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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

......1............ 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ......................................................... 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ......3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) ...........7 7....................................................1..................... 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) ... Separation by 2a) ........1 Pitot Tube ................. 182 6............................................................6 6................................................8.......................................................................18....................0 7...................................7 5............................................2 7.............................(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .........................1 7............................................... Opposite Rotation............................................. 215 6................. 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow .................... 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .. 226 ..............7 6.....................2 Potential Energy .....................................8 5.............................................................. 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line ................................................. 180 6............ 182 6.............................4 6.......................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ......................1 Introduction ........................ 194 Objective Questions ......................................... 159 Concept of Flow Net ......................................................... 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ..........9 5........................................................................................... 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow .......................................1 Kinetic Energy ...................................4 7.....................................18............. 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows ................ Static and Total Head ......... 192 6.....1....................................................................................3 6..................5 6.. 193 Solved Problems ...................................................................................5 7......... 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic............................4 Internal Energy...................... 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength....1.................................... 180 6.... 213 Exercise Problems .................................18. 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow .... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter ...............................2 6.....................................................................................................................................................8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)............................... 174 Exercise Problems ...................................................................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ........................................................19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications ....... 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop ........................................... 181 6..................... 178 5. 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes .................................................1... 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ....................... 181 6..... 160 Objective Questions ............................................................0 6........... 219 7......... 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction .. 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow...................................6 7..................................3 7................................................................................. 159 Solved Problems ................

....................2................................................... 270 8......................................... 296 Model and Prototype .............................. 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters .............................15 7......................................... 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length ........... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow .................................................3 Branching Pipes .. 263 8..........................................3 Kinematic Similarity .................... 259 8 Dimensional Analysis ... 297 9..................................................................1 Determination of π Groups............................................. 238 7............................. 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow ........(xiii) 7..............................5................19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop ............................3...............14 7............................................................ 297 9.... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity .....2 Pipes in Parallel ..................... 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow .................. 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes ............................5 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................................1 Problems with One Pi Term ........... 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem ... 243 7............................................... 296 9............................................................5....4 8........................... 234 Concept of Equivalent Length .................................................................................... 245 Objective Questions ..................1 9......................... 291 Exercise Problems .................................................... 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow .................................... 270 Correlation of Experimental Data ............................................. 265 8...........12 7.........4 Pipe Network ....18 7.....19..... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing ........................................... 271 8........ 273 Solved Problems .... 298 ...............................................19..........................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy ....... 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype .......................................................................................................... 297 9.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission .................... 241 7....19............13 7..........................9 7................ 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups ....0 8...........2................................................................. Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ........16 7........................10 7...............1 Geometric Similarity ................................................. 271 8... 232 Losses in Elbows.................................................................1 8...................................................................................................................................................................2............................................................................. 238 Network of Pipes .....................................................11 7.............................................................................................. 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes ................................ 273 Objective Questions ..................................0 9............................................3 8.............2 Problems with Two Pi Terms ...........................17 7...........................3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters .. 240 7. 245 Solved Problems .............. 239 7.............2 Dynamic Similarity ...........................................19.....................2 8......................................................................................................... 256 Exercise Problems .................................2 Introduction ..........18.....5...........................................

....................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder ......1 Flow Through Closed Conduits ........ 330 10..................3........................3 Pressure Drag ..................... 315 Exercise Problems .................... 363 ..............................3......................... 299 9....... 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers .... 298 9.......................2........................................ 362 11......... 356 10.............. 302 Conclusion ................................... 341 Objective Questions ..........4 9........................................................... 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations .........3..............7 Momentum Thickness ................5 Integral Method ......................................1.......... 317 9.........................1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................3...2 Continuity Equation ................. 334 10......2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter .......................... 360 11.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer ....................................................3.............................................................................................................. 321 10.. 322 10.........1..................................................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ......................................................................................................1.1.1....3 Hot Wire Anemometer.........2..........................................................1 Pitot Tube ......................................................................... 338 10............................................................................................................................................2 10......3 Flow with Free Surface ............................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies....................................................................3...................................................................2.......................................... 321 Boundary Layer Thickness ....................................... 335 10................................5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift ...................................................................... 325 10............(xiv) 9................................................................................................3....... 359 11.....3.........2....3 11 Flow Measurements .1.1 Flow Over Flat Plate .......... 362 11...... 303 Objective Questions ......................3 Types of Model Studies ............................................ 327 10....... 300 9... 303 Solved Problems ...........4 Models for Turbomachinery .......................................... 353 Exercise Problems ......................................................................1 11................................................... 337 10...............................3...............................................................................................................................................................................6 Displacement Thickness ....... 359 11.............................................................................................................................. 321 10.........5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ..................................................3...... 336 10....2 Introduction ........................ 359 Velocity Measurements............. 339 Solved Problems ......3 Momentum Equation ............................................................................1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift .............................................. 334 10........4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ................................. 324 10...............................................................1......................................................... 298 9...........................................4 Solution for Velocity Profile .................... 331 Turbulent Flow ...........................0 10. 322 10........................................................................

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

63 2.00 9.90 4.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.02.5. Substituting the values. Shear stress = 0.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity. N/m2 0. m 0. µ = 0. 0.44 2.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius.00 0. N 0.02 N (weight of the plate) . 0.08 0. m/s 0.00 0. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).10 Shear stress.3 Example 1.60 0. Assume that the plate moves centrally.15 × 2] = 1.04 0.15 × 0. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size. 0.72 1.04. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s.40 6. Substituting the values. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex.72 1. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate. For 2 m length of the cylinder.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).1 m (wall surface.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0. 1.52 Velocity.1 × 0.05 Ns/m2 or 0.18 0. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.40 3.00 Example 1.Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force.02 0. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line).5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq.00 0.018 Ns/m2.4.60 8.06 0.16 2. u.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.08 and 0. Determine weight of the plate.88 3.1)2] m/s along the radius r.06 0. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2.60 Shear force. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0. 1 = µ × [(0.

Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1.2. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity.8. tooth paste.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0. τ = µ (du/dy)).4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3.8. Shear force is not involved in its deformation.8.4 × 0. du = 0. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2. Force. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. L = 0.8. ideal plastic and shear thinning. D= 0. viscosity. Substituting. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same).4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m.1 m/s. In shear thickening materials. Paint.2.1 m/s. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0.6.1) = 2714 N 1.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. F = 2.1 m. printers ink . Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. In plastics. 1. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids. The kinematic viscosity is 2.

But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg. for relative motion between layers. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest. ν = µ/ρ .4) . As temperature increases.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours. Hence. namely.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another. 1. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. (1. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature. 1. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated. So. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. In the case of liquids. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow.2. It may be explained by modifying equation 1.8.8. viscosity increases with temperature. which is usually for 1 atm. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure. The unit in SI system is m2/s. So. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases.8. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. In the case of gases. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two. 1.8. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low).4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. in the case of gases. These are also shown in Fig. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity.8. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes.8. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. 1. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity.

0015)] × [0. film thickness.7. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h.h) {L + (R/4)}.5. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing.13)/(15 × 0.15 mm.1a). In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity. These are the popular instruments for industrial use. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.25 cP. substituting. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured. Example 1. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long.00225 Ns/m2 or 2.8.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d. 0. 1. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible. rpm and the torque.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders. the time for the flow through a standard orifice. 1. µ = 0.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1.5. diameter.8. 0.12 1.8.9. Refer Example 1. the value of viscosity can be calculated. 200 . In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used.1/4)] Solving for viscosity.8.7. 1.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1.5. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0. determine the viscosity of the oil.9.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.3). of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds. Knowing the length.2 + (0.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0. In this case both are assumed to be equal.15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface.2 Nm. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations.

Q = ( π d2/4) V. y = h.4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column.002) = 7. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus.8. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas).53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0. Hence µ can be calculated. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter.53 × 15) = 0. Using Stokes equation. proper units are listed below: L. 1. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0. Determine the viscosity of the oil. This equation is known as Stokes equation. Tangential force = τ × A.8.2) (1.052)/(32 × 1. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W.8.9. substituting If radius is used.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1.80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s.9.6) where r is the radius of the ball. 1 poise = 0.1 and 1.8.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe. Example 1. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter.1) (1. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity).5.9.9. 1. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa. h should be in meter and N in rpm. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1. 1. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0. gravity force will equal the viscous drag.052/4) = 1. A = πDL Torque. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance.5 .8.1 Shear stress. D.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h).9.9. As power. R. The head causing flow is known.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid.85 Ns/m2.2. µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.1 Ns/m2) (1. Volume flow per second. At this condition. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall.002/2)2 × 9.1a) .81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1.8. (1. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1.9.9.

Axial location is assumed.28 – 0)/ 0.995/60 = 670 W.2. Linear velocity variation is assumed.3 × 0.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188.10.6 × 0.28 m/s τ = 0. The force on the strip is given by.03 Pas.15 = 15.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1.3) = 106.74 W) 1. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).9.6 N Torque Power required = 106.3 × 400/60 = 6.r/60.9. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15.µ.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings. (check using eqn. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.2. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60.03 {(6. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is. End effects are neglected.9.9.h]r3dr .dr. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.2. Example 1.h = [µπ2N/15. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft. 2πrN. 1.9.001} = 188.4 × (2 × π × 0. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr. y = h.

2 m ID and 0. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s. Power = 2πNT/60 W.0001 Ns/m2.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60. Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1. substituting the given values.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP.9.e. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface. Oil film Collar T = 0. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1..9. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre.9. Hence. 1.9.206 mm .5) (1. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0.000206m = 0.6) Example 1.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × . T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.5. 0.9. Torque. substituting the values. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm.3a) (1. Solving torque. 0 to R.9.11. using equation 1.682 Nm Figure Ex.9.0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.154 – 0. (1.3 m OD transmitting power.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used.682 = (30 × 0.

16 1.9. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing.sin θ.9.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex. For contact only between R1 and R2. the length OA being r/cos θ. 1.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60.5 – 0. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0.r Torque on element.cos θ and the film thickness is h.9. h and R in metre the torque will be in N.9.9. as shown in figure 1.3 m and 0.02 Ns/m2. Torque = F.cos θ)} µ(2πrN.r/15.3.9. tan θ = (0.9.h.h.3 m 0.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.cos θ./sin θ. The height of the cone is 0. sin θ (1. substituting the values .3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr.dr/sin θ.9) π Exmaple 1. h. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.12. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1.3.9. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1. Hence contact surface area = 2πr.sin θ).m. N rpm R.3 = 0.h.667.5 m. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1.5 m 0. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60). T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0.h sin θ (1. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation. Equation 1.3)/0. dT = π2µNr2dr.12 Ri4)/ 60.8 is applicable in this case.3 m.7) 2.8) Power required. The 1.

36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149.0015 × sin 34 = 149.36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1.9. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon.10. Note the high value of viscosity 1.54 – 0. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m).10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. So they stop and return back into the liquid.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension. So also the formation of a free jet.9 also.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W.10. 1. This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension.54 – 0.34)/60 × 0. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid.34]/ [1800 × 0. This is due to the surface tension of water.03 × 700 × (0. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0. to form the surface. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface . When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface. The formation of bubbles. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below.

At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface. These are shown in Fig. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. Equating. When the adhesive forces are lower.10. Surface tension. Such liquids are called nonwetting.10. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0. Oils. σ = 0. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence. water etc. the specific weight of liquid being γ. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension.10. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0. Example 1. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface. 1.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. Solving. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1.10. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. 1.10.2.13. exhibit such behaviour.10.1.15 N/m. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached.2 Surface tension. h.3N.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height. These are said to be surface wetting.

The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1.09 = 762. Example 1. Using eqn.15. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression. doubly curved surface . Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube.002) = – 4.09 mm 1. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference.81 × 0. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long.82 mm Example1.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.10.5 N/m and β = 130°.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression.48 × cos135)/(0. Specific weight of mercury.81) = – 5. Assume σ = 0.002 × 13600 × 9.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9.09 × 10–3m = – 5.10. γ = 13600 × 9.3 Pressure difference. In a closed end single tube manometer.48 N/m. = ρg = 13600 × 9.82 × 10–3 m = – 4.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. 1.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center. The ID of the tube is 2 mm.10. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure. The contact angle is 135°. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0.14.2.

10.10. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces. pressure force = DL(pi – po). and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.6) .4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1.10.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension. Rearranging. in radians.10. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles.10. sin θ = θ. r1 = r2 = R So. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative). Cancelling the common terms (1. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite.3) (1.4. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained. The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure. taking two halves of the cylinder.10. 1. s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1.10. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1.10.4) where R is the radius of the sphere.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface.

Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0. reaches a maximum and then decreases.10. Rearranging. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0.5.0135 N/m 1. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa.05 = 1118 m/s.000 atm. In the case of gases.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1.67 N/m2 = 2. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}. This definition can be applied to liquids as such. without any modifications.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0.11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. substituting the values. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1.19.003/4) = 0. Example 1. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally.18. The unit is the same as that of pressure.11. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ. For water the maximum is at about 50°C. .03mm. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2). Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used).04/(0.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium.25 × 109/100]0.16. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v.67 kpa Example 1. Example 1. Referring equation 1. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases.5.17. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1.04N/m. ∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. The surface tension is 0. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v). The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. obviously.

11. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. At certain depth in water. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0.6 m/s. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2.11. Bulk modulus.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. compressibility = k × P.11. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. compressibility = P.59 bar. The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. 1.5 = [go × k × R × T]0. In the case of gases the variation of volume.5 it can be shown that (1. 353. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ. dp.11. If n = ∞. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature.3 m/s. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. If n = 0. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v). then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. denoted as k).3 m/s. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0.07% Example 1. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0.1 m/s and 1321. Determine the pressure at that point. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively.11. n = 1. oxygen.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. will depend on the process used.20. with variation in pressure. . namely. 330. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same. compressibility is infinite. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility. For isothermal process. dv. If dp = 0. For isentropic process.

This pressure is known as critical pressure. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. 1.12. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. gas constant etc. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon.. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature.Physical Properties of Fluids 1. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. The various properties like specific heat. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure.. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases.. This topic is studied under Psychrometry. If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume. . Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. (1. As the temperature increases.12. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V . Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other.12. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon. of the mixture can be determined from the composition.

A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square.2.002) + [1/0. N/m2 2 43. and the distance between the large planes be h.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy). Considering unit area. h = 0. Refer Fig. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} .03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. F = 0.33 4 29.8. The force required (eqn 1. or dF/dy = 0.. Equation A is used in the calculation. where τ is shear stress. u = 5 m/s. dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}. A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given.17 5 28. So. Differentiating the expression A. P 1.2 Problem model .014 Ns/m2 . Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum. Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance.475 × 0. the film thickness being 1 mm.2.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0.17 h–y y h Figure P.484 N. µ = 0.00 6 29. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s.475 = 2.1 m. Model calculation is given for y = 0. Problem 1. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below.01 – 0.1.2).0/0. Density = specific weight/g. Let the velocity of the small plane be u.001) × 0. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area.014 × 5 × {(1/0. y mm Force. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane.1.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.002)]} = 43. and µ is dynamic viscosity.002 m.. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s.81] × (4.75 3 33.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. µ = 0. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y).

The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal.0 52. u = 5 m/s. µ = 0. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving.0 57. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h). P1.014 N/m2 . Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}.87 1. Problem 1.4.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1.63 1.49 or c = 0.65 50. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i. y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ.5 50. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side. mm Force.7 . the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y. N/m2 1. The viscosity of the oil was µ1.39 c = 0.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0.014 × {(0.3. Let the gap size be h. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u. Let it be located at a distance. the derivative dF/dy should be zero.7) = 0.5 60. Equating to zero yields.e.49/y) + [1/(0. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate.004 – y)]}.7)/(1 + 0. A quadratic equation.004 × 0. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F.58 2.. If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller.15 2.

2 i.2885 × n × 0. y = 0. . A = 2 × π DL = 0. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.592 × 10–3 × n/0.1 and 1.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3. The equation to be used is 1.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm.5 mm.0525 × n. Problem 1. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.2 m ID and 0. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0. Using equations 1.0525 × n × 0.07253/ (450 × 0.019 Ns/m2. µ = ρv = 2. Solving. velocity = 0.5.2) n = 194 rpm. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N.0005) Solving for u.216 Ns/m2. (h – clearance).0005) = 0. check from basics. 0.0005)] Problem 1.e.001).8.1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0.2885 × n N/m2.20) × 0.182 m2.16374 m/s. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h).019 (7. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used. speed.45 × 3 × 0. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W. 1. T = 0.5 mm = 0.145 × n/60 = 7. A circular disc of 0.3. Force F = A × τ = 0.7. The equation that can be used is. 15 = [0.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0..154/ (60 × 0.15 m.6. (care should be taken to use radius value. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.9.592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0.1 Nm. (Check using the equation 1. the area being π × D × L. n = 300 rpm.5 mm. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0. Torque = force × radius. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.) Problem 1.9. h = 0.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also. Solving speed.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.182 = 0. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0.8. µ = 19 cP = 0. Adopting the second method.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm. R = 0.9.001 m.145/2 = 3. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3.216 × (u/0. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP.8. Substituting the values.0005 m.

.626 × 10–3 m or 6.15 m.002)} = 0.04 m.11. The support is rotated at 500 rpm. Linear velocity variation is assumed.01/10–6 = 10000.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0.5 m.5 m and inner radius 0.5 = 25. (du/dy) = 5/y0. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0.5 = 17.5). A conical bearing of outer radius 0.3 m and height 0. Problem 1. So θ = 45°. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.154 – 0. R1 = 0.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces. n = 500 rpm. Ri = 0. Clearance.08 m from the surface. (du/dy) = 10000. y is given by u = 10 y0.5. µ = 14 × 0. n = 500 rpm.1 m. h = 0. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6.14}/{(60 × 0.243 W.63 mm Problem 1. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.5012/60 = 26. τ = 17. Ro = 0. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W.5 m 0. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error.04 and 0. tan θ = (0.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.9.014 N/m2 .040.002 m T = 30 × 0. τ = 25 × µ y = 0. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately. the difference in y value is 10–6.03 × 5002 × (0.9. Problem 1. h = 6.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1.5.001 × π2 × 500 × {0.08.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y. the velocities are 0.3)/0. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0.68. Using equation 1. h = 0. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall.03 Ns/m2.0.08 m. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used.0 and 0. R2 = 0. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface.5. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length).080.10. u = 10y0.04.001 Ns/m2. At the wall.3 m) 0.001= 0. (du/dy) = 5/0.2 = 1. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm.5 – 0. Solution is obtained from basics.9.9 i. (du/dy) = 5/0. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside.2 m 0. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary.e.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0.54 – 0. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0.

06/s 0.25 × 0. r = 0. Shear force F = 2πrLτ.014 × π × 0.08 × 1 × 0.014 × 94. τ = – 2 N/m2. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0.498 × 0.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0. 29. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.05.88 N/m2. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3.05 and r = 0. F = 0.1.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94.042 = 212.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2.02 Ns/m2 . τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri. = 212.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction.12 × 1 × 1.04 × 0.25 × 0. τ = µ (du/dr). The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases.062/0.28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder.1)2] m/s.022 = 848.062/0. At mid radius R = 0.06 = 29.014 = 11. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0.13.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r. Using general notations.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.25/s.04 m.31 = 0.04 = 94.25 = 1. F = 2. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.513 N. (see problem 1. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.06/s.04.498 N torque = F × R = 0. 0.1)2]. Problem 1. Solving.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848.12.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same. Problem 1.) τ = 0. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept.04. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0. du dr × 25 × 0.77/0.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0.1 m.04 This can be checked using equation. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o .

6 m/s.14 Problem 1.814 N If the clearance was uniform.0001}] × [ln(0.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure.3 × 4. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX.8 × 10–2}/{0.2 mm to 0. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.1 × 0. assumed linear. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length.1 mm.1. The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u.0002/0.14. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.0001)] = 18. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m. t at location X is obtained. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t.143 N The arithmetic average is 20. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4.2 mm. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P. F0. Determine the force required.1 mm over a length of 0. assuming t1 > t2.36 N. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.15.814 N. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. F0. Problem 1. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0. τ = µ (du/dy). .6 × 0.2 = 13. For t = 0. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. 18. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0.3 m. The clearance.572 N.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2.1 = 27.0002 – 0.

Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7.29/60 = 458W. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60. The distance between the ends is L m.s (Ns/m2). (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] .0002 – 0.13 × 0. P = [{π3 × 0. t at location X is obtained.3 m.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.0001)}] × [ln (0.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0. The clearance.45 N/m and β =115°. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length.004] = – 1.3 × 600 × 7. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy). The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7.0002/0. assuming t1 > t2 .1 × 10–2 Pa.1 mm over a length of 0. The oil has a viscosity of µ.0001)] = 457.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.8 W.18. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length.0001)}] × [ln (0. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. as linear profile is assumed. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0.81 × 0. The shaft runs at 600 rpm.0002/0.1 × 10–2}/{120(0. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].16.13 × 0.2 mm to 0.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9.29 Nm.0002 – 0. π Problem 1. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.431 × 10–3 m or – 1. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)]. Equating the surface force and the pressure force. Assume surface tension as 0. Problem 1. Determine the torque and power required.81 N/m3. Solving for h.0001)] = 7.3 × 6002 × 7.431 mm.

The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle. Problem 1. The force required at the time of separation was 0. The surface tension is 0.21. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension.0365 × 2}/{0.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure. .02 N. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.1.1 N/m. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle. 0.22.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14.0365 N/m.19.1 = 0. Assume β = 0.0254 mm.6 kN/m2. Surface tension is 0. σ × 2 × π × 0. Solving σ = 0.15 N/m. F = 2 × 1 × 0.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Determine the surface tension of water.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm.2 = 0. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.1005 N.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P. Problem 1. Problem 1. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0.1005 N. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.20. The contact angle is 60°.

81 N/m3.82 × 10–3 m or 1.81 × 0.0152/4} × 6 = 0. R = [2 × 0.23. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression.15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0. The contact angle is 60°. Initially the pressure is 10 bar.82 mm.25. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight.106 = 0.15]/ [1. The temperature remains constant.45 N/m2.92 mm of mercury. The tube is 3 mm in dia.212 N. equating forces.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension.003] = – 3. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0.10. The contact angle is 140°.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure.92 = 765.10. Problem 1. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.022}/{0.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.45 × cos 60}/{0.92 mm.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. The piston diameter is 100 mm.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}.5 N/m2. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm.51 N/m. Problem 1. Capillary rise.0025} = 17.32 = 1. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. Problem 1. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc. equation 1.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po).008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular.022 N/m. So the additional force = 2 × 0. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3. (using equation 1. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0. Problem 1. .92 × 10–3 m or – 3.24. The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by.15} = 6. The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0.26.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β]. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2.

002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v). the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase. The density increases by 4. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1.11. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15.11. The density will increase due to the pressure increase.0% due to the increase in pressure.002). Solving.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0. At a certain depth. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.47 × 10–4 m = 0. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9. 2.5 × 10–6). The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1]. When the applied load is released solids _________.5 cc.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. At the surface. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________. By definition—eqn 1. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer. Solving dv = – 2.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1. The atmospheric pressure is 1. dv = – 0. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0. Determine the density of sea water at the depth.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line).991 × 10–3 m = 1. v2 = [– 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement. .28. substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1.77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0.00152) = 3.11. 3.01 bar.12 = 1. Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. the pressure is 880 bar.27. Problem 1. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%.

liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state . When heated the atoms in solids _________. A fluid is defined as _________. The three phases of matter are _________ . _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself. Density is defined as _________. . continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. 2. 7. A gas is defined as _________. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. 4. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. 9. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. In some solids molecules come out when heated.34 4. 4. The distance between molecules is highest in _________.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 9.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 5. 6. The phenomenon is called _________. 10. O Q 1. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. Answers (1) Solid. The difference between liquids and gases is _________.5. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. Fluids cannot withstand _________. The distance between atoms is least in _________. 3. A mole is defined as _________. A liquid is defined as _________. 3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. 7. 8. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. Specific weight is defined as _________. 5. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. 2. Specific gravity is defined as _________. 6. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. Gases _________ the container. 6. 8. 8. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. A vapour is defined as _________. 10. 7. 10.

When gravitational force increases density _________. 5. 10. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. 4.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. . Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. O Q 1. An ideal fluid is defined as _________. 2.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 7. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 2. When gravitational force decreases density _________. Surface tension is defined as _________. 8. 3. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. 3. 3. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. 10. 4. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. 8. 6. Viscosity is defined as _________. 9. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. 6. 7. 9. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. 5. 2. O Q 1.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance. 4.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.

8. the vapour pressure _________. . 3. 2. 9 O Q 1. 10b Remains constant 3. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. 8. 7. 1. 9. the capillary will rise. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. 8 Decreases 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. 5. 5. 7 O Q 1. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. 4. 6. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. 8. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. As temperature increases.36 5. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. 10. 9. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 9. 10a Decrease 2. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. 7. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. 9. 5. 10. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. 10 Remains constant 7. 7. 3. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. 6. 4. Answers Increases 1. Answers Increases 2. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. 6. 10. 4. 6. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. 8. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. 3. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. 2. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. 4. At constant temperature. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. 5.

2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1.1 m. 5. 1. Mass is measured by a spring balance. Classify them accordingly. 3. Liquid bubble 5.2 × 10–1 N/m 4. 7 O Q 1. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance.2 × 10 (b) 1. 7. 11 O Q 1.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. 7. The mass of an object is 10 kg. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. The weight of man will be lower on the moon. 6. 7. 6. Free jet 6. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7.01 – r2). 2. 8. 10. 3.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value. 9.00004 π Viscosity 2. 11. 5. 8. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. Momentum transfer 2. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7. 4.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. 10 Incorrect 1. 8. 1.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. 5.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0. The pipe radius R = 0. 9. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. 9. The dynamic viscosity is 1.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place. 3. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. The viscosity is 1. Capillary rise 3. The density is 600 kg/m3. 10 Incorrect 2. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . 6. 3. 4. 5. 1. 4. 4. Free surface of liquids 8. 6 O Q 1. Drag 4. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble.11 Choose the correct answer. The shear stress is 3.

2-A. 17. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. 21. . 13. 4-C (iii) 1-D. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet.38 O Q 1. 12. 2. 10. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. kg/m3 D. specific volume. 3-D. 14. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. 3. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. 4. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 3-A. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. liquid D. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. 18. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 11. N/m B. weight density and specific gravity. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. 16. weight 3. 2-C. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. gravitational acceleration D. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. free surface (iii) 1. 6. 5. surface tension B. N/m3 C. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. m2 /s A. kinematic viscosity 4. 3-B. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. capillary rise 3. 20. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. specific weight (ii) 1. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension.12 Match the pairs. dynamic viscosity 2. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. Set A (i) 1. 7. momentum transfer C. Differentiate between the three states of matter. 9. 2-A. zero viscosity B. 8. 19. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. droplet formation 2. 4-B (ii) 1-D. Newtonian fluid Set B A. surface tension 3. Define density. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. density 2. ideal fluid 4. kinematic viscosity 4. 15. Distinguish between vapour and gas. shear stress A.

13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30.7 poise. 113.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 .32 N.8 m/s.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid.4 kN/m3) E1. 1. (8.614 kg/m3. the flow velocity being 1. E1.2 m and height 0.16 m ID and 0.734 N.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. The weight of the plate is 1 N.94 N/m3. A thin plate of 12.08 m.04 and 0. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp. the film thickness being 1 mm.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m. (5 mm) E1.011614.11 If u = 10 y1.02 Ns/m2.1.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21.2 m/s is 267. Determine the diameter of the disc. Determine the distance between the plates.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0.58 Nm) E1. (200 mm) E1.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s. E1. (20. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square. 1340 W) E1.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0.326 Nm. The force required was 0. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.4 m and inner radius 0. Assume linear velocity profile on either side.2 mm) E1.81 N. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp.3). The support is rotated at 600 rpm. (10. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.3. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0. E1. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2.9.2.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP. 0. A small thin plate of 0. pipe of 40 mm diameter.08. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1.98 cp in a pipe.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig. (1.5. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1.069 Nm. Determine the ID of the cylinder. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used.4. determine specific weight of the liquid.8 mm. (11.0 cP.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .6. Determine the density.0861 m3/kg) E1. Determine the film thickness. (5 kN/m2) E1.79 Nm.

1.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used.0728 N/m) E1.14 As shown in figure.874 kN/m2.1 N/m) E1. out of this 3. (2 × 10–3 N/m2.0728 N/m) E1. Assume β = 0.0732 N. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height.13 E1. ω. (0. β = 129°. (0. β = 0.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2.16 E1.001 Ns/m2.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3.0365 N/m.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure. (0. Determine the value of surface tension. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a.15 Figure E.40 E1. 1. m m u Figure E. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block.511 N/m) E1. (0.1. Determine the value of surface tension.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces.0254 mm) . The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid. r. α and µ. (F = µu A/ h.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 . Determine the droplet size.94 N/m2) E1. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1.99 mm.17 mm is due to capillary action.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0.1. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature. a force of 0. The mass m causes the movement. (0. in terms of h. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted. m) Figure E. µ = 0.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque. Determine the value of surface tension.

γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle.45 N/m) E1. (762 mm) E1.022 N/m) 17. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material. The surface tension is 0. (10 m) .5 mm dia is (0. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. At the surface. Determine the value of surface tension. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2.27 An additional force of 0. (0. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0. Determine the average value of bulk modulus.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant.76 mm.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. (172 N/m2) E1.15 N/m. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension. σ = 0. The contact angle is 60°. (0.63%) E1.43 kg/m3.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects. The capillary rise was 1. The specific gravity of oil is 0.01 bar.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37. E1. determine the capillary rise in water.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. Assume the value of surface tension as 0. E1. the density was measured as 1024. (10 µm) E1. if 5.96.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri). (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765.1 bar and –50°C.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm.92 mm of mercury column. (3. determine the percentage change in density.0735 N/m.04 × 109 N/m2. If the surface tension of the oil is 0.0365 N/m.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. (10 m) E1. The contact angle is 140°.7%.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia. 8 mm) E1. there was a 4. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. E1. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used. The atmospheric pressure is 1.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14.49 × 106 N/m2. (0.0389 N/m.6 N/m2.5 kg/m3. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.82 mm.51 N/m. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation.

Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. However a more precise definition of pressure. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. P is as below: 42 .Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. but this is usually small in magnitude. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. A ship floating in sea is an example. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter. 2. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely.

This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure.2. 2.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A.1.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure.2. This is also a popular unit of pressure. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it.1.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2. dF = P dA (2. The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge. 2. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure. . As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure.1.

Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured. 1.2. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value. 2. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure.62 × 105 N/m2 . This is called Vacuum. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum.62 bar = 1. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2.2.1.2. Example 2.62 bar.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings.

8 mm of Hg 2. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components.3. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum.3 kPa.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.3 kPa = (21. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101.62 × 105/98100 = 1. First considering the x direction.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl. Let the pressure in the x.3 – 80 = 21.3/101.81 N/cm2 = 9.3) × 760 = 159.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig. Barometer reading = 1. dl × cos θ = dz So. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21.3 kPa 101.013 bar = 101.62 × 105 N/m2 = 1. 2. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2. The proof for the statement is given below. the force due to specific weight should be considered.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg.3. y and z directions be Px. Convert this pressure into head of mercury. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy. For the element to be in equilibrium.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 .1. Py. The barometer indicates 1.2. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1. Pz. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But.013 bar.

2). dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2. dl × sin θ = dx. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account. This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying.4. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or. Also.4.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms.1. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles. . it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds. 2. 2. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. Pressure forces are called surface forces. So. Hence.4. By using an element in the other direction. as shown in Fig. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs.4.

6.81 × 0. P will be constant if y is constant.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217. 2. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9.e.68 N/m2 = 1. In equation 2. The oil does not mix with water. dP/dx = 0 47 (2.4.7) As y increases.4 = 3217. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar. This has to be calculated in two steps.68 N/m2 = 3217.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids. This leads to the statement.5) (2. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0. planes normal to the gravity direction. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i.81 × 0.4. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. In a static fluid. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0.82 for another 40 cm.4.4.6. first for oil and then for water.4.3 = 2943 N/m2 . This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2.4. If the fluid is incompressible. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder.3. s) For x axis. these being incompressible.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P.. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. Example 2. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1.4. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location.4) Chapter 2 In y direction. the pressure increases along the depth.

Example 2.5. P = 43.4.3 = 6160.4. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated.4.8145 × 105 Pa = 5. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density.8145 bar (absolute) 2.81 = 11.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both. calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.4 × 105 + 900 × 9.e. using equation 2.7) .4. (P/γ) = (Po/γo).68 + 1000 × 9.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5..3 and 2.4. at any location i.4.68 N/m2 or 1. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0.005°C per metre.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160.600 N/m2 = 0.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9. If γ = γ (P. Solving.0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2.28 × (5000 – 0).48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.68 N/m2 = 6160.2. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa. 2. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0.4.81 × 0.4 bar. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy.

Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )].5.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0. Integrating. (P/ρ) = RT.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. Hence it is often left out in the equations. Now y = 5000. It needs no calibration. 2.893 N/m2 = 0. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2.4. ρ × g = (P × g/RT). Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55. 2. to the end point.1 (a). The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go. In Fig.55506 bar (2. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. T = To – cy Pv = RT. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity.4. y = 5000 m and solving.5.9) (2. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56. Chapter 2 . For dimensional homogenity go should be used. 2.1 (b). The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known. the pressure is the same. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit. P=1× 105 exp [– (11. The principle of operation is shown in Fig. 2. where the pressure is to be determined. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB). (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)].506 N/m2 = 0. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement. ρ = (P/RT).5.005. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest.4.

125 × 900 × 9.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0. With respect to datum at B. horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil.9 × 13600 × 9. 2.9 m Water C B Hg (13. As only gravity is involved. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0.9 0. 2. The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.6.5. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.9 × 1000 × 9.1 (b)).81 + 0.9 × 1000 × 9.6 .5.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112. 2. Example 2.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2. S = 0.6. Determine the pressure at point A.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.125 m A 0. Ex.

A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig.5.7 Figure Ex. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.3 C + A E 0. S = 0.6 m D Water Oil. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B. The area ratio is the significant parameter.8. 2. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig.7.9 × 1000 × 9.81 × 0.2] = 29. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9. S = 0.81 × 0.8 Example 2.81 × 1.2 m 0. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured.7 = Patm + 3237.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.3 N/m2 or 7161.81 × 0.2.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil.Ex. 2.9 + A Water Figure Ex.4 m E + 0. Ex.81 × 0.9 × 1000) × 9.405.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9. the reading may be amplified.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.2. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 .1. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0. Determine the pressure at A.8. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density. PA – PB is the required value.8 m B 0.81 × 0.5.3 kPa (gauge) 2.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9.9 × 1000) × 9.3 = Patm + 7161. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig. 2. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.2] = 40000 – [(0.81 × 1.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30.9 C D B B Water 1.9 × 1000) × 9.7.4] = Patm + 7161.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0.

5. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3.5. The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a.9. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y. The air density is 1. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB).1 and the filler fluid is water. . γ Example 2. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2.2 kg/m3.2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2.5. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. Under measuring conditions. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small.

Example 2. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction.2 × 9.1%. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 .81 N/m3. y = 0.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0.08 Pa.10. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy.0342 m = 268.81 N/m3.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0.2 × 9. γ1 = 1.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm.0342 20° Figure Ex.81) – 1000 × 9.1 × 1000 × 9.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3. and (a/A) = 1/10. 2. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only.81} = 196.2 – 0.5. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3.81 × 0. Using equation 2. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure. γ2 = 1000 × 9.81 N/m3.05 m.11772 = 196.10 2.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.1 × sin 20 = 0.1 × 1000 × 9.05 × (1/10) × 1. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196. which is accelerated at as along the s direction. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid.1 = 2 × 0.5. γ3 = 1. For equilibrium along s direction.05 × [1. The actual head.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0. 2.

variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex.6. 2. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ .6.6) In general.6.6.6. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction.6. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0.6.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2.6. However. for acceleration.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2.5) (2. θ = 0° (2. Using equation 2.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2. These equations can be integrated if as. γ. ρ are specified as functions of P or s. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero.1) This shows that when there is acceleration. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction. θ = 90° (2. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.6.

a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations.8. the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction. .6. ds = dx.6. the free surface angle will depend on ax. ρ = AP + B (A. as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition.6.6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2. ay and g.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left).7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2. When gravity is not present.6. (2.6. 2. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2.5–2. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure. (ii) If density varies with pressure as. B are constants): Using equation 2.6.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. 55 (2.6. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations.6. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0.7. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates. [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating.

50. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.6.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.225 kPa.42. A = 1. ∴ 1 S = 0.50. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2.6. equation 2.12.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa.9 can be used to solve this problem.11. ax = 15 m/s2.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250.12 Equation 2. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant.58. 2.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here.000 Pa = 142 kPa.8 P1 = 1. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2. 2. . 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex. A cylinder (Figure Ex.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2. 1. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex. 2.50.000 = {1/1. B = 0.2 × 10–5. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1.

tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0. h = A ax/2g Example 2.5/x = – 10/9.4905 × 0. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment. 0.81.5 = 0.5 × 0. Chapter 2 . Free surface 0. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.5 m high.1386875 m3 Example 2.7.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0.6.15.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ. 2.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay). As tan θ = 2h/A.5 m wide and 0.8 = 0.5 m high.5 m wide and 0. θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ. using eqn.13.5 0.14.0613125 m3 = 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled. Using equation 2.5 q X Figure Ex.0613125 = 0.6.8 m long. 2.5 × 0.8 m long to a depth of 0. Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank. 0. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs.25 m. As ay = 0. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2.8 0. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex. A fluid of specific gravity 0. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.5 × 0.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0. 2. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0.2 – 0.81 + 0) With reference to the figure.13 tan θ = – 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2. So x = 0.

The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3. the weight of water is zero 2.6.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.625 × 9.5 × 1000 × 9. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled. The angular velocity is the same at all points.1 – 2. the pressure would have been 1.4 = 1.625 ∴ ax = 0.25 × 9.7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1.3. The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form.465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay).5 [9810 – 1000 ay].5)/1000 = 9.5/0.715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric. with fluid moving away from the centre. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2. ay = 9.5 m. A tank containing 1.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0. Equation 2.6.8 = 0.81 = 6. but the linear velocity varies along the radius.81/1000 = 14.7.. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1. i. An element of fluid as shown in Fig. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).5 m/s2.6.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full.2. the liquid as a whole rotates.e.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation. the water will be at 0. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom.1 is considered.16. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2.1) .5/0.25 ∴ ax = 1. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0.26 m/s2 Example 2.81 = 12.7.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex. 2. where ay = – g.6. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1.

Chapter 2 s dr . (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y.7 is used. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area).Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence. ay = 0.4) (2. v/r = constant as v = ω. In forced vortex.7.r and ω is constant If g = 0. The surface profile is shown in Fig. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging. radius and g.6. 2. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r.7.7.2.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2. tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink.7. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant).7. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated.7.

2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)]. Equation 2.6 rpm Example 2. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius.52)/(2 × 9. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.52 – 0. 0. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. The gauge A reads 0.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0.7.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15.4 Using equation 2.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2.2 bar.18.4. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge.42)/2 × 9.4 m.184 N/m2 (gauge).42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106. N = (8.52 – 0. Determine the speed of rotation.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero. r2 = 0. B. while the gauge .81 = 1. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0.712 (0.7.17.7. The outside pressure is 1.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2. substituting the values.81). Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm.71 rad/s. Using equation 2. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0.1.4. Four pressure gauges A.7. ∴ ω = 8.712/2) × (0.01 bar.1 is applicable.

2.5 bar 2 2. Figure P.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC.3 bar.01 + 0. ∴ P5 = – 1. A.8 4 C Gauge 2. PC = P5 + PA. The gauge is in chamber D.8 bar.01 – 1.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0.21 – 0.2 = 1.2 are 3. 2. 2.2 PA = P2 + PD .6 6 1 3. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3.1 ∴ P1 = 0. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix.1 D 3 A B 2. C and D as shown in Fig. PB = P1 + PD. 1. 2.1 ∴ P2 = 1.6 + P4 1. 4.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1. 2.1 = 1. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.1 bar.8 = 3.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P.4.8 + P3 1. Gauge 1.11 = – 0.1 C .1 = 1.6 = P1 + 2. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6. P. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.4 + P5 2.6.6 = 3.21 – 1.1 bar respectively.4 = P2 + 2. 0.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D. ∴ P4 = – 0.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2. 3.2. 2. 5.8 = 2. PB = P6 + PA. B. ∴ P6 = – 0.11 = 0.6 bar.4 5 1. The pressures in chambers A.3 bar.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0.8 and 2. PC = P4 + PB.

Problem 2. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ.9 floats. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) . dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy.96 cm Problem 2.3 kPa.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures.4 = const. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury. Denoting the index as k. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0. To = 300 K . On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1. Temperature at ground level is 27°C.25. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101.5.4 = constant. Determine pressure at 10. 2. determine the heights of the columns.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values. Problem 2. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.25) hw × 1000 × 9. For example reading of P5 = – 1.81 × 1000) + (0.25 × 9.3. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as. or 23. (As hk = hw/1. Such a vacuum is not possible. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k.5.4] = const. or P/γ1..2 × 9. h = 0.6 bar.2371 m.. Let the rise in mercury column be h.71 cm hk = 0.4.25) × 900 × 9. or 18.000 m altitude.81 + [(hw/1.81 × 830) Solving.02996 m or about 3 cm.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0.1896 m. Then h × 13600 × 9. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.81 = (0. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P.

2.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K. . m P.3524 10000 0. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.6) 2. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.6.3 kPa.3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards.89 0. kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2.6086 6000 0.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2. substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth .47 0.79 0.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14.35 0.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2.5 × 109 14758.8874 2000 0. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2.4657 8000 0. determine the value of K. Determine the pressure at B. PA = 1.61 0.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101. Depth.2. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0. the top of the longer limb.2622 63 20000 0.25 0.013 bar 8m Figure P.03 0.(P .7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.7848 4000 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.

2. h = 9.81. Problem 2. Figure P. ∴ h = 0.81 × 1000[0.24 kPa.h Py is now calculated. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.81) = 23447. If the water just begins to boil. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4. A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. Py = P2 + 9.9. Solving. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x.h (As the filled volumes remain the same).8 N/m2 or 23. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9.95.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil.8.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9.24 mm of water. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion.95 H (in this case).95 x x h y y gm Water . Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9. The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0.0252 m or 25. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A).81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. when both pressures are equal. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A). Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H. In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section.45 kPa At 30°C.973 m Problem 2.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101.246 × 103 = 101. S = 0. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure. Consider stationary condition. what should be the length of the limb? 4.81 × 89h. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. hence there will be no boiling at B. calculate the height h.

γs = 0. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density. 2.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P. consider pressures at y as the reference. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil.10 Figure P.2 h. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm). 2.02998 m or 30 mm.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334.11 150 Hg C 400 .10. × 9810 + 0. 2. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied.81. S = 0. γm = 1000 × 9.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0. Problem 2.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs.9 × 1000 × 9. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere.

013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1.11.032/0.81 × 891] equating and solving. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water.616 m/s2 Problem 2.81 × 0. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down.81 × 0.13 . Determine the pressure in the pipe. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P. ρ = 1445. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.81 × (0. The dimensions are shown in Figure P.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9.6.13. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2.11. Problem 2. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure. The mass of the container is 50. 2. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13.97 kg.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.013 × 105 + (850 × 9. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0.12) = 2.30.4 – (13600 × 9.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.2. Then using equation 2.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9. A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal.7.4) = 104635.81 × 0.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level. Determine the acceleration. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.

81 – 2.041)/(9. slope = 0. the gauge indicated 980 kPa. P2 = P1 – (ρ.6.81 + 2.97 × 9.13 Total mass = 1000 (0.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0.3 = 1404.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal. This is an interesting result.26) = 1298.598 m/s2.5 – 1404.81 + 1.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2. Refer Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13. The mass of the container is 10 kg.24 N Acceleration along the plane.4 × 0. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°.2478/(9. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.1°.24/550.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2.81 × cos 60 = 2702. ax = 4. Specific gravity of oil is 0.97 = 550.5 × 1000) + 50.598/(9. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2.81 – 1. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface.2478/(9.905 × cos 30 = – 4.2 m. ay = 2. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.041 m/s2 The component along vertical.2. P.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4.4 m × 0.9.5/26 = 4.6. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.3464 Problem 2.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.µ = (2701.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa . ax = 2.178) = + 0.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.9 × 0.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.9.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4. with the same acceleration.2478.4525)] θ = –19.905 × sin 30 = – 2.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2. as = F/m = 1298.97 kg Fx = 550. ay = – 1.4525.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.81 × sin 60 = 4680.97 × 9.2 × 0. ∴ tan θ = – [4.2 m size and of height 0. A tank 0.356 × cos 30 = – 2.5)] θ = – 12.97 = 2. When moving up. same as the slope of the plane.15.53 N Acceleration as = 127.14.81 × cos 60 = 127.

The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location. choosing B as origin. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph.1 m w Figure P.30 to the vertical. From steam tables at 30°C. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric. ax = r.7. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn.3° As pressure increases outwards. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. The left side is vented to atmosphere. r2 = 0.81) = 0.ω2.P.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road.16 Problem 2.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2. ∴ ax = 9.16 is filled with water.18 . During the travel along the curve. ay = 0 speed. the general equation can be used. saturation pressure is read as 0.81 m/s2 Figure P. ∴ θ = 14. x = 4.16. A tank as in Fig. 2. 2. Problem 2.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately.013 bar.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. ∴ P = 0. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD).04241 bar.18.255. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature. Pr2 = 1. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration.2.04241 bar using equation 2. tan θ = ax / (g + ay). The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric. the balloon will turn inwards by 14. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D.17. A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0.

A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure. ∴ PB = 0.81 C B A · 0.19 Patm · (P. D and E when (i) ax = 3..3 m of liquid. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii).902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 .1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2. 2.81 × 800 = – 2354.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.45 m/s2 and ay = 4. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s. ay = 0.8 · D 1m E· Figure P.19.81 × 800 [0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting. ax = 3. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. Determine the gauge pressures at B. R = 8314/352. C.19) Problem 2.6.39755 – 0.0976 m head of fluid.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). when accelerated along the x direction.186 P2/Po = 24.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2.45/(9. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i).3 m 1m Oil.20. Equation 2.81 = 0.9/9. PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. For a gas ρ = P/RT. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.e.902 m/s2.45 m/s2.12 ∴ ω = 139.81 + 4.ω2 × 0. 2. B is at 0. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration.3 liquid head above i.3 × 800(9. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3. ax = 2.7 × 0.81 + 4. The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s.3 × 9. C′ will be above C by 0. (1.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. S = 0.013 – 0.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9.39755 as the length is 1 m.9 m/s2.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2.16653 At B.902) = 0. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used.20 ∴ The slope is 3.9/9. The molecular mass of the gas is 352.8 × 9. ay = 4. As compared to A.

16653 m above A.81 m/s2 upwards.3 – 0. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1).902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii). C is above C′ by (0. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3.902) × (0. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.03 m/s2 Problem 2. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12.5 sin 40 = – 11.09/(7.1665) m PC = – 0.21.22.5 cos 40 = 7.81) = 0.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12. decelerates at 4 m/s2. ∴ ay = – g or 9.24 × 10–3 × 1.23. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.2)/1000 = 8.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure.7 × 800(9. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.81) = 7.81 + 4.659.9.5 m/s2. head of water = (7.81 + 4.21 .4°. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P. ∴ θ = 33. 2. Neglect the weight component.3 × 800(9.01 + 9.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal. So ax = 0 Problem 2. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm. The plates rotate without any air flowing out. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0.659 Problem 2. using equation 2.81 + 4. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0.3 × 800(9. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank.2.6.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11. The lorry accelerates towards the right.3 – 0.06]2/(2 × 9.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0. The accelerations are indicated. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa. If PC = PB. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12.

the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. . Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. the free surface will be ________ 7. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. 6. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. 8. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. When gravitational forces are zero. 2. horizontal 7. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. State and prove Pascal’s law. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. 10. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. is zero 5. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. Chapter 2 4. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. 3.2. y γ. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. is the same at all points 4. Pascals law states ________ 3. 6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. basic hydrostatic equation. Explain the consequences of the law. Paraboloidal. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. 9. 7. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. 9. Distinguish between gauge pressure. low 9. 71 5. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces.1 Fill in the blanks: 1.

small 5. decreases. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. 8. In inclined tube manometer. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced.72 O Q. tan θ = – a/g 4. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. 8. As specific weight increases. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. 9. In a manometer. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5.2. the pressure ________ 3. Due to horizontal acceleration. independent 10. In a micromanometer.2. 4. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. 8.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. 3. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2. 7 O Q. the pressure at a point varies with direction. or remains constant. As the density of manometric fluid decreases.2. 9. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. 2. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. exponentially 2. 7. 9.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 5. 6.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. 1. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. 8. In micromanometer. The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. ax = g O Q. 10. neglected/equal on both sides 6. independent 8. 5. Along the free surface in a liquid. zero 3. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. cylindrical 7. 2. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. specific weight 9. 6 Remains constant : 2. In a manometer. . The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. 10 Decreases : 4. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. 6. 3. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. 1. Answers Increases : 1. In a fluid at rest. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. 2. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3.

The gravitational forces are negligible.2 (d) none of the above 7.72 (d) 130.81 N/m2 5. The specific gravity of mercury is 13.2 (b) 13. 10. 3.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2. the manometric rise is 0. 6.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10. 9 O Q.55 × 0. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit.4 × 1200 × 9. 10 Incorrect : 1. 5.1 × 1200 × 9.2 m.6 m above the centre.81 N/m2 (c) 0. 4.6 m is 0. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading. 73 Answers Correct : 2. 8.2 × 1200 × 9. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1. In a static fluid.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9.2.55 × 0. 7.44 (c) 32. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading. with y as the vertical direction. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be .7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8. the level at a radius of 0. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4.2 (c) 12. In a forced vortex. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9.2 m dia and 0.81 3.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0.55 × 0. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2.55. In a circular cylinder of 0.

1. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig.2.4.2 m is (a) 40. 2.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100.2 E.02 × 105 N/m2.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1. d .000 N/m3.5 (d) 0. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig.2 kN/m2. Determine the outside pressure.2.1 Figure E.2.000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.2. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0.2. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.2.2. [101.2.2.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0.4.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E. c .2. E. The surface pressure is 101. In a differential manometer a head of 0.2 kPa 1. [390. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K.3.2.3 m of fluid B in limb 2. 290 kN/m2] E. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2.000 N/m2 10. where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m. The specific weight of a fluid is 20. γ1/(K + γ1. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c.1. E. b . [9935 kN/m2] . 2.18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E. In this case c has a value of 1.y.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E. In an artificial atmosphere.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a .

5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0.6.7 E.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E.92.2.5 E. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E. 2. 2.8 [8. E.8 0. Neglect gauge height. a column of 0.7.6.2.5 m 0.2. E. open to atmosphere at both ends.9 m of water balances a column of 1.2. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2.9 Chapter 2 . E. 2.5. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B.6 Figure E.2.6 0.2 + X Datum Figure E.8 Water Oil. S = 0. E.2. [0.2 m 0. [454. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig.2 m of an unknown liquid.8.6 m 1.7.4 0.2. S = 0. 92 6m B Figure E. In a U-tube shown in Fig. 2.2.75] E.

11.11. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.2.9 B Hg Figure E. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa.12.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0.2. [94.03 and the filler fluid is water.2.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0.10.6 m A 1m 0.9 E. E.8 Water B A 1.10 Figure E.6 Oil. determine the length AB.11 E.04 kN/m2] E.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0. [111. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. 2.2. E. 2.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition.10. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0.2 m Figure E. For the manometer shown in Figure E. 2. the level from the top to the filler fluid is . When pressures are equal. determine the pressure at point D.9. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig.2.7.9.2. [68. S = 0.2. The specific gravity of the oil is 0. For the situation shown in Fig.

Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm. [122. The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C.2. when the temperature was 20°C.2.18 Water 0. Determine pressure above atmospheric level.2.14.2.2 2 Chapter 2 .2.4 Hg 0.14. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level. Determine the pressure at 3000 m.16.95 Figure E. 2. Water Water S = 0.04 0. [88. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig.65 N/m2] E. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm.2.2.866 N/m2] 0. S = 0. E. 2. E. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig.08 P1 P2 0.006° C/m.04 S = 1.12 E.17.15. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0. E. E. 2.14 Figure E.13.03 Figure E.9 0.15. Determine the pressure difference indicated. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling.15 E. 0.81 N/m3.6 Water 0. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m.

8.905 m/s2] E.2.2. Determine the density of the fluid.21.2. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2.2.20. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2.18. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0.23.6.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface.6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0. E.22. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. A closed cubical tank of 1.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.6 m long and 0.24.3 m high.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0. determine the pressure gauge reading. Using figure in Example 2. 0.65 kg/m3] E. [987.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm. [0] E.19. [35.26. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2.28. Assume the base to be horizontal.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1.3 m radius. The tube is 3 m long.20.2.29. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m.2. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction. the bottom face being horizontal.15 m.27. E. E.471 × 105 N/m2] E.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.2. [120. A rectangular pan 0. Determine the acceleration. 2.038 kN/m2] E.2. [227.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.20 E.3 bar gauge. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar.2.25. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction. determine the pressure at the left end. E. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners.2. and if fuel specific gravity is 0.2.2. .4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E.2. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0.92 as shown in Fig. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal. [4. Determine the pressure at the left end. E. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion. E. A cylinder of radius 0. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0. 172. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0.

A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2.2. Calculate the rotational speed. 2.30 E. Determine the pressure at points 1. The U-tube shown in Fig.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure. E. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical).34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A.3 m of water.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. The free surface is at the top of the pipe. E. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. 2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole.37.3 m and 0.2. Determine the force on one of the faces.34.2.31.33.35.6 m is 0. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre.2. determine the angle attained by the free surface. E. At the same time.2. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point.36. 3 and 4.32. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2. E. E. A 120 rpm 1 0. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards. E. A box of cubical shape of 1.2. Determine the pressure at the closed end.2. 2. (ii) downwards. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure.30. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C.6 m 0.2. The pressure difference between radii 0.34 E. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal.5 m 2 A Figure E.2. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E. Chapter 2 .

When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force. oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them. P = γh.! 3.0. h. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre..1) z hdA (3. To determine the point of action of the total force.e.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3. i.4) A A 80 . flood gates. The walls of reservoirs. The fluids are generally under static condition.0.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed.0. sluice gates. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered.0. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F.

1. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure. 3.1.1. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion.1.1.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area. With reference to the Fig.1.1.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3.1) (3.1. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.5) z A x 2 dA (3.2) 0 y y x x 2.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3. 3. the second moment of an area about the y axis.1. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3. such that the moment about the axis is zero.4) A y dA (3. .1. 3. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero.3) As k is a constant.1.1.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG. it is possible to choose a value of x = k.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered. 3. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.1. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3.

y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. Ixy = 0. Triangle.1.9) (3. 7. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b.1. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3. The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3.1.10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis. 6. Table 3.1.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I .82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3. z A x dA = x 2 A. The location of the centre of gravity. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems. The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids.1.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. 5. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – .11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area.1. moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3. 4. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle. 2. 3.8) (3.

3. Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. Consider the elemental area dA. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface). Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3. 3. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same.2. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. Refer Fig. So Chapter 3 .2. 9.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8.

1. As h = y sin θ. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid.2) . ycp) be the centre of pressure.5) and those given in Table 3.2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface.9 and 3.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3.2. 3. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation. 3.1. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid. Referring to the Fig. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1.1. Equations (3. With reference to the Fig.2).2. (3.2. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry.1. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3. 3.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3.4). F = γ A h (3. In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments.1.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h . 2. let CP (xcp.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig.1.3.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ. and so h = y in this case. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. 1. 3.2.3. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3.10 z A x y dA. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry.

y = h the depth to the centroid.74 cos 30 = 8. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level.44/ cos 30 = 9. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex.3.74 m h = 9.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3. The angle with the horizontal is 60°.81 × 8.3.8 m wide is closed by a plate.5 0.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m.746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9.2. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water.433 × 1 × 0. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8.1. 3.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes. Example 3.8] + 8. If θ = 90° (vertical surface). .433 = 8.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9.433 × 0.44 m 0. The depth of centre of gravity.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h . The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8.1 Problem model Example 3. If the plane is vertical.3. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. then sin2 θ = 1.44 m Distance along the wall surface. h = 8 + (0. These equations are fairly simple. 8. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0. then.

5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3. Case 2: A circle of diameter d. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.81) (1 × 1. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b.3.3 .5) (6 + 0. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64. 3.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3. y = P.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3.6) (3.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0.3.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104.5 m Gate 7. y = P.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.5) (3.3.9. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12. the side of length b being horizontal. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action.9 × 1000 × 9.3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36.3. (3. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0.5 m Figure Ex. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases. horizontal and nearer the free surface.75) = 89394 N 1.3. y = P.

633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2.5) + 6.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force. Example 3.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal.021 m 1m 2m C F 2. 3.5 + 2. y = 6.5 = 2.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig.3.4 Also by equation 3.4. 3.75 = 6.5) = 2.81) (1. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y . Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9.53/12)/6.5)) + 4 = 4.4. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1.5583 m and at a distance of 1.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2. = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3.5) + (98100 × 1.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.3. 3.78 m Check using eqn.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2.4.5 m below water surface.75 m = ((1 × 1.81) (1.5 m wide and 1 m deep.75) + 6.0 m from the edge AF.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9. 3.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2. Ex.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.5 m D E G WL 1. which is simpler. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.4.5 × 2)] + 2.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate. IG = bd3/12.52 /12 × 6.633 + 98100 × 4.1).75 × 1 × 1. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .75 = 6.5. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m. The top surface of the plate is 1.

3. An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig. Neglect the weight of gate.2). Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area.1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ.5. Determine the ratio of h/L. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3.5 . 3. and in case the edge is at the free surface. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. friction etc.5. ycp = (IG / y . 3.4.1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex. A) + y . It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane. Ex.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. Water WL (3. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O.4. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. Using equation (3. denoting the distance along the plane as y.

and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. For the following data. h = 1 m.6. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial.6.7. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. Taking moments about O. See 3. determine the value of water head h to open the gate. Considering unit width. (The other solution is 0.5 = 0. A. Determine the value of h in terms of L. L = 1m. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0.4641 m. W = 8000 N. 3. Ex. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O.).Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge.1. 3.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid. 3. h For unit width. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig. Example 3. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. Lw = 0.5774 h For example if L = 2 m. W. Total force normal to the plate F = γ . then h = 3. Taking moments about O.6.4. 3. Example 3.1.265 m. θ = 50°. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3..6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W.6. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. The Chapter 3 .506 m). Using the equation derived in example 3. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0. Ex.4.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial.

force due to the gas pressure cancels out. gravity = 1. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. In case there is gas pressure above the surface. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element. Refer to Fig. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface.5. Example 3.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area.5.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. At the base of each element.8 . The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium.1. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3.8. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex.1 be in equilibrium. These two statements can be proved as indicated below. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area. 3. 3.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area.8. Ex. F = γ A h. 3. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. The value can be calculated using the general equation. Also determine the direction of action of the force.

9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9.5 = 999973. to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i.16 N . the line of action of vertical force is = [(2..14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0.e. 3. Considering unit width.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area. Example 3. Taking moments of the area about the edge. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.937 \ q = 43. 3.333 m from the bottom (i. The direction of action to the vertical is.e.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. Ex. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge.302 m from the edge.0523 ) – 683757 × 2.. upwards.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. 729673(4 – 2.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards). at = 1.0523 m from the edge. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero.9.

6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other.10. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle. Example 3.6. 3.. Specific gravity of oil is 0..44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9.6.48° where θ is the angle with vertical.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1..3. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.81 = 34570.698 = 42.. F = F1 + F2 + . In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid.81) = 330832 N/m2 .8. from the hinge.81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9.6366. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references.881 and that of mercury is 13. 78480 × (4 – 1.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero..1 Total force. this form is prferable. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.3333) – 123276 × 1. (4.2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + . ycp1 = − (3.698 m. ∴ θ = 32. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn... Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal.5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0.

P1.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276.09 N Solving h = 4 m.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = .887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.5 m depth.1.887 × 106 = (5.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9. from the water level or 0.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.4.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn. Calculate the pressure at 1.11.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9. (3. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0.5 m.46 × 268808) + (16.5 m.0625 m.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4.81 × 43 × 7 = 0.5 = (0.8 is filled to 2 m depth. Determine the level of water above the gate. y × 13. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.81 × 1. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N.0 = (0. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall. Total force.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface. (i) At 1. Example 3.81 × 0.944 m.8 × 1000) × 9.46 m. 2 m and 2.8 × 1000) × 9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13.2).333 × 1935944) + (11. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9.

(i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d. (ii) The given condition is.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2.05625)/2 = 5.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2.3. force on the circular area = force on annular area. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides.94 Problem 3. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. m 5m 3m Figure P.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2. 3. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface.121322)/4}] = 5.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5.3 . (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force. 3. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure. with outside diameter being 3 m. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area.2.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5.12132 m. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4.1125 m.121322 × 5] = 5. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same.16875 + 5.

81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5. C = 0.4 Chapter 3 .81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero.5 = 0.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise.0.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size.5 or 3. As C = 3 is not possible. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.26667 – 5. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.4.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h .5 C + 1. A1 = A2. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3.5. Problem 3. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure. 3.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5. If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate. 4 × 3 = 12. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6.3833 – 5.

038 and 9.774 h 2 – 8. 7.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6.774)] + 2.834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.114 m. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2. .887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5. 6.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.e.33 = 0.774 – 2.8493 m (ii) For the second strip.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.834) + 9.887 m.887 (5 × 5.849. solving h 2 = 6. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.97 × (5 × 2. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.7743/12 × 2. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2.887 = 5.8343/(12 × 9.97 = 7. at depths of 3. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.97 – 2 × 2..887 = 3.083 = 9.5.3923/12 × 6.667 m (check).392)] + 6.887) = 2.392 = 1.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface.834/2) = 9.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2. let the centroid be h 2 .e. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total.. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i.083 × 5 × 1. Problem 3.

4142 Problem 3.5 CD/BD = 0. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3). the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level.8836 m Problem 3.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.5 Consider the triangle ABC. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.e..6366 = 22072 N = 22.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 .7. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0.5 i. In a water reservoir. 3. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles.6. BC/BD = 1.6366) = 0. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal. rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. depth.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0. A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.

98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)].dy.h.976 × xp = 275. 0) Area of strip = x. Force on the strip = γ. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.25 = 275. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.1921 + 3.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy. .9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m.x.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.906 ∴ xp = 1. Problem 3. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.906 Nm 226.2732 = 0.25] = (9810/2) × 56.2732 m as r = 3. 2 x2 = (9 – y2).8. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3. Circle equation is.2732 = 3.2156 m from the vertical edge. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0. 3.7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.4655 m below the free surface and 1.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3.4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).

Referring to the figure. the centre or pressure will be on it. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y. Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case. 3.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height.625 m The centre of pressure is 2.75 m from top and 0. CD = 1 so.75 m In the x direction.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base. BE = 0. Check: A strip of width dy is considered. the centre of pressure will be on the median line.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2. which is the line of symmetry.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0.75 m 2m 2m C 0.75 B 1.25 E D y 0.25/2).625 m from the vertical side. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1. Chapter 3 2m CP dy .81 × 0.

625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0.2156 m (ii) For the triangle.75 m and distance from the side = 0.75 3.2156 × 226976) – (0.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P. 3.10. depth y = [(226976 × 3.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3. Problem 3.9.7 and P. P. P.7 and P. Taking moments about AB.3.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal.3.625 2.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3.3.3313 m and 0.4655) + (47088 × 2.4655 m and distance from side = 1.4655 B Figure P.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate. 3. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 . An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.75/0.3. Assume water is the liquid.10.2156 A CP CP 0.9.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface. x = [(1.8. gravity 0.3. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig. WL 1. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2.

0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. P.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3. 3. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle. Taking moments about the hinge. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig. 3. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide.81 × 0. The tension of the rope will equal W. Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). 3.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11. and held in place by a torque. Neglect the weight of the gate. The force Figure P. h = 5.11 acts at (h/3.12. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2.11.11. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 . W.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5.3333 m4.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P.9) × 4 × 5 = 176. The counter weight. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1.778 Nm Problem 3.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ .

Taking moments about the hinge.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression. Problem 3. Figure P. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. below the centroidal axis.13. Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ). Problem 3. Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate.15. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. from hinge. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ.14. 3. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. θ = 28.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ). Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified.54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension. A square gate of side.77 kN . θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ. Problem 3. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. Neglect the weight of the gate. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. h = h/2. If h1 = h2. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. The angle between the plates is 90°. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ).

16.15 m Figure P.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.027 m. 3.52 m depth.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. 3. The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1. Solving.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant. Considering 1 m width. at the surface [9.16 Chapter 3 .6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945.33) = 5231.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9. moment is taken about O. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.333 m from the bottom. Height. 3.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10.44 kN Problem 3.54] = 9. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P.77 – 945.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9.16. CG is at 9.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9. P. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176.

3.84883 × 308189 = 0.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. Problem 3. Neglect weight of the gate. 392400 × (2 – 1. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P.3333) – 0. as shown in figure. A roller gate as shown in Fig. 3.84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0. 3. h = 5m.73)° with horizontal. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1.33) × 78477 = 0. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area.17. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1.17 has a span of 5 m.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow. Problem 3. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0.58° Gate .58°.67974 m taking moments about the centre.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area. tan θ = 78480/14218.67974) – (2 – 1. The quantities are equal. P.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1.18. θ = 79.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3.18.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle. (14218 × 3.4494 m3 Weight = 1. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. considering 1 m width.333 m from bottom Figure P. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre.3333 m from bottom twoards the right. θ = 37.5 = 79757.

The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse. Considering unit width.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 .666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area. A = 12π.19. Consider unit width.19. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. Problem 3. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0. P. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P.35° from vertical. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2.20. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π).5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P.392 m.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0. b = 6.20.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O.392 m below O at an angle of 47.18 To determine the line of action. the line of action passes through a point P. Calculate the values for y = 3m. Derive expressions for the horizontal force. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1. Hence. P 3. Problem 3.73° To fix the line of action. 1. Then.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1. The shape described as x = 0. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig. 3.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. as shown in Fig. (2.392 O P 47. 3. taking moments about P. 3. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1. h = 8.

2 = 1.20 z y 0 x .129/sin 68. x/2 = 0. xy/3 = Figure P. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface.04 y5 = .216 m Problem 3. Assuming unit width.21.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis. dy .06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0. Determine for the given dimensions.21 = 3. Force on the surface ABC is required.2 y3/3) γ × 0.024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68.66071 m .2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0. 3.21. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig. 3.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P.5 × π × 32) = 3.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x.2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0. the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. P. Let it be x from y axis. x .06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0.dy = 0. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.2 y3 γ/3 = 0. 3. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom.

5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1. h = 2D/3 π.9973 m. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right.52/2)] = 0.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0. .95° {0.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ).55565 Centre of pressure = 0. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74. Line of action.5625 m from wall.333 m from top.05°. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.22.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. The angle with the horizontal will be 15. θ = 36.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1. It does. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.5) (4/π × 32) = 1. Problem 3. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P.87° with vertical.875 m The vertical force remains the same. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check. down from B. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0. 3.75 + [0.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge.9.6366 × π × 1.55565/(0.5625 × 69343 – (0. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N. at the same level.

Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface. = {(22072.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1.0 m (from top). Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0.63662 m.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.25 m from top.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated. 3.5 m 2 m Figure P.5) = 1. Similar force acts on the other half.5 × 2) = 22072.9) = 54.75)} / (22072.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1. The tank is filled with water as indicated.5 × 2) + 20.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.5 + 60. tan– 1 (82072.53/ 0. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.5/3π = 0.23. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072.000 × (1.52 + 594352)0.75 × 2 × 1.000) = 0.75 × (1.5 / 59434.000 = 82072. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0. from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0.5 + 60.8172 m from top. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical). A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.23 .000 N/m2.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0. Problem 3. P. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top. 3.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.89°.

5 /2) × 5.24. If the gates are hinged at 0.26.252/2)] + [(1. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise.25 × 1.91 C 1. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1. On the upstream side the water level is 5.25 × 1) = 0.24.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m. 3. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1. 3.25 × 1 = 6974.91 × (1. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite.5 m and 5.5 m from the base. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure.5 m Figure P. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area. Determine the upward force due to water pressure.25/ 2) × 1. P.25 m S = 0. The cylinder is in equilibrium.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P.25) + π × 1. Consider 1 m length. 3. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1.24 [(1. Problem 3.253 × 2/12 × 1.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3.25 × 1.252/4) × 0. determine the reaction at each hinge.25.5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0. The bridge is 4m wide. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates.3 N and this force acts at .

110 This force acts at 5. The average specific gravity of the material is 2. Problem 3.28.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P.667 m from bottom. the structure will tilt. 3. To determine the reaction at each hinge.9428 x1. (CP is h/3 from bottom).5 – 0.e. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2. Considering a strip at x and width dx. h = 18. 1/m).22 m. At any section the height.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N.5 should be dimensional. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge.5 – 0.5 Z2 where z is the width. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value.5 – 1.5)0. This force acts at 2/3 = 0. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0. (check total as 515025) Problem 3. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.5 m from base.26 R = 515025 N. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5.8333 m from the bottom.83333) – (78480/2) (5. The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown. i.5 / 3 = 1. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high.6667) = R1 (5. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A. (note the constant 0.8. Water stands upto x = 2m. Consider a width of 1m.5 A = 0.27. 3.5 . x = 0. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length.

0 Figure P. Considering 1 m width.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces. Z = (3/0. weight A = 0.45 m.28 Pressure force = 2. 6.9428 x1. 7. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1.5 = 2. 2. This acts along 1. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined.169 m. 4. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.45 × 1 × 0.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N. 5. This force acts at Z = x0. weight = area × depth × sp. Weight = volume × sp. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid. z = 1.9428 x1. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth.8 bar = 0.225 m from Z = 0 position.5 / 1. P = 0.8856 = 0.5)0.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width.5 / 1. A = 2. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal.225 + 26160 × 0. 3. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity. Chapter 3 . Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes.8856 3m X A Air 0. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle.75 = Z (222119). Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies.5 ) = x0. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. x = 2. 3.5.

2 Fill in the blanks: 1. 5. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. O Q. 4. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. 7. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. (6) normal. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. 3. 8. 10. 6. 9. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis. IG / A h . The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (6) the centre. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________.3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. 9. (8) A x2. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. decreases or remains constant : 1. O Q. 6. 10. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. (5) depth.3. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. 3. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. 2. (4) below. x-distance between the axes. (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. . The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. (2) zero. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. Fill in the blanks 1. 4. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. (3) lower. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. the centre.3 Fill in the blanks using increases. 11.3. 2. 3. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________. 5.1. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. 4.

Remains Constant : 3. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid.3. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1. 5. O Q.3. g/γ).Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. 4. O Q. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. 4. the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. 3.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. 113 4. At location where g = 5 m/s2. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. 6. 2. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . the normal force on the plane will increase.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. 5 (2) Incorrect : 2. 6. 4. Decreases : 2. 6. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface.5 Choose the correct answer : 1. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 3. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. 5. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 .

114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. Density 3. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.3. Circle about centroidal axis 2. the centre of pressure will 8. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. 4 – a. Centroid 2. Second moment of area 4. 2 – c. 4 – c. O Q. (II) A 1. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. 3 – a. 3 – d. 2 – d. Free surface 4. 3 – b. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. First moment of area 5. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3).6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. 4 – a. 2 – d. Specific weight 2. Centre of pressure 3. 5 – c. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e.

3. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid. For the shapes in Fig E. 3. 3. E.3.3.3 E.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.414 m X X .4. WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E.1 E. 3.3.5 0. 3.3. 3. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water.1 from the given reference lines.1. Chapter 3 2m 1.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E. X 3m X X 2m X 0.2.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1. E. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E.1.3.

6 E.10. E.6. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal.6.3. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E. 3. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia. 3.8 stands to a depth of 0.5 Figure E. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface. E. E. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0. 3. E. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. in the vertical wall of a reservoir.9 with 8 m length on the base level.9 E. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. E.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water.3.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0.11. 3. A gate as shown in Fig. 3. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water.8.7.3. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.5. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid. 4 m wide.3. Also locate the centre of pressure. shown in Fig. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts.3. the centre being at 4 m depth.3. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E.9. 3. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate.3.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0. E. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top. E.5 m over water. .

Show that as the depth of immersion increases. E. E. A dam section is shown in figure.3. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2.5 m y Figure E. E.13. 3.12.5 Figure E. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base.15. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid. 3. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform.3.5 2m Hinge level 1. 3.17 closed.12 E. E.4 m 2m F 60° 3.3. Determine the location of hinge from the base.3.14 Figure E.11 Figure E. The gate weighs 6 kN. 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. E. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base.14. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. 3.17.16. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig. E.3. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig. 3.16. Chapter 3 . An automatic flood gate 1. The gate is 1 m wide.3. 3.15 E. Determine the air pressure required. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.14.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig.

Also determine the line of action.4641 m. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank. Determine the force on one half of the wall.3.22.3.3. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig. E.73. 3. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0.8 m Plate 0. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0.4452 m 10.20. Figure E. Also determine the direction of action of the force.17 E. 3.8 m 0. 3.21. F WL 0. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure. Determine the force required to open the stopper. The water level is up to the top of the gate. E. 3. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder. E. The 3 m side is along horizontal. 3. 8.20.20 Figure E.8 msq. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water.3.21 E. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane.19.21.2 m Figure E.3. 3.16 Figure E.18. [3. E.9362 m] . E.

It is applicable in the design of boats. common for both terms) 119 . Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed.1. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. boats.1. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. This force is called buoyant force. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. ships. balloons and other such similar systems. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. (i) Immersed body." 4. 4. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body. 4. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle.

32/4) 0.1 A cylinder of diameter 0.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating.16 N Example. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA. F = γ V. the weight of volume displaced. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon.1. (ii) Floating body. 4.0) = 416.3 m and height 0. The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder. .2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. R = 287 J/kg.81 × 1. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.81 × 1.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV. K. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. Top is at 0.81 = 416.8 bar. This force acts upwards. Summing up over the area. where dV is the volume of the element.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.6 – 1000 × 9.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. 4.32/4) (1000 × 9. Example. The pressure at the location is 0.6 × 1000 × 9.6 m depth. Considering an element of volume dV.

6 × 9.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged.8 × 105 × 523. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid. No further change in position occurs in this case. If these are equal. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. to its original position. Weight of hot air = m.8 × 105 × 523. the body will sink.6 – 4056 = 830. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body. about 84.. If it is less. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance.6 N (i. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings. Whether floating or submerged.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid. Chapter 4 . Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required). However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink.46 kg. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid. Under equilibrium conditions. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position. the body will float with part above the surface.6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886.g = 413.46 × 9. 121 4. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron.e. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium. the body will stay afloat at any location.

2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.2. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4. then the body will regain or go back to the original position. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. In the case of figure 4.2.2. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt.1 (iv) and 4. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position.2. Point B is the centre of buoyancy.2. This body is in unstable equilibrium. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances.2. (Note: For practical cases.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4.1 (i) and 4. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level.2. the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position.2. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium.2. WL W B C W Submerged. In the case of Figure 4.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship). The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. Figure 4. In the case of Figure 4. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance. The couple is called righting couple.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium. Point C is the centre of gravity. Figures 4. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established.) . If the couple opposes the movement.2.2. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4.1 (i) and 4.

The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. If it is below the centroid.3. If M falls below G. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs. better will be the stability. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4. After a small clockwise tilt. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line.1 Metacentric height. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. the floating body will be unstable. the two forces act at the same point. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. say clockwise. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. correcting the disturbance. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. . If it is at the centroid. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition.4. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. is defined as metacentre. when disturbed.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. Referring to Fig 4. This is illustrated in Figure 4.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise.3. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium.1. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. Larger the metacentric height.1. the floating body will be stable. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable.

4. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight).4. as the angle of tilt is small. the metacentric height is given by. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4.4) GB is originally specified.4.4.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA.2) From the triangle MBB′. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4.124 4. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4.1 in section and plan view (part).4. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD. In the tilted position.4. the intersection of water surface and centre line. The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. Uniform section is assumed at the water line. P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small.4. Let it move through a distance R.3) Both I and V are known. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance. Taking moments about B. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force. the submerged section is FGHE. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I. MG = MB ± GB (4.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4.2 . So the metacentric height can be determined. The moment distance is x. As V = W/γ. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4. If G is above B –ve sign is used.

3 = 1. MB = I/V = 3053.1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0.5 = 28.5 × π/180) = 1. 4. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053. V = 1000. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons.4.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0. say W.63/970. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5. Example. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G).87) – 1. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G. 4. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ.000/1030 = 970.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M.5. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical.87) – 1. GB = 1. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9. 4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified.3 m below the water level.5 = 1. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970.62/970.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis). SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ.3 m Highly stable in this direction.63 m4 .87 m3 . This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X.08 kg/m3.5 = 3.8 – 0. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured. Chapter 4 .81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9.81 (. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians). The centre of buoyancy is 1.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0. Determine the value of metacentric height. Example.15 – 1. MG = (I/V) ± GB.

384 m Problem 4.5 + 0. Determine the weight of the block.8 = 54624.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration. 9.9 m size just submerged in water.465 × 1024 × 9.6 × 0.25 m3 To support the same weight. Equivalent Depth = 93. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906. WL 3 m f.3 × 0.8 + 66708 = 402092. Solving r = 0. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced. (omitting 9.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.93/3) = 45.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9. Neglect metal thickness. The box has a mass of 110 kg.8 – 0.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.75/465 = 0. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P.7 m Problem 4.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.08) × 9. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.25 = 93.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1.2 = 4.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0. .692 m D = 2r = 1.81. 4.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0.7.

4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0.81 × 1/1000 [0.5 N/m3 Problem 4.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0.6 0.3260653 = 850.5.2786/sp.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4.0775 × 9. 0.8 1. Problem 4. Let its volume be V m3. mm 0. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N .15 79. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams. Total upward force = (0.8181 × 10–6 + 5.05 102.3 × 0. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block. specific weight = W/V = 15205. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.1 and hence not uniform.80.6 × 0.9.004)2 h] × sp.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589. gravity of liquid equals 1.9 1.15.711. 1. gravity h.85 164. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion.85. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9. gravity = 1. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.81 × 0.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4.4 The intervals in mm are : 43.2 N (86.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp. Solving Weight of the block = 9. Determine the depth of immersion.7 kg) Problem 4. If it is just floating.05 and 1.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N . Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N . downward from the surface. 0.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079. 23. Let the side of the block be h m. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.026 × 10–5 h] × sp.95. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h.00 115.7.025/2)3 + π (0. gravity) – 0.80 × 9810) = 8 . [(4/3) π (0. ∴ V = 4.75 208.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length. When in water. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment.5 1. 27.326065 m = 2500 × 9. 34. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform.75. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil.

As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure. ∴ γ = 8618. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 .8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0.81. Figure P.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water.63 × 9810 = 8875. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid. (0. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1. it will stop sinking further. are tied with a rope and placed in water.1 + V) 10000 = 2000. So the assumption that the body floats is valid. rope.9 = 3124.1 m3.1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N.732 m (the other root is negative). The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it. Check whether it will be stable.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. 4.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N.1152 m Problem 4. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging.10 A mass of volume 0. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875. Determine the density of ice.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1.3 m3. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. consider a small thickness by at distance y. ∴ V = 0. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9.2 m f .1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D. Problem 4. Determine the level to which the unit will sink.3 m3 at a pressure of 1. The unit is released in the sea.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878.9 Two spheres. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced. The original volume was 0. Solving D = 0. ∴ D = 1.1 . This is less than the depth of the body. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope.

2 – 1.4 × (0.6 m Problem 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2).12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig. L = 1. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight.5) = 6. Chapter 4 . P. acts from the hinge at: 1.87 m. The width of the gate is 1. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge.4.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1.1) = 4. ∴ V = 463.5 m. Solving y = 31.013) × 105.92 m3. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.5 m.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1.92 m3.2 – 1. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P. 4. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp. as h = 6 m.5 N/m3. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N. acts upwards).2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. P2 = 1.87 m Problem 4.81 = 18614 N.3/0. 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31.0556 m. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.5) = 3500 + 1000. R = 1. (4πR3/3) = 463.0556 m. ∴ D = 9. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1.

176580 × 1.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. P. R = 1.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig. A spring causes water to seep below the tank.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle.81 = 9. The distance along the pole it acts = (1.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle. Taking moments about the hinge. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m.15 A wooden pole of 0. Problem 4.2/cos θ)].22/cos2 45)] = 135. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal. Taking moment along the pole. The pole weighs 90 N.815.2/cos θ). θ = 45°. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving.08 Nm. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1. (4R/3π) = 0. .2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it.15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free. 4.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.5425 m When water rises to about 0. If h is the height upto which the water rises.4244 m from hinge.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1.4488 m Problem 4. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3. Problem 4.0555 = 18614 × 0.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. 4.7244 m or D = 3.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1. Hinge 3m q 1.

22 × 0. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0. and 0. h = 2. a vertical force will act on the hinge.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0. the weight equals the buoyant force. The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged.26°. θ = 53.21/(1000 × 9.162 × 9810 × 0.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them.3946 m .81) m3 = 7.3 × 8600 N = 384.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.8. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0. Equating the moments.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving.815 = 425.81) = 3466.8 × 1000 × 9.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp. 60 + (π × 0.17 A cylindrical container of 0.0765 m. The depth of oil will also be h. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ). Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal.0392/(π × 0. Solving h = 0. h × 0. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid. a force of 100 N acting upward is required. Problem 4.81) m3 = 0.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion.022 × h × 9810. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0. 4.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0.162 × 9810 × 0. If the level rises above this value.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7.3 m. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal.162 × 9810 × 0. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0.7 kg/m3c Problem 4. When the pole begins to float vertically.4 m dia.22) = 0.

Determine the distance between the markings for 0.6 cm. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0.5.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder. As density increases.2 × 9810 × 2.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0. Problem 4.4).0775 × 10–6 m3.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0. 0. l2 = 0. V = π D2 h S/4. (V – volume displaced).5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0..04. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64.036052 m or 3. Using equation (4. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. This is downwards as V2 is less than V1. ∴ V1 = 5. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer.1.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4.2 m length attached to it at one end.0 and 1. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB.8. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0.01311 m or 1.1 specific gravity values. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2. equating.4.8 = 0. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0. Problem 4.5 . (iii) Relative density = 1.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0.18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. Solving l1 = 0. Equating and solving. For stability. D > h.6 h = 0.4.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically.1) = 3.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1. Let the volume displaced be V3.3) and (4.8. 1. D = 1.5 + 0. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also.2 + h). Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition. (i) Relative density = 0.1314 h .04 .8. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0. ∴ V2 = 4.2 + h ∴ h = 0.04/(9810 × 1. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation.. V3 = 0.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats.

∴ GB = 0. the cylinder is unstable. Refer Problem 4.2354 Problem 4. The ID is 0.32 × 0. Check : (use the eqn. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio.841 (compare with Problem 4.5 }/2.61788 m. equation 1.20).5 . the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.34/64 Volume displaced.5 .5 as in problem Problem 4.32 × 0.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.036 m. Problem 4.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0.20. I = π × 0.3 m dia and 0. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced. 1 in problem 4..20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. k = 0.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3..3 – (0.5D. For stability.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h. Problem 4.9 and S = 0. MG = (I/V) – GB.5.3 m from bottom Location of B = 0.7646 or 0.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0. say if (D/h) = 1. h = 1.2 m and h = 1. (D/h) = 0.20. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0.2. D = 2 × 0. then S = 0.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0. where k = 0.5 = 0. Equating. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S.5. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0. Consider a thin cylinder. Determine the stability of the cylinder.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0.6 × 7500)] – [0.8 then. V = (π × 0.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom. Chapter 4 Hence. D > h.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2. This is the value of D which is required for stability. Here. GB = h (1 – S)/2 . G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base.33333 to float in water.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0.8 m. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting.

6/3π} = 1.24]/[8 × π × 1. Considering the calculated D = 2. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4. as S decreases (a/h) increases.A .5. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction..62]} – {2 × 0.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0.147 m > 1. MG = 0. So.a (where k is a fraction).8 [2 × 0.. The sides should be longer than the height. Hence.5. MG = (I/V) – GB . h to side. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD. I = ak3 a3/12. Problem 4. (a/h) = 1.33333)/2 = 0. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2.147 m.23 Consider S = 0.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0.54)/64. The specific gravity is 0. Centre of gravity is on the water surface.5 when floating in water with axis vertical. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d.33333 (1 – 0.1474 (1 – 0.1472 (1 – 0.8 m and d = 0. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k. So it is not stable. (I/V) = 0.5. then (a/h) = 0.33333)/(1 + 0. checks.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length. then.6. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. V = h Sa2 k .60002 and GB = 1.52)]0.98.8 × 0. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0.25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced.8 × 0.8 (1 – 0.333333/4. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2. V = π × 2.2 m.6 m with specific gravity 0. or (I/V) = GB.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2].5 = 2.8 value.134 Substituting the values. The relative density of the log is S.52) 1.5 S = 0. I = π × 2. Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0.5/k . The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π.44 – 1. Refer Problem 4.8. The specified diameter is only 1.

P. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established. A.4 m dia and 0. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0. 4...6 m high has a relative density of 0. Problem 4. reordering. the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 . S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 .A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) .28 A conical wooden block of 0. 4. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0.27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S. D2 HS = d2h.5]/2 Problem 4.. Consider the general eqn. For stability. Determine whether it can float in a stable condition.5 }/2 if k = 1.27. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4.8 for a fluid in which it floats.27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter.20). (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h . The situation is shown in the Fig..B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 . S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 . This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position. h H H Figure P. The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d.

Problem 4. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable.332 × 10–4 m4. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810. 8m Solving. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N.2629 = 1.0201 m3 .371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0.557) = 0. 6. 2. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit.01416 m.6 – 0. ∴ h = 1. ∴ I/V = 0.81/3/4 (1 – 0.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1.6 < 0. The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre. Check: H = 0. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat.6371 m. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.68 × 105 Nm.2742/2 = 0. 5.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0.42 × 0.8 = 0. 3. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical. 4. OA = 5 m. 7. the position of the centre of 1. h = H S1/3 = 0. OG = 2.9 m.7197 m.81/3) = 0.04642 – 0. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit.518 m2 ∴ H = 0.2742] – 2.6 × 0. GB = OG – OB = 2. Define metacentre and metacentric height.42/4) 0.03226 = 0.03226 m. This is positive and hence stable. The actual value of is 0.2742 m Figure P. OP = 1. . Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer. Define centre of buoyancy. 4.6 m.5 m.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position. d = DS1/3 = 0. D = 0.4 m.29 OB = 1. Prove Archimedes principle from basics.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0.557 m. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies. when it floats in river water.

When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. It’s weight is ______. 5. 6. 17. 4. 18. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. the weight of the body 3. 14. 2.1 Fill in the blanks 1. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. 15. remain in the new position 8. satble. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. decreases or remains constant 1. positive 12. overturn 9. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. Chapter 4 . neutral and unstable 6. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. 9. 7. neutral 10. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. 3. stable 11. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. Answers 1. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. 4. 16. 12. 11. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. 5. return to the original position 7. 9810 N 19. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. Metacentric height is equal to _____. W MG sin θ.5 15. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. 3. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. 6. 10. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. 8. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______.5 16. W MG θ 14. 13. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. 19. shorter O Q. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____.

2. 8. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. 5 O Q. 8 Decreases 3. 2. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. 10. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. Its volume is 15. 10 Incorrect 1. 10. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. 4. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. 9. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. 2. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. 3. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. 10 Remains constant 2. 6. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. 6. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. 6. 4. 4. 3. 9. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 7. 5. 9. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. Answers Increases 1. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 7. 5. An object weighs 50 N in water.8 will be . A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water.3 l. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally. 4.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1.4 Choose the correct answer 1. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. 8. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. 4.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 4. 5. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. 7 O Q. 8. Answers Correct : 3.

9. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13.8 times its volume. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6.2 m above the free surface. (5) c. (4) c. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship. (2) b. (8) c. (3) b. 8. A cube of side. 7. the drum will start floating.25 times its volume.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10. 4.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0. [1. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0.3 (c) 6.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. (a) 40 N (b) 62.5 Match the sets A and B A 1.6/2 . Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a.37 N] E 4. Answers (1) c.6.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. [70632 N] E 4. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. 403. 2. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. If water is filled in the tank. (9) c. at what height of water level. O Q.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water.8 (d) a × 13.8 and 1.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically. 3. (7) b. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface. (2) d. Neglect the self weight of the drum. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6. [3074. 4. Answers (1) b. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe.93 N. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0.3 (b) 7. (3) b. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon.

08 kg/m3. find the dimension of the cubic block. [7.667. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material. Determine its volume and density. [1.8 mm dia and it weighs 0. It floats 22.21 A long log of 2. [2.00408 m3.8.6. For stability of the cylinder.865 m. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3. 1. [0.5 with specific gravity 0. Determine its metacentric height.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13.5 m dia and 0.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0. determine the specific gravity of the metal.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m).4. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water. 1265. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0.81 m] E 4.11 A cylinder with diameter 0.5 floats in water.45 floats in water.56. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m. [50 mm] E 4. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0. The cubic block is also submerged in water.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable.0216 N. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN. Calculate the depth of floatation.25 m and length 0. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3.72 m] E 4.65 × 10–3 m–3.5 m dia and 4.8 m.479 m] E 4.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. 1. [7. [unstable] E 4. Determine the specific gravity of the oil. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0.88 kg/m3] E 4. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0.78] E 4.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it. [756 kg/m3] E 4. 51.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon.45. 9 m long.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.458] E 4.15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0. 2. [1 m] E 4. [5. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1.9 kg/m3. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line. .8 m height to float stably in water.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0.13] E 4. [0.67] E 4.15 m] E 4.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0. [1. OD 1. [1.9 m. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water.5 m floats in water. [1. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other.821.28 m] E 4.6 m] E 4.5 m below the water level. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical.8] E 4.20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N. [0.

5 m is forced into water by 666 N. If the wedge is 50 cm wide. E 4.6 m inside.4 m. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg.4 and 0.65 and base width 0. and A is the sectional area of the stem.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4.62 tons with load. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely. E 4. Determine the weight of the tank. The mass is 453.08475 N] E 4. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium. [0.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height. 1904 kN/m] E 4.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium. Chapter 4 .29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. [4.25 A sphere of 1.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0.753 m. Investigate the stability.2 m] E 4.95 mm] E 4. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged.67 m dia and 1. E 4. the depth of immersion is 6. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water.83. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0.5 m and height 0. E 4.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26.026.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer.22 A tank of 1.2 and 0.7 m centreline. determine the tension in the chain.25 m dia floats half submerged in water.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1. the top layer being 60 cm thick. E 4.02.1 and 1. E 4. determine the depth of immersion.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6. [1.9. (y in mm). Determine the weight of the unit. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom. Water rises by 0. [0.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0. E 4.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y. What should be the diameter of the stem.1 is 10 mm. stable. E 4. The water level is 1 m from the top.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water.

Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid.# 5. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. 142 . The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. In real fluid shows. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically.0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere.

The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. In the Eularian method. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods. y. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. z. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws.e. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. 5. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. A moving coordinate system has to be used. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. the co-ordinate system following the particle. . The flow description is particle based and not space based. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. 5. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. V = V (x. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. are with reference to location and time i.. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids.

For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. y. In the case of unsteady flow. z. y. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. 5. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. 5. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. Momentum. z). t). the properties vary with time or V = V(x. these are described. P = P(x. t) where t is time.6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow. y. If the density varies with location. 5. y.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. z. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. then such flow is called incompressible flow. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. z) etc. the flow is called compressible flow.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. In the next three sections. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. This causes . These can be expressed as V = V(x. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. P = P(x. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time.

no surface or fluid friction should exist. y. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. v and w. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. 5. . Chapter 5 5. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. t). t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . z. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. v = v(x. y. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. dy. For a flow to be reversible. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. y). t) and w = w(x. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). dz are the displacements in the directions x. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. t). ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. y and z directions as u. In unsteady flow V = V(x. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). In general as u = u(x. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. z. z. z). the flow becomes reversible. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . z. z. y. y. t) . Depending on the relative values of u. Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. Denoting the velocity components in x. y. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. This is the laminar region. This describes the general steady flow situation. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. z. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. y. y.

Applying the law of conservation of mass. Under steady flow conditions. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5.1) (5.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. 5.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly.9. dy. 5. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x. First considering the y – z face.9. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5. The last term is known as local accleration term.9.2) . for a given time interval. only the convective acceleration terms will exist. because the flow at a point is changing with time. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx.9. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another.1.

the first term of the general equation alone need be considered.9. like flow in a nozzle or venturi. Integrating ρuA = constant.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5.9.7) This is the general equation.9.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero.3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.1) and (5.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.4) (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified.9.9. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 .9. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5.9. or (5. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9.9.9. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.9.

10. then the flow will be irrotational.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field. The symbol used is Γ. In case there is rotation. y) v = v (x. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y). For irrotational flow.10.∆t. the flow is irrotational.Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y). As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. 5. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy. y) B Da ¶v Dx. At 1 the undeformed element is shown. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x. ∆y. .. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path.10.1. The idea is illustrated in Fig. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.∆t.11. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform. ∆y.10. (5.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig.2) 5. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference. If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other.e. 5.15.

PATH LINES.11. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines. Vorticity = circulation per unit area. STREAM TUBE. so Vorticity = (5.e. as its tangent at that point. ¶x ¶x Figure. 5.11.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig.2) For irrotational flow.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. dy is considered. ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v . then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y).1 (b). In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5. 5.11. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve.11. i.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area.. 5.12 STREAM LINES. here area is dx dy. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u .3b. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5. vorticity and circulation are both zero. The velocity vector is a function of both position and time. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line.

starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown.1. This line is called time line.1 Stream tube.12. P4. Flow can be only through the ends. 2. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. there can be no flow across a stream line. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. 3 and 4. P3. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines.1. P2. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5. 5. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. Such a passage is called a stream tube. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time.12. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. such a line is defined as a stream line.12. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. there can be no flow across the surface. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. . they form a line at that instant. A line joining these points is the streak line.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. Under steady flow condition.

1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 . co-ordinate system and two stream lines. 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero.13. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points.13.1 showing the flow field. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.14. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line. 5.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5. The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5.5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy.13. thus proving the equation (5.1). 5. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. In the next para.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. 5. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream. In the cartesian co-ordinate system.14. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow.

3 can be considered as the definition of stream function. The definition is based on the continuity principle.14. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ. if the stream function for a stream line is known. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa.9.14. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines. Consider another stream line B close to A. As a result of the definition. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines.14. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5.14. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields.10 in terms of ψ.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field. Now taking components in the x and y directions.2) and comparing the above two equations.14. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained.5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function.14. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5.1. with complex boundary conditions. .1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ. Considering the stream line A in figure.14.

v=− ∂y ∂x (5. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting.15.10.2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.15. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows.. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 .13.12 and 5. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied. The proof is given in solved problem 5. Substituting this in equation 5. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.e. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ .11.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.1 is satisfied i. then equation 5.15.1. and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational. (5. 5. Substituting these in the continuity equation.10. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results. If a fluid flow is irrotational. Converging flows.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y .15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v .

C3 = 2ua etc. 5. The flow can be described by the condition. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0. the simple flows are described. ∴ ψ= z const.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced. .e.16. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance. 5. i. b) (5.16. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies.1. For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. C1 = ua.1. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants.16. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ. c) (5. 5. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α). d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. coincident with x axis.16.. c2 = 0. a) (5.16.1.16. By applying the boundary at y = 0.1. u = constant and v = 0.1. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object. In this section.

1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point.17. ψ = – (q/2π)θ . φ = – (K/2π)θ (5. uθ = 0. counter clockwise is taken as +ve. The circulation around any closed curve is zero.17. The equations describing the flow are ur = 0.3) (5.17.17. 5.2) (5.1.5) (5.7) (5.17. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero. C2 etc are simply Figure 5.8) Chapter 5 . H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5.2.17. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. 5.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5.17. (5. As the area increases along the outward direction.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) .17.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5.17.17.17.17. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate.17. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. FG q IJ θ . The origin is at the centre and is a singular point). The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig. where θ is the angle of the stream line. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r. the velocity will increase. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5. Here C1. origin. The origin is a singular point. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.17.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point.

f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5. In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ . Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . where ds is the distance between them.4 Potential and stream line for doublet .3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5.17.17.9) (5. At r = o.17. ds→0. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point.3.17.156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves. 5.17.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5. In this case Λ takes a definite value. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5.

The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article.18. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. The equations describing the flows are. 5. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 . For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ .1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig.18. The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform. the flow area reduces.18. it is found useful to study such combination of flows. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 .1 Source and uniform flow P 5. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux. sink etc. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. 5. source. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. in polar coordinates. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. For example.18. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2.1. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows.18. The flow rate of the source is q. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow.

18. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r.18. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.18.17.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5. In polar coordinates. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5.1 and 2.4.18. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r).6 Doublet.18.18.17. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5.18.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.18.3 Source.6 Doublet.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. and for K<4πau Figure 5.18. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5. P 5. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u. vortex and uniform flow .17.18.5 and 15. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5.

9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5. Opposite Rotation.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.18. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.17.8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15.18.8 Vortex pair 5.18.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5.7 Source and vortex 5. Chapter 5 Figure 5.18.9 Sink and vortex . φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).17. 2a P Figure 5.17.18.18.

With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis.160 An example is shown in Fig. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal.19. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed.1.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal.19. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line. 5. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. ψ = ψ (x. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly.

The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) .2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t. vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5.2. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5. 5. The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ .3. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt.

The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass. = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 .5. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. Problem 5. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy . . P. Hence flow is rotational.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω . v= − y x + y2 2 1. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . the continuity equation should be used.3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational. C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig. the condition to be satisfied is.4. 5. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow. To check for irrotationality. Show that the flow is steady and 2.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P.

=–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational .6. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2.5. = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. (i) u = x + y. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . v = – 3x. (a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = 0. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. (iii) u = –2x. =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y.

as ψ = xy. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. y).8. Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x. y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . y) ∂y z f1 (x. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x. Problem 5. f ′ (x) can be obtained . y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow.7. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. y). =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. = 0. using equation 1 determine the derivative. y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. (i) From the definition stream function.

9. = – 4y. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy. Determine the stream function given. = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x . x and comparing f ′(x) = – c.t. u = 2x + y . f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x.r. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y.

Problem 5. Case (ii) φ = xy.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied.11. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only . ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y.10. Stream function may exist. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid.166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established. ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. = x. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. = 2y. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. 2 = – 2. The function is a valid potential function.

∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . u = – 3y. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. For the following stream functions. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. – v = = 3x. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. = 0 . = 3y. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v. here both are – 3. Hence flow is irrotational. φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. v = – = – 3x also checks. So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. in this case both are zero. = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y.12. so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y .

x.13. checks. ∂v ∂u = 2x.t. u= Hence flow is irrotational. y. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y.r. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. ∂x Differentiating w. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified. Laplace equation etc. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. Problem 5. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy. as an exercise. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. Only in the case of potential function. checks ∂x . Check for continuity.r. = – 2x. In this case stream function will always exist.t. a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ.

14.. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0. y.r. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two.4 0. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w. P. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u.14.6 26. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 . 5.e. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2. v) and for orthogonality. 5.6 0.4 6 3 5 0.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i.2 0. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig. Hence checks.8 Figure P. Problem 5.t.56° 7 9 8 0.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0.

Show the resulting stream lines. P. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5.60 to the x axis Poblem 5.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1.15 Problem 5.15. P. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 4 3 –5 2 0.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1.16 For the combined stream lines . ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 = 11. 5.5 = (102 + 52)0.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4.16.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.5 1 – 5. 5.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0.5 –1 2 3 4 4. 5. Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.

Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) . 5.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3.17.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y. In a two dimensional flow. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1.18. Assume steady incompressible flow.16 u= x2 Problem 5. The velocity components at point (2. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

3.2. Multiplying by go. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const. As it is. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg). equation 6. Motion along a stream line and 3.4. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. it will also have a unit of m/s2). As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds. this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion.2 reduces to.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6. as velocity. t).3. V = f(s. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6. 6.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity). This equation after dividing by g. as = dV/dt.3. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6.3.3 also it is better to write the first term as go. dt (6. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. is also written as.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow.3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. . the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2. The assumptions involved are: 1.3. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt.3) (Note: in equation 6. Steady flow 2.3. dP + gdz + VdV = 0. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow. (t = time).

Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6. P2 = 9.32 m/s 10 × 105 2.2 m. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.6 m and 0.4.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1. the pressure P2 can be calculated. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0. venturimeter.3 m respectively. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 . Barometric pressure is 1 bar. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6.3) Example 6.092 bar (9. Example 6. V1 = 0. However. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid.8 × 4/π × 0.3 2 × 9.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. As P/γ is involved directly on both sides. determine the pressure at section 2. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. or loss of head due to friction occurs. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. V2 = 0.81 9810 × 1. kg m/N s2 .4.6 m and 0.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1. Equation 6.33 = 11. gravity × 9810. nozzle meter. (6.5 bar (vacuum). the equations will read as.092 × 105 N/m2).4. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.3 2 × 9. orifice meter etc.4. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar. it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure). This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3). gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.83 m/s.832 P2 11.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0. γ = sp.8 × 4/π × 0.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1. Substituting.81 Solving.62 = 2.

Ex.3 m/s.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13. Example 6. Z2 = – 0.4 Problem model . V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0.6 m below the tap outlet.6 m Jet V22 2.6.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant. Example 6.186 and noting Z1 = Z2. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’.6 + 2 × 9.83Q 3. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2.94 m/s. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2.01166 m or 11. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9.6. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.1 m /s Water A 0. 6. Z2 = 0.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex. The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout. V1 = 2.54 Q. ∴ D = 0. 6. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0.548 m3/s.602) = 3.6 m.6 = × 4.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases.1 m f 2 0. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller.81 V2 = 4.62 = − 0.3.6 m/s at the tap outlet.81 2 × 9. 2 × 105 0.81 2 × 9.6 m Q = 0.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute). V1 = 1.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.202) = 31.43 m/s. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0.4. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation. V2 = 17. kinetic energy increases.542 31832 Q2 . P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .81 9810 9810 Solving. Q = 0.

6 + h(s – 1). Energy line is the plot of are negligible.7322 – 3. 6. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0. V1 = 4 × 0.5. For the manometer configuration. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise. substituting the values. P1 − P2 = 0.48 cm 6. For calculating the total energy kinetic.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line. Figure 6. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow.1/ (π × 0.6 + (12.732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0. When losses (frictional) are negligible. V2 = 4 × 0.22) = 3.81) = 8.6148 m or 61. γ 8. The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). line hydraulic gradient line.5.346 = 0.12) = 12. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow.1832)/(2 × 9.6 + h(13.6 + x + sh γ γ (where x. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.183 m/s.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated.G. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line . It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.1/ (π × 0.1.

5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 .5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0. 6. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging. N/m2.5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2. Ex.6. Refer to Fig. In numerical work consistent units should be used.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V .5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0. V22. 6.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6.5 (6. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s. Z in m. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also.188 6. Figure Ex.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0.5 Venturimeter-flow . inclination from horizontal or vertical position.

672 m/s. 6. if the manometer shows a reading of hm. Example. h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig.0 m Tank Pipe.6. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove.1) with the problem at hand.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0. 6.3) . The pressure at C and B are atmospheric.5 [2 gH ]0. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid.5 (6.12/4) × 7. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0.5 Comparing the equation (6. Ex.672 = 0.6. applying Bernoulli equation. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex..5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.e. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. Also determine the pressure at A. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0. 6.06 m3/s A Water level C 1. The fluid head. i. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.5 (6.6.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1). Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0. H. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0. Ex.7 when flow is established.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. 6. dividing by γ1. γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow.2) This equation leads to another conclusion.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.

r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0. γ Example. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B. 6.75 V22 = (0.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0.05 × 0. The top plate is fixed.35 − 0. Now considering locations C and A.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig.08/2π × 0.6722/ (2 × 9. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.35. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation. Net force = 1000 × π (103.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0. dF = ρ πrdr 103. the elemental force dF is given by. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . Ex.75 − 0. Assume the pressure at radius r = 0.2594 . Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure.05 m is atmospheric.025 × r)2 = 0.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N .05 to 0.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates.75 (0.35 0. 6. P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2. 0. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.052 ) / 2) − 0. 6.025)2 = 103.08/2π × 0.

where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet. 6.01068 m3/s = 0.3. V2 = 12.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).062 × 3.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.5 V22/2g.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom. There is no loss in the nozzle.178 m3/s. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m. The Euler equation 6.3.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element.13 m3/min) Example 6.777 m/s 11 π × 0. Example 6.53 m/s and flow will be 2. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9. V2 = 3. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 .777 = 0. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6.9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry.81 . 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. Let the shear stress be τ.3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element.1.3 and Fig. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm. + 10 2g 2g .64 m3/min.

49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6. Such a probe is called static probe.5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0. the pressure term is known as static head. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa.5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.8.8.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 . Solving. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer.3/0.8. γ 2 × 9.353 and V2 = 9.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig. (Figure 6. determine the rate of flow.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0. V1 = 2.1 = 5.178/π × 0. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction. 6.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0.1.8.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction.672 = = 5 m of water head. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5. (Figure 6. (Figure 6.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum.67 m/s P2 5. The head measured is also called Piezometric head. using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet).1 × 0. . It is measured by a probe.166 m3/s 6.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm. The transition piece length is 6 m. Considering the bottom as the datum.

9 × 13.8.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.8. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.8. then the head should be calculated as 0.9 (13. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12.8.2.9 m of mercury column.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1). 0. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water.6 – 1) m. This instrument is also called pitot–static tube.24 m Note. 6. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards. Chapter 6 .1 Pressure measurement 6.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section.

The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure. cavitation problem limits the design pressure. V2 = 8 × 0. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm.5 .5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. The outlet diameter is 1.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9. Ex.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s.52 = 1. 2 as the datum. In a draft tube as shown in Fig.6.194 Example 6. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.2 m. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer. 6.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level.16 m of water. Z1 = 3 82 1.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.39 m/s. 6.13. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level. discuss in which case the flow is highest. The inlet diameter is 0.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel.2 Figure Ex. Z2 = 0. 1.81 2 × 9. Consider equation 6. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m.

05)4.5 m and 0.6 = 12. Barometric pressure is 1 bar.8.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3.05g 4 0.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15.6 = = 3.8.03 / 0.732 m/s.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6. 6.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2.245 m. Determine the throat pressure.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.236 bar (absolute) = 1.03 / 4j L2 × 9.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.03/0. .1FG 13.056 2 12. Problem 6.6. h = 0.2452 /4) 3.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.5 2 0.8 K PQ 1 − b0.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13.10 m S2 = 13. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.6.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.282 m3/hr or 4.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same. Substituting.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P. S1 = 0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.81 × 0.5 = 4. Q= eπ × 0. 6.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.81 2 × 9. Determine the flow rate. Substituting (π × 0.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.6.

If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. h. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s. Problem 6. determine the pipe diameter at that location. Flow = area × velocity.9m3/s.81 2 × 9.37 = 0.6. 2 π × d2 ×19.5 Solving. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0. V2 = 19.6 − 1IJ OP H 0. 4 π × 0. of mercury column. Using equation (6.06 2 = 2.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0. gr = 13. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. Using Bernoulli equation.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2.5m above point 1. h = 0. at the rate of 0. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2.81 × hFG 13.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0.37 m/s. Problem 6.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9.6 Calculate the exit diameter. Neglect losses.6 mm. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0.b) determine the value of manometer reading.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1.83 × 10–3 m2 .81 9810 9810 e j Solving. . which is 1.0146 m = 14. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.04 2 = 1.5m and pressure is 800 kPa.405 bar absolute.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm.9 × 4 / π × 0.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.5 0.5 2 × 9.

Z1 = 6 m V22 2.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure.22 LM N OP /2 × 9.3 bar.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. Problem 6. Determine the head loss through the pipe.81 2 × 9. Loss of head = 0.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0. Express it as a function of exit velocity head. and the pressure at the topside is 7. neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2. Z2 = 0 (datum).04 2 0.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7.405 × 10 5 1. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum. can be reduced to a vary low level.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube.07 m 1.531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1. where the draft tube is attached.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2.531 m/s 2 × 9. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit.81 9810 Losses = 1.516.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 .96 m 0.

2 2m 1 h 0. 0.81 × hFG 13. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.8 bar 0.2) (with A2 = 0.514 = H 0.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.854 m . h = 0. 6. P. Z2 = 2 m 2 0.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.25 V 2 2 2 1 6.8 2 × 9.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. A1 = 0.6.8.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0.196 K QP 0.81 9810 × 0.6.8 ×105 N/m2 . 6. Z1 = 0. gravity.031 2 0.5 2 bar Figure P.031 m2. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0.5 Solving.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp.5 /4 I GH π × 0.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.5 LM2 × 9.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. P2 = 0.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2.031IJ OP N NM H 0. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.8 2 × 9.5 2 × 2. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2.81 b g π × 0.196 m2) Flow rate.62 m/s 9810 × 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0.62 = 0.2 /4 JK = 6.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.5 0.

If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute. Problem 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. P.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.6.2 m 1 h 0. Z2 = 1. Mercury with S = 13.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2. This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.3 j 2 × 9.3 m B A 1.4 × 4/π × 0.38 bar Figure P.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2. 0. Determine the flow rate. Z1 = 0. determine the direction of flow.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.4 × 4/π × 0. 2 0. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 .81 2 2 + 0 = 22.10 Petrol of relative density 0.10. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown.2 m. 6.69 bar 1. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1.2m vertically above point 1. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2.6 is used as the manometer fluid.15 m 0. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1. + 9810 e0.

5 Solving. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal.11. 6.81 × hFG 13. .3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2.15 IJ OP N NM H 0. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A.2 b138 − 69g10 0. 6.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0.5 S2 13. Point A is 1m above the water level.6. Solving.74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.15 2 /4 4 0.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.22 = H 0.106 = 0. V2 = 9. indicated by point 1.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.82 × 9810 0. S = 0.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0. Problem 6.6 − 1IJ OP 0.12. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2.82 1 LM2 × 9. h = 0. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9. Assuming friction to be negligible.3 2 × 3. P.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig. V1 = 3.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P.2 = 15 V12 .3 m Problem 6.2355 m.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.5 0. π × 0.3 K QP π × 0.6.6 .106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.

PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P. The velocity of water at the surface is zero.81 × 2 = 12. Z3 = 0.3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. 6. Consider level 1 as datum. As flow is the same. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation.13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9.81 = 11.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2. Z1 = 8. Atmospheric pressure is 10.3 m. between 1 and 2. V1 = 0.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 .53 m/s Chapter 6 . The outlet is 8 m below water level. The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.3 m of water. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9.

Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10.3 m. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. Substituting in equation (1). Z3 = 0. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. As V2 = V3.37 m/s. Therefore the barrier can be 1.3 m above water level. 2 × 9.3 ∴ Z2 = 9.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3.81 2 × 9. determine the level downstream.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1. 3 V2 = 2.742 m3/s.5 V1.35 m/s.14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. Q = 16. Problem 6.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel. 2.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 . both surface pressures being atmospheric. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter. Problem 6. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1. 6.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m. flow rate. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. V2 = 8.

The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. Chapter 6 . Using B. losses and kinetic head. 2m being trivial. 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. ∴ V2 = 5. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0.57 checks.81 h23 – 2. Problem 6. check using A. – 0.56 m/s. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9.54 m is the acceptable answer.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8.1147 = 0. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head. this reduces to Solving.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1.425 m.1147 h22 + 0.4587 = 0 Simplifying. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.797 + 0.81 h × 2 × 9.81 = Vn2 [5.5 = 3. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line.54 + 1. 2 + 0.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water. 0. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface. h2 can be 2 m.54 m h2 = 0.

3 – 3.17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. Hence . The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A. – . Z. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected.314/4g I GH 2 × 9.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10. Problem 6. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 . Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled.6. Kinetic head V2/2g. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . 10. Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory.321 m = 6.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. distance travelled.3 m of water column. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig.979 m absolute 3.321 m below atmospheric pressure. during time t. Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. Describe the path of the free jet. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ. In the vertical direction. loss 5V2/2g 10. P.

81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17. where a = – g. becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P. X = Vxot.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s. Ref Fig. P. . 6. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t. 6.66 m 9. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location. so the velocity decreases.32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5. at time t.17).32 m/s.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17.215 m 17. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4.32 2 17. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet.097 m 2g 2 × 9.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35.

19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by. Vxo = Vo cos 40. X = Vxo t. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X .17. 6. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15.81 = 15. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height.56 m also. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9.56) + 15. Refer Problem 6.53 m The X value corresponding to this is.12 1 × =6 2 17.56 = 11. P. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt .612 sin 40 cos 40/9.61 m/s. two values of X is obtained from equation A.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15.12 tan 40 – 9.81 = 6. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9.81 × 11. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9. Problem 6. X = Vxo t.17.12 m check by substituting in equation B. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17. By symmetry. referring to Fig. Given Vo and Z. 11. From basics.56 m. Vzo = Vo sin 40.

Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values.17.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6.3°. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°. In the second case it clears the height during the rise.21. solving tan θ = 7.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. .6.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.5° or 29. C Chapter 6 1 9. tan2 θ – 8.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ.5° 29. P. eqn.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82.262 = 0. In the first case it clears the height during the fall. the projected angle should be 45°.594 or 0. The maximum reach. For maximum horizontal reach.155 tan θ + 4. Fall Rise 82. See Fig. 6. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1. 207 Problem 6.

22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top. Show that H1y1 = H2y2. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . Referring to Problem 6. If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly. eqn. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank. 2g . y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B). 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. and simplifying. 6.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards.17. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m. reaches a maximum height of 20 m.208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.

5 = 19.25 Problem model .18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0.18 = 0. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level.15 2 × 4. V2 2 0.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank. V1 = 0.12 2 × 19.81 × 2)0. 1 and the bottom of the pipe. 0.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0.809 = 0. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h.5 bar.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.5 2 × 9.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4. 4 Problem 6.5V22/2g. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P. Determine the flow rate. 6.0739 m3/s = 73. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance.81)0. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy.81 9810 2 × 9. Assume the frictional loss as 4.9 l/s.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom.1427 m 4 Problem 6. P1 = P2. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum.81 V2 = 4. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving.

Consider a numerical problem.025 m. Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0. Let D = 0.210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h.5 m. The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 .5 m. d = 0. −1 . g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 . ho = 0.t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval.

∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) .01 m. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g . 2 Solving F 0. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used. Determine the distances indicated as h and H.5 (1 – 0.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0.4764 m In case d << D.5 = G H 0.025 K 4 − 1 = 127. 2g . then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 . ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero. LM OP 100 9.5 K 2 . t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9. Chapter 6 t = 127.5 IJ H 0. Problem 6.0471) = 0.81/ 2 × 0.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m.71 s. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds.81 .5 / FG 0.7 seconds. 2 × 9. then time for employing is 1130 sec. Say d = 0. t.5 IJ − 1 PP H 0.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0.025 IJ 0.81 / 2 211 = 0.

25h = 0.212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P. 6. t = or H = 6.26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 . H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h). Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. .25 – h = 50 g 25 = . Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet. It may be also noted from problem 6. 10 .25 m. 6.25 Hence this condition is also satisfied. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2.25 m. as H = 6.25 m.25 × 4 = 4 × 6. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt .22. is present. Substituting. or h = 2. 8g = Vxo2 t = 10. Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present.

2. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. 213 2. (5) Z. 11. 4. V2/2g. 5. 8. 7. 6. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. 8. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. 5. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field.go where γ is specific weight. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. . 6. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. 7. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. 10. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. 2. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. Chapter 6 3. Fill in the blanks: 1. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––.1. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . O Q. Fill in the blanks: 1. 12. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. 11. 3. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. 4. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. 10. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. 6. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. 6. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. 9. 9. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––.

The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. the energy line will decreases by a step. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. If velocity increases. 5. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. (e) all flows. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. 5. 10. 9. 10. 12. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. the potential head is 4 m.3. 4. 6. 3. the velocity head is 6 m. 3. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. 12 O Q. 11 Incorrect – 2. 8. 6. as the diameter is doubled. Flow will take place along energy gradient. the pressure head is 3 m. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 11. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. Choose the correct answer: 1.4.214 O Q. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. 6. 2. 3. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. 7. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. 9. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. 7. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. Answers Correct – 1. 8. 6. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. 4. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . 6. 5. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction.

2d. 9. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer. 2d.1.5.201m) Chapter 6 . Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m.854 N/m2. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b. (36. 6. Set A 1. internal energy 4.84 flows through the pipe. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. Laplace equation 2. Oil of specific gravity 0. Answers (1) 1c.2 m dia to 0. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. potential energy 2. Bernoulli equation 2. 3b. O Q. Match the sets 1. Eulers equation 4. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8. neglecting losses. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. Set A 1. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass. 4a (2) 1c. Continuity equation 3. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. kinetic energy 3. 0. In a source type of flow.6) is used to measure the pressure. 3b.

determine the maximum length.225 = 19. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s. The velocity at the beginning is 1. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses.8 bar. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge.14 bar) E 6.5 m3/min. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1.5 m/s. A nozzle of 25 mm dia. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length. 5.6. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. 6.6 m. Neglect losses. The flow rate is 0. 17.225 m dia is 3.4 E 6.821 m. is 8.10.kg) E 6. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. (35. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22.5 m) E. (2) the loss in head due to friction. The diameter reduces from 1.3%.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water.8. 100 mm) . V=? 3m 3 m/s 2.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section.98 m) E 6. The pressure at the upper location is 0.5. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.9. 6. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. (8.15 = 8.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.2 m to 0.6 mm.8 m) E 6. (774.12. (38. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. Calculate (1) the power of the jet. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s.2 m Supply 1. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle. 25.2. V0.73 bar) E 6.33 m. (47. P0. (0.11.25 mm. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.14 kW. Oil of specific gravity of 0.8 m/s.225 m diameter. The velocity in the pipe line of 0.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0. Determine the pressure at the lower location. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m. (283.1 m/s.45 m at the start.4 and 0.13 m3/s.15 m dia. 6.6 m/s. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s. The length is 300 m.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. (0.4. Pfork = 13.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7.7.63 m. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1.8 m V=? Figure E. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2. P0.105 m3/s) E 6. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0.05 m/s. E.15 = 16.2 kW) E 6. Determine the pressure at the location. (V at fork = 4. Neglect losses. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min.5 m/s. A pipe line is 36 m above datum. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. (84.3.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes.8 m/s.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6.4.13 m/s) E 6.7 Nm.15 m and 0.2 m. Calculate the flow rate.

The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. In the setup of siphon for water flow. Atmospheric pressure is 10.16.5 cm.9 m/s) E 6.16.13.2 m of water. 6. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98. issuing at 18. 6.17 Figure E. E.0 430 mm Figure E.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3.15. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case. 6. shown in Fig. 9 m.16 E 6. 6. 6.1 kPa ab) 2 1. 6. when the jet is directed vertically. if velocity at 3 was 11. (18 m) E 6. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m. 45. 22. (18 m. 9 m) E 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.7mm.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°.8 kPa ab) E 6. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. (43 l/min. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2.14.18 E 6.83 S = 1. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2.7 m/s. Diameter of the pipe is 2.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E. E. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm.19. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig.13 m of water) Chapter 6 . 1.18.19.17. (8 m. (4. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet. E.17.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. Calculate the height to which the jet. 6. E.2 l/s. The arrangement is shown in Fig. (16.18. determine the height to which the jet will rise.

E.75 Water 1.5 m 2.24 Figure E.25.20 E 6.36 m /s 3 Figure E. E 6. 6. y 0.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0. 6. determine the flow rate of water.24. E. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig.23. 6. 6. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0. 6.218 2 7. Neglecting losses.22 E 6. 6. E.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0.25.22. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream. Assume that these are no losses. For the venturimeter shown in Fig. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig.21 Figure E.20. E 6. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig. E 6.20. 6. E.5 m 9.3 m 5 m/s 1.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.3 m f 10 mm Figure E. E 6.24. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream.5 m WL 1.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig. 6.19 Figure E.22. 6. 6. E.25 . 6.21. Neglect losses. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards.

Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. 219 . modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions.% 7. with layers not mixing macroscopically. Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. Besides these laws. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated.

The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. the flow in the boundary layer becomes . Beyond a certain distance.1. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. Beyond this point.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7.1. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig.1. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. 7. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity.1.220 7.1. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface. mainly by diffusion. There is no intermingling of layers. Small disturbances are damped out. but to a lower and lower extent. The flow initially is laminar.1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces. 7. The adjacent layers also slow down. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface.2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig.

As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . Inertia forces become predominant.3. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed.3. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference.04 Re × D. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v).1a. In pipe flow it is not a function of length. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v. the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named. At some distance from the entrance. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces. It is about 0. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. 7. where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. 7. The distance upto this point is known as entry length.

In the case of flow through pipes. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent. x. The dye path is shown in Fig.4.1) (7. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number.4. 7. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000.4. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed.186/Re0. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations. the dye will travel along a straight line. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers. 7. If a dye is injected into the flow.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7. The friction factor.1b. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop.1. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. 7. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid.4. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates).3. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through.316/Re0. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar. This length. f = 0. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number.2) . Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself. In this case.25 f= 0.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular.

a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. This definition is applicable for any cross section. Here the inertial forces are predominant. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. i.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth.e. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow. Re = Dh × u/v (7. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). In rough pipes. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers.3) 7.1 In model testing. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth.8v/u f (7.6. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes.. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε.5. with a roughness height of ε. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing.325/[ln {(ε/3. For circular section Dh = D.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number. 7.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal.4. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter.6. So for a given section. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 . The surface area is proportional to the perimeter.2) Example 7. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32. is given by f = 1. If δl < 6ε. Dh = 4A/P (7.9}]2 (7.74/Re0.7D) + 5.6.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow.

7.1 . A) 1. and using the relationship for force balance. If velocities should be the same. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. 7.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. the diameter should be 15 times that for water.7. length = dx. outside radius = r + dr. the velocity being a function of radius only. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow. diameter and density. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached.1a.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow. 7. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity. It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G.

which represents parabolic distribution.7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 . and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7. at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification. dividing 7.72) At a given radius.3.7.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.1 by (7. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7. u= at r = R. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7. we get 7.7.2).7.7. Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C .3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R. ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.

The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter.8.79 umax for n = 6 and 0.1 elemental length L in the pipe. given in the appendix. f= . But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost. 7.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow. t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes. The average velocity is 0. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7. Consider an Figure 7.8.8.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop.87 umax for n = 10. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate. (7. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram.2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor. where n varies with Reynolds number. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked. Some empirical equations are given in section 7. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation). expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors.8.

As mentioned earlier.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 . um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7.8.6). π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = .6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 .8.8. It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid.5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems.8.8. ∆P.4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P. we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7. Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7.

7. 7. Equations 7.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.9. umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = .1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.6) is applicable for all flows .9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop. substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7.9.5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available.7.9.7) equation (7. Refer to section (7. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 .9.2) (7.8.2 and 7.2).8. Also (µ / ρ) = ν. The equation is derived in this section.7.1) (7.9.1. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2.8.8) Now a days equation 7.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit.9.

(ρu.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.u).81 × 0. Re = Friction factor.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f. When velocity increases.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. µ can be also expressed as Pa. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0.e.1 µ .93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7.. 7.9.1 × 1 × 10 0. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 . The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained. laminar flow prevails in pipes. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer.s). so the flow is laminar 1 × 0.12 = 3200 N/m2.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0.351 × 0. f = 64/930 = 0. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. Example 7. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.300. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i. f = 64/Re). namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7.351 m head of oil. or ∆P = 0. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.3. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D. as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number. laminar flow prevails in pipes.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0.1) = 0.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID.1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930.

75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.75 (7. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7.6) R + 4.12.11.5 ν (7.11.75 log (7. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.11. u = (1 + 1. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5.1 ∴ um = 2.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.47 m/s.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.33 f (7.5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.11. = 5.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.5 ν (7.11. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.11.2). u u* = 5. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe.11.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.8) .4) For rough pipes. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.11.6 ν/u* (7.75 log = 5.1 × 930/0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.33 f ) um – 2.75 ln ( R − r) + 8.2).5 ε (7.

74 ε (7.11. Three types of entrances are known.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart. (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0.11.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows.12) = 2 log R + 1. it is necessary to take into account all such losses.13) Charts connecting f. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution. several correlations are available for friction factor.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.11) (7.8 log Re – 1. In a pipe system design.14) (7. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to.11.221/Re0. 7.316/Re0.237) 1/ f = 1. The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. Chapter 7 . valves and fittings.11. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.11. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7.11. f ρ um 2 .11.0032 + (0. (7.10) (7.04 for this situation. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7. f = 0.

and for globe valves it is 340 D.8. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) . The loss coefficient.5.12.05 to 0. The loss coefficient is 1. datum remaining unaltered. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe.13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7. Square edged entrance is used more popularly. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss.13. C = 0.1.5 in this case. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity. For gate valves L = 8D.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. (7. The value is 0.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. 7. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid.33 for D2/D1 = 0. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0.08 for angles of 10° to 60°.0. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g.12. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses).

1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2. replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. 2g Chapter 7 . P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 . The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2).13. The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2.

This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases. 7. friction head and the dynamic head. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i. u2/2g.15. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop.4. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location.1 (pump is not indicated in figure).. fittings etc. . The head to be developed will equal the static head. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows. elbows etc.234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID).15. There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. 7. Determine the head to be developed by the pump.e. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows. The loss will vary with radius of the bend.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. The line will dip due to losses. This line will also dip due to frictional losses.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. Specimen plot is given in Fig. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used. Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. In the case of bends.

The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head. Example 7.0092 m 2 × 9. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings. 5. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D. 4000 m long with f = 0.0241).316/Re0.2562 m head of water.316/210930. 7.2 = [(0. This length is known as equivalent length.2 m below the water reservoir level. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m. Friction head = f L um2/2g D. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 .42442 = 0. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe.11.55 = 0.0092 = 35.25 = 0. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.5 A pipe 250 mm dia.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5.265 + 0. Determine the rate of discharge. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.252/4) × 0. v = 1. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system. Flow rate = (π × 0.02622.237 = 0. using the value 0. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7.4244 m/s.0032 + 0. Re = um D/v = 0. From the relation knowing C. 7.027 m3/s.81 = 35 + 0.221/Re0. or 97.4244/1.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m.05 m.052 = 0.81 × 0.02622 = 0.55 m/s.81 × 0. Le.05 = 0. D = 0.42442/2 × 9. f and D.15). Head to be developed by the pump = 35.02622 × 55 × 0.81)] = 17. minor losses may often be neglected.25 = 0. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0.05 × 0.2562 m.23 m3/hr.

2 m2/s.04.35)5 = 511.4/0.4 m pipe as the base.81 × Q2)/(9. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m.024 . L2e = 300 (0. m 600 800 400 Diameter. Q = 0.019/0.021/0.019 0. 300 m and 250 m respectively.019 respectively. as the pressure loss is the same.024.024) × (0.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations.81 m 12 = (8 × 0. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0. Three pipes of 400 mm.02 = 1545. In parallel arrangement.4/0.79 m L3e = 250(0.021 and 0.021 0. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No. Example 7.79 + 834.30 0.7.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2.17. The lengths are 200 m.17.024) × (0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses.02 m = 200 + 511. m 0. Example 7. 0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0.17.81 × π2 × 0.35 Friction factor 0.45) Q2 = 0.04 ∴ Q = 0.25 0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0. 1 2 3 Length.024 × 1545. The friction factors are 0.6.3)5 = 834.

5 = 2.17.8.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3.021.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.2).07854 m3/s Q2 = 1. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2. Chapter 7 5 0. L2 = 1500 m.20867 m3/s Total = 0. The value of f3 = 0.576 m Example 7.2.81 × 0.6569 Q1 = 5. L1 = 2000 m.5 OP PQ 5 0.3 I = M MN 0.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0. the head drops are equal (refer para 7. f2 = 0. L2 = 1500 m. 7.078542/ π2 × 9.5 OP PQ L 0.024.019 800 GH 0. Determine the flow rate through the system.35 I MN 0.17. D2 = 0.25JK L 0.255 = 6.11282/π2 × 9. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point.6569 Q1 = 0.35 = 6.021. D1 = 0.5 Using equation (7. D2 = 0.021 × 600 × F 0.4 = Q1 + 1.11.4362 Q1 + 2. hf = 8 × 0.021 1500 GH 0. L1 = 2000 m.11.024 × 2000 × F 0.35I = M MN 0.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.17. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.021 × 600 × 0.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0.000 l/min.4 m3/s 0.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1.024.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.021 × 600 × F 0.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1. So. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs.43 m. f1 = 0.35 m.4362 Q1 = 0.81 × 0. f2 = 0.5 = 0.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0. The two reservoir levels are equal.019 × 800 × 0. eqn 7.5 . Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.024 400 GH 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.4 m. Q2. eqn.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0. D1 = 0. Let the flows be designated as Q1.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0. The total head available is 25.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24.4 m.019.

18.45 m .81 × 0.019 × 1600 × 1. Q2 = 0. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD.355 = 17.555 = 387.024 × 2000 × 0.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.021 × 1500 × 0.1877 2 π 2 × 9.18.81 × 0.45 π 2 × 9.99 m π2 × 9. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe. checks.99 + 17.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.555 Total head = 7. for maximum power.4 5 = 17.67%.4 m3/s.81 × 0.46 = 25.42 = 7.81 × 0.81 × 0.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes.88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9. Net head available = h – hf. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.238 25. 7.019 × 1600 × 0.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66. 7.31 Q12 + 177. but this will prove to be costly. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.17 Q12 = 564.46 m both are equal as required. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a .2123 m3/s. Power = mass flow × net head Power. dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7.21232 π 2 × 9.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u.

Determine for the data in example 7.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems.81 × 0.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551.252/4) × 4. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m.81 × 400 = 3. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted. Example 7.01735. Using equation 7. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0. Example 7. Determine the maximum power that can be developed.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0.48 m Power = (π × 0.014 × 3000 × 6.924 × 106 W or 3. The available pipes have friction factor 0.81 (450 – 208. For maximum power when flow rate is specified. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head.18.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s.07) = 524246 W = 524.81 × 0.963 kW Example 7.25) solving. D = 0.81) D5. Chapter 7 D5 = 0. Refer Eqn 7. Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.5 m/s. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0.1.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9. hf = (0.81 × 0.25) = 208.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9.18755 × 1000 × 9.81 × 0.52)/(2 × 9.014 is used.81 (450 – 92. u = 3.014 × 3600 × 4. hf = (0.4 × 103 m3/day.9 the power transmitted for u = 4.4442)/(2 × 9. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.4445 m . Some of these are discussed in the para.1. Q = 86.48) = 516493 W = 516.014.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.82 m/s.10.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power. Here both u and D are not specified.44452) = 6.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.18.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9.5 × 1000 × 9.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water.07 m Power = (π × 0.25) = 92.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m. (i) u = 4. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed.

81 × 0. R4 = = 72.62) Q2 = 355.02 × 220 = 149.19. m 220 410 300 600 f 0. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9. Determine the flow rate. Pipe 2. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used.013 0..30 0.. 1 2 3 4 Diameter. The circuit is shown in Fig.455 8 × 0.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149.355 π 2 × 9.35 0.463 + 72.40 Length including minor losses. R2 = π 2 × 9. No. 7. m 0.81 × 0. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes.61.11. 7..02 0.. Consider equation 7.018 0.11..61 + 17. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + . Pipe 4.. f1 L2. D3. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m.013 × 300 8 × 0.19.. WL L1.45 0..1 Pipe 3. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + . f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3. = 17.018 × 410 = 116.463.15 Pipe 1. D2.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7.19.793 Q2 ... f3 Figure 7.1. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5.81 × 0.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network.45 8 × 0.015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.12.81 × 0.240 7.15. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths.015 × 600 8 × 0..35 π 2 × 9. D1.

4 Friction factor 0.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1. D1.19. 1 2 3 length. Determine the frictional loss. .2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig.19. f1 P2 L2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0. f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7.3 0.2 0.022 0. Using the value find Q2 and Q3. m 0. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections.19. Example 7. 7.2 WL h1 P1 L1.916 + 0. D3. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex. m 800 1200 900 Diameter. 3.019 Chapter 7 4. f2 P3 L3.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1. Q2 and Q3 are specified. D2.046 + 3. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified.449 = 12 m 241 7.02 0. 7. these flow rates can be determined.589 + 2.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates. 2. 7.13 and Ex.14. No.

f = 0.13558 = 0.2 5 8 × 0. using equation 7.66 m /s. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available.07254 m3/s.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.15 800 m.81 × 0. 0.2 m f.13.022 WL 1 1200 m. If the total flow rate is 0. 7. Q = 0.81 × 0.32971 = 0.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0.91 m π 2 × 9. 0.1355 m3/s π2 × 9.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.52274 0.66 × 0.3 m f. determine the total flow rate 2. h1 – h2 = 15 m.91 m .02 × 1200 × 0. Q = ? Case 2. f = 0.66 m3/s. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3.81 × 0.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled.41629 m3/s 0. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0.07254 2 = 23.171172 π 2 × 9.66 × 0.66 m3/s .022 × 800 × 0.17117 m3/s 0.52274 0. 0. f = 0.81 × 0. The system is shown in Fig. Pipe 1 hf = 0. 0.02 900 m. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1.4 m f.05745 = 0.66 × 0.11.019 Case 1.05745 m3/s π2 × 9.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0.35 8 × 0. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water. 7. Ex.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.25 8 × 0. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.81 × 0.52274 8 × 0. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above. determine the individual flow and the friction drop. Q2 and Q3.

If none are specified.. Q1 = 0.91/816. Case 1. R2 = 2 = 816.81 × 0. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + ... both of these will receive the flow.81 × 0.. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 .. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs.893 hf = R Q2 = 54.19.13 by analogy method. Q3 .. 7..81 × 0. Fig..022 × 800 = 4544. Q2 = 0. Q3 = 0.48.. If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct. then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.3)..91 m π2 × 9..019 × 900 π × 9.. (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe.. If the head Chapter 7 7.52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0..07 + 1 137. 1 R = 1 4544.. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 .17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23.19...2733 Q = 0.07 2 5 π × 9.81 × 0. Work out problem 7..... The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one.416292 = 23. Q2.. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0..4 2 5 = 137.893 = 0.... and Q2 = hf /R Example 7.91/137..48 + 1 816.48.893 × 0..07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23.98.019 × 900 × 0... The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref..522742 = 23..91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23.98 ∴ ∴ Case 2.13497 K 2 = 54.. The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle.02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0.....2 R3 = 8 × 0. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation.35 π × 9. If flows are Q1..893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. 8 × 0. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + .91/4544.66. R = 54..45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used..Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 ...98.41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases... trial solution becomes necessary.3 Branching Pipes .14..07..

This is shown in Fig 7. B and C at water levels of 25 m.6 m diameter with f = 0.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9. Example 7. (12 – ZJ)/121. Similarly for flow from B and C. (8 – ZJ)/10. where ZJ level at junction J.5196 Considering flow from A.81 × 0.11. inflow to the junction is more. But at the first attempt.3.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A.65 8 × 0. (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details. Such iteration can be also programmed for P.011.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 .4 m and f = 0. the outflow is more.011 × 900 = 10.19.81 × 0. 8 × 0.013 draws water from A. and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0. So reduce the value of head assumed.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one.3 The method of solution requires iteration. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0.81 × 0. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network.C. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7.2473.5196 = QC2 . Using the equation 7.15 Three reservoirs A. (iv) If it is negative.45 = 121.5 m and f = 0. the sum may have a positive value or negative value.55 = 41. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. (iii) If it is positive.2473 = QA2. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction. (25 – ZJ)/41. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir.19.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero.0354 π 2 × 9. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.0354 = QB2.

4 m/s Re = uD 0. ZJ = 11.8 QA 0.6894 – 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.00019. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.19.4 × 0.2409 0. This set can be solved using computers. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2. the flows are QA = 0. 1.0406 QC – 0.825 m gives a residue of 0. 7.5394 0.5657 QB 0. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained. Considering the value.19.06423 0.56517 m3/s. A sample is shown in Fig.1286 – 0. An oil of specific gravity 0.0 11.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice.6030 0.5 cm. QB = 0. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0.082 = 0. Methods of successive approximation are used. 2. The flow rates in the last column can be used. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.4360 – 0.5721 0.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial.0596 0.1.0909 0. 3. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.6010 QA + QB + QC 0.2556 – 0. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero. What is head loss for a length of 10 m.002/π × 0.603 m3/s 7. 7.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7.5768 – 0.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem.5 11.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 . it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily. With the use of computers.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. 9. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. (a) 5.4 (b) 0. (b) 8. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. 5. 4. (d) 14.414 (c) 0.025 (c) 1. 6. 9. 5. (a) 9. 15. (b) 10. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000. 12. 7. . the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases. (c) 11. Answers 1. 2. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. 7. 7. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable. 10. Incorrect: 2. 3. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. (c) 4. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. (b) 3. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. 5. 6.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0. (d) 7. For the same flow rate and friction factor. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same. 3. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. (d) 13.05. 3.5. 1.7..) (a) 0. In flow through pipes. (d) 0. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases. 8.032. 4. For the same sectional area and flow rate. Answers Correct 1. 11. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe. (d) 2.0. (b) 16. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar.6. 8. 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. the friction factor ––––––––––. 11. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. (b) 12.258 12. 6. 12 O Q. 2. (b). after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––.5 (b) 0. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number.2 (c) 1. (d) 4.414. (i.64 (d) 1/1. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. In flow over a flat plate.e. 14. 16. (b) O Q. (a) (15). 10.

Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. An oil with specific gravity of 0. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic. 259 6.5. the length –––––––––– 9.8 × 10–5 m2/s. For the data in problem E 7. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. 5.7.077 N/m2. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. (e) head loss/m. 8. For a specified roughness.4. the length –––––––––– 10.. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7. 10 Decreases : 4.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3. (Re = 54. 0. (d) wall shear and (0. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. B – 3. 9 Remains constant: 2. . C – 2.3. Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. f ρu2 .85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia.5 l/s. determine (a) centre line velocity. D – 1 (2) A – 4. the flow rate being 0. 3. 7.107 m/s. (c) friction factor. 6 O Q. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. 7. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. E 7. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm. 0. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow. 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. C – 2.127 m/s. 0.18.1. B – 4.1. Laminar) E 7.2.

E 7. 20 cm and 25 cm.8.00018. at a rate of 0. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s. 0.02 60 m B 480 m 0. f = 0. Determine the value of friction factor. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m.9. A and B. (2.019.013 m3/s) A 600 m. where Cc = Ac/A2.54 m. E.124 m3/s) E 7.10. A pipeline 1. (i) Contraction from 0. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia.02 respectively. (0.673 m.6 cm of water) E 7.2 m f. Oil of specific gravity 0. Re = 11475. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m. determine the flow rate. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm.14. 0. the head available being 6 m.055 m3/s. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point. 7. Determine the flow rates in lines C. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0.042. 0. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter.2 m dia.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. 0. E.2 m to 0. 150 m and 250 m respectively.12.032 1200 m.51 m3/s.62.45 m to 0.192 m in all cases. Show using the expression in E 7.699 m) .06 m3/s.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7. Show from basics that in sudden contraction. (0.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E.7.021 and 0. 7.5 m. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7.15 m. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m.083 m3/s) E 7. The pipe diameters are 30 cm. 7. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .11.15.15 m f.034. 0.15 m. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s. – 5. (iii) Contraction from 0.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0. Neglecting minor losses. Pipe lines as shown in Fig. (0.1 m f f = 0. 0. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0. (0.9 E 7.13. the lengths being 300 m.9 and dynamic viscosity 5. If the energy (0.13 and 14). see problem E 9.13. 0. carries water over a length of 300 m. f = 0. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g.3 m to 0.006.6. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. The friction factors are 0. 0. turbulent) E 7. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0. (ii) Contraction from 0.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. E 7.

24.02. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate.0232 for the pipes.0192 and 0. f = 0.65 l/s) E 7.24.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe. f = 0. connects two reservoirs. If in the problem E 7.23.76 l/s) E 7. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g.22.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir. (0. E. 0.2 m dia. 5. neglect other losses.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0.852 m) E 7. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7.3 m f B C Figure E. 7. E 7.20.6 m of water) E 7.24 E 7. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow.3 m dia. Qc = 90.3 l/s. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir. Discharge is to atmosphere.19. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry.04 (2. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion. determine the flow rate through the second pipe. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0. (0. (72.04. Neglect minor losses. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere. the first of 50 mm dia. The friction factor is 0. The first run ends at a level 1. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance. Also calculate the flow rate. (94.3 l/s) E 7.6 m dia. f1 = 0. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. determine the flow rate. A pipe line of two sections.17. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. (37. Assuming f = 0.0207 m3/s) E 7.02 m. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min.3 m f 1500 m 0. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. A single pipe of 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. f = 0. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. The enlargement is sudden. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. The values of friction factor are 0.25.18.025. two pipes of 0. (2034 m. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s.5 m.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13.024. If the difference in water levels is 10 m.04. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm. determine the flow rate. f = 0.22.21.51 m3/s. (QB = 28.16.1 m) E 7. The entry is sharp edged. 7. (0.

28.13m3/s. f = 0. E 7. 1. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system. f= 0. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. If in the problem E 7.64 m dia. Determine the flow rate.16 l/s) E 7. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m. (5 m. f = 0. calculate the flow rate. Express the head loss as slope.03. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long.56 m3/s) E 7. pipe takes off from the reservoir. 2.9 m dia. 3000 m length of 0.021. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance. determine the flow rate. f = 0. Determine the flow rate in the first branch. pipe with friction factor f = 0. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m. 0.1/100) E 7. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute).30.5 m is 40 m long. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1.26. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet.307 m3/s) E 7.04.25. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. 1.29. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. calculate the flow rate. (43.6 m dia. The pipe diameter is 600 mm.347 m3/s) .44 m. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked.31. (72.3 m for the next 3000 m. 0. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min.425 m) E 7.008 m3/s.27. Also determine the flow rate.048.02. (0. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0.94. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0. (2.

Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. The topic is discussed in the next chapter. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming.& 8. for example velocity u. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. 263 . The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. fluid properties and fluid velocity. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. density.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. Example 8. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. the geometry. Viscosity.

ρ and µ = 103. being zero as π terms are dimensionless.1. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. 3. velocity u. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. Total experiments for u. 2. 8. . To obtain a curve F vs u. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. Hence total experiments required = 104. for fixed values of ρ. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. d. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. experiments needed = 10.S. µ and D. b. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D.H. c.

. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results.3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1... Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived.5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8. qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters.. A + B = C/D.. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions. 8. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5. π3 . If some parameters are left out.. This has to be very carefully done. .’’ For example. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups.3.. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process. πn–m) (8.... π2.2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation.Dimensional Analysis 8. In the expression. the numeric constants are dimensional. π2 . Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted.. as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10. .1 cannot be obtained from the analysis. π6 etc. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon.. List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned.. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure. q2. q1..1 Determination of π Groups Step 1. q2. . Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous.. A.. then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2...3. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters..1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters. 8. It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used..3. In such cases.. If unsure the parameter can be added.. qn. For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. expressed in the form g(π1.

Bulk modulus Moment Work. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms. (mass.1. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. (mass. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. Step 3. (force. Table 8. Step 2.3.1. Select a set of primary dimensions. length.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure.3. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure. Nm W. length and time). stress. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort. length and time). Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. Table 8.

b. Choosing the set mass. and in turn comparing indices of mass. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions.. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. L3. c and d. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. in turn to obtain n – m such equations. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. length and time.No. Hence a = 1. π1 = qm+1 . This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters.. L2. q1a . Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. Example 8. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. The form of the equation is. Hence two π terms can be obtained. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. u Density. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. (a) Using π theorem method. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. d can be obtained. . (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen..2. Substituting dimensions. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. ρ Dynamic viscosity. say L. b. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc. q3c . ∆P Diameter. D Velocity. Thus the π term will be defined. Step 5.. S. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. time and length as primary dimensions. to determine π terms numbering n – m. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. c. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. q2b . D (iii) density of the fluid ρ.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. Step 6.

So we can assume d = 1. ρ. Solving a = 1. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. Multiply and divide by D. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. average velocity u. L and T. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. . c = – 2. diameter D and average roughness height e. studying the forces. The following functional relationship is formed first. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. viscous force and inertia force. b = 0. ∆P D/ρu2. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. In case D. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. d = 1. e = – 3. fluid density. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. m appears only in the viscous force. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. – 1 – c = 0. As DP. Substituting dimensions. variables. a + c = – 2. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. L and T. Similarly.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. b = – 1. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. Example 8. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l.3. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. dynamic viscosity µ. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). We can assume a = 1.

no problem will arise in using indices a. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. L and T. – a = 0. S. 1 + c = 0. c = – 1. So four π terms can be identified. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. D and ρ as repeating variables. Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm.No. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. L and T. ∴ b = – 1. ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. a = 0. b and c in all cases). Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. c = 0. – 2 – a = 0. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . Let Consider π1. e . L and T. Selecting u. (as these sets are separate equations. b = 0. c = – 1. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. π2 = L uaDb ρc. a = – 2. π3 = µ ua Db ρc. c = 0. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives.

5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0. indicating significance and area of application of each.4. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u. . Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8. Table 8. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number.270 8.1.4.4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8.

velocity of fall u.No. 1 + a + b – c = 0. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity.2 two π terms were identified. However.Dimensional Analysis 8. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c . Substituting dimensions. c = – 1. T dimension set.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. S. L. diameter and viscosity. and the viscosity µ. A single test will provide the value of the constant. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D.4. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1). Example 8. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. Inclusion of additional variable. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. 8. L and T 0 = 1 + c. This is illusration by example 8. This can be established by experiments.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. Hence only one π term will result. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated.4. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables. 2 + b + c = 0. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. The parameters are listed below using M. This is illustrated in example 8. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air.5.5. to obtain a reliable value for c. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions. Chapter 8 . b = – 1.5. Equating indices of M. Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. namely density will lead to another π term. π1 = F Da ub µc.

010 0. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.745 0.000 60. as shown in the Fig.5 (b).9 0.78 – 1.16.2508 When extrapolating we can write.78 – 1.78) = – 0. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below.01366 17894 4.2508 = 0.6 0.022 0. To fit an equation the following procedure is used.01202 29821 4.08 – 1.012 0.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.25 – 1.821 0. A log log plot results in a straight line. Velocity.01798 5964 3.997 – 3.865 1.5 (a).16 × Re–0. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ).48 – 1.016 0.5. the slope using the same – 2.01011 59642 4.2508 This gives x = – 0.000 80.797.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2. Hence we can write.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0. The correlation appears to be good. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0. 8.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.5 .16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0.997 – 2. N 0.92 2. D∆P ρu2 = 0.3 404 0.5 6763 2.6 – 1.01119 39761 4. This corresponds to the value of 0. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below.051 – (– 1. Ex.0 0.000 40. 8.000 10. As the direct plot is a curve.014 0.008 0 20.6 1361 0. Viscosity = 1.745)}/(4.951 3 0.9 2766 1. m/s Pressure drop. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.01512 11928 4.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex.5 0.3 0.2508 0.020 0. 8..995 5 0.00890 99400 4.

p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three. 8. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained. u Density. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2. diameter D. The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ.5. ρ Viscosity. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length.No.5. and viscosity µ. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon.Dimensional Analysis 8.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. S.1.5. D Velocity. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8. ∆P/l Diameter. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 . Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. density of the fluid ρ.3. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship.

b = – 1. c. S. u. c = – 1. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. Choosing D. using M. b. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc.No. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. L and T solving for a. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. b and c. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions. u and ρ as repeating variables. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c . L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. µ Unit N.274 Using D. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. two π terms can be obtained. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. D Velocity. b = – 2. ρ Viscosity. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. a = – 1. Problem 8. T set. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation.2. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. So two π terms can be obtained. u Density. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8.2. u and ρ as repeating parameters. F Diameter. L. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M.

F Diameter. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. ρ Viscosity. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. u Density. u and ρ as repeating variables. D Forward velocity. c. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. density ρ. . b = – 1. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. c Comparing the values of indices of M. b. So three π terms can be obtained. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1.3. Choosing D. forward velocity u. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ∴ c = – 1. F ρ uD =f . a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. The thrust force. b. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. L and T 1 + c = 1. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M. S. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. µ Rotational speed. a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. Note: the significance of the π term.No.

b = – 2. µ Bulk Modulus. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. b = – 1. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . F Diameter. N Density.276 Comparing indices of M. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. ρ Viscosity. forward speed. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.4. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. rotational speed. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. T set. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. – 1 – a = 0. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. S. density. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0.No. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. u Rotational speed. a + b – 3c = 0. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. using M. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . b. D Forward velocity. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. L and T c = 0. L. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a. ∴ a = – 1.

1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. c = – 1. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. b = – 2. u and ρ as repeating parameters. using M. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. c = 1.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND .5. Selecting D. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. rotational speed. b = – 2. ρ Viscosity. T set. 1 + a = 0. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. L.No. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. τ Diameter. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. b = – 2. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. Using dimensional analysis. L and T on both sides and from equations. N Density. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. S. π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. b = – 1. – 3a + b + c = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. D Rotational speed. So four π terms are possible. ρ uD . viscosity and density of the fluid.

Problem 8. 2 + a – 3c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. a Velocity. a = – 5. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. S. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. b = – 2. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . (Another form of Reynolds number.No. – 1 + a – 3c = 0. F Width. the velocity u. u and ρ as repeating variables. So two π parameters can be identified. L. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. ω. u density. Considering D. b Height.6. N and ρ as repeating variables. a and width. and the fluid properties. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. Selecting b. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. density ρ and viscosity µ. A rectangular plate of height. b = – 1. Hence three π terms can be obtained. T set of dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. b = – 2. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b. ρ Viscosity. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1.

In film lubricated journal bearings. N Load per unit area. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . τ Speed. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. Problem 8. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. a = – 1. D and µ as repeating variables. P Diameter. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. Considering N. – b = 0. =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. – 1 – b = 0. Hence two π parameters can be found. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. The variables with dimensions are listed below. try to verify.No.Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. a = – 1. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. S. adopting MLT set. viscosity of the oil.7. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. the load on the projected area and the diameter. c = – 1. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. – 1 + b – c = 0. – 2. D Viscosity. Chapter 8 . 2 + b – c = 0.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion.8.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. µ Gravity. of the fluid. S. terms are possible. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . ρ Viscosity. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. l Density of the fluid. Considering velocity.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. g Bulk modulus. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. So four π. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. Euler number. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. R Forward velocity. – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0.5 (Froude number. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. density and length as repeating variables.No. u Length of the body.

9. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ .5. u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. ∴ b = – 0. The velocity of propagation of pressure wave. using the method of dimensional analysis. – 2b = 0. Writing c = f(ρ. g Density of the fluid. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Considering ρ.5 ρ Problem 8. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter.5. µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. H Gravity. Ev) Let.10. the dimension being that of pressure. M/LT2. The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. gl . σ Viscosity. c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. k Surface tension. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . Fr) 0. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. g and H as repeating variables . ρ Roughness height.5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). D Head. 1 – 3a – b = 0.No. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term.5 Problem 8. Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. So four π terms can be identified. a = 0. – 1 – 2b = 0.

The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Lc a = 0. D Density. k . c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. c = – 1. – 3a + b + c = 0. ∆P Diameter.5. b = – 1/2. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. So two π terms can be obtained. The variables and dimensions are listed below. c = 1/2. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . ρ Kinematic viscosity. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). Choosing ∆P. – 2 – 2b = 0.282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate. adopting MLT system S. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. a = – 1. – 1 – 2a = 0. Q Pressure drop. – 1 – 2b = 0. a = – 1.No. D and ρ as repeating variables.11. ∴ a = – (1/2). Problem 8. b = 0. – 2b = 0. b = – 1. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . 3 – a + b – 3c = 0.

d Velocity. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.12. ρ and u as repeating variables. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Considering D. h Inlet diameter. – 1 – 2a = 0. µ Gravitational acceleration. The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. u Density. S. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. c = (1/2). a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number.No. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). g. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . – 1 – c = 0. c = – 1. Try to verify. Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. ρ Viscosity. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. Hence four π parameters can be found. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. c = 0. D Outlet diameter.

– 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. σ Head of fluid. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter. head of fluid over the vertex. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy. π3 will not exist. The volume flow rate. As θ. c = (– 1. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number. kinematic viscosity v. v Surface tension.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0.5. g and h as repeating variables. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . h Gravitational acceleration. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions.No. and surface tension σ.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. . Considering ρ.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. ρ kinematic vicosity. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.5. – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2.13. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. . c = 2. b = – 1. adopting MLT set. So three π terms can be identified. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density. Problem 8. g Flow rate. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. S. . and acceleration due to gravity.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.

ρ Speed. g Surface tension. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. b = 0. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . – 2c = 0 a = – 1.No. S. S. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ. density ρ. h Gravitational acceleration. D Density. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . N Diameter. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter.14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power.15. a – 3b + c = 0.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results.No. ρ Gravitational acceleration. P Density. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1. Considering D. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. D is the runner diameter. ρ and g as repeating variables. σ Capillary rise. D Head. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. Show that the power P. Problems 8. c = – 1. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.

D Acceleration due to gravity. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c . Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. 1 – 3a + b = 0. h Flow rate. Taking ρ. adopting MLT set of dimensions. speed N. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. c = 0. D and N as repeating variables. So three π terms can be found. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. ρ Speed. density ρ. 2 – 3a + b = 0. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. 1 – 3a + b = 0. N Diameter. runner diameter D.16.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. – 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. S. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. and acceleration due to gravity. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. c = – 3. Choosing ρ. Q Density.No. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. D and g as repeating variables. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. Problem 8. g. These are used in model testing of turbo machines. flow rate Q. P Head.

Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3. for pumps. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. – 3a + b + c = 0. b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. b = – 1. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2c = 0 a = 0. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. Head coefficient 2. c = – 1/2. 1. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. Specific speed based on Q. c = – 1/2.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. Specific speed based on power. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. . Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5.

u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions.18. b = 0. The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. b = 1. . – 1 – 3a – b = 0. c = 0. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer.No. – 1 – a = 0. b = – 1.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. µ Specific heat. specific heat. µ. c Flow velocity. density. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. a = 0. ρ Viscosity. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). a – b – 3c + d = 0. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. Choosing k. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. c = 1. viscosity. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . S. – a = 0. where θ is temperature. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. – 3 – 3a – b = 0.17. c = 0. k Density. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. ρ and D as repeating variables. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. flow velocity and the diameter. Problem 8. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0.

x Initial temperature difference. Choosing θ0. b + 2c + d = 0. α Thermal conductivity. α and k as repeating variables. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. b = – 1. – c – 3d = 0.No. b + 2c + d = 0. b = 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness. c = 1. d = 0. a – d = 0. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. b + 2c + d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. θ Time. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. c = 0. b = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. a = 0. L Location distance. S. k Convection coefficient.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. b = – 2. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. c = 0. a = 0. – c – 3d = 0. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. c = 0. – 1 + a – d = 0. 1 + a – d = 0. choosing MLT θ set. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . L. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. Hence four π terms can be identified. τ Thermal diffusivity. d = 0.

c = 2. b = 3. µ. b – 3d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. ρ Viscosity. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. coefficient of cubical expansion. ρ. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. – 1 – d = 0. – b – 3d = 0. viscosity. specific heat.19. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. g Density. π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. µ Specific heat. Using dimensional analysis. the height of surface and the flow velocity. temperature difference. Hence five π terms can be identified.No.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . b = – 3. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. 1 – d = 0. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. β Acceleration due to gravity. x and k are chosen as repeating variables. hL . x Temperature difference. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. thermal conductivity. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. gravitational acceleration. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . c Thermal conductivity. S. c = – 2.

c = 1. – 3 – b – 3d = 0. c = 0. d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. As the π terms are too many π1. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. b = 0. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. – 1 – d = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. has to be determined by 8. – 1 – d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. a = 2. d = 0. Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. 8. c = 3. The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . have 7. Chapter 8 6. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. 5. for . One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . each additive term in the equations should . 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. b = – 2. If there are n variables and m dimensions. d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. b = 1. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. . dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.1.

8 Incorrect : 2. for experimentation the . Euler number is used in the study of 4. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8.3. 6. Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. O Q.292 9. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. flow. Weber number is used in the study of 5. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. Cauchy number is used when 7. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. 9. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. 5. Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. 10 .2. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. O Q. Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. flow. . . 5. Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. number. flow. 8. 7. 9. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. State correct or incorrect: 1. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. 8. 3. 10. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. 3. 2. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . flow. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 10. 4. 8. 6. Froude number is used in the study of 3. number. 7. is important.

The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r.1. volume flow rate Q. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. the width of the weir b. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. depends on the speed u of the rope. using dimensional analysis. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . density of the gas ρ. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8. and acceleration due to gravity.11.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. the layer thickness δ. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. In flow over a smooth flat plate. with clearance h. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 . the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow.5. and the speed N. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge.6. c in a gaseous medium. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m .12. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge.4. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. h . density ρ and acceleration due to gravity. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. a functional relationship between the varaibles. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate. In flow over a smooth flat plate. ρ-density.7. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up.9. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. wave length λ. The quantity of oil pumped Q.8.2. Determine. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D.10. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . The velocity of sound. d . Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. u-velocity. the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8.3.

Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results.20. D . As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . Determine the π parameters for the situation.14. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. m d P . c∆q u2 . E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L. If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L. The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u.16. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. The velocity of the jet is u. jet velocity u. the ball diameter D. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. golf etc. ruD u D OP QP E 8. the rotational speed N. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. In an oven where materials are heated by convection. .13. and the density. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. m ruL OP QP E 8. P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . The pressure P. ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. . the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. diameter of the wire. LM t NM ru D 2 3 . (d/D) = f F ruD .19. . ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8. density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium. LM Q MN ud ity. density and viscosity of air. diameter D. diffuser diameter D.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8.18. s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. m wD e . the velocity u of the jet. d elastic modulus of the wire.15. density. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. m . the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. angular velocity of spin. 2 .17. viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u.

Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg.Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. rud .21. h rg . L . the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. (use ρ. d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . Determine π terms to correlate the variables. d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . LM MN d Q 2 gD .

These may also operate with different fluids. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. As models are generally smaller than the prototype.' 9. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. harbours and tall buildings and structures. at different pressures. 296 . pumps. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. these are cheaper to build and test. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems. 9. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. turbines. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. velocities etc. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. ships. submarines. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions.

. There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity..2. 9.(9. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters. In cases like ship. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model. This is called geometric similarity.πnm) .. π3m. viscous gravity and surface tension forces.2. π2m = π2p.2.πnp) . energy etc... In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype. the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. These numbers are ratios of inertia. π1p = f (π2p .πnm = πnp . In such situations.1) πlm = f (π2m..2) For such a condition to be satisfied... This is a basic requirement in model design. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done.... If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype..2. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp. be equal for the model and prototype. lengths. This requirement is called dynamic similarity.. π3p.(9. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9... This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships.. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers..Similitude and Model Testing 9. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype. Chapter 9 9. Froude number. Roughness is one such case. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype..1...2. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously .. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible.2.2. Weber number etc. (eqn. 9. It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws..(9.3) Equation 9. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost..1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces.2.. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor.. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters.3 provides the model design conditions...2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number...

scale = Lm/Lp. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers. the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the .3.3. 9. ε .1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ .2. 9. valves. Reynolds number is the most important parameter. This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model. Lm up As λ is less than one. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist. These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. but there may be changes along the flow direction. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL ..(9. (M<0.2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated. This is called kinematic similarly. As the wall shear is an important force. The conduits are generally circular. D IJ H µ L LK .3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types.geometric. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities ..3.(9. This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype.14. This is illustrated in problem 9.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes.3)...

4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface. such condition should be avoided.6) . (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2).3) As ∆Pm is measured.3.3. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant. ∆P / ρu2.3. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. In such cases. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. However. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. Using the similitude. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal. As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. i.3. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. Submarine. in this range. Generally the following relationship holds in this case. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype.3.3) From equality of. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study.3. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in.e. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9. 9. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature. Drag coefficient. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted. . Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. using the model.

and reducing the required velocity of the model. then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. which will mean a high Mach number. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig.6.(9. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. 10 1. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale. 9.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale.3.3. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category. Using equation 9.3. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. full scale models are also used. Hence the performance prediction will be in error. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. 9. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft..1.3.3. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . . In some cases at higher ranges..0 CD 1 0. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing. thus increasing the density. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water.

The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value. In case of design of river model. The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q.3. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9. A special situation arises in the case of ships. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines.8) um = up (9.9 and 9. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag. Power. If surface tension also influences the flow. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment.3.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype.21). (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9.11 (refer problem 9.3. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. But the use of distorted model. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used.3. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9. Considering Froude number. Chapter 9 . The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag.3. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them.3. substituting this value of velocity ratio. 9.10 simultaneously.3. the power P and the speed N.

If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations.. the power and flow rate can be measured.3. The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient.3. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. HD D N D 1 . 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9. Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow.. Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump. The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied. This will then lead to the same efficiency. The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient. When differential equations describing the system are available. combining power and flow coefficients.3. . defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3.13) . The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 .3. 9. The procedure for turbines will also be similar. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed.302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G .4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model.3. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y .11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9.(9.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines.

5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. Reynolds and Froude numbers. P* = . . τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. Substituting. as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . Mach number can be obtained by a similar method. Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. If equations for compressible flow is used. a model of scale 1/10 is used.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. . 9. x* = .v = . Euler. y* = . These are forms of Strouhal. In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used. Weber number can be identified. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added. These are the similarity parameters thus identified.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. µ L P . In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. gL/U2 will be identified.

14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1.6 × 0. dp um = = 10. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model. a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype. Density = 1. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = . Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.05/1.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes. Reynolds number analogy should be used. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. ρair = 1.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. µw = 1.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow. Problem 9. ρw = 1000 kg/m3. As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.205 kg/m3.58 × 10–6 m2/s.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3.6 m/s.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 .304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × .23 kg/m3.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14. Also the drag coefficients will be equal. µair = 18.205 1.

The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s. um dm u p d p = .1085 × 8 × 0. reynolds number similarity is to be used. Determine the flow required for model testing.521 × 10–5 = 0. for pipe flow.05 2 × 1. For model testing water at 300C is used.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed.033 mm of water column Problem 9.64/8 = 0.23kg/m3. Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water.732 m/s Problem 9.87 m/s. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3. 24.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × . The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. Reynolds number similarity is required.04 × 1.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits.1085 m/s 4 um = 3.956 × 10–6 = 2. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1. which is rather high.23 127 × 10 −6 .9726 m/s.8315 × 10–6/6. 114 × 0.23 2.7 × 10–6 kg/ms. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter.64 2 up ∴ up = 3. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL . For square section.12 × 10–3 kg/ms. As roughness etc are similar.082 × 2.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. area = a2.e.521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0.956 × 10–6 m2/s.9726 = 0.1085 m/s.114 m/s. . then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0. Density of air = 1. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0. ∴ uair = 0. i. Kinematic viscosity is 0. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0. ∆Pair = .

32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel. 1. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N. For Mach number similarity. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. This is fully immersed flow. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. Estimate the pressure required. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0.5 kg/m3.5 140. predict the drag on the prototype. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.2 kg/m3 and 1. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7.32 7.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required. Density.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale.5 1. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility.252)2 = 0. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1.2 1. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. the force ratio is high. Problem 9.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. Mp = Mm. .322 = × (0. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1.

1 × 10–6 kg/ms. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C.44 m and 7.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24.1525 × 35 = 3.24 < 0.8 m2. 26.7N and 9. This condition is above 105.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26.06 × 10 −6 0.56 × L × 0.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1. Equating Reynolds numbers.006 ×10–6 m2/s. pressure = 75 kN/m2.165 = 212 N Problem 9. Determine the drag on the prototype. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105.961 25. Chapter 9 .165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2. are 4. µ = 18. assuming length L. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. The width of the model = 2. At the given flight conditions.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered. Also determine the power required.6N. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus. drag at 25. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph.5 × 105. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2.44/16 = 0.7N.01 80. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus.1525 m. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. the drag on the model was measured as 10.195 m/s × 8 18.01 L ∴ u = 25. D. and 150C. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8. at an air speed of 35m/s.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. µ = 17.78 N.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity.1 × 10 −6 17.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0.56 × 0. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9. Re = 15.78 × 24.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force. v = 1.

e.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air. ρa = 1. ua = v = = 38.725 kN = 1725 × 27.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = .8 × 10–6 m2/s.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1.927 kW. vw = 1. determine the flow velocity required.308 Area of the model = 7. µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required. 1 242.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel.05 = 242. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. The length dimension is the same.8 × (27. Pair = Pw 38.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1. ( 27. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. This is a fully submerged flow.95 1.14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. i. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same.02/1. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14. Also determine the value of Reynolds number. = . va = 14.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.75 kW. 1.95 m/s vw a 1.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3.832 × 10–6 m2/s.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph. If the tunnel is to operate with air.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant.10 The performance of a torpedo.25 kg/m3.205 × 35 2 × 7.205 × 7.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.78 m/s) 0.85 × 1000 = 11.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47.05.5 kW Problem 9.

6 × 200 × 1. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case. Determine the speed of air for the test. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp .6 m/s in water at 20oC. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition.25. velocity around 2.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15.2 × 105.5 = −6 6 × 18. Estimate the drag on the prototype.205 77. The drag force is measured as 15 N.54 N Problem 9. Determine the flow rate required.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1.5 36.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2.2 28.6 × = 77. vair = 15.06 × 10 −6 × = 2. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2.85 m/s 100 1. This is a free surface flow.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18. Let L be the length of the prototype.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3.6 m/s.39 × 10 1. As it is fully immersed type of flow.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9. Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0. vw = 1. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel.205 kg/m3. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible. The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. u p × L × 1025 36.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15. the air being at 20o C. a model of 1/75 scale is proposed.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example. Problem 9. .39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36.6 × L × 28.

For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 .95 N/m2 of wetted area. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2.9 u1.7 u1.5 = 0. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph.84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3.95 × 2500/402 = 20.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed.7 × 1. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.7 × 1.8 × 2500 = 635. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. The ship is 135 m long. Fsm = 3.8971.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1.5 = 1. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag. um = up lm = 12/400.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2. From the Froude number similarity.41 × 106 N or 1.9 up1.9 × 121.8 × Ap = 2.04927 m3/s Problem 9.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11.38 × 103 N Problem 9.8971. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.16 = 11.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.

6 = 0.5 Fp 1 = 1. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0.056 m/s ∴ um = 18. a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.36 m. h.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation.12/0. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D . The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration.43 m/s 1000 19.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9. ρp = 1. To predict the shedding frequency. The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d. height = 0. µp = 19. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0. Consider air temperature as 40o C.12 × 10 −6 1 .128 1.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. µp = 1.5 1000 1.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6.056 × 1. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18. = H 0. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12.12 m.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below.36/0.02 1 = . ρ.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are. u. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype.128 kg/m3 . Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel.6 = 0.02 m.

u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18. a column of 0. ua = 54. under similar conditions of flow.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. ρp . The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter. Using the third π parameter.5 × 1000/3600 = 4.06 1 × × 60 = 28.028 m/s u × 0. Determine the flow rate required to test the model.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. 6. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.3 4.028 × × = 227 × 1.ρa= 1.48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2. Froude number similarity is required.48 × 10–5 m2/s. Also determine the time scale for the model.08 Hz.31 × 10 1.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined.028 × 0. Qm = um Lm.3 m diameter.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model. um = up ( gL p ) 0.23 0.31 × 10–6 m2/s.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0. dp dm ρm um 2 .61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 .5 ( gLm ) 0. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length.25 4.5 0.5 km/hr. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. vw = 1. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.3 = a −6 1. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used. Qp = upLp .19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition. up2 Problem 9. This situation is open surface flow. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p . vair = 1.25 54.25 m diameter was tested with air flow.

20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199. the speed being 1400 rpm. Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0. (At 1170 rpm). ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5.92 kg/m3.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm .21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr.5 = 0. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal.81 × 70000 × 6.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2. H/N2D2. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0. as velocity = length/time. using flow coefficient Q/ND3.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.2236 Problem 9.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.2 m.5 = 0.55 N/m2 Problem 9. The impeller diameter is 0. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition.41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2.9 m Power = mg H = 9. As D is the same.7 /(15.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1. Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6.92 1400 × 1.7 m /hr H 1170 K . The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first.3 kg/m3.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104. Determine the flow.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.

23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. Water was used for the test at 20oC.885 m . vw = 1. Neglecting the effect of surface tension. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90. Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. Also determine the ratio of power required. determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads. checks. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient. 5.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm.200 × 25 = 0.00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. Problem 9. Density = 1282 kg/m3.8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump.885/0.468.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2. Problem 8. Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 . 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 . The flow rate has to be found for various heads. ve = 2.09045 / 25.13). 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 . specific speed = 950 0. Density = 1000 kg/m3. with ρ1 = ρ2 0. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal.09045 × 25. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25. Problem 8.468 As efficiencies should be the same.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2 /253/4 = 38.267 × 10–6 m2/s.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc . Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects).45 l/s Considering head coefficient.00 = 5.16).

should be equal. 2. Dimensionless parameters provide 7. Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . to an existing system.006 × 10 K GH 2. . When the prototype is very small 6. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3. when surface tension effect is neglected.. will exist.71884)5/2 = 3. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head. Models are generally 4. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3. model is used. similarity. For geometric similarity ratio of 8. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9. µw = 1.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2. should be equal.1 Fill in the blanks.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10.7 × 10–4 kg/ms. 5.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. in size compared to prototype.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1.006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. 1. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called .267 × 10 OP N 1.873 × (1282/1000) = 4. µR = 2.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2. conditions for model testing. 9.97 Problem 9.

Reynolds. 3. Reynolds 2. 7. In flow with free surface 8. . is because of 6. Distorted 2. Reynolds 4. be maintained simultaneously. 9. Smaller 4. For flow with free surface 10. For rivers. Strouhal O Q. number similarity is used. 6. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. When wave resistance is important 9. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. Enlarged/larger 5. Froude. Froude 6. 9. 11. kinematic 10. Froude 9. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. 9. Similarity 7. Modifications 6. . In case of same fluid properties it is ously. Froude 8. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1. Reynolds and Mach 3. Froude 9. then 8. Dynamic 7. Weber 8. For studying wave drag 10. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. Mach 4. 1. number similarity is used. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag.3 Fill in the blanks. When gravity and surface tension are important. Impossible 6. harbours etc. 5. For complete similarity in general the be the same. 9. Prototype 3. number similarity is used. Reynolds 5. Froude 10.4 State correct or incorrect. vary 10. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. and prototype it is called 7. 1. O Q. 1. Pressurised 7. Mach 11. . For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. similarity is used. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. number similarity is used. similarity is used. and similarity are used. Very small flow height for model 3. 2. For flow around immersed bodies 4. 4. cannot O Q. Mach 5.2 Fill in the blanks. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. Answers 1. kinematic similarity. number similarity is used. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. Reynolds. 2. 3. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. Model 2. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. Weber. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. 4. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used.

A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm. 10. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. Assume 20oC in both cases.6. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed.2. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified.4. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. 12. 7 kN) E 9. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. If the prototype is to travel at 27. determine the static pressure at the point. 1340 N) E 9. 9.5 m/s. (1.4. 4. 6. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5.345.2 m/s) E 9.1. These should be obtained from tables of properties.78 N.5 × 106 (based on chord length).Similitude and Model Testing 5. Determine the drag on the prototype.978 N) E 9. 11. The air temperatures are equal. determine the speed in the tunnel. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N. ( (um/up) = 0. the test speed being 75 m/s. 43. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. (both 39.93 Mpa. If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1.5. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. 5. 219 N) E 9. 3. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect.21 m/s. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required. 317 7.3. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. E 9. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute. 7. 6. Chapter 9 . 8. 12 Incorrect : 1. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. 0. (6. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. 11. 10. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon. Answers Correct : 2.78 m/s in air at 15oC. Distorted models are used to study river flow. 9.

Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa. the drag on the model was measured as 2.17.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel.10. The density scale is 1.5 mm.7. (3.1 m/s. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. (8 m. (7. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales. Determine the depth of flow in the model. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. 55. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. 1. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. Determine the flow rate of the model. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm. If drag force on the model is 3. The discharge scale is 1/1000.11. If a model of 1.9.75 kW) .13. A model of 1. In this case the model size is to be 0.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test. Kin(0. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4.1 kW) E 9. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m). F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph.31m/s. (2. The model is to run at the same speed. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.46 kN. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s. 0. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency.062 m/s. density = 833 kg/m3. speeds are to be estimated. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. predict the drag force on the prototype. E 9. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. E 9. determine the air velocity required. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity.625 m2 when travelling at 22. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. The scale for the model is 1/4. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. Neglect viscous drag. The width of the spillway is 65 m. If inertial gravitational.5 N. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. E 9.45 × 10–5 m2/s. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat.14 × 10–6 m2/s. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull.16.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9.6 m. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length.8. E 9.0328 m3/s) E 9. 2500 N. Assume same temperature in all cases.15.46 kN. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity. The flow velocity is 5 m/s. 17. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. Determine the dimeter of the model. E 9. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s. (1. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required.02 N.12.14.6 m/s. determine the velocity required. E 9.25 × 105) E 9.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model.

The aeroplane is to be operated at 0. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 . 0.5 m/s was measured as 10 N. Also determine the drag force on the model. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow. E 9. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. (1/10) E 9. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow. ∂h u ∂u .1 × 10–6 kg/ms.21. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s.24 kg/m3. The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1.35 m3/s. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio. ρw = 998 kg/m3.8 atm. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity. E 9. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. u +v =– +v 2 . Determine the condition for dimensional similarity. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects. E 9. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below.20.24. Calculate the model discharges.25. Viscosity of air = 18. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g .83 kg/m3. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model. when moved at 1. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water. Determine the linear scale. E 9. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype.19. (1/5. g ∂x ∂x E 9.5 kg/ms.23. 1/3125.001 kg/ms. µw = 0. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow. Density of air = 17. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below.18.22. If the temperatures are the same. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. E 9.53 cm/s. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm.28. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25.006 × 10–6 m2/s.26.478 × 10–6 m2/s. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. µw = 1. 7.27. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N. =– . If the flow rate over the model was 1.Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9.31 × 10–7 N) E 9. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. Comment on the results.3 N. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0. Density = 4.

va = 15.44 m3/s) E 9. ρa= 1. (2. When tested at 3 m/s. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air.67. but at the same Mach number.c.8 mm w. 142. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water.75 m3/s. total pressure and power absorbed.2 N.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered.32.33. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1.2 N) E 9.30. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data.95 up1.34. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7.5 ] E 9.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15. m2 .75 kW.31. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir. 13. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.06 × 10–6 m2/s. Total pressure 63.22 um1.36.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1.9. the geometric scale being 1/5.5 l/s.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42. 1. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16. E 9. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC. measured a total resistance of 46. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1.37.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2.205 kg/m3vw = 1.2 m.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. (25:1) E 9.29. Volume delivered : 2. A model E 9. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42.5 mm of wate column.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5.2 m/s.3 N. Determine the prototype wave resistance. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained. Power absorbed : 1. 3.95 N/m2.51 m/s.35. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1.32 m3/s.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. E 9. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model. the skin resistance was 14.9 N/m2. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan.12 m. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio. (0. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1.

If the surface is at rest. Real fluids have viscosity. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. This layer was named as boundary layer. The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. then this layer comes to rest. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers. 10. The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. When these fluids flow over surfaces. The flow field now can be divided into two regions. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. This was supported by measurement of velocity. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . “no slip condition” prevails. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. Work is to be done to overcome the force. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10.

velocity.1. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field. 10. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent.1.99 times the free stream velocity. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion . This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine.1.1. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. 10. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. 10.1.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient.1. 2. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. 1. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow.

ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB.1. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow.1. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. 10. Time is not indicated in the equations. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. Also for incompressible flow density is constant. If u decreases. The density of the fluid is ρ.2. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. As flow proceeds farther. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. Flow in across face AA.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig.1. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. (ii) flow is steady. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . Under unsteady conditions.

the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference.3. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction.1. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q .3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. the second set in the above equation is zero.324 10. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation.1. 10. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10.1.

1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10.1. u = u∞.1. at y = ∞. and simplifying.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered. v is also called as momentum diffusivity. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were .4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10. (ii) at y = δ.1. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0. u = 0. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method.4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile. noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.1.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. u ∂2u dxdy .1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present.

5 L z 0 (10.1. .664 Rex–0.1. as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.0 Slope 0.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth. is obtained as 0.99 1.1.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105. 10.4.0 2.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0.0 0. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.1.99 is found to be 5. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .5 4. δ u∞ / vx = 5. at η = 0. Cfx.1.332 u/uµ 1. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0. The value of y i. u/uµ = 0.0 5.9) Defining skin friction coefficient.328 ReL–0. the value of .332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.1.8) (10.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.0 3.5 (10.5 L Rex (10. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution.e.

There is no flow through the face ad.8 Re 0.1.2.56 × 105 2. m 0.000 Cfx 2. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.1.2 m/s.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.325 mm. CfL = 3. δ = 5x Rex–0.328 ReL–0. mm 4.93 10.5 Consider 0.59 × 105 δ. Cfx = 0.68 × 10–3.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate. 10.165 kg/m3.5 ux = = 1.000 6.5.1. ρ = 1.5.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below.2 0. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s.21 × 10–3 3. 10.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. Cfx = 1.11× 10–3 1.36 × 10–3 2. m 0.5 × 105 δ. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1.2 m. 0. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s. at these locations. mm 5.68 × 10–3 1.63 × 10–6 kg/ms. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0.40 × 105 0.664 Rex–0.03 Cfx 3. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer. momentum etc.32 × 10–3 3. µ = 18. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher.33 × 10–3 2.66 × 10–3 1.67 × 10–3 CfL 6.2 0.33 × 10–3 CfL 5.5 m and 0.325 8. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction.63 × 105 1. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 . Distance.006 × 10–6 m2/s.02 7.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.99 × 105 1.5 0.1. Also determine the skin friction coefficients. 0. CfL = 1.8 Re 0.8 m from leading edge.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value. The values calculated using equation 10.2.8 m. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig.66 × 10–3 4.5 and 0.5.5 0. both local and average.5 m.7. Example 10. µ = 1.

It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up. Considering x directional momentum. d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ ..328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10.. (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ. Equating dy (10. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H.1. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero.1. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy .

The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile.64x/Rex0.1.13) Substituting in equation 10.64.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.1. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0. u = 0. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.5 (10.64 x v u∞ x = 4.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.64 ρu∞ x (10.1.1. at y = δ.5 = 0. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10. δ = 0.1.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4. This leads to .64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10. Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4. The boundary conditions are at y = 0.1.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ . N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4.1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.5 x 2 2 × 4. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP .

Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution.1. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3.1. 10. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method.1.330 Compared to 0. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces. with boundary conditions. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ .6.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity.664/Rex1/2 by exact solution. 10. u = a + by + cy2. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream. (i) u = 0 at y = 0.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞.1. The idea is illustrated in Fig.

δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i. V = volume/area.333 2.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations. Example 10.1.108 × 5 × 10–3 2.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.00 δd. ∴ V = 1. this constant will be different. In the case of example 10..8 δ.1 and 10. mm 4.8 δ.93 10. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.84 × 10–3 10.333 × 5 × 10–3/0.666 Volume flow. For other lengths values are tabulated above. m3/s 1. m/s 0.29 × 10–4 6.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width. Substituting in (10.67 × 10–3 1. m/s 1.1. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections.2 0. m 0.1. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .0 6. The average velocity.673 2.2 m2. In case other profiles are adopted. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.2 flow is 1.333 × 5 × 10–3 2.5 0.2 0. From example 10.6) for displacement thickness.02 7. Area = 1 × 0. assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0.5 0.643 3. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness.2 = 0.108 2.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x).0333 0.2.69 × 10–4 V(0–x).0211 0.0333 m/s.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.35 × 10–4 5. Using data of problems Examples 10. mm 1. mm 5.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.3. Distance.03 δd.325 8.e.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation. water flow the values are given below.343 flow rate.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.17) and integrating.06 × 10–3 0. mm 1.1. m3/s 3.

then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10. δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10.1. 10.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000).5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10. .332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate. Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution.1.1.7.1.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig. For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way.

22 = 0.382x/ReL0. (10.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow.5 × 1000 × 1.5 = 0.2 a) (10.37 mm. The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location.0269 m or 26.2) (10.5 = 5.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0. . having different distributions at different heights is available.3) (10.4.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10.2 = = 1.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.381x/ReL0.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0. δL = (0.4) Re = δL = 0.2 × 1.074Re–0. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 .2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.55 × 10–4 × 0.005 m or 0. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity.2.9/8 = 3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location. ux 1.664/Re0. Cf = 0. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.2.2.22 = 2. Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness. However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.51 N/m2 5.2 m long.382 x/Rex0.0594/Rex0.2.55 × 10–4 τ = 5.1. Chapter 10 v = 1.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26.2. The velocity at any location at any time.72 mm.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0.0594/Re0.2 m/s over a flat plate 1. Water flows at a velocity of 1.2.2 = 0.2 = 0.003488/2) × 1000 × 1. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10.

Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer.3. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. . In the case of flow over spheres. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. In the direction of flow the pressure increases. 10. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy .1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. ie. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. blunt bodies.1. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction. then separation will occur. the force is parallel to the surface.3. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. In turbulent flow. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. 10. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient. This is shown in Fig..3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids. Hence at y = 0. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. The body will experience a force in such a situation. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions. Separation will not occur in such flows. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow.3. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur.334 10. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. An example is subsonic diffuser.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body. The wall shear cannot be zero. Viscous forces exist in such flows. cylinders.. airfoils etc.

Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value. For a flat plate of length L. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface.3. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.5) (10. .2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.7) (10. FL.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. In case wave drag is encountered.2 For ReL up to 109.074 Re 0.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0.4) Chapter 10 (10.664/Rex0.2) This applies to viscous drag only.3. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re.58 − (10. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces. 10. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications.6) (10.5. it is seen that CD = f (Re).3. an obvious example being aircraft wings.074/ ReL0. the pressure force. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10.455 (log Re L ) 2.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. then CD = f (Re.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10.002 to 0.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow.328/ReL0.3.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0. M) (10. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0.004. The former may be called shear force and the other.3.3. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force.3.455/(log ReL)2. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow.3.3.3. in laminar flow CD = 1.

38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number.5 × 109 = 1.42 1. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.5.58 − 1610 0.1 below. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.5 × 109 ) 2. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1.77 MW 10.1 m2. Example 10. So it is called pressure drag.2 kg/m3. like a plate or a disk.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. Determine the speed after 50 secs.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.3. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction. The chute is of 1. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s.3.4 × 10–6 = 0.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0.05 1.17 1. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0.6.5 × 109. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1.3.4 × 10–6 m2/s.455 (log 0. shear does not contribute to drag force.2 Density of air = 1.32 and frontal area is 1. Table 10.154 × 106 × 5 = 0. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car.9 CD = 0.20 0.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.3.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1. These are applicable for Re > 103. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1.20 1.18 1.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0. 2 .77 × 106 W = 0. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object. So the equation applicable is 10.

36) = 968 m 2.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0.06811 × 50) = 13.1) + (1. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105.0433 .3. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 . (A) k= ∴ 1. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.62 m/s u = 20. (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.32 × 1. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2.2 ×π × 1.0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.06811 × t) ∴ t = 29. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range.2 [( 0..0433 × 60)/1800 = 0. 20 = 60/(1 + 0. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29. 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.82/4)] = 2.3.0433 10.36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds..4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag.06811 ×29.2.

3. The component along the flow direction is called drag. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10. The lift on airfoil is an example.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number. Kinematic viscosity = 1.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape.3.97 × 104 From graph (Fig.05/1. 10.3. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift.45 π × 0.3.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag.2) CD is read as 0.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0.45 N 2 4 10.10) .006 × 10–6 = 4. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles. reducing the pressure drag.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. Example 10.7. Determine the tension in the towline.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0.

3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. For each airfoil section such plots are available.3. known as stall. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift. golf. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. Ap = bc.0 0. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball.3. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards.3. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines. ratio. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions.02 CL CL 0.5 0.3. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . For spin along the flow direction. Chapter 10 10. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig. 10.

As CL and CD are dimensionless. u Radius. called spin ratio. R Angular velocity. namely L and T. these are not listed. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below. This can cause drift in the flight path. 10. FL CL and CD 0.8.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight. This is known as MAGNUS effect.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity.8. . Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0. Hence two π terms can be identified. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0. 10. ω Kinematic viscosity.4 CL 0. The trend is shown in Fig. uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number. Ex. v LM w D . ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L .2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . Reynolds number. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number.6 Lift force.

18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation. At y = δ. τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3.5 u∞ 3.5. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy . δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution.5 x = 0.1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10.464x/Rex0. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . du u y y =2 − = 0. and u = u∞. displacement and momentum thicknesses. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0. . the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient. This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10. Let u = a + by + cy2. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y .464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0. Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating.577/Rex0.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. determine the thickness of the boundary layer. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses.1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10.

y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part.5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0.73/Rex0.477x/Rex0. δ = 5. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex.477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10... and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer.5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5. using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ . As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5.477 as against 5 by exact solution.5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K .12). = sin .477 x/Rex0.5 Cfx = instead of 0.5 δd = 4v Re 0.644/Rex0.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy .1. τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ . du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0.

4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes. [u∞ × 0. at y = 0. τw = µ (du/dy).1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ ..5 = 0. Assuming cubic velocity profile. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ.1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4.76.655/Rex0. or δ/7.5 = 2 2 × 0. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0. (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10.1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0..8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0.1366 δ] = = u v.1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2.1366 δ. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 .3625 δ = δ/2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution.5 = x δ u∞ 4. instead of δ/3 δm = 0.8x/Rex0.

velocity = 3 4.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0. u = 0 and v = 0. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained. Consider the x directional momentum equation.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1. 1 × x for unit width.. at a distance 0.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow.1) Air flow.5 = 0. [Refer Problem 10. u resect to y. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 . Hence the second and third terms are also zero. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. Simplifying.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero. ∂3 u = 0.022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 .64 x 1 1. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 .74 × 5)/(1. ∂y Problem 10. At y = 0. . Re = 1.56 × 105)0. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero.5 x Re 0. − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate. Hence profile assume is approximate. u∞ = 5 m/s.6].e. Consider the data from example (10.5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0.5 m.

v = 15.t.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w.205 kg/m3. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ .87 Re 0. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – .6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate. y.1 N/m2.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10. Consider continuity equation. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3. Indicate at what y location this will be maximum. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ.2. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0.3) Cfx = 0.4). ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 . τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2. ρ = 1. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2. Problem 10. .0594/Rex0. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. Assume cubic velocity variation.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate.r.2.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10.

Turbulent hence the use of equation (10.382 × 2/(4.17 150 δ.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0.5 = 0. Solving.2 = 0.06 × 10–6 = 4. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.006 × 10–6 0. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C.17 m = 5 × 2.2.2 × 1 × 1.382x/Rex0. Using equation (10.1677/(5 ×105)0.0352 m or δ = 35.5 = 0. δ = 0.3) is justified.0012 m = 5 × 150. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 .8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.808 × 106. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15.2 u∞ 2 0.51 0.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.7 1.1).17/(5 ×105)0.2 1061 1.51/(5 ×105)0.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.0177 m = 5 × 0.5 = 1.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air. m 2.51 m ∴ Lw = 0.2 0.623 × 2/15.2.0594 × (15.623 (15/35.346 Equating 2.06 × 10–6 Lcv.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.1 = 1.205 u∞2.2)1/7 = 32.5 Problem 10. No Air Water Engine oil Density.623 m/s Re = 35. mm 17. 2 u∞ = 621.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.5 ∴ La = 2.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk. Rear surface : CP = – 0.2 = 0.05 m/s Problem 10. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.808 × 106)0.04 or u∞ = 35. kg/m3 1. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.

06 × 10–6 m2/s.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0.10.205 kg/m3.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10.06 × 10–6 = 0.42 = 1.5x–1/2 = 4.75 = On the otherside. P. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0. 10.5 = 0.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4.332 ρ u2/Re0.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.5 3 10–3 .332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.5 OP Q L = 9. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0.5 − 1.332 × 1. as 20°C. and assuming the length of base as 2L.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base.5 m τx = 0.5/15.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.5 × (15.205 × 21. height will be L. kinematic viscosity is 15.10.5 m.332 ρ u1. ∴ F = 4. ρ = 1.06 × 10–6)0.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1.68 × LM Lx N 0. Assume air temperature. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate.5 N 1/ 2 x 1.75 + 0.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.

11 A water ski is 1.99 × 10–3. Problem 10.2 × 2. Problem 10. kg m 1.88 N Power required considering 2 skis.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.23 × 35 × 1.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s.06 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney.6 × 10–6 = 1. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.2 × 0.2 kg/m3.893 kNm.006 × 10–6 = 11. M = FD × distance. ρ = 1. v = 17.6 × 103 Nm .40 from graph by extrapolation.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27.5 s 0.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.5.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0. As this is a uniform force.99 × 10–3 = 35.2 × 10/1. Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1. u = 600000/3600 = 16. it can be taken to act at the mid point. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1.5 m m 3 s 1.6 W Problem 10.19 from graph by extrapolation.662/2 = 5022. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph.2 × 16.5 = kgm/s2 = N. Assume density of air as 1.6 × 10–6 m2/s.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows.88 × 10 = 717. CfL = 0. v = 1. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.19 × (1/2) × 1. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.5v1/2L1.2 m long and 0.5 N Moment = 5022.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15. F = const ρ u1.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m. Re = 1.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87.782 = 359. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.2/17.78 m/s.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.35 × 1. the water temperature is 20°C.074ReL–0. P = 2 × 35. N = const Hence checks. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27.67 × 1.67 m/s Re = 16.

V being the volume.3. P. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute.16. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required.4) × 103 = 527.7364 kg/m3 and 1. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2. Assume the vessel is large.2. At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal.5 m Figure P. Substituting this value. Gravity force = ρ Vg. CD = (1/2) × 0.04/1. u = 38.1) Net force = 120 × 9.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7. . Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0.6 + 167.81 N 120 × 9.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.205 × 2 × 30 × 27. Equating and substituting the values.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.81 = 1.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value.2 × (1/2) × 1.628 × 10–5 kg/ms. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible.628 ×10–5 = 0.7 kmph.023 × 9.52 m/s or 138.4 × (1/2) × 1. the value is about 0.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10. 90 rpm 0.7364 × π × 0. 10.782 = 167.15 m 0. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0. 10.23 kg/m3. For parachute CD = 1. (Refer table 10.51 m Problem 10. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig. Density of air = 1. Problem 10.94 ×105.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38.52 × 0.

38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1.65 Nm.42 – 0.13 = 3.782 [(5 × 0. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph. ρ = 1.5 m 4 × 0.42.04/15.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.152/4) × 4.5 = 117.02 m f × 1. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0.23 kg/m3. kinematic viscosity is 15.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.4 for both cases. 10.04) + (1.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.01)] 2 = 175.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10.38 = 1.04 × π × 0. Determine the starting torque. FD = 1.38.01 m f ×1m 0.06 × 10–6 = 7.350 For circular plate CD = 1. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117.71242 = 235. At this value CD is about 1.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0.7 N .5 × 90 = = 4.205 × 27. 10.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27. If due ot fiction.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2.23 × 32 × 0.08 2 1.4 × 1. 0.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s. Consider density of air as 1. Substituting = 1. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1.30 × 0.02) + (4 × 0.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0. A = π × 0.5 × 0.04 m f ×5m Figure P.205 kg/m3.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm. Torque = Force × torque arm.18.78 × 0.

20 In championship tennis.81 = CL × × 1. (Fig. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts. For air density = 1. If the craft travels at 600 kmph. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm.3635. Air density at the flight conditions is 0. Top spin causes downward force. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.91. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane.057 × 9. V = 600000/3600 = 166.e.5 1 0.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0. flight speed.. The wing area is 160 m2.76 × 0.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s. 10. determine the lift coefficient.8936 Re = 30 × 0. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837. with a back spin ω. Neglect the compressibility effect.72 ∴ CL = 0.91 ωD = 0. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0.4216 N. page 341 CL is read as 0.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.3.064 2 × × 1. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.064 m and mass is 0. The ball diameter is 0.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight. ∴ ω = 574. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane.7 m/s 70000 × 9.7 m 2.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837.4.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10.85 × 166.057 kg. not dropping due to gravity.25 × π × 1 0.064/16 × 10–6 = 1.9808 = 52. i. Problem 10.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2.3.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin.057 × 302/0. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. Problem 10. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0. R = 0. then R = 0.064/2 × 30) = 0.057 × 302/0. gravity force = 0.81 = 0.038 2 × 9.25 ∴ Lift force = 0.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0.5592 = 91.85 kg/m3. For this situation. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number.165 × 302 = 0. 10.

66 = 0. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow.22 A cork ball 0.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more.0039 × 300. The components perpendicular to this line should balance.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V .2 kg/m3.21 is tied on the bed of a river. Problem 10.22.45 for sphere 189.56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s.88/cos 60 = 189.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope. for this spin the ball will rise. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0. CD = 0. displacement thickness is δd = 0.0039 x0. 10. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.153 × 9.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0. Density of air = 1. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc. At 30 m.45 m/s 2 4 3.5 = 0. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness. Determine the velocity of flow.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1.5 where x is the distance along the flow. Problem 10. P. Solving V = 3. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0.02136 m . ∴ FD = 94.47 × 106 and CD = 0.45 0.81 N = 109.3 = 0.45 × 0.2 Corresponding V = 5.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m. 10.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.35.98 × 106 1.88 N.

10.482 – 32] = 1. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. 2. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. 9. 10. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number.2 Fill in the blanks: 1.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. 10.02136) = 0. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. 2. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. 8. 3. 5. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 3. 4. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics. 7. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. 9. In flow over surfaces. 10. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces.6 – 2 × 0. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0.6 × 0. 5.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 4. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________.2 [3. 6. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient.6 × 3 = 0. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. .Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. 8. 7. 6.

0. Nearly constant 9. Adverse 9. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. 5. 8. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. approximate integral.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. Perpendicular 10.1 10. 10. Turbulent flow. Lift force. Cubic 10. Reynolds 5. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________.0. Angle of incidence 7. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Larger 7. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. 3. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. Answers 1. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. 10. Pressure 4. 1. 10. decreases 7. 3 Magnus effect 4. Adverse 6. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. One seventh O Q. 9. 2. 3. 5. Increases. 6. Flow O Q. 4. 10. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Favourable 5. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. 9. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. 3. 9. Drag force. dynamic force 6. Displacement thickness 2. 7. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. . 10. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. exact differential.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. 2. 4. 2. 6. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Answers 1. V being the forward velocity. 4. 5 × 105 6. Separation 8. Momentum thickness 3. Smaller 8. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. Spin ratio 8. Shortens O Q. dynamic force 5. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. 8. microscopic 2. 7. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________.

Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. 9 Decreases : 2. 6. 9. 9. 10. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. 4. 8. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 6. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. Thickness 2. 3. 2. At the separation point of boundary layer. Pressure 9. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. 9.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. 8. 355 4. 5.7 State True to False: 1. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. Zero O Q. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. 10. Turbulent boundary layer 4. Increases : 1. the velocity gradient will be _______________. 5. 8. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. 10 O Q. 7. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. Answers 1. 3. Molecular diffusion 3. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. 7. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. Wake 10. 5. 7. In laminar boundary layer. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. 7. 2. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. 5 × 105 6. 10. greater 7. Laminar sub layer 8. 3. 4. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . 8. 3. 6. the momentum transfer is by _______________. 5. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. 4. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 10. 6. Boundary layer 5.

8. E 10.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile. Turbulent flow 7. 14 O Q.0972) E 10. 8. 4. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. wing span of an airfoil. 10. 12. 12.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s. calculate the value of C. v = 15.4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10. 15. Lift coefficient 12. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0. Laminar flow 6. (δm/δd = 0. 16. 5.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s.5. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law. Drag coefficient 13.10. Displacement thickness 4.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. 3. 15. . find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness.9 mm. 14. 11. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. determine the velocity at 0. Chord. H 2 δK E 10.5 m and 0. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. Angle of incidence 14. Boundary layer thickness 2.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. δm = 0.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. E 10. Spin ratio 15.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ . Drag coefficient 8. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. 6.2. 11. 11. Pressure drag 9. Flow separation 10. 13. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. 13.205 kg/m3.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. 9. 7. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. all at 20 °C. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.356 10.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0. Momentum thickness 3. Coefficient of friction 5.2. Magnus effect. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1. Answers True : 2. 16 False : 1.8 Define 1.

At 0. Also determine the change in static pressure. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. the velocity of air is 18. At the first location. Chapter 10 E 10. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9.3 m along flow). The water is at 10 °C.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0. E 10. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law.5 mm to 12. determine the total drag. and L = 0. ∆P = 2. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water.3 m/s.9 mm of water column (gauge). (V = 1. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness.2. .12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 . (0. (0.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile. (18. Density of air = 1. (59 N/m2) E 10. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s. Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s.2.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge.15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction.19 N/m2) E 10. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0.6 kN) E 10. Determine the total force on the board. (8370 N) E 10.4 m/s. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry. Determine the total viscous force on the plate. (1.7 mm.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10.81 N) E 10. where b is the width.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute. determine the diameter of the chute. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C.9 bar. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞. Determine the drag on the section.305 m. In order to maintain the velocity constant. E 10. E 10.6 m/s. determine the velocity at the second section. (2.29 m/s) E 10. Determine the change in pressure between the sections. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. The static pressure is – 22.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction. (3.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b.2 kg/m3.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow. For u∞ = 2 m/s. (30 m) E 10. E 10.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm.76 kN) E 10. b = 1 m. The wind flows at 20 kmph.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope. the value of CD being 1.3 m. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.62 N) E 10.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind. A plate 0. E 10.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1.

1 × 10–3 m/s. If CD = 1.72.2 kHz) The density of air 1.26 A spherical ballon of 1.3 Pas. at a wind speed of 30 m/s. E 10.2 kg/m3. and weights 5 N. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. d = 0. Take properties of water at 20 °C. Estimate the terminal velocity. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute. (1.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. Density of air = 1. Determine the density of helium in the balloon. Dynamic (V = 8.63 × 10–2m/s) .µ = 0.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2.2 kg/m3) of air = 1. The kite is a square of side 6 m . Use stokes law.9.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms. E 10.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. E 10.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3. (8.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia.25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N. Density (0.2 kg/m3. CD = 0. Air density is 1. The wind speed is 4 kmph.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2. (CL = 0.149 mm) viscosity = 1.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10.8 falls in oil of relative density 0.53) E 10. E 10.27 m/s in air.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6.22 kg/m3 E 10. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal. E 10.

Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. in some instances. Out of the many parameters to be measured. 11. However. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned. Performance tsting of pumps. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. 11. 359 . Velocity is also measured directly. fans and blowers are typical cases. since any sensing device has a finite dimension.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described. teurbines.

1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.360 11. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid.2.2.2. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point.1.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids.2.2. 11. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11.1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. . The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe. 11. at point 1. h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11. ρg ρg 2g (11.1 (a). The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure.1 (b). 0 at the other end of the tube.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe.2. The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig.2. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer.2. the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11.1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11.2.

2. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11. This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow. the equation for the velocity should be modified.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. 11. Standards are available for these instruments. Hence equation 11.2.2 (a) and (b). it is not a practical arrangement.2.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats.2 (b).2. 11.2.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement.2. 11. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location. Chapter 11 .2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases.2. indicating the details of construction.2. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube.5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure. In the case of subsonic gas flow.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig. This set up (Fig.

2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity.2. . Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. radiation and conduction being negligible. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1.3 Vane anemometer 11. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity. The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it. Tw is the temperature of the wire. Constant resistance method.2. The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters.3(a). Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig.2. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity. R is the resistance of wire per unit length. The pick ups are shown in Fig. 2.2. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. Ta is the ambient temperature. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream. 11. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor. 11.2. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly.4. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers. Constant current method.362 11.2.

It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector.2. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows.2. The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams.5 Laser Doppler anemometer .2. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow.2.4 Hot wire anemometer 11. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field. 11. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry.Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow.

3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium.3.3. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. Propeller rotors are used in this meter.1 Rotameter 11. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. For a given flow rate. 11. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube. 11. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a . A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate.3. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. Through careful design.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized. The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube. 11. It is also expensive.

11. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates.3 Venturi.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11.2. ∆h.2.3 and 11.3.3. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. 11.1 and 11. C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also.3.3.1 and 11.2. . In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading. The arrangement is shown in Fig. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate.2 Turbine flowmeter 11.3. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11.2.

. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0.98.3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. The coefficient is defined by. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent.6 to 0. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge.95 to 0. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0.3.65. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0.7 to 0. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal.366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11. The value depends on the diameter ratio.

4. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES.3.Flow Measurements 11.4.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place. 11. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 . The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11.4 Elbow meter 11. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully.4.3.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. 11.3. 11. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate.4. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe.

the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity.4. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge. Typical value for Cd is 0. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows. Due to these effects. 11. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width. The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice.2. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines.62.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel. Coefficient of contraction Cc.61 to 0. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice. Cofficient of velocity (Cv).95 to 0. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice. 11. . Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0.2. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0.62. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.4. This section is called as vena contracta.

4. It is called Cipolletti weir. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.075 H z (11. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0.4.4. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners.4. Consider an elemental strip dh. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. The value of Cd will however be different. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.1) .Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11. 11.3. Discharge over a triangular notch.611 + 0.

25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium .3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11.4.4.3) Table 11.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11.4. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty. dirty liquids and some slurry Clean. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.

1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct.81 × h . Problem 11. hair = 419.86 m/s H 1. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.98 Speed of the submarine. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2. Determine the speed of the submarine. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water. compute the discharge of water through the pipe. If the mean velocity is 0. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid. Assume Cv = 0. Solving for.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83.32 m.6 kmph.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph.98 2 × 9. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11. ∆P = 419. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83.33 + 5. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.98 2 × 9. h which is head of air. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. If the density of air and water are 1.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm.56 = 88.33 m/s.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air.7 times the centre line velocity.98. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3.13 K 100 Problem 11. V = Cv 2 gh 88.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28.98 2 × 9.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.89 = 0. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe. Hence the equation used is . Flow velocity.98.821 m/s or 25.

7/60) = 0.7 m3/min.81 × 68. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.373 = 0. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.81) FG 740 IJ = 98.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm.98 2 × 9.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.00442 m2 4 = (1. Substituting .98 2 × 9.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0.85 m/s Problem 11. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.6. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K.6 × 103) (9.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0.81 × (10 / 100) = 1.2 m of air 100 1. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.73 + 9 = 107.961 = 0. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13.2 = 35. ρ= P 107.9. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68.0752 = 0.7 × 1.0177 m2.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.152 = 0.32 × 0.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct.0283 m3/s.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.98.73 × 10 3 = = 1.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0. 4 A2 = π × 0.

The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid. π × 0. 11.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.192 = 0. Solving A2 = 0.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0.0177 2 − 0.0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0.00442 2 2 × 9. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length. ∴ π × d2 = 0.6 − 1IJ H 0.15 FG 13.8 . The pipe diameter is 19 cm.0284 A2 = 2 60 0. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute.8.9 cm π Problem 11.96.Flow Measurements 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury.00442 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P.96 × 0.9 K Cd = 0.8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0.0098 = 9.81 × 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .963 Problem 11.0284 m2 4 2 × 9.0177 × 0. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.81 × 8 .96.

96 × 0.07 kN/m2 Problem 11. 4 0.04 × FG 13. When a steady head of 0.374 Refer equation 6.6 × 15 2 × 9.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh . Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch.32 = 0. Q= 0.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.0314 / 0.0314 (0.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.22 = 0.0141 2 2 2 × 9.0785 m2.12 = 0.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0.81 × 0.04 × 9.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.0141 × 0.04 × 9. Substituting.8 K = 0.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.0707 0.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.81 × 0.0314 m2 4 π × 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.0214 = Cd Cd = 0. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.1875/2 = 0.32 N/m2 or 10.39 .6.0707 − 0.0707/5 = 0. A = 1 π × 0. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0.0141 m2.81 × 0.6 − 1IJ H 0. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.6.96 2 × 9.

Q = 0. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.13 K = 0. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2.0095 / 0. A2 = × 0. Assume the density of air as 1. V = 4 × 0.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it.95 × 0.0652 = 0.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.0095 m2. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted. If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.81K Chapter 11 .81 × 0.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter.007 ∴ Cv = 0.13 K 10.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream.44 = Cv 2 × 9.13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0.95 Problem 11. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.0095 (0.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm.00332 m2 4 4 0.81 .00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9.0992/π × 0.112 = 10.112 = 0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.81 × 0.

81 × 28 1000 × 9.81 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter.149 = Cd × 0.376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.152 4 2 × 9.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.149 = 0.6 × π 0.0486 m /s 3 .12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.05OP N 1000 × 9.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0. The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall. 11.237 Simplifying 0.63 0.81 Q = 0.

7424 Cv 0.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.81 × 15 . Cc and Cd of the orifice.152 × 4 2 × 9.9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9.81 × 3 Problem 11. 11.9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice.14 .81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0. 6 = Cv 2 × 9. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .5 × 15 Figure P.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time.6774 = = 0.913 4 × 0. and y = 0. ∴ π × 0. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0. 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m. calculate the coefficient of velocity.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 .5 m vertical. Cd = 0.020 m3/s.

calculate the discharge in the channel.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0.65 × 15 .75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.53/2 = 1.00503 m2 4 4 0. As θ/2 = 45°. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0.627 Cd = = 0.3 reduces to Discharge.914 m 0.0314 (0.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.378 Coefficient of contraction. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9.5 m.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.65.799.687 0.5 m3/s in an open channel.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.75 m.913 Cv Problem 11.6 × B 2 × 9. and tan (θ/2) = 1.5 = 0. B = 0. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.626 Problem 11. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0.81 × 0.22 = 0.4. Discharge (Refer eqn 11. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.5 = × 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0.15 m. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.6.6. The head of water over V notch is 0. A2 = × 0.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11.4.6. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.81 × 0. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.6 × 3 2 × 9.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.8.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0.0134 m3/s 8 × 0.6 × 0.0314 m2.155/2 = 0.81 tan 45 × 0.082 = 0. the flow equation 11.0314 / 0.

Q= 0.15 m3/s. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0.6 × 0.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11. 11.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0.65 respectively.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0. 3.41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0.41 = 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.0485/2. Determine the head of water over the V notch. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9.63 0. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0.5 3 2 × 9.81 tan 45 × 0. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0. The width of rectangular notch is 0. Solving Cd = 0.6. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11.15 = 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P. 4.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch.59 m Problem 11.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0.6 15 2 × 9. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.20 ∴ H = 0.1 m.59 Notch 8 × 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0. 2.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0.048 m.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0.6 and 0. Discharge through the rectangular notch.65 15 2 × 9.1)3/2 = 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch. Chapter 11 .81 (0.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0.

O Q. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. . 8.92 to 0. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity.11. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. 2. Electrically heated wire. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.11. In a hot-wire anemometer. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8.2 Select the correct answer 1.85 to 0. 6.7 to 0.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. 4. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. Static pressure 3. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. 7. Stagnation pressure 4. Answers 1. When a fluid flows though an elbow. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6.1 Fill in the blanks 1. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. Velocity of flow 2.6 to 0.98. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6.7 (b) 0. Reluctance pickup coil 10.85 (c) 0. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. 10. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure. 9. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3. Define venacontracta. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank.92 (d) 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. Outerwall 8. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. 6. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. 3. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7. 5.

(0. a 4. A venturimeter with 0.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.98) E 11. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0.2 m diameter at the rate of 0. (0.18 m. (39. calculate the flow rate in the pipe. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice.7 A venturimeter with 0.1 m. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.98. calculate the air velocity.2 m3/s. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0. (0. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. c 2.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter. (0. (1. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line. Answers 1. 381 8. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil.3 m/s) . If the pressure head at the throat is zero. b 5. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity.98. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi. b 8. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9.05 m3/s) E 11.Flow Measurements 7.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11.0064 m3/s) E 11.2 m/s by a pitot tube. b 3. calculate the water velocity in the pipe.16 m diameter.29 m.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7.8 A pipe of 0.2 kg/m3. Density of flowing air 1. c 7. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10. determine the oil flow rate. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity.3 kg/m3.085 m of water.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe.17 m.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline.3 m/s) E 11. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter. (6. d 9.1 m of water.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38. a 10. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.06 m3/s. a 6. is equivalent to 6 m of water. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0.99) E 11.98 and the density of air as 1. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0. (0. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11.3 m/s) E 11.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0.

(0. 0.15 m3/s) E 11. 0.62) E 11. (0.6. (0.8 flows through a pipe of 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0. (0.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11. (0.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. (0. E 11. An orifice meter of 0. Under a head of 4 m.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0. If the pressure difference recorded is 19.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0.15 m.62) E 11. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. 0. (0.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate.082 m3/s) E 11.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it.11 An orifice meter of 0.65) rate measured by it is 0. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7. calculate the discharge in the pipe.16 m3/s.8 m. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26.4 m of water.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0.62. The head causing flow is 0.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.3 m diameter. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. If the actual flow rate is 1. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity.5 m/s. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches.082 m3/s.2 l/s.59.8 m. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head.54) E 11.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch. An orifice of 0.15 m3/s) E 11.85. calculate the coefficients of velocity. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid.25 m diameter. Calculate the discharge through the pipe. under a head of 0.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0.2 m. (0. discharge and contraction.358 m3/s) E 11.46. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0.25 m diameter.4 m. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0.59) . determine the flow rate. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0.65.1 m is fitted in the pipe line. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0.

5 1. and is proportional to the bed slope.5 2. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex.0 0. As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0.5 1.0 1.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 1. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow.1.0 2. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference.1. 12.0 1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2.5 1. Reynolds number are high. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow.5 0.0 0.5 2. As seen in chapter 8 and 9.5 2. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream. irrigation canals. Hence the flow is generally turbulent.0 1.0 1. 12.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow.

384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections.1 Flow at normal depth .2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow. 12. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface. Triangular. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500. A and the wetted perimeter P. This represents the average depth of the section. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal.1. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value. 12. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow. as mentioned earlier. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig. When the depth changes gradually.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep.2.1. This is also non accelerating flow. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically.1 by the dotted line. the hence velocity is constant. 12. it is considered as wide flat. The average velocity occurs between 0. When the width is large.8 times the depth from top. For analysis. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. volume flow rate/area.2 times the depth from top. due to area or slope changes.2. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. it is defined as gradually varying flow. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. 12. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. the average velocity is used. Rectangular and Circular sections.4 and 0. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform.1. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area.

Defining specific energy.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig. As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). on the volume.2. E.3. 12. The energy grade line. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12.2. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity. (iii) Energy equation. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g .1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface.2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12. Assuming a loss of head of hL. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2.2.3. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface. 12. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality. Ff. Substituting in equation 12. act on the control volume.3. y1 = y2 and for a length L.2.

5 = FG 8 × 9.112 m3/s 12.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below.5 (12. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m.5.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved.17 for earthen channel in rough condition. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. wetted perimeter. f = 0. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m. 12.6) C = (8g/f)0. Sb = 1/2500.1) where k is known as Bazins constant. Another method of deriving the equation is as below.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless.4.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12. As the first two correlations are more complex.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant.445 (0.6 × 1/2500)0.5 (RhSb)0. = 3 × 1 × 0.6 m. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. The value varies from 0.3. .5 = 0. As in the case of closed duct flow. Out of these. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0.038 K 0.455 V = 45.3. 0.81IJ H 0. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C.5 = 45.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0. and hL = L Sb. C = 86.5 Example 12.3. Kutters and Mannings. three are more popular namely Bazins.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0.5) (12. This correlation is independent of bed slope.4. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units. Substituting D = 4Rh. i etc are also used).704 = 2.5 (12.704 m/s.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.3.038.

2) is used for the determination of C. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.02 54.4. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0.51 1.24 : : : : : 0. Using the above values.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .303 1. k.4.303 1.4.16 0. The value of Bazins constant.66 V. Rh = 0.250 1.9/(1 + k/ 0.5 ) 23 + (0.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12.460 1.060 0.3.116 0. m/s 1.53 1.847 0.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0.502 0.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86.35 2.08 for poorly maintained earthen channels.40 26.413 Q. the value of which varies from 0.52 32.750 Chezy’s Constant 80. A = 3 m2.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S.6) is used to calculate V .06 m.46 1. m3/s 3. V = C 0. The results are also tabulated.6. Example 12.75 3. Equation (12. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate.160 0. Equation (12. No. are given below.6 ).75 12.65 72.06 0.

85 .06.015 0. Rh = 0.64 61.4) and are presented in the tabulation.015 0.84 0.64 0.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.02 51.018 0.37 V (m/s) 1.4.022 0.32 1.95 0. A = 3 m2. Note that in examples 2.65 0. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12. The results are obtained using equation (12. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12.5).74 41.3.25 71.96 3.95 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.011 0. N 0.85 2.4. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12.6).28 2.53 61.018 0.29 Q (m3/s) 3.36 1.90 50.02 41.017 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const. Sb = 1/2500 S. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.29 1. No.09 0.4.013 0. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.79 0.388 S.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.52 53.3) and (12. Example 12. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.51 2.27 Q.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope.2 and 2.79 0.88 3. m3/s 3.74 18. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated.110 0.4.84 0.11 0.3.94 0. m/s 1.23 54.37 1.3 there is good agreement between the results.011 to 0.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.02 1714 V.050 C 83.4.51 2. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.32 2. No.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.6 m.91 0.86 2.48 70.013 0.022 0.017 0. 12.

002 0.003 0.012 ± 0.002 0. riveted Cast iron Concrete.010 N Example 12.015 for the rough concrete lining used.005 0.005 0. Use Mannings equation.022 ± 0.010 0.014 ± 0.004 0.014 ± 0.003 0. No.025 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0.022 ± 0.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12. finished Concrete.030 ± 0.150 ± 0.010 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney. Table 12. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).020 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full. Perimeter = π D/2. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.002 0.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient. N S.002 0.003 0.025 ± 0.016 ± 0.040 ± 0. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels.010 ± 0.010 0.5 m Chapter 12 .003 0. smooth Steel.011 ± 0.002 0.012 ± 0.035 ± 0.012 ± 0.005 0.050 0.035 ± 0.2 and 12. painted Steel.015 ± 0. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture.005 0.025 ± 0.075 ± 0.035 ± 0.002 0.013 ± 0.015 ± 0.1. The value of Mannings constant is 0.030 ± 0.014 ± 0.050 ± 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.

assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates. Example 12. Derivations are given in example 12.55 m3/s.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.6667 5. lining etc. velocity V. various alternatives are possible. by a trial process. For a total area of 4 m2. m 5.5119 1.7.9 and solved problem Problem 12.0015) × 0. and flow rates are tabulated below.7331 5.3333 1. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value. m 1.8 and 12. hydraulic radius Rh.9552/(59. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0. is chosen.7027 V. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below.7155 5. .5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0.4371 Q. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.7636 5. Sb = 1/1934 12.7723 5. circular etc.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500.75 1:2 1 : 2.6920 Rh. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0. m 2.6695 5.4414 1.4142 1.8284 3.25 1 : 2.5 d. d:b 1 : 1.7055 0. m/s 1.7. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.7071 0. say rectangular.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen.7059 0.6569 5.5 .011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.011.4431 1. (1500l = 1.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0. 12. After a particular type of section. m 0.6458 2.42 × 0.6330 1. Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.4409 1. assuming depth and width. perimeter P.51/6 = 59.4333 1.1622 P.6.4.6999 0.5 1 : 1. width b.955 m/s.7658 5.2649 b. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5.8182 = 7. V= 1 1 1 . The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d.0000 3.4495 2. . m3/s 5.

. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d . using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section. Ex. y being the independent variables.C and Sb are specified.5 A0.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. and P is to be minimized.5) Example 12. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P. Assume uniform flow conditions. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC ..(A) A Sb P As A. From equation (3). 12. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a]. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels. 12.5 Figure Ex. Also determine the optimum side slope.8 and as A.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section. Or dP should be zero for such a condition. Refer Fig. Example 12.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12.5 i. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. Q is maximum when P is minimum.5/P0. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12.8 for variable names. Let a = cot θ.e.7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions.4.

as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2). A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a].9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.392 P= Substituting for A.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. and from equation 1.5 Figure Ex. 12.5 0.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q. and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. P should be minimized. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0. Refer Fig.5774 W2 = 1. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides. P = 2d sec θ. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0.9 Area. 12.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0.333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. P = 4y. b = 2y. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0. Ex. as a = cot 60 = 0. A Sb P . ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12.

5.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12. d Wide flat.1 Examples 12.5 = A0.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. width b.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. width.353 d 12. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular. d Circular.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0. Table 12. D depth. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°.6 to 12.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections. b depth. flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0. Mannings coefficient and bed slope. depth d q. and minimizing P2.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1. diameter. Optimum geometry.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N. .2. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed. d b = 2d L QN OP 0.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2. and Rh = A/P. b depth.

4649 m A = d × b = 3.301 m. the values are calculated as below.11 Using the results of Example 12. ∴ b = 2. N = 0.3166 1.93 3.917 LM 4 × 0.301 = 2.622(2.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1.968 (2.2)3/8 = 1. b = 2 × 1.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s.344 m.688 m A = π 2.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.04 2.011.84 m2.301/ 3 = 1.297 (2. check: 1. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas.04 2. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0. (ii) Trapezoidal.44 .10. Diameter D = 2 × 1. Mannings coefficient. Using equations in table 12.2)0.743 m.2)0.84 0.2)3/8 = 1. V= check (1.583 (2. Also A = 1.93 m2 d = 1. top width = 2 × 1.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.32 1.38 0.42 0.2.468 m A = 3.682(2.04 m2.3650 1.2)3/8 = 1.45 0.37 1.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.039 m2.743 = 3.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1.3168 1.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.5 Rh2/3 = 1. Example 12.502 + 1.682 (2.75 = 2.2)3/8 = 1. but the depth is more for the triangular section.75 = 3.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0. Next comes trapezoidal one. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.301 cot 60) 1. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12.2)3/4 = 2.75 = 3.2347 m.344/2) 3.344 = 2.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1.917 (2.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1.04 m2 d = 1.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.0(2. check: 1.32 1.2)0.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.2347/2 (d/2) = 1.

and hence the flow area also should change.502 + 1.021)/(3 + (2 × 1.021)/(0.301 2. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow. circular y = = 1. 12. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases. Area/top width.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.84 3.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section.301(1.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5.6033)2/3 = 3. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance. suddenly.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1.011)] × (1/2500) 0. Solving by trial d = 1. Substituting the values.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate.502 + 0. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d. When the terrain changes the slope has to change.2093. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 .057 m 2. Q = AV = V × 3d.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c.65) = = = 0. involves polynomials of more than degree 2. An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool.872 m.04 = 0. slope etc. N h 1 1 4= × 0. Example 12. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0.688 2 × 1.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by.6.5 × (0.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1.021)) = 0. 12. Hence iterative working is necessary. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.011. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1.

incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section.6. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change.1) . 12. Referring to Fig. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow.6.e.6. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement. In order to facilitate analysis.1.396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum.

This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity.1 0.05 4000 198.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0. The flow is called critical flow. 1000 and 4000 m. which is seen near beaches. 0.13 10 9. finally leading to the breaking of the waves.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. Case (ii) Fr = 1.6. m/s 0.5. Flow velocity/wave velocity. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow.91 100 31. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. c = depth. 100. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation.2 Froude Number . Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl .6. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity.e. In the case of open channel flow. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c.32 1000 99. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. Case (i) If Fr < 1. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths. As already indicated. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows.6. Case (iii) Fr > 1. Example 12.99 gy .2 Chapter 12 12.1.5 2. Changes occur only in the downstream flow. m velocity. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. 12. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream. the wave height is small compared to the depth. the characteristic length. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage.6. Using equation (12. l.1). z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. Disturbances cannot travel upstream.21 1 3. A standing wave may generally result. These are similar to subsonic. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1.

To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.6. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL.6. V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.6. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow. This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0. The symbol used is E.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12.6.4(a)) .2. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A.6. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow. V2 Q2 = .6.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc.6. Differentiating the equation (12. Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth.3) and equating the result to zero.

5) 2 E . Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc. Vc = gyc . Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c .5a) From the definition of velocity. ∴ Vc = c. (12.6.6.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist. This is shown in Figure 12. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate. and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.6.3). and eqn. Vc2 = g .4. c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12. 12. 3 min (12.6. These are called alternate depths and velocities. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12. .6.4a for unit width at the critical condition.6. This is shown in Figure 12. 2g (12. The third solution is negative and has no significance.6.6. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation.6. Ec = 3 y.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy.Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12.6) From the expression of wave velocity.8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q.6.

In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller.6. At q = 0.6. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E. This is represented by the line at 45°. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. When the depth is yT (AC).4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. In the rapid flow region. When the depth is equal to yR = AB. this reduces to . the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. This is shown by the line ABCD. This is in the rapid flow region. the kinetic energy is CD. Figure 12. 12.6. the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave.6. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12. and V > Vc.3) by qmax.6.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. In the rapid flow region. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. there are two possible depths of flow. the kinetic energy is given by BD.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy. y = E. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E.6. Here also very similar conditions are seen. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min. In the tranquil flow region. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2. the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4.

0874 × 0.6.0874 m/s 3.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3.7039 m. Example 12.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width. yal = 0.6643 = 1.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y.3).7961. the equation below will result in a single curve.9717 = 1.5 = 0. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y. Similarly for given values of q.516 m/s 4. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.5 × 1) = 2 m/s. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9. The flow is supercritical check V2 4. Fr = ∴ V = 4.7038 m.6. solving by trial.6643 m.81 × 0.5214. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. 2g 2 × 9. the depth being 1.6.0874 9.81 × 0.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known.7) .516 9.4575 m. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12. Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.6643 = 1. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.5 m.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12.81 × 1.5162 +y= + 0.

5 Example 12.(A) y b Volume flow. as was established earlier.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution.3.. In the case of triangle. Substituting . Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. btop = 2yc + b. the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y.15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E.. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A).6 m.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) . In this case for critical flow. Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . A/top width From section 12. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0. yc = (2/3) E. The base width is 0.e. b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − . Area of section.16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles. Hydraulic depth = yc . Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0.6. i. from section 12.6.

2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9. solving 0.6) = 0.34 m3/s Example 12. 22.6/(6 + 2 × 0.0796 m Froude number: 1.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.81 = 0.53) = 7.52 / 3 S 1/2. the flow is subcritical. the flow is supercritical.25/ 3 × 9.075/ 0.5/6 × 3 = 1.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22.07 m/s.265 (0.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3.6. q = (22. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.5 Fr = 22.0796 y2 + 0.6 + 0.6 1 9. the Manning flow equation is used.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22.81 × 0.6) × (1/0.0796.6 m determine the slope required.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.81K 1/ 3 = 0. Calculate the critical depth also.81 × 0.012.081 m (check) Case (2) 0. Critical depth is given by the equation (12.5 = (9.6 = 2.265) = 0. Fr = 7.5)2/3 Sb1/2. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.5 = (6 × 3) × 1. Solving y = 0.5/(6 × 0.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m. Rh = 6 × 0.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0. solving Sb = 1/70. For depth of 3 m and 0.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.53 m V = 22. Case (1) depth = 3 m. Take Mannings coefficient as 0.2304 To determine alternate depth.5 m3/s.6.5 m 22.265 m Vc = (gyc)0.5 = (6 × 0.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.5 × 6 × 0.012) (0.81)} + 3 = 3. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1.252/(2 × 9.58.81 = 3.5 m To determine the slope.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.6 m depth.53 × 9.2244)0.5 I = G H 9.6 m. Chapter 12 . For a depth of 0.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1. Substituting the values.5 = 1. the equation used is (12.4837 × 0.7167 = 0.

7. The height of the bump at location x is h.1) . which is 1. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1.5 IJ H 6 × 0.81 Substituting and solving by trial. alternate depth is 1.1275 + G H 6 × 1.7595 m. is considered.5 × yc.513 At the critical flow condition. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal.7. Fr = 0. E = 0. these cases can be analysed.1275 m F 22. as calculated yc = 1. 12.81 12.991 m 2 × 9. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects. V = 2.1.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate. 2 × 9. checks. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2.5 IJ E = 1.7.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0.137 m/s.7. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions.691 m.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump. Substituting for V1 and V2. 12. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations.6 K 2 × 1 = 1. b.

18 Under steady flow conditions. Refer Fig. 12. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical. Ex.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height.18 In a rectangular channel.S. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 . (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump.18.06 m exists on the bed surface. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1. is differentiated with respect to x.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression. the flow height is 0. Example 12. Solving for (dy/dx).6 m/s. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. dy/dx can be determined. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0.2) As dh/dx is specified.H. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2.06 m Figure Ex. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height. the expression on the R. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0. 12. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.7.

V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0.6 9.7.6 + 0.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic.5583 m. 12.0047 m 0. substituting for V2 .6725 m/s = 0.7 mm. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.06 = – 0.61835 m 2 × 9. change in surface level or 4. solving by trial.06 = 0. . One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region.5583 m.6 = 0.7.7. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by.5353 m. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0. decrease in level. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.3323 m.3323 m. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0.81 × 0.6 = 0. 2g y2 y2 = 0.5353 – 0.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. y0 = + y1 (12. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12. V12 + y1.7. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant.61835 – 0.81 2g specific energy at section (1).6 V12 + y1 = + 0. there can be two solutions. E1 = specific energy at section 2.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate. ∴ V2 = 0.

666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1. 1. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening.4.7. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig.4) with respect to y1 . then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max . (flow/unit width). V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0.0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12.7.6) OP Q Also Q/b = q. 12. Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.e.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term.7. 12.4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i..3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.2 Figure 12.7. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1. 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2. Steady.7.7. incompressible uniform flow is assumed.

20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m.4 = 2.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12.81 = 627. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0. Steady.29 m3/s/m.84. y23 – 2. Considering unit width.264/ 9.17/2. Solving by trial y2 = 0. Fr = 6.404 m/s Fr = 8.8 = 0. From equation 12.81 = 542 .4) × 2 × 9. y0 = 2. V1 = 23. Example 12. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m.4 = 8.404/ 9.29/4.84 q = 20. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i. But y0 will remain the same.8 m. then the condition will give y0.732.e.81 × 4. q2 = 2. In case velocity V1 = 0.42 (6 – 2.06 m3/s/m V = 25.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0. and 12.852/ 9.4 m.264.8 × 6 = 4. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9.8 = 4. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail. As y1 and V1 are specified.7485 m 2 × 9.2039 y22 + 42 = 0.81 .2039 m 2g 2g 9.7071. V = 20.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2. specific energy remains constant.82 (6 – 4.17 m3/s/m.e. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined.3.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow.3.6.8) × 2 × 9.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).81 = 406. this will be the value of y0 i. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2.7. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4.45 q = 23. Determine the depth at the downstream side. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.4 = 1. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4. the condition at section 1 will change. m/s. q = 25.81 × 2 = 0. depth velocity and flow rate downstream. y0 = 6 m.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0.8 and 0.06/4 = 6.81 × 2.

the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream. 12. Refer Fig. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel.8. The slope of the energy grade line is S. As the change is continuous. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly.8.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line. 12. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z.81 = 3. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap.796 × 1.4692 × 9. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7.8.1) Chapter 12 .2039 × (2/3) = 1.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1. flow depth changes gradually. The slope of the bed is Sb. the upstream condition at section 1 will change.1.469 = 5.7485 = 5.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth.

8.4) Substituting for S in equation (12.5).8. [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12.8.8.2.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.8.8. where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12.3).3) can be applied to this situation.4) we can show that. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.5) Using equation (12.8.2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12.8.8.8.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.8.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12. when Rh = y. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12.8. .7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope. critical slope and steep slope types. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12. The equation (12. Then on the basis relative values of y. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12. The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12.

The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream.9.9. More often. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing.9. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods.1 Hydraulic jump .Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. 12. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream. The flow upstream will remain unchanged. Considering the control volume. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth.9. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth. This is called Hydraulic jump.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section. Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. Horizontal bed condition is assumed. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. Fig.1) (12. 12.

As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions.9.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream. Bed is assumed to be horizontal.9.9. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.18 4.9.5 1. y Vs E diagram.6) Solving for (y2/y1).5 3. 12. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig.5 4.37 2. The loss is due of violent mixing.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number. Fr > 1 alone is considered.5 5.48 4 5.67 2 2. Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12.0 1.59 10 13.9.9.77 3. Fr y2/y1 1 1. Using momentum and continuity equations.1. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.5). loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12.9.4) Wall shear is neglected.88 5 6. From Equation (12.07 3 3.

655 × 0.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.7 4 39.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.81 × 0. Fr hL/E1 1. There is head increase in hydraulic jump. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways.4 8 66.1722 − 1 = 9.10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number. In flow through supersonic nozzles. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1.239 0.552 m/s Fr2 = 0. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.655 Chapter 12 .0563 = 0.33 = 0. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream.4 10 72.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure. Example 12. Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.2 2 9.0563 × 5. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12. the velocity downstream is 5.7).0563 = 7.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9.9.5436 m V2 = 0.655 – 1]3 = 16.78 4 9.33/ 9. Fr = V/ gy = 5.0563 m. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump.9. By proper design.9.1 3 25.1 5 49.9.1 6 56.5 2.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7.

The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses.1) .81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q .10.053 = 0. The phenomenon is similar.1. Fr = 7.504) × 100 = 62.332 + y1 = + 0.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0. 12.82 %.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16.504 m 2 × 9.5 yc = (2/3)E. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc. hL E1 = 0.10. As the crest is broad.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12.172. 12.9. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. Fig. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth.705 bE3/2 (12. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.0563 = 1. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve.78 × 0. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel.945/1. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1. Considering rectangular channel.5 or q = (gyc3)0.10.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall.

If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth. In that case Q = 1.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. the level downstream will rise.11. the flow rate is given by.11.99.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. and if critical conditions occur at the throat. In case the upstream flow is subcritical.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge.11. 12.5 (12. then. 12. the depth in the reduced section will decrease. similar to venturimeter. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease.95 to 0. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. it may not fall to the critical value yc.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. Chapter 12 . The details are shown in Fig. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest. If the upstream flow is subcritical.

6 m. Compared to 0.025 = 0.3 × 0.81/0.81 × 0. h = 0. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0.011 m.6) QP 2 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 . the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0. y2 = 0.705 × 1.11. this is 2. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.2 = 0.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case.11.2) Q = 1. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12. determine the rate of flow. L 2 × 9.2 m above that of the channel.6. Chezy’s constant.4 m ∴ Q = 1.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12. bed slope = 1/2500 .3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level.43 = 0.8% and hence may be neglected.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.6 m.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined.2) (12.038. Friction factor f = 0.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1.025 OP Q = 1.6 – 0.4 m.11.375 M NM 1 − (1.3 × 0.45 To determine the hydraulic depth.6 – 0. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream.375 m.2 – 0.5 = 45. The velocity upstream. V1 = 0.9 m. Q = 1. then. b2 = 0.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m.3 × 0.5607/(2 × 0.6) = 0. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0. E = the total head at construction which is 0.5 b1 = 2 m.416 Q = 1.705 b2 E3/2.5 = 0.038]0.11. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.025 m. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12.375 / 2 × 0.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0. Example 12.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0.

0 1/2000 Q 0.28 V 0. Depth and Rh are given in m.0 2.5 V 0.9 0.8 V 0.57 1.34 5.81 × 1 = 0.2 1/2500 V 0.30 0. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase.5 Rh 0.5 8.97 1/500 Q 1.2 V 0.8 0.9 Fr 0.1 1.2 0.75 0.4 V 0.1 6.3 0.98 10. but not in direct proportion.4 4.5.4 1/2500 V 0. 1. 1/1500.9 2.86 0.56 0.45 0.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12.0 1.3 0.7 0.24 1. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.24 1.5 5.32 3.9 1.3 0.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region. 2 and 2.88 1.60 0.5 2.11 1.2 0.8 .1 1/1500 Fr 0.1. Considering combination of depths of 0.7 0.7 0.33 1.3 0.40 V 0.704/ 9.24 1.1 2.6 0.38 0.7 0. Slope Depth 0.5 1. 1.2 As depth increases for a given slope.0 1.3 In problem 12.5 Rh 0.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500.75 0. Chapter 12 0.33 1.7 4.1 3. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.8 0. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.2 0. indicating velocity by.704 m/s.24 1. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.9 Q 2.94 V 1.72 7.6 0. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease. Velocity V. Problem 12. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.40 0.57 1.8 0.97 1/500 Fr 0.3 0.5 1.9 1.9 1.42 0. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500. Flow rate Q.46 0.704 × 3 = 2.0 1.88 1.3 14. Slope Depth 0.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.6 / 2500 = 0.0 1.0 2.94 V 1.2 0.6 0. 1/1000.0 5.87 4.35 0.9 0.3 0.39 1/1000 Q 1.38 0.6 0.6 6.3 0.1 1/1500 Q 1. 2.8 0.92 11.6 Note.1 1.6 7.2 0.60 0. Fr = V/ gy . Problem 12.76 1.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0. m3/s.9 1.50 0.39 1/1000 Fr 0.0 1/2000 Fr 0.88 1.76 1.5 2.8 0.86 0. m/s.88 1.11 1. Depth and Rh are given in m.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.8 0.60 7.32 0.

Assume Mannings constant as 0. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0.4721 y2/4. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 . For economical section perimeter should be minimum. called normal depth.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0.2 for which the flows are 8.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. 1.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0. Problem 12.9. The depth of flow is to be half the diameter.8. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition.05.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less.12 and 8. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 .022.9443y Rh = A/P = 2.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope. b = 4. Q = 1500l/s = 1. A = (b + 2y) y = 2.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s. N = 0. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2.5 m3/s 1.4721 y.1 and 2.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1.5 m.4721y2 0. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal. Problem 12.022.5 = 8.11. the bed slope being 1/2000. 2. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth. Assume Manning coefficient as 0.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 .4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000. 8. 8. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0.8.12.022. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0. to carry 10 m3/s. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0.

dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ).4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0.e.8884 y7/2 y = 1.9971 m.5733 R Chapter 12 . θ = 2.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3. The condition is determined.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2. Refer figure.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i. 12. Let the flow depth be y.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum.69 radian or about 154°.. and Let the angle subtended be θ. b = 0. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0. ∴ dP = 2 R. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ.

Refer problem Problem 12.626 R or 0. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.802 R or 0. In case Manning equation is used. or Solving. Substituting. V = C Rh Sb . A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ).901 D Problem 12.8988 R or 0.247 radians. or 128. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R . A/P should be maximized.813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ).5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143. P = 2Rθ. θ = 2.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section.75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. . Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2.7. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0. then the flow.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. the same result is obtained as in equation A.

5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1.247 – sin (2 × 2.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.083 m2.69 = 5. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.5 = 4.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.215 m3/s 1000 0.6086 × 1 = 4.69 – sin (2 × 2.38 = 0.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.64 Flow is in the subcritical region.81 I JK 1/3 = 0. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.0 m.247 = 4.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.494 m Rh = A/P = 2. P = 2Rθ.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.494 = 0. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12. Flow velocity.7415 m . yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.38 m Rh = A/P = 3.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ). R = 1.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2.7351/4.083/5.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12.81 × 1 = 0.69)] = 3.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0.6086 m Q = 2. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9. Q = 2.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12.247)) 2 2 = 2.083 × 60 0.

Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.8813 m Q = 5.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth.6971/ 9.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.5 m Figure P.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1.5 = 6. ∴ Supercritical region.2036 (checks). Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow.7123 m.3333 m2.5 + 0. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .745) = 2. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1.3333 × 50 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13.5 m π × 1.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m.565 m and V2 = 3.3051 × Sb .422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.0343 × 60 [0.12 . V2 2 + y2 = 1.81 × 0. 10 2 2 × 9.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1.3333/10.0343/5.5036.2039 + y23 = 1.7415 = 1.2039.2039 0.2039 y22 + 0.5) + 0. 12. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0.7123 = 0.5 + (π × 1.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1.5398 m/s. Rh = 5.5) = 5. Fr = 1. Solving.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.2039. Problem 12.0343 m2 P = 0.5 2 2 = 5.2164 = 1. A = (3 × 0.8813/2000]0.3051 m 10 = 13.

5 = 3 m.012 Q = (32/0.8813 2 / 3 6.682 FG 1 IJ = 0. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.012)22/3 (0.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.303.59 2 × 0.65 m3/s Chapter 12 . Kutters constant = 0.13 Using Bazins formula.333 C= 86. Q= 1 1 (0.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26. determine and compare the flow. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.9 1 + 1.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.012) = 89.0005 = 90.333 × = 26. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it.0005))(0. Rh = 2 m.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0. For concrete. Discharge Q = AC 86.5 + 2 + 0.333)2/3 0.0005)1/5 = 94.3333 0.00155 / 0.0163 Problem 12.385 m3/s Problem 12.0005) + (1 / 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5. Assume Bazins constant k = 1.0343 0.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.5 = 1 m2. Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0. If Manning constant for this type is 0.9 Rh Sb .303 / 0. Sb = 1/2000 = 0.00155 / 0. taking Manning constant as 0.59 1 + (23 + (0.66 m3/s. P = 16 m.025. P = 0.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0.

2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7. y = 0.5519 (0.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0.5/2 = 0.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2. Discharge.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82. C 10.7028 m.95 m3/s .424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12.4056 m Problem 12. width b = 1.8324 = 0.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0. A = 2y2.5519 × C 0.05) × (0. Manning constant N = 0.83 Problem 12.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0.5 m.7 = 7. The bed slope is 1 in 2000. assume Mannings constant. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .7 = 7. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000.7 m3/s. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0.83 m.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.552/7.18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 . N = 0. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0. Rh = A/P = 2/3.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant.5519 m2.25 / 1000 = 3.9642 m Q = 10.25 m.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.83 = 0.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.

4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0. Hence flow is supercritical.5238 m 4 9.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1.06 2 2 × 0.5 m2. 2 = 50 1. Substituting y = 1.5 = 1. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump.006 in equation (1) y= 2. b × y = 2.06 = 0. V = C Rh Sb i.06 = = 0.472 y2 = 2.006 m 2. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss.e.5238 – 0.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12.006)2 b = 0.5 – 2y2 + 4.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0.5757 m/s 0. Hence hydraulic jump is possible.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0. 2. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.81 × 0.5 = b × y + 2y2.473 m .5 Q = = 0.52.5 – 2 × (1.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 . 2.472 (2) Velocity.5.06 × 5 2 + = 0. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y).06 ∴ Fr = = 6.006 b = 2. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.472y2 = 5.81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0. y= 1.

7 = = 2.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0. Problem 12.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.22.81J K 2 2 = 1.5238 + 0.013.69 + 2.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.7 + 8 I − F 2. Determine the normal depths for each case.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0. Rh = y.013 V1 = 3.05 m head of water.6399. Sb = 1/95.86 m/s. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y.06 + 2 × 9. The Manning constant is 0.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0.6399 = 5. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow.7937 m head of water. Fr1 = 2. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420. Solving y1 = 0.81JK GH 2 × 9.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0. Problem 12.7 2 2 × 0.69 m 4 9. 0.81J G 2 × 9.75 m3/s/m.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards.082 m/s 2.9.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.75/0. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420. Normal depth is .7 × 8 2 + = 2.5727 I F 5 = G 0.339.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 . Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0.

25/ 3 × 9. (equation 12.339 2 = 1.81 × 1. .6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2.726 = 0. Solving by trial.82y = 3.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0.75/1. Fr = 1.5/(6 × 3) = 1.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500. Solving y2 = 1.0796y2 + 0. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1. hydraulic jump should occur. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m.1907 m. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.0796 m 2g 2 × 9.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1.4404 m 0.8284y + 2. V2 + y2 = 3.4404 = 0.013 427 V2 = 3.6035/ 9.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3. Specific energy = V = 22.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0. Refer section 12.4404 = 2.0796.8284 y2 = 1.23 V22 1.Flow in Open Channels 3.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth. Side slope is 1:1. Determine the optimum dimensions.9863 m Problem 12. b = 0. or y2 – 3.8284y.252 +y= + 3 = 3.9.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.0796.25 m/s.8284 y 2 = 0.81 = 0.5 y 3. Expressing V2 in terms of flow.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow.

5 m. Now using the corrected value of E . correcting for the velocity of approach.81) = 1.07/ 9. Given b = 0.03 – 0.5 = 3.1). The depth of water upstream is 0.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.5 = 0. Assume negligible velocity of approach.666/12 × 1.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.5302 = 3.4 m.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1.03 m ∴ Q = 1.705 × 6 × 1. V2 = 7.1275 = 1 22. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3. The throat is 6 m wide. The discharge is given by the equation (12.666 m3/s = 17. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22. Refer section 12.02 = 0.10. the flow will be maximum.81 × 0. H = 0. calculate the rate of flow of water.1275 Problem 12. Q = 1. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.691 m. 6 × 1.53/2 = 17. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0. As there is free fall over the weir.32 m/s. In case a standing wave forms downstream.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.5 I =G H 9.94 × 1.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12.033/2 = 3.94.81 × 1.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed.94 × 1. Vc = Fr = 3.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0.549 m Q = 0.4 × 0.981 m/s E = 1.07 m. Assume Cd = 0.705 × 6 × 1.4 m wide.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy.020 m = 0.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.32/ 9. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.705 b H3/2.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1.5 + 0.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0.5493/2 = 18.705 × 0.4 K −3 2 1 9.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1.98142/(2 × 9.5302 m. Fr = 7.

27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1.6476 – 1.705 × 1. .2 × 0.2 × 0.4 2 2 y1V1 0.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1.0411. 1.5939 m/s 1.4.705 b2 E3/2 = 1. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.2832 + 2.9.4 = 4/ 9.2 × 1.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine.9 m.797/(1. Solving for y. The Froude number is 1.5 = 1.2 × 13/2 = 2.2 × 0.8321 + 2 × 9.9) = 1.6261 = 0.1 OP Q = 1. then Q = 1.5 = 2. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12. Problem 12. Also calculate the loss of specific energy.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s. E = 1.705 × 1.5939 I F 4 = G 0.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1. Q = 1.663 m/s. y = 0. As V = 1.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1. Fr = V/ gy .81 y .2 m.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0. V2 = = = 2.81 × 0. y2 = 0.8321 × 4 = 1. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12. Assume the bed to be horizontal.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.021 m head.8321 m Substituting in equation (A).81J G 2 × 9.9 + (V2/2g). Calculate the depth of flow after the jump.2832 m.9 M N 1 − (1.046 m3/s. Specific energy E = 0.041 m. considering upstream velocity.11. Determine the flow rate. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0.

6. Explain the term hydraulic jump. State Chezy. 8. 9. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% . 3. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Derive an expression for wave celerity. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. 12. Define open channel flow. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope.95 × diameter of circular section. 12. 11. 4.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. O Q.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. 7. 10. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel. 5. the depth of flow. h = 0.

Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. Answers 1.Flow in Open Channels O Q.3 Fill in the blanks : 1. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. 8. Across the hydraulic jump. 2. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. specific energy remains constant. Subcritical 7. 13 O Q. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. 3. 8. 12. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. Kutters formula considers bed slope. 9. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. 6. 13. Decrease 5. Chapter 12 . 4. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 2. 12. Higher than one 2. Hydraulic jump 4. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). 8. 12.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 10. As roughness increases. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. Semicircular 11. 4. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. 4. 8. 6. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. 11. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. Higher 8. 5. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). Normal depth 3. Decrease 6. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. 11. 7. Increases O Q. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. 3. 12. 3. 5. Increase 10. the specific energy is minimum. the level at that point will decrease. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump. Answers Correct : 2. 11. 7. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. 5. 12 Incorrect : 1. At critical flow. the depth is called __________ 3. L / T. 7. Alternate depths 9. 10. 9. Mannings constant will decrease. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. 4.

Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle.972 m. 6. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel.83 m3/s.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s.138 m) E12. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. 2. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52. 4. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. 2. 6. (2. 7 Incorrect : 1. fine the Chezy constant. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. (h = 4. 12 O Q. 11. For a given area. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. 4. If the slope of the bed is 1:950. the kinetic head will be 0.2 A triangular open channel with 0. determine the flow rate. Vc = 3.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2. (1:2500) E12. Assume Chezy constant as 60.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s. 10. (40 liters/s) E12. (hc = 0. 3.16 m. 5. (h = 3. 4. . 12.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1.5 times the flow depth.4 m. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500.86 m. 11 Incorrect : 2.69 m/s) m2.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1. 3.5 m depth.8 × 1. (11. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. w = 4.432 9. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. determine it’s cross-section and slope. For optimum area in a rectangular channel.459 m) E12.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. 7. 9. Answers Correct 1. 5. If Chezy constant is 65.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump. The bed slope is 1:1000. 5. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity. determine the flow rate. the depth should be twice the width.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1. Answers Correct : 3.48 m3/s) E12. (1:736) E12. w = 5. E12. 12. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. 8. In the case of circular section. 7. 10.

29 m3/s. E12.7%) E12.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12.6 m.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section. (12 m) E12.715 m) E12.2 m.333 m) E12.44 m) m3/s.12 m.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s. E12. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1.5 m/s. (23.5 m3/s per m width. (7.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2.3395 m3/s. Also calculate the Froude numbers. (2. (23. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . 0.563 m/s) Chapter 12 . Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel. The height of the bump at any location is h(x).267 m. (3. flowing full if the top is closed. (5. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0. 0. determine the width at the water line. what would be the rise in water level. If the free surface well upstream is at 0. E12.5 m above the bed.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel. (hc = 0. Neglecting energy losses.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s. 3.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.7 m and 3.2 m . Determine the flow rate. 0. (0.71) E12.571 m/s) E12. 0.3 m and velocity is 0. At upstream the depth is 0.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow. (0. 0. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0.03.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel.467 m.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3. E12. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream. with water wetting the surface.14 N/m2) E12.34) E12.17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80.5 m above the weir surface.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. E12.3 m deep. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h.97. If the width of the channel is 2 m. The slope is 1/1796. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0. determine the two depths of flow possible. If the specific energy is 2.426 m) E12. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream.

0883 m3/s) E12.543 m. Determine the flow rate.09 m3/s) E12.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. Also calculate the percentage loss of head.9 m and speed is 25 m/s.2 m. (0.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.44. 3.0563 m. N = 0. E12.1 m3/s. 2.3 m3/s/m. (10. Upstream the depth is 1.33 m/s.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.022 (1.9%) .434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12. 0. Also calculate the maximum flow rate. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat.942 m) E12.18 m/s. Determine the bed slope. determine the normal depth.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface. 2.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2.3 m. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0. with normal depth of flow of 1. (0.79 m) m3/s.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream. 67. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.3 mm and the velocity was 5. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump.93/1000) E12.015.25 Water flows under a sluice gate. (6. if the flow (0.5 m and the velocity is 0. E12.2 m/s.

When applied to control volume.1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 .1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface.! 13.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force. In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow. In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes.1.1. 13. through which the fluid is flowing. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13. is discussed.

The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.1. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.1. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u.5) A 13. (13.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13. The force exerted by the fluid (13.4b) (13.4a) (13. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface. The numerical value will show the actual sign.1.1.1.1. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.6 is due to this assumption.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13.1 (a).1. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13. The negative sign in the LHS of 13.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 . v and w are the components of velocity in the x.1.6) .2) In other words.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure.4) (13.1.1.1.1.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction.1.1. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out. y and z directions.

8) Chapter 13 Example 13.01 m2. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid. P2 = 30 kPa 0.6a) 45° Figure Ex.1.1.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections. 13. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.6 m2. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.02 – 10 × 103 × 0. (13.7) (13.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13.1. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0.1. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately. the turning angle being θ.7) and (13. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.1.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid. Refer Figure 13.1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0. In this case the force on the bend is required.1 As A1/A2 = 2. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively. The inlet area is 1.2 × 1000 = 14.1.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1. Example 13.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces. .

3) 2 2 = 259. In turbomachines the blades are in motion.1 y Figure Ex. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet.1.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257.1 + (− 36. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed.8) (13. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.04° 257.1.65 N.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13. θ = tan–1 36.1 kN downwards.6 × cos 45 – 14.3 kN along x and 257.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13.3 kN.1 kN in the +ve y direction.2 13.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257. There is negligible change in the magnitude. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered.1.6 × sin 45 + 14.438 Substituting the values.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141. 13.3 x 257. The forces on the bend will be 36. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs.2 – 30 × 103 × 0.3 = 8.4 N . Rate of flow m= π × 0.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36.1. – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13. Here the direction of the velocity is changed. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.1 36.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane. E 13. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. E 13.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. determine the forces in the x and y directions. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction. determine the outlet blade angle. Assume shockless enters and exit.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s. α1 = β1 = 0°.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7. Chapter 13 . If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. E 13. 13. Also determine the energy transfer rate. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. The vane velocity is 15 m/s. Calculate the vane inlet angle.9 E 13.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13.

channels and steel pipes called penstocks. The conveying system may consist of tunnels. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits. The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets." 14. Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. 14. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. 452 . In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. where the remaining expansion takes place. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location.

it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine. The power coefficient. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. The representation is qualitative only.3. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles.1 illustrates this idea. The specific sheed. Q/ND3 (14. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low.1) 2. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow. These are again divided into radial flow. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric.3. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. P/ρ N (14. The head coefficient. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine.16).Hydraulic Turbines 14. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. gH/N2D2 (14. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates. power. “medium head” and “low head” plants. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions. the specific speed increases. Figure 14. mixed flow and axial flow machines. The flow coefficient. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. flow rate. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy.2) 3D5 3.). Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. .3. 14. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”. for solving this problem.3. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably.3) 4. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. These are 1. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. head available etc. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. In spite of sophisticated design methodology. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. (speed. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel.

1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed.90 Axial flow turbines 0.3.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed. For the same flow rate.86 0. Figure 14.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.94 Efficiency.3.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed.3. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase. . there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14. h Francis turbines 0. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14.454 0.

5 .5 s 2. . .015—0.5 .Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14.1. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant. Then only the value becomes dimensionless. Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate. (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. Lower the speed chosen. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless.053 0. As the flow rate increases.1. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. .1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds. 1/ 2 . This is also shown in Table 14. Head is estimated from the topography. 1/ 2 . larger will be the size of the machine for the same power.1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. In the non dimensional form.1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow.663—1. 2. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. 1/ 2 .819 0.122—0.072 0. The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 .3. Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data.122 0.72—0.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure.5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps. P in W and H in m. 5 / 4 . 1/ 2 2.5 . Table 14. speed should be in rps and power should be in W. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. s 2.047—0.

the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. ρ → kg/m3. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine.456 g1. Example 14. Non dimensional specific speed.0163.24 as in the tabulation.015 × 549 = 8. The power potential was 50. Even with same actual installation data.000000)1/ 2 × = 0.000 kW. At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m.1. 1/ 2 60 × 9. Determine the specific speed.H→m ∴ Ns = 417.2. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine.92. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14. g → m s2 . As the head drops further for the same power.5 40. these conditions are generally not satisfied. × 60 9005 / 4 . Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable. 417. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). But in the solved problems and examples. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design.1. When the flow increases. Ns = Agrees with the former value. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. Significance of specific speed.1. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen. Power estimated 40000 kW. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. Speed required : 417. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable. When the head is large. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. the flow rate has to be higher. Keeping the power constant. P → W or Nm/s.0000001/2 = 8.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed.5 (40. Head available : 900 m. Example 14.5 rpm. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine.

Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity. . The speed chosen is 600 rpm. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model.000.3. Head available = 200 m. acceleration. g → 457 m m3 .09. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype. Example 14. Ns = 600 (40. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9.4.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal.g→ 2. Ns = 600 40. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine.000000 60 × (200 × 9. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. In the laboratory head available was 20 m.3. In such case. The power estimated is 40. P → W. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. the head available was 50 m.81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable. leads to dynamic similarity. Dimensional Ns = 600 40.000 kW. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. = 0.153.000 kW. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit.000. A model study was proposed.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. At a location. Example 14. 60 501.000 600 . It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model. forces etc. power available = 40. N → rps. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. it can be shown that specific speeds.000000)1/ 2 × = 84. Dimensionless Ns = 40. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant.25 14.0001/ 2 × = 475. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity.H→m kg s = 0. The speed chosen was 500 rpm.

In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40. Choosing head coefficient.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40. head.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression.4. These are 200 m.0747. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984.000. In example 14.6 rpm .7 1 × 3 = 0. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948.5 = 948. A one sixth scale model is proposed.5. Determine the speed and head required for the model.000 2005 / 4 = 70. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm . 70.4 as 70. the data in the proposed plant is given. 113 Example 14.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem.062 kW and run at 948. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations.7 rpm.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35.

6 990.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.4.6 rpm.00926 = m .G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22.2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.3.8 m.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70.0747 Solving Hm = 21. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109. Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed. Test head required is 21.8 m and test speed is 990. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.0747 = 1000 P . In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem.6. 108 14. As the linear dimension will be the same. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient . 60 × 22.6 40. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow.9 Example 14.0747 = 459 40. 990. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0.000 990.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype. 70. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation.

93541 or N2 = 500 × 0.93541 = 467. This constant is called unit speed.45 MW 14. Example 14. This constant is called unit power. both levels to be observed at the same time.5 Q2 = 5 × 0. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained.66 MW. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities.93531 = 4.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17. A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17. It can be measured . 1.7.5 0.5 = 0. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head. ∴ 3. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2. or FG IJ H K 0. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant. The constant is called unit discharge.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race). The head available changed to 350 m. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.

The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings.4. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner.4.3) 4. windage losses and other frictional losses. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. 2. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. axial and radial directions of the rotor. .4.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components.4. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings.5) 14. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit.4. The following efficiencies are generally used. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2]. 1. This reflects the runner design effectiveness.1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. 3. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings.

As the tangential velocity varies with the radius.5.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14. centrifugal and acceleration effects. tangential force and the tangential velocity.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14.1.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.5. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose. shown in figure 14.1 Velocity triangles . The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow.5. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner.5. These are the dynamic.5.5.5. the work done also will be vary with the radius.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects. 14.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque.5. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner. It is not easy to sum up this work. the – sign will become + ve sign.

From inlet velocity triangle. The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines.Hydraulic Turbines V1. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 . u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. all the terms will be present. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet. u1.5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. Vr1. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. the last two terms only will be present. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. In pure reaction turbines. (Francis turbines is of this type). Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. Vu1. In impulse reaction turbines.5.

2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket. made of cast or forged steel. These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L.1.464 14.6. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants.A. fixed on suitable shaft. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter.6. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. The number of buckets. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14.6. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. . Z. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel.

6. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly. Even when the flow is cut off. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2. The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter.6.3. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation. Chapter 14 . A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load.5 – 2. When load drops suddenly. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow.6.8 – 4 L/d 2. The deflector will than move to the initial position. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system.8 T/d 0.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards.95 Notch width 1.

Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1.6.2) (14. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required.3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14.6. Power used in the region. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second.4) .6.6. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.6. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive. 14.6. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14.466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1.6. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry.1) (14.4.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator. In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner.

dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0.4 can be modified by using the following relations.6) in (14.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14. Equation 14.46 V1 Substituting equation (14.5 V1 (14. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β. For various values of u. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different.6.6. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.6. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0.3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1.6.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ.52] .6.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1.6.6. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ.6.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH . In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14.5 – 0.6.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.

u = 57.4) × 67. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg.2 cos 15 – 76. u = 76. The head available at a plant location is 500 m.6.2) = 7. u = 48.3 W = (96 – 58. 2 × 9.8 cos 15 – 67.3 Nm/kg/s 7. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.8 W = (96 + 7.11) × 28.8.6 = 4348.98) × 19.4 W = (96 – 39.2 Vw2 = (19. φ = 0.45.2) = 54.3.8 Nm/kg/s 2.4) = 17.5) × 57.8 × cos 15 – 19.6 cos 15 – 38.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.3) × 76. Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.6) = – 20. φ = 0.8. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57. u = 28.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0. u = 38.4 Vw2 = (38. φ = 0. u = 19. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52. φ = 0.8.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6. φ = 0.4 cos 15 – 57. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.5.2 = 2898.97 1.24) × 38.5 W = (96 – 20. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1. φ = 0.4 = 4348.2 × cos 15 – 28. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0.8 Nm/kg/s .2.7.8 = 2898. φ = 0.2. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%.8.6.2 = 3804.8) = – 58.2.4. Vr1 = 67.6 m/s Vw2 = (57.8 Nm/kg/s 3.8 Vw2 = (52. Vr2 = Vr1.98 W = (96 + 54.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent. Example 14.24 W = (96 + 17.2) = – 39.8) × 43.8 Nm/kg/s 8.4.8 cos 15 – 43.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76. u = 67.3 Nm/kg/s 4.8 Vw2 = (28. Vj = 0.8) = 36.2.8 = 3804.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5.64 W = (96 – 1.97. Vr1 = 76. u = 43.

6.2 0.5.45 is given by Fig.6.Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.1 0.9 Figure 14.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.6.4 by Fig 14. 14.6.7 0. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.5 f 0.3 0.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10.6.

8.3 0.9 1. N. It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0.8.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings. . In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency. The power can be calculated from the torque curves.4 and 0. It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size.6.4 0.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short.1 8. It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14. The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses.7 0. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line.0 Figure 14. the actual power curve is not a parabola.7.5 0. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality.6. or u = V1. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14. op en 48 8.6.6. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° .8 0.6.b 2= ns 18 0° .2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed.5.9). The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14. 14.2 0.7 and 0. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue .

This is shown in figure 17. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much.1 0. φ H 1/ 2 d .5 0. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio.8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0.0 0.7 0.9 1. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum. For single nozzle unit.8 0.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0.4 0. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 . Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.3 Figure 14. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter.6.10.6 Values of f 0.6.

46 fe 14 D 0.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.50 0.6. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0. 1. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed. .48 0.6.45 12 10 8 6 0.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency.44 0. ns = Figure 14.43 0.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine.49 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.

5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.7.1. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2. As there is no such limitation. an American engineer in 1849. Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. Francis.7. In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure. Chapter 14 .1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine.46. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time. 14. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today.Hydraulic Turbines 2.7. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14.

In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant. 14.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure.1. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle.2. whose movement is controlled by the governor.3. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner.7. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases.7. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades.1.474 14. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners. .7.1.2.7.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14.7.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14.7. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring.

Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14. fe = 0.7.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° . B D ns = 81 fe = 0. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.7.70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases.8 Dd (b) Figure 14.

14.4.6.7.7. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly.1 (as also in figure 14.7. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14.1.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet. The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid.7.5 Draft tube Figure 14.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape.7. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7. Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14. The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet.6 Various shapes of draft tubes .1.7. In the case of reaction turbines. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant.5).

Bell mouthed type gives better recovery. The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2.1. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also. H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands.7.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation. 14. . This is discussed in a later section.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known.7. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss.7.7.

As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 .e. D1 . Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i. volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0.478 From Euler equation. ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised.

7. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 . There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load.7. At part loads the efficiency is relatively low. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14.8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine.8.

3 1. There are many locations where large flows are available at low head.4 1. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines.6 0. The flow rate is changed without any change in head.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14.7.1. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail. so Efficiency. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value. This trend when continued.8 0.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine.1 1.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14. In the discussions on Francis turbines. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.0 1.4 0. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.9 1. m /s Torque. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.1 0. % Power (kW) 3 . These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900.2 1.8.2 0.3 0. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine. the runner becomes purely axial flow type.8 0. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction.5 0.2 1. Value of φ 0.m 0.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0.7.9. KN.4 0. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed. the simpler propeller turbines are installed.6 0.

Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock.8.5 to 2. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed. The flow ratio lies in the range 0. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14.35 to 0.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m. many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing . As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius. As the head is low.8. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines.4.2.75. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14.8. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14.

The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14. The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse.3. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case. In order to avoid cavitation. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency.8. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load. The flow velocity remains constant with radius. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also.8.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius.

8. Chapter 14 . In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump.9.3 [Ns /444.6)1. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.3. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race.55 (Ns/444.5. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency. It critical cavitation factor is 0.6) 2 (14.78 K σc = 0.4) (14. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe.5 2 (14.6 m. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.3 × 20 = 2.17 m.17 – 0. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0.82 H 380. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14. The turbine outlet can be set at 2.308 + G J 6.6 – 0.43 m above the tailrace level.8. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8.8. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge.8 σc = 0.8. is used.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m.006 + 0.8. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.1 to 0.8.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski.6]2.8. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0.4 to 1.625 s s c (14. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level.7) Example 14.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level.43 m.1 + 0. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed. σ.

Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements.484 14. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value.9. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small. At the same time it should not hunt. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value.9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly.

The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes.2. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same. This part of the system is shown in figure 14.9. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element.1. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side. In the case of reaction turbines. (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required. When the turbine speeds up. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. As sudden cut off is not desirable. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14.9.9. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position.

The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2. Neglect friction.22 ω) 0.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s. Problem 14. The flow rate is 1ls on each side. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0.22 = (10 + 0. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0.22 ω).1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0.81 – Vp2 = 1.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0.12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765.22.8 – – 0.05 Vs2/ 2g. Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary.02 .2 2g 2g 600 × 0.12 Solving ω = 15.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0.12) = 1 Nm. the resultant torque is zero. Vj2 Dj4 = 1.02 90 × 2 × 9.12 ω) 0.2 . Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0.923 radions/second ω= 2π N . The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0. ∴ (10 – 0.05 Vj2 0.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P.22 – 10 × 0.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m. 14.05 Vj2 0. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0.

10 Vj.90 26. Ns = 15.08 0.07 46.26.85 × 60 = 3. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s. A jet of 20 cm is used.85 m/s 21. Power = 15 × 103 × 9. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9.97 and efficiency is 88%. Which is for a narrow rotor.64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50.06 0.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765. Select turbines.39 19. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj .7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions.04 0. Problem 14. Power = η m gH = η .81 × 115 = 21.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m.60 150.19 27. Determine the specific speed of the machine.85 132.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner.25 = 30. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43.40 kg/s 95. the head will suggest two Francis turbines. the working speed of the turbine is required. m 0.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. A single nozzle unit can be selected. Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation. Assume Cv = 0. In order to calculate the specific speed.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1. m/s 40. If φ = 0. which may not be suitable. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60.18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51. At first sight. Problem 14. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant.05 kW .06 m or 60 mm.92 33.46 u = 0.

5 = 0. D = 9.D= = = 1. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0.55 m/s D= 36. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.2 2 × 1000 × 0.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW.72. then F 5.97 2 × 9.46 Vj u = 0.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0.46 × 0.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79.9 kW = 14.5 F 5.97 ∴ Power = 0.46.296 m D 1.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0.81 × 550 = 46.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.98.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517.1482 m.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.46 × 79.45 K 0.5 =0.98 2 × 9.35 .81 × 335 = 79.4 = = 4.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0. the head available (net) was 335 m. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5.81 × 550 × 9.5 d .484 m3/s 0.97 2 × 9. d 0.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet. Assume Cv = 0.484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.296 Assume 4 jets.86 × 1000 × 9.97 2 × 9. not suitable should be at least 10.488 Vj = 0.9.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11. φ = 0.45 = 36.45 K 0. u = 0.81 × 550 .55 × 60 = 1.

16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79.81 × 335) = 0.97 2 × 9. 14.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.46.9.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.45 15° ur = 36.74 Vu2 40.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.81 × 425 = 88.8 15° 43 Figure P.8 m/s Vr1 = 88.8 Vr1 = 47. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh.46 × 88.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36. 14. Problem 14. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.55(79. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.6 m/s u = 0. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.6.45 + 1.97 and φ = 0.6 – 40.6 = 40.9 36.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.6 = Vu1 u = 40. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11.45.9 × Vr1 = 39.8 m/s Vr2 = 0.55 Vr1 = 43.8 0.16 – 36.9 × 47. 38. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.9 (9.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .55 = 1.51 Figure P.8 = 47. Vu2 = 38.61) = 2962. Assume Cv = 0.

490 Vu1 = 88. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.9 m3/s. 14.8743 or 87. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.5 × 10 3 = 0.8 (88.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.5 = 0.6 K 0.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.83) = 1.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.83 12.86% 300 × 88.43% 300 × 9. The blade friction coefficient is 0. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.661 × 106 W Figure P.74)/1000 = 1093.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure.8 = 0.082 = = 16.9286 = 92.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.79 .9.3 IJ H π × 88. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.6 2 u × 60 40.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.06565 m D 1.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.8 × 60 = = 1.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s.83 – 25 = 8.082 m π × 720 πN 0.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.6 + 0.5 d 0.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.81 × 425 1093.

000 kW.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.81 × 480 Vj = 0.87 20. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14. π × 500 d = 0.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.13 = 2. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.13 K = 0.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1.56225 m3/s .Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3.000 = 0.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3. determine the number of jets required.85 × 1000 × 9. Cv = 0.8. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable.97.3 × 60 = 1. In order to determine the jet diameter.01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3.65 m. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets.13 m/s u = 0.000. It is assumed as 0. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination.13 = 43.3 m/s D= ∴ 43.35 = 103.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14. The power available is estimated at 20.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter.000.87 × Q × 1000 × 9. φ = 0.9. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%.75.165 2 × 94. 0. Ns = 750 60 20. The head available at a location was 1500 m. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm. If D/d = 10.75 m3/s 0.46 × 94. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.97 2 × 9. flow rate is to be calculated. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5.81 × 480 = 94.37 .

= 5 × 14.97 V = 0. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0. the value of Cv is required.98 m.285 / 4 .28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0. It is assumed as 0. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss.667 .4 × 0.87 × 20 × 1000 × 9.1093 2d 24 numbers.4. The number of buckets = Z .183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m.8 = 18.56225 = π d2 × 166.97 2 × 9. Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%. The specific speed is to be determined first. d = 0. ∴ u = 166.81 × 2 = 14.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1.72 = 531.46 m/s π DN = u.1832 / 2 × 9. D = 2 m. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D.029 × 2000 × 3.81 × 531. 60 531. = 8. 60 ∴ 166. The value of φ is assumed as 0.81 × 1500 = 166. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.4 m/s ∴ 1.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.10.28 = 90.029. Net head = Head available – loss in head. Solving.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s. the head is estimated as 550 m.46.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity. the blade velocity is to be calculated. f = 0.9 + 15 Problem 14.95 m π × 750 1.4 × 0.

3.05 × 60 π DN = 0.95 × 0.16 m/s Chapter 14 . Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6. 0.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine.95 = 6 too low.46 × 76.28 5 / 4 = 10.46.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0. d = 0. d = 0. The speed ratio is 0.05. d = G H π × 100.05 K = 0.11.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0. the speed and specific speed of the runner. Suitable In this case Ns = 90. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively.5 m (farily high) 0.81 × 531.98 2 × 9. then. Jet ratio is 12.46 × 100. low side.43 = 35.0372 m3/s 0.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit. 60 531.77.86 × 1000 × 9. Dimensionless value = 0.98.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0. Problem 14.98 × 2 × 9.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8. Determine the jet and runner diameters.5 0. Alternate will be three single jet units.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case. The effective head is 310 m. It drives a 15 MW generator.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10. Discussion of other consideration follow.28 = 100. If three jets are suggested. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.81 × 310 = 76.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 .018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested.46 × 100. ∴ D = = 2.

12.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q.48.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35.25 / 549 H1.73 d2 H1.5 m/s.4 m.764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14. the . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6. = 8. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance. Cv = 0. ηo = 90%. The flow velocity at inlet is 9. u = 0.43 LM N OP Q 0.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1.73 d2H1.5 = 0.2096 d .98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.25 D = 115. d π DN = u.61 15 × 10 .9 × 1000 × 9.25 = 0.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.25 H1.5 N= ∴ ∴ u . 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0.71 rpm πD 6 176.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.98 2 g H1/2 = 2.2096 D D Problem 14. the dimensionless specific speed is 0.13. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1.48 × 0. The power developed is 12.8 = 176.068 d dH 1. Total head is 115 m. where N is rps.98 D Ns = N P .25 MW. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane. φ = 0.48 Vj = 0.3171 = 3. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0.16 × 60 / π × 3. d = 4 π × 76. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0. Show that for the following constants.81 × 3. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0.

392]0. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given.5 = 8.5 / (32. = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31. The runner speed As Power developed 12.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm. = 223.12 60 115 1.5 m/s Vu2 = 0.14. 14.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2.52 Vu1 = 32. Also fluid the specific speed. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9. Assume zero whirl at exit.81 × 260 ηo = 0. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.52 + 32. Problem 14.39 m/s u1 = 31.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.5 = 33.13 9. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32.39 ∴ α1 = 16.5 = [9. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P.07 m 9.4 = = 31.39 × 3152 . The flow rate is 7 m3/s .52) ∴ β1 = 84.29% Chapter 14 .5 32.5 m 2 × 9.43 m Ns = 12.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0.9029 or 90.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.39 – 31.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit.25 × 10 6 430 .51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9. = 104.77° Total head = 115 m.75 m/s 32.07 – 2. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.

25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.9468 × 9.97 = 0. The whirl is zero at exit.81 × 260 / 847. Determine the runner speed.9 × 9.9 / 0. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.97. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0.12) β1 = 68. ηm = 0.81) / 260 = 0.81 × 25 = 232.08° tan β1 = 11/(51.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0. Assume ηv = 0.135 .14 Problem 14.46 Figure P.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.98 × 0. 14.5 × 600 = 47. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.12 = 51. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m. Vf1 = 94. whirl velocity at inlet.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0.81 × 25 = 11.9498 × 9.9. = 38.4 u1 = 47. The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51.98% π × 1. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.98. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.15.2 m . The overall efficiency is 0.4 – 47.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1.

Assume ηH = 90%.2 m and 0.1 × 0.1 × 282.385 u1 – 232.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.37 m/s.16 m.58.76°.59 16.38 = 7.37 × 60 / π × 1.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7.16. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.63° Vf 2 = 11.27 m.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.1 × 2 × 0. 14.55/π × 1.31 = 282.58/π × 1.25 Problem 14. The flow velocity at inlet is 8. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.15 π DN .385 / 11. power.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19.2 u1 – 7. 14. The outlet blade angle is 16°.31 × 0. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero.37 Vu 1 = 11.16 / 1.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1.73 = 4. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle. Vu1 = 11.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.99 a1 Vf1 7.2 × N = u2. β2 = 164. The inner diameter and width are 1. = 27.4 = = 16.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7. 60 × 25 1. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.16 Chapter 14 .9 ∴ α1 = 31.4 2555000 = 134.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.385 u1 (u1 – 7.26 m/s 60 60 4. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m.385) = 232. Determine.1 m/s.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282.9.2 × 0.

Solving.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.143 m3/s Power = 0.8 Figure P.6 = 24.9 × 120 × 9.81 × 8.2.8 α1 = 19.44 – 4. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0.81 × 120 . Vu1 = = 22. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.84 m/s u1 φ = V .04 = u1 (u1 – 4.2 2 × 9. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7.72 Problem.8 m/s gH 46.1 = 8.44 m/s Vu1 = 29.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8.67 × 103 = 731.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4.1 46.1 22.4 = = 46.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm.9732)1/2 = 26. ∴ Vf1 = 0.6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731.5 − 22.92 × 81 × 9.16 × 8.6 u1 – 731. 14. V1 = (24. The available head is 81 m. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.09 m/s 1 .143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54.81 × 81 = 7.9 × 9. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.14. u1 = 29.973 = u1 – 4.2 = Vf 1 2g H .81 × 1. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.8 × 103/1. Determine runner diameter.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1. The flow ratio is 0.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.04 = 0.842 + 7.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .

5° (23.79 15.14 and D2 = 0.25 Figure P.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P.5 D1 and b1 = 0. Vu is required 1 0.5°) To solve inlet angles. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1.17 = 31.1193 m.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0.14 2 g H = 0. D2 = 0.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0.615 β2 = 156.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29. Assume flow ratio as 0. b2 = 0. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%. Vf1 = 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.14 2 × 9.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.79 Solving D1 = 1. b1 = 0.81 × 120 = 6.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .44 = 1. 14. 60 811.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29.193 × 500 = = 31.1 D1 × 6.44 60 ∴ D = 1.1 D1.193 m.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 .53 Problem 14.128 26.5965 m.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9.81 × 120 × 0. 14.

.23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1.1372 × 9.81 0. Assume no losses other than at exit.342 V1 = 1.9482 or 94.767 = 0.61 m/s Vu1 = 0.342 1.82% 9.3420 V1 is avaivable. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0. Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°.20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent.9397 × 9.1093 + 0.79 33.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.93 m/s 31. 14.61 × 8.18 = 9.6 OD and width as 0. Determine the runner diameter.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .1372 × 0. ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0.81 × 10 Problem 14.33 m/s u = 1.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0.10 D. Assume ID = 0.10893 V12 + 0.81 × 120 = 33.767 m/s ηH = 10.79 33.5 Figure P.1372 V1 1732 . Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity.93 − 31.23 ∴ β1 = 68. and blade angles. the method adoped is as below.9397 V1 + 0. The blade inlet angle is 120°. when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.81 9. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9.32° tan β2 = 6.00596 Q 0. The velocity diagram is as shown in figure.9 × 9. The flow ratio is 0.33 = 10.3° Problem 14.9397 .19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m.33 = 8.93 ∴ α1 = 11. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.

78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.3° (as in figure) or 164.1 × 8.81 × 100 2g H Chapter 14 Q = π D b Vf (1 – 0.91 = 9.86 30.81 × 100 = 8. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.85 × 9.13 Outlet angle β2 = 16.86 m/s 19.13 m/s 60 60 50.78 a1 8.21 17.274 m ID = 1.5° tan α1 = tan β1 = ∴ 8.78 β1 = 15.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17.2 2 × 9.20 8.86 50.1 D × 8.1881 = π D × 0.7° (along + ve u) 8.6° (with + ve u direction) tan β2 = . u2 = 30.08).78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26.Hydraulic Turbines Overall efficie