THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Agriscience 332 Animal Science #8646-A TEKS: (c)(2)(A) and (c)(2)(B)

Introduction
The circulatory system is comprised of the heart, veins, capillaries, arteries, lymph vessels, and lymph glands, which work together to supply the body tissues with nourishment and collect waste materials.

Functions of the circulatory system: Distribute nutrients, Transport and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide, Remove waste materials, Distribute secretions of endocrine glands,

Prevent infection.Prevent excessive bleeding. . and Regulate body temperature.

muscular organ that is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body. . hollow.Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart The heart is a funnel-shaped.

The pericardial sac supports the heart and contains some fluid for lubrication.The heart is located near the center of the thoracic cavity between the lungs and is contained in the pericardial sac. .

of the heart is directed toward the abdomen. The pointed end. or apex. . of the heart is also supported by large arteries and veins. or base.The broad end.

The heart wall is made up of three layers. covers the heart valves. which is also the inner layer of epicardial sac. and lines the blood vessels. which line the heart. . Epicardium outer layer of heart wall. Endocardium inner layer that consists of endothelial cells.

Myocardium middle layer composed of cardiac muscle. The cardiac muscle is an involuntary. striated muscle with fibers that intertwine. .

the heart is said to have four chambers (right atrium. right ventricle. . Therefore. the heart is divided into a right and left side and each side is divided into an atrium and ventricle. and left ventricle).In mammals and birds. left atrium.

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The atrioventricular valves (AV valve) separate the atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart. which open and close to ensure that the blood flows only in one direction and does not backflow into the atriums. The AV valves have flaps of tissues. called leaflets or cusps. .

.The AV valve on the right side of the heart is called the tricuspid valve because it has three leaflets (cusps). The AV valve on the left side of the heart is called the bicuspid valve (or mitral valve) because it has two leaflets.

.The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve prevent blood from back-flowing into their respective ventricles.

The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aortic artery.The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. .

(This process will be discussed later in the topic of pulmonary circulation.) .Following the path that the blood takes as it flows through the heart and lungs is the best way to understand the heart s operation.

A group of cells called the sinoatrial node (SA node) control the beat of the heart by sending out electrical signals to make the heart pump. .

and Veins .Anatomy and Physiology of the Vascular System The vascular system is made up of three types of blood vessels: Arteries. Capillaries.

S. Federal Government courtesy of Wikipedia.Blood Vessels Photo from U. .

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood. from the heart to other parts of the body. The large arteries have thick walls of elastic-like tissue that enables them to withstand the blood pressure created by the heart s beating. rich in oxygen. .

The smaller arteries walls are composed of large amounts of smooth muscle instead of the elastic tissue.As the arteries extend away from the heart. . they branch out into smaller arteries called arterioles.

the arterioles have an especially thick layer of smooth muscle in their walls that carefully controls the amount of blood each capillary receives. . At this junction.Arterioles branch into smaller vessels called capillaries.

. Shock is a serious condition that occurs when the arterioles dilate (relax) and allow a large volume of blood into the capillary beds. The reduced blood flow that occurs with shock jeopardizes vital organs.Blood pressure for the entire circulatory system is maintained by the tension at the end of the arterioles.

Capillaries are so small in diameter that blood cells pass through in a single file. . thin-walled blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and are located in all body tissues.Capillaries are tiny.

and water to diffuse from the blood to the tissues. diffuse from the tissues into the blood. oxygen. . like carbon dioxide. Waste products.The semi-permeable membrane of capillary walls allows nutrients.

.Capillary Bed Interaction of molecules flowing in and out of blood at a capillary bed.

help warm tissues. which also connect arterioles to venules. These tubules allow more blood to flow through an area.Larger tubular connectors. are located within the capillary beds. . and increase the return of blood pressure to the heart.

Veins are the blood vessels that return blood to the heart from all parts of the body. it begins its return to the heart.Once blood passes through the capillary beds. .

there is a much larger vein counterpart. The venules join together to form larger veins. .Capillaries unite to form small veins called venules. which have thin walls and are collapsible. For each artery.

. These valves allow for muscle contractions and movement of body parts.Veins have valves that aid the return flow of blood and prevent the blood from reversing flow. The valves also assist the return flow of blood to the heart when blood pressure is low.

Parts of the Circulatory System The total circulatory system is divided into two main parts: Pulmonary circulation. . and Systemic circulation.

Blue portion of heart and blue blood vessels carry oxygen-poor blood. .Pulmonary Circulation System Red portion of heart and red blood vessels carry oxygen-rich blood.

The main parts of the pulmonary circulation system include the heart. and returns it to the heart. where it is oxygenated. capillaries of the lungs. and pulmonary veins. .Pulmonary circulation is the part of the circulatory system that takes the blood from the heart to the lungs. pulmonary arteries.

. The un-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart.Flow of Blood in Pulmonary Circulation Blood that is low in oxygen returns to the heart through two large veins called the superior (or cranial) vena cava and the inferior (or caudal) vena cava.

The right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.The blood then passes through the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve into the right ventricle. .

. In the lungs the pulmonary arteries branch into capillaries that surround the alveoli. Each branch of the pulmonary artery carries blood to a lung.The pulmonary artery quickly divides into two branches.

Through diffusion. . carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the alveoli and oxygen moves from the alveoli into the blood. The oxygenated blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium.

the blood flows through the left atrioventricular (bicuspid) valve into the left ventricle.From the left atrium. .

The amount of pressure that is required for pulmonary circulation is much less than what is required for systemic circulation. . Therefore. the muscle mass developed in the right ventricle is much less that of the left ventricle.The thick-walled left ventricle pumps the blood through the aortic valve into the aorta.

In the systemic system. un-oxygenated blood is carried by the pulmonary arteries and oxygenated blood is carried by pulmonary veins. . arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins carry unoxygenated blood. In the pulmonary system.Un-oxygenated blood is dark or brownish red. while oxygenated blood is bright red.

The Systemic Circulation System .

including the arteries. capillaries. The blood vessels. . and veins. are the main parts of systemic circulation.The systemic circulation includes the flow of oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues in all parts of the body and the return of un-oxygenated blood back to the heart.

Through systemic circulation. Blood is filtered during systemic circulation by the kidneys (most of the waste) and liver (sugars). oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the body tissues via the arteries. .

. The systemic circulatory system is divided into subsystems for particular regions of the body.The systemic circulatory system is complex and its functions vary.

The Flow of Blood Through the Systemic Circulatory System Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta. the largest artery in the body. .

The left and right coronary arteries immediately branch from the aorta and carry fresh blood to the heart muscle itself. The coronary veins quickly return that blood back to the heart. .

Image by J.A heart attack often involves a clot in the coronary arteries or their branches. a clot is shown in the location of #1. . Area #2 shows the portion of the damaged heart that is affected by the clot. In this illustration. Heuser courtesy of Wikipedia.

. The carotid arteries branch off the brachiocephalic trunk and carry oxygenated blood to the neck and head region. Blood from the neck and head region returned by the jugular veins.The brachiocephalic trunk is the next branch from the aorta.

.The left and right brachial arteries also branch from the brachiocephalic trunk to supply blood to the shoulders and forelegs.

The portion of the aorta that goes from the diaphragm. . through the thoracic cavity to the diaphragm. to the last lumbar vertebrae is called the abdominal aorta.The thoracic aorta refers to the portion of the aorta that goes from the heart. through the abdominal region.

and hepatic arteries.Branches from the thoracic aorta supply oxygenated blood to the lungs (via bronchial arteries). . The celiac artery branches from the aorta immediately past the diaphragm and itself branches into the gastric. ribs and diaphragm. esophagus. splenic.

The splenic artery supplies blood to the spleen. .The gastric artery supplies blood to the stomach. The hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver.

The renal arteries are next to branch from the abdominal aorta. .The cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries branch from the abdominal aorta and carry blood to the small and large intestines.

.The renal arteries have two important functions: supply blood to the kidneys. and carry large volumes of blood to the kidneys for filtration and purification.

From the renal arteries arise arteries that supply blood to the testicles in males (internal spermatic arteries) and parts of the reproductive system in females (uteroovarian arteries). .

The abdominal aorta ends where it branches into the internal and external iliac arteries. The external iliac artery branches into the femoral arteries. The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the pelvic and hip region. .

The femoral arteries and their branches supply oxygenated blood to the hind legs. .

Veins are always larger than the arteries and are sometimes more visible than arteries because they are closer to the skin surface.Veins normally accompany arteries and often have similar names. . Most veins eventually empty the un-oxygenated blood into the vena cavas.

The cranial veins return the blood from the head. . forelegs. internal thoracic veins. neck. These cranial veins include the jugular vein. brachial veins. and the vertebral veins. and part of the thoracic cavity to the right atrium of the heart via the superior vena cava.

small intestine.The caudal veins return blood from the iliac. . and spleen. lumbar. it goes through the liver for filtration. pancreas. and adrenal veins to the right atrium of the heart via the inferior vena cava. renal. Before blood is returned to the heart from the stomach.

This portion of the systemic system is known as the hepatic portal system. splenic vein (spleen). pancreatic vein (pancreas). The gastric vein (stomach). . and mesenteric veins (small intestines) empty into the portal vein that carries the blood to the liver.

the portal vein branches into smaller venules and finally into capillary beds.In the liver. nutrients are exchanged for storage and the blood is purified. which carries blood to the inferior (caudal) vena cava. . In the capillary beds of the liver. The capillaries then join into venules that empty into the hepatic vein.

(2) left lobe. . Liver of a sheep: (1) right lobe. (6) hepatic lymph nodes. (4) quadrate lobe. (3) caudate lobe.Photo from Wikepedia. (7) gall bladder. (5) hepatic artery and portal vein.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Lymphatic System The lymphatic system is part of the immune system and acts as a secondary (accessory) circulatory system. .

Functions of the lymphatic system: remove excess fluids from body tissues. and plasma cells). and produce immune cells (lymphocytes. . monocytes. absorb fatty acid and transport fat to circulatory system.

which have very thin walls. pick up these fluids called lymph. Lymph vessels. .Blood fluid escapes through the thin-walled capillaries into spaces between body tissue cells.

Flow of Blood & Lymph Within Tissue .

The lymph vessels join to form larger ducts that pass through lymph nodes (or glands). . and a medulla. a cortex. Each lymph node has a fibrous outer covering (capsule).

Federal Government courtesy of Wikipedia.Photo from U. S. .

act as the body s first defense against infection.Lymph nodes filter foreign substances. which are scattered among the lymph vessels. from the lymph before it is re-entered into the blood system through the larger veins. Lymph nodes. . such as bacteria and cancer cells.

and Plasma cells produce antibodies. a type of white Monocytes a leukocyte that protects against blood-borne pathogens.Lymph nodes produce the following cells: Lymphocytes blood cell. .

Each lymph node has its own blood supply and venous drainage. The lymph nodes usually have names that are related to their location in the body. .

.When a specific location gets infected. If the lymph node closest to an infected area is unable to eliminate the infection. the lymph nodes in that area will enlarge to fight the infection. other lymph nodes in the system will attempt to fight the infection.

which can be spread from its point of origin to all parts of the body through the lymphatic system. .This is particularly critical in the case of cancer.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Blood Blood is an important component of the circulatory system. . blood is a connective tissue. Anatomically and functionally.

7% . EXPECTED VOLUME OF BLOOD IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS Domestic Animal Cattle Sheep Horses % of Body Weight 7.0% 9.The amount of blood that a domestic animal has is expressed in terms of percentage of body weight.7 % 8.

Components of Blood .

enzymes. which makes up 50 65% of the total volume of blood. vitamins. and glucose (blood sugar). is a straw-colored liquid containing water (90%) and solids (10%). proteins. . hormones.Plasma. The solids in plasma include inorganic salts and organic substances such as antibodies.

Photo from U. The non-plasma. or cellular. portion of blood is composed of red blood cells. Federal Government courtesy of Wikipedia. Platelet (thrombocyte).From left to right: Red blood cell (erythrocyte). White blood cell (leukocyte). . and platelets. white blood cells. S.

called erythrocytes. . which gives them their characteristic red color and helps them carry the oxygen. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin. are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to various body tissues.Red blood cells.

Red blood cells are biconcave discs. a shape that provides a large area for oxygen exchange. .

.Red blood cells are produced in the red marrow of bones.

liver. Red blood cells will last from 90 to 120 days and are removed from the blood by the spleen. .Most domestic animals have a red blood cell count of seven million cells per cubic millimeter of blood. or lymph nodes when they are worn out. bone marrow.

. Anemia can be caused by the following: Loss of blood due to injury.Anemia is a condition caused by low levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin. or Low levels of red cell production due to poor nutrition. Infestations of blood-sucking parasites.

Hemoconcentration is normally caused by dehydration (loss of body fluid). or any chronic disease characterized by high body temperatures. diarrhea. which can be the result of vomiting.Hemoconcentration is a condition in which there is an above normal level of red blood cells. .

.Blood platelets. or thrombocytes. are oval-shaped discs that are formed in the bone marrow. Blood platelets help prevent blood loss from injuries to blood vessels by forming clots (white thrombus).

Platelets may secrete a substance that causes the clot to contract and solidify. Platelets may also secrete a substance that causes an injured vessel to constrict at the injury. .

White blood cells, or leukocytes, are divided into two general categories: Granulocytes, and Agranulocytes.

Granulocytes are the category of leukocytes that contain granules within the cytoplasm. Granulocytes include: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils.

Neutrophils produced by bone marrow, neutrophils fight disease by migrating to the point of infection, absorbing bacteria, and destroying them. Neutrophils dissolve dead tissue resulting in a semi-liquid material called pus.
Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Neutrophil (purple) migrating through tissue to engulf bacteria through phagocytosis.

Abscess

a concentrated area of pus.

impacting allergies and asthma. .Eosinophils . as well as. which is an indication of allergic reaction when elevated. Images courtesy of Wikipedia. They contain most of the histamine protein in the blood.a type of granulocyte that plays a role in combating infection by parasites.

.Basophils rare granulocytes that are responsible for the symptoms of allergies. including inflammation. Basophils Image courtesy of Wikipedia.

thymus. spleen. if any. .Agranulocytes are the category of leukocytes that contain very little. granules. and other lymphoid tissue. Agranulocytes are produced by the lymph nodes.

There are two types of agranulocytes: Lymphocytes. . and Monocytes.

Federal Government courtesy of Wikipedia. Image from U.Lymphocytes agranulocytes that produce and release antibodies at site of infections to fight disease. Lymphocytes also produce antibodies that allow an animal to build up immunities to a particular disease. S. .

Monocytes are agranulocytes that absorb disease-producing materials. disease-absorbing masses called macrophages. Monocytes join body tissue to form larger. monocytes do not produce pus. Unlike neutrophils. Image courtesy of Wikipedia. . such as bacteria that cause tuberculosis. through phagocytosis.

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but temporary stress increases the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes until that stress is removed.In domestic animals. approximately 85% to 90% of the leukocytes in domestic mammals are neutrophils and lymphocytes. The total number of neutrophils and lymphocytes are about equal. .

the number of white blood cells normally decreases. When viral infections occur. . the number of white blood cells normally increases. Therefore.When bacterial infections occur. the concentration of white blood cells can help diagnose disease.

.Blood clotting is called coagulation and is important in reducing blood loss caused by injury and in healing the injury.

Fibrin holds the red blood cells. and platelets together to form a blood clot.Fibrin is a thread-like mass produced by fibrinogen (fibrous protein in blood) and thrombin. . white blood cells.

000 15.000 6 ½ Minutes 3 ½ Minutes 2 ½ Minutes 11 ½ Minutes .000 8.000 9.White Cell Counts and Coagulation Times for Domestic Animals Species Normal White Cell Count ( Per Cubic Millimeter) Coagulation Time Cattle Swine Sheep Horses 9.

. which are two substances that prevent blood from clotting within the circulatory system.Vitamin K helps maintain Antithromboplastin and antithrombin.

but the ABO and Rhesus factor (positive or negative) are the commonly used groups to determine blood type. .Blood types are classified based on certain antigens and antibodies found on surface of red blood cells. For example. in humans there are a total of 29 blood group systems based on antigens on the surface of the red blood cells.

.Human ABO Blood Types Image courtesy of Wikipedia.

These antibodies must be passed on to the young animal through the colostrum milk because the placental membrane is fairly impermeable.Young animals can receive certain antibodies from their mothers. .

. an antigen and its antibody.When two different blood types. This may cause some deaths during the early embryonic development in animals. the reaction would cause agglutination or the clumping together of red blood cells. combine as a result of mating.

. Horses have 8 recognized blood groups. Cattle have 9 recognized blood groups. and Canine have 13 described groups.Many blood types and groups have been identified in domestic animals. but only 8 recognized groups.

. Bulls used for commercial artificial insemination must be blood-typed.Some blood types can cause disease in the offspring of animals. Individual animals and their parents can be identified using blood-typing.

. egg production and hatchability can be improved in chickens and Pork Stress Syndrome (PSS) can be identified in swine.Certain blood types may be connected to superior production and/or performance in animals. For example.

of this presentation without written permission is prohibited. Texas 77843-2588 http://www-ims. Instructional Materials Service Texas A&M University 2588 TAMUS College Station.ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Reproduction or redistribution of all.tamu. or part.edu 2007 .

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