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Among all the subjects which the aI" student is called upon to draw, none is more complei than t. e human head, I'he h ad 1.1 se' 'I," subtleties "f forn structure and p ',~ O'}'.... 1,1, '1 hich are a continuing challenge not only to alii st, ,: d 'n " but .'0 prefer ionals, To many, dr awing the head 'iSI no" mere ,y a perpetual ehal enge, bu a perpetual s.. 'l--'iug,gl[e~ W,atc'hin,g: students w 1I'estle ."h r 0 d !!,a". mg 'V.l.I,,~. th e ,,1 01,m~'1 ead 1"0 - many years, I ha ze l, rIg hoped to :lee· . , boo I which "'_:' ould ake -om" [of'the g U', work out 0 thei stl~u,g'gles~ a book which would systema _,i-cally assemble '~11e basic facts I 'hat every 3, ,~it, n. eds to know in 0 der to draw the bead CO'D-' vinei: .,gIy .. D",Q,['.",I,Y ,,/16 Hwmosi Heed I'll", "111::, this 'ho Based on the author': widely .espeeted dr: wing classes at the School. of Visual Arts in New Yo ~k, this 'is the 'most compr hensive book now available on t .is 'vital subject, ITIl,e author does not " l'etel,~~ha thie is t e ulti1:1.'_, .. m It·: bo.ok 0- ':11-: t!- -·e hum~. a'.n he ad Th " ultimate book .. ill never 'bile wri ten, ter all cernbrandt ..he gre, test of all PO'I"trait p.'. inters. was st ill diseoveririg ..ew Insights ia. 1I0'ut the human head in ·. e final y[e,a ~Sl .h of his, Ife .. D-·-,a···,7'ng' the Hu n,la~ Head Ii" sim 'p',.)Iy,. an ,.rt te-I-n- p ···t to 0'''' I:' "'a . nize b sic in 'ormation: s~· ... s, terns 10" proportion, co aeepts of f rrrn, an: tomic: ~facts and other data which have formed the bs . is of sound draftsman .... shi - for rno e han 2000 y ars, ..... 'D - . f this mate: ial '·;s O I-"i dically nev 0 _the: 'C011t1 'a" f,: this approach to drat ~inghis methoi of visualizing the h . 'man heald th[e i'lUmal1 _ ace~ and il f'a'~'ul'es begins wl.h
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cranial and facial ~.a -'- s~ i ,':nd demoi stl 'ates h {" to draw theh sh .-_ --ce,_"-lontloUI,,, .nd pI op orti 0 s- Via d -awi _ ':. and diagrams ,we then move closer to the Individual structures ·· at f,ol m ..h head ~the forms .. h o tha akull and facial mass: the ja· an the nme dom ... inant facial f. tures, -1 O'I" broa ~i.- g 0 chin be ... ...'I~. hen e- :imine . _'ch fall' ial ' fe,at, i rdividually d: fining' the shapes ar d eontou ',.'i l_i [ e· eh f'- ature, ~"O, exam pile th no- s e'.·l"a '''10:' a sin g:'Ie sh a 'p·e··-·n-- 0'" t me ely ,a W"· d e-sh 1, ie _, as:·
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all. eaehe -8 to the present 'a, Tllll:' sy,' ,'-~ ,'"f p[I~O: 01 tion ". .~ oneep: 81 off 01 mwhieh are nd presented in, D'_ ",W2:, g-"I HII ?1~anHead a -e e sentiallv those which were pie ~fec:'~ b·y' the d G'I eek seul :"~olr The anatomieal information W":_" ficas, tembled by tea ~ti·tl of the Renaissance, ,"·'Itho .gh modes of ai ti~-tic exp -e .-i. [ change f tOI·.~·. one eI to anothe -- li\re are : till ouilding 01 n the foundation aid byhese remarka ,- men, ie Dra» 'I'i'ng ",hs' H' 11 a - Head bezi ith d fi ~e,,--'n', vn: " "~~ e" Dll.'.D, 0, th . ;",,'e m: I,j'or ma sses of ','he head-i-t e
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il wing '.) ."-pta] ca II ilage, ' and other subtle, .. nterlocking I fIOI~~ The intricate 'f011119, of _'he, eye ear, and mouth are analyzed 111 the am way. Having visualized th.. head
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funetion of artietie anatomyis to provide the artist 'with a sound basis for creative exprest' h SlIOiD..,A _s, nown m t_ s iese pages, t,., , 10 '.-,. neaa . JL~e ... - . '1 t· . musetuat ture.-. f tb,e h ...ill reveals the blend of expressive f.unenon t'ii' .'101 m an d anatonnca, .hieh has inspired draftsme .··f-I --·eo,nar do" f·-IHm' the t' Ime 0- -, L' 1'\1 _ W:it'h this S'i ruetural infordmat ton, m mmn, we can '}10W' ex .am ine . he 'h-I. ead In mo .t-"llili 10'·n··
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between the features ,;: this checklist is intended .0 help · h m arrrve at an accurate plaeem ent nf: . he f' 'e' atures aa '="'~ ie nean th h d moves, t __rnune pa .t1ernSI are not a W"'k] 1 ,I an dom henomenon. but f 0']owe,d fi:.nite routes over the h su -fiace of the face, In d,'~ ... a, ~ .Iaw]:ngs" ..... ~ h ,e,lea._d' .... ,g1a,mma lC d
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caused 'by' tension, pressure Stag, anid snr-rnxage; ani,d hrink watehes the Interuetion of the 'W." n .. ikle pa ern The aging' of the, head is 181]-'i;ffi" It ways" 1-0' d1 teult prnn em f ,the artist, To explain the subtle changes that take p ace from ld ehi ldh-100 d- to rn- age, a aeries of drawl g' follow 'he"d evelop". nt 0 I, . I;'" .... merr '.fl a smgie hera d· f-'I;'10 m ... e birth '0 the age of eig'-:'hty-~- .... trae mg t· e' h .-. "a'ng~es In., prIOipo,r t'!!' ..lon's and f,B,cial detail that happen gradually Y-CIB,ar by' .:.....'y·ea:r .. ~ liilff' l'OiD, ThIe selen:.tiifi .C c.] ass:rl -',Ica-ti 10:£ head. ' ypes is ex emely 'use-'11 -t-· .". e .~ f lJJ.l1,-"1.0. the ,a~rlS_[I! A',n eXI-ens VB series nf drawings describes . f th e gene -a1 IC_.. araeter sties I(Jl, h the three basile head types: broad-headee " (braehyeephal ... ,
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The basie shape of the head consists of tW10 major dlvlsinns .. The fir ,,;_:' and greater pa ~t is the eg,g... shaped 'billa in case of the skull : the ,C1~a?lial 111Ja88~ The aeeond land lesser part is the _'a.llel~e,d, half-cut cylinder of the £ ace and lower j aw : the [acial ma8'8,~,

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.',ee'Dfrom the side, he cran ~ al mass curves u ,'V\1.,. rd from the mounded I,-idg~e of bone just a bove the rjm of 11.' eye socket. 'I'his ,~,;,~ the 'ple1~~ilial'~Y arch. Ol!' visor of 'he' 'rO~li' B, ginning at ..he frontal dl ression ill tile bridge of '_'118 nose t111e ranium c ries up the forehead 0 the vault of the skull and sweeps backward ,aCI~IO'SS the, crown ill a,grea , curve oward the lov er oecipi .al bulge at the ba -e 10 ~~ tl1J8' head, The' base line 0,£ th ' skull then proceeds horizon'"a]l[~,forward to mee -:t [1ta hing, of the jaw' Prom the jaw hinge, the brain case ine le011~ tinues obliquely UP'" ard to the startins' point a I. the bridge of the nose. 'I'hi .. li.l1e forms th ,. boundary between the 'i Vr.TO great 'masses of the head: .he cranial mass above, and ..'h,e facial mass below,
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Frontally, 'he head, with its rwo great masses, iSI clearly egg~shaped. In order to estab... lisb the shape co ~l~ectly',first draw (.h. ou .line of '~hi, ovoi form
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STEP :3 Take the wi'd.'k 10--' 1],}1e of the halves of the legg I(C~D) anc 'm e'IRS'U]'!'8 tills against the vertical center line (A-B) ..If you have dr awn the e'gg properf , the center line (,' --H,) should be th ree times, t e length of the horizontal line (C-D ... Thus ~ the lot'al tvid·tlt of the head (Co. E) is just two thirds the length If yO'UI-m 'first drawing 0 £ the 'head shape ia too long or tOIO short, use, these epaee divieions to elimim te the d.is... to.1:- ,t- '".ID. '
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f'01! the . 'l"lont. view head, draw it again ana divlde iJ ,,.. W-·.ith-. a he.. 01 ;1 zontal 1 ]i1 n e ("A~B)' .i.1~ . '_: . iiL mid .'ay between top and bottom, This line reveals the equal n'Ia8~' ,~Ie~ of the "~TIOI mr -Jor maases : t11 e cran ial mass abo e."and the f!a,c~a '. ass below, If ·you. then divide tha eg'g' with IR ver ieal Iine (C-D);, the .]oint where t he vertical and horizontal linea IC,]('IO,g.S (E") \ entities, the position of the, h }'l!li'd-:-Ig-"o of' . he .l.ll"a 'in the L.lLi. -, "I?'IIIO~j() '_.l,'~ 't1J...., _.e,a: 1egl,olD 10 ._·J.ile 'h d
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establtsh the plan of the side view head, take 'iW',OI eg',g, ,_ _ shapes of ldentienl size arid Idr'HW them O?'6 ove'j~ the other, the flrst up ~i.gll the second " ho ',~i..z;ontali TI1.e: IdOIW'" . a -d bulge will dentify this lower jaw, IT e backward bulge (the widest Pl~ of the horizontal .l~t egg". becomes 'the, back of' the head" Notte that the heigh.' (A-,S) and width I(C-,.D) Olf the aide view h d 13. -e equai, .' _._1 . ',- sin nea Furthermore, .i .~ ,you d rop another vertical Iine ( .-I_F) at th,€! 'inner edge 'of the upright eg'g, you find that the 'width (C-D) dividea into th -ee equal parts, -·ina'[]y" if you vianalize the U,PPS1 le,g,g' as the cranial mass) 'you will aee that the crania mass .is tWi(~16 the s!l e s of the faeialmasa,
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The form strue 'u ~l3S are the hard, -on.-y, skeletal parts of the head OF' body, Or the~y are 1- e-nSlj;,e" "- __;;;-- - --, rt~ --· -I __ t--, 1- ft- -' ',J-m, 'car_-ll,aglD,I- -o--n-s tle parts, These are the rigid [ramework. or eupport structures of the body, upon which all t-,~- e soft limbe-r' OI~ S1LI][]p~-le, h 1_ Issu,es -do' - nd Having "epen,-,~ :, - '".',--', s:,t!;,-' tablished the 'basic form of the tWOI great massea, we will look more closely at th-- form structures, which give the brain ease , nd__ ' e £-'aCl,a, --l :I e,~,.._-- the .]1I1~ S--"II"\I~'" a,n, th-- . ,-,'~----' -,];- "~IO-- n '_ . - '-~' - h '1] eial quali ties, W'"-,-} e' S-~.alLsee, hov --o;w the U,PPeI~ mass beeorr es a sit/tilt and 110W the lower mass th - t _,Ieco'm,e's ,S ;f-· Q!c,e- Wl~ I f-'eaureSi' W,e shall 110t describe these st -uetures as mere anatomical -oarts, but 3"S [orms whieh are dtl . neac used J 111. ,,'~a in,',\,g t 111e h d ~
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'I'he rear bulge is a, somewhat strong ... shapethan the ClOWD. r The top edg - 0'1 '[ .his bu ge h ~'_e ,s,1 l,:',ns, l~' th ·up·,.e' - ley,eIid.. l~
1' ii !!

26

:B,ROW' VISOR

The b,-'o~v ViS'OT' is a powerful, tln usting form, especially 'n.o... , tieenble ill]. R, three-quarter front view.

..

. Irm"

0.-

'F '~rcial,', ass
1 .'

Althou rh the e '~anial 'mass, is large . th smaller fat dal m,2 commands more i' ..erest land attention .for it i-..he e tha "11 . , more deeier Ie features appear,

Indeed the vi sual Impact 0,-the face nd its =--=',11' U rea [SI SOl great t at the S udent mu t
t' ..

,

'fO"IClI!'i'-I,o, 1'"
._. ~

, ..

,

'1'

.

.

'.:

e·'] - -.~
'. 1_

tfjl I-..- .-- , 1;0' ' .

..

'0-

-f"0,I rig':-e·'t . .'.
I '.

the relative propo .. tio;ns, of tb.r' ~ t ..0 g eat mass F__ ilure tOI give th crani l mass its ,COI'reet size al ,'. vs labels a d awi l'lg' as am: iteurlsb. 1]1 the facial 'mass '.here are 'ten viSIU. 1y prominent fo ... s, Dine of these i~ -=1 m a .'.' a'n d do- Iii!n a'm 'I the' '. 'P' lower j _ I. The remalning nine a ~,e th~ eye:~, nose" land, other
~'iI
I' --

'1,

1111

.al!

""'1'

-,

.

_'.

I

··_:_·=t

--'C'

11'_1'

.•

'_

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.

feat

~I','

eS~1

The j·_w is the decisive forn in producing the co,'tou 0'£' the 'ace a .' a '. hole. It is the la,-~gt, bone s rue .ul'e:·f the facial 'm' I~I~ B·-·'.' .- rd ... '.lS,- lt,_.. ._as th~_e h ".~,. 'IY011 unk ue .' a~'ale'I ristic of beins the onh mo,',' 'bl'B' bone S·.I~UC"" UI-e h he _ ,I~ g'en. ral, the lo~'~I j a ~.s <~ ed like a a'
'i" ~

.'!'.

I'·

(.,

_c

.,

t,

I

I,

I

horsesh
_:~.~ ' ID.'.· .. ,

:"

0-' .

I...

~

iii!

2'8

HOI,

-·8If~~·.,hole t' Jaw o

Iii

. --er' Dow_'t

H oreeshoe Orf Jlaw ~~ Three- arte IU .· ..ieu '
_~I

,r

II

..

(3) RAM,U

i

III'

,..1')

CHIN ,MOU "','. DI

PRO'FI ·E O:F J ,W

rw 10"
.!I!. " .
I,

C":L'O" ··S····~=-UI··S· IO'-"IF' ::_.., '.c: ~ "
c:
,[t " _'

rd' .

TAW'·"

FIB,ci,al Features
1"-

-'Dim a side view, the base of th··e. J" wis n.10'" ho _ , ." a I r'··"·-. .. lZO, ,-; om t h e chi __ It ,en tl ,1 r Be,~'12' to ,:_~~' " 1'" 15 deg rees up to th," ar gle of h '. the ja ...~ 'rom the anzleor jaw .' an .,/1 e 01 i e come ~:-_:,e con t·, 0 a :t teep th t cne hi d gonai1to theiJ' WID:. 'e. _1
_II'"

'!Ii,.

!II'..

Observe how the orsea hoe of' 'he Jaw is Jawn Th .. :I;~n'i_" '
I.
I"~.'

ill

II

.1.

III

.

-

I'

',_1111'

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..

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I'

, ~.

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,-

fl'

-;-;- •.

il'

angular T'he jaw ICO, , e'r·, ,al" ,, lI],..3 llel III'h-: hi' a Itgnea pa aue WI',:I t e enm -"he r'an, -.'_r',·-o'iect 'co ~'l' a :\e wide ,,-;,'1 dnd equal in height.
J

'-lei':

second .. - fo ,.. 10 al sma 1 ,2 I.h~y.~I': g~' atest visual imsubtle differences in , h-,:-;·· 8- i :"0' ~m" a·'1 'e" h' a ID' "" k o· n- e'" f aee different from a tether Alth,ougl, the visor OI~ b ow .idge l~ all,'," p,a t If '_ he 'raniurr I. at .. th it we also includ it here as a £"~, eial fea ure, The nine, eeonda :y'.. fea t l.l~'·_ f,O:l m .' , a-e The '11.i11,e t '.,. face, ":. re the pact, The
'." .. ,"' 1' .. "..
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iii

Brot ' ridge IOI~ viso 0- the: er ~, tal C,"'_ Pi; '~, ides p' itf',a-:J nd he izontally are ed aeroes the mid-: acial region
I

, ., ··e socket dep -essed d, placed azain I· both j ides 01 t· ,Ie nose. opening immediately -ielow ...he .,_I-C of the b ,o~-.
.
J', II!

1
I

I

I

J

Cheek boner - 'i hicky '0 med mounded '__long .'he lower outside I'm 0 1 h et ,_._""I·e.~ •.
1_: e·"I,

'O'U . ' ed B·' e I of the m O'''''IU and hea , _I,et: protrudi: I" below' the nro .", inent over -ang olf' t e 0'· "'·,e' ,
' . '..' ',_ I..
I '. .' .' _. • • _ _ _......:,~" _

~,

o:.. "

','

' ..

~

Box 0'£' '.. e chin, oelow the mout ha rel and fl~ -_ ,1- for__h. W'· r'l~.
I.

B,- ell of the ear, beyond the upper e '_,'c_re' or . he jaw, at ~'e side [of the faee,

DRO' 'W 'BIDG D,' ",,·E

eH,mER, BONE

ANGLE OF' JAW

CHI"

BOX

-

NO',SE

Centrally located in the facial mass, the tap ered wedge of the nose descends to 3, point midway between the b'.I~ildg~e the of' noae and the base of the chi n. The width. of the n'OS 9 at itsl base is, equnl 'tOI the width of the eye,
I

Cheek. bone ,alig'ns 'wi"tlt bllBS6 10,1 nO'B'e~

I

"'aA,:". O " TI ". . BI~.D'R"E

CHI'>. 'BOIX

JA

',-'O,RNER

.P! ojecting from under the mou th l .,_ re,L'th e c.n e.x", n ' " __ hi one third the .-.. lstance upward t ,', Idest oe t' t_'_ nose, ' 'or: '·'tS WI: es'~ P Oll1, th - e,... .OX - ,.' e·1q:''a-'l- to- the b ".e I wid 'h o'f th ~mouth ba _~,~1~
',[' "11
(• • •

The

-=-

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-

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,-.

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-,.

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the lowe jaw 0," e lh 10£" -!h,~,
1

II

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jl

iii ,

'-

,1.1:

- ..

:3

EAR

The ear begins at ,a Iine drawn U'PI frnm the rear edge of the jaw, T e ear blase aligns with, the ba.86 of the skull, the base of' the' cheek. bone, and the base of' 'the nose, 'The top olf the ea aligns with the protruding bIl'OI'., ridge, The peak 'of the eyebrow ha ir' will Identi 'y th.e heigh ~ of the ea ~:,in. relation tOI the b'I'O'W'I'

,[J5

SUPER'CILlA.R'Y AR:CH

zy'GOMATIO BONE

I

.' F- .. E
.

---;-......
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_ ...

' _ ' .. '

,.

__

....

_

'EY"LID,a \a
,;_, _ _:_I,.

10,"

.1

..

·A'TUR:I,S
1_.

nine f,- ature £OII118. ftmr have a more comph rx a: .Among t

mouth, '·md .·a.~,'I'wo of these, .. 8' e csIl~ri' d to a nev hase of' form de .elonm ' t.···'xami· ing the mouth bu lge, we shall o,'t._ se:ve the sp . II qualit ' 0="- ",:- !':' flesh - COVI,-l~ the tips. Drawi -g the e, e sock:' ··t. we mut ,t C'OD,sider : e eyt&ball. nd tie euelido' ~
1

~, nvolved quali 'y,: the

eye

nose,

I','

] artially exp S,:' d inter ~11' _I. 101}gan of the body, 'O'V81 i -.g tie exposed bulge of th.B le,ye,b,al. are the U,Pl. lie and lower eyl' , 1 ',;~, Iliid Sr. Th e '~Pl " 'I, )1!I'd 1· more active. nd oveable than tie I01A , r. I'~ is also the, lar g~el." f ' the two li _.S and more fully ell l'vedlii The ildel· arc of the up er lid swin - a arou id the eyeball at it- equi tori' r iddle, The lowe ' lid ICl1I'Ve'S al OUl1, a small ale at the base of the eyeball.
1 I' ii'
1'

The e_ e may b coneeived as '

,'I'

n

I

37

SIDE VIEW 'OF EYEL1DS

The greater curve of the upper lid, and small ell CUI1ve of the lower lid are more clearly seen from ,3 th fI'e,e"'Qllal~tel or slide vl f the o-Y'-:-:'e" N···· e ot 'at the lowe lid lies on a backward slope of' 45 deqreee from the outthrust upper lid"
. OiW'-: l~·~.·

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I~.~.I'=-'~Ij

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he- -. .....

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II

SHAPE OF EYE

" ,x·· IS·'
,
.'
'.

.

O···c-· ..F

c .

E-·.-... "...

·y·· ·E'·

The highest point [of the f!LII~Ve of the upper lid, ']S close tOI the i,~sid,e: corner [of' the eye, approximately one tln rd 10£ an eye-width ,a,vay .. The Iow poin . of the lower lid is Ollie third of an eyoe~wid'·h from the outside
1 1_.-

These points, joined 'with 3, Iine, show the oblique la,~'-i8'of the eye, The e:ye: opening is not ~ a. sym .....'e t:. ri ea~ almond sh ,_ o .. m ~n a a 'p __
·c

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,A~,i'B' of, ye Three-Ouarte - Doum. V'ie1V
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A-

~#i~"~' ~LO

nlj' E'
V'
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rily:II,'D
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ii

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Tltree~Quar-ter

U,p 'Vie1J-

r

P'LA, - C:E··:M:-'-E-·N·\···T·'·
.... ",'... ._ ., 'I

O'I'IEi]11 .J[Ij
. ,...

P"U"'PIL
. . - -, .'

.

WIth these curves in place, the p,tpil of the eye appears SUS,,,, pended from under the upper Iid and s]ig!'h.t]~y above the -im of the lower lid,

EYE MUSICLE. F'O.RMATION

-.'

Eye M~,,~,(;lles', IGr'e,cLt'ly Compressed

Surrounding the entire eye is a, large, widesp -ead, oval muscle : the orbicularis oculi,~ It consists of two pa rts: the orbital part, 'which '.ncireles the: entire e,ye· soeket from the' brow liid.g'8 down tOI the middle cheek bone; and the .P"tlPIB,b, ul part, the eyle~id'~-'which encase the: eye itself. Both pia rts of' the orbicularis 'muscle close. th e 1£lIY"'e"', y" com pression The b greater orbital part vigorously COD".]:1'Slcts the regionaround the socket, while the e:ye ids CUF"~ tain 'I. he leye 'bI:iskl,Y but gently,
. '" ".' . ~"::.', .... . .. ' '" ,,' .. c·' .. " '.' - .' ~

o,;Il .... . ·.IIi.

Ie

•..

;-

,Eye. M ~t8'cle8

.... ole:

.Q.

~I:.,",

·0······ 10 ,R:·M-~
I

1

O··;1G1·: ~'.r

'r",

0'·· ·8· EL'
.,1., .

2

MAS- S'_
_,
_

'·ALL OF NOS·E

PROP'ORTIO: S 0',-·:, ,OS, " FO,RMS

,,pp ~,'-R ,'.',::, ,SAL

AS,S

'<'IOS,E - ,AS, -

The length of tho nose is 'half the le igth of the falcial, nass (' 'rom the 11!OS.'S bridge to the aee of the 'chin) TIle hoo' of he 'DIO' , att: ehes to the, pillars of the upper' IiI) ,
i

I'

"J

,

The upper nat al 'm,2SS,generth at t a 11 di- lid th Y' n Vi,I:-"-Sose I' iengt t e halfway' mar r, ':',om,e: zhat below this iolnt, the nostril win' za reach thei hig r point,
i' I,
I ~

Across the wid .h of' ttl -,nostril ',"j 19' ~ the base of the nose meaS,UJt:1S 0 11' eye- idth ..
1

," 'a,6 V ',. i'te
--I.:J,'
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~l.'

'/,1 .. ·_··· CH-' AP- IE D"F" U'N"D'ER" 'PL" AN'~DI
," '.: ",
1 ,"

._.i

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.'[1.

,-;',,_

SEP'T,AL C~,AR,TILAG:E

The under plane 'Olf the nose is, decisively trian "lar" its broad 'base ,g'Slltly' curved on the upper region of the mouth barrel (the ma'aJil,la) ~

'I'he septal [cartilage (the hook of the nose), divides the under plane from th.e nose tip to the base, forming the steep-aided, tl"ii,a ngular n ostrfl cavities ~

-," '- ,,' '-; "'" '""' S'epIt.'al C/-'I Q;'f\,·t t~'l(lye'

· __ AXILLARY

ARCH

·~N····· ..... .. .La:_:._.··DIJB·ULA

-

I

AB· _.. Ie· ·R··
....

I.

·HIN PRO_MINENCE

,.

The snbst ~ucture, IOlf the mouth is formed by the two great den,... , . al arches of the teeth ,:the 'U" per (' ft.B. -~'_'~a.,.y" al if.', ani the .,' lJ" ,) ", h nd ~, "e, 10 ,'e:l~(mandi'lbula '-) arch. Set togethe - both arches support the curving mouth ba rrel,
, ~ I

111,

i,

,I

4

s:mEI

VIEW

P'R,OPORT.IONS,

,OF MO'UTH:

From 'he base ef the: nose. the mouth bulge drops WOI thirds the distance from nose to chin.

'I'he outermost points 10£ the dental curve align with the
centers of the eye sockets.

," '7-:,
'

'UPPER, LIP
,I

'hie u IJI)el~Ii p is a ''\~~ despread,

elltIy eurving arch, grooved 'ill the center with 18 shallow depression, It is shaped like a fta'_ te laid. extended M,~
rl I',

TUERCL'E

The center' of the groove (tuberele} Ion the li p thrusta slightIy 'orwar Iike the prow of a s'h'il
I', tl

PHIL'TR'UM

The central dep ressi 0'11, 10:£ the upper lip (philtrulin) mounts and narrowa at the :'eptal eartilage in the base of' 'the nose, The two edges 0-'- th,e' philtrum are the pill,ar,s of the l],PI~
1

- OW" "E-R·· 1i P ... _ ,'_':':'_,U .:_
I

49

','_' ARION AND L'"

O,F Up,,·,

I

'

Th'_1.I'I~ lip i somewhat mere arched an,I, wi ter than the lower ~ Because it. leo the g'l: ater dental arch 0 -, ,- e :0,' ell' teeth, the up -',1- lip 'is, t 'Ie long- 1~ 0,£ t e twe ~ The 10W el IiIJ is the, refore recessed 0111 tb" reh of th'.'lower row of teeth, It 'i ,,' --'e'e.'s1ed d,e,~ree' 'i rel. tion to the upper lip,
I

"'lel~'

'

1

1":,',1

I

"de v ~-" ~,-,hOW' Teele ;·-8 '-d kr ',811 p'.
1,,':,,'
l

'_i

so

.IN,DIVIDUAL V,A_R -AT IONS,

LIP MOVEME'N'" S

'I'hit generalization obviously .,'oe not annl- - t'OI indivir ual '.h outthr ~--' 10 - 'el jaw t ..n such cases, the lowe ~lip protrud I.: nd the upper lin l~ edes . ec
, . 'I

'1

,I: ,.

NO

_he lower lit is more aetit e an, . mobile than he u '.Ipel' .. 11'_' place ment on the f ee-moving low. '~ jaw gua ~anteel~.,g 'eater activity, TIle ]o'_-~I'I'W lip i' also movee by __ amnle ,8: ,t of )10' -er n mot th. chin, and jaw muscles ..

5

, ar
iiil J: 'Jill ne ....,,~apeu; m .orr , Th ear is 81IetJ,f.., md g'e~ era.l at, et ure, I-s, OUI rcon t ou is f rormecd I a, wi dle- ',:t, hie top and n8.1-'I o~ -1- I>: t _~ 'as e, In the eenhe ter, i has a blow- -liln depressian" the cO'~(Jlla, large enough '110 admit. Lhe cur ve 0 : the thumb, _..,
1, ,;1
iii
]I!

'!!!'

'I

,,1,'1

"II

1

C

r» mation
'.

The ea: .has four major 1_1,'m:: ireli th e' " lid , ',e",outer enen enng rrm I'l"ell~z.c) the smaller Inside ' im (an'ti~',h,'-l~x') whieh eneloses the depres: ed bow 1 ihe low r fle-;hy base (lobule) ~ the firm projection (,t, ag'us) wh.ieh ove .han,gs the opening to the ear canal, ' he in' [1-. rim I( anti ... helix), divides at the '~O,P lnto two a' ms, forming bent y shape. Below the tragu '.1"" a small moteh, jtn unde - la'~ outside the ear c' mal op ,',.ing. T~-.Ie tubercle 18 small 'knot 0 the upper outi idle curve of the _elix is sometimes ~ Iled Darwi -'s poi t, The cur ve of the helix 'L,U,IO,S into the bowl of the ria, ani imp. ann Itseli I' the central wall, 1'9'
I; I~I

I

,

,

1

I

ICI<

,, 2"
"

P'ROP'ORTIONS

IO~F E '.R

wmrrnrH
'. . _..

J1_..,

I.,

C;IO' . MP'A' HE ,'. " . .. "" . 'it..

TOe-:., EN'" G'" TH L
,' ... ' :__" , "
,'I

'The ..n. Ire 8__ lies within two ' r' lines dra ..n from the top of' the eyebl10 ~. and the base of the 1. to· .",' he ,eal~' .i. vides : erties lly " intolh_ e·,. gene ~a]ly equ
L,

The widtl of the ear i'~ all .hs 1 ..', g,-t-'II' hi ms tne uangt ,IS meaaure OCClJrIS only' at the highest pa rt of the lear, the helix IOt"t. outer
,!.I
t".' . [I

pa "ts"

re '_-,-Ie,,',,., 0'fl. aon Seeo d I art t th mrId ,h " t;ll! t e ear 18 oecupie d erm eIy b,y the bo .',' ,,-u.:.__ ....'c'··h·. ,). • T-:he tI_' a'(' Ig"__ ue cen ':'_,' " '~. ': ts at th." exae iidnoint IO'~ the
,.1 II '~ 'il
_, ", I'

1('"

'1"

~

Third part = the lobe o:f t te ear, The bOi.. tom of' the •obe aligns wi I.. h th .. ,'. se' of the "a n.o·~e,. .

II

PLA' ICE"lI!'11"~-N,':" ..TO'" '. E'.A'"R '_. 11'1JnII~'_' ' .....
I
1_

l!IIdl I' £1 th h d O D, nr " sine piane or tne nean, 'he ear ti S ]'i htly b:"R,C: , la,r d kw ,IpS, Ig . ".. at I 'a,' a, n gle 101£ 1- 5-1 deg'!'F'e-:-"e""s' See n he 'Be t f rom ' .ne baekr. t h e outer 1)'m of sne ear stan d" ,IS a,way f-c- -, :-"'m'-" " ':-, '. t , 0,-, the rrn '" the bead at an angle of' almost 2'0 degrees, Thi:s view clearly reveals 't"'h"'e""1 rounded back wa'1] lof the central bowl,
'. ." 'I'

B'ac.lc Wall oj ,Ear

1-

I I,

.

..

.

.

.

.".

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... ,~,',!ii!iiIiiiii::

· 'll . f the head 3,,1 f "',a e lVl', into 'ou .., general group :' I,,· mui 1·1 ,', of .he mouth t' mus cle '0 h, eye and e_',I.,~ol(~ket~, the muscle o the jaw ; he ruperfieial mue l. of' tl e _c~III' a1:1~ ~aicle~l The most import, 11- mu I.J,e'" ar those '.'l eh prodi ce th la r surf _C i'l. .ms. h ,-isu"111---, } 'II' .' - 11111_ rna sse: ',. Primart ~l t h S are h n11 "1·· ~':- .,,' 10":1' th - mouth and j'i' .. '~ 'I'he e'· ~"nl"olck,t muscles are sec.... ondarv. The others are minor ince '..hey 31 e barely S'.ell;o
!

II

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-

-

i,

I'.

1,

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TE~IP:R4>4..Ll·

': p'A,.~r,.I' G UT u 'R

ZYGOMA'TI"

,.·_RH

IT/_'

TEM::O -AL BrONI, A, :I,T M,'~"ETIER 1-,_I~,' ':I'-G Ji.,

A: D . L' ' •. : HI '.,,' TE.ETH~

'U':-. I";,. _ iOI #lIe' ~,

L _~~ OR L'I]~~PIEHIORII
1o;dI'.JL..oII:;~
1 -

IG .

TH., Z. G·O. -AT]C'"
.. -AJOR A'" ·R:·, " EI,-- ~'--:"-"'T'H'
.' . '. . , ,
1

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m

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RD ,AN.I

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'T' . AR~·I,.

I'

'U,'TH
..

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0

.1

··W:'··-:--·····W···'· AR'
'. . .

II!

I., .

"I~

67 LIP .
1:,' -:-:,

OUT

1'-'

.ARD~

'IG:

--ll.,I'-·I":·

'CHI~~ THR.·.'A·'·

'.1

'LD' 'ER 'LI .

O. TWAlUl"

IF

CO"'R'" U'"G"',A, ',T-_OR;o ASSI'STS
. '., I '_ . I . _ . ~. _ • l~

ORBIC'ULARIS IN 'COMP'RESSIN'G "-'IN', rVTWEE'-"'" -' ' SIr " '~ , , "N",.' ,',:-",EB-' RO:W- s, "'_'

O'RB,ICULARIS OCULI: GLOSES EYELIDS, A ,_D GOMPRESSES EYE ,0 -E ',ING FROM ABO AND ,B·,ELO'W.

..

PRoe :RUS: ASSIST,S; O,RB,lCULARIS, '1'0 TIGHTE" 1 "N __ EYE S IT BY R WRINK '_ NG SK:I:- - IN ROO-r ,OF NOS,E ..
Ii

_ LATYS" " A,:, 0,
" ,

L,yt-..:,

G CHIEF

-'

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a ,(I, ~ Y is not to dissect anr expo e useles ut t _ anah ze anc evaluate " -11_'_,~ Th,e - 'u.... dent must 0 -.,se' vewhich forms ~ are major, minor. (I, superfiCl'~ l"" "hich 0 es hav signi (,~ cant vi sual Impaet; and which one'- ,'l'i~" "",,~,~ .reely visible, ,"-IU,~ ..., t I ermo ,"te_,'he must eval n l"te -ead form ~in geners J_ t'udy,mg' th 1" 1-,,' atior S! "et-' eer b 1 Y' 5-',19:,,' ,'0" skeletal orms, l~igid 8' ~i laginom forms, and flexible muscuh I-' i OI'-~'-" -I,. The a -ist studies anatonr not as an end In itse £'ut a", a ,grau' _~,WIO, k fall t e ex res j _' in erp .etatio - 0' visus I _"0 - ~
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he "J10ve:'nl~e~'t of the head means to record t.he eh : nging aspects and relations of' head fOI~m8 when the head changes POISI]t'~I,on How do we d .aw the varied viewa of the J~I I e a d:? How' 'a' e t hi e··m ~atl. 0,_. __" masses related when thehead ehanges direction? How are th·e·-.I f~1 t U' I~'I~I~ex resscd W ... he see ". from above and below? How are the significant planes and s 1iuctu-'~'es, ositioned when p the e ea.~..t·U.lllS,;@,'? W-:''.l,en. th .. ·h- ..ea d '.' 'd·',]-:-...., .. JIll.'! ... ' '.
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To draw the head ~11. a . 'ull f... ,}011.t VIew 0,1 a direei su e __ ireet id view i'elementary. 'I'he simple relations 0.1' the c anial and facial masses, front and side, have been. explained in Chapter l,~The diffieulty OC:Ctl1~S when tile head ro .ates from ,a front view to a th ee... rter view, qua b .__ Igues.ti _ lOin a Jises aotr t '.h e '.Aback of he head, 'How' much of the cranial bulge will be shown at the rear ill rela ~io·n.to a ·f; .UI]} given amountt 0- tr "r . ? B·· . s -ele a simple sohn ion.
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".'ith 1:."" "e .surement lines ,.,1 I pls lei. comph t, ~ the . hape of he skull a id draw i the rures, 'I'hi. is ~" g:OIOI·.· tim. tOI revie the de' ill" ._f '.'he :,'" eeonda: y forn s we 1··tU:' i d 11, ~h". }J' ~e: ar i g e .an er, _c·h~ck -h. horizontal Ii ne.... of t enos:'. ul u b· ..e rhe -,.- be on ea and ikull base. The ge of the mouth . nd Ie· in '.hould alii ..1 . itho the ] . e .ter of t E! eye, The . ar '. rould attach 011 ~. h rIzo ' a_ I lne dl~_... n f ~Ol J the :utside C. II~ner of tho eye,
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drawing the many possible views 101£ the rotating hie ad ,',t"OI problems impede our attempts to achieve sound proportions. 'I'bcse are the placement or the, ',i'de pla~te (.A,~B) and jaw line: ( C..'D)~, The aide plane, which begins at the corner of the, brow, changes with every tur n of tile head, But the jaw line ends to .l~lemain.t'1telta11t,ged 1'18'-, gardless of the rotat ~ ~ 011
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H'aJ~ d-cornercd as the b'FIOW th A point rs tne rme .....-B') on which ~I,t liea i.s quite 'Ci1~cul',a.r' h mtnr ..,,··· '~,' g~o]_ng'aroum d- tl,·····,e dd-}- f]i,f. the .1.1:- ~.,head This eu l'v"'atu 'e' m~r~: .._.. eans that when the head turns, the id ']' ht ,S}.- _,8 pane . 0-'f:- t'the h ,Ie,ad '\. '-'" -,'-D'. ~ ~ C' i rotates in. the same proportion as the center Iine (E-F)
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Step 31 The mas sure E ,H re '''''" rill entr .,' 'e amount of rotation of the center poir t, The '~IO' 'a t'~ of the old left b tOW point on tO ]t, new loci tion F-I.) should rqua 'E-H~, Begin ring at the n ..W hIO'W point ( ), com tete ' the 15 die,: ' .ec drop of the "'D,tire lane from bl-ow to C' dn,
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FOUR EXAM"P,L'ES O'F ," .: liN ' S' m:E' :t" PLA'" ", I:J FLA' C''-E''ME, '_ a__i

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J~w Line "Ih,eJaw' line, from any view, tende to remain unchanged no matter how the head turns, This means that the edge of the legg shape, when drawn as a front view will continue to defl ne the jaw lin e as the 1J...o'H'·d·"'· . .n.lU.I~('1l turns, ,:',··:S the head rotates, the jaw line stays where we originally d ~ew it ~ This, seems to ble a startling assertion, But obse -ve the Jaw' outline as the head rotates and yaiu shall see this princi ple borne out,
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The jaw contour has t'h!~IJS Burprising characteristic because th id f' of-tne wmeapreao,d a t f' na -'OF'm 0-the ]lo,·W'BF' .... aide .... facial a,real From the ed of ·t" he m nouth ,_ to. .JL .~ . the jaw, the surface is quite even an d WII.".~.OIUI· projeenona. _. lth t
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THREE-.P·HAB,E A.N.ALY'ISIS O:F ;JAW' LINE

In 'this three-phase drawing, we see '.hl~,eepesitluns 0'£ rota' tion tn ODie head,
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Center line (A.) is a front view ; center . i119 ( B) i.s a three-quat ter view; center line ( C) is, a s,'~ view In all these die vie'ws}1 th,e j' aw line does 'H'Ot change, t is constant for all pcsitions. Tr.'"y seeing each head ,S eparately with the jaw' line: It :lS· . -oughly correct f'o:r' each. view of the head,
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head turns, first a little, then more, the ~-de plane of the jaw appears to l 6zp and and, widen, like this 'flat
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h" Th e bIO'W 1'"'=., '" ..1'~' . ]'1,es, aCrO~l_ ,~ -m . th nn .ue 0 .'-h- hlea. t h d '- _ ie -- iddl te b -id ze of the! 1108 Is the -ori. -..::-' zon t· axis 0 -.t'L.. h ,FJ .d'" .]ow a 1,.JUe lie this lin ~ ,he facial 'ml_'_ ~ ~ begln ",., l.. ulJ tt,. rl' d-own no'. : . men". 0/ the' l~ela~--sta ts with Jill llii ti r d ,I'i ,'_' >_6 If" '. th e' h e,R, . '.-lPS"_OI' ...·n. ' d . th e ~_XlS line 11'1' _])8 ~'llf th e h eal~_ lift Up, t' he I ne IseS'11 ,., 1_:8 e
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The ".mount 101£ risle ,01 fall of the b owline of! the horizon "-al p,osi'-~o'l repi esent how much curvature the b row arch will she .. The bro," 11 vatl re is reflected In a > quenee of sim .... ilar C1l1'VeSover th·. lentil e sur.·~acle..·f the hes d, f om t.·.•p '·',0 _ bottom.
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'UP'VIEW

down view, ' he drot of the brow .,eli, .. lts a corresponding d -0 ". of the ICI-'Own'i We see the t'PI of 1",,[' skull,

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:RllIS,q BR,IOW LINE

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W-en the 11, ad moves up ann do _., special carr must be· gl-: e r1 to the placement of the ,e'~_I·1! ~. always goes, in an The ar OIP iosite dii -'ect~'oli to the, '-i aeial tilt." . hen the 'ace is ,do~ n, tl e e tr is U})!I! wher the face is up, th '. all is down, -I"'his -ule ' __ lso a ~.,-'to the :ikull base .. ,
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T - place the '{f rr on 81 11 e ' hear -~set up two t -a'ck lines: .--hole flrst from ' he br O~ _ co -ne'( the second from the nose base,
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Swing these tracks as the brow Itl .: line i dieates, er -ving do - or U.p ,as, the head position -~ emands, Place the lela ~ - ',~ ~11 t- ie tl ~ eks, fl·. ed tOI' e jaw 1~-~e- -.hoe sku 1 bas all ns ith . re wn III th ear b nase,
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.£' the head i- seer ,10m an extremely "OW angle, the, brow curve t ce 01' 1-_:IIl extremeh ,al~-- 'd a- __ L-[1'_'e 'This~ ualIt' ity a. ,~,OJPII',a" i11, 'tI1 ejaw ,a. e a --d smaller f'le, tun S like t re hi ' mout h ~ ]1-anrd "-lnii,_:o_e how the afito. 'jl~- o.f 1- ~'8e of the brow eurx e determiner the rise
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Onee the ea 'is, PI-10I1Jel'l1:y' placed on th'B head, we must check the .remainm.g features 01 the faee £01-' accurate placement and propornione. The following . .oints al~e offered ,as a eheek list for up views and, down views of' the head,

'B"A'SE O'F NO,SE

The base i(Jf the nose is one eye-length wide, Cheek the eye with the nose width for aC'CD:r!a~y',_,

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MO'UTH ,A.ND CHIN

The corner ,o,f' the 'mouth, holds , 1,;::....,., ... ,._. 1_0 a nne nrawn do . 'f'rom th···· . aown : - --_ _.,e ",~',' t' el 0,,-_8 . eye~ h18 1~',-,-,,- a, so ce,n..':.' ··f' t,h' ... ,lD,e ,·)··.··1 identifiee the side of the chin,
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The jaw corner Iinea up with h II th 'hd ene opening 0-£'1 tne mouth ann ,"helower lip, In three-quarter 1111" and U n'w' "D' vie'. -ItS " this n,n'1;~ne _~I - ._ ._ I""" W '_. lies on. 8, 45 degree line that ,~t' -t ,Ao_' '.'_: he nQ'" b'1.':1'd ge ',"'," 'aIQt . - .n~' -- ose -_]'1 an'd
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iaCl~"OSS f',RCIEt the

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'U,NDER~J"A'W

Seen from below, the muscle mass eonnecti I 'g the ehin to the d IO~'W', n-;' a··'tl a '16,','"d 8""()"1"I!'ee'" ne', ek slop c ~ ",', angle Its form looks like a wide funnel-cpeni ,g thrust into the horses ace form of the ower' Ja ,',.
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The eye, in upshot and down ... , shot, shews two remarkably ,d'i:ff'e-' ent curves. He re, when the eye is seen fir om above, the lower lid curve is round while the upper lid is ha -'dIy' eu ved, Ictlmo,s't a Btl aight Iine. Wh@n, the ey,e is seen from, bellow (see facing page) the appearance is reversed, T,' ,e upper lid is, greatly curved, and the Jower lid 'is ft,at,

EYE :PUPILS

in rotating views of the head, In these posi .ions, the eye pupil di liS an euspse, a, eire1e In ,,,, Jl~ lSC perspective, In a j:,fI(Jftt view,
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'~'I' h 8t d th pupils 0'f the eyes, .',U',y _ne both in 'up and Id,oWD, views, and

the ellipse ,is horizontal ~~ 1 _:.. "., shallo f,l'L£f om' top t 0 hot to'm In a partial 181',' ,8 view- the ellipse is V6'11tical shallow from left to l~igb,·,' ..
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EXT,-_-'E'I( ,I HI'G8' ,A,D' :LOIW VIEWS

Seen from an eret_-emely' hi,ylt er ,lIOW position, the grea ovoid fo ~mof' the cranial mass dominates the ahape of the head, 'I'he Irregular f'aci:~_ fOl~ms I t611 (1, ':-,''0 become subordinate to the spheriea brain case ..
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NECK. C'OLU.M~·:'

The neck column, curving backward in a long are, 'may then be added :f rom r he skull base,

81

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-,ha'-, ers 1 and 2, I 'he head has ' een s' en ,-'S a standard J gene ralized t' ruct U il!e' The do, Il~' e ssion has b e- limited '101 a --eraqe« and til ~mila:_" tie," of' ,_-1 1 heads, -': e shall no _ l)l~OCele- 0 ' h --factors hieh de _-r- lne fa -iaJ IdiOle _Ie - _I 'e,s;o n, the next t o cha p el~:_,- e ,- 11- xp lo ·~ t 0-:- £ I'II'ms' 0-f- f- ac-") al c hB'-l"iIIg-a • ,_--J _,~,,-_, -_ wrin ling anr aging,
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. :: JlJL. I, ( Wl nk-'mz of- ,-he f.:a" - CC'e occur S -'O,---~ v''a 'l'~e'ty"" -fr', a - 0- n ': The most common 1-' -- sons relate to inei ,-ntal facial activity, such a ehec~' -,g" gI~lm,ac" g, _"_ ~>in! po ~~_tin::- squinting, e'e- .... , press Ions of p,l"'- sure and distaste and, demon tl--:tion- 0 ., emotion, 0 her ,I e', .~'Ol~ ~ -ela'l .e bo " : ',eho]o,gicaI st ress and inn l~ t n iOD] a- well '-- agi g'" s museula - fla eidity ,0'· 10/:8 of firmness In flesh, What ev 8f th-e 01 igin 0- wrinkles. thei - develo , 'men ,·110 -s th .'ee major d patterns ,: :f.f on _ .., 0b-]~ , an--_ lqU, la Jl ~_ I.
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A.' the b: -id,gejl the frontal pat... tern starta with a deep horizontal groove ,aCF'OBSthe root 0-·' the nose, accompanied b,y an intense in: zard compression of the eyebrows, As the eyebrows cornpress, ve rtieal furrows zise in the center of the b -O~1 arch, swing sli.8:'h.t].y· out,b,en close in. an elliptical curve at 'the base of the forehead, As, the eyebrows collide, the skin folds seem to squ eeze or crush - 'N- _ .ot ~ u the u,pw'a/t1d movement of '.he frontal pattern, high in th.e nose,
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" t ,t'l e bs se 011 - the nose· tW10 . -~ . -]. ,- . , '. - -. . ,- - t\:vI-Ill. ' e lno .: ,men, 9, olec't.; one thrusts up ..'ard to the ncstril wings _-'~ 0: l~ dr _ the g'"SI OiW .... ward to .he rr outh and chin. --;-. h,n,'.~ m'-' ".-e.··m' e,'" "-, a'" larg elvJ. I V'EU~tlie -,.
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ter, The nose tip, while it does not lD,lo;ve:, " ikes lOin ',' fo "ce:-', 'O-IU- tthrust appe ara '-0'. i'iIIle- The' 0#. et uJl.1.. '""'. 1~C1 like 2'B' cY:1"". ",resston ~ ";IUli.!' .' ... 0-1'-. . '_ _ site ~ ~:, ta
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-, -Ie n,.. ' arr I, thrust from the _.: nc.-"e'C',s a: ' boa' lrp--' n-O-'s' I bar el p" curline 0:£ the flesh around the ,10"[ 101 t' nos t . I.. . lngs~ . 'Il aCI-iil _lOin, 1~ .18 rig h a r arched -, he unner_ lin !r' 1~1pulled upward -~1~Oim the Icen....
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rd o'··v'.-'e. I-n. 'l'tL be gi --,lightly around t ',e nostri .,ing· S-., 'ro -m,-her ...a; ~e"p"'-'e -'-.--,-, ' ~- leme -glt~JSand ISwings, i~_IIOU.·-'_ld e the mouth bulge, t' ,- n closes In 185 e a r i" _~'1 e ur .... 'ircli. --g" hie f', 0 n1t e tal 'J~-onrinIBnceof the ehln, The lower' Iip is forced out W ien the, mouth, is elos' d,
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descends ",.CIO~S, .- 'e cheek. Decisive ",'t appear. In, aged per ons, the ~ e'hi.- sk h 'Ie ]', e 0 e ...... ith ,R ',"e, ,,'0 "~. hollov '~el.owtJ
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The obli rue pattern

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jaw an - its un --.' rsur; :_" 1i!]IAe' t, e . e I a......._ '_: _ _ cascades in :Deshy', channels Id,IOI,',_'n the " lde of the neck to t B protruding collar bones,
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T.- Ie downward mo zement co .... tinues I_Ie 0 :,S the mi :dle of the
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,ASCR'NDl.· G MO'VEMENT

The wrinkles
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rise from the f '~e compresaion 11' Ilne 10'.,' th ,eye-, brow land, Inner sock c, Then they range "IP and outward In an arc that curves around the
mid-br ow ~ 'I'he movemcn t turns and ends in a series of hor-izunt al rifts aCF'OSS . he lowe ~forehead.

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'I'h 10 .f''an ~.I1'!e 'Wl'lil11L;· C].. W.=-h!iii h 'il lk k eS, . nc ... start at 'I 'he cute corner of the ,e,Y'e ~,ecommonly called cr'a~v s' a'
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. erminate, a series 101£ creases fan out f rom the S,OIC .ct, whee] up ._' r d a around the brow [CO.l'lner and aCl~OSS, tOI the ear, and sp iead. downward t[OI the cheek bone
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w hi.ell develop around the ear merge with those of the Jaw line and neck, ,At the, forward edge of' the ear" s-ight. rifts, curl around the, :rim ; slip down to the lobe; then deseend tOI ,3 ,se-"i"es 10£ ·f'u.rl"ows cutting the ins o:f the jaw, These 'move O',D. 'to the unde ·... Jaw I ~.' an '1 n ee kv baeco m mg ,.eeper fleshy ehannela, FIYl'omthe -rear of the neek below the ear', eorrugations move do.. 'n to".meet thei d' .. e jaw wrm k~ nowmg uown a klee, n together toward the neck. base, is 'l:,e' - d di Th .. e e,R,r IS, Iik ,an 18'1an__.'.clVl ing a flowing stream,
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develop in the skin ~. t, . -V"',/I.D8 ~\ '.' .. Wehi..1'CJJI C·ove Q,·,I:.i,.e CrilL %~Jb . IV':- a th and -eceesc d ,yio 101' 'the iead and face. In these places, rtfts creases, . nc folds a, ipear ,-h ",- _.k]~ 'e"sp In-~' to' IO'~me n ds W· n movi ment of the head", j, .. «, 10 v ,a muscles, . 01-' Instanee,
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'. 'rinkles oeeUI' whe we laugh , ink _I . , n ,I' I~e,z. S. - u-intI., ' . 1 " .1 . f '(}I . .~ n'e' filt 0' - swing the head. The, pull of museles C' UI .es ten :'i,on -.-liiMiMk··':l'····.·IB···J_ The eontr a'nt· Ion or u· WIll' (.!1"!W

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ueeze of nr -IS' e es causes preeS1t'e wri,-I_'-·l,fl8il
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. -.P'1- (~'IT' _en:~'l.~n ..' - - .'.- Ian Ie Pres ~ ure ,inkles Th'8 s dn c ~ease when thrusts _-'.... '1" ., ..... . I .,'. ...... ... '..

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devle]opf:rom the ae Ion 10lfl leyeb -QW8,yes, Ie ee·· h ks ,an..', mlout· C"_,reases un, d e - tho chi In . .. _--.Ie a Did jaw al e forced by the ilt and Inward pul of ... head, he
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-k]o'I-.e:r 'V:~~1.8·..y 0:£' w·rm-,~..Ies Ft An, h I oceu IS as, a I esult 0_f' th e aging .. of' the skin and fleshy fibers olf -. - 1.9 d the head, T - fleshIoosens ,an.", n sh rl ve" the _;,~~=I~I l~ ~cU tho lose their firmness and elas... , t t iC-Ii'tY T-hi']8 Clw~:,ac_es 'W:- a: we .. ,111ay eall sag and, sJlTinkage W11~nkle,s. These tenc to 'be:ran. d om. ani,. U.n,p,I dilc'a. =-b-re'i ,,'ag Ie l t ", d wrinkles are usual Y' loose, 01:-' _,ace,l . ta ki Ing a d ,_.OVlll,WQr d, .' fl id COl __rse as, they are pulled b_ '-he'- £-0' . ~"'. of,-' g."1!' avit ',y", - S·.··'IU .!II1I!!!n·k,'~,g,··'e I1,..,·' , " -inkh ,- ] ,~1 .._;Ile·. -'" i - .. WIII.ln., ,Ies ..1001{ dried OU, t aD d' Ith ~ hick WI. ere d II I. h,ehenvier, tmese . tissues 10'J the face, ,~, ahrunken a and cross-grained effect may be seen" f.l'}" example, Ion, the lips, chin, cheeks, and ear lobes of aged persons.
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Ex::am,pI1e ef Sag a:l11d Shrinka,g'le W'_ -.~ kle n
Note the sag of the loose. hangf ld below the enm ann h hl ~ mg , :,0 ,.8, b I jaw, S'h!1i-nk a gel 'm.a:y he, seen 01]1, the brow, cheek, lips, and back of the neck, .Note the IC1~"OSSgrained, ah riveled appearance. ,.
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The three major wrinkle plat... , terns j- teraet : tbey :~. not re Independent 01' co . :p!ar-mentalized.Tn ' hese fOU1~examp es, 10 er ve the gro IIpings and, hell u aw Y' our own exam .les,from persons near at hand, Observe the tension and iressure wrinkles, and the sag and . ihrinkage '.' ,-nklei l
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·aD.el "'-ffec:(' of Pres '·0 re ,8,D,d. Tea-cio'n
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.'ressure '·,'.e,B,'ctio:n to Hi ad Thr._· t

An Iexpression of ICO centration causes pressure WI lnkles to appear be' ween the eyeb -ows. . .t tl e ""Iame time I'i, - eipient ten<i'O'D folds develop on the side
of the mouth and cheek,

When. the head i:s thrust forcefully into the neck" extrema pressure creases gi rdle the entire 'pee -It!m······,e··t· of the Iower jaw er and chin
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nd :Sag Wr.lnkl'es! t, ere _,'Ie see' two cont ·a:-~ytende -cies, T~'e upv '.ard pull of the eyeb: OIW, reveals tension wrinkles on the forehead 1 '" hl!J.etbe 'nec k ' 'eglon ·c__~:e.sses, ': an ov· <all do n·· ar d drift of g . -inkles, Nate fu rther : he ~l_' btle shrn kage ereasee on the lips l)" . hi:'. olde - WIDman,",
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Opposi.ti.on

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The otraeted mouth produces te ,.' ,.'"' t.\.." , an d c~_nlll A't, .. " _e,nSllon In IIJle ]111., ,'~- ... hir " IS the sa.' '.e tim e,- a seve: e ,elol.~~t raetion (pr ear u "e) in the h 1":. a"m no ,.e br iIl'd~g"-" e .ee'Itow __ rn I._e ,if," " ., ,8 an opposite pressure on the nose at ove the ' ostril wing.
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'[!~"i -"e As the l a-'d ag·-~I~ec hIB'ng- ,'e' Be, I-," ":-' tk_ e place in 'head Pi ~'opo:rtilon" skull development, and bone artieulation in brow, nose" jaw, and teeth. ,G, owth in. flesh, tissue, lld d Sk in, ]'1 IpS, ears, ey'e11_ 's" 18'n-" hail" all cant ~i'b,ute tOI the de.... ti t C1ICI "'P'''I rve aspect a '0 f' ' ag in g '-L ess cbvious, but no less important, are ehangi g head 'positions, body' atti' "Ud'8S; and gestures ; these add subtlety and Jstinc ... tion 'C'O the bead in, growth maturity, and decline. The .£'01I owing sequence 0,£ Illustra .... t~'o,·- will anaiyze the p, -og -es,~ s sive aging of '•'.he,head, as f',ol'lm and deta ~1 change 3~1~~~' by year,
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.~_aas, :1 _. part ,; cranial mass, !3 parts= Facial mass fulle ~,;jaw slightIy ine .caacd. Nose appears smaller' Nate mundness of cheek, eh ln, and neck, Mouth tends to 'be full, curved, open, Hair ](JiD,g'e1 fine, feathery. E,ye alert, responsive.
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Proport.ion : faclal

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Proport.ion ~ facial mass. 1 par ,-cranial mas ~I", just 1t "-'der S pa: -ts, P' onounced S",cul ve of' fOI ehea _.am nose, Eye, mouth, and lips active and eaze -,., Chin cheek and neck, fat developed ~ chubby appearance. _':. ee somewhat longer,
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mast 2,~ parts, Sl~cul.:ve of forehead and nose maintained, Small, short nose, Hair thi rer and profuse, IJ'!I,W and chin more developed cheek, jaw ant neck fat evident, Mouth soft s nd curvet bu fi- mer and more zont olled, Neck s ,. e~_at .onger, h
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2 ·~AR~·,.' aCla __ .•. .. I'll P ,0, ,·OI-iJ1'lOn ': ,Ifaei '] rna - ( ,stl! ineres ,si ..,.) , ,. Pili] t :;:c'ra 1.i· ,-.
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Proportion: facia) mass (still Increasing) , 1 part ,; cranial mass, 2:1~.I parts. S-c'1IJlVe, of A: forehead and nose pie ,-sdsts~ Nose sligh l,y' longe -,., Cheek full and rounded. J,a,_,'Iarger; ehin curved, somewhat prom']nent, Under-jaw f,a't and neck fat disappearing; neck Ilnlnge Lips fi mer ~ mouth more ICOimpe te nt an d expre ssi -eI~

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Proportion, facial masa (still increasing}, 1 part; cranial mass, 2 -y;:~ parts, Orbita almost as large as adult. Nose still curved but- 0"'D'- g'- ::0:1-' I. tj·Ji'·1 'up.-l'~1 " h Jl.-_'_,Ol t- rust M'outh l~'leg0-'nI IHI g' er Chin round more prominent ; jaw angle more vertical: jaw larger, Neck longe S'",clll-vie of' 1'~e'aI_Ihead bulge and, [leek evident, Hair unruly, thie -19m) ~ .~~~~. "'" . adult more".:.' Ui.:·. _.
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