Strength of Materials Solutions

Problem #1
0
4000
5500
, 10500
3
·
·
− ·
·
σ
τ
σ
σ
psi
psi
Tensile psi
xy
y
x
Principal stresses:
2
2
2 1
2 2
,
xy
y x y x
τ
σ σ σ σ
σ σ +

,
`

.
| −
t
+
·
Substitute values from above yields:
psi
psi
6444
11444
2
1
− ·
·
σ
σ
The maximum shear stress is determined by these two principal stresses as:
psi
Max
8944
2
6444 11444
2 2 2
) , , (
max
3 2
23 max,
3 1
3 , 1 max,
2 1
12 max,
23 max, 13 max, 12 max,
·
+
·

·

·

·
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
τ
τ τ τ
Note that the other maximum shear stresses are less than this value.
Problem #2
The total strain is:
0005 . 0
100
05 . 0
· ·

· ·
L
L
t total
ε ε
This total strain is equal to:
T
EA
F
T M t
∆ + · + · α ε ε ε
Substituting:
100
10 * 5 . 6
1
10 * 30
0005 . 0
6
6
· ∆
·
·
·
·

T
A
E
t
α
ε
and solving for F we get:
F=-4500 lbs
The stress is 4500 psi compressive.
Problem #3
The 2000 lbs creates a bending stress at Q that is tensile and is equal to:
z
z
x
I
y M
· σ
Where
64
2
2
12 * 5 . 4 * 2000
4
d
I
d
y
M
z
z
π
·
· ·
·
Substituting into the bending formula, we get
psi
x
17188 · σ
The stress due to the axial load is compressive and is equal to:
psi
A
F
x
1591
) 2 (
20000
2
'
· · ·
π
σ
The total stress is:
15600 1591 17188 ≅ − · σ
Problem #4
6 ft
4.5 ft 4.5 ft
20000 lb
2000 lb
Q
Location of centeroid:
667 . 0
) 5 (. 375 . ) 75 )(. 375 (. 2 125 . 1
2
·
+ ·
+ ·
y
y
y A y A y A
b b a a
The area moment of inertia:
2 3
2 3
) 125 . 375 . 667 (. 375 . ) 25 )(. 5 . 1 (
12
1
) 667 . 75 (. 375 . ) 5 . 1 )( 25 (.
12
1
2
− − + ·
− + ·
+ ·
b
a
b a z
I
I
I I I
The answer is:
4
158 . 0 in I
z
·
The stress at D is:
psi
I
c M
z
z
57200
158 . 0
) 833 . 0 ( * 10000
· · · σ
note that c=1.5-0.667=0.833
Problem #5: Curved beam
The neutral axis radius is:
8854 . 2
)
2
4
ln(
2 4
) / ln(
·

·

·
i o
i o
n
r r
r r
r
The stress at inner radius (critical point) is:
psi
eAr
r r M
i
i n
i
57945
) 2 )( 2 )( 8854 . 2 3 (
) 2 8854 . 2 ( 30000 ) (
·


·

· σ
7/8
3/8
1.5
D
y
a
b
c
There is also an axial stress of 5000 psi acting on the cross-section making
the total stress become
psi
total
62945 · σ
Problem #6: Torsional stresses
The maximum torsional shear stress is:
psi
d
T
J
Tr
11460
) 4 (
) 12 * 6 * 2000 ( 16 16
3 3
· · · ·
π π
τ
Form Problem # 3, the normal stress on the surface is 15600 psi. The state
of stress is shown below:
The principal stresses are calculated as before using:
psi and
xy
x x
6062 21662
2 2
,
2
2
2 1
− · +
,
`

.
|
t · τ
σ σ
σ σ
The maximum shear stress at point Q is:
psi 13860
2
6062 21662
max
·
+
· τ
Problem #7
σ
x
τ
xy
The forces in the upper portion (F
u
) and lower portion (F
L
) are:
F
K K
K
F F
K K
K
F
L U
L
L
L U
U
U
+
·
+
·
Where
20 30
EA
K and
EA
K
L U
· ·
Substituting into the force expressions:
480
5
3
320 ) 800 (
5
2
20
1
30
1
30
1
· ·
· ·
+
·
F F
lbs F F
L
U
The maximum stress is (480/0.5)=960 psi
Problem #8
The torque is divided according to torsional stiffnesses. In this case the left
supports picks us (6/10)=0.6 of the torque and the right support takes 0.4 of
the torque.
30”
20”
6 ft 4 ft
Problem #9
The stress is
b I
VQ
Z
· τ
Finding the centroid is as before:
5 . 3
) 4 * 2 ( 2
) 1 4 2 ( * 4 * 2
·
+ +
· y
The area moment of inertia is:
3 . 49 ) 5 . 3 5 )( 4 )( 2 ( ) 2 )( 4 (
12
1
) 2 5 . 3 )( 4 )( 2 ( ) 4 )( 2 (
12
1
2 3 2 3
· − + + − + · I
Q is
12 ) 5 . 3 5 )( 4 )( 2 ( · − · Q
and
lbs V
V
b I
VQ
Z
4 . 90 11
) 2 ( 3 . 49
) 12 (
· ⇒ · · · τ
Problem #10
P
Cross-section
y
c
y-bar
psi
b I
VQ
Z
8 . 11
) 2 ( 6 . 285
) 5 . 4 )( 6 * 1 ( * 250
· · · τ
Problem #11
For this thin-walled tube:
Mpa
At
T
6 . 34
2 ) 38 * 38 ( 2
1000 * 200
2
· · · τ
The angle of rotation is:
. deg 66 . 0
011 . 0
2 * 10 * 79 * ) 38 * 38 ( 4
10 * 50 * ) 38 * 4 ( * 1000 * 200
4
3 2 2
·
· · ·
φ
φ rad
Gt A
TSL
Problem #12
The critical point is the inner radius. The tangential stress is:
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
i o
i o
o i o o i i
t
r r
r
P P
r r r P r P

,
`

.
| −
− −
· σ
Setting r=r
i
and P
o
=0 we get
Z
Y
psi
r r
r
P
i o
o
o t
45733
625 . 0 875 . 0
) 875 . 0 ( 2
* 11200
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
·

− ·

− · σ
The state of stress is simple – just this tangential stress which is also the
principal stress. From theory, we know that there are no shear stresses on
these surfaces when the stress element in oriented with radial edges.
The factor of safety is:
Problem #S13
The critical point is the inner radius. Using the formula:
pa
r
r
r r
r r
t
t
o i
o i t
714963
) 10 )( ) 5 . 12 (
24 . 3
) 24 (. 3 1
75 75 5 . 12 )(
8
24 . 3
( ) 7 . 216 )( 3320 (
)
3
3 1
)(
8
3
(
6 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
·
+
+
− + +
+
·
+
+
− + +
+
·

σ
σ
ν
ν ν
ρ ω σ
Problem #S14
The interface pressure is:

,
`

.
|

− −
·
) ( 2
) )( (
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
i o
i o r
r r R
r R R r
R
E
P
δ
σ
x
25 . 1
45733
57000
· · SF
The radial interference is 0.013 mm. Substituting all the numbers:
The answer is P=50.4 Mpa.
Problem #S15 and #S16
Problem #S15: Using the impact formula and simplifying for h>>δ :
6
6
3
6
10 * 5 . 2
12
10 * 30 * 1
10 * 7 . 70 ) 1000 (
1000
10 * 5 . 2 * 1 * 2 2
· · ·
· ·

,
`

.
|
·
L
AE
K
lbs W
W
hk
F
e
The stress is 70.7 ksi.
Problem #S16: The two bars form a pair of two springs in series. The
equivalent spring is:
1000
12”
# S15
1000
6”
# S16
6”
40 0 20 10 * 207
3
· · · ·
o i
r r R E
ksi
lbs W
W
hk
F
e
6 . 81
10 * 6 . 81 ) 1000 (
1000
10 * 33 . 3 * 1 * 2 2
max
3
6
·
· ·

,
`

.
|
·
σ
Problem #17
The area, moment of inertia, and radius of gyration:
The slenderness ratio is:
The limit for the use of Euler versus Johnson formula is:
Since the slenderness ratio is larger than the limit, the Euler formula applies:
20438
60
) 2485 )(. 10 * 30 (
2
6 2
2
2
· · ·
π π
L
EI
C P
cr
The factor of Safety is:
SF=20438/5655 = 3.6
b) For this case:
in lb
L
E
A A
A A
K K
K K
K
e
/ 10 * 3 . 33 )
6
10 * 30
(
2 1
) 2 ( 1
) (
6
6
1 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
·
+
·
+
·
+
·
375 .
2485 .
64
) 5 . 1 (
64
767 . 1
4 4
2
· ·
· · · · ·
A
I
k and
d
I and r A
π π
π
160
375 .
60
· ·
k
l
3 . 93
68000
) 10 * 30 )( 1 ( 2 2
6 2 2
1
· · ·
,
`

.
| π π
y
S
CE
k
l
The slenderness ratio is:
We have to use the Johnson Formula:
42 . 4
5655
24975
24975 )
) 219 (. 2
18 * 68000
(
10 * 30
1
68000 6 . 0
1
2
2
6
2
· ·
·
]
]
]

− ·
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ·
SF
lbs
CE k
L S
S A P
y
y cr
π π
Problem #S18: Based on DET:
Based on MST:
Problem #S19
For this cast iron :
The critical point is the inner radius
219 . 0 0288 . 0 60 . 0 · · · k I A
82
60 .
0288 . 0
18
· ·
k
l
27 . 2
4 . 12732
50000 * 58 .
58 .
4 . 12732
) 2 (
20000 * 16 16
3 3
· · ·
· · · ·
τ
π π
τ
y
S
FS
psi
d
T
J
Tr
2
5 .
· ·
τ
y
S
FS
3
/ 26 . 211 . 0 30000 in lbs S
ut
· · · γ υ
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
0147 .
) ) 3 (
211 . 3
) 211 (. 3 1
3 5 * 2 )(
8
211 . 3
( ) (
386
26 .
)
3
3 1
)(
8
3
(
ω σ
ω σ
ν
ν ν
ρ ω σ
·
+
+
− +
+
·
+
+
− + +
+
·
t
t
o i
o i t
r
r
r r
r r
Since this is a principal stress and the other principal stress is zero (radial
stress is zero on the inner radius), we equate this stress to S
ut
.
Problem #S21
The question in this problem is the factor of safety against eventual fatigue
failure. First we calculate the maximum nominal shear stress:
We would apply the fatigue stress concentration factor to the nominal stress
to get the actual stress
Mpa 8 . 52 ) 6 . 35 ( 48 . 1 · · τ
The need to find the VonMises stress and compare it to strength
Mpa
a v
4 . 91 3
2
,
· · τ σ
On the strength side, the estimate of the endurance limit of the rotating
bending fatigue specimen is half of the tensile strength for steels:
Mpa S
e
259 518 ) 5 . 0 (
'
· ·
Applying the correction factors to estimate the endurance limit of this part:
Mpa S
e
182 ) 256 )( 78 . 0 )( 9 . 0 ( · ·
The factor of safety is:
2
91
182
· · n
rpm rad 13600 sec / 1428
30000 0147 . 0
2
≡ · ⇒
·
ω
ω
Mpa
J
Tr
6 . 35
) 20 (
32
) 10 )( 10 ( 56
4
3
· · ·
π
τ

5 ft The 2000 lbs creates a bending stress at Q that is tensile and is equal to: σx = Mzy Iz Where M z = 2000 * 4.5 ft 4.5 *12 d =2 2 πd 4 Iz = 64 y= Substituting into the bending formula. we get σ x = 17188 ' σx = psi The stress due to the axial load is compressive and is equal to: F 20000 = = 1591 A π ( 2) 2 psi The total stress is: σ = 17188 − 1591 ≅ 15600 Problem #4 .Problem #3 2000 lb 6 ft Q 20000 lb 4.

833) = = 57200 Iz 0.158 in 4 The stress at D is: σ= M z c 10000 * (0.8854 )( 2)( 2) psi . 75 −.833 Problem #5: Curved beam The neutral axis radius is: r −r 4− 2 rn = o i = = 2.375 (.D b y a c 7/8 3/8 1. 7 . 667 −.8854 − 2) = = 57945 eAri (3 − 2. 25 )(1.5) 3 + .667 ) 2 12 1 Ib = (1. 7 ( 5 .5 Location of centeroid: Ay = Aa y a + b y b 2 A 1.125 ) 2 12 Ia = The answer is: I z = 0.1 5 y = ( 3 5 ) .5-0.6 7 0 6 The area moment of inertia: I z = 2I a + I b 1 (. y = . 7 ) +3 5 ( 5) 2 2.375 (.375 − .5)(.667=0.158 psi note that c=1. 25 ) 3 + .8854 ln(ro / ri ) ln(4 ) 2 The stress at inner radius (critical point) is: σi = M (rn − ri ) 30000 (2.

the normal stress on the surface is 15600 psi.There is also an axial stress of 5000 psi acting on the cross-section making the total stress become σ total = 62945 psi Problem #6: Torsional stresses The maximum torsional shear stress is: τ= Tr 16T 16 ( 2000 * 6 *12 ) = = = 11460 J πd 3 π (4)3 psi Form Problem # 3. The state of stress is shown below: τ x y σ x The principal stresses are calculated as before using: σ σ  2 σ 1 . σ 2 = x ±  x  + τ xy = 21662 and − 6062 psi 2  2  2 The maximum shear stress at point Q is: τ max = 21662 + 6062 = 13860 2 psi Problem #7 .

5)=960 psi Problem #8 4 ft 6 ft The torque is divided according to torsional stiffnesses. In this case the left supports picks us (6/10)=0.6 of the torque and the right support takes 0.4 of the torque. .30” 20” The forces in the upper portion (Fu) and lower portion (FL) are: FU = KU F KU + K L EA 30 and FL = EA 20 KL F KU + K L Where KU = KL = Substituting into the force expressions: FU = 1 1 + 30 20 3 FL = F = 480 5 1 30 F= 2 (800) = 320 lbs 5 The maximum stress is (480/0.

5) =12 τ= VQ V (12 ) = = 11 ⇒ V = 90 .4 I Z b 49 .5 − 2) 2 + ( 4)( 2) 3 + ( 2)( 4)( 5 − 3.5) 2 = 49 .5 2( 2 * 4) Finding the centroid is as before: y= The area moment of inertia is: I = 1 1 ( 2)( 4) 3 + ( 2)( 4)( 3.Problem #9 P y-bar Cross-section yc The stress is τ= VQ IZb 2 * 4 * ( 2 + 4 + 1) = 3.3 12 12 Q is and Q = ( 2)( 4)( 5 − 3.3( 2) lbs Problem #10 .

6(2) τ= psi Problem #11 For this thin-walled tube: τ= T 200 *1000 = = 34 .Y Z VQ 250 * (1 * 6)( 4. φ= Problem #12 The critical point is the inner radius.66 deg .5) = = 11 .6 M pa 2 At 2(38 * 38 ) 2 The angle of rotation is: TSL 200 *1000 * ( 4 * 38 ) * 50 *10 = = 0. The tangential stress is: P −P  Pi ri 2 − Po ro2 − ri 2 ro2  o 2 i   r  σt = 2 2 ro − ri Setting r=ri and Po=0 we get .8 IZb 285 .011 rad 2 4 A Gt 4(38 * 38 ) 2 * 79 *10 3 * 2 φ = 0.

7) 2 ( )(12 .24 ) σ t = (3320 )( 216 . From theory. σ x The factor of safety is: SF = 57000 = 1.875) 2 = −11200 * = 45733 psi ro2 − ri 2 0.8752 − 0.5 2 + 75 2 + 75 2 − (12 .5) 2 )(10 −6 ) 8 3 + .6252 The state of stress is simple – just this tangential stress which is also the principal stress. Using the formula: r 2 r 2 1 + 3ν 2 3 +ν )( ri 2 + ro2 + i 2o − r ) 8 r 3 +ν 3 + .24 1 + 3(.24 σ t = 714963 pa 2 σt = ρ ω ( Problem #S14 The interface pressure is: Eδ r  (ro2 − R 2 )( R 2 − ri 2 )    P= R  2 R 2 (ro2 − ri 2 )    .25 45733 Problem #S13 The critical point is the inner radius.σ t = − Po 2ro2 2(0. we know that there are no shear stresses on these surfaces when the stress element in oriented with radial edges.

5 * 10 6 W = Fe =  (1000 ) = 70 . Problem #S15 and #S16 6” 12” 6” 1000 1000 # S15 # S16 Problem #S15: Using the impact formula and simplifying for h>>δ :  2hk  2 * 1 * 2. The equivalent spring is: .013 mm.7 ksi.5 * 10 6 L 12 lbs The stress is 70.The radial interference is 0.4 Mpa. Substituting all the numbers: E = 207 * 10 3 R = 20 ri = 0 ro = 40 The answer is P=50.7 * 10 3  W  1000   6 AE 1 * 30 * 10 K = = = 2. Problem #S16: The two bars form a pair of two springs in series.

2485 ) = = 20438 L2 60 2 The factor of Safety is: SF=20438/5655 = 3. and radius of gyration: A = πr 2 = 1.5) 4 = = .6 b) For this case: .3 *10 6 K1 + K 2 A1 + A2 L1 1+ 2 6  W =   ksi 2 * 1 * 3.375 The limit for the use of Euler versus Johnson formula is: l    =  k 1 2π 2 CE = Sy 2π 2 (1)(30 * 10 6 ) = 93 .Ke = K1 K 2 AA E 1(2) 30 * 10 6 = 1 2 ( )= ( ) = 33. moment of inertia.375 A The slenderness ratio is: l 60 = = 160 k . the Euler formula applies: Pcr = C π 2 EI π 2 (30 *10 6 )(.3 68000 Since the slenderness ratio is larger than the limit.2485 64 64 I = .33 * 10 6 (1000 ) = 81 .767 and k= and I= πd 4 π (1.6 * 10 3 1000 lb / in  2hk Fe =   W  σ max = 81 .6 lbs Problem #17 The area.

A = 0.211 σ t = .27 τ 12732 .0147 ω 2 2 σt = ρ ω ( .4 J πd 3 π (2) 3 .211) σt = (ω) 2 ( )( 2 * 5 2 + 32 − (3) 2 ) 386 8 3 + .4 psi Based on MST: FS = .211 γ = .42 5655 lbs Problem #S18: Based on DET: τ= Tr 16T 16 * 20000 = = = 12732 .26 3 + .211 1 + 3(.5S y τ =2 Problem #S19 For this cast iron : S ut = 30000 υ = 0.60 I = 0.0288 k = 0.58 S y .0288 .58 * 50000 FS = = = 2.219 The slenderness ratio is: l = k 18 = 82 0.26 lbs / in 3 The critical point is the inner radius r 2 r 2 1 + 3ν 2 3 +ν )( ri 2 + ro2 + i 2o − r ) 8 r 3 +ν .60 We have to use the Johnson Formula: 2   SyL  1   1 68000 *18 2   Pcr = AS y −   2πk  CE  = 0.6 68000 − 30 *10 6 ( 2π (. 219 ) )  = 24975         24975 SF = = 4.

6) = 52 .78 )( 256 ) =182 The factor of safety is: n= 182 =2 91 .8 σv .4 Mpa The need to find the VonMises stress and compare it to strength Mpa On the strength side.6 Mpa π J (20) 4 32 We would apply the fatigue stress concentration factor to the nominal stress to get the actual stress τ = 1. the estimate of the endurance limit of the rotating bending fatigue specimen is half of the tensile strength for steels: Se' = (0. we equate this stress to Sut. 0. First we calculate the maximum nominal shear stress: τ= Tr 56(103 )(10) = = 35.5)518 = 259 Mpa Mpa Applying the correction factors to estimate the endurance limit of this part: Se = (0.Since this is a principal stress and the other principal stress is zero (radial stress is zero on the inner radius).48 (35 .9)( 0. a = 3τ 2 = 91 .0147 ω 2 = 30000 ⇒ ω = 1428 rad / sec ≡ 13600 rpm Problem #S21 The question in this problem is the factor of safety against eventual fatigue failure.

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