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Geometric Design
CEE 320
Steve Muench
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Outline
1. Concepts
2. Vertical Alignment
a. Fundamentals
b. Crest Vertical Curves
c. Sag Vertical Curves
d. Examples
3. Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals
b. Superelevation
4. Other NonTestable Stuff
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Concepts
•
Alignment is a 3D problem broken
down into two 2D problems
–
Horizontal Alignment (plan view)
–
Vertical Alignment (profile view)
•
Stationing
–
Along horizontal alignment
–
12+00 = 1,200 ft.
Piilani Highway on Maui
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Stationing
Horizontal Alignment
Vertical Alignment
From Perteet Engineering
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Vertical Alignment
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Vertical Alignment
•
Objective:
–
Determine elevation to ensure
•
Proper drainage
•
Acceptable level of safety
•
Primary challenge
–
Transition between two grades
–
Vertical curves
G
1
G
2
G
1
G
2
Crest Vertical Curve
Sag Vertical Curve
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Vertical Curve Fundamentals
•
Parabolic function
–
Constant rate of change of slope
–
Implies equal curve tangents
•
y is the roadway elevation x stations
(or feet) from the beginning of the curve
c bx ax y + + ·
2
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Vertical Curve Fundamentals
G
1
G
2
PVI
PVT
PVC
L
L/2
δ
c bx ax y + + ·
2
x
Choose Either:
• G
1
, G
2
in decimal form, L in feet
• G
1
, G
2
in percent, L in stations
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Relationships
Choose Either:
• G
1
, G
2
in decimal form, L in feet
• G
1
, G
2
in percent, L in stations
G
1
G
2
PVI
PVT
PVC
L
L/2
δ
x
1
and 0 : PVC At the G b
dx
dY
x · · ·
c Y x · · and 0 : PVC At the
L
G G
a
L
G G
a
dx
Y d
2
2 : Anywhere
1 2 1 2
2
2
−
· ⇒
−
· ·
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Example
A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of
100+00 at 59 ft. elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the
final grade is 4.5 percent. Determine the elevation and stationing of
PVI, PVT, and the high point of the curve.
G1
=
2
.
0
%
G
2
=

4
.
5
%
PVI
PVT
PVC: STA 100+00
EL 59 ft.
G1
=
2
.
0
%
G
2
=

4
.
5
%
PVI
PVT
PVC: STA 100+00
EL 59 ft.
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Other Properties
G
1
G
2
PVI
PVT
PVC
x
Y
m
Y
f
Y
2
200
x
L
A
Y ·
800
AL
Y
m
·
200
AL
Y
f
·
2 1
G G A − ·
•G
1
, G
2
in percent
•L in feet
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Other Properties
•
KValue (defines vertical curvature)
–
The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1%
change in slope
A
L
K ·
1
. / G K x pt low high · ⇒
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Crest Vertical Curves
G
1
G
2
PVI
PVT
PVC
h
2
h
1
L
SSD
( )
( )
2
2 1
2
2 2 100 h h
SSD A
L
+
·
( )
( )
A
h h
SSD L
2
2 1
200
2
+
− ·
For SSD < L For SSD > L
Line of Sight
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Crest Vertical Curves
•
Assumptions for design
– h
1
= driver’s eye height = 3.5 ft.
– h
2
= tail light height = 2.0 ft.
•
Simplified Equations
( )
2158
2
SSD A
L · ( )
A
SSD L
2158
2 − ·
For SSD < L For SSD > L
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Crest Vertical Curves
•
Assuming L > SSD…
2158
2
SSD
K ·
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Design Controls for Crest Vertical
Curves
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
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Design Controls for Crest Vertical
Curves
f
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A
A
S
H
T
O
’
s
A
P
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o
n
G
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2
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1
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Sag Vertical Curves
G
1
G
2
PVI
PVT
PVC
h
2
=0
h
1
L
Light Beam Distance (SSD)
( )
( ) β tan 200
1
2
S h
SSD A
L
+
·
( )
( ) ( )
A
SSD h
SSD L
β tan 200
2
1
+
− ·
For SSD < L For SSD > L
headlight beam (diverging from LOS by β degrees)
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Sag Vertical Curves
•
Assumptions for design
– h
1
= headlight height = 2.0 ft.
–
β = 1 degree
•
Simplified Equations
( )
( ) SSD
SSD A
L
5 . 3 400
2
+
· ( )
( )
,
`
.

+
− ·
A
SSD
SSD L
5 . 3 400
2
For SSD < L
For SSD > L
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Sag Vertical Curves
•
Assuming L > SSD…
SSD
SSD
K
5 . 3 400
2
+
·
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Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
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Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves
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Example 1
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long sag vertical curve. The entering grade is 2.4
percent and the exiting grade is 4.0 percent. A tree has fallen across
the road at approximately the PVT. Assuming the driver cannot see
the tree until it is lit by her headlights, is it reasonable to expect the
driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?
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Example 2
Similar to Example 1 but for a crest curve.
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long crest vertical curve. The entering grade is 3.0
percent and the exiting grade is 3.4 percent. A tree has fallen across
the road at approximately the PVT. Is it reasonable to expect the
driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?
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Example 3
A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One
section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an
entering grade of 3.2 percent and an exiting grade of 2.0 percent.
How long must the vertical curve be?
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Horizontal
Alignment
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Horizontal Alignment
•
Objective:
–
Geometry of directional transition to ensure:
• Safety
• Comfort
•
Primary challenge
–
Transition between two directions
–
Horizontal curves
•
Fundamentals
–
Circular curves
–
Superelevation
Δ
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Horizontal Curve Fundamentals
R
T
PC
PT
PI
M
E
R
Δ
Δ/2 Δ/2
Δ/2
R R
D
π
π 000 , 18
180
100
·
,
`
.

·
2
tan
∆
· R T
D
R L
∆
· ∆ ·
100
180
π
L
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Horizontal Curve Fundamentals
,
`
.

−
∆
· 1
2 cos
1
R E
,
`
.

∆
− ·
2
cos 1 R M
R
T
PC
PT
PI
M
E
R
Δ
Δ/2 Δ/2
Δ/2
L
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Example 4
A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent
length is 400 ft. and the PT station is 20+00. What are the PI and PT
stations?
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Superelevation
cp f p
F F W · +
α α α α cos sin cos sin
2 2
v v
s
gR
WV
gR
WV
W f W ·
,
`
.

+ +
α
α
F
cp
F
cn
Wp
Wn
F
f
F
f
α
F
c
W
1 ft
e
≈
R
v
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Superelevation
α α α α cos sin cos sin
2 2
v v
s
gR
WV
gR
WV
W f W ·
,
`
.

+ +
( ) α α tan 1 tan
2
s
v
s
f
gR
V
f − · +
( ) e f
gR
V
f e
s
v
s
− · + 1
2
( ) e f g
V
R
s
v
+
·
2
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Selection of e and f
s
•
Practical limits on superelevation (e)
– Climate
– Constructability
– Adjacent land use
• Side friction factor (f
s
) variations
– Vehicle speed
– Pavement texture
– Tire condition
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Side Friction Factor
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004
New Graph
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Minimum Radius Tables
New Table
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WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors
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5
W
S
D
O
T
D
e
s
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M
a
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u
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,
M
2
2

0
1
New Table
For Open Highways and Ramps
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WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors
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For LowSpeed Urban Managed Access Highways
New Graph
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Design Superelevation Rates 
AASHTO
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004
New Graph
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Design Superelevation Rates  WSDOT
from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 2201
e
max
= 8%
New Graph
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Example 5
A section of SR 522 is being designed as a highspeed divided
highway. The design speed is 70 mph. Using WSDOT standards,
what is the minimum curve radius (as measured to the traveled vehicle
path) for safe vehicle operation?
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Stopping Sight Distance
R
v
Δ
s
Obstruction
M
s
( )
v
s
R
SSD
π
180
· ∆
D
R SSD
s
s v
∆
· ∆ ·
100
180
π
SSD
]
]
]
,
`
.

− ·
v
v s
R
SSD
R M
π
90
cos 1
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
·
−
v
s v v
R
M R R
SSD
1
cos
90
π
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Supplemental Stuff
•
Cross section
•
Superelevation Transition
–
Runoff
–
Tangent runout
•
Spiral curves
•
Extra width for curves
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Cross Section
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Superelevation Transition
from the 2001 Caltrans Highway Design Manual
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Superelevation Transition
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Superelevation Runoff/Runout
f
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A
A
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H
T
O
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A
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e
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e
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FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Superelevation Runoff  WSDOT
from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 2201
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
New Graph
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Spiral Curves
No Spiral
Spiral
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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No Spiral
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Spiral Curves
•
WSDOT no longer uses spiral curves
•
Involve complex geometry
•
Require more surveying
•
Are somewhat empirical
•
If used, superelevation transition should
occur entirely within spiral
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Desirable Spiral Lengths
from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Operating vs. Design Speed
85
th
Percentile Speed
vs. Inferred Design Speed for
138 Rural TwoLane Highway
Horizontal Curves
85
th
Percentile Speed
vs. Inferred Design Speed for
Rural TwoLane Highway
Limited Sight Distance Crest
Vertical Curves
FYI – NOT TESTABLE
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Primary References
• Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).
Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third
Edition. Chapter 3
• American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO). (2001). A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.
Outline
1. Concepts 2. Vertical Alignment
a. b. c. d. Fundamentals Crest Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves Examples
3. Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals b. Superelevation
4. Other NonTestable Stuff
CEE 320 Winter 2006
Concepts
• Alignment is a 3D problem broken down into two 2D problems
– Horizontal Alignment (plan view) – Vertical Alignment (profile view)
• Stationing
– Along horizontal alignment – 12+00 = 1,200 ft.
CEE 320 Winter 2006
Piilani Highway on Maui
Stationing
Horizontal Alignment
Vertical Alignment
CEE 320 Winter 2006
From Perteet Engineering
Vertical Alignment CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
Vertical Alignment • Objective: – Determine elevation to ensure • Proper drainage • Acceptable level of safety • Primary challenge – Transition between two grades – Vertical curves Sag Vertical Curve G1 CEE 320 Winter 2006 G2 G1 G2 Crest Vertical Curve .
Vertical Curve Fundamentals • Parabolic function – Constant rate of change of slope – Implies equal curve tangents y = ax + bx + c 2 • y is the roadway elevation x stations (or feet) from the beginning of the curve CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
L in feet • G1. G2 in decimal form.Vertical Curve Fundamentals PVC L/2 G1 PVI δ G2 PVT L x y = ax + bx + c 2 CEE 320 Winter 2006 Choose Either: • G1. G2 in percent. L in stations .
L in stations dY = b = G1 dx d 2Y G2 − G1 G2 − G1 Anywhere : = 2a = ⇒a= 2 dx L 2L PVC L/2 CEE 320 Winter 2006 G1 PVI δ G2 PVT L x . L in feet • G1. G2 in percent.Choose Either: Relationships At the PVC : x = 0 and Y = c At the PVC : x = 0 and • G1. G2 in decimal form.
5% PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft.Example A 400 ft.4.0 percent and the final grade is 4. and the high point of the curve. PVI % =2.0 G1 PVT G= 2 . CEE 320 Winter 2006 . The initial grade is 2.5 percent. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft. elevation. Determine the elevation and stationing of PVI. PVT.
PVI % =2.0 G1 PVT G= 2 PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft. 4.5 % .
G2 in percent •L in feet PVC Y Ym PVI G2 Yf PVT A = G1 − G2 A 2 Y= x 200 L CEE 320 Winter 2006 AL Ym = 800 AL Yf = 200 .Other Properties G1 x •G1.
⇒ x = K G1 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .Other Properties • KValue (defines vertical curvature) – The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1% change in slope L K= A high / low pt.
Crest Vertical Curves SSD PVI Line of Sight PVC G1 PVT G2 h1 L h2 For SSD < L CEE 320 Winter 2006 For SSD > L L= 100 2h1 + 2h2 ( A( SSD ) 2 ) 2 200 h1 + h2 L = 2( SSD ) − A ( ) 2 .
0 ft.Crest Vertical Curves • Assumptions for design – h1 = driver’s eye height = 3. • Simplified Equations For SSD < L For SSD > L CEE 320 Winter 2006 A( SSD ) L= 2158 2 2158 L = 2( SSD ) − A . – h2 = tail light height = 2.5 ft.
Crest Vertical Curves • Assuming L > SSD… SSD K= 2158 2 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
CEE 320 Winter 2006 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
Sag Vertical Curves Light Beam Distance (SSD) G1 headlight beam (diverging from LOS by β degrees) PVC PVT PVI G2 h1 h2=0 For SSD < L CEE 320 Winter 2006 L For SSD > L ( SSD ) 2 A L= 200( h1 + S tan β ) 200( h1 + ( SSD ) tan β ) L = 2( SSD ) − A .
Sag Vertical Curves • Assumptions for design – h1 = headlight height = 2.0 ft.5( SSD ) L = 2( SSD ) − A .5( SSD ) 2 400 + 3. – β = 1 degree • Simplified Equations For SSD < L For SSD > L CEE 320 Winter 2006 A( SSD ) L= 400 + 3.
Sag Vertical Curves • Assuming L > SSD… SSD K= 400 + 3.5SSD 2 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
CEE 320 Winter 2006 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
long sag vertical curve. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT. The entering grade is 2.4 percent and the exiting grade is 4. is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree? CEE 320 Winter 2006 . Assuming the driver cannot see the tree until it is lit by her headlights.Example 1 A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft.0 percent.
The entering grade is 3.4 percent. A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft.Example 2 Similar to Example 1 but for a crest curve.0 percent and the exiting grade is 3. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT. Is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree? CEE 320 Winter 2006 . long crest vertical curve.
2 percent and an exiting grade of 2. One section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an entering grade of 3.0 percent.Example 3 A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. How long must the vertical curve be? CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
CEE 320 Winter 2006 Horizontal Alignment .
Horizontal Alignment • Objective: – Geometry of directional transition to ensure: • Safety • Comfort • Primary challenge – Transition between two directions – Horizontal curves Δ • Fundamentals – Circular curves – Superelevation CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
000 D= R π R R Δ/2 Δ/2 R CEE 320 Winter 2006 .Horizontal Curve Fundamentals PI T Δ E M PC L Δ/2 PT ∆ T = R tan 2 π 100∆ L= R∆ = 180 D 180 100 π = 18.
Horizontal Curve Fundamentals PI T E M PC L Δ/2 PT Δ 1 E = R cos ∆ 2 − 1 CEE 320 Winter 2006 R Δ/2 Δ/2 R ∆ M = R1 − cos 2 .
and the PT station is 20+00. The tangent length is 400 ft. radius. What are the PI and PT stations? CEE 320 Winter 2006 .Example 4 A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft.
Superelevation Rv W p + F f = Fcp Fc α F cn F cp α ≈ e Wn Wp Ff W 1 ft Ff α WV 2 WV 2 W sin α + f s W cos α + sin α = gR cos α gRv v CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
Superelevation WV 2 WV 2 W sin α + f s W cos α + sin α = gR cos α gRv v V2 (1 − f s tan α ) tan α + f s = gRv V2 (1 − f s e ) e + fs = gRv CEE 320 Winter 2006 V2 Rv = g ( f s + e) .
Selection of e and fs • Practical limits on superelevation (e) – Climate – Constructability – Adjacent land use • Side friction factor (fs) variations – Vehicle speed – Pavement texture – Tire condition CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
New Graph Side Friction Factor CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .
New Table Minimum Radius Tables CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
New Table WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors For Open Highways and Ramps from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual. M 2201 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
New Graph WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors For LowSpeed Urban Managed Access Highways from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual. M 2201 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
New Graph Design Superelevation Rates AASHTO CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .
WSDOT emx = 8% a CEE 320 Winter 2006 from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual.New Graph Design Superelevation Rates . M 2201 .
Example 5 A section of SR 522 is being designed as a highspeed divided highway. The design speed is 70 mph. Using WSDOT standards. what is the minimum curve radius (as measured to the traveled vehicle path) for safe vehicle operation? CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
Stopping Sight Distance π 100∆ s SSD = Rv ∆ s = 180 D 180( SSD ) ∆s = πRv 90 SSD M s = Rv 1 − cos πR v CEE 320 Winter 2006 SSD Ms Obstruction Rv Δs πRv SSD = 90 −1 Rv − M s cos R v .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Supplemental Stuff • Cross section • Superelevation Transition – Runoff – Tangent runout • Spiral curves • Extra width for curves CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Cross Section CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Superelevation Transition CEE 320 Winter 2006 from the 2001 Caltrans Highway Design Manual .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Superelevation Transition CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 Superelevation Runoff/Runout FYI – NOT TESTABLE .
M 2201 .FYI – NOT TESTABLE New Graph Superelevation Runoff .WSDOT CEE 320 Winter 2006 from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual.
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Spiral Curves No Spiral Spiral CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE No Spiral CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Spiral Curves • • • • • WSDOT no longer uses spiral curves Involve complex geometry Require more surveying Are somewhat empirical If used. superelevation transition should occur entirely within spiral CEE 320 Winter 2006 .
FYI – NOT TESTABLE Desirable Spiral Lengths CEE 320 Winter 2006 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 .
Inferred Design Speed for Rural TwoLane Highway Limited Sight Distance Crest Vertical Curves .FYI – NOT TESTABLE Operating vs. Inferred Design Speed for 138 Rural TwoLane Highway Horizontal Curves CEE 320 Winter 2006 85th Percentile Speed vs. Design Speed 85th Percentile Speed vs.
Fourth Edition. Chapter 3 • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).P. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. F. Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis.. (2005).S. Third Edition.L.C. S. (2001). W. Washington. D. CEE 320 Winter 2006 . Kilareski. and Washburn.Primary References • Mannering.
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