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Practical course

Turbomachinery

**Measurement of the characteristics of a centrifugal pump
**

University Duisburg-Essen Faculty of Engineering Sciences Department of Mechanical Engineering Turbomachinery Prof. Dr.-Ing. F.-K. Benra

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Table of contents

1 General about centrifugal pumps 4 1.1 Range of application of centrifugal pumps .................................................................4 1.2 Impeller forms and pumping designs .........................................................................4 2 Theoretical bases 6 2.1 Speed conditions at the impeller ................................................................................6 2.2 Compression in impeller and peeler ...........................................................................8 2.3 Determination of the delivery head .......................................................................... 10 2.3.1 Influence of the finite number of blades .......................................................... 10 2.3.2 Blade angle ß2*................................................................................................ 12 2.4 Losses and efficiencies ............................................................................................ 13 2.5 Operating performance ............................................................................................ 14 2.5.1 Centrifugal pump characteristics ..................................................................... 15 2.5.2 Similarity laws................................................................................................ 19 2.5.3 Operating point of the pump............................................................................ 21 2.5.4 Regulation of centrifugal pump plants............................................................. 22 3 The centrifugal pump test stand 25 3.1 The centrifugal pump............................................................................................... 25 3.2 The drive of the centrifugal pumps........................................................................... 27 3.3 Start-up of the centrifugal pump plant...................................................................... 28 3.4 Measured variables .................................................................................................. 29 3.4.1 Flow measurement ....................................................................................... 29 3.4.2 Pressure measurement .................................................................................. 31 3.4.3 Measurement of torque, rpm measurement ................................................... 31 4 Testing method and evaluation 32 4.1 Throttle characteristic .............................................................................................. 32 4.2 Number of revolutions characteristic........................................................................ 32 4.3 Collection of formulae and evaluation ..................................................................... 32

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Bibliography

1. Bohl, W.: Strömungsmaschinen Bd. 1 und 2 Vogel-Verlag Laborversuche an Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen Hanser-Verlag, 1975 Die Pumpen Springer-Verlag, 1977 Kreiselpumpenlexikon KSB-AG, Frankenthal, 1989 Strömungsmaschinen Springer-Verlag, 1990 Strömungsmaschinen Hanser-Verlag, 1993 Grundlagen für die Planung von Kreiselpumpenanlagen SIHI-Halberg, Ludwigshafen, 1978 Technisches Handbuch Pumpen Technik-Verlag, 1987 Radial- und Axialpumpen Springer-Verlag, 1959 Kreiselpumpen Birkhäuser-Verlag, 1976 Kreiselpumpen Handbuch Vulkan-Verlag, 1990 Hydraulische Strömungsmaschinen Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen Berechnung und Konstruktion von Strömungsmaschinen Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen Strömungsmaschinen I Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen Strömungsmaschinen II Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen

2.

Bohl, W.; Mathieu, W.:

3.

Schulz, H.:

4.

KSB:

5.

Pfleiderer, C.; Petermann, H.:

6.

Sigloch, H.:

7.

SIHI:

8.

Spengler, H.:

9.

Stepanoff, A.:

10.

Troskolanski, A.T.; Lazarkiewicz, S.:

11.

Sulzer:

12.

Benra, F.-K.:

13.

Benra, F.-K.:

14.

Simon, H.:

15.

Simon, H.:

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**List of used symbols
**

Symbol A B B c D f F g H K m n nq NPSH p p P r Re s St t u U v w Y z Z Unit m2 m T m/s m s-1 N m/s2 m kg/s min-1 m N/m2 Kw m m s m/s V m/s m/s m2/s2 m m2/s2 Meaning Surface Impeller width magnetic induction absolute speed Impeller diameter Frequency Power Acceleration due to gravity Delivery head A constant Mass-flow Number of revolutions specific number of revolutions Energy height Less power factor Pressure Output Radius Reynolds-number distance Strouhal-number time circumferential speed Voltage Speed Relative speed specific bladework Height specific loss

Greek letters

Symbol a a ß ? e ? ? ? ? ?h ? ? Unit rad rad kg/m3 s-1 Meaning angle Orifice-constant angle Difference Orifice-constant Loss factor Efficiency Friction in pipes factor Density kinematic degree of reaction Pressure-number Angle-speed

M N Opt. min. environment . P r R stat S Sch Sch Sp th u vorh V 0 1 2 8 Impeller a Plant Impeller b Torque dynamic Pressure-site electric needed hydraulic internal optional Clutch mechanic maximum minimum measured value Nominal size Optimum Pump friction-caused Friction static Suction-site Vertex Blade Gap theoretic in circumferential direction given Loss at zero delivering Stage 1.5 Indices a A b d dyn D el erf h i i K m max. Place Stage 2. Place Infinite.

Since then the centrifugal pump found entrance in many fields of the technology.1) . Beside water every other liquid is applicable as delivery medium. sprinkling and irrigation pumps. In particular oil. dialysate feed pump • • Chemistry and petrochemistry • • Shipbuilding Other intended purposes Fig. Cellar drainage pumps. water supply irrigation. In particular radial-flow pumps are used for liquid-delivering in a dominant number of constructions. sewage disposal) pumps.V-diagram (Fig. fuel and gasoline pumps. dock pump. ship pumps. storage pumps. ballast pumps. 1-2). Plant • Pump designation Water management (water supply. drainage pumps. With the help of the rapidity and/or the specific number of revolutions nq = 333 n V ( gH )3 / 4 (1. the delivery head and the number of revolutions another characteristic impeller form results in the case of aiming at an optimal efficiency. drainage. heating systems Circulation pumps. inline pumps. sewage pumps Power plants. process pumps.2 Impeller forms and pumping designs Despite the various application types of centrifugal pumps in technical plants the operating ranges of the different designs can be summarized in a H.1 Range of application of centrifugal pumps The first type of a centrifugal pump was already built 1689 by the French physicist Denis Papin. dry-sump lubrication pump. 1-1: Operating areas of centrifugal pumps 1. chemical pumps. but in addition. fuel pumps fire-fighting pumps. feed water pumps. liquid gas pumps Bilge pumps. condensate pumps. Depending upon size of the delivered flow. reactor pumps Diaphragm pumps. aggressive liquids or liquid solid mixtures can be delivered with centrifugal pumps.6 1 General about centrifugal pumps 1. pipeline Pumps. booster pumps.

or if the velocity of flow is limited in the entrance for reasons of the suction behaviour. 1. If very large volume flow rates are needed. 3. Pumps with highest delivered flow and lowest delivery head. 4. Since the maximum delivery head of an impeller is fixed by the pressure factor in dependence of the design and upward the number of revolutions limited by firmness reasons. Pumps with a middle delivered flow and middle delivery head. With same delivery head the two flow rates are added together. Propeller impeller with highest rapidity (nq = 135-330) and rotor blades in the form of wings. Thereby two impellers with same dimensions deliver in a common housing. Medium rapidity (nq = 30-50): Impeller with radial discharge and double curved blades. for the achievement of large delivery heads several pump stages are connected in series. 1-3). Diagonal impeller with high rapidity (nq = 80-135) with double curved blades. 2. Helicoidic impeller (nq = 50-80): Impeller with double curved blades. 5.7 the impellers can be split up according to their targeted application (Fig. Pumps with low delivered flow and large delivery head. 1-2: Ranges of application of centrifugal pumps . The delivery heads of the single stages are added with same flow rate. Pumps with larger as middle delivered flow and smaller than middle delivery head. radial flow pumps are frequently implemented in a multi-flow way. Pumps with high delivered flow and a low delivery head. Low rapidity (nq = 10-30): Radial-flow impeller with simply curved blades. Fig.

1 Speed conditions at the impeller With the current of a liquid through the channels of a rotary impeller it is to be differentiated between absolute and relative movement. The movement of the liquid particles is called absolute. . At the centrifugal pumps the impeller stud with blades transfers mechanical work to the liquid which is in the impeller channels. 1-3: Impeller forms 2 Theoretical bases Pumps are mechanisms for delivering from a state of lower static pressure to a state of higher static pressure. The absolute speed of the delivery medium increased at the same time and is afterwards converted in a system of static and extending channels into static pressure energy. who moves with the impeller. 2. The relative movement of the liquid particles notices an observer.8 Fig. The liquid is displaced by centrifugal forces from the impeller. The increase in pressure in the impeller is a consequence of centrifugal forces and possibly also the retarded relative flow in the impeller channels. if they can be noticed by an outside of the impeller standing observer.

. 2-1 speed conditions in the impeller are represented for a backwards curved blading. At this with r r "B" designated place the fluid has the peripheral speed u2 and the relative speed ω 2 .9 In fig. Here the current with the speed c2 occurs and is retarded to the speed r c3 . As r resulting the absolute outgoing speed c2 results. From the vectorial addition of the relative r r r velocity ω1 and the peripheral speed u1 the absolute speed c1 results. At this with "A" designated r place the impeller has the peripheral speed u1 . r The current joins with the relative velocity ω1 the blade channel. The transformation of the kinetic energy happens in the following r guidance mechanism. which is substantially larger due to the r transfer of energy than c1 . 2-1: Speed conditions at the impeller With flowing through the blade channel the relative velocity generally decreases. Fig.

2) 2. Thus the centrifugal force of the mass particle can be expressed as follows: dF ′ = dA ⋅ dr ⋅ ρ ⋅ r ⋅ ω 2 From this follows for the increase in pressure: dp = ρω 2 rdr If one names with (2.3) the specific flow work of centrifugal forces. if a mass particle of the pumping medium is regarded. 2-2a). The increase in pressure from the work of centrifugal forces can be determined. Thus the flow conditions (pressure and speed) are alike in each case along concentric circles around the perpendicularly arranged wheel axle. Y∞′ = 1 p∞ p −p ∫p1 dp = ∞ ρ 1 ρ (2.and wheel disk (Fig.2 Compression in impeller and peeler The work transferred in the impeller to the liquid is converted to pressure energy on the one hand by the increase of the circumferential speed from u1 to u2 and on the other hand by the delay of the current in impeller and peeler. This condition can be fulfilled by the assumption of infinitely many and infinitely thin blades. Further the transformation from speed energy in pressure energy should happen in the blade r r channels and the repeating-condition ( c3 = c1 ) should be fulfilled.1) dp = dY∞′ = ω 2 rdr ρ (2. In order to be able to determine the compression in the impeller and in the peeler. then the work portion from centrifugal forces can be determined by integration along the radius.5) As a result of the introduction of acceleration due to gravity the delivery head portion arises due to centrifugal forces to: 2 2 ′ ′ = Y∞ = p∞ − p1 = u2 − u1 H∞ g ρg 2g (2. one makes the assumption that all liquid particles follow accurately the course of the rotor blades (Bladecongruent current).4) 2 2 2 2 r ′ = ω 2 2 rdr = ω 2 r2 − r1 = u2 − u1 Y∞ ∫r1 2 2 (2.10 2.6) . which is limited by the lateral surfaces of two cylinders with the radii r and r+dr as well as two neighbouring blades and the wheel walls of cover.

11 The increase in pressure from the delay of the relative velocity w can be derived by fig.10) Y∞′′ = − ∫ ω2 ∞ ω1 2 ω12 − ω2 ∞ ωd ω = 2 (2. 2-2b from the dynamic Basic Law: dω dt dF ′′ = − dA ⋅ ds ⋅ ρ ⋅ (2.7) Thereby dw is negative since w decreases with rising pressure.13) .12) With fig.9) the specific flow work from the delay of the relative velocity. then this work portion can be determined by integration along the entire flow channel: Y∞′′ = 1 ρ ∫ p p∞ p∞ dp = p p∞ − p∞ ρ (2. With ds/dt = w and dp = dF´´/dA can be written: dp = − ρω dω (2.11) With acceleration due to gravity the delivery head results H ∞′′ = p p∞ − p∞ ρg = 2 ω12 − ω2 ∞ 2g (2. 2-2c for the transformation of the speed energy in the peeler accordingly derives: H ∞′′′ = p2 ∞ − p p∞ ρg = 2 c2 − c12 2g (2.8) Names one this time dp = dY∞′′ = −ωd ω ρ (2.

.1 Influence of the finite number of blades The continuous pressure ratios along concentric circles are no longer present with an impeller with finite blade number (Fig.3 Determination of the delivery head The entire specific work transferred theoretically to the liquid with infinitely many blades is: Yth∞ = Y∞′ + Y∞′′ + Y∞′′′ 2 2 2 p2 ∞ − p1 u2 − u12 + ω12 − ω2 ∞ + c2 − c12 = 2 ρ (2.14) Yth∞ = (2.12 Fig.15) By the use of the appropriate relations from the velocity triangles the relative velocities can be eliminated and one receives the Euler Main-equation for the current in turbo machinery: Yth∞ = u2 cu 2 ∞ − u1cu1 (2.17) 2.16) The theoretical delivery head results to: H th∞ = Yth∞ g (2. The uneven distribution of velocity can be explained after Pfleiderer with the help of the relative channel eddy.3. 2-3). 2-2: Compression in peeler and impeller 2.

according to the Euler equation. 2-3). Thus. The relationship of these two blade work can be described with the less power factor p: Yth 1 = Yth∞ 1 + p (2. Addition of single currents to the total current Imaging A Imaging B Fig.13 On the blade front small and on the blade back large relative velocities result.18) with a finite blade number a smaller specific work is exchanged (Fig. The by this caused enlargement of the relative flow angle ß2 causes a reduction of the circumferential component of cu28 to cu2. 2-3: Influence of a finite blade number .19) The less power does not represent a loss. With one against infinitely going rotor blade number the less power factor p goes against the limit value zero and the relationship of the two blade work goes against one. Yth = u2 cu 2 − u1cu1 (2. That leads to a diversion of the thread of stream in opposite to the direction of rotation. but a correction of the for the current in the pump impeller to inaccurate linear theory.

these disadvantages cannot cover the crucially better hydraulic efficiency. Fig.14 2.3. Therefore in centrifugal pumps only backwards curved blades with angles of outlet ß2*=140°-160° are used. 2-4: Blade angle ß2 * . An angle ß2*>90° leads to backwards curved blades. the smaller ß2 * is. a large angle ß2 * has the disadvantages that it requires with same delivery head a larger circumferential speed and so it causes larger wheel friction losses. The transformation of this speed energy in pressure energy in the peeler is connected with substantial losses. It is better to chose ß2*>90° for getting a lower c2. From fig. In addition. 2-4 it is to be recognized that a small angle ß2* means also a large absolute speed c2. larger gap leakages are caused. ß2 *=90° means radially ending blades and ß2 *<90° means forward curved blades. Because of the larger difference of pressure between entrance and exit of the impeller. However.2 Blade angle ß2* The angle of outlet ß2* can theoretically be selected freely within a wide range. With equation and velocity triangles results that the specific blade work is the larger.

which are not pressure losses. variations of the effective area or changes of direction. Ø Energy consumption of directly propelled auxiliary machines. It must be computed from ? or ? i by excluding the losses. Ø Wheel friction losses by friction at the external walls of the wheel.4 Losses and efficiencies The kinds of loss of centrifugal pumps can be differentiated in: • Internal losses: Ø Hydraulic losses or blade losses by friction. ηh = & & 1 + Vsp / V 1 − (Pr + Pm ) / p ⋅η (2.15 2. Ø Losses of quantity at the sealing places between impeller and housing. which must be supplied at the drive shaft. It is outward exhausted. Ø Air friction at the clutches. .20) A summary of all efficiencies is given in fig. With pumps the work for the covering of the internal losses must be additionally transferred to the demanded specific work Y by the blades to the delivery medium. One can directly determine the overall efficiency ? and also the internal efficiency ? i by attempt. The internal losses have the common characteristic that they turn into as warmth to the pumping medium. Their summary with the available power results in the internal power Pi. In contrast to it the dissipated heat of the outside or mechanical losses turns not into the pumping medium. at the rotary shaft seals and sometimes at the balance piston. but as for the blade efficiency and the hydraulic efficiency ?h this is not possible. 2-5. • external or mechanical losses: Ø Sliding surface losses by bearing friction or seal friction.

but that it is integrated always into a complete plant and all parts of the plant have to be considered. . 2-5: Efficiencies of pumps 2. During the evaluation of the operating performance it must be considered that the pump is not an isolated machine.5 Operating performance By the operating performance of a centrifugal pump one understands the connection between the flow rate supplied by the pump with the delivery head prescribed by the plant.16 Efficiency η = Use Output (Work ) = Expenditure Input (Work ) Y Y = YSch Y + Z h Blade efficiency or hydraulic efficiency ηh = Wheel friction efficiency ηr = & & Pi − Pr (m + mSp )YSch = Pi Pi ηr = 1 YSch ⋅ η Sp Yi & m & & m + mSp Gap efficiency η Sp = Internal efficiency ηi = & mY Y = Pi Yi ηi = η h ⋅η r ⋅η Sp Mechanical efficiency ηm = Pi Pi = P Pi + Pm Overall efficiency or clutch efficiency η= & & mY mYPi = = ηi ⋅η m P PP i Fig.

17 2. power P. 2-7 these are for the characteristics of a radial centrifugal pump at constant number of revolutions: . n. Geometry sizes such as impeller diameters D2. which represent the characteristic diagram of the pump (e. ?. P.g.5. For the representation of the characteristics frequently sizes such as delivery head H. Fig. or the NPSH-value are laid over the volume flow rate. rpm-characteristic…). efficiency ?. After fig. Characteristics of turbo machineries represent the functional connection between different & machine and/or operating parameters. position of the peeler a or the machine number of revolutions n are often used as parameters. NPSH have the greatest importance. positive spin-characteristic. With centrifugal pumps the parameters V .1 Centrifugal pump characteristics The co-operation of the pump with the consumer can be described therefore by the characteristics of pump and plant. 2-6: Pump characteristics From the characteristics some characteristic delivering data can already be read off. Thus result further characteristics of constant parameter. Y.

& Best flow rate V opt: The delivered flow in the point of the best efficiency with the rated speed and the liquid indicated in the contract. Nominal delivery head HN: Delivery head. which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged. for that the pump with the number of revolutions. NPSHneeded) Upper delivery head border Hmax: Largest permissible delivery head. (Limitation e.) & Minimum flow rate V min: Smallest permissible delivered flow. & & & & The flow rate range V < V opt is called partial load. (Limitation e. oscillations. which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged. the nominal delivery head and the pumping medium indicated in the contract is ordered. which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged.18 • • • • • • • • • • & Nominal flow rate V N: Delivered flow. . Best delivery head Hopt: The delivery head in the point of the best efficiency with the rated speed and the liquid indicated in the contract. Vertex delivery head Hvert: Delivery head in the vertex (that means in the relative maximum of an instable centrifugal pump characteristic) Fig.g. the nominal delivery head and the pumping medium indicated in the contract is ordered.g. 2-7: Characteristics of a centrifugal pump at a constant number of revolutions. for that the pump with the number of revolutions. the range V > V opt is called overload & max: Highest flow rate V Largest permissible delivered flow. which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged. the pumping medium indicated in the contract and the flow & rate V =0. Zero delivery head H0: Delivery head at the nominal number of revolutions nN. through NPSHgiv . Lower delivery head border Hmin: Lowest permissible delivery head. through heating up. radial or axial forces etc.

Thus applies: & V ωm 2 = & ωm 2 N VN From the velocity triangles at the blade exit can be derived: (2.21) Fig.23) and with r r r cu 2 ∞ = u2 + ωu 2 ∞ (2. To improve the understanding a theoretical view is quite useful. The meridional velocity is proportional the flow rate. 2-8) results in the same circumferential speed u2 and the same relative flow angle ß28 in the case of same number of revolutions. 2-8: Outgoing-velocity-triangles with different volume flow rates. In the case of spin-free inflow results from the Euler' main equation: Yth∞ = u2cu 2 ∞ (2. blade-congruent current and considers only afterwards the influence of the finite blade number and the losses.19 The determination of such characteristics succeeds with sufficient accuracy only by experiment. fig. First one proceeds from a frictionless.22) ωu 2 ∞ = ωm 2 tan(180° − β 2 ∞ ) (2. & & The view of speed conditions with two different flow rates (V and VN .24) .

then the & characteristic Yth = f (V ) becomes again a straight line. Up to this moment the view without consideration of losses was accomplished. One generally differentiates between friction and collision losses. with the usual obtuse angles ß28 .29) and for operating conditions deviating from the design point for instance proportional to the square of the flow rate: & V ∆YV . the larger are the friction losses. 2-9: Theoretical characteristic with loss-free current If the less power factor p and thus the relationship 1/(1+p) are accepted as constant.27) u2 A2 tan β 2 ∞ (2. The angle ß28 determines thereby the upward gradient of this straight line. which cuts the ordinate at u22 and. R = (1 − η h )Yth ( & ) 2 VN (2. 2-9).30) The stronger the flow rate from its design value to larger flow rates deviates. The friction losses ∆V . has a falling tendency.28) Thus a theoretical characteristic in dependence of the volume flow rate can be represented (Fig. Fig. R = (1 − ηh )Yth (2. .25) derives Yth∞ = u2 (u2 − ωu 2 ∞ ) & V u2ωm 2 N 2 Yth∞ = u2 + & VN A2 tan β 2 ∞ 2 & Yth∞ = u2 + V (2.26) (2.R in the design point V & ) are given by (VN ∆YV .20 cu 2 ∞ = u2 − ωu 2 ∞ (2.

This reduction of the specific work is & & for instance proportional to the square of the flow rate difference ( VA − V ): ∆YV . That means that the velocity triangles of the corresponding machines must be geometrically similar. Further from the relationship: Y =η h (2. must run dynamically similarly. The appropriate forces of inertia and friction forces must behave similarly.32) Yth the process of the hydraulic efficiency of the pump results. Often it is however necessary to know either for a pump curves at different numbers of revolutions or to conclude from a machine already built to a machine which is to be developed.S from Yth the searched pump & characteristic Y = f (V ) results. in particular in the impellers. must be geometrically similar in their dimensions and forms. In addition one uses the similarity-mechanical model laws (affinity laws).2 Similarity laws The determined characteristic applies to a certain centrifugal pump at a special number of revolutions. • . must run kinematically similarly. The currents in the channels. which means that the Reynolds number of the machines should almost agree. 2-10: Real pump characteristic 2.R and ? YV.31) By subtraction of the two loss portions ? YV. With the use of similarity-mechanical conversions of the main data of turbo machineries the following conditions must be kept: • • The machines. Instead of the specific work also the delivery head is often represented as a function of the flow rate. which have to be compared. which have to be compared. The currents.21 The deviation of the direction of the relative flow against velocity connected with the change of the volume stream causes additional collision losses.5. which means that the dimensionless velocity triangles are equal. Fig. S : ( & & VN − V 2 & ) VN (2.

35) (2.36) & Va na D2.b Available power & P = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅V D Pa n = ( a )3 ( 2. a )2 ( a )2 Hb D2. a )5 Pb nb D2. In fig. since as a result of change of the machine size.22 The comparison of two geometrically similar impellers a and b with same dimensionless velocity triangles results under the condition of spin-free incident flow and same efficiencies in the following connections: Delivery head H= Y η = u2cu 2 g g (2.33) D Ha n = ( 2.b (2.a 3 = ( ) & Vb nb D2.b nb (2. the number of revolutions or the viscosity of the delivery medium a deviation of the efficiency arises.5 m3/h and nN = 1500 min-1. The change of efficiency can be considered by so-called empirical revaluation formulas.37) (2.40) The regularities indicated here can be proven for a pump with different numbers of revolutions.39) (2. 2-11 the appropriate curves in a diagram are represented for a two-stage & radial-flow pump with design data V N = 74.38) The accepted equality of the efficiencies is only approximately correct. .1 1 − ηa Reb with Re = u2 ⋅ D2 ν (2. Into these theoretical curves the measured values for water delivering are drawn in.34) Volume flow rate & V = cm 2 ⋅ D2 ⋅ B2 ⋅ π (2. By Pfleiderer applies: 1 − ηb Re = ( a )0.

but also by the plant characteristic. (2. 2-12 for a simple centrifugal pump plant.43) . The plant characteristic indicates the delivery head.5. in which squared flow rates and the fall in meters arise. The fall in meters on the suction and the pressure site can be computed after Darcy-Weisbach for straight pipings by: l c2 HV = λ ⋅ d 2g resp.42) HV = ξ c2 2g (2.41) This plant characteristic contains static portions.23 Fig.3 Operating point of the pump The operating point of a centrifugal pump in a plant is determined not only by the pump characteristic. which are independent of the flow rate and dynamic portions. From the continuity equation and the energy equation for stationary currents an appropriate relationship for the delivery head can be derived: 2 p2 − p1 c 2 − c12 + + z2 − z1 + HVD + HVS ρg 2g HA = (2. which is necessary for delivering the fluid against the existing resistances in the piping for any flow rates. 2-11: Proof of the affinity laws at a two-stage pump 2. The allocation into static and dynamic portions is represented in fig.

(2.24 . In order to reach this.if one assumes that the dependence of the friction number for pipes λ and the coefficients of & drag ξ on the Reynolds number and thus on the delivered flow V is negligible .Change of the dynamic portions of the plant characteristic H A. until the requested flow rate is reached. 2-12: Plant characteristic The operating point of the pump adjusts itself. with which the intersection of the two characteristics is shifted. An extremely important condition for working the pump in the adjusting operating point is the demand: NPSHgiven = NPSHneeded Only under keeping this condition a cavitation-free running is ensured. where the delivery head of the centrifugal pump and the plant are the same size.stat through: · Adapt the counter-pressure in the tank · Change of the geodetic differences in height of the water levels • Measures on side of the pump . That is the case in the intersection of pumping and plant characteristic. Fig. the following possibilities are available: • Measures on sides of the plant & .44) 2.5.Change of the static portion of the plant characteristic HA.4 Regulation of centrifugal pump plants With changing plant conditions a control procedure is released.dyn = f (V ) through: · Throttling · Opening of bypasses in the pressure pipe .Change of the pump parameters · Number of revolutions · Positive Spin before the impeller by spin throttle or arranged bypass .

with which the slope of the plant characteristics HA can be affected within wide ranges of the delivered & & flow ( V till V =0) (Fig. 2-13: Throttle regulation . Fig. The throttle regulation uses the change of the dynamic losses HV in the armatures. Throttle armatures (which in consideration of the A-value should be built in only on the pressure site of the pump into the piping) are relative cheap controlling means.25 · Rotor blade position · Switching on or off parallel-working pumps · Correction of the impeller diameter · Sharpen of the vane ends • Measures on side of the medium . 2-13). they have however always the disadvantage that they in particular convert considerable portions (HB-HA)/HB of the hydraulically usable energy in (mostly not usable) warmth with stronger interferences and that they remove the operating point B from the design point N of the centrifugal pump at the same time and causes thus the additional loss portion (? N-? B)/? N.Change of the middle density ? of the delivery medium by steered content of steam bubbles (self-regulation by cavitation) In the practical course which is accomplished here as measure on side of the plant the throttling (Throttle characteristic) and as measure on side of the pump the speed-regulation (number of revolutions characteristic) are accomplished. The operating point B can be shifted thereby over the entire pump characteristic from N to O.

e. than the plant for the transmission of the delivered flow requires. then the operating point of the pump always lies within the area of the best efficiency. the pumping-rpm as a function of the need. With drives by three-phase motors an additional expenditure on capital assets is unavoidable. this kind of regulation is economically unsurpassed. 2-14: Speed regulation of plant characteristics HA with large static portion With pump drive by turbines or combustion engines speed regulation can be realized more easily. Thus.g. Fig. by hydraulic transmissions and/or induction couplings or increasingly by Frequency inverter. At the same time the pump doesn't deliver more delivery head. which can coincide with the plant & characteristics without static portion ( H A : V 2 ) more or less accurately. If one regulates.stat of the plant characteristic HA are. but the pump drives out of its efficiency optimum with a lower number of revolutions n<nN. the more this economic advantage is lost. in such cases. The larger the static portions HA. . Also in these cases no more delivery head H as if required is delivered.26 & In the characteristic diagram ( V -H) with throttle curves of different numbers of revolutions the points of the best efficiency are on an origin parabola.

Pumps of this series predominantly used for general water supply. With its assistance the operating point of the pump can be adjusted. It consists of an open cycle and is operated with industrial water of ambient temperature.27 3 The centrifugal pump test stand The plant for the investigation of centrifugal pumps is represented in fig. Fig. which serves as shutoff device.1 The centrifugal pump The centrifugal pump (4) is a product of the company Klein. It’s a three stage. The open water store tank made of PL (1) seizes maximally 8000 litres and is provided with several pipe unions as well as a level monitoring and an exhaust. In the pressure pipe of the nominal size DN 65 (di = 70. spray irrigation -. 3-1. which are provided with two volumetric flow meters switched into row in each case. Schanzlin und Becker (KSB / Frankenthal).1mm) is reduced before the pump to the connection nominal DN 80 (di = 82. After the valve the piping branches out to the two measuring sections A and B. Subsequently. The suction pipe (3) of the nominal size (DN) 100 (measured inside Diameter di = 107.3mm) a flat slide is inserted behind the pump. . an extension of the piping DN 100 as well as a regulating valve DN 100 follows. Over the return pipe (14) of the nominal size DN 100 the water flows back into the store tank.5mm) size of the pump. Depending upon the operating point of the plant the measuring section A or the measuring section B can be released over the ball valves (9). horizontal arranged high-pressure pump in segmental-type way out of the series MOVI with uncooled axial face seal and fat-lubricated grooved ball bearings. 3-1: Plant scheme 3.

28 irrigation and pressure increasing systems. hot waters -.5mm) DN 65 PN 40 (d i = 70. 3/2 by D result. The impeller diameters of the three stages amount to: Stage 1 : D2. The rating data as well as the most important technical details are summarized in the following table. .02 m3/s HN = 140 m Water nN = 2900 min-1 P = 45 kw pmax = 40 bar Fig. In addition they are used for warm water -.3 = 172 mm Thus the characteristics marked in fig. Pump Nominal flow rate Nominal delivery head Pumping medium Nominal rpm Power requirement Max. boiler supply and in fireextinguishing systems. for condensate-delivering. pressure Characteristics Intake joint Pressure joint Housing material Impeller material KSB Movi 65/3 M3 VN = 0.1 = 203 mm Stage 2 : D2.3mm) Gray cast iron Tin bronze The adaption to the demanded nominal dates was reached by differently strong turning off the normally similar impellers of the three stages. 3-2 DN 80 PN 40 (d i = 82.2 = 185 mm Stage 3 : D2. cooling water circulation.

n = 3000 rpm. The centrifugal pump used here is in such a way conceived that it can be coupled e. . 3-2: Characteristics Movi 65/3 M3 3. with the existing frequency of 50 cycles per second. By change of the frequency with the help of a currentsteered frequency changer the number of revolutions can be adjusted steplessly in the range 0. The lower speed limit is given by the cooling performance of the blower at low numbers of revolutions.2 The drive of the centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumps are in most cases driven by electric motors.g. The actual number of revolutions lies due to the load-rate slip with approximately n = 2900 rpm.0 nN. while the upper speed limit arises as a result of the maximum capacity of the engine.3nN = n = 1. The synchronous number of revolutions of the used engine with a pair of poles amounts to.29 Fig. directly with the shaft of a threephase alternating current asynchronous engine (5).

For the determination of the taken up electrical power of the engine the current and the voltage of one of the three phases can be measured. The parabola-similar process of the load-moment corresponds to the conditions available with a pump drive. 3-3: Characteristic torques of asynchronous engines 3.1 belongs to the group of the normalsucking. 3.30 The characteristic torque characteristic of a three-phase alternating current asynchronous engine with squirrel-cage rotor is represented in fig. Therefore they are not able to air out their intake independently. Since the water store tank is set up in the basement under the actual test stand. no self-priming pumps.e. In order to fill the pump with liquid. a pneumatically operated ejector (6) is arranged as external ventilation system on the pressure site of the pump (Fig. if they are running in the priming mode. Normal priming pumps only produce a very small difference of pressure during air delivering. the pump works in priming mode and must suck in the delivery medium depending upon the water level over a certain geodetic height-difference. i. Fig.3 Start-up of the centrifugal pump plant The centrifugal pump described in chapter 3. 3-4). .

the vent line is locked by a valve.1 Flow measurement For the determination of the characteristics of a centrifugal pump the measurement of the volume flow rate is of elementary importance.4 Measured variables 3.31 Fig. Fig. 3-5). the priming-automat is set out of operation and the centrifugal pump can be switched on. The delivered flow rate of the pump is determined by two different measuring procedures switched into row. With a small overlap range flow rates up to 10 m3/h are measured in the measuring pipe A (DN 25). while delivered flows over 10 m3/h in the measuring pipe B (DN 100) are measured. 3-5: Flow measurement area . Due to the limited measuring range of the volumetric flow meters the measuring section is divided into two parallel legs (Fig. In the case of completion of the exhaust procedure a float switch response. 3. 3-4: Arrangement of a priming-automat After switching on the centrifugal pump on first only the priming-automat is activated.4.

1) Fig.2) The dimensionless constant St is called Strouhal number and is a relevant parameter for eddy flow measurements.32 Magnetically inductive flow measurement The principle of a magnetically inductive flowmeter (MID) is based on inducing a voltage by a constant magnetic field with the magnetic induction B by moving electrically conductive measuring material through it (Fig. . If the Strouhal number of a vortex-body is known. 3-7 shows the typical dependence of the Strouhal number of the Reynolds number for a cylindrical vortex-body. Fig. 3-6). 3-6: Function mode of a MID Eddy flow measurement The principle of the eddy flow measurement is based on the fact that at a flowed against body (Vortex-body) at both sides eddies are produced. Within a large range of the Reynolds number the vortex-body frequency is directly proportional to the flow velocity and independent of the density and the viscosity of the medium. which results from the flow rate and the thickness of the vortex-body according to the definition for the Strouhal number: f = St ⋅ v d (3. The mutually forming eddies shift the vortex-body in oscillation with a frequency. which separates and form a vortex trail. With the knowledge of the distance of the test electrodes the flow can be determined with the help of an equipment constant K. & π D U V= 4 KB (3. the flow can be determined by the vortex-body frequency. This voltage is proportional to the middle velocity of flow of the measuring material.

3 Measurement of torque. after the 1.33 Fig. stage as well as in the pressure pipe after the pump has to be measured. stage. Note that the pressure of the intake is a pressure below the atmospheric pressure. which is indicated in the measuring cabinet as absolute pressure! 3. . torque and number of revolutions of the pump drive shaft must be known. The Ohm's resistance of the DMS changes thereby proportionally to the stretch and is a measure for the torque.2 Pressure measurement For the determination of the delivery head characteristic of the several stages as well as the entire pump the pressures in the intake before the pump.3) The constants of a and e can be inferred from the DIN 1952 for standard orifices. if the wave is torqued. On the measuring shaft strain gauges (DMS) are fastened. From the continuity equation and the energy equation in the form after Bernoulli one receives the relationship for the determination of the volume stream: 2 & π d αε 2∆p V= 4 ρ (3. attached on the shaft.4. For the measuring of the torque a torque measuring shaft of the company Höttinger Baldwin Meßtechnik of the type T1 (15) is used. The number of revolutions is determined over a disk with 60 teeth in connection with an inductive giver.4. by an impulse counter. 3-7: Principle of the eddy flow measurement Effect pressure flow measurement The measurement of the volume flow rate according to the effect pressure principle takes place with a standard orifice. 3. after the 2. which are tossed or stretched. rpm measurement In order to be able to determine the achievement taken up by the pump.

4.i + ( ρ ⋅ g ⋅ ∆z M .3 Collection of formulae and evaluation Volume flow rate: & & & V +V V = 1 2 2 Pressure: pi = p∞ + ∆pM . For the examination of the agreement of both measuring legs the last measuring point of the leg B is to be measured again in the leg A. as first A is additionally opened. .1 Throttle characteristic At a given number of revolutions. which has to be kept constant during this attempt. the valve is closed after each measurement in as small as possible appropriate flow rate steps.1) (4. The maximum flow rate adjusting by the leg B (DN 100) is divided into a certain number of measuring points (max. When falling below the smallest measuring range of the leg B it is to be switched to the parallel leg A (DN 25).34 4 Testing method and evaluation The range of the practical course attempt "measurement of the characteristics of a centrifugal pump" includes the taking down of a throttle curve at a certain number of revolutions as well as a number of revolutions characteristic during a certain throttle position. The measured values are to be registered into the prepared table 4-1. the attempt starts with an rpm = 3000min -1 and then the speed is reduced in small steps ? n ˜ 250min-1. The read off measured values are to be registered into the prepared table 4.2. To avoid an overload of the engine. The lower speed limit of 1000rpm shouldn’t substantially fall below. To reduce the extent of work only the values of the entire pump without view of the single stages has to be taken up. before B is closed. Also here a change of the volume measuring legs is to be made according to chapter 4. 4.2) The ambient pressure p8 is given before the attempt.2 Number of revolutions characteristic With a given position of the throttle valve on the pressure-site different numbers of revolutions are to be examined. Apart from the machine characteristics also only for the throttle curve the delivery head characteristics of the individual stages are to be determined and to be represented in the prepared diagrams. the valve in the pressure pipe is completely opened after starting the pump. Subsequently.i ) (4.1 at given time. 15). 4.

delivery head: Y= pD − pS v2 − v2 + g ( zD − zS ) + D S ρ 2 (4.6) (4.5) (4.35 Specific blade work.3) H= Y g (4.4) Output: PK = M d ⋅ ω ω = 2 ⋅π ⋅ n (4.8) .7) & & PNutz = mY = ρ ⋅ V ⋅ Y Efficiency: ηP = PNutz PK (4.

related to the measuring point at largest adjusted number of revolutions of the series of measurements during constant throttle position. In particular a statement about the range of validity of the affinity law is to be made. In addition are to compare.8) in the tables 4-3a till 4-3d and 4-4. . the theoretical characteristics of the affinity law (Equations 2.1) till (4. 2. 4-2 4-1 4-3 In addition first the missing values are to be computed according to the equations (4.38) with the measuring data. 2. The results should be discussed in detail in a critical view of the attempt.34. the demanded values are to be registered into the prepared diagrams.36 Evaluation Lab-test “CP” The following characteristics are to be drawn Number Designation 1 Delivery head characteristic Stage 1 H1(V) 2 Delivery head characteristic Stage 2 H2(V) 3 Delivery head characteristic Stage 3 H3(V) 4 Pump characteristic 5 Rpm-charactersitic of the pump 6 Rpm-charactersitic of the pump Table 4-3a 4-3b 4-3c 4-3d 4-4 4-4 Diagramm 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1. Subsequently.35.

stage ..Nutz [kW] Table 4-3b: Calculated data of the 2. blade-work Y2 [m2/s2] delivery head H2 [m] Output P2..37 Stage 1 Volume flow rate V [l/s] Pressure [bar] ps p1 rpm n = ……. min-1 = const. blade-work Y1 [m2/s2] delivery head H1 [m] Output P1. min-1 = const. stage Stage 2 Volume flow rate V [l/s] Pressure [bar] p1 p2 rpm n = …….Nutz [kW] Table 4-3a: Calculated data of the 1.

blade-work Y3 [m2/s2] delivery head H3 [m] Output P3. Specific Delivery Power Required Efficiency work head Output Power pS pD vS vD Y H Pnutz PK ?P [bar] [bar] [m/s] [m/s] [m2/s2] [m] [kW] [kW] [-] Table 4-3d: Calculated data of pump Pump (Throttle position = const.) .Nutz [kW] Table 4-3c: Calculated data of the 3.. stage Pump Flow rate V [l/s] Pressure Velocity rpm n= …….. min-1 = const. min-1 = const.38 Stage 3 Volume flow rate V [l/s] Pressure [bar] p2 p3 rpm n = …….

39 Number of revolutions [min-1] Flow rate V [l/s] Specific Delivery Power Required Efficiency work head Output Power pS pD vS vD Y H Pnutz PK ?P [bar] [bar] [m/s] [m/s] [m2/s2] [m] [kW] [kW] [-] Pressure Velocity Table 4-4: Calculated data of pump . .

Total characteristic .40 Diagramme 4-1: Single-Stage characteristic.

41 Diagramme 4-2 : rpm const. .

42 Diagramme 4-3 : Throttle position constant .

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