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modal verbs

modal verbs

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Published by: John Johny on Jan 31, 2011
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Modal Can

Example MODAL

VERBS

Uses Ability / Possibility Inability / Impossibility

They can control their own budgets. We can’t fix it.

Asking for permission Can I smoke here? Request Can you help me?

Could

Could I borrow your dictionary? Could you say it again more slowly? We could try to fix it ourselves. I think we could have another Gulf War. He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

Asking for permission. Request Suggestion Future possibility Ability in the past

May

May I have another cup of coffee? China may become a major economic power.

Asking for permission Future possibility

Might

We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. They might give us a 10% discount.

Present possibility Future possibility

Must

We must say good-bye now.

Necessity / Obligation

?( Vrei sa..?)  Hotarare The enemy shall not pass.Cu acest inteles .Will  Exprima vointa. sugestie Shall I help you? Shall Can • • • • • Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la prezent si viitor Exprima o continuitate alaturi de verbele de perceptie Exprima o permisiune (informal English) Exprima o posibilitate atunci cand imprejurarile o permit If you come in my town we can swim (I have a swimming pool) Exprima o imposibilitate.. repetata I always drink milk in the morning=I will drink milk in the morning  Invitatie.  Refuz.  Posibilitate..  Exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale All the candidats shall not bring(may not) the dictionaries into the examination room. cerere politicoasa Will you come and. hotarare I will pay you as much as you ask for. amenintare He shall pay for insulting my daughter.  Promisiune If you get a good mark you shall have a present.  Promisiune I will not make such a mistake again. insistenta. presupunere That girl will be his sister? (Fata ceea o fi sora lui?)  Ceva inevitabil (expresii fixe) Children will be children. neincredere: cu acest inteles can poate fi urmat de un infinitiv prezent(pentru actiune simultana) sau infinitiv perfect (pentru actiune anterioara ) Nu se poate/este imposibil sa faca o asemenea greseala Nu se poate sa fi facut o asemenea greseala He can’t make such a mistake He can’t have made such a mistake • Exprima o cerere politicoasa Can I help you? Could • Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la trecut..  Oferta.Accidents will happen(accidentele sunt inevitabile)  Inlocuieste prezentul simplu pentru actiune obisnuita.

May+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea unei actiuni in trecut → Ex: She may have lost the key. to achieve-se foloseste numai echivalentul. thought.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu it is possible/maybe/perhaps It is possible for you to know her Poate ca o cunosti Maybe/perhaps you know her You may hnow her May+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii → Ex: She may be sleeping now. to be permited to • Exprima o posibilitate. . to manage. no matter how No matter how much money you have don’t spend it in one day1 In completiva directa dupa to hope. to trust: I hope that you may find tickets. mai politicoasa deca can Could I help you? May • Exprima o permisiune(formal english). speranta May all your dreams come true! sau May good luck attend you! In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever. whoever. whereever. dar nu si la negativ • Cerere politicoasa. • • • Exprima o urare.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul → to be allowed to. althought.can/could poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul. whenever.Dar cand intelesul este de to succid in.

Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul to have to Must=obligatie impusa de vorbitor(regula) Have to=obligatie externa impusa de autoritati sau imprejurari externe pe care vorbitorul nu le poate controla Don’t have to . comanda. whereever. no matter how • In completiva directa dupa to hope. whoever. In propozitia concesiva dupa : whatever. iritare. necesitate. althought. to trust • In propozitia de scop dupa so that Must • Exprima obligatie.• In propozitia de scop dupa so that: I sit on the first row so that I may see and hear well. thought. viitor si trecut (o posibilitate mai indepartata) Might+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea indepartata a unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii Might+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea indeparata a unei actiuni in trecut • • Exprima indignare. whenever. repros You might look in to my eyes when I’m talking to you. Might • • Exprima o permisiune la trecut Exprima o posibilitate in prezent.

substantiv. Diferenta dintre prezent si trecut: Prezent Do I need. hardly.? Need I. barely Ex: She need hardly mention her name..verb notional.. repetata ocazie speciala .? Trecut Didn’t need to. since I know it.Verb modal auxiliar=to have to apare mai mult in interogativ si negativ. poate sa apara si in afirmativ alaturi de never. obisnuit= to be need of (dupa care apare un pronume. concluzie logica.. actiune care nu a fost necesara si nu a fost facuta actiune obisnuita..The windows need washing.. B.Haven’t got to Needn’t Must not • Lipsa de obligatie Interdictie. prohibitie (regula) Eprima deductie.. probabilitate NOTA: cand must exprima probabilitate el poate fi inlocuit cu: I’m sure/certain/positive Certain/obviously It’s likely/probable Is likely Need A. verb la gerunziu sau infinitiv lung) Ex: Mother needs a pair of shoes.

He worked here for 5 years. to propose. lest(ca sa nu.that • In propozitia de scop dupa: so that.. obligatie neimplinita Ex:You ought to have waited until the light were green. to advise. to insist..→ You ought to know him. to be annoyed..Needn’t have+V (forma a III a) actiune care nu a fost necesara. for fear that • • In propozitia conditionala tip I si II (intamplare) Dupa verbe de emotie: to feel sory. recomandare(obligatia este mai slaba decat cea cu must) • • • Exprima surpriza in intrebare retorica Ex:Why should I go there? Exprima presupunere.. ca sa nu cumva. dar a fost facuta Should • Exprima obligatie. to be shocked • Dupa: don’t think why. NOTA: According to the wheather forecast it ought to rain today. to recommend. sfat.that • In propozitia subiectiva dupa constructii impersonale: it is/was advisable/essential/better/fair/important/natural/necessary/right. see no reason why. can’t think why Ought to (ar trebui. to be delighted.. to urge... .. obligatie morala Ought to + Infinitive Perfect= datorie. in order that. s-ar cuveni) • • Exprima o datorie.). deductie logica In completiva directa dupa: to suggest.

.. Would you mind+ V (-ing) # Would like/care=want # Would care nu se foloseste in afirmativ Would rather (arata preferinta) Would better/had better (mai bine) Would sooner (mai degraba) • • +infinitiv scurt (pentru acelasi subiect) +past tense (pentru subiecte diferite) Exprima o actiune repetata in trecut si incetata prezent (obisnuiam sa.Would • Exprima o cerere politicoasa Would you pass.. Would you be so kind.) Diferenta dintre used to si would+infinitiv este ca al doilea se foloseste narativ • Apare dupa wish si if only pentru o dorinta in viitor • • Exprima o probabilitate Ex: That girl would be his sister! Exprima o vointa la trecut iar la negativ refuz Ex:She had to go there whether she would or wouldn’t. Would you please.... Used to • A nu se confunda cu to use= a folosi • Used to modal auxiliar cu forma numai de trecut ...

• Desi e un modal auxiliar formeaza interogativul cu did si negativul cu did not (formal english) • A nu se confunda cu: to be/get accustomed to dupa care urmeaza un substantiv sau un verb la gerunziu Ex:I am not used to drinking tea in the morning. Dare • • La afirmativ e un verb notional obisnuit La interogativ si negativ el poate fi atat verb modal cat si verb obisnuit Ex:How dare you contradict me? (modal) I dared her/I challenged him to run in the street(a provoca) .

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