa*an. according to die was constructed in the tenth year of Ogedefs reign. trees at A certain person planted several almond and willow hill. and hand of the king.Q. who planted them should be given a balisb for each tree. [170] planted radishes and succeeded in growing a few. (M.* 5 parasangs to the east of the [xv] Two Qara-Qorum a palace had been built in a nook upon a hillside. Badi'-az-Zaman of Hamadan. Le. but these trees Qa'an commanded that the man one had ever seen green became verdant with trees In foliage. and he was wont to pass by on his way to and from his winter quarters so that offerings of food (which they call tvzgbti) might be brought him from the town. See Cleaves.) . (M. the foot of this No that region before. whether good or and the fame of his kindness and 24 25 26 From the Haiutsa. the T'u-su-hu ch'eng (* Tusqu City ') which.) The opening line of a famous This sblbf is Yuan 27 qasuta by Anvari in praise of Sultan Sanjar. The Mongolian Documents m the Mmle ie Ttbtrm. It is Ac bean and hand arc aa and mine.

So come from an enemy country. of the merchants with our treasury/ [171] said Qa'an.* am An! wby Ml the wor& of men mtbboU this from well-doing ? and who tars the way of Um that encounters a 28 wolf? He Some people from India brought him two tusks of ivory. in a time of debauch 28 Mutanabbi. * And indeed these people have expenses to pay to your tittttcbb. and it is their debt to you that I discharging lest they depart from our presence having suffered a loss. asking for so contemptible a matter. a wine. his officials should raise it by 10 per cent price (dab~yazdab) and pay the money to the merchants. The merchants would then return and state the prices of their goods and it was Qa'an's command that whatever the amounted to. * sum * made a great outcry.) .* they said. [xviii] At a time when his brain was heated with cups of merry. how * he More- these people is No one/ he replied. are for the purpose of their acquiring some benefit and securing some advantage under our protection. * asked what they wanted and was told Five hundred talisb. there remained thereof not one drop.' Without the slightest hesitation he ordered them to be given [xvii] this amount.Q. he would command them happened to be bought at the full price* And it usually that without casting a glance at their all * wares or inquiring the price he would give them merchants would then calculate to themselves : away. His * officers could give so large a over. they used to open their bales and then turn away. and in one or two days* rime.THE HISTORY OF bad.* an enemy of mine.* extravagantly iocs be strive to fa generous that be causes enemies to receive the gifts of bis bands. . though their wares had been the Sea of Oman. One day the officers and ministers of his Court represented to him that it was unnecessary to add this 10 per cent seeing that the price of the * The dealings goods was already in excess of their real value. when he had grown 214 man (M. The This cost so * ? much and and every had noted that so much/ and would * for one * they would say ten shell they 'this call a pearl. When the merchants custom of his.

a hat the his of the the of for Khorasan. addressing himself to the Minister Yalavach.* I am drinking Oder? tkm I &ky the censwms. Then. which is the amount of my debt/ Qa*an ordered his officials to give him what he had asked for and to add the same amount again. To add to what he asked for is extravagance.** At the time when Shiraz had not yet submitted. because of the fame of the follows: Emperor's generosity and goodness. * he said : That is wrong. log he had He to a They such a the sum time the On the self at the day at the Qa*an*s glance fell upon laid before him. You think perhaps [172] that if I give someone a present when are You my real enemies . and my petition is for five hundred Idish. no good will ever come of you.Q. is or it is because I am drunk . They hesitated. a came from that place and bending his knee spoke as person * I have come from Shiraz. Good repute and fame endure for in this world of growth 9 and scribes he and decay ever in this world. * Then f turning to the scribes* he said: for it your wish that no fair monuments good reports should remain as a memorial to me. he commanded his being and. if not ruination/ [xix] ' 29 Bakr The second of these two "basts *AH al-Quhkanl (M. They replied with one voice that was not. the to . saying. it hundred up day he added a hundred to three There the until the and to six Then summoning his emirs was would endure for ever. for I am a man with a family and have many debts and little backing . tfbers tlmn I U Ae reproachful I ojtjwse tbost wba rtprwA f for Uvmg berf my I go farther. Until one or two of delay payment you are punished for their deeds as a warning to their fellows.) is ascribed in the Dmyat-d-Qflsr to Abo- 215 . and that is why you and hold up what is due.

boUs When it the petitioner comes to afar to sue Urn. I made its flesh the sustenance The and took upon him. heaped up in piles according to their kind. : In the morning Ms bounty was the harbinger of morning showers and the messenger of provisions and victuals. 169 [212].) was every and these 30 From a bait of which has been 216 . nor will it be sufficient to traversed cover his debt. This poor fellow has brought us what thongs [173] and said is better than And he ordered him to be given a hundred goats/ Misb and a thousand head of sheep. the like He gave him number of balisb. Unless it is added to it will be as it though he returned without achieving his object. How can be considered just that a poor man after travelling so great a distance should return disappointed to his family and children ? Give him the full amount that I said without The poor man Emperor there returned home rich any delay or procrastination/ and joyful. and what he asked for wiE not meet the expenses of his journey hither and his return home. be large mknifttl refuse Urn wfon be bos a family* [xx] a stick* A poor man came to his Court with ten thongs tied to He opened his mouth in prayer [for Qa'an] fell his stand at a distance. of my family. And he added that when all this was consumed he should come to him again and he would give him more. (M.THE HISTORY OF He * answered : Because of our fame this careworn wretch has many mountains and plains and experienced hot and cold . where. a quoted above. and and out of its hide I fashioned thongs for the which I have brought with me/ Qa'an took the men-at-arms. custom to pass the three winter months in and during the remaining nine months he would sit down after breakfast on a throne outside his Court. [xxii] It was his the pleasures of the chase. aasida by Ibrahim b. and with the this was left fair fame in from world. sort of merchandise that is to be found in the world . ** when the officers inquired about his I had a kid in my royal glance business he spoke as follows : household. 'Uthman al~Ghazzi. [xxi] A man brought him a hundred bone arrow-heads.Q.

Muhammad at-Tarasti. said Were Hatim aim be would bawl. Danishmand went to the greengrocer. first and he gave him half of i.e. When the tray was set before Qa'an he remarked Mish is a very small price for so many jujubes/ Danishmand * took the rest of the Misb out of his sleeve and said : They cost * but little/ Qa'an upbraided him roundly and said : When has amount. And it would often happen he would command persons of great size and bulk to take scatter many of the wares they chose as they could hold in their arms. [xxiii] A man brought him two hundred whip handles made red willow (tdbarkkun) which they burn in He gave him a hdisb for every stick. And tbey obtained from his bands tbat tidings wMcb they smgbt* and be gave the glad wonted way. As he went away one of the garments fell to the ground . can a man have the trouble of a journey for the * sake of a single garment ? And he commanded him again to take as many as he could carry. One day he so commanded a person of this description and the man took as many costly garments as could be contained in the arms of several [normal] persons. he happened [xxv] to be going through the market and passed by a shop in which jujubes were exposed for sale. and when he had taken the others c home he returned to fetch the one he had dropped. and when he sat down in his Court he ordered Danishmand Hajib to take a lalisb from the treasury and go and buy some.Q. He felt a craving for this fruit. a When Qara-Qorum was being built : * A S1 From a qasOa by Abu-'Ali al-Fadl b.) 217 . took a trayful of jujubes and paid a quarter of the lalisb. came to of the wood of the And those parts as firewood.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR he would that as fortune-hunters amongst Moslems and Mongols and cast before and suppliants. which was double the value of the jujubes. seekers after boons him in crowds from every quarter craning their necks. there is experience the generosity of thy no doubt tbat be would be converted at tby band. (M. How.* * Qa*an.^ of bis generosity in Ms [174] [xxiv] A person brought him three of these same sticks that hundred fatisb.

I had bestowed a great quantity of royal pearls over their heads. [175] to which were there added four hundred latisb. Tuzghu was brought forth and Yalavach told him the story of Solomon. the nask of Rubruck and the nasich of Marco Polo. [xxvii] man. Une ville musulmane dans k Chine i.Q. S3 It was a pleasant spot .THE HISTORY OF this man ever ten tatisb had a customer and give him them Ami ftme Us benefits. in * locust's leg as the choicest gift she had to Sa'di in his Gutistan. a contemporary and The ant brought Solomon a The story is referred to by Beggars. 86 Abul-FathBusti. the ant and the locust's leg. like us ? all* Make up the price to which are not afamt the necks of men. 269. du Nord sous Us Mongols. n. and Moge Khatun. Ahmad al-Busti. Khalil b. Kings 34 was un tissu fait de sole et d*or *. And the next day he ordered the Minister Yalavach to be honoured with all manner of valuable presents. See Pelliot. whom he loved more than all his other ladies. was beside him. n benefits fait necklaces was going hunting and the house of the Minister Yalavach happened to lie on his way. nosy. . npm tbee all the auspicious stars of the havens?* And that a horse to all that day he watched many spectacles and gave a robe and were present in his service. 91 and no. What * is this ? 32 The Cadi Hasan Mu'ammal of the Ghaznavids. Qa'an had the joy of wine in his head . He condescended to 34 and brocade alight. (M. His lomty extended to thejtock and to the shepherds.) 83 offer. b. He And when they were seated upon their thrones he poured MI had I bestowed whst mis worthy of thee. hundred and scattered them where he would * And when he passed by he asked. Turkish naskb. and outside his tent he laid carpets ofnasij and strewed the inside with the bubbles of pearl neck(zarlaft) [xxvi] laces. See Arberry. he hundred Misb to be given to a poor The Ministers of the Court said to one another: Does a * He commanded know how many the dirhems there are to so lalisb ' many halfcb ? They took pass by.

saying. * was his good fortune/ he said. since Days have passed man's money was to be paid in cash without any delay or procrastination/ He waited where he stood. 38 ditties performed by the seethe Sore* History. and the qorcbis* s went to the treasury to fetch the that this lalisb in the hems of their gowns they * * them to the poor man. They are the talisb to be given in payment for your wares/ When they realized that he was someone * It else.* he it all And so they doubled and gave Ktst to the poor man. [176] He took them to her at once. and they replied.) 2.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR They * replied that it was the hundred klbb said. are not Jwgers hit the keys to Us fingers. door of Qarshi. a/rsti (M. 225 Ibn-Dtiraid (M. p.) 37 in Mongol means * * palace *.Q. The put one 3 Ibn-Duraid.Q. the quiver-bearer On the institution of this office by Chingiz^orchis Khan and and 229.19 . The reference is perhaps to Qadhi-Soii See below. they took the latisb back and informed the Emperor. 237. but in the pocket of his cloak and gave her only four. for the poor man. wUcb pwisms?* [xxviii] Mkh at the certain person had made a deal for a hundred with his emirs and treasurers. 38 jwdW means Ht. He gave orders that the A man should be paid in cash. How can anything be returned falfcb. caught sight of her and ordered the treasurer to give her five balisb. who had just returned from the country. we commanded Putting a hundred * that is taken out of our treasury to the * ? And so they gave all the money poor man. *. 124. 37 fell One day a poor man was the standing When man and his glance upon to the he thought : World-Emperor came out * Is this perhaps * the same person whom the hundred Misb * are to be paid ? And he called his officials to account. What are these faUsb ? he brought asked. Qa*an. it It is a miserable amount. chivalry pass The clams of in the eyes judgment on my wtalA : supererogatory acts of of the generous?* chivalry are obligatory duties [xxix] An Indian woman with two children on her back was passing by the gate of Qarshi.

* Qa*an then orphans/ family has Two to replied treasurer.* of fowls/ Qa'an It is ordered his treasurer to give the the man a The treasurer took with him.* [xxx] * A falconer came to him with a falcon upon his of falcon * wrist. When eyes next fell on the treasurer he asked him what had happened man QaWs about the falcon and the treasurer told him of his efficiency. He * she replied that small was a woman with a family and * asked. What * * sort is that ? asked Qa'aru is said the man.Q. Everyone that comes to ** us those that say. nor is it hidden But we wish everyone to have comfort and repose and so they receive a share of our fortune. He by certain person was a was so well known in one would pay a single barleycorn for 40 bow-maker and made Qara-Qorum that no his wares and he had . Tbott art a so that /uar&w of that we unsb orphans in place of their fathers we ourselves were orphans. From a qastia Abu-Tammam in praise of the Caliph Ma'mun.) . and even so much is not sufficient for thee/ He went on: : Qa*an was angry and said c I * fowl. he only used that as a pretext to seek something for himself. shall become ortaqs and take balisb in That falconer did not want a We order to give interest/* and those others that bring wares. When the to Qa*an entered Qarshi he woman went to the treasury and ordered be summoned. and we all pretend not to that several know their circumstances/ And he commanded Misb should be given to the falconer. fashioned a net in a different way. and its medicine the flesh lalisk a sick one. 220 (M. [177] [xxxi] A bad bows. which cannot be counted or calculated. us.THE HISTORY OF woman give it noticed that one to her. have placed in thy hands all the wealth of the world. the was she ? uttering a prayer. and those others again of every sort that come to us we know that they have from from us. was missing and pleaded with him to Qa*an asked him what the woman had What been saying. gave a twlisb to a banker and from that sum credited him with the price of several fowls. Then he commanded her take of every kind of clothing that pleased her fancy as many embroidered garments as a rich and wealthy man would wear.

When Qa'an came out he sent * * someone to ascertain who the man was. and only he 1 pardoned that was strong.* Qa'an ordered his attendants to take the bows and to give the man twenty Mish. for if his had not been ventured upon confused he could not possibly have such an act. stud became loose at one end of it and he gave it to one of his courtiers to no other trade.* Someone brought him an Aleppo 42 goblet.) 42 kakti 41 221 .) * f of Aleppo may refer to the metal of which the goblet was made: * in the modern language it means tin-plate *.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR The bow-maker became poor and embarrassed and he could think of no other device than to take twenty bows.M. it is Only be gave abundantly that gave with apologies. I am. He was forced to disclose account of crime action affairs he had got rid of it. [xxxiii] * Abul"Ghauthal-Manjibi. I have no other trade and so my affairs have become embarrassed* I have brought twenty bows to give to Qa*an. that man whose bows no one will buy. Let him be freed and give him a utterly hundred and fifty fatisb from the treasury so that he may mend his affairs and not presume to do the like again/ If thy kindness is of the substance of thy being. .* he said. * is is 'Although the a great one/ said Qa'an. Those who were seated in the Court took it and showed it to him without He that brought bringing in the person that had brought it. yet his resorting to such an a proof of weakness. He [xxxii] examined it and bound it round his waist.Q. (V. bind them to the end of a stick and take his stand at the gate of the ordu. The goldsmith took and sold it. And every day when they came to claim different excuse. he had some all When this procrastination had passed bounds Qa'an this sent a bailiff to make him give it back. impotence and poverty. valuable jewelled belt was brought to Qa'an. bore him before how Qa'an and explained what had happened. (M. and on impudence they bound him. in his affairs A A get the stud fastened. smith whose the belt it The officer in question gave it to a goldname was Rashid Sudagar. to the body a picture of the soul.

two hundred balisb. The man never came back again and no one knew his home or origin. he * You have seen my pretended not to understand and said : face 44 and now you must go back/ And he gave orders that 43 The district of Bakharz lay to the south of Jam. When know Since these words had the appearance of and everyone can imagine such actions.) 222 . until his eyes had been brightened And he would repeat these words to every envoy proceeding in that direction. the present-day Turbat-iShaikh Jam. However. I mount.THE HISTORY OF [178] this/ said Qa*an. 160 : The Mongols have a custom ** that when they have seen the We have seen the king's golden king they say: face. said the man. then my drink a second time I wish for a sister to it that and support it with another draught. he ordered When him his words to be given a the man came into his presence and entered the * discussed his statement. they some means of beholding the august countenance of Qa'an.M.* give him another two hundred lalbb for his travelling expenses. I gwe away I my wealth. and he said : I had to have ordu. they disimpudence pleased Qa'an and he showed signs of anger. Let him be given * two hundred kalisbf delivered the gate of the ordu his message to the august ear of the Emperor. and on the same day they gave him was wondering whether anyone had The bearer of the goblet seated at The same day also there was talk about and Qa*an ordered his attendants to ask Abyssinian * That this man whether he was able to get servants for him. the tale far and wide that he had found a treasure but spread [xxxiv] It would tell nobody where it was with the beauty of Qa'an. Malin appears to be identical with the modem Shahr-i-Nau. and also gave him letters-patent. reached the august ear of Qa'an. and Qa'an ordered them to is just my business."' of no treasure/ (V. Khetagurov. Suddenly the chamberlains came out and told him the glad tidings of his having been honoured . has endured hardships in order to bring so fine a jewel to us from so great a distance. servants. Rashid-ad-Din tr. has never been heard that anyone left his presence 43 who disappointed except a person from Malin in Bakharz. " 44 Cf.

who art lofty in greatness of statet Two foes that never meet together in one place amongst men are thy face and poverty. He therefore seized him and took him to task saying that he must forsake the faith of Mohammed (upon whom h peace !) and [xxxvi] Uighur emir A Moslem had borrowed four 47 embrace the creed of idolatry. where he held up a sign on the end of a stick. One of the scribes repeated the * number of lalisb and Qa'an said How long must I ask you : bounty and begrudge petitioners my property ? And to spite the censorious he commanded the sum to be doubled and with those balisb made that poor man rich.) (M. not to deny * my O "king of the age and the time. or else he should be disgraced in the middle of the market-place and receive a hundred blows of the bastinado. bewildered by their 48 threats. 223 . (M. He made a cup out of the horn of a mountain goat and sat upon the highway and waited. Reading 47 amm Abul-Wa6 ad-Damiyati. Qa*an ordered him to be brought forward. When he learnt of the poor man's position he ordered his creditors to be sent for. Blochet (75) for the umara-yi of 46 the text 48 Le. The Moslem. As for the Moslem he was given a Uighur wife and house.Q. the Uighurs'. Qa'an took it from him and gave him fifty falisb. what to the messengers and sent back are the clouds if they do not disperse from a town and if they are not ready to gather one day over a blame- 4S worthy person ? [179] [xxxv] There was a person in affairs Qara-Qorum to whose weakness and poverty had found their way. And Qa*an commanded that the Uighur should receive a hundred blows of the for the charge they had laid on the 45 Abu-Dufafa d-Misri.** lalisb of silver from an and was unable to pay the money back. and they were prosecuted Moslem.) with Rashid-ad-Din ed. asked for three days' grace and went to Qa'an's audience-hall.Q.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR the man was And safely to his to be handed over home. When he saw Qa'an's retinue in the distance he rose to his feet and held out the cup.

Twelve trays of pearls were then produced A which he had purchased for eighty thousand dinars.* said * the man. of thy goods and with that I shall be and weep. Moslem Wbm wayfams alight Mpm th season. c scribes asked for a statement in writing. The Minister Yalavach was present and Qa'an ordered him to bring in the pearls that were held in readiness. and no one was present but myself/ Qa*an reflected When did this a while and then said * : His impudence .* Thou wast alone that day. saying. kinswoman of his came in and gazed upon his [xxxviii] wives and concubines and examined their clothes and pearls and jewel-studded ornaments. ? * He at once began What is the price to lament replied the sayyil. their having drunk a fast draught dots not prevent them from drinking a second. is manifest and his mendacity and for these falseness evident but if I call words. * asked Qa'an. The He * They brought him ? into the audience-hall. said that he had given the money witnesses. He ordered them to be poured into her sleeves and the hem of her 224 . When the time came to make a payment he said that he had already handed [xxxvii] There was a certain sayyid e over the interest. " him to account The World-Emperor has gone back on his word. from Chargh near Bokhara who was called [180] the Alid of Chargh. ' ' goods asked. * * Qa'an then Thirty fcrfiri/ ? satisfied/ He gave him a hundred kdisb. he inquired again about the sayyil. * Where is he ? They brought him in and Qa'an said : Is thy heart sore because we commanded them not to take thy price." Let him be. He had received some ttalisb from Qa*an for a commercial enterprise. and in whose prehappen * sence ? for I know thee not. but do not purchase from him what he has brought to sell to our treasury/ number A of merchants had come that day.THE HISTORY OF bastinado in the middle of the market-place and that the should be given a hundred hlish. a receipt and to Qa*an in person. those who hear will say. They took the wares of each of them and Qa'an gave them all a greater sum than the actual * Suddenly.

be would txtve lost bis way.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR skit. * * Neither am I in any doubt/ said Qa'an. And Simak and be was lofty in bis resolve wbicb abased the hols of tbe born of tbe twenty-fourth knar manmn. Ahmad of Nishapur in praise of Abu(M. for they are evil/* After a while Qa'an asked whether he had spoken to him reflecting * : through an interpreter or in his * own person. Ning-hsia in Kan-su) and Qara-Tash as the ' known towns in the Tangut country. (M. le Strange. 250. * Dost thou tongue/ said the man. 225 . c With his own know the Mongol and No/ said the man. 163 [i. * Turkish languages ? asked Qa'an. with numerous buildings'. bad Hatlm passed along them. 49 52 Tangut region. i. 52 Egrigaia of best Hamdallah tr. man a lalisb for every seed. And afterwards he gave the On this account tbe like tbe crowding of seeds crowding of people at bis gate mas a pomegranate.Q.Q. nothing but lies/ And he ordered the man to be put to death.) 51 In Juzjani's version of this anecdote (Raverty. both being * cities of a certain size. I. For a theory that Chingiz-Khan may have had some knowledge of Chinese. from a place called brought him a wagon-load of victuals in the hope by Abu-Salih b.^ m [xl] An Arabic-speaking apostate came to him and said: In the night I saw Chingiz-Khan in a dream and he said " * Tell my son to slay the Moslems. 51 Moslem from the [xli] A Qara-Tash. 159.e. [xxxix] Someone brought him He commanded the seeds to be counted a pomegranate as a and each of those present to receive his share. see Waley. 206]. From a aasida Sa'd b. Tbe Travels of an Alchemist. the * Marco Polo. mentions Eriqaya (spelt Yaraqiya.) 50 From a qasida by al-Ghazzi. 1110-14) the denouncer of the Moslems is a toyin or Buddhist priest who knew Turkish but not Mongol. And he said * : Now how many glances wilt thou cast that thou art sated with pearls * on others ? The son of Armak trod pathways In kindness such that. Armak. one bait of which has already been quoted above. but that ChingizIt is clear therefore Khan knew no that what thou sayest is language save Mongolian. m [181] present.

A was the day-guard in contrast to the falte'til or night-guard. they would again. otherwise I would command his breast to be cut open to see what sort of heart liver and circumstances/ he had considering they did not burst under such And Qa'an gave him five hundred lalisb with many several horses and garments. Why didst thou commit it ' this act ? asked Qa'an. commit such an action. 226 .THE HISTORY OF he would receive permission to return [182] to his own Qa*an gave him a wagon-load ofbalisb and set him country. stole a goblet and went his way. duties see the Secret History. Cml <md MUtary Rettkw in Pars in 881/1476. had suffered no harm. destroy them the crops were growing so much hail at the time of this disaster there fell as to And was such a scarcity of corn in Qara-Qorum that a single maund could not be obtained for a dinar. that 53 The tutqui See Minorsky. c that he craved c would The * next day the thief brought the goblet back. The the water in the sea is a tale of his nature . 163. the clouds in month of Bahman are a tradition of his generosity. that not to trust his guards an example should be made of him so that no one else might I have pardoned him. and there was no harvest. On their 229. that free. In order/ might be a warning to the World-Emperor (whom they call turgaq)?* Otherwise there were more goods than that in the treasury if I had gone Some of the emirs said that there for the purpose .of stealing. were drunk he entered the sleeping chamber. If they watered their fields and tilled them. and sent him to Khitai.* said Qa'an. * * How then can I proceed against him a second time ? It would be a pity for such a spirited fellow to be killed.* said the man. [xlilij When all. Qa'an ordered the heralds to proclaim for his crop whoever had sown corn should not give way to anxiety. and made him the commander of thousand soldiers. The next day they looked for the goblet and could not find it. [xlii] A man came Seeing that the guards one day in the expectation of a feast. Qa'an caused a proclamation to be made that whoever brought the goblet back would not only be pardoned but any boon be granted.

It so that so much corn was reaped that year that there had happened never been such a crop and harvest since they had to rill the ground. When he came to Qa'an the latter was well pleased with his shape and appearance. * 9 he asked. c Choose one of I * them/ said Qa'an. substitute/ He spared the lives of [xlv] and replied the woman. for one of them * another my son and the third my brother/ c my husband. Because. He ordered them to be put to death. she replied. s (M. and it was he that they sent. the stoutness of his body and the symmetry of his limbs and he ordered him to wrestle with He beat them all.) 227 . but for a brother there can be no all three. and for thy sake he shall be spared/ can find a substitute for my husband/ children too I can hope for . wfa and Qa'an said to her How hast thou found this Tazik ? * For it Hast thou received thy full share of the joys of love ? ' : 54 This story is related word for word in the Marzubm-Nma of Sa'd-ad-Din Varavini written nearly 50 years before the Tarikb-i-Jahan-Guski. graceful and sweet-voiced maiden. Qifchaqs and Khitayans in his service.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR receive the full equivalent from his treasury and granaries. none could throw him on his back. 54 He was fond of watching wrestling and at first had a number of Mongols. When he left his audience-hall ing dust and crying out aloud. It is there told with reference to the tyrant DahaL See rny edition of the Mtrzulw-Nma. and after a while he bestowed on him a beauteous. first begun [183] [xliv] Three persons were brought to him for a crime they had committed. being the custom of wrestlers to abstain from sexual intercourse in order to conserve their strength. When Khorasan was subjugated he was told about the wrestlers of Khorasan and Iraq. Besides other presents Qa'an gave him five hundred Mish .Q. and certain other wrestlers who were present. he came upon a woman * Why art thou doing * scatter* this ? of those men whom thou is hast ordered to be put to death. . and he sent a messenger to Chormaghun and ordered him to send one of these wrestlers. There was a man from Hamadan called Pahlavan Fila. he did not lay hands on her It One day the girl went to the but rather avoided her company. 16-17.

and no one has vanquished me. for the Emperor's service. o Indmllter exsilire c * mi pern. If I enter the arena. You are answered. Riches know of a surety. my strength must not wane nor my rank be reduced in sent for Fila * * * intention was/ said Qa*an.THE HISTORY OF is a standing joke with the Mongols to credit the Taziks with extraordinary sexual powers. furs and lalisb. * Muham* mad-Shah kinsmen/ five once knelt * said Qa'an. that they are not in a And that which he bestowed of clothes. and we live apart/ and questioned him about this state of Qa*an * I have become famous in the Emperor's service/ said affairs. [185] [xlvi] One of the following story.. upon them in pay. Muhammad of Tihama. (M. you and contention of wrestling/ thee from the strife Fila My was sent after had a kinsman called Muhammad-Shah. [184] As the poet says: Vae tiU. nonne te puiet dedecome me inter sofaks. entered the field of contest with several wrestlers and beat them * * all. Wilt thou at wrestle with Fila ? asked Qa*an. in the way was like running water. off. him and he was ordered to bring A messenger several of the When they arrived Muhammad-Shah practitioners of that art. 55 my friends of pleasing speech told me 56 Abus-Simt ofRa^'AIn.Q. and he gave him these also.) Abul-Hasan 'Ali b. 5S swu it pawwm tolkre fa capite i * I have had no taste thereof/ said the girl. down and which time he continued to Do not wrestle with one another like enemies/ And when some days had passed. At that moment seven hundred htlisb came in from somewhere.' From now on I exempt to beget children between you.) 228 . etc. during view him with the eye of favour. (M. Yes/ and there is brotherhood between you.Q. the wrestler. which might it in no wise be cut And would often happen that he would command them both to take as many as they could carry of the garments which had been thrown down in a heap in front of the orfa. he gave him some l&lish. when they lasting alight m thy hands.

and it was a king of the Mongol race to were one and the same thing.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR 5? During the reign of Sultan Ala-ad-Din Kai-Qubad I was in Rum. in the market place when I years later I was walking with a mounted retinue and horses.* he said. greeted me warmly and insisted upon evinced great pleasure at seeing me again. and the second and third days likewise * . His friends all contributed together and bought him a donkey. minstrels and cup-bearers. from afar. 'Ala-ad-Din Kai-Qubid X (1219-36). I went tbou become wise? to the Emperor of the Face of a-begging on that same donkey the Earth. of the courteous and the liberal. and I sat a hilltop in a place by which he would pass. In this manner he insisted on keeping me with him I all that day. whose entire property ' " 1 saw the fooM : met when art befallen him. before me and dishes of gold and silver . saying. and amongst my intimates was a person in embarrassed * circumstances who earned his bread by buffoonery. on which he set forth. earth and gold said that in the East there sat whom By the measure of his lofty resolve the cash of the seven planets was of low standard. It occurred to the buffoon to travel thither. had C * 3" When I left Rum. but he had neither mount nor travelling provisions. Now at that time the tale of the bounty of the Emperor of the World and the Hatim of the Age was on all men's tongues. placing food and drink while ranged in order around us stood singing-girls. he showed me every attention. telling fame of the The had come from Rum on account of the had set my Emperors bounty and liberality and how I Seljuq ruler of Rim or Asia Minor. where. I am such-and-such a was one donkey. I had taken with me some dried fruit. mules. When he Three at caught sight of me he once dismounted from his horse. He as is the manner carrying me off to his house. saw a gentleman camels and Khitayan slaves upon his right and left. His down upon me auspicious glance fell upon to inquire into my circumstances. and he sent someone I described the feebleness of my 57 state.* I asked what person. 229 . and did not recognize him until he said.

The number ofbaltib was seven " Call that perhundred. who was the Lord of the Conthat the glance fall upon my wretched self and my conjunction. after me and People came running from right and left inquiring one of them found me and bore me off to Danishmand's finally house. his waking and and allot sleeping. his action. Go this in person. He has passed through many sacred shrines To a profitable and holy places great seek a blessing from the breathings of such a person I therefore dropped the fruit in the suluq action. he saw a wagon-load ofMfsh being brought in to the treasury from the conquest of a town in Manzi. when Qa'an had taken his seat. is hither from a distant land. and when he reached suliufr yourselves/' With the ordu.THE HISTORY OF hundred thousand privations in order of the Emperor. The next day. he turned towards them and " said : This man has come ones. seek him out and him an honourable place in thy own house. saying. face to the road with a My father may a his soul be filled gave me wise and famous with light because of : piece of advice me ! > Hee from the unfortunate like an arrow and take up thy abode in the street of the fortunate* held the tray of fruit before him and told him what I had He took two or three of the fruits and dropped them in said. [186] might dition might be reversed and my horoscope rendered auspicious. and the Emperor " What sort of Moslem art upbraided him roundly. 230 . But in any case seek him out/* I had taken up lodgings near the market place. Danishmand said that he did not know. he carefully over counted and turning to Danishmand Hajib asked him where I was lodging. it and has attended on many so that I could eat at any time as dessert with my children and you might share the remainder among it that he urged his horse took the fruit out of the on. Qa'an said to Danishmand Hajib : son/* 58 When 1 appeared he gave them to * me and encouraged A Turkish word meaning vessel for holding water *. S8 to a Perceiving that his attendants inwardly objected They sitluq. ? thou thou A poor man comes moment to us from a art negligent of his eating and great distance drinking.

Simjur. Since the wolf did God From a gmJa by Abu-Bakr of Khorazm in praise of Abu-'Ali b. and qil 'slave'* Arlgh the Wrestler. keepers ran alter it and tore to be put to death for killing the wolf. BWKH. affairs And so I received all those and from the straits of poverty entered the broad plain of prosperity. from mng 'thousand* Minquli appears to be Turkish Ming-Quli. Thou sawest ttm in bts courtyaid the lord of Khwmmq and Sadir. ordered the dogs entered the orfo in a pensive and melancholic state of mind * and He and wolf I set that he said : turning to his ministers and courtiers free because I felt a weakness in my bowels and I thought that if I saved a living creature from destruction Almighty would grant that I too should be spared. . Arigh B6ke.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR me my with other promises. had a flock of sheep. [xlvii] * A Mongol called Minquli Boke 60 wolf from you for a thousand Judisbf said Qa'an* * And to the owner of the sheep he said : Thou wilt derive no advantage or benefit from the killing of this animal/ And he ordered his officers to give the man a thousand head of sheep and said : We will release this wolf so that he can inform his I will buy that * friends When of what has happened and they may leave this region/ hounds of the dogthey released the wolf the lion-like it to Qa'an was angry pieces.) Khawarnaq and Sadir were the monarch Bahram Gur (Fitzgerald's 'Bahrain.Q. The next day the Mongol came to Court and told of the flock and the wolf saying Qa'an asked that a thousand head of his sheep had been lost. great Hunter *) by the Arab king 59 60 Reading The corresponding MYNQWLY BWKA for the SNQWLY BWKA of the has MYNFWLY passage in Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. Mundhir. Of. * the Wrestler '. names of two palaces said to have (M. where the wolf had gone. that been built for the Sassanian of Hira. 83) text. One night when a cold wind was blowing a wolf feH upon his flock and destroyed the greater part of it. means Boke. which is Mongol and stands in apposition. Nu'man b. the name of Mongke's youngest full brother.' And wlm there came to him as a suppliant th lori of sbeep and camds. It so happened that a troupe of Moslem wrestlers brought in a live wolf with its jaws bound.

* A is told in the . Muhammad Amin turned to Hammad and said. uttered a deprecatory * And they began to prayer and said. Muhammad Again Amin which ye inquire" Amin to c 62 * Didst thou Hammad . war between the brothers pointed out by M.THE HISTORY OF not escape from the dogs. Koran. as is of Amin's forces: he engaged the forces of Ma'mun under Tahir b.. It is not concealed from the wise and Now discriminating that kings are snatched up and carried off by God and that they And that story is like the one that receive divine inspiration. for no longer We 61 shall not meet again till Judgement Day. and her teeth striking the boat. Mahan. who was one of his courtiers To-day * : e walk abroad and drink and be merry. When the company had become heated with wine and all had grown merry. shall * ' ! we * matter * if decreed concerning hear ? said deaf ear. her foot catching in her skirt. It is all over with us/ Hammad. was actually the commander .* sons of the The Caliphs Amin (809-13) and Ma'mun (813-33) were In the civil famous Harun ar-Rashid (786-809). 'All b. but he turned a heard those words. al-Husain and Ali b. 41. uttered in a loud is and terrible voice. and he said to Hammad. and in his eyes it was worth all the fair things of this world and all the contents of his treasury. who had a yellow tooth. any doubt. Qabiha stood up for some purpose and. which was the apple of Muhammad's eye. When Ma'mun sent Tahir b.Q. she fell upon the goblet and broke it . Suddenly a voice from above cried out. al-Husain 62 at Ray and was slain in battle. and the perfection of her beauty depended upon that tooth. Now Amin had a slave girl called Qabiha. xii. neither perhaps shall I come forth few days later he passed away. * .* They fetched a boat and embarked in it. Mahan to Baghdad to make war on his brother Muhammad Amin/ 1 [188] at the same time Muhammad Amin was saying to Hammad Rawiya. 'Isa b. was likewise broken. He took her with him on to the boat. from this danger. the yellow tooth. And he had a goblet made of fiery red rubies and fashioned in the shape of a vessel. Far be it from thee " The argue about it. There Arise and see to thy own affairs. as is the wont of courtiers. *Isa b.

set * them they before the old * man.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR [xlviii] An old man from came and sat down In the roadway. safely the way But the old man said : I cannot reach my own country with so many lalisb. When the casket was borne before in carousing. have ten daughters. standing in by he saw the old man * the neighbourhood of Baghdad the Emperor passed When his summoned before him. The Mongols departed with the Emperor. The Emperor has sent these lafcb as alms so that husbands may be found for where * his daughters lived ? Then take those bafcb to those daughters/** courtiers was being sent to daughter of one of his her husband and a casket of pearls carried by eight persons had been brought for her dowry. and if anything happens to me on my daughters will be deprived of the Emperor's bounty/ Qa'an then ordered that two Mongols should go along to guard him and the money until they reached friendly (il) country and should bring him and the bali^ safely through.' said the old man. and he had him * thou standing In the road ? * and I I am old and poor. and orders for him to be given a thousand talisb of silver. he ? said : How shall I carry all these balisb up Qa'an ordered his officers to and the means to take the Misb with give him mounts and bags * only one laUsb. He ordered the lid to be Qa'an he was [xlix] The engaged taken off the casket and distributed 23 3 all the pearls. enter his " house and give them to his daughters. * Why art art way. and because of my poverty I cannot find from Baghdad/ said Qa'an. And say. Why does not the Caliph give thee something and help thee * * to find husbands for thy daughters ? [189] Whenever I ask husbands for them/ * Thou * the ten dinars Caliph for alms. asked Qa'an. Baghdad/ said Qa*an. but Qa'an ordered him to be paid in cash from the When brought the Mish from the treasury and treasury. Qa'an In gold. His gave courtiers suggested that a draft should be made on the land of Khitai. say him but he died * who asked : upon the way. he gives me 9 I need that amount for my own expenses. the value of .* replied the other. They informed Did he not indicate his house and * had done They replied that he * so. or two at fiom hence I am old and feeble and can Hfi most/ him.

he ordered gems were of value in the casket filled with royal pearls. It was represented to him that he had bestowed * Tothat casket upon such-and-such a maiden as her dowry. 234 . was Abu-Bakr (1226-60). have described something of that which the Necessarily Existent caused to be present in his nature in the way of clemency. and ' tales and be told and recorded of them. The envoy and all present were dumbstruck at the sight. This word defeated M. And in every age there is a Sodom and a *Jandab! u And had we treated this subject exhaustively it would have led to prolixity .Q. generosity and the teachings of the religion We of God . * other casket which is morrow. the patron of the poet Sa'di. and this is we have done that it may be known others. you shall give her that the fellow of this one/ of Shiraz. such as in former times were Hatim and Nushirvan and traditions will will shine forth like the fountain of the sun until and their fame the end of time. forgiveness. sea. When this thou bringest a drop of water to the deep judgement resembles madness. that in every age there a Lord of the Conjunction. so that it and bounty would flow but would chasten.* he said. among those present. which are held in high esteem amongst [i] The ato&eg them in accordance with wlwt it bath. Qa'an gave orders for the cup that was being passed round in pearls .THE HISTORY OF which varied between one dinar and two sixths of a dinar. we have therefore limited ourselves to this brief summary. 63 This may be known not only how his kindness how his vengeance and rigour 64 |NDB. And we shall tell one story of his violence. 63 sent his brother Tahamtan to Qa*an and among [190] the presents he brought were two carboys filled with pearls. and they were thus that banquet to be filled with these all distributed among those present. The whole phrase is clearly some kind of proverbial saying. 'Every party rgoicetk in was represented to Qa'an and he learnt that these brought eyes of him that his attendants to bring in a long them.' When this the saying. fury. severity and awesomeness. justice.

whether Mongols or Moslems. As for the remaining had them drawn up in rows in front of the &r$u. their daughters to Being frightened by this news they affianced most of husbands within the tribe and some they up to them. And two moonlike first chaste ones. and on tht day of seventy thre rained Mood from Ms who was the commander of a thousand.)' D has the Oirat *.Q. and others again were sent to the brothel and the hostel of the envoys to wait upon travellers. Four thousand starlike maidens. might Husain al-Mutayyar al-Asadi. 235 . a rumour sprang up that [191] it had been decreed that the daughters of that tribe should be affianced to certain Among the tribe of * . wen On the day of generosity there rained dew from Ms kinds. its face. and a day of tax on which Uesswgs for mankind. the moon And he ordered those who were daughters of emirs to be from the rest. persons. 66 . He appointed a group of emirs to go thither and investigate the matter. were thus assembled. all As for those that still remained it was decreed that 65 66 present. A (M. while some were given to the keepers of cheetahs and wild beasts and others to the various attendants at the Court. and such as were worthy thereof were dispatched to the harem. though according to Rashid-ad-Din's version of the anecdote (Blochet. each of whom affected men's hearts in a different way..THE WORLD-CONQUEROR He bad a day of hrdsMp on which there mere for mankind. and all who were present were comseparated manded to have intercourse with them. he gave orders that all actually delivered mouth to mouth the girls over seven years old should be gathered together and that all who had been given that year to husbands taken back from them. When the truth of the report had been established. When of f O for her beauty removes the veil from ' shame ! is overcast. There is a blank in and B. 84) the tribe in question were in fact the Oirat. which does not make sense in the context. Tidings hereof spread from and reached the ear of the Emperor. he damsels from amongst them expired.

p. * Le. Hither artisans of every kind were brought from Khitai. There had previously been no of a wall in that town or except for the remains village was was an found outside the ruins of the fortress on which that the founder of that place was Buqu Khan. And in 1 2 bounty and thitherward from every great See above.THE HISTORY OF carry them off. Above the town a garden was built for Qa'an with four gates. though it is better known as Qara-Qorum. ) The Mongols named it Ma'u-BaKgh. ment of his orders and of the obedience of his army. And their fathers. his son choosing for his [new] residence and the upon Giiyiik. inscription stating matter has been described in detail in the chapter on the called Ordu-BaHgL At place the time of his accession a stone there (This 2 1 land of the Uighur. own place of residence. another again for the princesses. Bad Town '. Chapter VII. another for his children and kinsmen. and in a short space of time it became a city. the name given by the Mongols to Bamiyan. and Qa'an caused a town to be built on it. and likewise craftsmen from the lands of Islam . and a fourth for the entrance and egress of the populace. relatives. kinsmen and husbands looked on and were unable to breathe or move And this is an absolute proof of his rigid enforcetheir tongues. [XXXIII] OF THE HOUSES AND DWELLING-PLACES OF QA*AN AFTER the Hatim rest of the Age and the Ruler of the his been established on the throne of kingship and. See above. And because of QaWs munificence people turned their faces side. his father. 133. one for the passage of the World-Ruling Emperor. [192] he bestowed his triumph to the great ordu of which was in the region of the Emil. which they called Ordu-Baligh. 236 . World had mind set at had proceeded in regarding the campaign against Khitai. a place in the region of the river Orqon capital of the kingdom and the Qara-Qorum mountains. and they began to till the ground. brothers.

so that when a public was held they might lift up the various beverages. and the world was glad. the utensils were of gold and silver and studded with jewels.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR the midst of that garden Khitayan artisans reared op a castle with doors like the gates of the garden . It was a very tall castle filled with all kinds of many-coloured. in the quarters of the cupbearers they placed vats which could not be moved because of their weight and other utensils the right and left turqaq.* wherein many water fowls used to gather. jewel-studded embroideries and carpets. besides [193] elephants. [the walls of these houses Qa*an alone. because of the weeping of the clouds. smiled and shone forth through the mouths of the flowers. and houses for his brothers and sons and the steps. and in the banquetinghall were jasper vases. and the face of the earth. . feast And Whenever the sun entered the sign of Aries. all Twice in the year would Qa'an alight in this pleasant abode. camels. And when the beauty of spring had reached its culmination and the herbs had grown to their full height. The slowness of peopk of the son the rain in reaching then M not hurt the the frontier that seeing among them was YMSI/ of Muhammad. he himself to another pleasance which had been raised would betake up by Moslem engineers to despite the Khitayans and was called Qarshi-Suri. another for for the cupbearers and table-deckers . he would watch the hunting of these birds and afterwards k&l is the normal Turkish word ' for lake '. and inside it a throne having three his ladies flights of and a third on And bong] painted with pictures. and Poverty took flight from that assembly. and as the bounty of the rain reaches both herbs and trees. so both great and small took part in the feasting. and other utensils in days. horses and their attendants in appropriate numbers. he would feast for a month in this residence Venus-like in the manner of the sun. keeping with them. Here he would feast for forty And in front of the castle there were pools of water And 3 (which they call kil). and ewers studded with pearls. one for in like proportion. In the entrance was placed a throne full worthy of the place.

for a share that has passed will not return nor can it he confined. so he off with tbeetbis he accepted. al-Hasan al-Quhistani of Ghazna. where there would be erected for him a Khitayan pavilion. him And do not preoccupy te Ud adieu to the therewith is folly. was another traditibnist 238 . Qatada. (M.) 5 Anas b. a contemporary of Sultan Mahmud. which was never rolled up. for to concern thyself The I spirit is Ifke a lamp. day since the garden and palace in the town lay upon his way. he would return to his summer residence. and offerings of food would be brought out to him from the town. for there is no pleasure to that skepeth. and wine is advice to is its oil. Malik was a Companion of the Prophet and one of the most prolific of the traditionists. life : 4 for its seasons are transitory. shatt tell tbee of myself and what I have experienced.e. not traditions handed down from Anas through the life of spring had reached its maturity and the thereof its decline. who died in 117/735-6. spend the time of good fellowship in good fellowship. and as for conviviality and constant application to pleasure it was as though he had hearkened would with the ear of acceptance to the advice of Quhistani this world. On both occasions he would amuse himself for four or five weeks in this spot. whose walls were made of latticed wood. he would reside there for several days in his wonted manner And when And commandments of God (amr-i-ma*ruf) and would move on towards his destination. and fa awafa to thy pleasure.THE HISTORY OF give himself up to the joys of drinking and spread the of bounty. And every day carpet [194] without cease he dispensed his bounty to all and sundry as long as he abode in that place . And from thence in the summer he would go into the mountains. mi the of a ywng man (my tbou have the joy thereof! ) ksteih at most for a moment And And hasten to take an aiundant share of pleasure. thyself to-day with the cares of to-morrow.Q. Abu-Bakr 'AH b. tale of to-morrow. through which he also passed carrying out the thence in returning from his winter residence. while its ceiling was 4 I. And when he left there he would go to a small palace which he had built on a hilltop three miles from the town.

Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet.e.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of gold-embroidered white felt: cloth. here [195] his bounty would flow more freely than in his other this called Shira-Ordu. And God from the shadow of whose statesmanship and in every resplendent and every place justice the world cHme turned into is made a rose-garden. Almighty. winter residence And departing from hence he would by the end of autumn. 49) apparently Orda of Carpini and the Syra-Orda of Benedict the Pole. Between MS and the rose bos passed <* long-lasting coU as though /pod omens bad ken MSdm in ill The kanty spring and as peacock chicks are concealed in its have ken veiled wtb 1 mw just wUte * eggs. who has left a detailed See Rockhill. which is the beginning arrive at his There he would make merry for three months. and during these months his generosity and munificence were under some restraint and did not flow so freely. to the Uhaz-Merkit 3) she belonged According to and had or had . whose kaab was Buzurjmihr. The tm has SYR Reading Sira-Ordu. He was a poet at the court of Sultan Mahmud.Q. is and it was covered 6 all over with In these parts place cool waters and much grass. The Doregene of the Secret History. May God Almighty grant him endless years of his word ever obeyed. pleasances. had and Rashidwith E. Mengii Qa'an. There too were fulfilled these verses of double meaning : of their winter. . these dwelling-places are praise be to of that mighty king and to-day adorned by the blessed footsteps the Nushirvan of the Age. Here he would remain there are And until the sun entered Virgo and there was a fall of snow. Qa'an.) Sym ARDW ARDW ARDW. glorious emperor. description of 7 Abu-Mansur Qasim b. and life. it. It is the Sirai. SRH ad-Din (Blochet. (M. iTWRAKYNA. his justice ever increasing and him the hand of the True Faith strengthen through ! [XXXIV] OF^TOREGENE 1 KHATUN been executed and WHEN the 6 the decree of God Almighty had the Monarch of the World. Hatim of the Age. Ibrahim al-Qa'ki. 38.

in order. Les Mongols et k Papautt. that the army and the court might be kept under control and the interests come of the people protected* Chaghatai and the other princes sent representatives to say that Toregene Khatun was the mother of the princes who had a right to the Khanate. so that the old and new yasas might not be changed from what was the law. Chingiz-Khan.e. the ruler of that tribe. Khatun was the mother of his eldest sons [196] and Toregene was moreover shrewder and more sagacious than Moge Khatun. The corresponding passage in Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. 110") she is also stated to have been the wife of DayirXJsiin. and therefore in accordance with precedent the dispatch of orders and the assembling of the people took place at the door of the ordu or palace of his wife. Toregene Khatun was a very shrewd and capable and her position was greatly strengthened by this unity woman. the brothers and nephews of Qa*an. And for the most part strangers and not been the wife of Dayk-t)siin. and the old ministers should remain in the service of the Court. the other hand. until a quriltai was held. Now On she According to the Yum sbib (quoted by was not a Merkit but a Naiman. 2 Pelliot. it was she that should direct the affairs of the state. by means of finesse and cunning she obtained control of all affairs of state and won over the hearts of her relatives by all kind of favours and kindnesses and by the sending of gifts and presents. his eldest son. she sent messages to the princes. 240 . 232) has furti w-y-amda. according to the Secret 198. her first husHistory. had not returned from the campaign against the Qifchaq. the ruler of the Uduyit-Merkit. band had been Qodu. in accordance with the Mongol custom. Moge Khatun. who. and said that until a Khan was appointed by agreement someone would have to be ruler and leader in order that the business of the state might not be neglected nor the affairs of the commonweal thrown into confusion. had But since to him from his father. In the chapter on the Merkit (Khetagurov.THE HISTORY OF 2 passed away. too. therefore. And when Moge Khatun shortly followed in the wake of Qa'an. [193]) Reading nuzul w-karda with E for the nuzul karda of the text. and concord. and told them of what had happened and of the death of Qa'an. i. the eldest son of Toqto'a. Giiyiik.

he welcomed for Yalavach. and came under her sway. 3 at their posts.Q. And all this time he was secretly of flight by getting together horses etc. And every day he them with marks of Chinqai. and the governors on every side remained . Travels of an Alchemist.e. For an account of his career and his origins 'Chingay see Waley. Le <%te CWZ.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR kindred. in during the lifetime of Qa'an there had accumulated a feeling of hatred towards certain of the courtiers. When she was entrusted with affairs of state. Minister Yalavach and also tried to lay hands on the Emir of underChinqai. i. and her position had grown strong. respect showed them fresh attentions and civilities so that in this way two or three days passed by. he As his life by running away. and without losing time [197] or missing an opportunity. and standing perceived before her plan could be realized he set his face to the road and 5 went his own way. and none dared quarrel or dispute with her. in accordance with the hemistich Make baste. her breast Now and the wound had grown deep. 71.) qisifa by Abu-Ishaq S He is called K'ucKuan. with the discernment that she had something else in mind . and submitted themselves obediently and gladly to her commands and prohibiThe Prophet of God (may God tions. sought his protection and so saved when the messengers reached him. she determined to act at once. He Is Carpmfs for the Reading the prothonotary '. At preparing the means last on the third night. however. 4 From a al~GhazzL (M. And hastening to Koten. Hambis. family and army inclined towards her. 34-8. of the text. her son. Mess him and give Um peace !) to ' bath said them that use them well and Hearts wire firmed to lorn all hate them that me them ill! : And manner of men bent their steps towards her while Cfainqai and the other ministers of Qa'an continued to perform their duties as before. 241 . and honour. which in fact was the day of his fortune. : for dm Is a trendmt to seek relief from her pain by avenging herself on each of these She accordingly sent messengers to Khitai to fetch the persons. in the Ymt rMk See 3 CYNQAY JYNQAY KWTAN. Kodon.

233-4). 3. she endeavoured to persuade Emir *Ima<i-al-Mulk Muhammad of Khotan. use of an indication of JuvainTs same image being employed by the sons of Sorqan Shira in reproaching their father for his harsh words towards the fugitive Temiijin. To send them back is forbidden by the skirt of our authority. to turn to account the intimate terms on which he had been with them in former times by making a statement regarding them and fabricating some falsehood so that by that pretext she might cast a stumbling-block in their path and on that excuse they might be punished at the But since loyalty and generosity.QO Mongol sources. Din (Blochet. 7 6 The story is told in greater detail in Rashid-ad- Ta'abbata Sharran. and sought refuge with him. the code of magnanimity and humanity and is remote from the I should find excuse with practice of generosity and liberality : neither far nor near. and Koten * replied : The kite that takes refuge in a thicket from the talons of the falcon is safe from its 8 These too have sought sanctuary with us and touched fury. and so escaped from their hands. Sur qttetytts passages de I'Histoire secrete des Mongols. * See the Secret History. 41.THE HISTORY OF be put the messengers to sleep and departed to Koten together with a few horsemen. die little bird/ See Mostaert. Turkestan. which are amongst great quriltai. Ami I refytmd to @ Fabm though I bed not expected the like to return ml b&w ofim have I escaped from 7 ibq wMstkd \impQtently\ I of tbemf while both notables reached Koten. who had been one of the ministers of Qa'an. When she realized that their return was impossible and that he the would in no wise send them back. and made his threshold their asylum. [198] neither Turk nor TaziL quriltd A shortly to be held : let their crimes and offences be brought to the attention of the family and the emirs. and let them receive whatever punishment they deserve. Toregene Khatun sent a messenger to And when demand their return. If a tuwmtai [the name of a small bird of prey. they were embraced with his favour. the most essential and the most beautiful of the characteristics of By making them drunk. per85 : haps the Merlin] causes a little bird to take refuge in a bush. 242 .* She sent messengers several is times again. 3 13. quotes this passage as 8 (M. and Koten excused himself in the same manner. n. the bush saves the Barthold.

see below. And Qara Oghul 10 and the wives of Chaghatai sent Qur11 Elchi together with the Emir [199] Arghun 12 to seize bagha fit own to hasten to the Korguz. he shame and disgrace of slander and body the prisoner of free will until God Almighty. 57) name with faga 'bull* as the second element. QWRBQA 12 QWRBFA see see 'frog'. pp. Prince successor 11 ZaL Qara. delivered him from that frightful gulf and the like thereof. had gained mastery of his being.e. because of his pure faith. in a subsequent chapter. She exalted *Abdar-Rahman and of Mahmud. XXX and XXXL Chapter XXVTIL Chapter XXXV. which elsewhere Reading and 239) and Rashid-ad-Din has (II. 13 14 On On T Arghun Korgiiz below. who had acquired great influence in the service of Toregene Khatun and to whose counsel and capability were entrusted all affairs of state. he enjoyed even greater authority than in the previous And when the he too thought it Emir Mas'ud Beg observed inadvisable to remain in his this state of affairs saw territory and Court of Batu. On Qara or Qara-Hiilegu. and at the Court of Guyuk refused to consent to the calumny and made his Khan reign.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR f the great and are as non-existent in this present age as the or the philosophers* stone. 243 . the grandson and first of Chaghatai. 14 sent him to Khitai in place An account of this woman will be given separately Emir Arghun brought Korgiiz to Toregeae him because of an ancient grudge and sent the Emir Arghun to Khorasan in his stead. H. II. (II. 273-4. I have however taken the of Juvaini as standing for the Turkish or QWRBQA QWRBQAY QRBQA QWRBIA QWR BWQA. 9 The name of a fabulous bird which appears in the Sbabwm as the foster- parent of Rustain's father 10 I. And everyone sent ambassadors in every direction and broadand upon every side they attached cast drafts and assignments themselves to parties and followed their instructions all save And when Khatun she imprisoned . 230 which would appear to be a compound has (Blochet. for the of the text. 243). Chapters below. 13 And at that time there was a woman called Fatima.

Mengli 15 Oghul. Prince Mengli came to Qara-Qorum. which lies on the bank of the Emil . came to his mother. When he drew near. 73). so chanced that she 15 Le. and n. the. 144 . approached him with set his retinue made and and troops and made him repent of his design. n. In the meantime there came tidings of the arrival [zoo] of Giiyiik at his orfa. He that is strong taketh. As for Toregene Khatun she dispatched ambassadors to the East and the West of the world and to the North and Sooth thereof to summon the sultans and emirs. he took no part in and Toregene Khatun still executed the decrees state. op. where This she was a (MNKLY). whereupon his repentance increased. ii. But when two or three months had passed and the son was somewhat estranged from his mother on account of Fatima. at. the decree of God the Mighty and Glorious was fulfilled and Giiyiik affairs And when of Toregene passed away. the grandees and governors. 573. 72. breath from the yasa who did not swerve one hair's and law of their ordinances. a grandson [of Chingiz-khan]. Otegin thought strength of the free man is in f to seize the Khanate by force and violence. modem Meshed.THE HISTORY OF Sorqotanl Beki and her sons. is apparently Melik (see below. With this intention he out for the orfa of Qa'an. a son of Ogedei. who (MeH[k]) and Ming-li (*MingHpcj). He use of the pretence that he was mourning some disaster excused himself in this manner. 7. of the Empire although the Khanate was settled upon her son. 1 Le. appears in the Yuan rbih both as Mie-li See Hambis. and the In accordance with the saying. [XXXV] OF FATIMA KHATUN AT of It the time of the capture of the place in which there lies the Holy Shrine x of *Ali ar-Riza (upon whom he the most excellent blessings and benedictions !) 9 she was carried off into captivity. his abstinence '. and to bid them to the quriltaL Meanwhile Giiyiik had not yet returned and his place seemed empty.

i. especially the grandees And there also came to her certain of the sayyi&s of the Holy Shrine. reminded Giiyiik of the message. and he sent the man from Samarqand 4 with instructions to bring Fatima by force if his mother should still delay in sending her or find some reason for refusing. that she His mother refused to let her go saying would bring her herself. she enjoyed even greater favour* and ha influence became paramount . 259 and n. ^45 . And from every side the grandees of Kbozasan. one Shira. As mother became very bad. 8 On The Qadaq text has see below. for she claimed to be of the race of the great sayyils. He and each time she refused him in a sent again several times. 37* 4 Smarqmt. p. a certain native of confidences and the depository of hidden 2 the cupSamarqand. and when times changed and Chinqai withdrew from the scene. Chinqai.e. who was now a person of authority. When Koten so indisposed. 3 hinted that Fatima had bewitched Koten.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and in the arts of shrewdness and procuress in the market . and hungry and thirsty ifor many days kept naked. It being no longer possible to excuse herself his relations with his she agreed to send Fatima. Fatima in bonds. sought her protection. 2 Le. When Giiyiik succeeded to the Khanate. Following oil this message there came tidings of Koten's death. a descendant of the Caliph *AIi. and and nights. a result different way. and he sent an envoy to his mother to fetch Fatima. and was away. apparently Samarqanli. the malady from which he was suffering grew worse. During cunning the reign of Qa'an she had constant access to the orAt of Toregene Khatun . [201] which was why he was returned. e and he sent a messenger to his brother Giiyiik to say that he had been attacked by that illness because of Fatiina's magic and that if anything happened to him Giiyiik should seek retribution from her. commands and prohibitions. and shortly afterwards she passed was brought face to face with Giiyiik. severity. and the ministers and she was free to issue were debarred from executing business. so that she became the sharer of intimate secrets. who was said to be an AHd. she was plied with all manner of violence. bearer of Qadaq. the wily Delilah could have been her pupil.

Pu-lin-chi-tai (BikHgidei). and he himself did not remain nor did the world read his prockmation. 1277. the town of Emil named after the xit. in a letter dated the 5th December.THE HISTORY OF harshness and intimidation. [202] Shira of the same crime. who was one of his courtiers. river : Carpini's Omyl. And messengers were sent to fetch certain persons who had come from the Shrine and claimed to be suffered related to her. the Khanate had been settled upon Mengii Qa'an. and 57) his w^ g<* 246 M. slew his grandfather. Sbabnama ed. 65. enough to supply me with translations of the two passages Yto 3 (&V 205-6 and 8ai-2 in which this for BRNKWTAY. and his wives and children were This was the year in which Giiyiik e put to the sword. Koran. and they many annoyances. He here. and then him into the sea to the fishes. a messenger was sent to *AK Khoja.e. Vullers. 8 happy and auspicious hour. Some other person brought the same accusation in that same year. and at last she confessed to the calumny of a slanderous talebearer and avowed her falseness. And when Khoja was brought to the Qa*an. And when he recognized and knew of a certainty that this was the e 7 punishment of Here is our money returned to us? he resigned himself to death and surrendering his body to the will of Fate and Destiny confessed to a crime which he had not committed. and elsewhere (IE. One thou raisest thou castest op and givest him a kingdom. 5 And everyone that was connected with her perished also. 1003. He was cast into bonds and chains and remained imprisoned for nearly two years. 1954. in a 5 6 7 9 When I. . name which BRLKTAY 2). namely of bewitching Khoja. Her upper and lower orifices were sewn up. 734. during which time by reason of all manner of questioning and punishment he despaired of the pleasure of life. Professor Cleaves. Khan went to join his and it was then that Ali Khoja of Emil 6 accused father. Sbabwma ed. 8 The text has here BRNKWTAY I read in view of the spelling of in the Yuan sbibf viz. he set * Biirilgitei 9 over the region of Besh-Baligh. 99. and she was rolled up in a sheet of felt and thrown into the river. 53 1. He too was cast into the river. Vullers. 1.

11 From a (M. thou hast sown them And the Lord of the Prophets (upon whom e h it the most excellent of said of old and tbert blessings slain .* In a subsequent letter. * ' * *. and peace !) hath truly said : and thy slayer shall fa slain! There is is Thou twst skin and sbalt le And God is was itf : no band Ifut the band of above no tyrant who is not tormented by a greater tyrant. sub anno 1257. Vullers. thou hast woven it thyself^ and a load of thorns. 1042. his wives and children were cast into the baseness 9 And of slavery and disgraced and humiliated. and ponders upon them. looks at these matters in the light of understanding and the conclusion of deceit.' And practise to tbe bad tbey known what iniquity brings upon tbm tbot it. Pu-lin-chi-tai to prepare against (Biirilgidei) was dispatched to deploy (lit. "lead") troops commander diem. Approve not for another what thou approves! not * for thy$el And the voice of Destiny cried out saying. runs as follows : The army of the marshal Pu-Un-chi-tai (Biirilgidei) [went forth] from Teng-chou and occuthe pied the region and crossed the Han-chiang. 1. [it bad been well] but tbey looked not consequences. Hou-che (Qoja) and others not having arrived [even] after the appointed time. that the end of treachery and which spring from evil ways and wicked is shameful and the termination thereof unlucky.) qasida by Abu-Ishaq al-Ghazzi.^ God preserve us from the like positions and from trespassing into $x region of deliberate offences ! * is mentioned. reflects And fortunate ** is is ^e that he that can take warning from another: advised ly what lefalletb others. 1955.Q. dated 4th February. Pu-li (Biiri).' The second c reference.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR against him. 122. and Mengii-Qa an ordered him to be beaten from the left and the right until all his Hmbs were crushed . while thy mouth was Homing! If It Thy if it is be silk. pretensions. Professor Cleaves suggests that Biidgidei is a derivative of the Mongol word bmlgl and means Dissipator or Destroyer 10 Sbabnama ed. and so he died. who [203] And it is not hidden from the wise and intelligent man. The first reference is sub anno 1251 : The princes [of the blood] Yeh-su Mang-k'o (Yesii Mongke). 247 .

him to halt until and grief for what had happened did not he reached the EmiL Neither did he tarry here. And when princes messengers were dispatched to far and near to bid and everyone left his And when and kings and scribes. Fate's inevitable decree was carried out. but prooriu : and the hopes of the ambitious were dashed by his his abode. In compliance with this command Giiyiik pressed the spurs of haste and loosened the bridle of speed .THE HISTORY OF [XXXVI] OF THE ACCESSION OF GUYUK KHAN TO THE THRONE OF THE KHANATE IN the year in which Qa'an was to bid farewell to the comforts of this life and to forswear the pleasures of this vile world. And in that neighbourhood he took up | State business was still entrusted to the counsel of his mother. bidding him turn the reins of homecoming and direct his will and desire towards hurrying to his presence. and the earth. because of the arrival of Farvardin and her auxiliary plants. but when the time was at hand when the touch of plague that arises from length of distance was to have been expelled by closeness of propinquity and the veil of absence and exile removed. received tidings of that irremediable calamity he eyes still When saw fit Giiyuk to make suffer greater haste. and Giiyiik did not intervene therein to enforce yasa or [204] custom nor did he dispute with her about these matters. and the binding and loosening of affairs was in her hands. and no respite was given for those thirsting in the desert of separation to quench their thirst with a drop of the limpid water of reunion or for father and son to anoint their with the collyrium of each other's beauty. ceeded to his father's report of the coining of Otegin. for there was a arrival. had set noyans sultans and summon home and the foot of beauty upon the head of the stars and drawn the pen of oblivion through the Garden of Iram . had donned 248 . in obedience to the command. country the world. Toregene Khatun. he had sent for Giiyuk. because of the coming of spring.

viz. 4 Reading YSNTWQH for the YSNBWQfl of the text. Yesu-Mengii or Yesii-Mongke was the fifth son of Chaghatai. came in attendance on the From Khitai there came emirs and officials . equates the name with the Yesiinte'e or Yesiinto'e of the Secret History. 249 . Yesiin-Toqa or Yesiin-To*a was the third son of Metiken. The equipage as there eye bath not seen nor ear beard \ And from the East came Koten with his sons. . Yesii. and from princes. who had connections with one or other party. and melodious . 8 BAYDAR. BWRY. With the Emir Arghun there came . and the other uncles and nephews that reside in that Elchitei From the ordu of Chaghatai came Qara. Honk ffOr. but the forms in YYSWTWA YYSWNTWA. Drink wine from mom til eve and gather roses from dusk till dawn then it was that the princes arrived. Sorqotani Beki and her sons arrived first with such gear and e horsemen of mankind were eyes accoutrement. had with blossoms made its whole body a mouth and with lilies converted all Its limbs into tongues and ring-doves dallied with turtles. a covering of every manner of flower nightingales together with the lark composed this glmzttl in mid air: The host of Spring have pitched their tents out on the plain thou too must pitch thy tent out on the plain. 166) or ie. Berkecher and ToqaTeimir. Yesiin-Toqa From the country of Saqsin and Bulghar. 1 2 YS W. Yesii. yesim-togha the number nine *. Juvaini and Rashid-ad-Din seem rather to support the etymology proposed * by Blochet. fiom the Mongol yesun f nine* and togba {to*a) 'number'. Batu did not come in person. 1 [205] region. Yesun-To'a. Rashid-ad-Din usually has variants of this form but in one place (Blochet. he sent his elder brother Hordu and his younger brothers Siban. Transoxiana and Turkestan the Emir Mas'ud accompanied by the grandees of that region. 88-92. The sixth son of Chaghatai. Pelliot. in wondrous bounty. his dazzled by their delight was troubled by the harmony that reigned among them all. each with his and servants. 242n. And distinguished noyans and leading emirs. Otegin and his children. Berke. and the fountain of their enemies* army and retinue. The second son of Metiken or Mo'etiiken. since grandsons. Baidar.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR thanksgiving for this and the springtime. 2 3 4 and the other grandsons and greatBiiri.

below. David IV. the envoy of Sultan Badr-ad-Din LuluV and from the City of Peace. bat to the country itself. Shihab-ad-Din and . however. MuhamGrand Master of the Isma'ilis or Assassins (1221-55). The Order of Atsassm. from Mosul. baggage as befitted a court . Lur. Rukn-ad-Din Jahanis 10 This of Shah. From Rum came Sultan Rukn-ad-Din and the 7 Sultan of Takavor . 242) follows Juvaini almost word for word. 10 envoys fiom the Franks. 9 The Zangid atakg of Mosul (1233-59). has omitted the reference to 'the Sultan of Erzeram*.e. Azerbaijan 5 and Shirvan. who in his history (Blochet. As M. and it is significant that Rashid-ad-Din. Alaodin by name '. this part an anachronism. the brother of the Lord of Aleppo . had been deposed and executed after the of Jalal-ad-Din Khora2m-Shah by the allied forces of Rum and Syria (1230) . * * IV (1257-65). has shown. When 5 Oaij-Arskn $ TAKWR. the chief cadi Fakhr-ad-Din. the ruler of Aleppo (1236-60) and Damascus (1250-60). and his territory had then been incorporated in the kingdom of his * cousin 11 This Ak-ad-Din Kai-Qubad L would appear to be a reference * to the mission of John de Piano Carpini 12 Marco Polo*s mad see HI. and there came also from other directions so many such envoys and messengers that two [206] thousand felt tents had And all this great assembly came with such for been made ready rare them : there came also merchants with the and precious things that are produced in the East and the West this assembly. 7 himself but his brother the Constable A 113-148 This was th Ayyubid Nasir Salah-ad~Dui Yusuf.Q. i. 484-90. There also came 11 and from the Sultan of Erzeram. &om 8 Aleppo. History of the Georgian People. Kerman and Fars also and his governors (muhtasbam) in Quhistan. the two Davids . . not to the ruler of Cilicia or Little Armenia. which was such as no man had ever seen nor has the Hke thereof been read of in the annals of history. is meant not King Het'um I Sempad (Smbat).* from Georgia. and David V. Baghdad.THE HISTORY OF the celebrities and notables of Khorasan. also Hodgson. Shams-ad-Din. Here. Le. the Seljuq defeat ruler of Erzeram. III. this is the Armenian word fqgttwr king mistakenly applied by Juvaini. on whom 703-12. from 'Ala-ad-Din 12 of Alamut. the son of Queen Rusudani. the illegitimate son of her brother King GiorgL See Allen. Old Man of the Mountain. 256-8. Iraq. die ii.

15 There is a blank in the text as in and B. Toregene Khatun favoured Giiyiik. and dominion . The name appears to be the Turco-Mongolian form of Solomon. [2os]-[204]. leading princes were all agreed as to committing the affairs of the Khanate and entrusting the keys of the Empire to one of the sons of Qa*an. and the princes gathered together their belts. Kochii. n. and on the plain. The later pronunciation of the (Shirermin) is represented by the Chirenen of Carpini. 426-7. Vullers. the Siramun of Grigor and the Chinese transcription Hsi-lieh-men. was somewhat sickly. Others ware of the opinion that Siremiin. 14 when he came of age. 14 SYRAMWN. loc. A 251 . Les Mongols et la Papautf.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR was gathered together. See PeUiot. and no fodder of burden. and nowhere was it possible to dismount. Le. he was the eldest of the brothers and had had most practice in the handling of difficult matters and most experience of weal and woe. dt. SYRAMWN Rashid-ad-Din and the Chinese transcription Shih-lieh-men. and most of the noyans were in accord with them in this matter. the broad plain was straitened and in the neighbourhood of the orfa there remained no place to alight in. It was therefore agreed that the Khanate should be setded upon Giiyiik and that he should ascend the throne of the Kingdom. but E has NYSW. now that. Because of the many tents. might be a suitable person to charge with the affairs of the Kingdom. and Beki and her sons were at one with her in this. older pronunciation of the Cf. for some time rejected the honour and recommended instead now this person. Giiyiik. Finally on a of all the sons of might. and intrepidity. Koten. The 1. But Qa'an Giiyiik was most renowned for his ruthlessness. 1S day chosen by the practitioners of the science of the qam all [207] and took off their hats and loosened And 15 [Yesii] taking one hand and name. on the other hand. The Mongolian Names. 474. 1S pavilions there remained no level place There was also a great dearth was left for the mounts and beasts of food and drink. Hordu the Shabnam ed. See Cleaves. or Cleaves. 652. as is the custom. and Siremiin was but a child. 4. where Pelliot's note is quoted in full. Koten aspired to this honour because his grandfather The had once made a reference to him. YYSW. Siremiin or Shiremun was the eldest son of Ogedei's second son. Moreover. and men.

passed They girded up When the Miles dance around the Mm thou seest pearls In red caskets. and the Venus was but a Moon and Jupiter. and pearly teeth. guests of Zulaikha (Potiphar's wife). and graceful mien. The Egyptian ladies. for wonder at the peri-like sun-faced ones. sable locks. 18 Barbad was a cut their hands with the knives provided for famous court minstrel in Sassanian times. their loins and at the beginning of that day round in succession cups ofqumiz and every kind of wine. and uttered prayers him And for his welfare . song before the Chosroes of opened the World. 252 . the cushion of Kingship and seized present inside and times s$ and called the people that were outside the audience-hall knelt down three and in accordance Giiyiik Khan *.THE HISTORY OF other they set him on the throne of their goblets * Dominion and . spectator upon the roof of the green cupola . and cypress form. above. after which they went out of the hall and knelt three rimes to the sun. each in exceeding grace like a precious was every youth of and violet cheeks. the Fair. 187. and all others were tongue-tied for awe and dread. gazing upon that pleasant assembly. stricken and sat in the midst of ashes. and rosy complexion. 17 The reference is to a well-known episode in the Joseph saga. the hearts of men 17 ' woM have hen not the hands of women. of Joseph. And Barbad-like. p. were griefthe minstrels. Sweethearts such that if recluses behold their they snatch fair faces them to their bosom with a blessing. the princes sat on chairs on his right and the princesses on his left. and blossorn-like mouth. unable to take their eyes off the C D handsome young man-servant. peeling their oranges. peari in the place of cupbearers And And had It ken in the agt cut. their lips in 18 And in this manner filled to rill cups were 16 the brim. with their custom they gave declarations in writing that they would not change his word or command. And when he reposed again upon the throne of greatness. midnight [208] of that day the wine and the princes in the presence of the peerless King has 'nine times'. and happy aspect.

of the Chostoes. which instead of 'and the minstrels their Hps in mention of the great *. Night. and the minstrels opened their lips in song. when the brightfaced Chosroes lifted the pitchy veil from his shining countenance and the patrolman. they departed to their sleeping quarters .. * 23 thy place always be upon the throne ! may 19 Sbahnama ed. after uniting in praising and Monarch of the Face of the Earth. * II. left the Turk. and on the next day. weltering in they belauding the his When blood Until the Dam pitched far hem <?f tent and Darkness Jepartel trmlmg her cloak the princes. 1. be under thy feet. and with the arrogance of greatness and the haughtiness of pride Came strutting from the pavilion. upon the throne of pomp and and noble and commoner were granted permission magnificence to enter. 253 J&. Vullers. preparing to leave his chamber. 1L 571-2* . the mighty king and puissant monarch. 19 had grown drank. 472. placed 21 on his head the crown greatness. noyans and common people Came strutting to the King's court. L 504. L 2670. and everyone sat in his own place and sat and down in his audience-hall : * Began to praise the hero. a shining banner 22 standing behind him. 2669.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR To the tune of the strings and the with jessamine-cheeked beauties at the feet melody of the flute. opened 20 22 their lips in song has * having opened 623-4. saying. HM. 470. 465. 21 1M. Drank wine til! midnight. Thou art wakeful and enlightened : May the world. 2S 1648. Dawn. And when the bright banner of the sun was unfurled on the roof of the azure vault. open-hearted and 20 well-wishing they came. IM. Donned of imperial brocade. from end to end.

THE HISTORY OF and concubines strutted in with the beauty of Eke envoys of the materials of gaiety. signs of longing. the sultans. And they seated themselves upon the left like the northern and women [209] and youths and zephyr. gratifying by gazing on the songstresses and their ears by hearken- set their eyes ing to the songs . And many a faurn'r song did his kinds suggest to the strings. noble and base. greybeard and suckling . The first to receive their share were the princes and princesses that were present of the race and lineage of Chingiz-Khan . And in the drinkingbout of enjoyment they stretched out for cups of pleasure and the foot of merriment in the arena of amusement. hundreds and tens. and then in due order the noyans. they were employed in handing round goblets of wine and gazing on In this peri-faced. And all the men maidens had donned garments of fine pearls. thousands. whose sparkle and lustre to was such that the stars of the night out of jealousy wished be scattered before the time of scattering. maUb. he entrusted discretion to the counsel and of Sorqotani Beki. he ordered the doors of and new treasuries to be opened and every sort of jewels. that is. rose my 1 saluted for joy rose wtb and apple mtb appk. and in the hand the tresses of the Beloved. scribes. And the direction of this business. and held cups of youth. the old they had done with feasting. money and clothes to be got ready. according to the census. the commanders of tiimen. The princesses I saluted tby cheeks. from noon till eve and from dawn till dusk. as also all their servants and attendants. who had the greatest authority in that quriltai. manner the day drew to its close : and on this wise for seven days. officials . and their hearts were exalted by the succession of joys and delights In the head the headache of wine. fair-limbed beauties. When the distribution of these valuables. wine before them.

When had completed their task. Qara Oghul. nay everyone received his full share and appointed lot. which they saw fit to investigate carefully and examine minutely. and they had written done was outside drafts on the Kingdom and issued p&izas. did not go portionless. dealt A short while after Qa*an Chaghatai also died. a group of emirs put him to they death in accordance with the yasa. and Yesii. And since what had been and custom. 153. And the paizas and yarlighs of everyone of them were called in and laid before the author with ' Read what thou bast written! 24 But Beki 2S and her the words sons held their heads high. since this examination was a matter of great delicacy and examiners and no one else And it was impossible to confide in strangers. And affairs after of state. Mengii and Hordu were the could have a say in the matter. they were ashamed and hung their heads in confusion. 15. And because Giiyiik Khan had a c great friendship and affection for the latter. Le. And everyone else who was present. but Giiyiik settled it upon Yesii [211] and strengthened his arm in all affairs. for no one could produce any document of theirs that was contrary to the yasa. their yasa : . After Qa'an's death each of the princes had acted for himself. . is he * said : How can a grandson be heir when there a son ? During their lifetime both Qa*an and Chaghatai had designated Qara Oghul as the successor to Chaghatafs kingdom. xvii. 24 25 Koran. dispatching this business they began to inquire into [210] First they took the case of Otegin. He was succeeded by his grandson. did not interfere. Beki (* the Princess ') may have been a sort of posthumous tide adopted in order to avoid the mention of her real name. In all his speeches Giiyiik Khan used to hold them up as an example and because Giiyiik ordered these to be called in. See my article. And in the same way they with other important matters which the emirs were not allowed to discuss. whoever he was. and each of the nobles had attached himself to one of them .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and their dependents. On the Titles Given in Jmdnl to Certain Mongolian Prmcer. who was his immediate son. Sorqotani (Sorqoqtani) Beki.

THE HISTORY OF of their observance of the yasas he held others lightly but them he praised and lauded. had freed itself from its allegiance and set aside its 26 submission. which is the farthermost And And part thereof. n. Le. * means elephant '. who sent a mission to translation des S&ppes. op. This was the Elcheltay. of every ten Taziks should go along and that they out men should begin by attacking the Heretics. no. also Khetagurov. which * white*. Jaghan was by oiigin a Tangut and had. 2. 306. with the royal al-tomgba should be signed again without reference to the Emperor. while to the West he dispatched 27 Eljigitel and a large army. at the time of his accession. and the like to Tangut and Solangai . Les Mongols et k Papautl. after this they consulted together about the army and the when it was thereof to all parts of the world. And he made a yasa that just as Qa'an. 2.. 28 26 And it was agreed Jagha. 6. 156-7. and [171]. jqgban in Mongol JTAN. where the name is spelt Uchagan). as also to the governorship of Khitai itself. so too the yasas and statutes of his own father should be immune from the conand secure from the tingencies of redundance and deiciency and every yarligb that had been adorned corruption of change. 180-1. [i<5i]~[i64]. where his name is spelt * * Chagan. muUticfy : 28 mtiUda the term usually applied to the Isma'ilis or Assassins 256 . adopts the form CFAN. * n.. See of his Pelliot. letter to St. On the form and meaning of the name see Peltiot. [116]. [i$4]-[i55]t also. pp. In III. etc. the Conqueror's son by a Tatar concubine. sending learnt that of the clime of Khitai Manzi. for the AYL<SYKTAY of the text. (sing. on whom see above.e. for the Latin Louis. 27 Reading AYLjYKTAY Louis IX. king of the Tartars '. 6"4. 144-5. A name spelt Jl~A. L'Empire 421-3. (There is evidently some confusion 6 is i. See also Grousset. Chaghan. And he commanded that from [212] every prince two men out of every ten should join that all the that Eljigitei. Blochet. had upheld theyaoz? of his father and had not admitted any change or alteration of his statutes. According to Rashidis also possible. cbctgbm being the Mongol for ad-Din (Berezin. two in that region should mount horse with him. with Orchan or Orchaqan. n. been adopted by Chingiz-Khan as his fifth son. dt. Khetagurov.) He commanded Chingiz-Khan's chief ttimen (hazara-yf-luzurg) and was afterwards appointed by Ogedei to the command of all the Mongol forces on the borders of Khitai or Northern China. VII. at the age of fifteen. he dispatched Subetei Bahadur and Jaghan Noyan to that region with a mighty host and a numerous army .

. Takavor. maiden " king *. p. TAKWR C silver tablet. And he bestowed the countries of Khitai upon the Great Minister else Georgia. who he who is captain of 1000 men a tablet of gold or gilt silver. he especially entrusted to the affairs of command Rum. Rusudani. 112: 'And you must know that he who is captain of 100 men has a 29 The text has by B and C into BAKWR). Turkestan and the other lands c that had been under the control of the Emir Mas ud Beg. 250. Mosul and Takavor might interfere Yalavach. p. And yarUgbs were given to the Sultans of Takavor 33 and Aleppo and to the envoys. he captain of 10. And and maliks that were dependent on each of them he gave yarli$$ and paizas : he confided important business to them and distinguished them with tiger-headed so pdzas and to all of the emirs with yarligbs. word than heretic. but E has (corrupted i. * 30 sbfr-sar which could also mean lion-headed '. and is used also by the Armenian writers Yardan is actually a stronger (Mlhedk*) and Kirakos (Mlhedk* and Mulhedk*). 250 and n. op. as also Transoxiana. the Shere Khan of the/^fe Tales.) In fact in Classical Persian sfar (or $bert ' * ' * always uses lion M for tiger as it was then pronounced) was applied indifferently to the Lion and the Tiger. it is the ordinary term for tiger *. n. at. W. Bartbold. Aleppo. is * tabkttes par exemple a propos des bm-fou ou au tigre ". where * the old pronunciation (sber) has been preserved. 423. because he had come 31 do him homage. Cf. in the direction of India he entrusted to the Emir Arghun. And him 2i although he had the placed all and conquered peoples under of Eljigitel. from the Turkish <jz 83 and the Arabic maUk See above. Lur. whom they call Mulidet* (Rockhill.000 men a gold tablet with a lion's bead? What is meant in * both cases is the Chinese bu-fu or tiger tally *. but in India. as Pelliot remarks. As Rubruck. is more or * * less Queen '. 257 . And he settled the Sultanate of Rum upon Sultan to Rukn-ad-Din. in order that no one with them and the sultans and governors of those parts might be answerable to him for their tribute. Qiz-MaUk ' see Grousset. * In present-day Persia the word means exclusively Hon '. sfr '. And Shirvan. 6. 222).e. (Notes sur k " Turkestan " fa M. and S2 deposed his elder brother. For the somewhat complicated n details of the two princes" reigns 32 Le. And David. 17. the son of Qiz-Malik. he made subject to the other David. 31 'Izz-ad-Din Kai-Ka'us (1245-57). Kerman.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR that he himself should follow the armies after. 6. vraisembkbement sous Finfluence du person sir. who speaks of the Hacsasins. on which see above. Pars and die territory Iraq. Azerbaijan. the Isma'ilis being regarded as outside the pale of Islam* It was known to * mvM Diyar-Bekr (Diyar-Bakr). Marco Polo. Marco Polo cd Benef detto.

had of a complaint that Siremiin. the and performing the ceremonies of princes. vi. 86 verily he will fall lifeless. obeisance. departed homewards and busied themselves with the words and commands of Giiyiik Khan by arranging the dispatch of armies and the appointment of emirs. on whom see above. 85 An 3e adaptation of Koran. favourites and courtiers were unable to raise the foot of representation nor could they bring any matter to his attention before he had taken the initiative in speaking of it. and the reply to the memor- andum they had brought was couched in correspondingly harsh affairs language. Writhe. And his ministers. heard that report. 55. J 35 the earth or a ladder into Heaven I see sought out an opening into no foeman in the whole world. for fear and dread of his rigour there was a host in every heart and a warrior important after And when taking leave in every bosom. n. And Not visitors from near and than the 84 stables except that did not step a span higher person who used to present his far to be confused with the grandson of Ogedei. fortress. either overt or covert. Sbahnama ed. 11 2492-3. 1637. 251. Before thy Ibe thy arrow is a valiant army.THE HISTORY OF for the envoy from Baghdad the yarUgb with which he had been honoured was taken back from him. Vullers. he dismissed them with contempt and disdain . As for the envoys from Alamut. for fear e of his fury and dread of his ferocity. made about them. 258 . and Giiyiik Khan sent of the Faithful [213] because angry messages to the Commander 34 the son of Chormaghun. had thus been disposed of. before the armies reached his opponents. Who when he ? did I say hears thy name will not writhe. around thy army thy terror is a strong And every lord of the marches who . And when the report of his accession was published throughout the world and the severity and awesomeness of his justice became known. p. 14.

On one occasion the dues of a group of merchants who had waited upon him amounted to the sum of seventy thousand Mish. His munificence exceeded aU bounds. Giiyilk too was brought up in that faith. 27.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR offering inside. the tying and untying of affairs to Qadaq and Chinqai and made them responsible for good and evil. on the first day and then depart without even going since his Now Qadaq S7 had been in attendance OB him childhood in the capacity ofatabeg . On the derivation of the name sec Vernackky. priests set their faces towards his Court from Damascus and Rum and Baghdad and the As 38 and the Rus. he commanded them to be valued in the same way as had been done in his father's reign. and when this was noised abroad. were piled up in heaps. farthest merchants gathered together ftom the and nearest parts of the world and brought rare and the When precious things. Now Giiyiik Khan wished the fame of his own generosity to surpass the fame of his father's. And since the Emperor was of a languid nature he had entrusted the binding and loosening. Ancient Carpini's ' The As (As) 276-8. Le. Now the goods received from those merchants and those delivered in one day from the lands of the East and West. weal and woe. Consequently the cause of the Christians flourished during his reign. And because of the attendance of Qadaq and he naturally was prone to denounce the faith of Chinqai Mohammed (upon whom fa the most excellent ofpeace mi blessings !). therefore He voice to them. and no Moslem dared to raise his Chinqai.) or Alans (Alan) were the ancestors of the present-day Ossetes. the procurator of the whole empire '. each 37 38 39 Kadac. (RockHil. the Russians. together with the wares of every clime and people. [214] and the picture thereof was painted on the page of his bosom Ufa a picture curved on stone. from Khitai to Rum. ia.** and for the most part too it was Christian physicians that wore attached to his service. for which drafts were written upon every land. 359 . To this was added [the influence * of] went to great lengths in honouring the Christians and their priests. and since he was by religion a Christian.

and fond friends and intimate com- again drew up sap. And it [215] and not an infant remained without was distributed likewise among all who had come fiom far and near. was present at that moment . to carry And that year 40 he passed in his winter-quarters and when the New Year came. and the face of the earth donned the motley robe of spring. and birds and beasts mated. for reasons of health. and a pleasant haze descended. us drink wine from the lips of the wine-coloured jasmine then it ing and that Giiyiik Khan fulfilled his intention 41 quitted the capital of his kingdom. its share. * difficult to guard/ said Giiyiik. to give * This/ they replied. Qorum. he gave it out that he was proceeding. 41 26O . but Princess Sorqoq- 40 Le. to the region of the Enul. Finally only a third had not been this too was distributed but in the end there still disposed of. and the gardens became radiant like the cheeks of princesses. One day Giiyiik came from the ordu and * and it has would also be will be difficult to transport all this/ to be sent to the treasury in Qara- passed by these wares. taking advantage of the days of joy before the coming of autumn. and the world escaped again from the cold of winter. whether master or slave. * It said the ministers. and the trees and branches fertilizing winds began to blow. and the panions. us rejoice together in the Let us pluck let roses from the face of the rose-coloured garden. time of the jasmine . it all Did c I not tell ' to the army and c the people ? you/ he said.THE HISTORY OF * sort in a different * pile. who art the one the love of let whom stole the peace of mind of the jasmine. slept not nor rested in compliance with the verses Arise thou. 250). was of departwherever And According to Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet.' It and would not profit us : let it be distributed among the soldiers and those in attendance on us/ And for days it was distributed and sent to all the subject peoples on the right and the left. 1247. and the air (bwi) was like the love (bava) of a sweet mistress. is what is left after everyone has twice received his full share/ He commanded off as much everyone that as he could. remained a great deal.

and its admonishment in the ear of underthat standing does not prohibit. along the upper course of the Urungu. according to the Yum sbfbf in the third Giiyuk month (27th March-24th April) of 1248. In Les Mongols tt la Papwtt. 316. [i9<s]-[i97] n * * Pelliot had already suggested such an emendation based on the MSKR of and the QMSTKY of the corresponding passage in Barhebraeus. King Het'um of Little Armenia. the *Sand Promontory'. 261 .e. faire k [I9SHI96]. his attendants to give them so that they were freed from the humiliation clothes. the predestined hour [216] arrived and did not grant him respite to advance one step beyond that place. c*est *' Gutchai'Y route postale en direction de encore la que passe aujourd*hui 43 The death of occurred.42 a week's 4S journey from Besh-Baligh.e. which forms he identified with the Heng-seng-yi-erh of the Ywn sbtb and the Ghumsghur of Kirakos. When he reached the confines of * Qum-Sengir. to whom she accordingly sent a warning.THE WORJLD-CONQUEROR he came where there was a sown field or where be saw people. he would command and How many hopes have been unfulfilled through the jugglery of the cruel Heavens ! Neither violence nor fury hindered. SMRQND. And in this manner with the greatest awesomeness and majesty he proceeded towards the countries of the West. and neither armies nor munitions could coerce. is the Qum-Shinggir of the Secret History ( 158) and is to be sought. text. Samarkand Reading which is of course impossible. and yet the voice of the tongueless speaker does not prevent. according to Pelliot. leaving Qara-Qoram on the homeward journey. 42 i. of poverty and indigence. Qum-Sengir. According to the latter (213. 168).* Thou dost not hearken to the voice of this speechless speaker. reached Ghumsghur after travelling for 30 days and proceeded from thence to Befbalekh and Beshbalekh. Bretschneider. See Pelliot. The world heart on * is ever saying : It were better not to set thy me. i. LKS Mongols et k river is known Nord au Sud pour still * as the Bulgan. for the of the QMSNKR D probablement quand il cesse de couler du son grand coude vers FOuest et le Nord-Ouest . is And what is still however much men look and observe the like stranger hereof they in no wise take warning . Campagnes. Besh-Baligh. the predominance of avidity is strengthened hourly . greed and cupidity are every day on the increase . where that etani suspected that his real intention was to attack his cousin Batu. I.

According to Rashid-ad-Dm. sent her clothing and a faghtagb* together with messages of TAYMS. and after consulting and deliberating with the ministers as to whether she should return to the ordu of Qa'an or proceed to the Qobaq and the Emil. i.) It was she who received the first mission from Louis IX and her reply to the French King has been preserved in the pages of Joinville. in accordance with her own inclination she set out is for the Emil. But as to affairs of war and peace and the welfare and happiness of a great realm. made of bark. whether everyone should halt after the sorrow for this it was inhabited or desert. and it is hollow inside. she was a Merkk. or the square on it. and it is big and as much as two hands can span around. and is a cubit and more high. who describes it as follows : Furthermore have a headdress which they call locca. who was viler than a . Louis she is referred to as Camus : . 116. they put a tuft of quills or light canes also a cubit or more in length. *&c&. [217] ever a king dies) and a And calamity had abated Oghul-Ghaimish sent messengers to Sorqotani Beki and Batu informing them of what had happened . (Khetagurov. 249-50. / dog. This locca they cover (^33) with costly silk stuff. It is * the fcxra. * In Mongke's letter to St. the inevitable fate of all is mortals their the roads were closed (as custom and wont when- yasa was promulgated to the effect that in whatever place he had reached.) 2 The iofte^fc or %te# was the headdress of the married women. . . After the death of Keu Chan your ambassadors reached this court. and square like the capital of a column.THE HISTORY OF Wherefore dost thou seek the love of the cruel one by whom Alexander lost his life ? Wherefore dost thou dally with the mistress Seest thou not by whom Darius lost his kingdom what tricks this fair-seeming beldame produces tent ? every hour from this mercury-coloured ? [XXXVII] OF PRINCESS OGHUL-GHAIMISH * AND HER SONS had overtaken Giiyiik WHEN Khan. of Rubruck.e. or such light material they as they can find. as their usual custom. and also . what could this woman. [213]. who calls her OqulQaimish. Les Mongols et la Papautl. and round the edge (of the top) with feathers from the mallard's tal. And Camus his wife sent you wsk stuffs and letters. And Sorqotani Beki. *ATWL 262 . And this tuft they ornament on the top with peacock feathers. know about them ? (Rockhifl. and on top of the capital. where the former ordu of Giiyiik Khan was situated. See Pelfiot.

In the like And Batu consoled and comforted her fair manner and heartened her with promises . at the time when from loftiness of station he had set foot on the Heavens he had uttered set ravings that befitted not his rank with precious stones. Giiyiik are represented as refusing to ii. but somewhere in his own territory. On 3 . ii. perhaps. soldiers. Les Mongols et la Papautl.) Apparently identical with the A-Ia-tVhu-k-wu (*AIaToghra'u ?) of the Yuan sMb. and among other things he suggested that Oghul-Ghaimish. Sec below. Otherwise Rashid-ad-Din's account from Jiraini's detailed description of the quriltd at Ala-Qamaq. Being crippled with rheumatism at the time of Giiytik's death (see also Blochet. *le Peuplier tachete*. in the Ala-Tau mountains between Issik-Kul and the IK. [190]. and Qadaq should not fail to accompany them. as Barthold suggests in his article on Batu in the Encyclopedia of Islam.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR advice and condolence. which they helmets tuft afterwards tie down tightly several ladies are riding together. on head and it is lances erect. as heretofore. 73-4. should administer affairs of state together with the ministers and attend to all that was necessary. sees ^Ala-Toghraq. gathering it together on the backs of the tops of their heads in a kind of knot. heads. 274-8) Batu's meeting with the princes took place. between the two forms by suggesting that ALAQMAQ. and from extremity of folly and fasten it The wealthy ladies wear such an ornament on their down tightly with an amess. and inside they stuff their hair. for which there is an opening in the top for that purpose. and putting it in Ac face. 557). 'black and white* and togbrtq 'poplar*. they look like For this fact looks like a helmet. and the 3 above like a lance. and one sees them. Chaghatai and make the long journey to the Qipchaq of the meeting in no way differs Steppe. under the chin. might Khoja and Naqu also should come.* (Rockhfll. 263 . He accounts for the discrepancy corruption Ala-Qamaq may be a of *Ala-Toghraq. from the Turkish ak 'speckled*. Ala-Qamaq lay a week*s journey from Qayatigh (see below. in which Pelliot. qtvaq (ktvaK). Another solution of the problem would be to see In the second element of Ala-Qamaq a variant or corruption of the Ottoman and Azerbaijani word for 'poplar*. 557-62. viz. n. he halted In Ala-Qamaq and word sent to all the princes and emirs bidding them present themselves at that place in order to consult together regarding the was entrusting of the state Khanate to a fitting person so that affairs 01 not again be deranged and confusion might not arise. According to Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. the pretext that his horses were lean. [218] Khoja and Naqu for their part out to join Batu. he summons the princes the and the sons of Cgedei. 2. 251). So it is that when from afar. As for Qadaq. to his own headquarters in the West . not at Ala-Qamaq (which is nowhere mentioned).

him And when Just Monarch Mengii Qa'an he The princes. wane. They left Temiir Noyan with Batu as their representative that whatever agreement was reached by the princes telling he too was to give a written undertaking to the same effect. make ready for the Khoja and Naqu and own As for Temiir he quriltai. [219] From Ak-Qamaq to the princes wfa$ in order went back to had agreed to with the rest . And though messengers were sent several times again he did not would Oghul-Ghaimish and her sons consent to They therefore took their leave of him immediately* when Khoja and Naqu arrived in Ala-Qamaq they And did not remain more than a day or two and went back before the other princes. and the solicitude of the people and supporting him. respect to the sons of Giiyiik in their hands until such time Khan. told them how the princes all departed to their reproached him the auspicious accession of Mengii Qa'an. and Fate being at his side.THE HISTORY OF and excess of ignorance had spoken words that were the source of panic and the substance of gossip. and they sent a messenger to them to say that since Chinqai had always been a trustworthy person and had charge of weighty matters he was to continue the direction of affairs and issue yarligbs until such time as a Khan was appointed and the secret of God Almighty revealed. still left the government as there should be a quriltai . the provisional allocation 264 . and Luck his helpmeet. They for having given his written word and agreed and they plotted to set an ambush in the pathway of Mengii Qa'an and let fly the arrow of treachery from the thumb of incivility. Nevertheless they still cherished that thought in their breasts and continued to deal with current affairs. in order to show the princes were agreed as to the accession of the too gave his written consent. and the Grace of the Creator (glorious are His bounties and many His accompanying him. and kind. nor his going. although these amounted to little Uessings!) except negotiations with merchants. Therefore being afraid he drew back his foot and bowed his head pretending to be ill. and helpful. However Fortune being vigilant. because the star of their fortune was on the give way. he had passed through the assisting ambushes and dangers before they were aware.

and elsewhere also And the princes made dealings in accordance with their owe wishes. (Rockhill. and that she had destroyed the whole Camus was the of her family by her witchcraft*. and their counsels and schemes diverged from the pathway of righteousness. (M. rate At They sent all these * any you that William of Rubruck was informed by Mongke with his own lips worst kind of a witch. and the grandees and notables of every land attached themselves the affairs to a party according to their own inclination. and his advice was their differences not admitted to the ear of their understanding : young they acted in accordance with Oghul-Ghaimish pleased herself in hindering their own [220] being counsel. 4 As for courts in opposition to they held two separate thus there were three rulers in one place. Khoja and Naqu their mother . fat of what was impatience or anxiety? God passeth what judgement He pleasetb tbou disturbed seeing that all is : wbetefore then art mil ? and messages with Yesu's encouragement And again and again their with his consent and support. 250. And most of relays was closeted with the yim carrying the time Oghul-Ghaimish out their fantasies and absurdities.Q.) 4 * 265 . As for Chinqai he was weak and confused in the conduct of affairs. Batu sent them words of advice. saying. Ali of Marv-ar-Rud who flourished under the Samanids. and take counsel. loving kinsfolk Beki and should come to the quriltoi.) ' 5 Husain b. while men of goodwill : Two things with which the ascetic can do nothing are the counsel of women and the command of young men towards loose * As for women their inclination is psskn> (ml as for young men* they mn mth will not consent messengers to Batu saying : the election of another Khan . we shall never connive at that to And they sent agreement/ We A sentence avail was passed and a letter preceded. and her sons got out of control because of of And Oghul-Ghaimish with one another and their contentions with their senior kinsmen .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of sums of money of to every land and country and the dispatch of churlish messengers and taxgatherers.

266 . And of his sons.* And from Batu there would come messengers saying that [221] if the Khanate was settled on Mengii and deliberate together Qa'an most of the advantages therefrom would accrue to them* But since they looked with the gaze of puerility and petulance and had not been chastened and corrected by experience of life. and they still held back from doing what was expedient. The Mohammadan Dynasties. Tangut. they persisted in these ideas. effects And as for Qadaq. [XXXVIII] OF TUSHI AND THE ACCESSION OF BATU * IN HIS STEAD WHEN Tushi. Berke and [222] Berkecher. Bowal or Bo'al. when through shortsightedness and vanity things came to such a pass that the understanding of the wise struggled in the mire of the thought thereof and could find no way out. 1 6 On Dk 2 Reading Le. Spuler. as Teval. And though messengers came bidding them hasten the calling of the guriltaif they persisted in their lassitude and procrastination. See Pelliot. Sibaqan. GoUew Horde. Boghal. 10-32. pronunciation of the Mongol name Bo*ol meaning 'slave*. and was followed by Khoja. Le. as shall be related in the chapter on the accession of the World- Emperor Mengii Qa'an. the reign of Batu. ISEmptre des Steppes. was the grandfather of the famous general Noqai. planning schemes behind the curtain of opposition and casting the dice of counsel on the chequer-board of desire . The Mongols cmd Russia 140-9. the Nogai of Marco Polo. had gone to QulanBashi to join Chingiz-Khan and had returned from thence. the founder of the Golden Horde. Horde d'Or.e. presence [of Mengii]. the elder and young brothers. these seven. Rashid-ad-Din has BWWAL. the 2 predestined hour arrived. see Vernadsky. who was the eldest son. and afterwards by Ghaimish. who appears in Lane-Poole. Hordu. Boqal Bo'al is in fact the Western i. Bo'al. Grousset. he agreed with their ideas from every side of opposition. for fear of the of his foolish words and immature thoughts. 470-4. BWTL for the BMHL of the text. Finally a messenger came from the princes saying that they were gathered together in the Accordingly Naqu set out to join them. 52-4.THE HISTORY OF a second time when all the aqa and ini s are assembled together. and BWQAL. Batu.

the horizons The kings of every land and the monarchs of else their offerings. including all that remained of the Qifchaq. which he had set 4 up in the region of the Etil. 8 etc. set out to meet him. And when Qafan to the throne of the Empire Batu reduced and subjugated all the territory adjoining his own. the account And whereof will be given in the chapter on Mengii Qa*an. Magas. See RockhiH. The Volga. When MKS. Giiyuk Khan succeeded to the Khanate. 266-8. When he had reached Ala-Qamaq the death of Giiyuk Khan occurred. Sarai (called afterwards situated on the eastern op. And merchants from every side manners of wares. he had bestowed them all upon Mongol and Moslem and all that were present. and before the accumulation of ages. is and his word was law in every land. and they settled the Khanate upon Mengii Qa'an. and everyone which were came to visit him. founded by Berke) was New bank of the Akhtuba. could be taken away to the treasury. See Minorsky. 3 is to this 5 day the Chuvash word * is ' for river *. die Alan.t 141 and 153.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR had come of age. He halted in that place. 8. And he wrote drafts on the Sultans of Rum and Syria and granted them yarligbs . This Chaucer's * * Old Sarai Sarray. the As and the Rus. op. the Meget. dt. His bounty was beyond calculation and his liberality immeasurable. it was much or all brought him [223] and no one that came to visit him departed without achieving his purpose. See Vernadsky.. dt. He was a king that inclined towards no faith or religion : he recognized only the belief in God and was blindly attached to no sect or creed. etc. in the land of Tartarye '. and Bate succeeded his father and became ruler of the kingdom and his brothers. at his request and entreaty. about 65 miles north of Astrakhan. Batu. The name was given to the Volga by the Bulgars and Avars . Hitfoire ies Twcs. 232-8. 267 . Cattcasica HI. Spuler. of the Secret Historyf was actually the capital of the Alans or Ossetes. and other lands also such as Bulghar^ Magas. and heeded not whether little. 22. * * Sarai to distinguish it from the See Barthold. And Batu abode in his own encampment. 4 AYTYL. Carpini was the fat Western writer to call the Even Rubruck calls it Etilia. and he built a town there which called Sarai s .. 2. and the princes came to visit him from every side . river by its Russian name. and etil n. and he took everything and doubled the price of it several rimes over.

Mengii and brothers .THE HISTORY OF from thence he went back. should issue orders Sartaq. see above. Andent Rwm. There it hut 8 BRAQCYN. On the Volga Bulgars see Vernadsky. and commanded Boraqchin Khatun. op. cit. and Ulaghchi passed away that same year. until and educate Ulaghchi. 268 . who was 9 Batu's chief wife. 12) and for the people. kinsfolk and commanders.. own orfa. 2 222-8. Mongol foro grey 'see PdEot. 3S~44- According to Rashid-ad-Din * to the Alchi tribe of the Tatar. n. the son of he grew up and succeeded his father. Bulghar is used in this chapter both town (on which p. for the dt. but see Pelliot.. . adherent of the Christian faith.e. in accordance with a campaign was being organized the exigencies of the occasion. dispatch armies led by his relations. eft. in the year 653/1255-6. Sartaq had not yet arrived when 6 the commandment of God was fulfilled and the inevitable state And honour and respect and disof kindnesses above all his equals . he sent Sartaq. the great ymltai for the second time. But Fate it had not willed thus.. in) she belonged 9 in charge of post horses According to Rashid-ad-Din Ulaghchi' the man was not the son but the brother of 1 Sartaq. n. [XXXIX] [224] x OF THE CONQUEST OF BULGHAR AND THE TERRITORY OF THE AS AND THE RUS 2 WHEN 6 7 Qa'an held deliberated together I. 34-9. is considerable divergency in the sources as to the seems most likely that he died in 1255. all manner tinguished him with and he dismissed him with such wealth and riches as befitted so He had not yet reached his ordu but had only a great to pass in the year . and whenever he would. they concerning the extirpation and subjugation date Batu's the death of Batu. When. See Spuler. 222-3. 108. Cattcasica 111. S with Mengii Qa'an received him came And when Sartaq arrived. and came to his busied himself with pleasures and amusements. (Khetagurov. come he to . name is the feminine form of the Boraqchin*he op.. op. king. This and the following chapter have already appeared in print in Minorsky.. when he that Qa'an sent his emirs to console his wives 8 too departed to join his father. who was an Mengii Qa'an held another qmltai. 32. 42. On ' of death.

269 . 7.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of the all the remaining rebels . 2. and an example of the figure known as tanastA. See Rockhill. the As and . ants. 4 At this place. and in the spring they each of them set forth from his own territory and hastened to carry out this undertaking. who according to Rubruck * had captured the goldsmith William Buchier in Hungary. it text. Hordu and Tangut . in a town called Belgrade *. position and its ample resources. The princes all halted on the outskirts of the town. and as a warning to others they slew the people or led them captive. He most be the * brother of Mongke and Arigh Boke. And from thence they proceeded to the land of the Rus and conquered that 5 4 country as far as the city [225] of Magas. Batu's brothers. Bochek was actually Mongke's half-brother. Hence the impression tions in Russia. They came together in the territory of the Bulghar. Kolgen. and at beasts stood amazed. Mengii 3 Qa'an and his brother Bochek. See Rashid-ad-Din cd. assumes a great lacuna in Ac given that Magas was captured during the operawas actually taken in the course of a subsequent camop. 207. of the other princes. for camping grounds of Batu was decided to seize the which bordered on had not completely they territory. the inhabitants of which were as numerous as ants or locusts. where there is a blank for his mother's name. is therefore the following reference to fly '. The Bujck of the and the Bichac or Bechac of Carpini. and on every side they built roads wide enough for three or four 3 waggons to pass abreast. viz. The princes departed each to his own place of residence in order to organize their forces and armies . Biiri and Baidar . and it lands of the Bulghar. while its environs were entangled with woods and forests such that even a serpent of their armies. his own sons Giiyiik Khan and Qadaghan . n. 5 means In Persian mgf and a serpent p. The earth echoed First they took by storm the city of famous throughout the world for the strength of its Bulghar. is * paign in the Caucasus. Secret History And they set up BWfiK. submitted being deluded by the fore size of their He there- deputed certain princes to aid and assist Bate. 222. Minorsky. by the father *. locusts See above. whereas dtt 222. 117. and several other princes as well as Siibetei Bahadur from amongst the chief commanders. and reverberated from the multitude the size and tumult of their forces the very could not penetrate them. Blochet. n. the Rus.

000 horsemen of the Hungarians. how Minorsky. Batu went up on to a hilltop 3 and for one day and night he spoke to no one but prayed and lamented and he bade the Moslems also assemble together and offer up close to each other . whose descendants are now citizens of the < hand the reference Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On these latter see Minorsky. and left two hundred and 7 seventy thousand ears were counted. 195 and n. And they gave orders to cut off the right ears of the people. 8 Cf. each of whom was famous in war and considered flight Sibaqan on in advance with ten thousand men to spy out their numbers and send word of the extent of their strength and might. Cwcaska III. 270 . and when they heard the report of Batu's approach they too set out to meet him with four hundred thousand horsemen. With this object in mind he arrayed his armies and set out in the new year. 223. above. understands the heading. This other the horsemen (kbaS) tvbo marched against the Keler and Bashghird '. p. 13. 6 1 A pun: Or is * nothing but jfe. the Qifehaq and the Alan had been annihilated. the On below to the 400. and after a space of several days nothing of the city but its namesakes/ and took great booty. Sibaqan set forth in obedience to his command and at the end of a [226] week came back and reported that they were double the size of the Mongol disgrace. and does not refer to the Uralian Bashkirs. 7 C above. to proceed to the destruction of the Keler and Bashghird. the greatness of their power and the strength of arms. all men of war and battle. When the two armies drew . Batu sent his brother army. who are large nations professing the Christian faith and are said to border on the land of the Franks. the Hungarians. And from thence the princes turned homewards. 318-19. i. p. 80. that people was rendered arrogant by the magnitude of And their their numbers. 2 Bashghird is here simply a synonym of Keler.e.THE HISTORY OF mangonels opposite the walls. Hud&d. [XL] OF THE HORSEMEN 1 OF THE KELER AND BASHGHIRD Batu resolved 2 WHEN the Rus.

The Mongols spent the summer of 1241 on the Hungarian plain and on 25th December. n. 1241. op.* (Minorsky.t 228.) See above. 5 [227] resembled the Garden of Irani. which in those seasons constructed large I call kol ) in that region for the flocking of pools (which they 2 The called Qudugh. Carpini saw in * Batu's camp on the lower Volga tents made of linen. [Horde <f OrJ I 3 I . above its junction with the Tisza. 45. They are large and and used to belong to the king of Hungary. 3. [XLI] OF CHAGHATAI CHAGHATAI was a fierce and mighty khan. p. n.* (Rockhul. 5. 223. Or village (<?$). On between Batu and Siibedey. and those lands also were subjugated. In spring and summer he had his quarters in Almaligh and Quyas. Mohi. 1241. 10. p. on the right bank on nth April. dt. This was one of their greatest deeds and their fiercest battles. 237. stern and severe. 3* has pointed out. He also built a town Sayo. See above. When the lands of Transoxiana and Turkestan were subjugated. Batons brother entered the battle in person and made attack after attack . see the translation of Chinese biography in PeUiot.) quite handsome. and Sibaqan attacked at the same time and they bore down on their royal pavilions .THE WORLB-COKQUEROR prayers. Then the [main] army arrived with all his forces from behind . but the enemy's army was strong and did not budge. the waterfowl. And no more of that army escaped. Minorsky. Cawaska 111. fair and pleasant places fit to be the abode of Hngs. his camping grounds and those of his children and armies extended from Besh-Baligh to Samarqand. large between the armies : Batu sent over a detachment by lay The A night and then his [main] army crossed. n. and cut the ropes with their swords/ And when the Mongols had overturned their pavilions the army of the Keler f lost heart and fled. river 4 next day they made ready for battle. He * The As 6 * The battle against the Hungarkns was won at of the the river Sayo. this occasion quarrels arose latter's crossed the 1 2 Danube on the ice. 271 .

the son of Daritai of the Qonqxrat tribe.THE HISTORY OF autumn and winter he 3 on the Ila. but there are several variants. And spent in [? Maraozik] from beginning to end he had laid up stores of at every stage. still remained in the service ' 9 The text has MRAWRYL following A. so long as he was disciplined that during had need of guard or patrol on any stretch of road near his army. Together with the physician Majd-ad-Din this man did everything in his power to cure Chaghatafs disease and showed great kindness and solicitude. But it was not long before a sore disease attacked him such that the cause was victor over the cure. as vessel And The is said by way on her head might walk alone without fear or dread. who had been Chaghatafs service ever since the had attained to conquest of Transoxiana and the rank of vizier. goes on sister. she outlived her husband. and so on. the ruler of the tribe and the father of Chlngiz-Khan's chief wife. He had a Turkish vizier. a man called Hujir. who had risen to power at the end of his reign and had taken over the affairs of the Kingdom. Rashid-adDin. he enacted minute yasas that were an intolerable imposition of hyperbole. Borte Fujin : Yesulun's father and Borte were therefore first cousins. . And he was ever engaged in amusements and pleasures and dallying with sweet-faced peri-like maidens. The Emir Habash "Amid. For fear of his yasa and punishment his followers were so well his reign no traveller. and Moslems were forced to eat carrion. died. e. food and drink. in which case the whole phrase would run Hi. to say that after Yesuliin's death Chaghatai married her whereas.g. 4 When [228] his senior wife. ordered However. and for a time no man slaughtered sheep in Khorasan. however.* 4 Da was the Old Turkish name of the YSLWN. * banks * or the like. the Moslem fashion of sheep in the lawful manner yasa forbidding the slaughter he sent to every land . according to Juvaini's account. when Chaghatai them both to be killed attached to together with their children. According to Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. Yesuliin. and. a woman with a golden meat in upon such as the Taziks. 272- . that none might slaughter nor sit by day in running water. The word is either a proper name or a corruption of some word meaning neigh* bourhood '. Daritai was the brother of Dei Sechen. openly Qa'an died ChaghataTs Court became the rendezvous of all mankind. : near (on the banks of) the Ha. and men journeyed from near and far to do him homage. 1 54) she was the daughter of Qata Noyan.

and after him Qa*an and Chaghatai. Chaghatai had many sons and grandsons . There was a poet called Sadid-i-A'var Sha'ir. rose to power he had given his sons to the sons of Chaghatai allotted Now each of them to one of the princes. but his eldest son. he said : * succeed when there is a son ? Accordingly he set up Yesii in Why his father's affairs kingdom and entrusted of state. Because of the length of and with the power. which he dedicated to the Emir Habash *Amid: It snare of calamity has become clear to thee that this gloomy world is the thou hast learnt that this world is . n. had made him Chaghatai's heir and successor. Of what when a deceitful coquette. nightrguards. he was ignorant of sobriety and made intoxication a habit. Now Yesii him with the direction of was constantly carousing . and he appointed him to wait on Yesii. he was entrusted and Habash 'Amid was discarded.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR of Chaghatafs widow. used to contrast them with Baha-ad-Din Marghinani however. See above. drinking wine from morn till eve. Chaghatai. 53. Chingiz-Khan. * Metiken. having been killed at Bamiyan and Qara having been born at that time. The imam Baha-ad-Din performed aU the ceremonies and courtesies of respect and several times restrained Yesii fiom his service Baha-ad-Din of also rose to office vizier to Yesii. [229] In accordance with this ruling. 5 Le. 273 . on account of the latter's accomplishments and learning . One feast day he composed certain topical verses. who was * should the grandson Chaghataf s own son. his wife Yesiiliin. having a friendship for Yesii. after Chaghatafs death. Habash Amid-al-Mulk and the Pillars of the State favoured his claim. avail were qmMs and ttkeitts 5 and valiant soldiers for fear is He Fate attacked and struck to right and fcfi ? of whom none entered water is drowned in an ocean that exceeding vast. and he first when Habash 'Amid plotted against him. e Le. raised to the But when Giiyiik Khan was Khanate. p. When he became firmly established in the kingdom he grew angry with Habash 'Amid because of his having supported Qara . 226. Qara-Hiiegii.

as was already pointed out by Yule.) own state- 274 . this broken thing. (M. See Khetagurov. favours and sent him home. Yesii also. According to Rashid-ad-Din she was the sister of Buqa-Temor of the Oirat and therefore the grand-daughter of Chingiz-Khan by his second daughter Checheken. Yesii continued to reign until Mengii Qa'an ascended the Yesii opposed his accession. Cathay and the Way Tbttber. the wife of Qara-Hulegu. whereupon settled the kingdom upon Qara by virtue of the He distinguished Qara with all kinds of earlier testament. IV. he placed the keys of government 7 in the hands of Orqina. 14). And when he delivered up Baha-ad-Din Marghinani to together with his property and children [2^1] in order that he Qara returned Habash *Amid 8 might wreak his vengeace on him. 175 and 184-93). 8 According to the more detailed account of Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet. HowHabash to ease 'Amid. is the name of this princess transferred to the territory in which she resided.Q. (M. Accordingly Mengii Qa'an settled the kingdom upon his son. The to 8 gave no quarter. [230] and he was waiting his breast thereof. This is ment a few inconsistent not only with the facts but with the author's lines before. Orqina. shortly afterwards arrived home. after her husband had died on the homeward journey. put Yesii to death by the order of Mongke Qa'an and then for ten years ruled the ukf of Chaghatai in her husband's stead. and since the latter was as yet but a child. Emir Habash Amid and his son Nasir-ad-Din returned To him also Fate e power in the service of Orqina.) 9 HRTNH. My 7 body broke because of my many Therefore it was that they bound up Spelt ix. Smimova. apparendy Horghina.THE HISTORY OF he had upon Habash 'Amid. carrying out the designs there was an ancient grudge in the heart of the Emir ever. Qara's widow. Hammer-Purgstall. Upon the way back the inevitable hour prevented him from reaching his ordu. lo^and by Vassaf (ed. Bombay ed. AWRQNH by Rashid-ad-Din (Blochet.. When Baha-ad-Din was seized and fastened in the twopronged press he composed the following quatrain: Those that have tied up the bundle of their lives Have escaped from the toil and trouble of this world. AWRQYNH.Q. by Batu's leave. When she returned Mengii Qa*an to her ordu. for an opportunity throne of the Khanate. 119. 70. 161. sins. The Organum of Rubruck. 28.

and as for his noble attainments. Habash Amid ordered his men to roll him up felt and crush his limbs and members in the way e in a piece of they beat felt. he mikes them both generous. and then . first : When I paid my respects to the imam Baha- ad-Din. 10 and then departed. he joined to the lofty rank of vizier to which he had risen the nobility of every kind of spiritual and temporal knowledge. The hand of Fate gave me I ottered a hundred effective curses the pill that purges the spirit on her pill. Of a truth. a life Of these that has come to my lips and two take whichever tfaou wilt. life under and then departed. But when he saw that no stratagem would be of service and that humility and self-abasement were of no avail he composed the c following two verses and sent them to Habash Amid: 1 revelled with friend and foe. 274-5 and 279-82. In the year 649/1251-2. I my arm. the Qara-Khanid ruler of Kashghar. who was the khan and ruler of that country .e. On x which can also be read Habash.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR And in order to sue for favour he sent this other quatrain also King. tucked the garment of departed. he else recited the following vase before uttering anything When but the generous man is generous. Toghan Khan. Baha-ad-Din united lofty descent with noble attainments. for on his father's side he was hereditary sbaikb-al-Islam of Farghana. I went to the Court of Yesii in the train of the Emir Arghun. 11 while on his mother's side he was related to Toghan Khan. [232] And he distinguished me with the glance of honour and respect. who died see Barthold. I found his presence the meeting-place habb-ash. is when the son of the generous man genermt. when we were returning from the ordu of Ghaimish. 10 11 I. And It is if my life avail thee also. my bosom. be is generous by himself. take what was : my woof and warp aught take that left . Turkestan. in 408/1017-18. 275 .

and virtues.) 2. of all the savants in the world and the resort of the sadrs of the Whoever had a capital of the goods of learning (for which there is no sale) always found a market for his wares with Baha-ad-Din and was It relieved by his take long to relate his accomplishments but there is neither rime nor space to record them. (M. what bast tbou in the bigbest places ? do with the nolle ones that it What barm wouU ? do tbee if tbou left owe nolle man 12 The Emir Baha-ad-Din was infants.Q. Abu-Hasin. survived by sons and small all his and Habash c Amid wished to send male children after their father. why dost tbou all thy life tend the gardens of nolle deeds.76 . 12 Abul-Faraj b. would mercy and compassion.THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUEROR horizons. loth shoots and luxuriant plants to ? sit O Time. And what person of merit hath Fate reared up whom she hath not cast down again ? cypress hath she given loftiness ? To what which she did not bend again with sorrow O Tim. the cadi of Aleppo.

Turkestan. It * Beloved Lord from See Pelliot. just as 6 Army Commander from Gharchistan Gharcha. See Barthold. * * the Turkish seUk (sevtiK) beloved and ' (976-97). until he became an important of Seljuq.* and is likewise mentioned in the historical section of Razf s JawamT- IT is al-*Ulum? which latter work was written for Sultan Tekish. under the Samanids Alp-Tegin 5 was of Khorasan. historical of. of the celebrated Sultan Mahmud (998-1030). W. Muhammad Mislcawaih. 31-2. Tqarib^lrUwm (* Experiences of the Nations *) is the tide of a celebrated work by Abu-*AH Ahmad b. 31. This Bilge-Tegin purchased a Turkish slave [2] called Nush-Tegin who by dint of intelligence attained to greatness official in the House 1 and sagacity gradually of rank. The mountainous region of Gharchistan ky to the east of Badghis along ' the 7 Upper Murghab. 277 . BtrtboU. 16. the name of an encyclopedia compiled by the famous theologian Fakhr-ad-Din Abu^Abdallah b. Alp-Tegin (* Brave Lord ') was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Muhammad b. which is the continuation of the Tqarib-al-Umam. Sebuk-Tegin son-in-kw and successor of Alp-Tegin.In the name of God Almighty ! THE SECOND PART OF HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUEROR JUVAINI'S OF THE ORIGIN OF THE DYNASTY OF THE SULTANS OF KHORAZM (MAY GOD MAKE BRIGHT THEIR EXAMPLE /) recorded in the Ma$harib-at-Tajaril * of Ibn-Funduq alBaihaqi. 4 5 6 In Turkish 'Wise Lord*. Turkestan At M. the slave. cit.. ^mar 3 The Jawami'-al-Ulum was ar-Razi. Notes m corresponds to the modern Kruzkuh. that a certain Bilge-Tegin 4 was one of the principal officials of the House of Seljuq. just as Sebuk-Tegin 7 in the of Abul-Hasan 'AM b. On Zaid of Baihaq 2 the MadMrfa-at-Tajirib m~Gbatvari)-d-Gtwr$*it see Barthold. was the father k " " tegin lord *.

In courage and bravery . 101 and 104. 31. and so son Atsiz and contentment. qpchqar is the great migration of tribes in the nth century see Minorsky.e. as will be found recorded in works of history. op. * 10 Turkish Turkish 11 for His name means 'Strong Brightness*. one and the next year coming in u year sending his he continued until his death. conferring that title upon him in the year 491/1097-8.f 323. tasht-iar utensils". and received the title of Basin-Holder in those days the expenses of this office were (td$bt-dar)* Now met by the revenues of Khorazm. Qutb- ad-Din Muhammad. just as the expenses of the Wardrobe were paid from the revenues of Khuzistan. Dadbeg Habashi now [3] At that time transferred the office Qochqar 10 of Khorazm-Shah from Ekinchi son of Khorazm-Shah. See Houtsma. 'Horseless/ 278 . his official panegyrist being Abul-Ma'ali Nahhas of Ray. a slave of Sanjar. Ekinchi. he put to school at Merv in order that he might learn the etiquette and ceremonial of leadership and command. From thence onward Qutb-ad-Din on many occasions distinguished himself in the service of the Seljuqs. The was the servant in charge the superintendent of the royal washing of the wash-basin (taskf) and ewer offered 9 after meals. the eldest of whom. he won many victories in the service of Sultan Sanjar and was constant in the fulfilment of his duties as a vassal . was given the title ofsbabna of Khorazm. etc. 'the Sower*. the Emir of Khorasan. Several sons were born to him. dt. NushTegin. to Qutb-ad- Din Muhammad. whereof one example is the following : In the year 524/1129-30 Sultan Sanjar had passed into Tran8 * According to Barthold. 9 Berk-Yaruq son of Malik-Shah had conferred the absolute viceroyalty of all his empire upon Dadbeg Habashi son of Altun-Taq. in whose praise many poems were composed by the poets ofthe age. Marvazi. [4] he dwarfed all his peers and equals . ram '. On Ekinchi as an authority on the i. Atsiz is renowned for his virtues and accomplishments he is the author of many Persian poems and quatrains. Glossar. In 522/1128 he was succeeded by his son Atsiz. For thirty years he ruled Khorazm in ease person to attend at Sanjar's court in his place. 1094-1104.THE HISTORY OF latter days of the Samanids. in consequence.

in Chinese TVpa.. (1102-30). home. 12 This was the Qara-Khanid ruler Muhammad That he was b. 319. 304. and as he was departing the Sultan * He remarked face to his courtiers : we shall not see again/ There goes the back of one whose * They answered : If Your Majesty Arslan-Khan tit. of. On HMre people who founded the Chinese dynasty of the Wei (436-557) and whose Grousset. and I at once hastened to his side. called for a horse and he arrived. Atsiz. were a Turkish or proto-Mongol Zada. Hambis. 319-21. IfEtnpire fas 2. also Sukiman known Tamghach-Khan confirmed by 'Aufi and the author of the Kitab~i~Mulla>- this Qara-Khanid title ('Emperor of China') (IMl. Sultan was ever conferring fresh honours and favours upon him. and he replied : I dreamt that an accident had befallen the Sultan in the hunting grounds.) The Tamghach or rather des Turn. 2. at. Tabghach (Tavghaeh). 1136] when he arrived was ever in attendance on him. was indeed in an evil case and fallen into a desperate strait. and was leave to return obtained also apprehensive regarding the Sultan himself. Atsiz next year [July-August. surrounded by that rabble.. who had hunting grounds . but recently been enlisted in his service. 103-9. 1135] when the Sultan marched l3 until against Ghazna to crush the rebellion of Bahram-Shah Shawal of the in Balkh. 279 . had plotted to waylay the Sultan and make an end of him. the Sultan. and the and emirs. See La Hmte-Ask. Steppes.* On account of his this prospered. who had not gone hunting that day. n. 13 The Ghaznavid (ir 18-52). and because of their jealousy they plotted against him and made attempts on his life. When wretches and rescued the Sultan. op. name became synonymous with Northern China. In the course of these journeyings he had become aware of the intrigues of those envious emirs and of the ill-will they bore him. 29-31. 77-8. see Barthold. From Zul-Qa'da of the year 529 [August-September. Atsiz at once charged down upon those hurried off to join the Sultan. He became in consequence an object of envy to the other mdiks power and display of loyalty the affairs of Atsiz prestige increased daily. awoke at noon from his sleep. The latter asked him how * he had become aware of his plight. on as whom is see Barthold.THE WOR3LD-CONQUEROR soxiana to quell the rebellion of arriving in Tamghach-Khan his " and upon Bokhara had gone one day to where a number of slaves and domestics. Gabain.

The Khorazm-Shah got together an army to oppose that of the Sultan and even set it in and then. Atsiz continued in the path of frowardness and rebellion until the year 536/1141-2. offer battle. gave orders that he should Sanjar then conferred the kingdom and brought before the Sultan. p. when Sanjar was defeated in the him and at the gates of Samarqand and came Balkh (the story is well known) : Atsiz then seized his opportunity and marched against Merv. n. And 14 I. 1138] Sultan Sanjar marched into Khorazm to do him battle. why then did he obtain leave to return * home * he replied : The [5] he has rendered us have placed us under a great obligaservices tion to him : to harm him would be contrary to our tenets of and receive such kindness ? And generosity and clemency/ of frowardrebellion. when he is not busy with his private affairs or occupied with Us lectures. (may God Qara-Khitai. Thereafter he returned to Khorazm. Muhammad and whereupon Atsiz re-entered fled before Khorazm and Sultan Sulaiman And returned to Sanjar. doth proceed in his assemblies to speak evil of me and to abuse and defame me at great length. See above. without making any attempt to fighting array . Amving in Khorazm Atsiz entered upon the path ness and and day by day the ill-will increased on either side and finally reached such a pitch that in Muharram of the year 553 [September-October. realizing he sought safety in he could place little confidence in his troops. 2. 44. looting the city and making great slaughter of the inhabitants. His son Atligh was taken prisoner flight. Here we reproduce a letter from the correspondence which passed between the hakim Hasan Qattan [6] and Rashid-ad-Din Vatvat concerning the books that were lost from the former's library during the pillaging of Merv and which he suspected Vatvat of having appropriated : battle against Khitai 14 fleeing to f It has reached my ear from the mouths of those that arrive in Khorazm and from the tongues of those that journey hither that Your Honour perpetuate bis excellence I). returned to Khorasan.e.THE HISTORY OF is certain of this. 2SO . who be immediately cut in hal of Khorazm upon his nephew Sulaiman b.

THE WORLD-CONQUEROR be accuseth me of'plundering is it bis library and down tbe mis and coverings of'generosity* Doth this and that tbou humanity. Moslems might profit by could be find it And whoever holdeth such tenets. and let him think of the day when the truthteller shall * and tbe liar punished for bis lying. or a man that I slew. or a right that I denied. in order to take vengeance for this shameful 281 . or wealth tktt lay hold of my skirt seeking of I pillaged. and when these rotten bones shall upon clad in tbe raiment of tbe Second Life . let him not may God perpetuate like his excellence let Ibe guilty offabricating a Ik against tbe of me. were they leather bindings. and when tbe kaves k me property that I seized. he rewarded other god. Rashid Vatvat has a qasida this the following is the opening line the throne of the his family : King Atsiz ascended luck of Sdjuq and came to kingdom: the an end. in accordance with generosity and so sbouldst fabricate concerning a hotter so painful a calumny ? tbe Moslem a Ik and By God. would not fetch tbe price of a miser's of a learned truth. and him not commit a sin that will cleave to his skirts Godf than Whom there is no ofJudgement. Sultan Sanjar. that the them. And he has other qasidas in the same strain. Cod bath placed me by a thousand volumes of choice hooks and lawful means in the way of [7] and I have bequeathed them all to tbe libraries that bam noble treatises. been founded in tbe countries of Islam. or Mood that I shed. or a veil that I rent away. let dinner? Of a Your Honour fear God. For. of which weakening of the Sultan s position vainglory in the brain of Atsiz. hebold. when tbe trumpet shall he Day of Resurrection. when every soul shall he asked concerning that -downward who shall hath gained both that of the sinner dragged face into hellfae and that of the righteous man who shall he home on t$x shoulders of tbe angels into Paradise : none shall in that dreadful place the plains. bow in Us heart to rob tbe books of bis life in gathering together sold with their imam that bath expended tbe whole a few paltry leaves such as. dispatched from tbe tomb to h h wfan tbe servants of God shall h gathered together at tbe &f of men's deeds shall he scattered it their doers . Farewell I for his trutbtelling on the Day Let him fear Because of waxed great on this subject.

and shot back: See above. When for the the letter men. Adib Sabir of this circumstance. all the empire of the earth is accounted thine . 256. Khorazm to make war on him In the year and hairing at the gates of the town he set up his 538/1143-4. fortune and good luck the world is thy acquisition: horses shall be thine. 17 Or a thousand horses the literal meaning of Hazar-Asp.e. 542 [October-November. he dispatched to the emirs of the Court and sought the gifts and presents The Sultan was Sultan's pardon [8] and courted his favour.THE HISTORY OF act. and had learnt sent them sent it to slay the Sultan unawares. king. which he let fly into HazarAsf: O By Take Hazar-Asf 17 to-day with a single assault. who was in attendance on Sanjar in this campaign. n. whereupon Atsiz raised the head of rebellion in his wonted manner. * ' '. mangonels and unfurled the standard of battle. p. 1147]. Anvari. wrote the following quatrain upon an arrow. . And to-morrow Khorazm and a hundred thousand Vatvat. 15 buying their souls and paying the price. 16 which in the present age was In Jumada submerged after [the passage of] the Mongol army. the Sultan attacked Khorazm . as it is called to this day. mollified and turned back along the path of peace and reconset out for ciliation. the heresy (ilhai) of the Isma'ilis. Atsiz had suborned two Khorazmian ruffians of the sect of the Heresy. Sabir into the Oxus. The Sultan then sent Adib Sabir upon a mission to him and Adib remained for some time in Khorazm. But when the moment was at hand when Khorazm should have been conquered and the weal of Atsiz changed to woe. who was in Hazar-As it wrote the following lines upon the arrow 15 16 I. When Atsiz learnt of this he flung Adib II. and first he besieged for two months again the small town of Hazar-Asf. reached Sanjar he ordered a search to be made and they were discovered in a tavern and dis- patched unto hellfire. * Or Hazar-Asp. two men and to and he wrote a description of the Merv in the leg of an old woman's boot. Meanwhile. from the Persian * bazar thousand and w$ (a$) horse 282 *. 28.

presented himself before Sanjar and to Not be taken literally: vatv% (watwaf) in Arabic means "swallow 20 Le. When called flesh 18 the Sultan reached the gates of Khorazm. avail him nothing. If Your Majesty so command. 283 . king. Muntajab-ad-Din went on : [10] he will not bear being divided into seven pieces. realizing that flight would day in a riverbed. To be to Rashid Vatvat * said : I have a Sultan having request if Your Majesty will grant it/ The * Vatvat is bet promised to do so. He could not cany forth a single ass from thy thousand hones. Vatvat's life. the preceding note. and the lines quoted above his seven limbs greatly and other similar poems he was wroth with Vatvat and had sworn that when he was Accordingly he found made great efforts to trace him clamation. And because of the verse previously mentioned should be torn asunder. Muntajab-ad-Din Badi al-Katib (may with th clouds of His sanctity !). an ascetic 20 Zahid-i-Ahu-Push. seeing the Sultan's wrath. but none of them. and the Sultan and used to consult brief. him about the secrets of the the conversation gradually rose to and Muntajab-ad-Din came round his feet and kingdom. By virtue of their common profession he then sought refuge with the uncle of the great-grandfather of c the author of these lines. let him be simply cut in two/ Whereupon the Sultan laughed and spared a puny little bird 19 . * or 'swift*. would undertake all to intercede on his behalf. O [9] After much toil and countless trouble the Sultan finally took Hazar-Asf. whose food and clothing was the and hide of the deer. was accustomed to approach the Sultan at the time of the morning prayer before the dignitaries of the Divan came in. water tfa surface of bis since he united the office of scribe with that Muntajab-ad-Din. after the performance of the prayer he would begin to advice and would relate some merry tale suitable to the give occasion after the serious business was over. 19 Cf. he secretly approached the king's ministers. Meanwhile Vatvat issuing proclamation after pro[lay hidden] all night on a roof- top and 18 Then. were the hero Rustam himself. the hermit clad in deerskins '. God gmn of courtier.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR If thine enemy.

a goodly sermon interceded for the people of the Atsiz too sent messengers bearing gifts and presents and offering excuses. For in 21 Koran. which he remained until his death. On Monday Muhar- ram 543 [2nd of June. 23 the son of Arslan-Khan Mahmud. pardoned was arranged that Atsiz should his faults for the third time. When Atsiz had conquered most of that region he set out in Muharram. and Atsiz was now given to understand that Vatvat had been aware of Kamal-ad-Din's attitude. 24 Atsiz learnt of When his alarm and flight. 22 I. Kamal-adDin came to join him.e. He had reached the neighbourhood of Jand when Kamal-ad-Din took fright and fled with his army to [n] Rudbar. iii. Atsiz came and made obeisance on horseback and then rode off before the Sultan could turn rein. 547 [April-May. and he ordered him to be put in chains. 24 Perhaps the Rudbar in the province of Shash (the present-day Tashkent). Hereafter Atsiz went on several campaigns against the infidels 22 and gained the At that time the ruler ofJand was Kamal-advictory over them. friendship between them. Turkestan. cit. 284 . n. Though Sanjar was incensed at this lack of respect.t 174. and there was great Din. 328. sengers Atsiz for his part received the messengers with every respect and sent them back with many gifts and presents. who was come clemency and forgive- ness personified. for Suqnaq and the other territories [beyond] intending to ' And when proceed thither together with Kamal-ad-Din. See Barthold. 3.' the Sultan reached Khorasan he dispatched mesand distinguished Atsiz with donatives and gratuities.THE HISTORY OF after delivering town. And at once he was dis. yet since he had already pardoned him he swallowed his anger as best he could and said nothing. 1152]. The Sultan. 1148]. op. and it to the banks of the the I2th of Oxus and make obeisance to him. See Barthold. 23 Apparently a Qara-Khanid. he sent a number of the notables and chief men to reassure him with promises and safeguards. 128. the heathen Turks. And who master tinguished with the excellence of the verse : f 21 for God loveih the doers of good! 21 their anger and forgive others. Kamal-ad-Din had been on terms of friendship and affection with Rashid Vatvat.

for should increased my pain. And it was in this year that the Ghuzz host (hasbam) was victorious and took Sultan Sanjar prisoner. And here are For some 25 verses from another: did sing thy praises in the thirty years thy servant shoe-rank. 53. when was no longer Destiny saw that the hand of thy magnificence laid on my head. already in Gibbon's day rejected as a fable by smile at the vulgar credulity*. that never did any court such a singer of praises as thy Now for thirty years thy heart hath grown weary of him that was thy servant weariness indeth its way into thy : * heart because of the length of time. The cage would appear to have been a real one.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR this reason he dismissed him from his service for a while. and where servants and humble visitors take their stand/ (Browne. setting him by day 27 upon a royal throne and keeping him at night in an iron cage. the fairness World decreased of thy favour and the goodness of thy my comfort and Destiny greater kindness. Without the grace. I. then. n. lesson 27 who the modern writers.) 26 His son and qafas-i-abcM. A Literary History of Persia. Desirous of seizing the 25 kingdom but giving as his pretext that 'The "shoe-rank" (Saffun-nMl in Arabic. The Lord of the [Heavenly] Throne knoweth there stand in servant. two or three verses from such a qifa : The following are O king. Look upon me with aught Wall like me. '. Vatvat has both qasidas and qifas on this subject. she ground my body tinder the foot of oppression. 332. See Gibbon. II. successor. findeth [12] And when Jand was purged of rebels Atsiz dispatched Abul-Fath Il-Arslan 26 thither and set him over that region. Destiny will show no other unto me. by God. 60 and n. so long and so often repeated as a moral lane. unlike that in which the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid was said to have been imprisoned by Tamer* The story of this latter cage. But the proverb says : When the master is annoyed he * fault and yet thy wretched servant is blameless. was * 285 . VII. and thou didst call for those praises from thy throne. pd-m&cUn in Persian) is the pkce by the door where those who enter kick off their shoes.

had been lost and Meanwhile news [13] to affairs that arrived that the had become e Emir lmadfield Ahmad b. ep.f 322 and 326. p. See above. but send IkArslan with an army to our and then we shall grant thee the castle Amuya and the double thereof/ Emissaries passed twice or thrice between them with question and answer. His father here wrongly given the title of Boghra-Khan. The Khorazm-Shah accordingly set out for Shahristana taking him and leaving another son. n. p. Mahis 28 whom mud Khan had abandoned his territories in Transoxiana after the defeat of Sanjar by the gur-^ban. Muhammad 28 Boghra-Khan. The Sultan sent the following reply first * : We begrudge of thee not the castle. 286 . Upon reaching Shahristana he summoned the emirs of that region in order to restore order to a Il-Arslan with kingdom ad-Din bearing that distraught. However. These now regretted both his coming and their having sent for him. on see above. and he sent a message to Sultan Sanjar to make professions of fealty and loyalty and to crave the castle very slowly of Amuya. fulfilling his obligations Atsiz set out Amuya with all his following and troops. the nephew of Sultan Sanjar. 279. and the Khorazm-Shah halted in Nisa to wait for Mahmud Khan and the other emirs. probably on account of a confusion with his uncle Abul-MuzarTar Tamghadi-Boghra-Khan Ibrahim. 29 Cf. n. 29 in Khorazm as regent. assistance. Khitai-Khan. Abu-Bakr Qamaj had dispatched a thousand carried off Sultan Sanjar horsemen and from the hunting Nobles and commoners rejoiced and made merry. However they to Tirmiz. but finally. ctt. 12. 2. the governor refused to listen to him. Atsiz turned back and went to Khorazm. He advanced and upon reaching Amuya endeavoured to possess himself of the castle by diplomacy. See Barthold. to whom the army had sworn allegiance and whom they had set on the throne of the Sultanate as Sanjar's successor. bethought himself of his former friendship with Atsiz and sent a messenger from Khorasan to seek his assistance in quenching the flame of the Ghuzz. 12. At this juncture Rukn-ad-Din Mahmud b. in the face of this refusal. from whence he again prepared a foray against the infidel.79. him dispatched *Aziz-ad-Din Tughra'i and concluded a treaty with The son of Arslan-Khan.THE HISTORY OF he was for to his benefactor. the Qara-Khanid title of Tamghach-Khan.

is it laboured Where all there a man of discernment to consider whether * thy kingdom was worth but this ? After four days had passed his death was made known and set out for Khorazm . and on his journey thither all the emirs and soldiers swore allegiance to him. Rukn-ad-Din 34. xxxi. and on the night of the 9th of Jumada II. 1156] he ascended the throne of the Khorazm-Shahs . whither came Khaqan Rukn-ad-Din from Nishapur. 551 [soth of July. in one 3hoosc. and pointing * to [14] Rashid-ad-Din Vatvat it said: at thy severity. Sulaiman-Shah. in one happy After this the his illness there reached Khorazm-Shah fell ill. on whose brow he had observed the signs of rebellion. He then departed and went to Khabushan of Ustuva. One day the Khorazm-Shah held a feast to which he invited Khaqan Rukn-ad-Din. They met and trod together the pathway of friendship. August. remaining in each other's company for three months striving to repair the rain of the kingdom. He imprisoned Il-Arslan his younger brother. his illness grew worse . he likewise bestowed many 80 charities. One day in the midst of him the sound of someone reciting the to take Koran. Mahmud Khan sent envoys to Koran. his And on the 3rd of Rajab of the same year [22nd of atabeg. he passed away and the pride of haughtiness and arrogance went out of his head. and executed Oghul-Beg.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR him. Heaven trembled a slave before thee. an augury he listened intently and The reader had reached the follow- w Neither knoweth any soul in which land it shall die! ing verse : He took this as an evil omen . whereupon he arrested some that harboured thoughts of ill-will and granted the emirs and soldiers more pay and larger fiefs than they had had in his father's day. bade Thinking ' his courtiers be silent. from a like The following is a verse in their praise qasida of Vatvat : stars They are united two monarchs two auspicious court. 1156]. wept over his body O like King. 287 .

8i for the normal sigbir ox *. *AM k al-Mu*inin.) On tit. 22 His father's name was actually Hasan QIlch-Tamghach-Klhan AbulMa'ali Hasan b. 552 [8th of May. apparently Dig the Turcoman. The Khan of Samarqand. the * name of the other Qarluq leader Lachin. 355 and n. He also bore the tide of Chaghri-Khan. dt. % is an Old Turkish word ' for king*. on the 6th of Rabf I. op. See Barthold. tit. set out from thence for Samarqand. on see AYLK TEJOLAN. op. p. chagbri according to Kashghari was one of ' the innumerable Turkish 34 words i. Glossw. dt.. Sultan Sanjar had passed into the nearness of God. the people of Khorazm sat down in mourning for three And when came that days. dL. 10. Pelliot. who was the leader of the Qarlugh. whom See below.. op. prefers to see in it the Turkish word %fof. fled from the sons of Bighu Khan of Samarqand. 1158] set out for Transoxiana. *norn d'un oiseau de proie assez analogue au faucon*. n. op. * for hawk * * or falcon *. See the other hand. Cf. and the two armies halted on either side of the Sughd River. reading Yabghu.t 16.e. i. 333. Pelliot. See Barthold. suggests that this was perhaps the former ruler of Baksaqun. MeanIlig Turkmen while the Khorazm-Shah. And in the year 553/1158-9 some of the chiefs of the that dwelt in the Qarlugh Khorazm. under the leadership of Lachin Beg and 31 and others like them. the 31 He BYTW.e. appealed to the Qara-Khitai for help and they sent 34 to the rescue with ten thousand horse.^n and n. op. 5. al-Husain 32 to Arslan [15] gave them encouragement and in Jumada II of the same year [July. dt. C the form sqjtir in Houtsma. When the Khan of Samarqand received the report of his approach he sought refuge in the citadel and took with him into Samarqand all the nomad Turcomans that lived between Qara-Kol and Jand. op. and had designs upon the leaders. The Khorazm-Shah II- Khan b. having encouraged the people of Bokhara with promises. 1157]. Barthold. for his part. HuSHf 97. Din had slain Bighu Khan. drew up his forces. Barthold. 333. Perhaps 'Blue Ox'. 2S8 .. 322 and 33383 KWKSATR. also known as Hasan Tegin. the Falcon *. 16. 7.THE HISTORY OF congratulate him on news- his accession and to condole with him on his father's death. Jalal-ad-Din *Ali 33 known Khorazm saying that Jalal-adand came as Kok~Saghir. reads this name Payghu but suggests the (yabgbu was the title of the ancient rulers of the Qarluq.

And In Ramazan. to was then in Jand. to their posts with full honours he returned Now after the death ofthe Sultan. upon His younger son. receiving tidings hereof he Upon made ready for battle and sent who 'Ayyar Beg. 1162] Mu'ayyid Ai-Aba of Nishapur and blinded him . administered the kingdom. but because of the 5 Ghuzz and the victories of been ngbulam** at Sanjar's court Mu'ayyid was distinguished above the other ibulams for [i6] t where he Ai-Aba/ who had horsemanship and skill in racing.t 227. Sultan-Shah. 289 . who was his heir apparent. 148. and the imams and ukma of Samarqand and sued for peace. Terken. and he returned to Khorazm. the affairs of Khorasan were confused and distraught. His Queen elder brother. ('slave') as jWfi* op. A messenger was sent An army was then summon him 36 36 but he refused to come. ascended the throne of Khorazm in succession to his father . Before Khorazm-Shah's arrival the armies had already joined battle : c was taken Ayyar Beg's army was put to flight. and he died of the inner his city which he had been imprisoned. And in the set out for Shadyakh with year 558/1162-3 the Khorazm-Shah a numerous army and a mighty host . Mahmud Khan had ascended the throne. to Qarlugh of Transoxiana. the ipth of Rajab of the same year [8th of August. and he himself to Khorazm he died Il-Arslan fell ill and returning prisoner. till envoys passed between them. And and in the year 566/1170-1 the armies (hasiwm) of Khitai Transoxiana gathered in great numbers to attack him. But when Ilig Turkmen saw the Khorazm-Sbah and his army he began to humble and abase himself. and his mother. 26. and for a while he besieged Ai-Aba there. 557 [Augusttook Sultan Mahmud out September. on [17] in advance the was o0e of the Amuya. dt. 1170]. On On the name the career of the see above. a member of the sovereign's per- sonal guard see Barthold. n. and they made in the castle in peace. his commandet-in-chief. p. Tekish.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR young men attacking each other In skirmishes. engaged in intercession and supplication The Khorazm-Shah acceded to their prayers and having restored the to Qarlugh emirs Khorazm.

let us see what thou canst do rites thy turn to rule. 290 . is really the Chinese fom * imperial son-in-law op. rather before . the Empress Ch'eng-t'ien (1164-77). 621 and 644. his mother. Tekish entered Khorazm and ascended the throne of the Khorazm-Shahs. because of the weakness of talent. * * and has composed his congratulations in accordance with his fancy But as for thy servant. whom the cloak of the Sultanate exactly for 'tis fits. FWMA with Barthold for the FRMA '. the Emperor Yi-lieh (1151-63). 337 and n. and the daughter of the original gtir-khan. to send a yearly tribute. constitution the greatness of my age my strength is unequal to the task.THE HISTORY OF fitted fled out to attack him.. took the straight road them and joined the malik Mu'ayyid and on Monday the 22nd of [18] Rabi* I. I must confine myself to a single quatrain that I have composed for luck's sake: my and Thy Thy grandsire washed tyranny off the page of the world father's justice repaired whate'er was broken . 568 [Monday the nth of December. See Wittfogel and Feng. O thou. She was the of the late Khan. 665 and 670.* And and Tekish performed the respect. When they drew near to Khorazm. of the text. once the country was subjugated. was brought before Tekish on a Htter. who had passed his eightieth year in the service of his ancestors. History of Chinese Society : Liao. See Barthold. Each of the poets and orators composed congratulatory speeches and poems. Fuma op. Wittfogel and Feng. he had come to them Tekish promised them all the treasures and wealth of Khorazm and undertook. Fuma was accordingly dispatched to accompany Tekish with a numerous army. and upon receiving tidings of this he and betook himself to the daughter of the Khan of Khans of Qara-Khitai. tit. 1172]. Come. fulfilled his obligations to Fuma of justice and equity and having sent him back with all honour mother of Sultan-Shah she sent the malik Mu'ayyid presents consisting of precious jewels and all kinds of treasures for the This was P'u-su-wan. 37 kingdom being administered by her husband. 3. Sultan-Shah and Fuma. Yeh-lii Ta-shih (1124-43). s8 When than fight and do battle. Everyone/ he said. dt. . Rashid-ad-Din Vatvat. sister As 37 38 Reading a title. the affairs of the who at that time herself bore the title of Khan.

569 [nth of July. 41 Ghiyas-ad-Din Muhammad and his (Muhammad Ghur). op. 291-4. This event fell out on the ninth of Zul-Hijja. In the end the malik Mu'ayyid was deluded by their words. knowing that the Khorazm-Shah himself had The malik Mu'ayyid was in the van. 5. from the latter arose the family of the future Parthian rulers. slew the of them and took Mu'ayyid himself prisoner. Hudud. 1174]- Meanwhile Sultan-Shah and his mother fled to Dihistan. n. He was brought before him and was cut in half at the door of his tent.e. . but Toghan-Shah being unable to assist him with men or money he went from thence to join the Sultans of Ghur 41 and 39 to laid hold of the skirt him with The it the kindnesses that are of appeal to them : they welcomed shown to such guests. last There are many variant According place in Khorazm on the road to Shahristan (i. they proceeded his mother. spellings. 153 and 337. 1 * Tekish followed them thither and Dihistan surrendered to him : he put Sultan-Shah's mother to death and returned home.) younger brother Shihab-ad-Din or Ghorids) see (the Ghurids * The Barthold. op. dt.f 338-9. the name of the ancient nomad people Adai Dabae one of whose branches were the Aparnoi. the dialect of these mounI. where Toghan-Shah. Lane-Poole. name of Ghur was borne by the mountain region situated to the east and southeast of Herat and south of Gharjistan and Guzgan . On the Sultans of Ghur taineers differed materially from that of Khurasan. text has SWBRLY. Sultan-Shah fled from thence and made his way to Shadyafch. the son of the malik Mu'ayyid. . 40 Dihistan was the name of a district north of the Atrek on the eastern shores was the Dihistan undoubtedly echoes of the Caspian. See Barthold. and the Satanish whisperings of his lost for land and offered him far astray from the path of righteousness.' (Barthold. dL. had taken up residence in succession to his father. dt. collected his scattered forces and set out for Khorazm wealth led He with Sultan-Shah and 8i they reached Suburai [19] a town which is now submerged in the river. in what is now Turkmenistan. 386. / * (Minorsky.e. When fell he reached Suburni Tekish greater part upon his detachment.f 338. op. The Mohammadan Dynasties.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and him the kingdom of Khorazm and all its territory* of the attachment of the people and the army to mother boasting and son. He remained some time in Nishapur. to Yaqut Khorasan).) Y 291 . When in detachments not halted in Suburni. Mu*ayyid*s army being unable to cross the desert in one body.

caused one of The nature of a free soul is filed with pride ! the notables of Khitai. and he fell upon Sarakhs and attacked Malik Dinar. who was one of the Ghuzz emirs. The Sultan then made ready for battle within the town and disposed his thrusting and striking weapons. and there was an exchange of abuse between Tekish and the people of Khitai. Upon arriving in Khitai Sultan-Shah spoke of his popularity with the people of Khorazm and with the army. and on this account they were unable to move to and fro. to be refuses to tolerate oppression He put to death on account of his unseemly behaviour . and at his request Sultan Ghiyas-ad-Din dispatched him thither with ample gear and equipment. Khitayans. When they reached the neighbourhood of Khorazm Tekish flooded the way of passage with the waters of the Oxus . When The he rejoiced and considered Sultan-Shah learnt of this estrangement between them it a sign [20] of his own good fortune. who had come upon an embassy. Fuma granted his request. summoned him to them . order In Khorazm and the affairs of the he had completed the restoration of kingdom were in good Meanwhile the envoys of Khitai were continually passing to and fro. Fuma halted at the gates. Most of the defenders he made fodder of the sword. latter When * : he It al-Din the to turned to his emirs and said left Ghiyashas occurred me that this man would have stirred up sedition in Khorasan Per- chance and must needs have caused us much this was a divine inspiration/ toil and trouble. and seeing of Sultan-Shah's strife popularity with that people no sign save and contention he repented of his precipitance and made ready to return home.THE HISTORY OF As trim* for Sultan Tekish. f Now the nobility of the soul necessarily and will not bear to accept tyranny. and their constant impositions and demands were beyond endurance. and they sent Fuma to assist him with a large army. and Malik 292 . and knowing of no asked other means of escape he Fuma to send a detachment of his army to escort him to Sarakhs. and moreover they did not observe the conventions of courtesy. in order to despite Tekish. Sultan-Shah perceived that no good would come of the attack on Khorazm.

When Sultan Tekish much strife and all that region. the modern Biistam (Bostam). where he took up his abode. The latter then recalled 'Umar of Firuzkuh from Sarakhs and sent in his stead the Emir QaraQush. He was pulled out of the water by the hair by those inside the castle. ii8i]. [22] and and much wealth by the might of God Sultan-Shah triumphed and property found its way as booty into his treasury. in which Sultan-Shah the remainder of the Ghuzz now sought refuge. Toghan-Shali to Emir 'Urnar of Firuzkoh granted his request and sent the Malik Dinar Sarakhs to take over the castle from him.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Dinar himself Be herled into the castle moat. Meanwhile. who died and was tfoe 74- 293 . And being. the star of his fortune rose again after unlike Toghan-Shah. SultanShah made ready to attack Sarakhs with less than three thousand men and sought an opportunity to break and violate his covenant and agreement. [i3th of May. including boards. sending back the army of KhitaL And he made constant attacks upon set Sarakhs until most of the Ghuzz had been scattered. 328. he sent a message to ToghaaShah to ask for Bistam in place of Sarakhs. and he was left like a bad dinar at the bottom of the purse. a man of war and - 42 See below. for most of his men had deserted him. n. and after and carnage the shock of the onslaught of SultanShah's army was the bane and ruin of Toghan-Shah . In and supplies the 22nd of Zul-Hiya. amongst other things three hundred backgammon himself master of Sarakhs and Tus Sultan-Shah now made 43 departed to Bistam. who was one of his father's ghulams. the and the warriors entered the field from either side. p. then out for Merv. and 4S came to Jajarm from Khorazm on his Dinar abandoned his dinars and his fief and way to Iraq Malik went to join Toghan-Shah. celebrated _ . 5* 43 Bistam. 576 Asiya-yi-Hafs on Wednesday millstone (asiya) of war began to turn. for his part. set out from with money Nishapur with ten thousand men fully equipped and marched against Sarakhs intent on battle. [21] As for Malik Dinar. f r was famous for tfoe tomb of buried here in Sufi Abti-Yazid (Bayazfd). and setting. finding himself powerless in the fortress. Toghan-Shah.

he was not admitted into Khorazm. In Rabi' I. 582 [March-April. not a lover of cymbal times for help to Sultan appealed several and the Sultan of Ghur. was 44 set upon the his throne in succession to his father. When peace had been and Mengli Beg for two established and the Sultan had returned home. and his kingdom lost its battle. As for Sultan-Shah. (M.THE HISTORY OF and harp. Saif-ad-Din Mardan1 1 86]. state He Tekish and on army to the like of frustration until the night of Tuesday the i2th of Muharfrom this ram. Sultan Tekish came to Merv and sat down before the gates of the town. and because of Tekish's he dared not remain where he was. ii86]. he turned rein and without waiting further hastened away to Shadyakh. when armies of [23] the Sultan learnt that his brother had entered the town and fortified himself there. The next day. when he departed to the next world and his son. he sent Shihabad-Din Mas'ud the Grand Chamberlain. came to join him In the beginning of the year 582/1186-7 Sultan Tekish went from Khorazm to Khorasan. the night with only town and besieged Sanjar-Shah months. and nobles went over to Sultan-Shah. he was constantly attackso that his army grew weary. presence at the gates of Merv he left most of his army there and in Upon reaching Anxuya cut his way through the fifty men-at-arms Tekish and entered Merv. was now paramount and opened whereupon most of Toghan-Shah's emirs hand in confiscations entered the service of Sultan-Shah. his who was and extortions. and Sultan-Shah availed himself of the opportunity to enter Khorazm at the head of a large army.Q. Sanjar-Shah. sending messengers to them one occasion going to Herat in person to ask for an It was of no avail. and he continued in assist him. 581 [15* of April. contrary to his expectations. he sat down before that Shir the Table-Decker and Baha-ad-Din of Baghdad the Scribe 44 Ibn-al-Atlur calls Win Meagli Tegm. Mengli Beg.) 294 . atakeg. lustre. and most of his emirs ing the latter. wherever there there* and all the Ghuzz were any of them left. greater part for Malik Dinar. of As Turks. he went to Kerman. who gained control of the Toghan-Shah's territory.

and Mengli Beg seized him and put him to death. The people of Sabzavar hurled insults at exerted every effort to take the town. between the Now the imam Burhan-ad-Din Abu-Sa*id b. Al-Kunas must be an abbreviated form of al-Kunasa. the shaikh 45 of the age. (M. they approached Ahmad~i- him and he grew angry and When Badili. to which he laid siege. Of the friend products of his sent to two or of him : three verses which he mind are these Kufa and which were this dictated (imla) to me by a to when I was writing account Will returning the confines of Kufa slake the thirst of longing before my in death ? And [24] shall I walk the morning between al-Kunas and *KMi 45 Ae shedding my tears upon those Mils? have jkrng God preserve whole of my companions in Iraq even though Ay my life from them in scattered fragments. The Beg sent Sultan's domestics not having accompanied them Mengli them in chains to Sultan-Shah. of his brother's return home.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR upon a mission to Mengll Beg to conclude the treaty of peace and confirm the agreement to which he had engaged himself. who was one of the saints (ahi&l) of Kufa. a district in die Yemen.Q. but perceiving that he made no for him. al-Imam Fakhtad-Din *Abd-al. and they remained imprisoned until a reconciliation was effected brothers.) KNDH 295 . again advanced on Shadyakh and fought there for a while . The vocalisation of identical with Kinda. After the conclusion of peace he entered Shadyakh. he progress and that the townspeople were too strong Upon hearing the tidings turned from thence to Sabzavar.Aziz of Kufa was in the service of the Sultan. setting up his mangonels. inhabitants were in desperate straits and were left the without asylum or means of escape. He was one of the greatest savants and the most distinguished imams of the day and held in high esteem by the sultans of the age . the name of a quarter It is dearly not is quite uncertain. SultanShah. and the posts of Cadi and sbaiklhul-Ishm of Khorasan were entrusted to him. in conformity with his custom and his desire to hold sway over the territory of Nishapur.

but he paid no attention.) 48 So according to E. set up his And on Friday mangonels and began a fierce battle. Ahmad. Now Shaikh Ahmad was a native of Sabzavar. the author of mystic poetry. 1187]. Afghan border. but that day. become a holy spirit in the heavens. 2). f 346. for the I4th of Muharram. my teacher. The 296 . associated with stiff (see do with the Sufis but by a false etymology fttffa Reckendorf in the Encyclopedia of Ifkm) . who received him with marks of respect and granted his prayer for fair pardon and condonation of their faults and hasty utterances. quatrains and The following [25] one of his quatrains : O soul. on account of their * And he said : quarrel with If there had been 47 a more refractory people than this. The 17th of Rabi* I (which is also given in a Petrograd University MS. if Thou wilt A throne thou cleansest thyself from the dust of the body. and as he left the town on his mission of intercession of this sciences. n.M. quoted by Barthold) would be a Wednesday. have sent me to them/ They shot an arrow after him would and it hit is him in the heel . the people hurled abuse at him the Sufis 4fi and the shaikhs. give the date as the 7th. in Khorasan near the whose sanctuary town of Turbat-i-Shaikh Jam) rest of the MSS. dt. petition and confirmed his word by oath. (V. is Shaikh Ahmad epistles. Mengli Beg was finally compelled to appoint imams and shaikhs as mediators sending them to him and laying his Tekish granted his hand upon the skirt of supplication. Sultan Tekish sat down before Shadyakh.M. ghazals.) lies Possibly the reference (the to Ahmad of Jam (441-536/1049-1142). there* *. was actually a Sunday.THE HISTORY OF world and without peer in the religious and mystic He went forth to save them and interceded with Sultan-Shah. thy seat: art thou not ashamed dwell in an earthly abode ? left is To come and Merv Sultan-Shah entered Sabzavar but kept his word and after remaining but an hour. 1187]. only one day out. probably the saintly people is the Sufis '. and spread the carpet of justice and entered the 46 abl4-si(ffa And had nothing * to had been fore here 47 jwr. 583 [27th of March. (V. as Barthold has pointed out (op. Mengli Beg presenting himself before the Sultan the latter e town on Tuesday the I7th 48 of Rabi I of the same year [27th of May.

service. andfor wounds retaliation! life. to the imam Fakhr-ad-Din 'Abd-al-'Aziz fatwas and oppression. And with the humility when the Sultan reached the town he repaired the ruins and in to winter quarters in Mazandaran . and in Rajab of the same year [September-October. 1187] returned to Khorazm. and nose Life for life. him and were ^ Koran. and for munds retaliation? ' * * reference to the four apparently a territories of Nishapur. Shadyakh to drink brimful goblets of striking and destroyed the greater part of the wall And from either side the armies clashed together [26] and opposed each other in strife and battle. 49. He set . and all the winter departed the emirs of Khorasan. 50 The text has arts' and tooth for Barters '. 297 . ' ' ' of Kufa to be put to death in vengeance for his son life for 49 The whole region 50 of Nishapur. Sultan-Shah at once led Seeing that the coast was clear again and caused the inhabitants of an army to attack Malik-Shah. competent hands of his elder son. in. for nose. and ear for ear. such troops as he had at hand. these tidings Sultan-Shah set and assistance. Nasir-ad-Din Malik-Shah. 412. The ' full version is: tooth. Wherebrooked no delay but set out with fire to his mangonels and departed of dust and the speed of the wind. in accordance with the learned is poisoned of the imams. who had not previously joined his and now distinguished the recipients of his favour. and thrusting. And he commanded a member 51 of his bodyguard (mufradan-i-khass) to proceed from Nisa in the guise of a deserter and inform Sultan-Shah that Tekish had On receiving arrived in Khorasan at the head of a great army. for his part. And Malik-Shah dispatched a relay of couriers sent letters seeking aid to his father fore and Tekish also. surrendered to the Khorazmpurged of his tyranny. singled out by inclusion amongst attached themselves to v. 102 and 32551 See below. ii. was now who placed the reins of the administration thereof in the Shah. and eye for eye.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR clemency. and cleared the injustice to see that site of the thorns and rubbish of a supervisor over MengH Beg what he had wrongfully taken and he duly restored then in order to avenge Burhan-ad-Din for the flesh of the he was handed over. See the Hudud. i.

Ambassadors passed to and fro between him and Sultan-Shah and they made peace with each other. to show his good will. son of Il-Arslan. and his fame spread throughout the world and fear of his majestic presence took root in the hearts and minds of all creation. and 'Imadi of Zuzan has a qarida on this subject of which the opening Praise be to lines are as follows: to God. the Giver of signets to kings. Lord of the Earth. Tekish Khan. The poets composed many congratulatory poems and addresses upon this occasion. The Khorazm-Shah. gifts and presents upon the poets in and upon mankind in general. and in the autumn particular of that year returned to Khorazm. from the time of Adam. Now whilst there was peace between the brothers there was constant enmity and warfare between Sultan-Shah and the Sultans of Ghur. and either party was cleansed from the impurities of discord and Khorasan was purged of rebels and enemies. son of Atsiz father and son. the The supreme Commander. after Sultan-Shah had been routed in the battle of Marv-ar-Rud and Panj-Dih and the pillar of his might and glory overthrown. from East to the West hath the world been confided sword of the World-Monarch. both parties thought it expedient to come to terms and outwardly concluded peace with each other. placed Jam. As for Sultan-Shah. Bakharz and Zir-i-Pul 52 in the hands of Sultan-Shah . kings. [27] the Khorazm-Shah ascended the throne of the Sultanate in the meadows of Radkan of Tus . for his part. the Emperor of the Universe. sent back in robes of honour the Khorazm-Shah's ministers whom Mengli Beg had dispatched to him in chains. but finally. he returned to Khorasan and encamped in the meadows of Radkan of Tus. 585 [24th of July. He as the hath stridden up to the throne of victorious fortune sun strides up to the throne of the turquoise canopy. he was constantly imposing on his The Sultan showered 52 Unidentified.THE HISTORY OF Finally. And on Tuesday the i8th of Jumada I. and the latter. 1189]. when Spring revealed her face from behind the veil of Winter and gave the world a share of her beauty. 298 .

f 33-4. His immediate successor was his brother Qizil-Arskn atakegs *Usman s* (1185-91). the recently deceased Qizfl-Arslan. and sitting down before the of Sarakhs. my great-grandfather Baha-adDin Muhammad b. when Qutlugh-Inanch. By last 299 . whereupon In reply to his appeal Now the minister my great-grandfather extemporized the following quatrain : Thy The 63 favour steals generosity of thy hand the glory of the hidden jewel . the Sultan set out from castle Khorazm to attack him.e. 53 dispatched messengers to the Sultan from Iraq to inform him about Sultan Toghril the Seljuq how he had escaped from the 54 fortress in which he had been imprisoned his hands. summer The brothers were now reconciled a second time.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR brother and made many demands of him . 'AH went to wait upon him. which was crammed with Sultan-Shah's men endless stores it. the son of the atabeg Muhammad. 56 I. 65 On Baha-ad-Din Muhammad b. Accordingly. And in the 56 and royal presence a discussion took place between these two at a sign from the Sultan's gaze fell upon them. the son of Ildegiz. Toghril II (1177-94) was the of the Seljuqs of (Persian) Iraq. and with destroyed passed the He and armaments. steals away the splendour of the Oxus . Baha-ad-Din the Scribe of Baghdad 5S was at that rime in the Sultans service. the two Baha-ad-Dins. and Sultan-Shah repaired the castle of Sarakhs and filled it with treasures and provisions. op. Mu'ayyid al-Baghdadi and his collection of official documents see Barthold. he took it by storm and turned back from thence to Radkan [28] and there. ctt. and certain of his actions pointed to a breach of their pact and a violation of their covenant. His son Muhammad Jahan-Pahlavan (1172-85) was the father not only of Qutiugh-Inanch but also of the atakgs Abu-Bakr (1191-1210) and Oz-Beg (1210-25). in the year 586/1190-1. Shams-ad-Din Ildegiz (1136-72) was the founder of the dynasty of the of Azerbaijan. and was wresting the kingdom of Iraq from for help the Sultan set out from Khorazm. When the Sultan came to Juvain [and arrived] at the town of Azadvar. And the ropes of fraternity and concord remained twined together between the two brothers until the year 588/1192-3.

great-grandfather When the sun entered Aries he took the road to Iraq to assail the rebels. 58 67 On 3OO . arisen between the Sultan and Qutlugh-Inanch. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. (V. but when fresh down appeared upon the of the and the bud of spring displayed its tongue in wide-mouthed laughter. the estrangement which perceiving many of had Meanwhile. built on a hill of the same name to the north of Ray. To this tune much of my the Sultan drank wine till nightfall and he made and honoured him with presents. and his army was heartened by the capture of much booty. and his mother S7 with one or two days .THE HISTORY OF Thy decision. And on that account the highway of friendship was cleansed from the impurities of embroilment and the goblet of affection filled to the brim. Sultan Tekish hastened thither with great speed. He passed the summer in the neighbourhood of Ray . dispatched gifts and presents and took refuge in the seeking of protection. within men of battle and weapons of war water his army perished. and because of the unhealthiness of the air and the insalubrity of the [29]. Sitting down before Ray 58 which was crammed the Sultan took the castle of Tabarak. . the Sultan collected the taxes and placed the Emir Tamghach And an (who was army. see le Strange. had departed to lay siege to Khorazm. Arriving in Khorazm earth the Sultan gave himself up to feasting during the lips wintertime.M. the senior Turkish emir) in Ray together with As news he returned he was met on the road by scouts with the that Sultan-Shah. And as news of his coming reached Qutlugh-Inanch they repented of having invited him and decided to take refuge in the castle. taking advantage of his absence. Upon his reaching Abivard ambassadors again passed between the brethren and resumed the work of peace and Qutlugh-Khatun. Sultan Toghril. 216-17. he made ready to proceed to Khorasan and attack his brother. but when he reached Dihistan messengers arrived with the glad tidings that upon the news of his homecoming Sultan-Shah had turned back. if thou deliberatest.) the castle of Tabarak. a foolish fancy Will remove from the head of Heaven.

the last day of Rainazan. 60 However. The as the festival of next day. is my own people and my home amongst them I The Sultan 59 granted his request and settled Nishapur with * '. (M. This is the famous Muhammad Khorazm-Shah. From grief at this news and mortification at these tidings the light of day was darkened to Sultan-Shah. chaghtr is a variant of the as Turkish merlin On the use of this word after name 60 Houtsma. was to the Sultan Nauruz and in triumph he seized upon the possessions of Sultan-Shah. and two days later. cit. his elder son. 59 growing apprehensive on account of calumnies and slanders which had been related against him before Sultan-Shah. received the tide of Ala-ad-Din. imprisoned a number [30] of the garrison in whom he had no confidence and dispatched a courier to Abivard to summon the Sultan. Badr-ad-Din Chaghir. But in spite of correspondence and the dispatch of letters by either side the pus of contention could not be removed. 1193] the sun of his life and fortune reached its decline.Q. on the night of Wednesday. Upon his approach Chaghir came out to meet him and make professions of loyalty.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR reconciliation. and because of the great number of hunting grounds around Merv he offered to kingdom and Having thus exchange Nishapur What even though they are for that place. Meanwhile the governor of Sarakhs. op. who. 589 [22nd 01 September. stone-Eicon '.f 28. upon a proper Reading cbacjir ClR ' D for the JfR of the text. who was governor of Nishapur. its a poor substitute for you are Syria and people. and Sultan-Shah from the exceeding malignancy of his nature and violence of his temper would speak words remote from the path of righteousness and divorced from modesty and propriety. The latter sent on a large force in advance and set out in person in their wake. was passionately fond of hunting with cheetahs and falcons. Nasir-ad-Din Malik-Shah.) 301 . viz. inherited the latter's throne and court and treasury and army he dispatched a swift messenger to Khorazm to summon Malik Qutb-ad-Din Muhammad. because of this news. and he delivered up the key to the castle and the treasuries. see ' his father's death.

Now having at the time of the dispute with his brother received tidings that Sultan Toghril had violated the treaty between them and hearing afterwards from Tamghach of his attack upon the army of Khorazm and seizure of the castle of Tabarak. recited the following verses from the Shaknama : When the dust arose from that countless army. He fell from his horse and as he lay on the ground Qutlugh-Inanch came up and was the mill of Heaven was grinding the beneath the stone of annihilation and changing moment about to deal him a blow without having recognized him. the tying and untying [of affairs]. Inanch accompanied by the emirs of Iraq came as far as Samnan to meet him and [31] in a posture of shame and contrition busied himself with excuses and apologies for having donned the necklace of his past crimes. as was his custom. and when Qutlugh- Shahnama ed. When Inanch drew near he too disposed his forces and donned the garments of battle. Vullers. which was filled with Tamghach's men.' 61 from * my And at that very grain of his life the hope he had cherished into despair. I uttered a yell has become saddle saying. I8&. He threw off his 61 veil to make himself known. the cheeks of our worthies turned pale. Now Sultan Toghril had a heavy mace. in which he took great pride. 1L 1060-2. As for me I raised the mace that kills with a single blow and felled that host upon the spot. in advance with the army of Meanwhile Sultan Toghril together with a great army sent him and him back and a numerous host had pitched his camp three parasangs from Ray and unfurled the banner of resistance and conflict. the Sultan set out for that region in the beginning of the year 590/1194-5 in order to avenge himself on Sultan Toghril and resolve that problem. The earth a millstone upon them. He rode to and fro in front of the army and.THE HISTORY OF Malik Qutb-ad-Din . . and he strengthened the hands of both sons in their kingdoms and in the loosening and binding. The Sultan pardoned and forgave Iraq.

62 he sent to Baghdad . and yet he could not stand up from the army of the Lord of Islam/ Kamal-ad-Din at 1194]. The poet Kamal-ad-Din. I 809.' With dominion of haughtiness of pride and the glorious the purpose of this bustling one blow he removed the terror from his vain- brain and confided his spirit to its original home. who was party once replied: 'Human was superior vice to Bizhan in strength: virtue set. 590 [24th of April. and within a most of the castles in Iraq. an-Nasir H-Din-Allah. wished [33] the Sultan to surrender Iraq or part of it to the 64 fro between the Messengers passed to and Supreme Divan. which had borne no good will towards the Commander of the Faithful an-Nasir li~Din-Allah. from short time he whence he set had captured Now the Commander of the Faithful. the fickleness of the revolving heavens of what avail is Against when Fate is hostile where is the Sultan's heavy mace ? And there of troops [32] any conceivable advantage from abundance and allies ? He was slung across a camel and brought before the Sultan. whilst This event his corpse was hanged in the market-place in Ray. who said: brought c So great was the fame of this fellow ToghriTs strength and to one charge by a scouting power. before the vizier Nizam-al~Mulk Mas'ud. SUbium ed. the Caliphate. 303 . 1182. Human was a Turanian hero slain by Bizhan. in Ray.* becomes when the sun has 63 The Sultan did not remain long out for Hamadan.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Inanch realized who * he was he exclaimed: It was thou I sought amongst all these and that was amongst friend and foe. And when the latter saw his enemy in that condition he dismounted from his horse to prostrate himself in thanksgiving to God and rubbed his face in the ground. e of Rabi I. 64 Le. and as the Sultan would 62 63 11801225. ToghriTs head. fell out on Thursday the 29th ToghriTs familiar was taken prisoner and companion and one of his panegyrists. Vullers. not agree the Caliph sent two parties.

in like as his atofag and [34] controller (naqik) And the other districts having been disposed of manner the Sultan set off in triumph to return to Khorasan. and the good fortune that attended him caused the Sultan to ward off that treason by dispatching an army to greet him. and the knowledge of the guile and treachery of such a meeting. When the winter of the year 591/1194-5 was over he set out 65 66 The ruins of DInavar lie about halfway between Kangavar and Kermanshah. emirs in his suite. has is come hither under which he that . and the surety that is for the affairs of the realm. on that errand.THE HISTORY OF Els vizier. and the army 65 Their reputation had pursued his forces as far as Dinavar. By the time the gifts and all kinds vizier had reached Asadabad more than ten thousand men Kurds from Iraq and Arab soldiery had gathered around him and his excessive officiousness and lack of wit and learning pre. On the way thither he received tidings that Malik-Shah had fallen ill on account of the unhealthy climate of Merv. and the Sultan entered Hamadan possessed of been destroyed dinars and dirhems and riches beyond measure. The text has MYANjQ and E MYANjWQ. He bestowed Isfahan upon Qutlugh-Inanch and enrolled the the vizier. Mu'ayyid-ad-Din Ibn-al-Qassab. and when he came to Tus and had recovered his health he again entrusted the emirate of Nishapur to him and struck the tents of departure to Khorazm. The obligation boon requires the Sultan to placed by advance to meet the vizier with a small following and great humility and to proceed on foot in front of the vizier's horse/ The pride of kingship and the Sultanate. He sent for him. Having allotted a fief to Sultan Muhammad in Khorasan he took him along with him. 304 . to him with robes and of honourable presents. Ray he 66 conferred upon his own son Yunis Khan with Mayanchuq of the army. and before the men of Baghdad had eaten supper they gave the vizier a taste of breakfast. He dispatched revenue officials (*unimal) to the countries of Iraq and entrusted the affairs of that realm to the emirs and agents (gumashtagan). bringing disgrace on the Caliphate. vailed * upon him to send the following message to the Sultan The honour and the diploma of Sultanship have been bestowed : by the Supreme Divan. He fled.

upon news of his approach. 40 and 41) * qaytr is the Western form of the normal Turkish qadir strong 68 The text has Urawyan. n. Malik-Shah returned home.) For a quite different reading of the name see Pelliot-Hambis. p. 1195]. turned rein and Now in the fled. Upon his request Malik-Shah set out for Iraq but before he could come to his brother's aid Yunis Khan himself had already routed the army of Baghdad [36] and taken much booty. QATR BWQW of the text. i. Qara-Alp the Oran. Whilst the Sultan had been preparing for this expedition.e. See Gibb 305 . 2. many perished under the sword and yet more were buried in the desert on account of Khorazm after heat and thirst.e. 70 Upon arriving in Khorasan he sent a decree to Arslan-Shah in Shadyakh appointing him his deputy and set out for Khorazm to wait on his father. 69 So the Janissary novice a'jamiyan. Relying upon this Qayir-Buqii returned and the two armies drew up in battle-order on Friday firm the 6th of Jumada II of that year [yth of February. 107-8. Suqnaq and that region to attack Qayir-Buqu The Sultan and all his forces had reached as far as Jand. * : On buqu means stag *. The brothers met in Hamadan. The Sultan himself reached eighteen days. 68 Sultan's army [35] there were a number of Oran (who used to serve as 69 A'jamis) to in attendance upon the Sultan. Sultan's Oran withdrew behind the centre of the army now sent a message saying that he should stand The and plundered the baggage. i. was called ajem ogbkn foreign lad as being of non-Moslem and Bowen. 70 Malik-Shah's son. The army of Islam was routed . more precisely Orcmians. 343. Yunis Khan had sent men of trust to his brother Malik-Shah in Khorasan to announce the approach of the army of Baghdad and to seek his aid. 83. f * ' birth.e. i. also Qara-Alp Oran. 4.e. and the Sultan hastened in his pursuit. at. QADR BWQW. Iskmic Society and the West. i. Qad'ir-Buqu. op. 'barbarians* in the Greek sense. 309.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR for 67 Khan. and after they had remained together a while carousing and making merry. These Qayir-Buqu and when the armies came together they would turn their faces and show their backs. On account of his absence the humours 67 Reading QAYR BWQW with E for the Further on the text has (II. (See below. n. see Barthold. when Qayir-Buqu Khan. n. 329. Campagnes. the Oran tribe * Cf.

and Sanjar-Shah was summoned to Khorazm where he was held in custody after being blinded in 72 The light of his sight was not world-beholding eyes. They made their plans in secret in order that no rumour thereof might get abroad and their design might not be revealed until they should raise up right and left and front and rear. from behind the curtains of opposition. He now had followed his daughter into Sanjar's houseby reason of his adverse fortune and unlucky horoscope was reduced by the above-mentioned persons to join in their plot. began to prepare for war against the Sultan together with the son of Toghan-Shah. in the year 595/1198-9. in sympathy with these plans of rebellion Sanjar's And mother sent gold and jewels to Nishapur from Khorazm in order to beguile the notables and chief men of the town with money and their secret However. viz. Tekish. his [part of] a quatrain [37] of his : When the A cry arose from the world hand of Destiny blinded my eye. After a while the emirs and Pillars of State interceded on his behalf urging the claims of his close and he was Death released and hour relationship by marriage. 71 as the sword of iniquity and injustice had then remained undrawn in the sheath of their volition. And so he continued until his appointed upon a pretext made by the Angel of arrived. completely cut off but he did not reveal this.THE HISTORY OF of corruption were generated in Nishapur by the agency of a number of demon-like men the hand of whose domination had been restrained from tyranny and oppression under the rule of the Solomon-like Sultan. became known. of Youth. 306 . 72 This was done by passing a white-hot bar before the victim's eyes. Sanjar-Shah. reinstated in the fiefs he held. in the whom the Sultan used to cherish bosom of his kindness and in the stronghold of his benevolence and to favour like his own children by reason of two ties which he maintained with him. These persons. the first being that Sanjar's mother was married to the Sultan and the second that the Sultan's sister hold. The following is lead their counsel far astray from the right path. 71 Lc.

on account of Iraq. and suffered no hurt is enough \ dis- After his death the Sultan turned to preparation for war and and thrusting weapons. The 74 Koran. The Sultan was much affected by this shameful excuse and manifest treason and realized that these were the symptoms of to Inanch came Ray to the assistance remained together for several days. vizier c And in was fitted Baghdad an army commanded by [38] the out to make an attack on Iraq. has supplied the date firom Ibn-al- Athir. returned from Ray leaving Mayanchuq behind as his deputy. He sent his head to Khorazm claiming that he had been meditating rebellion. some hurt that had affected his eye and which could not be cured this juncture An eye for (perhaps a punishment. so that the very members of his household were ignorant of that circumstance. 49. They and then Mayanchuq suddenly fell upon Qutlugh-Inanch and killed him. in [592/1195-6] The vizier of the Caliph being in Hainadan with an army the Sultan halted upon reaching Muzdaqan. 307 . p. spared their lives and dismissed before the battle the vizier. Some days who had commanded it passed away. for God Almighty hath said : ' an eye 73J. good or to the wise man a therefrom. and the news of his death had that the 73 the army. 75 the two sides joined battle and refuge save in seeking quarter. and he patched messengers to every side to summon the emirs of every quarter so that he might again make ready for some adventure. At news arrived of a dispute among the emirs of In the meantime. Qutlugh- of Mayanchuq. 49. 74 he set out for Iraq for the third time. insurrection. 75 Now z Mazdacjan to the west of Saveh in Central Persia. for sign the disposition of striking ill. and he would squint at all that happened. day or two later of Baghdad saw no army In his wonted manner the Sultan the A them with honour. See above. his son Yunis Khan. but he judged it expedient not to reveal his feelings. and M. 297* n. Finally.Q. There is a blank in the MSS. had been kept so secret army were ignorant of until after their defeat.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR At the time when the bar was passed before his eyes no one had known [that he had not been completely blinded] nor had he informed anyone thereof. v.

of this type of name 82 Lit. 79 77 set out upon the return journey having placed Erbiiz Khan. his disease prevailed over him and because of that malady he betook and himself from this transient abode to the place of eternity 76 * According to Ali 'Abdorrasuli. viti. 80 son of Toghan-Toghdi 81 in the grandson town of Isfahan and left Bighu Sipahsalar-i-Samani 82 as his atabeg. Tehran. 79 This would normally mean Fars. an act as report of the Sultan's victory spread through the two Iraqs and his cause prospered accordingly. where he fell Shah a sick. The The Sultan received him with honour and bestowed Hamadan upon him. the wavy lustre 78 upon his sword has taken the kingdom of Solomon. The atcktg Oz-Beg came to him from Azerbaijan having fled from his brother. 34-5. * 78 murcha. The crescent upon his parasol has conquered the castle of the heavens .THE HISTORY OF dead man's head was cut off and sent to Khorazm unchivakous as it was unworthy of a Sultan. 80 81 ARBWZ. whose dynasty was overthrown by the Qara-Khanids. little ant '. he has taken the kingdom of the two Iraqs well as Khorasan. ' 77 mabcba little moon *. ' the falcon is born '. the author of these lines was actually Kamd-ad-Din Isma'il. the Persian rulers of Transoxiana. For other examples see Houtsma. However. From Hamadan Khaqani 76 the Sultan proceeded to Isfahan where [39] he remained some time. which can also mean the knob at the end of his parasol. Samanid Commander-in-Chief *. op. The following qifa reference to that occasion] : [in I was composed by Gkd tidings the Khorazm-Shah has taken the kingdom as of Isfahan . 1216/1937-8. the editor of Khaqani's Divan. the 308 . the violence of his passion for the chase made his intellect its prey and he set out for Merv. He left for Nishapur but his illness grew worse. Conceivably the title was inherited from an ancestor in the service of the Samanids (874-999). for its climate agrees not with your 9 constitution. . which means lit. Upon arriving in Khorazm he sent Nasir-ad-Din Malik- After a while he his mandate conferring upon him the emirate of Khorasan * but said : Go not to Merv. C * the : name Actually a sentence togban togMi Erviiz (Erwiiz) in Kashghari. at*.

Mas'ud of Herat to Shadyakh to administer affairs and allay disturbances. 594 [Januarymade a raid as far as Jand in February. [He continued to administer that province] 83 until the time when an and his estrangement occurred between Qadir-Buqu nephew Alp-Direk. Hamilton. prevailed on him to listen to a people of strangers. the eldest of whom was Hindu-Shah. 157. or dink see op. to Khorazm . he dispatched Nizam-al-Mulk Sadr-ad-Din. more malignant than the evil eye. 1197] he returned to the Sultan and Malik Qutb-ad-Din busied himself with the administration When : of Khorasan.1 )- 309 . Upon the latter's arrival in Khorazm they set out together in Rabf I. chieftain Qara- Alp Oran (ibii. which availed and abandoned the expedition which he had him came nothing. The vindictiveness of anger. [40] he sent Malik-Shah's sons. 34Q. vizier the Sultan dispatched his second son Qutb-ad-Din to assume responsibility for the affairs of Khorasan. and by reason of his well-considered measures the tumults of unrest and the calamities in the wake of Fate died down under his firm control. And of this Muhammad. His arrival at Jand coincided with that of 83 tirek Malik Qutb-ad-Din. and he dispatched emissaries in all directions to assemble troops and conclude treaties and likewise summoned -Malik Qutb-ad-Din back from Shadyakh. and Qadir-Buqu order to attack Alp-Direk.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR this to pass on the eve of Thursday the 9th of Rabf II 9 of March. intended to make against the And since the sons of infidel. Us Outpours a Vfyoque ks Cinq Qipchaq dt. identifies Alp-Direk with the Dynasties. Malik-Shah were meditating connivance at rebellion and opposition to the Sultan. 1197]. * who had advanced ahead of the ALB DRK. I take the second element of the name to be the Turkish the use of this word in Old Turkish in the sense On of 'minister* Barthold. pillar'. he arrived the vizier had already completed his work and of the peace two days later on the second repelled the disturbers of Zul-Hijja [i6th of October. 343-4. 1198]. When news of his death smote the 593 [ist ear of the Sultan he moaned and lamented loudly. The latter came to Jand and sent mes- that if he received help from him sengers to the Sultan to say rid of Qadir-Buqu and his kingdom would then he would get be the Sultan's for the taking.

that is. the movement of the Sultan's troops. first * KNAR * DRK. and pride 84 85 Koran. for all the great army he had gathered together. and the demon of Error had rested in his overweening mind. 50. As for Mayanchuq. Meanwhile. KunEr-Direk must be identical with Alp-Direk. in Mazandaran. [Having captured him] he bore him. The * part of the ' name is conceivably a compound of the Turkish kun sun and er man \ As M.THE HISTORY OF and in this divine predestinaforces drew up and was put to flight and [41] Malik joined battle. 1198]. tion favoured the Sultans lot. Three months later he left for Iraq to at the [5th Because he had for so long ruled that with its affairs a desire for country and preoccupied himself absolute rule and complete independence had taken firm root in his brain. Qadir-Buqu Qutb-ad-Din set out in his pursuit. The two 3 in chins M before the Sultan. Following upon who dispatched him in bonds in Rabi* II of that year [Februaryhim the victorious Sultans despairing of their themselves arrived in the capital. 37. together with his chiefs and troops' linked together main army in order to reconnoitre . and shackles to Khorazm March. or xxxviii. The remains of Qadir-Buqu's people. 1198]. he was unable to picture constancy in his heart and became exceedingly frightened and alarmed . states in a footnote. During the winter of that year the Sultan tarried that but in the beginning of spring he prepared for action. equipment [42] had accrued to him by the Sultan s fortune. leader. xiv. and he was deluded and misled by the munitions and settle with Mayanchuq.Q. 86 Acting upon the proverb Iron is split ly iron the Sultan raised the glory of Qadir-Buqu from the abasement of captivity to and having bound him by firm treaties dispatched command him head of a large force to dead with Alp-Direk. * Kun-Er-Direk gathered around confusion and light * : 85 and 3 collected together to work up the flame of unrest. he was at his wits' end as to what course he should take. when he heard the sound of the raging sea. the Sultan himself set out for Khorasan and arrived in Shadyakh on Tuesday the 2nd of Zul-Hijja. 86 Set a thief to catch a thief/ 310 . 594 of October. the nephew of Qadir-Buqu.

not to be confused with 5. see below. Damavand (see le Strange. but on condition that as a punishment for some of his rebellious actions he shall be enchained and imprisoned for a year and then pass the rest of his life on one of imposts.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and firmness were inconsistent with the state of his mind. With few men that still remained with him he was twice chased all round Iraq by the Sultan and all this time he was constantly to make excuses and seek pardon and at the sending messengers same time in his fear was beseeching the Sultan to desist from summoning him to his presence. Arriving before the castle in his pursuit the Sultan's army set about besieging it: under shots from their mangonels they dragged him by force out of the castle. thirdly. bound him upon a camel and took him to the Sultan at Qazvin. who never committed an act of disloyalty. Although/ expelling * said the Sultan. Firuzkuh in Ghur. cancelling taxes. slaying those who held it on his behalf and and installing his own men in it with a great store of supplies provisions. his just retribution would be nought less than exemplary punishment and the imposition of every degree of chastisement. The speaking through his chamberlains. ousting the frontiers against the infidel on the Jand border/ Simultaneously with this victory came the glad tidings of * Qadir-Buqu's defeat of Kun-Er-Direk and. enumerated all the boons and blessings he owed to the royal house and went on to recount the ingratitude with which he had requited these latter. n. nevertheless because of my debt of gratitude to his brother Aqcha. kindnesses and favours. 328. the news that messengers 87 Le. 87 which he had previously seized by guile and treachery from the the . I have spared his life. When it became clear to the Sultan that his heart was false he dispatched an army to pursue him like the wind. on which i). small defeated band made his way to the castle of Firuzkuh. p. n. committing acts of treachery.> had arrived from Baghdad bearing splendid and 371 and 372. They came upon him unawares and put the He himself with a greater part of his followers to the sword. abolishing * Erbuz Khan from Isfahan and his tax-collectors [43] from the Divan. Sultan's commanders. of. famous casde on the slopes of Mt. 311 . the dt.

289-90. Arslan-Gushai is a castle near Qazvin on the borders of the Rudbar of Alamut. he would have been Now had ashamed to mention this conquest. Sultan Arslan. not of course Tekish. 91 This passage is absent from. 145.M. being compelled to come to terms the garrison began to come and so they [44] in detachments and depart to Alamut . 1933)later This may not however be the original work of compilation based upon it. 312 . and given the name of Jahan-Gushai. The absence of the passage quoted by Juvaini was first noticed by Houtsma in Ada Oriwtaliaf III. Sayyid Sadr-ad-Din in the Zukdat-at-Tawarikh.THE HISTORY OF numerous presents and a patent conferring the tide of Sultan of Iraq.* describes it as follows : rock upon a lofty mountain-top. finally. and it was crammed with men give their and supported ly every manner of arms! their strong castles that Sayyid Sadr-ad-Din been witness of the conquest ot were taken in the present age by the of the illustrious King 92 within a short space of time (as army shall be mentioned in its proper place). the castle was built by the Assassins during the reign of Sultan Mas'ud (1133 ~5^) Arslan's uncle. Being no longer preoccupied with all these matters and having no further cause for apprehension regarding the Supreme Divan. wishing to magnify the exploits of the ( It is a strong castle built of solid Sultan. by no means impregnable and but ill supplied with men and treasure. the Mighty Castle '. a castle which had been captured by Arslan son of Toghril 89 and had therefore become known as Arslan-Gushai. According to Ravandi. down all of them got away in safety with all their possessions. by the swords of the Khusraus. He continued to lay siege to it for four months until. It was unsuccessfully besieged by Mas'ud Lit * but was 89 finally captured by Arslan (11(51-77) at the beginning of his reign. 90 Le. Khorasan and Turkestan. which seizes Heaven by eager 91 the forelock to and lives butts Orion . Sadr-ad-Din but a (V. the Sultan now took it into his head to uproot and extirpate 88 the Heretics and led an army to the foot of QalVyi-Qahira. and would have considered the following line of 'Unsuri appropriate to the occasion: Such are the actions of the such are the 88 traces left great when action is called for . Toghril I (1132-3). the history of Sadr-ad-Din edited by Muham- mad Iqbal (Lahore. let alone describe the castle.) MU Hiilegu.G. near to earth and far from heaven. I.

4. by which ci. dt. let him survey ' that the stand firm till the time when it shall come to pass 96 mountains shall be like flocks of carded wool '. from thence let him deduce the prowess and might of each of their armies and warriors. that were conquered in this present age by the grace of God the and Avenger and the fortune of the august monarch Hiilegii . and broad/ Now the point of this is that Abul-Fazl goes on to * If any one doubts this story let him go to the castle of say Ghazna and see that hide for himself where it hangs from the 94 The compiler of these histories for his gate like a curtain/ remains of that hide but a [45] remarks that nothing now : part story. the Heretics observing that the Sultan's hostility was due to the endeavours of Nizam-al-Mulk. returning from Somnat the hide was thirty ells long and four ells They skinned it. it is separated from the Caspian province of Gflan. residence in Isfahan. Meanwhile. 22-4. follows: who In the as 'When the Sultan was 93 one of his falconers slew a great serpent. After capturing that castle and quenching the flame of unrest the Sultan established his son Taj-ad-Din 'Ali-Shah in Iraq. 93 Jilcfif took up positions on the path to a palace to Or Somnath. let him with his reason that one puny fortress with the hundred or more stout but let such a doubter rise compare castles. each of them a hundred times as strong as Arslan-Gushai. way to Khorazm. passage is not to the author and his work see Barthold. and he himself turned fixing his place of back and made roth of his II. it is be answered with the Tarikb-i-Nasiri relates jest of Abul-Fazl Baihaqi. which he entered on the Jumada 596 [28th of March. on the south coast of the peninsula of Kathiawar. 95 Tarum is a district to the north of Zanjan on the south-western On (Tarom) slopes of the Elburz range. who was the chief vizier. op. 95 up and from Tarum in the West to the region of Sistan. which is a distance of nearly 300 the mountains and castles that shall parasangs. 313 . 96 Koran. 1200].THE WORLD-CONQUEROR And If that this flattery should occur to anyone who has not seen these castles the brand of nought but rhetorical language bearing such a person may like that describing Arslan-Gushai. 94 This be found in the edition of the Tankb-i-Baiha^.

the Mountain Country *. Now it was one of the wondrous events of this world that the said vizier bore an enmity towards the Grand Chamberlain Shihab-ad-Din Mas'ud of Khorazm and also Hamid-ad-Din 'Ariz of Zuzan. border. a name derived from its two chief towns Erdaus) and Qa in. and when he began to recover he set out Turshiz. the siege Quhistan. and was so far advanced that the castle might have been taken within a week. dt. and he was plotting to send Shihab-ad-Din But vengeful Fate.. n. He appointed Malik Qutb-ad-Din to requital this task and sent a messenger to Instruct him first to choose his 97 In accordance with troops and then to begin with Quhistan. It is Tun (now 314 . His physicians treated the disease. this command Qutb-ad-Din made his preparations and commenced with Turshiz. the Sultan.THE HISTORY OF which the vizier was going. The principal town to-day is Birjand. op. was the name given to the region stretching southwards from the Nishapur area along what is now the Afghan 97 * Marco Polo's Tunocain. and thy slayer shall be slain! much grieved at this and determined upon and revenge. When he came out of the palace one of the accursed ones struck a blow at his back whilst another from the other side stabbed him in the head. could not bear the trample of their feet he laid siege to that For four months he continued to fight. so that he straightway gave up the ghost. had been filled in. Meanwhile. Just before his own death he had caused 'Ariz to be beheaded at the gate of that palace Mas'ud after him. 2. nay rather the previous Creator. who had been assembling armies from every side in Khorazm and preparing for action. 98 There is still a district of Turshiz. Le Strange. the moat of which was as deep as a cavern. required commandment of the this intention his own blood should ikss be and that before fulfilling c spilled upon that of Ariz. and In those last days he had been attacking these two dignitaries before the Sultan. it As said for the /Mr they were cut to pieces on the spot [46]. to the west of Turbat-i-Haidari. was attacked by a plethoric disease which developed Into quinsy (from which God preserve us!). The Apostk of ( : Thou God (may God Mm bis family !) hath truthfully bast slain and shah be slain . 354. locates the town on the site of the present-day Firtizabad. 98 With a host such that the mountain Sultan Tekish was castle.

those painters. He continued to he came to the stage known as Chah-i-'Arab journey Arabs' Well *). Having no inkling of his father's death the people of Turshiz performed many services and offered tribute over and above 100. This was on the ipth of Ramazan. the emirs and Pillars of State and held a feast and on Thursday the 2Oth gathered together of Shawal.000 dinars. Meanwhile a prodigy occurred : his standard snapped for no reason and drooped its head. limned pictures of wicked and unprofitable imaginings and drawings of lewd and fruitless 315 tidings proceeded to every corner of the land. news of his father's death reached the Sultans . 596 [4th of August. 1200] with divine assistance * WHEN he arrived . Sultan. Like a downrushing flood or a torrent of rain he joined day to night and night to day until recite the sura till he reached the gates of Shahristana. life The withered branches of the realm became fresh and verdant and the dead soul of justice returned to and health . and since the bucket of his life had fallen to (* the bottom of the well his malady returned and he departed from this transient abode to that eternal resting-place. When Shihab-ad-Din and Ghiyas-ad-Din. and bearers of the good of Ghur. He concealed it from the army and on the pretext of sickness [47] made ready to return.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR The physicians forbade him to travel. 1200]. Envoys passed to and fio and they began to discuss terms of peace. would not on the acceptance of advice. because of the fierceness of the fire of wrath. He took this as an evil omen and following upon it came the news of his father's death. The Pillars of State at once dispatched messengers to Malik Qutb-ad-Din to inform him. 596 [2$rd of June. the promptings of the demon Ambition. Malik Qutb-ad-Din then returned. they set him upon the throne of kingship. There he performed the rites of mourning and hastened on to Khorazm* PI] OF THE ACCESSION OF ALA-AD-DIN KHORAZM-SHAH at the capital. but the [for Turshiz].

The brother Sultans rode all round the walls as though they were sightseeing and then came to a halt in front of the town. after which they were dispatched to the capital of Ghur. and the bride-dressers known called as Human Pride [48] perfumed and painted the brides Greed and Cupidity. whilst Shihab-ad-Din proceeded to Quhistan to destroy the abodes of the Heretics and demolish their castles. They continued to pillage till mid-day. whilst they themselves set out with a great host and ninety elephants. As for the army of Khorazm they were taken out of Shadyakh together with Taj-ad-Din *Ali-Shah and the notables and dignitaries of the Sultan's realm and subjected to many tortures and torments. 1201]. the x people ofJunabid sued for peace and tendered their submission. where they engaged in much looting and pillaging. when a proclamation was made that they should desist. Here was the brother of Sultan Muhammad. who had returned from Iraq. Ghiyas-ad-Din went to Herat. where they stationed Muhammad Kharang . 316 . and shahnas were dispatched to Jurjan and Bistam to take possession of those The Sultans then turned back after placing Ziya-adplaces. The soldiers took this as a favourable augury . After first resisting. and from thence in Rajab. each the size of a mountain. The tower collapsed. In order to watch the army a large crowd of people had taken up their stand in a tower facing them. as soon as anyone at once restored to him. to Shadyakh. they were there 1 Now Gunabad.THE HISTORY OF phantasies upon the page of their brain . and the spoil having been gathered together. [49] And such was the discipline of the army that each all soldier at once let go of what he was holding . together with other dignitaries. sending sbahnas to the houses of ascetics and holy men lest any harm should befall them. 'Ali-Shah. they stormed the town that very day and began to plunder. They therefore dispatched an army in advance to Merv. Din in Nishapur at the head of a large army and repairing the walls of the fortifications. recognized his goods. for was policy in their plundering. 597 [April-May. Every one who had had some hand in the administration of the Divan had his property confiscated. First they came to Tus.

his nephew.) Tulak is still the name of a town and district to the east of Herat. Iftbou art king. When Sultan Muhammad learnt of the turmoil and confusion set amongst the peopFe of Khorasan he out from Khorazm like a raging lion or a terror-striking lightning-flash with a great of the army and an immense host. to the Sultan of Ghur. and on the lyth of Zul-Hijja same year [i8th of September. Upon the Sultans arrival at Sarakhs the not come forward [to meet him]. 1961. governor of the fortress did the town until they took it and to and he left a made 2 besiege party the governor prisoner. demolished Hindu-Khan. they realized that their toil was in vain and all their of no avail They crept like mice into their hole. 1201] sat down before Shadyakh and stationed his forces around the town. in order that they might learn how to give when powerful and how to be clement and indulgent in the face of great rancour and hatred. loaded with boons and favours. When Hindu-Khan heard of his uncle's rained down upon him and approach the rain of discomfiture he left for Ghur. But after tasting the valour of the army of Khorazm. be indulgent eyes to crimes He ' put into practice the proverb: with respect to them and closed his . to be completely Having ordered the walls of the town the Sultan set out from thence for Merv and Sarakhs. on behalf of the which was held and misdemeanours by Sultans of Ghur. they had on their and causing the shaikhs and ulema to behalf they humbly and servilely begged the Sultan [50] for quarter. Perceiving that they were about recourse to ambassadors intervene ' to fall into the abasement of captivity. and having honoured and in great number and money without dignified them with robes measure he dispatched them. Meanwhile the Sultan himself had returned to Khorazm by Juzjani (Raverty. and fighting mangonels were set in action on the outside until the walls were humbled like the earth and the moat filled in. took part in the defence of the fortress against the Mongols. being full of conceit of their might and prowess. The Ghuris made sallies and engaged in battle. 317 .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR He set the cadi of Tulak 2 over that place as guardian and went to Herat.

Din Marghazi. 318 . [See above. Sultan Muhammad thought it would be prudent not to cross the river so that the water. of Merv. The men of Ghur followed in pursuit of the Sultan's army. 1201) the Khorazm-Shah had laid siege to Shadyakh. (M. He no been polished and pruned other means of escape therefore He sent forward ambassadors [51] and accepted a heavy tribute. Now the governor (kutval) of the fortress. 317. action either side. like fire. In 3 Zul~Qa da of that year he set out once again intending to e attack Herat and extirpate its noble rulers. As for the troops they were divided in their minds whether to cross or to stay. 'Izz-ad- and battering . Receiving tidings of this the Sultan turned back by way of Marv-ar-Rud. might serve as a screen between the two armies.Q. and his acceptance of the people's gratitude and forgiveness became a chain of Meanwhile the Sultans of Ghur were gathering their forces and making ready to return to Khorasan. but to seek humbly for quarter. and some actually crossed. like a bracelet about the arm. At this the violence of the Sultan's anger abated request for pardon about their necks. 1202]. p. As the Sultan had no mind for an encounter he decided to proceed to Merv.) 4 Le. He encamped in the as soon as his followers were from every side set out from thence at the head gathered together of a great army of Taziks and Turks. and outside Herat. 4 was a man who had saw by the experiences of life.] It seems most likely that he means Zul-Qa'da of the following year [August. and his troops pitched tent after tent all round the town.THE HISTORY OF way of Merv and had a second time made ready for battle. When the Sultan was* occupied with the siege of Herat they determined to avail themselves of the absence of the Khorazm-Shah and his allies from the lands and regions of that kingdom and to lead their armies thither. while Sultan Shihab-ad-Din came up by way of Talaqan. Mangonels were set in rams moved with the speed upon the towers were breached and the walls smashed of chargers to pieces. dispatching his own son to the Sultan as a hostage. His pavilion was erected meadows of Radkan. Upon reaching 3 Which year ? Juvaini cannot mean Zul-Qa*da of the year 597 since on the iTth of Zul-Hijja of that year (ipth of September.

And though the army of Khorazm was not the half of the army of Ghur By the 5 they charged down upon them and put them to flight. pp. 6 The castle near Merv. arrived before the town and making a the village called The spelling is uncertain but may be the same as that of Tarq in Central Persia. He turned to meet them. the minds of noble and base alike were filled with hatred of their rule. See le Strange.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Sarakhs. 209 and 449. The Ltmis of&e Eastern Caliphate. As for Sultan Shihab-ad-Din he led his army to Tus and wrenched out the wings and feathers of the inhabitants with tortures and confiscations. There being insufficient provisions for his army he forced the people to sell corn and sent men to carry off the grain which they had transported to Meshed (Mashhad~i-Tus) where it was under the protection of the tomb of the shrine. Upon reaching Merv he left Muhammad Kharang there. 154 and 165. For these hard reasons. 319 . in bravery. From thence he proceeded to 5 Tarq to attack Taj-ad-Din Khalaj. where he took some of the Sultan's emirs prisoner and slew a number of people. but because he disdained to accept he would not agree and set out from Sarakhs for Khorazm. but army of Khorazm Unidentified. who sent him his son as and as he turned back the emir of Margha 6 Hkewise a hostage Elated by this success he was returning to sent him his son. and ambassadors passed to and fro between two sides. and the people had an even greater desire to attach themselves [52] to the Khorazm-Shah's party. See above. he halted the . The Sultan was asked to surrender some of the tribute provinces of Khorasan. He made a raid on Abivard. At this juncture there came news of the death of his brother Ghiyas-ad-Din and Shihab-ad-Din beat the drum of departure. Merv when he received tidings that an army from Khorazm was . This Muhammad Kharang was one of the chief emirs and heroes of Ghur and. approaching the city by way of the desert. in addition to what had gone before. the Rustam of the age. and when the two armies came together the winds of the Sultan's fortune began to blow from the direction of Divine Assistance and the hearts of his adversaries began to tremble. a thousand wiles Kharang succeeded in entering Merv.

they set up Mangonels were then aimed at the towers from every side stones rained down like hail upon the bazaars streets so that it became impossible for people to walk about. Now Alp-Ghazi. which kingdom they decked out to appeal to his heart * and eye.* they said. he was filled of the emirs at with anxiety and bewilderment and overwhelmed with weakness and impotence. most of them have been clutch- ing the handle of fortune/ pleasant effect became riors pictures upon upon the Sultan's heart.THE HISTORY OF breach in the walls took him prisoner. for Kharang had been the mainstay of the Sultans of Ghur and [53] their bulwark in that battle. full authority from the Sultan to 7 make peace and MSS. The greater part of the emirs are inclined in favour of the Sultan. When the Sultans made fight with these beasts every few days he killed them both * and said : How long must I fight with a dog and a pig ? * He would break the leg of a three-year old horse. Ghiyas-ad-Din. 1204]. perhaps a the kingdom See above. and his sons are quarrelling among themselves about the kingdom and the inheritance. 7 news of his death reached Sultan Ghiyas-ad-Din. is now removed. his These words produced a most and dreams of wealth mind. p. set out for Herat with a well-equipped army of waradorned with bravery and valour.e.) 8 9 Or I. the chief emir of Ghur. the Sultan's retinue arrived before the town The inhabitants began to despair. n. so ensure that the path of unity So in all the for Shihab-ad-Din. he When and and the royal pavilion. The elder brother. and Alp-Ghazi caused * * ambassadors to intercede. In Jumada I. and since his exalted banners have cast their shadow over those regions. 30. of the Ghurids. and his strength of arm and courage were such commanded him elephant to engage in on several occasions they had combat with a lion 8 and an and he vanquished both. (M. 600 [January. had been appointed governor of Herat. where the Sultan disavowed the killing. tiger. 257.Q. For fear of his fury one once dealt him a blow and his head was dispatched When to Khorazm. I have/ he said. him After the Sultan's troops had State won this victory the Pillars c of began to urge him to attack the 9 kingdom of Herat. 320 .

he did not neglect the obligations of justice towards the people and considered the waiving of this condition to be a more lasting treasury and a stouter bastion. army of Ghur. reached the appointed time only two or three days after the Sultan's departure. shall henceforth molest No one Khorasan neither shall the Sultan's men in any way molest or injure these regions/ In addition to these agreements and covenants he undertook to pay a huge tribute and went surety for the Ghuris' good faith. in order to collect which he had undertaken to pay. 10 district of Afghanistan. who had been dismissed from the service of him with Sultan Shihab-ad-Din for undertaking to effect a reconciliation. In order to take his revenge Sultan Shihab-ad-Din was again preparing to go to war and this time he intended to begin by attacking Khorazm. The Sultan for his part. and the floor of the audience-hall was bruised by the touch of his lips and his forehead covered with dust from his prostrating himself in thanksgiving. and Alp-Ghazi. which exceeded ants or locusts in their numbers. he practised caution by acting with decision and returned In this way he raced the to Khorazm by way of the desert. When the Sultan heard of his tyranny and violence. although they were in fear and dread of the Sultan on account of that pillaging. His army laid waste the region of Badghis 10 and were heartened by the capture of goods and cattle. gladly accepted the offers of Alp-Ghazi and the people of Herat and protected them from losing their lives and property. In fulfilment of the treaty he withdrew. Alp-Ghazi came to wait upon the Sultan. wishing to lance the abscess of strife and rancour [54] and so spare the lives and honour of fellow Moslems. He proceeded to Merv. In accordance with their treaty the Sultan sent him back to the town after loading the tribute honours. When news of his intention reached the Sultan. to the north of Herat on the frontier 321 . opened the hand of oppression and exaction against the people and began to extract it from them by such means. informed the people of that army's Badghis is now a with Turkmenistan. and Alp-Ghazi.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR be trodden and the customs of orthodoxy observed. and arriving in his capital.

began to dispose his elephants and instruct his men in order that next day at dawn they might fashion the cup of battle out of human skulls. 15 Taraz or Talas. the same is a martyr ! account the zeal and good will of the people were redoubled. On summon He within only a few days seventy thousand men of action and Meanwhile the army of Ghur. Twketim. on the 322 . inwardly boiling with zealous calamity. 5. Meanwhile. having also sought aid from 12 and fixed his camp on the bank at Nuzvar. 14 This was probably the man's title rather than his name : 13 TAYNKW. with so many troops and elephants and with such bustle and clangour that. and they set to work as one man.THE HISTORY OF approach. * of the text. rage and outwardly agitated with fear of humiliation and abase- ment. 11 who of the Faith and a bulwark of the realm. ordered them to seek a ford in order to cross the next day and he trouble the drinking-place of the Sultan's pleasure. the giir-kban. with one heart and voice agreed to resist and fight. was approaching The later Khiva. the kter river Talas. and in sermons from the pulpit was a pillar he gave sanction for f battle in accordance with the true tradition life : Whoso this is slain in defence of his and property. Suddenly news came that Tayangu 14 of Taraz. 148 and 155. Reading NWZWAR for the NWRAWE. of. they could have turned the Oxus into a plain their and made the plain an Oxus with blood. had they wished. comments that perhaps not the main river bed but the channel flowing near Gurganj is intended*. pitched 13 The Sultan of Ghur camp opposite on the eastern bank. tayangu in Old Turkish means * chamberlain *. and announced the occurrence of that unexpected The whole population. 15 the 11 12 And commander of the army of Qara-Khitai. 350. went to every extreme in his efforts to discomfit the enemy and repulse them from harem and homeland. spirit had been gathered together. to oppose and repel. and all [55] of them busied themselves with the provisions of arms and implements of war such as swords and lances. On Nuzvar see Barthold. Aulie-Ata and the present-day Jambul. c&. the Sultan had sent relays of messengers to every part of Khorasan to infantry and cavalry. n. Barthold. The revered imam Shihab-ad-Din of Khivaq.

See Nicholson. for a quatrain : She extemporized kite. and camels. the Ghuri escaped from thee in confusion. they thrust back the sword of combat into the belt of retreat and chose to flee rather than to stay . the Abyssinian viceroy of the Yemen. vi. The army of Khorazm continued to follow in pursuit of mares. xlviii.' 19 The Sultan gave a feast in Khorazm. 17 Koran. of Predestined ' Felicity inspired men's hearts with the verse: God promised you the taking of a rich booty and sped it to you. and despite [56] disappointment and loss of honour complied with the proverb : This is not tby nest. the rest of them limped and stumbled through the waterless * wilderness like some bewildered man whom the Satans have spell3 bound in the desert 17 . As night they retreated the Sultan pursued jealous stallion as far as battle. asked Firdaus of Samarqand. and horses . 18 Unidentified. until by infamous wiles they passed through Saifabad. and one of his courtiers girl. depart then from a dmUing that lefits the not. as follows O 16 king. where by the people of the elephant are meant of Abraha. and elephants. and Auspicious Fortune through the tongue grace. them like a raging lion or a Hazar-Asf. ao. AA 323 .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR fire-like host and that with him was the Sultan of Sultans of Samarqand When the people of the elephant 1S realized that the Lord of Lords had cast their plotting into confusion with a and lhat from war and battle could come nought but despair. Many and of their emirs and leaders into the bonds of captivity. 70. Shihab-ad-Din commanded his men to bum the baggage in the and sew up the eye of sleep . a minstrel suitable to the occasion. cv. who marched against Mecca in the year of the Prophet's birth. Like a chicken he escaped from the the forces Koran. enveloped in gracious bounty and submerged in bounteous angrily at their heels. 18 The Sultan. like stallions turned back possessed of wealth. and the standards ofthe Ghuris were overturned and their fortune reversed. 19 Koran. Literary History of reference to A ' * A the Arabs. 65-9. where they turned and gave their right The Sultan's army charged fell wing. and from excess of aberration and perversity they hamstrung the horses and the camels.

in Northern Afghanistan. for the army of Khitai overtook them [37] and encompassed them on every side. By a thousand wiles he obtained his got away with through the intercession of the Sultan of Samarqand and f his life at a time when no time was it of escape \ M If we return safe with bonoumlk souls that hoped for something 1swt were disappointed in their hope. And from dawn till dusk either side fought with sword and lance. when the standard of the sun was perished.000 men. opponents* As for the were left of the army. 50. xxxviii. and many On the next day. resistance was broken and the hand of conflict tied . The king surrendered the bishops to thee and so became checkmated. when they reached Andkhud they saw what they saw .THE HISTORY OF He alighted from his horse The king gave thee his elephants and hid his lace . 20 The second two lines have a double meaning and may also be translated as follows: From being a knight he became a pawn and hid [covered] the castle. the army of Khitai showed The neck of their their mettle and charged all together. On this pretext I will seek to mediate on thy behalf and obtain the consent of this people. viz. By means of a ruse he flung himself but the army of Khitai breached into the citadel of Andkhud a hole in the wall and he was on the point of being captured all that . raised upon the walls of the horizon and the solar scouts appeared from behind the Eastern curtain. centre with some 100 men. when the Sultan of Samarqand sent him the following message : to fall into the snare 'For the honour of Islam I should not like a Moslem Sultan of unbelievers and be slain at their hands.* Sultan Shihab-ad-Din offered everything that he had as a ransom and all at once the contents of the treasuries and arsenals able were scattered release as largesse. Koran. 20 21 army of Ghur. 324 . and escaped being killed. were slain in and Sultan Shihab-ad-Din found himself alone in the battle. It is advisable therefore for thee to offer as ransom for thy person all that thou hast in the way of elephants and horses and immov- and movable property. 21 22 The present-day Andkhui 2.

[58] When the Sultan of Ghur arrived in his own country stripped of his army and treasure and displaying a hundred thouand blemishes. and arouse tyranny.. and extort money. was sent in chains to Khorazm. and he dispatched Badr-ad-Din Chaghir from Merv and Taj-ad-Din Ali from Abivard to repel these After the battle Zangi. and a pact was concluded between the two Sultans to this effect. the pretext of was assembling troops and an expedition against took it into his Finally. 417. ten of the emirs. in preparation for action. this c up of reached the Sultan. II. manufacturing weapons on the infidel. Shark~al-Yaminlf Cairo ed. two months later a part of the army of Ghur assembled in the confines of Talaqan. yet Sultan Shihab-ad-Din because of chagrin for what had passed was gnawing the back of his hand and. However.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR Our their souls are the best of all spoils : they return with 23 sap and their life in them.) 325 . but henceforward let * the paths of concord be followed and the highway of discord closed/ Sultan Shihab-ad-Din for his part confirmed the terms the Sultan whenever he so of peace with mighty oaths and bound himself to aid and assist commanded . who had 23 in his history. together with disturbers of the peace. and Taj-ad-Din Zangi. But though the ropes of solemn oaths were spliced together between the two Sultans. Abdallah b. drove the revenue famil) unexpectedly into the snare of destruction and began to stir News oppression. one of the chief men of Basra. where in punishment for their actions their heads -far le it from my were severed from their bodies. made an attack who was the instigator of on Marv-ar-Rud (which was to official result in his losing his head). Quoted by 'Utbi See Shaikh Ahmad al-Manini. the Sultan sent one of his chamberlains to him with the following message : It was your men who started these hostilities and "the is the more aggressor unjmt".Q. (M. in the year 602/1205-6 he head to make a beginning by an inroad into India for the purpose of mending the affairs of his retainers and followers. this rebellion. 'Utaiba. The violence of these listeners ! disturbances was allayed and the realm was at peace.

the actual assassins appear to have been fanatical Shiahs of the heretical Ismaili sect '. nothing. 25 of the text. and Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. position of Damyak is not known.e. certainly furthered it. Turks and Afghans. for instance. 481-2. where he of foes and forgetful of the waiting and watching of Fate. eft. if so. Haig. discusses the various versions * of the assassination and concludes that though the Khokars were perhaps privy On to the design. 156-7. x.Q. They turned the bright day oblivious to the perversity into black night for the army by destroying the king. Turkestan. takes this for the Oxus. Le. 157). II. die I5th of March. but it was probably situated on the northern bank of the Indus. 352. 47-8. and the date is given in a quatrain quoted by Juzjani (Raverty. but in Juvaini. op. this name is applied to any large river such as. * states attained martyrdom at the hand of a specifically that Shihab-ad-Din disciple of the Mulahidah '. he was campaigning in Khorasan.Q.. 484-5) implies that they were Khokars. The scene of his death. 326 . See Juzjani tr.e. 27 It is not clear from account whether the assassins were or were 26 Jii$% i. in the middle of the day at the 27 siesta two or three Indians emerged from the water as unexpectedly as fire and threw themselves into the pavilion. the Indus. however. as the 3rd of Sha'ban. that God granted him to repair all the deficits able by one victory of treasury and army* He turned back for the homeward 25 [59] His pavilion was erected journey and forded the Jhelum. Juvaini's agents of the Isma'ilis . Rashid-ad-Din tr. 486) 1206. of what avail is the might of man ? And when fortune wanes of what gear and accoutrement. Smirnova. n. 5. according to both Juzjani (Raverty. 26 so that half of it extended over the on the bank of the river water. 602.THE HISTORY OF lost all their gear and accoutrement during the last few years of 2* Upon arriving in India. Haig. was a place called Damyak .. has pointed out in his introduction to Vol. at. Raverty. thinks it most likely that it The was a little to the west of the Jhelum. not ji&fis. as suggested by Reading JYLM. i. 158) the other hand Juzjani (Raverty. assistance are quantities all this of elephants ? All his white and black profited him 24 The purpose of the expedition seems rather to have been to quell a rising of the Khokars and the tribes of the Salt Range. ie Jelam. for the HYLY M. time of the Sultan's Suddenly. Barthold. 484 and 486) and Rashid-ad-Din (Smirnova. and no care was taken to guard that side against jida'ti. and spoiled When our doom awaits for him the flavour of the food of life. Uc. and. as M. the Kur in the Caucasus and the Jaxartes or Syr Darya. 48. was lying us. Raverty.

99..* 8 [60] So many times had he toiled that the Sultan might have the profit of his toil ! Still stranger was the case of the malik of his close kinsman. For a throne was substituted a bier.) * ' wish is elided there remains (maniya) (tnarif) death . II. 327 . [mi [6l] HOW THE KINGDOM OF THE SULTANS OF GHUR PASSED INTO THE HANDS OF SULTAN MUHAMMAD WHEN 28 Sultan Shihab-ad-Din departed from this vile abode to the eternal mansion. 'AH and quoted by him in the Tattmmat-al-Yatima. by the decree of the Almighty. Without any pause or delay he travelled two stages in the space of one and traversed three parasangs in a single spurt.Q. (M. 29 If the initial alif of ' ' AMNYH (umwya) (M. When of his fortune was become fresh and verdant.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR All who and ruled and were obeyed and possessed wealth valiant troops Reigned for a while and were chiefs and leaders anl then became nothing but the theme of conversation. Became from her is the origin of his composition. He was on the verge of realizing his wish charged out when Death. 29 Now shall these events were the cause set forth of the Sultan's fortune. each of whom had become a Tha'alibi Khalaf of Hamadan.Q. and when the final ha is also removed there remains MNYH MNY 'seminal fluid*. which was fully loaded with the ambitions of this world. awaiting by the latter's death he attained his wish he thought that long-cherished the branches of his desire had borne fruit and that the garden Bamiyan. himself wasting away and yet the approach of Shihab-ad-Din's end. as be in another chapter. If any man attains a wish from his life in Fate causes the alif to fall from it. and misery took the place of felicity. his slaves.) See EghbaTs K ed. from ambush and cut off the caravan of his life. this world. when both ends of his wish are elided. a contemporary of Abul-Faraj Ahmad b.

50-1. who became the 5 ruler of that area. . as shall be mentioned in the proper place. son of the governor of Herat. than a year. Il-Tutmish by name. and the facility for the beauty and fertility of the country. and he devoted himself to drinking and pleasure. i. a slave of his own. there arose a disagreement among and chief men. The Gates (flniia. . text. As is usual with died and heirs. with Taiwara in the Ghur Taiwara is locally known as Ghur. His fame spread through the greater part of India and into every land and country : there are many tales and traditions regarding his campaigns and victories. now under ruler their sway* achieved independence within the territory Thus Qutb-ad-Din Ai-Beg was for a time frontiers of Delhi and the of India and carried out several infidel of that country. .' regions in almost any direction. who was the pride and the Kharmil. by Holdich. capital. and 'Izz-ad-Din Husain. all its point unmistakably to Taiwara and neighbourhood as the seat of the Ghuri dynasty of the Afghan 328 . Turks the Reading AWC A for the AWjA of the Uch on Chenab in the State of Bahawalpur. for there are ruins absolutely no difficulty enough to support the theory. renowned for his intelligence and acumen. another form of Ghazna (now Ghazni). Ghiyas-ad-Din s capital.. and because of the cheerful sound of the harp could not reconcile himself to the hardships of war. Lahore and Peshawar were seized by Qubacha [62] and were afterwards conquered by Sultan Jalal-ad-Din. 222-3. great expeditions against the When he left no male heir. anticipated the other emirs 1 In fact Ai-Beg was succeeded by after his son less Aram dethroned by Il-Tutmish (mi Afghans.THE HISTORY OF local ruler. 2 reigning for Shah. the notables and weakness and impotence. 4 after many uprisings and disZavulistan 3 and Ghaznin turbances were taken by Taj-ad-Din Ilduz. who was however See Haig. Herat. Ghaznin ' Identified valley.. bulwark of the Sultan's kingdom. and may be absolutely on the site is of the ancient There is . combined with kings. And since the emirs saw in his actions nought but softness and langour. in traversing these Taimani mountain movement. was set upon x the throne as his successor and received the laqab of Shams-adDin.e. s Zavulistan (or Zabulistan) was the name given to the mountainous country along the upper waters of the * 6 Hdmand. to extravagance frivolity . 2 Multan. The countries along the Indus including Ucha. and Firuzkuh were occupied by his son the Emir Mahmud.

both horse and foot. banners rose up upon the desert horizon it became as clear royal as the sun that his claims were illusory and his words inconstant . therefore. who was the chief emir of Bamiyan. son of Kharmil. The victorious army. and sent bearers of these good tidings to the Sultan. against Now at that time the Sultan was apprehensive of the Khan of 6 (may God nuke and mesof all to advance fearing lest he should steal a march on him possession of Balkh and the adjoining territory. and trod not the road of resistance. and and whilst awaiting the arrival craved his presence with them . But before they could bestir themselves the Sultan's army charged down upon them like a lion leaping upon its prey or a falcon attacking a mountain partridge.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR in swearing allegiance to Sultan bright his Muhammad example!) and sent message after message senger after messenger to him urging him first Herat and annex that kingdom to his other dominions. He was greatly distinguished the Sultan with all kinds of gifts and presents [63] and by received also a patent with togbra conferring that territory upon him. Wishing. which in the hands of the Sultans of Ghur and lay close to the Khitai and take had been kingdom of Khitai. of the royal standards they halted by the way. As for the governor of Balkh. Qara-KhitaL . the commanders of the castles came to wait on him and hastened to surrender the keys of their strongholds. in the Turks of Khitai he refrained from place to keep off the approaching that area [in first person] but sent a messenger to Shadyakh to bid the army of e Khorasan proceed to Herat. !zz~ad-Din. When the Sultan arrived in the region of Balkh. for relying upon the fortress of Hinduvan. he at first breathed hotly the and was constantly giving voice But when the loyalty to his Court. sat down like a bracelet breath of devotion to the Sultan to claims of allegiance and 8 I. 'Imad-ad-Din. came out to welcome them and surrendered the town to them. he broke his promise and assembled therein choice treasuries of jewels and money. which was a stout stronghold and a firm foundation.e. Meanwhile the other emirs. They dispersed and scattered the whole of them. united to attack the Sultan's army. who sided with the Emir Mahmud.

consisted of nothing from beginning to end but belittling of the Sultan's cause and warnings against yielding obedience and allegiance to him. in chivalry the code of magnanimity to therein. the Sultan declared that his violation of his covenant called for his release from the noose of life. 69. The Sultan granted his request lest he should take fright and treated him with greater indulgence than he had expected. Itid. which was addressed to the governor of Bamiyan. not from choice.THE HISTORY OF and rained down arrows and began to collapse and the garrison turn their backs in flight. xxviii. Upon receiving news of his father he decided to refuse to come out. he began to knock at the door of supplication and sued for quarter.. 8 xvii. and the distinction he enjoyed in the banquet of conviviality made and the Lord knoweth what him the envy alike of man and jinn and the J [64] Suddenly the patrols seized a letter from the hands of the couriers and brought it to the Sultan. And since there was no other to c cure to !mad-ad-Din*s hurt save submission and subjection. and since his tongue could pronounce * B He fell no excuse for his treachery. 7 The contents of that letter. for book ' also means ' letter \ 330 . promising to confirm him in the possession of the territories of which he was governor. When he came out of the fortress and kissed the floor of the audiencehall. His son was in the castle of Tirmiz. he was distinguished by the greatness of the royal attentions around the walls of the fortress missiles until the foundations abundance of the kingly favours he received . their breasts conceal ." to the ground. However his a confidential messenger to upbraid and threaten The Arabic word * father sent 7 him . all might not be held lawful by make any change or alteration to He therefore sent him Khorazm treasures together with he desired in the way of choice and congenial \ companions. 15. but that since the tongue of pardon had granted it his comprehension in the royal favour. Koran. the bird of his security began to soar over the horizon of protection. The Sultan placed that ( " Read thy book : there wantetb none epistle in his hand saying : but thyself to make out an account against the this day. by force of necessity.

The Sultan then army. I. i. no all his coevals. whilst the other classes busied themselves with decorating the town. Thus the malik of Sistan hastened to his Court and was enrolled among the dignitaries of the kingdom : in the attentions and favours he received he was distinguished above eye ear } . 46. saying. The Sultan likewise sent AUama of Kerman to win over the Emir Mahmud. The nobles hastened out to accord him a dutiful welcome. at the Sultan's command. 424 and n. 9 with Time submissive to his command and desire. 10 What mention of any year in this year ? There has been no previous Ibn-al-Athir records this event sub anno 603/1206-7. The following verse about the Emir Mahmud is taken from a Khatun Jurzuvan or Gurzuvln was situated either at QaTa Wali or at Takht-iin north-western Afghanistan east of Bala Murghab. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. whom he encouraged with many promises. Triumphant and victorious he set out by way of Jurzuvan. See le Strange. i.) Koran. Cherubs preceded him crying [65] f ff Enter ye therein in peace. 9 e chapter. the revolution of the heavens in accordance with his to Herat.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and he came down and. 12 IWv 33* . xv. surrendered Tirmiz to the Sultan of Samarqand. entrusted the ad-Din Chaghir and strengthened region of Balkh to Badrhis hand with a large Having cleansed that area of the impurities of internal disturbances the Sultan decided to proceed to Herat. 11 (M. Sultan strengthened the foundations of justice and under the shadow of his mercy and equity brought peace and repose to the whole people and all the local rulers came to make obeisance to him. secure" u and the people praised }J * e " 12 Praise fa to God. Lord of the world ! The God. had ever seen and such elegance and good order as no had ever heard of. They adorned the thoroughfare through the markets and streets with all kinds of gold-embroidered garments and hung up images and In the middle of Jumada I of that year 10 the Sultan entered the town with such equipage and majesty as pictures. and Bearers of the glad ridings proceeded the inhabitants rejoiced and were of good cheer.Q.

000 1S dinars ofntkni now finished with the affairs gold. with the viceroyalty of those countries. p.) 132 . Mahmud. His great-grandfather was *Izz-ad-Din Hasan. 15 In these figures are written in is a siyaq notation [siyaq or system of figures in which Persian revenue officials keep their accounts]. Emperor of West and East. he shook the reins [66] II of that year of departure in the direction of Khorazm gladdened with the advent of victory and prosperity and blessed by auspicious And in Jumada 16 Exertion and predestined Fortune with the achievement of his desires. 323. n. He honoured 7zz-ad-Din Husain. 13 Husain no doubt for the sake of the rhyme with maghribatn East and West *. son of Muhammad. son of Husain. to To the capital of the realm I have led an elephantj although I am not Alraha^ the son of as-SaUab. son of Sam. His grandfather was Baha-ad-Din ' ruled in Firuzkuh. who A SvM Again what year 1 Apparently 601/1206-7. son of Kharmil. and since this MS.Q. of that region the Sultan Being decided to return home. 14 See above. The following verse is from a qasida of 'Allama of Kerman describing this which was brought along with him: elephant ancestors.) ie Sam.Q. and the Sultan's request and settled the viceroyalty he ennobled the coinage and the kbittba with ears MahmucTs and adorned men's with the sound thereof.THE HISTORY OF qasida composed by 'Allama at the time when he was sent on this mission: Sultan of East and West. (M. according to Ibn-al-Athk and also the context. (M. by that envoy he sent such presents as were the accumulated treasures of all his And which he added a white elephant. 16. 13 Mahmud sent an ambassador to the Sultan together with 'Allama in order to crave his appointment as viceroy of Firuzkuh and the settlement of that territory upon him. showing him all manner of kindnesses and favours in gratitude for his services and assigning him land to the value of 250. The Sultan granted title upon him . is very old (689/1290-1) it appears that in that age the siyaa^ notation was employed in more or less the same form as at the present day.

He his offences. and since to oppose the Sultan was to agree with them * they promised him all kinds of benefits. them and craving the Sultan's protection Kharmil oath from came out. On this account the words : dawn 1 2 ymr waters sMl Lit. Most of the leading men set out After obtaining an for Herat and encamped outside the town. and intention Kharmil applied to the Sultan's officers in Khorasan and besought their [67] aid. and all agreed as to the extirpation and destruction * At early of the army of Ghur. that he again supported the court of Khorazm. He had recourse to insincere excuses and sought by falsification and dissimulation to conceal his shortcomings from the Sultan and to be exempted from the duty of hastening to his presence. Rumours spread abroad that he had perished in an attack upon the army of Khitai. Kharmil was frightened at his own stupidity (kbarmaill) and in dread of the violence and fury of the Sultan's anger. presumably Mahmud and his advisers. ' have sunk away ' 2 might have been applied Le. Ixvii. and the demon Temptation stuffed KharmiTs brain with and the vanities of pride took up their abode sent an emissary to Sultan Mahmud. perceiving his hypocrisy and duplicity. 333 . Becoming aware of their secret The men of Ghur. a sinking word-play on Ghur.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR [IV] OF WHAT BEFELL KHARMIL AFTER THE SULTAN'S RETURN the government of the countries of Herat in the of Kharmil. when the news spread of the Sultan's return and triumphant entry into Khorazm. The Sultan pardoned and forgave him and saw fit to condone foolish imaginings in his nature. in the ground) 'a your waters shall have become a ghaut (ie. the Sultan turned his reins homewards and grasp thereafter busied himself with all kinds of other matters such as raids HAVING placed and expeditions against the infidel. and he again struck coin and read the kbutla in the name of the Ghuris and imprisoned such as claimed some connection with the Sultan's court. However. realizing prepared to attempt his life. 30. Koran.

* The Sultan them accordingly sent a message to the emirs ordering to remove him and excise the source of his corruption. and the ruffians (aubash) and libertines (rindi) of Herat made ready to resist in the company of Rindi. a man of shrewdness and intelligence. sages were sent. From thence they sent him to the 3 near Khaf and pillaged his movable and castle of Salumid immovable property. to whom mestions were made against * Herat is a forest whereof he is the lion. He distributed Kharmirs 8 is Salumid. They continued to treat him with courtesy in their wonted manner and still kept treading the path of gaiety and joviality. He now escaped like a fox from the hunter and took refuge in the citadel of Herat. saying : and an ocean whereof he is the leviathan. not . and duplicity all their followers were became apparent. without any motive of fear or dread. presumably the present-day Salami to the north-west of Khaf on the road to Turbat-i-Haidari. giving frivolous excuses (1 ti-babana-yi-takhfif). Several days later they sent his head to Khorazm. they summoned him for a consultation and closeted themselves with him. the Salumidh of the Httdud. If you neglect to deal with him. Finally. They discoursed on all manner of topics. Qivam-ad-Din. The malik of Zuzan then openly seized the reins of his horse and signalled to the chief officials to unsheathe the swords of death. and when they had finished the malik of Zuzan. also known as Salumak and Salam. His chief supporter and mainstay [68] was a person called Sa*d-ad-Din Rindi. because in the first place repose confidence in his words he had for no reason entered the noose of obedience and had When KharmiTs then. divested himself of the garb of allegiance.THE HISTORY OF to the source scattered. account of such suspicions accusahim before the Sultan. His followers were scattered and he was dragged on foot into a tent. one day. Together with him the followers of Kharmil had no desire but to repel attack. 334 . of the Ghuris' power. a fool or a glutton. invited him to his house ostensibly to take food and drink but he persisted in refusing. men ceased to or deeds. there will be distraction of On minds and hearts.

ruffians. At this juncture. Now when to reproach during Hindi's rebellion envoys were sent to for him and rebuke him an action which * ill befitted his condition he used to excuse himself by saying : I am a faithful servant of the Sultan and only await the arrival of the royal standards to surrender the fealty . as shall be described in the following chapter. 335 . and the company had of revenge upon them. be borrowed from his victorious opponents. perceiving be hopeless. Cf. 'the Ulan Red Hero *. exchanged the robes of iniquity for kSzlii 4 KZLY. thus affording access to the fighting men [69] One day Rindi was feasting a crowd of louts and every side. after which they filled in the in the neighbourhood of the gates and raised it up with on and rubbish. The word Bator. a dyke was opened and the water flowed back with a rush like the wind. On this account they had. taken their lives In their hands and prepared themselves for war and battle. the capital of Outer Mongolia. Kozli 4 drew his hand out of the sleeve of rebellion in Shadyakh. seeing ' ' is here still anachronisdcally applied to Sultan Muhammad's survives in modem Mongolian in the form bator. Gloswr. The tower known as the Tower of Ashes moat earth collapsed. as Urga. own Cf. forces. supper before that finished their breakfast they had his position to The crafty Rindi. 99. when the babadurs 5 raised their standards upon the walls. and the emirs instigated to proceed to Herat and urged him to hasten thither* was When he arrived Rindi repented of what he had done and continued to offer resistance. the a word yet to of Houtsma. The Sultan came from Khorazm to Shadyakh and from thence to Sarakhs. like^fc'/r.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR treasuries and all his possessions as largesse among the common and such of them as had previously possessed nothing people but a stick now became men of wealth and affluence. The flame of the Sultan's anger flared up the walls higher and he ordered the water of the river to be diverted against and the bank of the moat to be piled with tree-trunks and rubbish. is now called. 6 labafar. for I place no trust in the town and perform word of the ceremonies of the emirs/ This statement him reported to the Sultan. After some time had elapsed and the water had thoroughly soaked the walls.

1 before Shadyakh. and came to Here he put out a rumour that the army of Khitai had entered Khorazm and that the Sultan had retired in precipitation from Herat and on that account had ordered him to On this pretext he took strengthen the walls of Shadyakh. Khorazm. to KOZLI was a Turk. 1 Apparently from the siege of Herat. and at the time of the siege of Herat. should desist from pillage . As for Rindi he was brought to account and questioned regarding the treasuries and what he had unjustly taken from the and he rendered up all that he had or was punished for his deeds.THE HISTORY OF the rags of Sufism and sought in this way to conceal himself. one of the kinsmen of the The emirate of Nishapur had been entrusted administration of that region was in his hands. possession of the town [70] and opened the hand of confiscation and oppression upon the officials of the Divan and the wealthy. and the shops of the town were re-opened that very day. he suddenly the Sultan set out thither. he took fright. citizens of the town . 336 . He likewise set about strengthening the ramparts and walls and digging out the moat and sent an envoy to the court of Khorazm seeking to engage the Sultan for the time being with false pretences and misrepresentations until the town had been fortified. and Herat was purged of the impurities caused by the strife and tyranny of the unrighteous and was decked out with the bounteous And from thence the Sultan set out for justice of the Sultan. knew o And in the end he [V] OF KOZU AND HIS LATTER END Sultan's mother. The net of search was cast over the streets and bazaars until he was caught therein and dragged by the hair into the Sultan's The latter then issued a proclamation that the soldiers presence. him and the Being informed of certain suspicions that the Sultan entertained against him. What he thought was that when these fortifications were com- withdrew.

Kozli's envoy fled back to Shadyakh and reported what had happened. the Sultan would fear the danger of the outcome and so would not forfeit the pleasure of safety but would meet him on equal terms and do him no harm. etc. the kingdom being in a state of disorder. the governor (muhtasbam) 3 Upon his arrival there besought him to release the notables whom he had brought with him by compulsion. his son together the 3 carved great mountain to the north of Kermanshah on whose rocks were famous Achaemenid inscriptions. he left them in Turshiz. The more eminent officials of the Divan such as Sharaf-al-Mulk (who was plete the vizier). on the nth of Ramazan.e.. Muhtosbam was an Isma'ili tide. after seizing all their belongings. Some persons arrived from Tabas with the news that he was coming back but came tidings of his day 2 that his destination was unknown.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and he was in possession of dinars and dirhems. not free will. 604 [30th of March. That same dark night with his Turks and Taziks he took the road to Turshiz. and the auspicious banners of the Lord of the Sultans of the age were borne forth at the head of an army beyond number. the craving for the soil of Shadyakh so fanned the flame of vain ambition in his being that he speedily returned from Kerman. and then departed in the direction of Kerman. Sayyid 'Ala-ad-Din the 'Alid. the dawn birds raised their lament. 4 I. From fear. Meanwhile. the whirlwind of zeal fanning the flame of wrath in their nature and their flashing swords grinding all opponents in the dust. he had had no success in Kerman and when he heard of the Sultan's departure from Khorasan. Not having the wherewithal to resist Kozli prepared for flight and together with his family and following left the town for the desert. Then when In the night of the third arrival in Turshiz. every soldier a Mount Bisutun 2 in valour. When his envoy arrived in Khorazm it was clear from the message he bore that Kozli had deviated from the path of rectitude. Meshed. The 337 . 1208] the Sultan arrived at Shadyakh. from whence he visited the Shrine [71] of Tus 4 and then left for Sarakhs on his way to Herat. As for Kozli. as also the chief cadi Rukn-ad-Din Mughisi and other notables were compelled to accompany him.

Kozlf s rebellion and to crave the aversion set of The isfahbad ordered a thousand horsemen to out without delay. n. n. When he came to I our refuge. below. 3. on which see Le. said: Our obtain possession of a stronghold/ His words were in agreement with Kozli's wishes. he began to quiver like a bird with its throat cut and to tremble like a gazelle before the hawks and the hunters. They bound him and dispatched him in chains to the Sultan. and to consult with his followers as to whether they should depart or remain and what their destination and Some said that they should seek the proobjective should be. when Kozli realized that he could not obtain admittance into the town. that the kfahbadkzd arrived in Shadyakh and that the Sultan was at the gates of Herat. a courier to report that evil. may be that and make its strongholds [72] go I wiU go on ahead and devise some stratagem. tection of the Sultan's mother and 6 A * therefore proceed to Khorazm. He repented of his deeds and began to bite his fingers at the commission of rebellion. their bewilderand a difference of opinion arose between Kozli. 338 . gates and the soldiers circumambulated the town for a while and then encamped nearby. 8. and he sent him on in advance with a band of men. drove each of them into a [different] valley.THE HISTORY OF with some of his followers charged forward and cast turmoil and confusion into the town. However. p. Kozli and his men returned and charging down upon them. the isfahbai or ruler of Kabud-Jama. When this ment 5 6 increased plan too had broken in their jaws. They fell upon Kozli. Turcoman from Yazir best course is to who was amongst them. The townspeople hastily closed the took up their positions on the walls. uncertain whether to stay or to Suddenly by one of those chances which are due to depart. Kdzlfs son and his men the goodness and grace of the Lord of Favours there came news 5 Sharaf-al-Mulk dispatched of the arrival in Tus of the kfahbad. It to Yazir can at once easily Yazir the townspeople perceived his intention and realized his treachery. which was a pain without cure. See above. jx 151. put him to flight and then began to plunder and pillage. 351.

who. clad in garments of rags. ' Transoxiana and attach ourselves to the father said : Let us go to must go to His Khorazm and place ourselves under : His son said * We Khan of Khitai* the protection of other's opinion. ' . 339 . Nevertheless. 605/1208-9.' Neither would accept the and Kozlfs son plundered his treasury and set reaching the ford over the Oxus he of the Sultan's courtiers. and in the villages so many perished that their 7 numbers cannot be computed. evil. Upon was met by their a heads to the Sultan. Perhaps by this device the Sultan will be induced to pass over thy faults and offences/ He accordingly adopted the practices of Sufism beside the dust of Tekish. And so the and the the base. for Kozli himself. when he arrived in Khorazm. [the buildings round] the square and the like thereof. 2000 men and women were buried beneath the walls. after a company furious struggle. Terken * Khatun encouraged him with promises and said The cure [for thy affairs] is for thee to take up thy abode beside the tomb : As of Sultan Tekish. bowed their heads to the ground like worshippers and of the buildings of the town few only stood firm except the Mani'i mosques. took him and his followers prisoner and sent out for Transoxiana. appreciative of good and It was in that same year. Terken Khatun. that God Almigky showed His servants an example of the terror of When the Earth 7 and it was by His grace that the with her quaking shall quake of that calamity was in broad daylight so that the beginning whole of the people rushed out into the countryside [73] leaving All the mansions and palaces all that they had in the town. i. xcix. BB i. And so it continued whilst for a time all the people remained in the open country. is The revolving cupola.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR his son and his followers. viz. was scattered upon the noble and we can imagine. Sultan's justice wind of that insurrection subsided. until Terken Khatun suddenly learnt that his head had been severed from his body and brought to the Sultan. The two villages of Koran.

without any instance effort or exertion on his part . 134-6Yazdajird 3 III. important events would show their faces hour by hour from behind the of the unseen. spelling of Banask uncertain. Browne. III. also M. the last of the Sassanians. Muhammad al-'Alavi al MamtirL See Ibn-Isfandiyar tr. When the Sultan set out for Transoxiana in the year 606/12091210 Shah-Ghazi. 701-2. kingdom with him and giving him his sister Bu-Riza*s authority became more absolute than that of a deputy and he began to aspire to the nobility of kinghood. but the his latter's sister. * The kfahktd or the last ruler was 2 Nasir~ad-Dauk Shams-al-Muluk Shah-Ghazi Rustam ispablwcl of the House of Bavand. He assassinated Shah-Ghazi in his hunting grounds. This was Abu-Riza Husain b. a skve of the atabei Muzai&r-ad-Din Oz-Beg. apparently Nasir-ad-Din Mengli. who had made himself master of Persian Iraq. 1 who was a descendant of King Yazdajird 2 and retained of the possessions of his ancestors only the interior of Mazandaran. Mdzandardn and Astardbdd. ii. exalting his rank so called Bu-Riza that he shared the as wife. 4 Mengli had returned from waiting on the Sultan When arrived in Jurjan he received news of this. See below. 407-8. 4 Le. own wife. chose out from amongst his sarhangs a person 3 and showed him favour. acted like a man and put her husband and to death with violent torture in vengeance for her brother. Conceiving a desire for the kingdom of Mazandaran [74] he proceeded thither.THE HISTORY OF Dana and Banask 8 the people inside actually collapsed in a single instant and of God single soul escaped alive. and one such was the case of Mazandaran. 257.Q/s note. 340 . 8 had took possession of Shah-Ghazi's The treasures. which had (BNSK) is Neither place has been identified. us from the like thereof and the punishment of this Almighty preserve world and the next ! them not a [VI] OF THE ACCESSION OF MAZANDARAN AND KERMAN WHEN veil Fortune began to smile upon the Sultan. See Rabino.

especially the inhabitants of tyrants . Desirous of marriage with the Sultan she came to he bestowed her on one of his emirs and a year that to Khorazm and later entrusted And so was that kingdom kingdom obtained which might not be procured by arms or Amin-ad-Din of Dihistan. armies. [VII] OF THE CONQUEST OF TRANS OXI ANA l Khorasan had been purged by him of the of rebels. and tyranny of the Khitayan for they Bokhara .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR come down and sought to him from ancient kings marriage. hut the maddai] would have it for nothing. See Barthold. which was the year 607/1210-11. 355-9* concludes that the second version is nearer the truth. passed into his hands. She refused him and dispatching a messenger to the Sultan offered herself as his bride and her kingdom as dowry. for a man from amongst the common fit people of that town. Turkestan. the notables and chief men of Transoxiana impurities dispatched letter after letter to the Sultan calling upon him to the lands of AFTER turn in that direction and cleanse that region from the oppression were weary of yielding obedience to idol-worshippers and had been humiliated by subjection to their command. although it also contains some statements which evoke great doubt". had usurped authority over them and had seen to treat with con- tempt and contumely those to whom respect and honour were due. a person called Sanjar. 1 A quite different version is of the struggle between Sultan Muhammad and the Barthold given in Chapter X. His name was changed to Sanjar-Malik and one of the wits of Bokhara composed the following quatrain about him : [75] Kingship is son of the cutler [? a precious and valuable thing. one whose Kingship and a throne are notfttingfor father used to sell shields. the son of a shield-seller. Qara-KHtai 341 . And Kerman in the next year. his sister's hand in and noble monarchs. The Sultan sent a deputy to take possession of Mazandaran and summon the woman to him.

(M. envoys of Khitai came as usual to collect the tribute headed by 3 * the latter. p. . . .Q.) 6 Koran. 3 The spelling which I read TWY with C and E. Sultan 'Usman.Q. of every base fellow. sought the aid of Khitai against his after year. for is The name probably Chinese and therefore not to be identified 4 From a with that of Chingiz-Khan's eldest son..' From Bokhara he proceeded to Samarqand sending on in advance messengers to the Sultan of Samarqand. the ambassadors of Khitai would come and he would and seeking a pretext pay that tribute. as M. [76] When he had crossed the ford and reached Bokhara. for the sworl hath a just claim on thy hand* he openly declared his enmity and proclaimed his hostility. Vashmgir. and did not pay the proper respect Since a noble soul disdains to endure the contempt to royalty. points out. It is quoted by 'Utbi in his history. of his all-embracing justice and overflowing whole area was made to blossom with the report of his copious equity. M when the Finally. the inhabitants were . The is text has TWYSY. 17. xxxii. is inconsistent with the statement in the previous chapter (see above. Tushi. accordance with the verses: Thou mi wdkr thy and in m Motion to this rnori.Q. to which his father had agreed at the time when he Year brother Sultan-Shah. while the son of the shield-seller reteived ( 6 the punishment of his deeds in recompense of their works. 340) that Sultan Muhammad set out for Transoxiana in 606/1209. and set out for that region.) ' 5 * In the same year and D. therefore discharge Mts to it. There is a blank in and according to B. C A (M. seated himself on At the . C has ($07/1210 but is this.THE HISTORY OF same time the Sultan himself had had his fill of the domineering attitude of Khitai and the contemptuous behaviour of Khitayan envoys and ambassadors. The latter had become estranged from the giir-kban because of engulfed in the effects mercy and the 2 There is a blank in A and B. of die name quite uncertain. writhing with grief thereat 2 in the year for breaking the treaty. and it irked him to pay the tribute. the Sultan ordered that foolish man to be the throne beside the Sultan crushed to pieces and his body thrown in the river. in their wonted manner. in the year 6 . qasida by Afau-Bakr al-Khuwarizmi in praise of Shams-al-Ma'ali Qabus b. 606/1209-10 must be meant or at the latest the beginning of 607/1210-11.

(ed. 34. The name appears to be a compound of the Turkish tort four* ' and oka bear '. As a measure of precaution the strengthened. but rather restore the water of Islam. who was the embroidery (tiraz)* on the garment of his kingdom and had its his post at Taraz. Sultan ordered the gates of the town to be He also appointed Tort-Aba. Tayangu. Glossar. 26. Houtsma. * * c ' : Aid-Bars from alt'i six and fcwr panther and Toquz-Temiir from pound iron '. and cast the water of true guidance upon the fire of that people's error or rather cast 7 Reading TRTBH for the TRTYH of the text. Barthold has adopted the * form Burtana. gives two examples of this type of comp. to place himself in readiness. Houdas. of which the traces might be plainly seen on the brow of his circumstances* He agreed to obey and abide by the royal and imperial commands and prohibitions and read the kbttiba struck coin in the Sultan's name. spelt by Nasawi ABH. n. and they set about preparing for action and assembling their forces for battle. the arrogance of pride. of the Sultan's retinoe with joy and pleasure. Tort-Aba seems also to have been the name of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din's "Grand Huntsman* (amir-shMf). The second element might also be apa. to be his representative with the Sultan of Samarqand . which for some time past had been drained from the stream of those parts. and the two monarchs consulted together as to how they should repel the gur-khan and agreed upon declaring a holy war against and him and engaging him in battle. to his mother. on which see above.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR his refusal to give him one of his daughters in marriage therefore hailed the auspicious arrival he . 198 and 244) * 8 Introduced for the sake of the word-pky with Taraz Talas*. When news of this reached the gur-khan. with numbers] like Having crossed the river at Fanakat the Sultan ordered the bridge that had been built for the passage destroyed so that they might set their hearts of his troops to be on honour and not disgrace themselves and bring shame upon their cause. The people of were ihen heartened by the Sultan's presence amongst Samarqand thejjn. 148. 7 an emir related Meanwhile the Sultan himself set out at the from thence to conduct the holy war head of valiant warriors skilled in onslaught and attack. he for his part ordered Tayangu. toquz * nine and c temiir TRT 343 . mustered an army [in unto serpents [77] or ants.

Now it so happened their ranks one to and opposed another on a Friday in Rabi I.THE HISTORY OF 9 men and stones. op. Lean not upon water. and in answer to the prayers of the preachers of Islam and perhaps. Moslems ! ' after which they should all attack In obedience to the Sultan's command they waited for that young men on either side engaging meanwhile in skirmishes and knights defeating pawns upon the chessboard of batde. 159- u Koran. so that perchance the arrested winds of Islam might again begin to blow. The sound of the takUr was 9 Koran. the amens of the Moslems. He steppe of Ilamish. moment. prepared for the infidel upon those worshippers of the fire . Finally. O God. 344 . 1210]. God would vouchsafe the victory. the valiant its kid down their lives [78] and on both sides bow and arrow were discarded and sword and dagger unsheathed. ii.. and the side wind of adversity ruin the harvest of those liars* desire. and force back the hands came as far as the of those vile ones from the kingdom. misled and and weapons. fife rose up the earth rose out of raised their The commanders warriors pkce like the heavens . reached the ford over the Jaxartes. by conceit and self-delusion regarding his own strength infatuated and encouraged by the number of his men 10 whilst Tayangu with a mighty host. 22. 10 In the northern part of the Andijan district according to Barthold. banners on high. 607 [Aug. in.~ that they face to face c came Sept. the The noise of the kettle-drum and the clamour of the . or else thou wilt God limn pictures on the water vainly like bubbles and wilt measure the wind. and the tempests of misfortunes destroy their lands. and cast the dust of the e * the fire whose fuel is true faith in the eyes of those wretches. oblivious of '" Be I" and it is! u the Changer who saith. when the oven of war had been heated. at. ii. assist the armies and squadrons of the on every side. careless The Sultan commanded his men to behave in a and until the dilatory manner and to advance not a single step preachers of Islam had mounted their pulpits and ' uttered the prayer.

Partridge. See dispersion 12 13 14 Nicholson. to which tresses worthy of their longings. and the ambitious were pleasure Ibid. (They departed} like the people of Saba? of the Sabaeans caused by the bursting of the Dyke of Ma'rib. of moon-faced beauties. 16 fibfi: Literary History of the Arab*. a bird everywhere in Persia up to elevations of 7000 feet '. 3<5. At once the people of error 14 became like tbe 5 people of Saka V one man of the Sultan's army victorious and a thousand of the enemy defeated. his real name was Qais aPAmirl) and Lafla are Romeo and Juliet of the Arabs. gnseogAaris. and Tayangu himself was wounded in the battle and had fallen on his face like the subjects of the Khan of Khitai. this triumph the army waxed mighty and because of this favour And became possessed of fortune. i. the * Ammoperdix hnhmi. Koran. a lion and a thousand gazelles.) qasida by Abu-Nuwas. according to Houtum-Sdhindler. 17 Sandfound 18 the (M. 22. 16 The greater part of that sect of perdition were destroyed beneath the sword. Gray (A. iZw#: a pun on Khitai. Brandt). The Sultan became Lord of the banner of Verily. girl was standing over him and when someone tried to cut off his head she cried * * It is out : and the man at once bound him up Tayangu and carried him off to the Sultan.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR heard from the ranks of the Sultan and the shrilling of flute and whistle from the side of that Satan. a hawk and a thousand partridges. xxxii. Majnun (* Madman '. xlviii. We have won V 2 whilst ' his enemies became the target of We will surely take vengeance on the guilty ones *. 15-17. and all received in their embraces misAnd by this victory. ' 15 The Arabic refers to the proverb. a pederast and an adulterer 17 might have applied. the words they She hath two lovers. Dust was stirred up like a cloud and swords were unsheathed ' like lightning. 13 The zephyr of divine grace began to blow and the bird of those miscreants* hearts to tremble.. Majnun attained to Laik and Vamiq to 18 the devotees of wanton pastimes began to take their 'Azra.Q. He was then sent to Khorazm A ! by together with the dispatches announcing the victory. Each achieved his object according to his desire. Their story forms the subject of an epic From a well-known 345 . Eastern Persian A Irak. At the time of prayer the whole army raised a shout and charged down upon ' those wretches.

despite the Arabic nanxs of its hero and heroine. The romance of Vamiq (Wamiq) and 'Azra (*Adhra). was said to have been compiled for the Sassanian monarch Nushirvan. If the atmosphere of the age has been contaminated with infidelity. and dread tidings and in every spirit ease from of the Sultan was increased a thousandfold in the hearts of men.THE HISTORY OF gratified and camels. Behold the talisman whereby the night has been mixed with Now pure musk and thy ringlets given the colour of musk the and moles. See Browne. A Forgotten Persian Poet of the Thirteenth Centmy. I shall set down a few verses of what I remember of it . thy love by its kindness has given comeliness to the countenance of the heart. S. The Sultan * said : The reign of Sanjar was very long. A See his note. II. 406-8. begins as follows Thy face by its beauty has given perfection to the world of the soul. thy sword with the fragrance of its victory has restored it to salubrity. now thy locks have emitted the fragrance of the North wind. 275-6. Robertson.) 19 manuscript of the divan of this poet (not mentioned by Browne in his Literary History of Persia) was recently discovered by Professo* D. (Ibid. thy face has become the flame of the full moon . by the Persian poet Nkami. [79] If these titles are written for good * " Sultan Sanjar V And so Sultan Sanjar luck let them write was added to his titles. whose counsel commanded his followers to conquer the kingdom of the Turks. whom the Possessor of Glory has chosen out from His creatures and given pomp and glory. The King of the Persians. . And in every soul there was relief at these these victories .. the Second Alexander. Sultan *Ala-yi-Dunya Sanjar. The imam Ziya-ad-Din Farsi 19 has a qatida on it this victory and on : the Sultan's being proclaimed as Sultan Sanjar. Like the Sun thy sword has appeared in the East of righteousness and has brought about the downfall of the kingdom of Error. The joy he gave arrival in my reunion with him was given by of the virtuous Chosroes. A Literary History of Persia. set by the acquisition of wealth and the amassing of horses And to every part of the Sultan's domains there out a messenger bearing the glad tidings of the victory that had been won. * Now it was the custom to write * the Second Alexander as one of Sultan Muhammad's titles.

347 . his as righteous men. 82-98. presented one another with gifts and addressed congratulations one to another. xviii. the common people rejoiced and made in the gardens . that there will be any peace will recline in comfort and enjoyment. BB* i. Gog the S1 And truth the wall of Zul-Qarnain people of Khitai were in it is unlikely. man To-day I am in And ' mourning for Islam. With some the old men engaged in talk others I called on my master Sayyid Murtaza the son of Sayyid men and notables feasted and revelled to the Sadr-ad-Din (may God cloth them both in the raiment o/His mercy I). 21 * Horns ) was an epitfoet Zul-Qarnain (Dhul-Qamain. and merry . upon strength and to constantly being sent the barbarous peoples of . each in accordance with his temperament and circumstances. who was said to have constructed applied See Koran. I found him sitting sad and silent in a corner of his house. : the most excellent of the moderns. 20 the malik of Otrar against the infidel. Gog (Ya'juj) personified North-Eastern Asia. the great sound of timbal and flute. c asked the reason for his grieving on so joyous an occasion. Wall of China. Hamdallah brass and iron to keep out Gog and Magog. beyond these Turks are a people We O stubborn in their 20 and Magog vengeance and fury [80] and exceeding in the multitude of their numbers. when that wall is between us and them. the young men frolicked noisily one with another. The order of ascetics offered thanks to God .THE WORLD-CONQUEROR I have heard as follows from my cousin the late Sadr-i-Imam. Shams-ad-DIn *Ali son of * When God envelop him in His mercy !) Muhammad (may the news that the Sultan messengers arrived in Shadyakh with had gained a victory over Khitai. He of the Two a wall of to Alexander the Great." What is seen by the young man in a mirror is seen by the greybeard in a baked brick. all the people of the town. was and although envoys were and Magog (Ma juj) had been opposing wont. relying. within this realm or that any gone. le Strange. " men of little heed/' he replied. * ' The Wall of Gog and Magog was in fact the Great tr. 236-7. At the time when the Sultan returned in triumph from this campaign might.

JteZ. there to settle with his women (ba nisa) and men. and having dispatched the malik to Nisa.* The ruler of was impossible to strike a kite with the talons of falcons and he saw no way to mend his affairs save by submission. and who go not astray. is Cod Almighty to hath said: And what.* (Koran i. * said : By us a ravenous lion whom thy rashness thou hast brought down upon it is inconceivable that we can overcast thyself come and thou hast forcibly and ignominiously and us into the jaws of a leviathan.) 2S 24 The usual pun on Nisa. where e Sultan Usman craved a pearl from the shell of the royal house and sought in marriage a full moon from the starry sky of majesty. the Sultan turned back to Samarqand. 53. seeing the onrush of a raging flood in his vast host and realizing that it could not be stemmed by resistance. now that guidance come them. So he came out sword in hand but clad only in Otrar realized that it a linen shirt. and laid his head upon the floor of the Sultan's tent begging and offences. As he drew near to their territory. The Sultan requited and misdemeanours with pardon and [81] remission and spared his life and property on condition that he left Otrar and removed to Nisa (ha Nisa) with his horsemen and horses. He refused to dislodge from his brain the of riches. forgiveness for his crimes his sins gracious Guide Tbou us on the straight path. xviii. In this way no blood was shed. the people of Otrar. by leaguing himself with c Khitai. he would not slip his head through the collar of obedience. as it were.. M bag and baggage. nor would he let arrogance of pride and the vanity of ignominy by the prohibitions himself be saved from the perils ' ' and he turned aside from the straight path 22 of admonition .THE HISTORY OF soften his attitude. Try courtesy dicament and desist in this pre- from thy rude behaviour. 22 * 48 . the path of those to whom Thou bast ken with whom Thou art not mgry. being midway. approached the malik in a body and . 5-6. between hope and despair. ktteth men from believing that and from asking forgiveness of their Lord unless they wait till the doom of the ancients overtake tbem> or the chastisement come ' upon them in the sight of the universe ? 23 When the Sultan learnt of his obstinacy and presumption he set out to attack him.

He * pierced the forbidding mouth with a smile. disposer of the world. [82] Chant as a charm of God on earth. 349 . and his apron. In the eye of thy highmindedness the world in its length and breadth seems smaller than an atom. as shall be related in another chapter. Khorazin the Sultan prepared a feast and caused Tayangu to be put to death and flung in the river. he left for Khorazm. The banner of Kava 25 over the king's head was like a wisp of cloud over the Moon. thou art he from whose highmindedness the heavens might borrow.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR The Sultan honoured him by granting that boon. His saddlecloth flung across the back of the Sun. his stirrup putting a ring in the ear of the Moon . became the national standard of Iran. and the chief scribe Fakhr-alMulk Nizam-ad-Din Farid of Jam composed the following Upon arriving in ' verses : O king of kings. All the pure cherubs of thy the rites age. By this victory fear of the Sultan was increased a thousandfold in men's hearts and rulers upon every side sent relays of envoys and * The words Shadow of God upon earth were gifts to his court. as sbabna of Samarqand. after performing f : laid down by holy law. and having appointed Tort-Aba. the harbingers of good fortune upon his right and left and the lights of prosperity upon his neck and brow. converted into a banner. he said ' Keep back ! to the heavens from afar. written upon his auspicious togkra. a relation of Terken Khatun.' the words The Sultan u the shadow [vni] OF THE SULTAN'S RETURNING A SECOND TIME TO WAGE WAR ON THE GUR-KHAN DURING 25 tyrant the Sultan s absence from Khorazm some remnants of the followers of Qadir lirafth-t-kaviyanl Khan had breathed the breath of rebellion the The blacksmith Kava was the first to revolt against Zahh5k (Dahak) .

a village near Samarqand 3SQ . from one direction came news of the Sultan's approach and from the other reports of Kuchliig Khan's conquests. Turkestan. nay a wave from a raging sea. 35<5 n. had refused to do his duty.Q. although the Sultan had several times called on him to yield obedience and had encouraged him with fair promises but because he had fortified himself in a castle which he held Satan had blown . and each time they had been defeated and the army of Islam triumphant except on one occasion when they had been victorious and had driven the army of Samarqand into the town. When [83] the Sultan arrived in Samarqand the armies came together from every side and he departed from the town. The Sultan set out in that direction from Jand . On had extirpated that band of rebels. 1 who though a Moslem had not the character of one on account of his sympathy with the people of hypocrisy and contention. upon arriving there. according to Yaqut. after some time brought him down detachment from a Ighnaq (AFNAQ) or Yighnaq (YTNAQ). there that the army of Khitai had arrived at the gates of tidings Samarqand and laid siege to the town. a dependency of Banakat. suggests its identity with Yughank. Meanwhile he proceeded towards Samarqand. Meanwhile the governor of Ighnaq. which. They had fought seventy engagements. whilst Sultan "Usman stayed behind to complete his nuptials. since bread will not return once it has fallen into water. The Sultan dispatched a great army.THE HISTORY OF that account the Sultan did not in the region of JancL remain long in Khorazm but set out for Jand to excise the pus of their being . They therefore withdrew under cover of a truce. and raised levies from all his lands. the wind of pride into his brain.) Barthold. Moreover. was a town in Turkestan. 7. and summoned all the armies that he had upon every side. and at the same time he sent messengers the Sultan When came to every part of his kingdom. of Khitai had for They now fighting and would soon be in a desperate perceived that they were achieving nothing by their plight. (M. where the army some time been encamped on the bank of the river at the gates of the town.

p. and he became more ambitious. 44. after the gtir-kbans victory. p. see above. 47-8 of The district of Kabud-Jama. After arrived at this understanding. Mdzanfardn and Astarab<H 84. 2 The Sultan now advanced beyond Samarqand. and here as the fasqaq. The Sultan now heard of Kiichlug's over the Khitayans. Kiichlug's envoys approached him in secret and an agreement was reached between them that first of all ihegur-kban must be removed : if the Sultan gained the victory over as him he should receive all Khotan and Kashgar. now called Hajjilar. and the giir-kban receiving tidings thereof made his preparations. lies in the extreme east * Gurgan (Astarabad). ' representative * is then described as the terms fasgaq the sbahtia On and sbahna 351 . n. as has been recorded had in the chapter likewise on the Qara-Khitai. 24. See Rabino. 105. the fasqtq of Samarqand [84] joined in a conspiracy against the Sultan and day of sent a messenger in secret to the giir-kban to say that on the battle they and their troops would desert the Sultan on condition that. In his reply the giir-khan promised the double of what they had asked. 3. Kiichliig was on one occasion victorious and on another defeated. 349). When the armies drew near 3 4 together the is/Mad of Kabud-Jama and Tort-Aba. and if Kiichlug was far as the river at territory as far the victor he should have everything as they Fanakat. two armies now came face to face and charge after charge The was wing of the Khitai attacked the Sultan's right. and in accordance with their promise Tort-Aba and the isfabbad withdrew and their forces also retired behind either side]. and both sides 2 In this chapter [Chapter X] there is in fact no mention of Kiichliig's are dealt first and second campaigns 8 against the giir~kh<mf which with only in I. 4 Tort-Aba had been appointed to act as Sultan Muhammad's with the Sultan of Samarqand (p. 343) . At the same time the Sultan's left wing defeated the The centres of the gur-kban's right and they were put to flight. Khorazm should be ceded to Tort-Aba and Khorasan to the isfahbad. he * of Samarqand (p.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR from his castle and sent him in chains and shackles victories to the Sultan. left made [by The the centre. two armies then became so involved with one another that neither could distinguish victor and vanquished. n.

AFTER During the Sultan's campaign against the infidel. After some time had passed somebody entered Sultan Mahmud's harem by way of a conduit. others that he had been killed went forth with no one knew the truth. [IX] OF THE CONQUEST OF FIRUZKUH AND GHAZNIN had conquered Herat he assigned Firuzkuh and Sultan to Sultan Mahmud [85] and did no harm thereto Mahmud read the kbutta and struck coin in the Sultan's name.THE HISTORY OF looted and plundered and took to their heels. For some days the Sultan remained until seizing a unrecognized amongst that outlandish people he turned rein and reached the river at sudden opportunity Fanakat His arrival brought new life to his army. However that might be. his brother c Taj-ad-Din Ali-Shah. When the news of his disappearance had been spread about. . No one knew who had struck the blow but there was a rumour amongst the e people that Ali-Shah had assassinated him because he coveted his kingdom. Meanwhile the Sultan of the World returned to the city of Khorazm and again made ready for war and battle. the confusion of the two armies had found themselves amongst the army of Khitai. Therefore messengers the glad tidings and letters-patent were dispatched to every side. some saying that he was a prisoner in the and midst of that strange host. Sultan Mahmud received him with every honour. found him seated upon a throne and killed him. the Sultan x . . yielding him precedence over and bestowing upon him all manner of gifts and presents. betook himself to Sultan Mahmud on account of an estrangement fiom his brother Sultan Muhammad. everyone had had his own theory. when he was dead (and his death took place in the year 609/1212-13) there was no all the great nobles 1 The son of Shihab-ad-Dln (Muhammad Ghuri). Now it was the custom of the Sultan on the day of battle to don the garb and Moreover certain of his retinue also in dress of his opponents.

head at one blow. set up by which had been [86] In the treasury at Ghaznin discovered lettersSultan Shihab-ad-Din there were to attack the Sultan Holy Seat of the Caliphate wherein the Ghurids of Khorazm and the latter's (?) deeds and actions were reviled and misrepresented. which were then added to his other possessions. The Sultan's for he now anger with the Supreme Divan was increased hereby knew that the hostility of the Ghurids had been largely due to the incitement and encouragement of the Seat of the Caliphate. 'Ali-Shah retired to his robing-chamber in order to gratulation. Bashir picked up the robes and When followed him in. The Sultan sent Muhammadi-Bashir with robes of honour and other presents for the purpose of his investiture as Sultan together with a signet and letter- Bashir had completed the ceremonies of conpatent. With Ali-Shah's death there was no one left to compete for the throne.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR other descendant of the Sultans of Ghur who might the pillars of the Sultanate . The other letters-patent addressed to the chief officials with a view to winning them over were now read out. of the lands of the Sultan of Ghur in For the time 355 . don the robes of honour. which was a goodly realm. patent from the were incited Having taken possession the direction of India he returned to Samarqand. and congratulations were turned into condolences. The Sultan set out for that kingdom. and directed his whole attention towards the conquest of those climes. Then drawing his sword he struck off his The bearer of good tidings (basbir) became a harbinger of evil (nazir). After this. there came news that to succeed Taj-ad-Din Ilduz had passed away in Ghaznin leaving no heir him and that one of the ghulams had ascended the throne in his place. in the year 611/1214-15. In order to observe the forms of he dispatched a message to the Sultan to inform him of respect what had occurred and to seek permission to assume the rank of Sultan as his brother's deputy. and the kingdom of Ghur and Firuzkuh and all that region passed into the hands of the Sultan. e and reinforce the foundations strengthen of the and accordingly the notables of Firuzkuh agreed kingdom upon Taj-ad-Din Ali~Shah [as his successor] and set him upon the throne of the Sultanate.

There is however a 1 A translation of this chapter was Professor of Professor Wittfogel 2 and made by Dr. discovery wishing first of all to This subject has been dealt with in a previous chapter. When he 2 left Khitai [87] he was 3 accompanied by 80 members of his family and retinue.) which would bring the total closer to the number i. This was a realm which no one had conquered. History of Chinese Society : Liao (907-112$). The second interpretation implies the existence of additional followers beside the eighty tribesmen.f 354 . op. Some powerful reason required original their expulsion THEIR home was from their country. 390). The wording is On ambiguous. 1 THEIR RISE TO POWER AND THEIR DESTRUCTION in Khitai where they were persons of authority and importance. These lands formed the central basis of the empire of Sultan Mahmud son of Sebiik-Tegin and his descendants.e. and they still remained a separate entity under the Sultans of Ghur. though according to another tradition he was accompanied by a very the 2 There is in fact no previous mention of this matter. 62.e." (Wittfogel and FSng. subsequent reference in Chapter XII (ii. two hundred. ships of travel. n.THE HISTORY OF being he made no mention of that 2 conquer the eastern provinces. n. They were now made the seat of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din. 631. but the argument is by no means conclusive. p. The countries of Herat. Le. eighty people of his tribe and his followers". Ghur. others. [X] OF THE KHANS OF QARA-KHITAI. It may mean: eighty followers. 4. dt. and they were forced to go into exile exposing themselves to perils and enduring the hardTheir prince and leader they call the giir-khan. H. 16. Gharchistan and Sijistan to the frontiers of India were now added to the Sultan's domains. " 3* Literally. khan of khans. i. the original gitr-khan. Menges for the use Feng in the appendix on Qara-Khitai in their monumental work. tribe members of his own tribe and or: eighty members of his and (in addition) other followers. K. the title gilt-khan see above. generation after generation . The first interpretation seems suggestive since the figure eighty more probably refers to the whole escort than to part of it . Yeh-lii Ta-shih (1124-43). mentioned in the Liao Sbth.

) of the text. See above. n. From the descendant of Afrasiyab he took over the title of khan. of the text in 288. See 355 . which the Moslem historian. adding numerous new in the northern garrison. See above. however that the phrase is to be read: ilig-i-Turkan 'the Marquart. And this person. Juwayni's seemingly contradictory versions possibly refer to these two phases of Yeh-lii Ta-shih's military career. Qarligh (QRLYT) for the for the usual AYLK TRKAN accordance with Barthold's suggestion. 164. who was the ruler. he sent messengers to him to inform him of his own powerlessness and of the strength and wickedness of the Qanqli and Qarluq and traced his descent to Afrasiyab but 6 now who call Ghuz-Baligh.' 5 (Loc. until they came to the region 5 had no strength or and Qanqli Turks in that area had power. was unable to check them or ward them off. n. of Balasaqun. The name has already and n. which the Mongols The ruler of that country was a man The Qarligh to the beg him to advance upon his capital so that he might place whole of his kingdom under his control and so free him- from the cares of this world. Quz-Ordu. writing a hundred and fifty years after the event. Qarlugh (QRLT). 58 Chinese record we find the older form of the name. From thence they journeyed on rill they came to the Emil. dt. dt.. Uler das Volfatttm kr Komanen. reached the country of the Qirqiz who in turn harassed the Khitayans.It may be % of the Turks'. The giir-kban proceeded to Balasaqun and ascended a throne [88] that had cost him nothing. But here too they were unable to remain and so they moved on remain. self giving ' him the 7 designation of ilig *ttirkmen. shaken off their allegiance to him and used to molest him by making raids upon his followers and cattle and carrying out depredations. He soon troops to this nucleus during his sojourn " had ten thousand war horses ".. -21. 7 op. they made attacks When they on the tribes in that area.000 households. Hearing of the settlement of the giir-khan and his followers and their great numbers. 34. p.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR 4 large following. However both make sense if we accept the Chinese record which notes that Yeh-M Ta-shih reached KVtun with only a small group of followers. where they built a town of which some traces still Here many Turks and tribes in great numbers gathered around the giir-khan until they amounted to 40. p. He then dispatched 4 The two versions recorded by Juwayni seem irreconcilable. See Wittfogel and Reading TZ BALYF for the FR BALYT e Hng. failed to distinguish. 17. In the appeared in the form Quz-Baligh. t Reading AYLK TRKMAN 538.

on which see Pelliot- Hambis. is inclined to identify with the Qara-Tal. the Sultans of Transoxiana. south of the Issyk Kul.t 646.e. 37* The paramour was her c brother-in-law. which ky of the text. P u-su-wan. he sent Erbiiz. See Wittfbgel and 621 and 643. present-day 10 for the of the text. 375) and also the name of a river (I. op. f 356 . See Minorsky. See Wittfbgel and Feng. her reign F&ig. to Shah. 12 Here Juvaini has confused Yeh-lii Ta-shih*s widow with his daughter. n. Hudud. which he delivered thereafter every year in goods or cattle. All [89] the as his successor and began to issue commands. Kuyang. dt. the Empress Kan-t'ien.THE HISTORY OF sbahnas to every region from Qam-Keinchik 8 to Barskhan 9 and from Taraz to Yafinch. op. n. Hsiao p u-ku-chih. p. who as their suzerain. dt. for the BARSRHAN See above. which countries likewise submitted to him. Campagnes. title guyttftg title being Hsien-ch'ing. 221 and 362-4. Kashghari which Minorsky. and was put associated to death her. who were the ancestors of Sultan *Usman. op.} 276.. 69. He next dispatched an army to the land of the Qirqiz to avenge the treatment he had received at their hands. p. 12 and with One with someone who was of the giir-kban's two the region of the Upper Baiskhan. 10 When some time had passed and his people had prospered and their cattle grown fat. which flows into Lake Balkhash north of the Hi. acknowledging him was his commander-in-chief. He also conquered Besh-Baligh and sent an army from thence to Farghana and Transoxiana. he brought the Qanqli under his sway and dispatching an army to Kashghar and Khotan conquered that region also. YAFNC YAMNH n KWYNK. Kuyang is perhaps identical with the Mongol ' from the Chinese kvo-wang prince de royaume '. Shortly afterwards 11 ascended the throne the gur-kban died and his wife. After he had gained and his army had been heartened thereby and his these victories horsemen and horses increased in number. Having made peace on these terms Erbuz returned home. the villages and wrought great Khorazm. 292-3. sent an envoy to him. the Khorazmslaughter. accepted allegiance to the gur-kban and agreed to pay a tribute of 3>ooo gold dinars. 21. r This was T a-pu-yen (1144-50). Apparently " most probably near the Przhevalsk (Qara-qol) *. dt. yielded obedience to her until she was overcome with people sensual desire related to 8 I. where he sacked Atsiz. on whom see above. Yafihch according to Reading * * was a town near the IK (HE. 290. 59). whose honorific title was 9 Reading BARS XAN Upper Yenisei.

and it irked him to submit to a capitation-tax and to giir-kban. 18. what was due. However. 644. 34715 Cf. p. the 414). the latter continued to pay the fixed amount in tribute and strove to please the gur-khan in every way.000 men to his assistance. The younger brother was Chih-lu-ku. op. brother some office bed he charged the agreement his sons not to fight the giir-kban nor to break * that had been reached.. Glossar. 14 See above. They joined battle at Andkhud and the Ghuris were routed. dt. to claim end the giir-kban sent Tai. 357 . i. When Atsiz was succeeded by his son Tekish. somewhat harsh Mahmud When he arrived in missives. the name Oz-Beg Tai * (TAY) could be either td maternal (ML). to the throne. the bearer of was preparing for a cam- paign against the Qifchaq and did not wish to give a rough reply and so disobey his father's injunctions. kingdom and was removed. was still of tender P'u-su-wan's death however it was Yi-lieh's younger son who came 18 These two brothers must in who age.e. 83) or td colt' (ii* (1178-1211). 14 great wall behind which there were Sultan Muhammad came to the throne he continued while to pay the tribute and there was nothing to mar the friendship between them. See Wittfbgel and F&ig. last of the gut-Urns 646 and n. the gur-khan sent a force of 10. Tai * uncle* (Houtsma. which frequently occurs in compound names. apparently his elder son. when Shihab-ad-Din of Ghur for a When attacked the Sultan. 15 his chief vizier. When he was lying on his death first The The other brother tried to seize the was chosen to succeed him.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR brothers. because he was a terrible foes'. the Sultan Khorazm. 13 who were still alive. Upon It would appear from Juvaini's account that the elder brother had then attempted to assert his rights. the Sultan's ambition was such that he considered the Lord of the Planets inferior in rank to his own parasol. appointing each person to and sending sbabnas to all parts. waxed in strength. Thus. Furthermore he was about to absent himself from his kingdom and it was undesirable that the Qara-Khitayans should avail themselves of fact be the sons of the Emperor Yi-lieh (ii5i-63)t sister was according to the Liao shtb had left instructions that his younger to succeed him since his son. pay tribute to the He held up payment for two or In the three years and was slow in discharging his obligation.

However Mahmud Tai had observed the ambition and contumacy of the Sultan and had recognized that his temper was such that he considered his rank too elevated for him to abase himself and fawn before any mortal or to humble himself in any way . Accordingly everyone accepted the Sultan's invitation. the earth my abode and mankind my guests. leading an army to Bokhara and sending secret messages to every side and encouraging everyone with promises. holding out particular c inducements to Sultan Usman. and am a ragmg lion. Terken Khatun. he said neither good nor ill but entrusted the settlement [90] of the matter to the counsel of his mother. contrary to their former practice. javelins my lair my Time swords ts my claws. the Sultan returned in triumph from his campaign When against the he began to Qifchaq to Khorazm. She also sent some of the accompany Mahmud Tai to thegur-kban and apologize for the delay in payment . did not specially honour the Sultan's envoys or pay them much attention. make plans for the conquest of Transoxiana. On a the other hand he was ashamed therefore. the giir-kban $ envoys to be received 9 and made his departure. he deemed all the monarchs of the world to be his servants. In replying. Terken Khatun ordered with honour and respect. to accept his position as tributary. All were tired of the long rule of the gur-kban and had come to detest his revenue officials (mnf&lanri-*umm8l) and local administrators (muqalladan-i-amal). the capital of his kingdom. Mahmud and * Tai reported all these is said : The Sultan insincere circumstances to the gur-khan and will not pay tribute again/ The g&r-kban. for his part. which both heartened 35* . who. had begun to conduct themselves in a lawless and oppressive manner. my slave and Generosity my thrall. notables of her court to She treated them courteously and paid up the annual tribute in full.THE HISTORY OF the opportunity and make an attack. and confirmed that the Sultan was still bound by the terms of subjection and submission. nay he considered Fortune herself to be In war I his handmaid.

Now Sultan Usman had sought a daughter of die giir-khan in marriage and had been refused. He recaptured Samarqand but would allow no great harm to be done to it. too. He was therefore full of resentment against him and did not respond to the summons. Learning of the confusion caused by Kiichliig and of the jwr-felwV having and ravage his territory sent his army to destroy and uproot him. dispersed on every side. 63. p. the emirs of the gur-kktn began to breathe At that time the gur-khan and was unable tottering wished. In the East. .000 men wage war on Sultan 'Usman. the Sultan availed himself of the opportunity and set out for Samarqand. This pretence accorded with the gur-khans temper and he believed his words. received tidings of this he mustered 30. upon him the tide of Kucbliig-Kban. He also read the khutba and struck coin in Samarqand in the Sultan s name and latter When the and sent rose in open rebellion against the giir-Um. to attack the giir-khan. The Sultan of Sultans came out to receive him and surrendered the 16 C afcove. But when Kuchliig had for he regarded it as his treasury.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR and rejoiced them and the Sultan turned back from Bokhara on the understanding that he would return in the following year . in order that he might come to his assistance. the gtir-khan repented of having sent him gone conferred When he had And be repented when repenting was of no ami He c sent for the local rulers upon every side that were his emits and agents such as Sultan "Usman and others. which exuded from a well of falsity and a mass of He distinguished him with costly robes of honour and iniquity. rebellion. in the more distant regions and began to attack gathered strength them to he withdrew his army from Samarqand in order to repel him and dispatched them against him. his When Kiichlug [91] was in attendance an to oppose him as he would have he heard how his fortunes had changed and kingdom was he craved permission to return and gather together the scattered remains of his forces. Instead he sent a messenger to Sultan Muhammad to declare his loyalty to him.

the when army of Qara-Khitai arrived.000 of the chief notables were counted among the slain. whilst the giir-khan's army were greatly heartened by the quantity of booty. and the left wing of both armies drove back the opposing right wing The giir-khan's army [92]. the inhabitants. As they retired the army of Khitai set hands to rapine and massacre and devastation in the towns and villages and amongst the peasantry. Now the Khan's treasuries had been emptied partly by looting and partly by the payments of wages and salaries. but they would not trust them. the Having massed upon every side their troops now entered the town. which lay open every side. fearing lest covetous eyes might be cast upon his own wealth. who had set their hearts on Sultan's conquering that region. suggested that the private treasury which the army had retrieved from Kuchliig should be collected together again. and the proceeded together against the giir-khan Sultan also their retreated. and when he heard that the giir-kban was separated from his army. Tai and the emirs of the gtir-kban tried to come to terms with them and offered advice. Meanwhile Kiichliig was again ready for action. and 47. after which both sides withdrew. with an enormous army. refused to admit them . then retreated. they hung back and became uneasy and began to breathe the breath of independence and rebellion. Tayangu having been taken prisoner. stood facing each other. nay rather they joined battle with them and fought hard for Mahmud sixteen days thinking that the Sultan was at their heels. and Mahmud Tai. When they arrived before Balasaqun. closed their gates and. was all gathered together .THE HISTORY OF kingdom of Samarqand into his hands* From thence they and came at last to Taraz. But when the emirs heard of this idea. Finally. He too mustered where Tayangu lay When the two armies his forces and came out to do battle. the army of Khitai. attacks were made by either side. For three days and nights they massacred the inhabitants. where they laid their hands on their swords sparing no one. [93] that the towns and peasantry had been subjected to oppression and . whereupon they drove the elephants they had captured from the Sultan's army against the gates and destroyed them. which was greater than that of Qaran. .

See Wittfbgel and Feng. he great emir. Their state is like that of the people of them who treated their Lord's signs as lies. Rashid-ad-Din 18 17 panj (Berezin. hath said : Pharaoh. looking upon him as a father and sparing his feelings. on Finance. and having no other choice he sought to do homage to Kuchliig and humble himself before hath said : unawares. before We therefore destroyed them in their sins. xix. gain. 182. when it goes it is pain. probably three ym (= ninety) and five years '. empty-handedness e preferable to such treasure. Smirnova. 361 .f 652 and 653. one who had been a captive in prison became ruler over the khan of that people. The text. When the time came it is is that kingdom did not remain. * phrase three XV. 760 and 772. Koran. came under Kuchliig's dominion the latter took the girl for 18 and himself. during all of which period no harm had touched the skirt of their fortune. op. whilst the giir-khan received a tomb for his abode and all his people were bewildered and dismayed. viii. all that lordly activity was of no When God Almighty it comes. and of those Koran. the God Almighty f Seest then net that * Satans against the Infidels to urge them into sin ? 17 him but Kiichliig would not suffer this but treated him with respect. has qam * va sal ie. the year or two later thtgiir-khan passed away who was When A wind of that dynasty died down after they had reigned in pros19 perity and happiness for three qarn and five years. evidently taking qarn in its modern sense * * For qam a period of thirty years see Minovi and Minorsky. of * century '. But when the time came for their decline and fall. and we drowned the people of 9 20 Pharaoh . 56. . Chih-iu-ku was deposed by Kiichliig in 1211 and died in 1213. Naflr d-Din TM translates the 80) has the same reading as D. following A. avail. 86. he again availed himself of his opportunity and falling upon him like a lightning-flash from a cloud took him completely we send All of his army was scattered and far away. hundred and five years '. Now the giir-khan had affianced to himself the daughter of a the envy of Venus and Jupiter.THE WORLD-CONQUEROR that the greater part of the army was standing aloof from him. for they were all doers of wrong. In actual fact the dynasty (1124-1215) lasted for rather less 20 than 95 years 89 solar or 92 lunar years. cit. 19 wvat si Reading si qam va panj sal with D.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1 24 449 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful