Professor of Iranian Studies at the University of GOttingen






0iford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP Oxford New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Petalingjaya Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town Melbourne Auckland and associated companies in Beirut Berlin Ibadan' Nicosia Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 713559 5

© D. N.

MacKenzie 1971

First published 1971 Reprinted 1971 Reprinted (with corrections}1986 All rights reserved. No part of this publication m<ry be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in anyform or by a'!)' means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of 0iford University Press

Printed in Great Britain by Anto'!)' Rowe Ltd, Chippenham

THE need for even a short Pahlavi-English dictionary has been obvious for many years, particularly to would-be students of the language. The glossarial part of Professor H. S. Nyberg's Manual of Pahlavi is still eagerly awaited, five years after the publication of Part I, although the 'archaistic' tradition of transcription followed therein is no longer universally acceptable. With the partial material at present available, every serious student still has to compile his own dictionary, a formidable task with Pahlavi and made more so by the plethora of different systems of transcription in print. The present dictionary, admittedly introducing yet another transcription, is intended first to relieve the stranger to Pahlavi of the necessity of covering what is now well-travelled ground-the commonest 4,000 simple wordswithout a unified map, and secondly to urge the practical value of this 'Sasanian' transcription for his journeying further. To have included etymologies and textual references would have changed the emphasis of the work, turning it from a map to a historical atlas-cum-gazetteer, besides retarding its appearance unduly. Such a complete dictionary of Pahlavi is nowhere within sight and must remain so until many more texts are adequately edited. For his good counsel on what to include in the dictionary I am most grateful to my friend Dr. P. Gignoux of Paris, for without him many common words would have slipped through my net. Most of the labour of compiling the English index, which will surely be appreciated, was undertaken by my wife. The debt lowe to the teaching of the late Professor W. B. Henning, in connection with Pahlavi and all things Iranian, cannot be expressed in words. It is again a pleasure to acknowledge the support of the School of Oriental and African Studies in financing this publication, and the customary skill of the printers. D.N.M.







ALMOST every published list of Pahlavi words contains a number of entries of doubtful nature, the uncertainty lying either in their form, their meaning, or even, occasionally, their very existence. The purpose of this dictionary is to provide the student with a representative vocabulary of Pahlavi in which such uncertain words have been reduced to a minimum and marked. It differs from its predecessors in that the Pahlavi words are given in a phonemic transcription representing, as far as it is deducible from the evidence, the pronunciation they would have had in the third century of our era, the period of the rise of the Sasanian empire. The reasons for this departure from the 'archaistic' tradition of Pahlavi studies I have given elsewhere. [ If one reason stands out it is that of practicality, as most corroborative evidence comes from this period. To reduce the number of doubtful words it has been necessary to concentrate on the simpler vocabulary of such texts as the Kdrndmag i Ardaxiir, Dddestdn i Minog i Xrad, Ardii Wiriiz niimag, Bundahiin, and the Pahlavi Texts edited by JamaspAsana. Although I have also drawn upon the Pahlavi versions of scriptural texts (V endidad, Yasna, and Vispered), most of their very special vocabulary has been omitted. So have the many nonce-words and ad hoc compounds of religious texts such as the Denhard, since it is generally a simple matter to analyse Pahlavi compounds, given the elements and provided that the rules of their construction are understood. Those words calling for inclusion whose form or meaning remain doubtful are marked with an asterisk. By its nature the dictionary cannot claim to contain the entire vocabulary of any particular text. Nor is there any express intention of presenting new solutions to the many problems remaining in the Pahlavi texts. Rather the readings of many scholars have
I 'Notes on the transcription of Pahlavi', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, xxx, pt. 1 (1967), 17-29.



been adopted, eclectically, and grateful acknowledgement is hereby made to all whose discoveries have been assimilated within. Nevertheless, I must retain responsibility for the choice as a whole and for readings and interpretations unclaimed or unpublished elsewhere.

The script of the Pahlavi books derives ultimately from that of the official Aramaic of the Achaemenian empire. In the course of time, however, a high degree of ambiguity has developed in the script. Table I shows the development of the letters from Imperial Aramaic (with the transliteration and names of letters commonly used by Semitists), through the distinct forms used in the Parthian and Persian inscriptions of the third century A.D., and the archaic manuscript forms of the Psalter fragment (about seventh century)," to those of the Zoroastrian books. In addition to the multiple values of the letters listed, some of them may represent combinations of letters in certain contexts, e.g .. _,; or J.' for ~ + ... Since the ambiguities of the script make a mechanical transliteration of one letter by one roman symbol of no practical value, a certain amount of interpretation is essential. This interpretation can be based, either directly or by the use of analogy, on the less ambiguous evidence of the above-mentioned earlier documents of the language. With this help it is possible to go far in distinguishing between the original values >, ~, dy, etc., of ....., n, w, r of , , and so on. But it is neither necessary nor desirable to go beyond this by attempting to give closer 'phonetic' values to the letters, such as r for written I, or x for written s. For example, ~\'" ~wl represents xwar 'sun', but to transliterate it ·xwr entails both confusion with the true letter r , and the introduction of even greater ambiguity into the interpretation of ..... It is better to accept that the scribes wrote rand 1 almost indis1 See F. C. Andreas, Bruchstiicke einer Pehleoi-Uberseteung der Psalmen. Aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben von Kaj Barr. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin), 1933. i. 91-I5Z. I I plates.



Imperial Aramaic
, ('MciW b (bet) g (gimcl) d (dalct) h (he) w Iwaw) '/.(zayin)

Inscriptions Parthian i Persian







I 7' II 7
crt ?





~ ~

.~ g






I (lei) y (yo~) k (kar) I (Iiimcg) m (mem) n (nun) s (samek) • Cayin) p (pc)
J (






" "








~, g ...



) -6
,~ W


::::..: \V




,~ W


d~a<Jc) ~
q (qop)

'" ?


sis (s/sin)
t (taw) --,-----tion,


J 'V




- ..-


:n .

a tv I r:



'"' W






'"' w

=w .Jo()




"" The under- and cver-Iiuing aleph, hillr, ere,

ill Semitic transcription

iudicates a fricative pr.muncia-



criminately for both phonetic values, ~ for both Iranian h and x, etc., and to transliterate accordingly. It is common practice to distinguish the Semitic ideograms in Pahlavi, from the Iranian elements, by transliterating them in capital letters. Thus the same letters ,~ are transliterated l~ykl when they stand for rahlg 'child', but LljYKI when they represent the ideogram for dur 'far'. However, as the ideograms are often much distorted and disguised forms of the original Aramaic words, it is sufficient for practical purposes to transliterate them by means of a simplified system. The system adopted hereafter in this book, for both ideographic and Iranian spellings, is designed to avoid the use of diacritics as far as possible and also to parallel the system now conventional for the representation of the related Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian script. Each letter is throughout given its basic Iranian value(s), thus c and C for Aramaic s, h and II for Aramaic ~. A represents the capital form of ' ('tilep). There are three letters which occur only in ideograms: Q (in the word QDM = abar; otherwise it is replaced by K), E, and O. E stands for the Aramaic he (when it is not replaced by ~i!) and 0 for Aramaic 'ayin, the roman letters being descendants of these Semitic forms respectively. Thus OLE (= oy) is a form of shorthand for an Aramaic original 'lh, HCDLWN~ (= *drun-) indicates a corruption of the Aramaic root ~~d. Purists will find no difficulty in restoring the forms with diacritics. Pahlavi letters are often distorted, or joined irregularly, in such a way that they coincide with other letters, so producing even greater ambiguity. The commonest distortions are here noted by under- or over-lining the letter value intended. Thus:

.s (03')

, (g, etc.), when it represents


b, is transliterated



" "

" "

s Y, V'" 'p,,,

"Y "


The full scheme of transliteration is given in Table II. The order is still that of the Aramaic alphabet, taking account of the first value of each letter.







h h

_, _,

r n] (


'?\t) C.


!!.~. K





[run, etc.) w n




0 R




z k r)


z, 3,)









Q) ~

c i\


-"U ¥' le


r. p
!2ll ".)
r J\T..........



I. J>(y


...Y, besides -yy, etc., may be a corruption of -h, so -lJ.

"h, etc., may be a corruption of final -ydy, so -~.

3. The digraphs ~ and ~, when they follow a verbal ideogram, may represent any 'phonetic complement' (including zero). They can be transliterated, purely for mnemonic purposes, by the letters they resemble:~ as yt and Itt- as ty.1 4. i.e. an otiose stroke. '-' ~ S. ~ yt, etc., may bea corruption of to -sn, so -§!J, and ~ (following another letter) may be for \(. -c', so -!:'.


The orthographic principles followed, in seemingly haphazard permutation, in the writing of Pahlavi, besides the ideographic, include the phonetic (within the limits of the alphabet), the historical, the pseudo-historical, and others so indeterminable as scarcely to merit the name. The establishment of the original spelling of a word, therefore, very seldom reveals its pronunciation. To determine this it is necessary to examine all the available comparative evidence. Since the discovery of the Iranian material written in the nearphonetic Manichaean script it has become possible to establish a hypothetical phonemic system for Middle Persian and Parthian of the third century A.D. far more accurate than before, when only the remoter evidence of Old Iranian, New Persian, and loanwords in other languages (particularly Armenian) was available. A description of this phonemic system has been given in my article cited above. Within its terms all the entries in this dictionary are transcribed. The system comprises the following phonemes:







ii u

But see Kaj Barr, 'Remarks on the Pahlavi ligatures ~ and If', Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, viii, pt. 2 (1936),391-403.



Consonants p b f
t C




s z


X y(z)



n rl


(I) The phonemic status of e and 0 is doubtful and they are only marked when there is direct evidence of their occurrence. (2) Only in non-Persian, i.e. 'learned' or loaned, words. The phonetic realizations of these phonemes can only be supposed to have been similar to those of the corresponding sounds of present-day Western Iranian speech. The only allophonic variation of importance concerns the voiced stops b, (d ?), g, and affricate J. Between a vowel and a following consonant, in the same morpheme or close juncture, these almost certainly became the fricatives LB, (8), y, z] respectively. Thus abd, tigr, duJd~n represent pronunciations [·a,8d, tiyr, duzden]. How far, or when, this development affected the same phonemes elsewhere in postvocalic position is uncertain. It is sufficient to regard [,8, 8, y, z] as possible realizations of postvocalic b, d, g, j.l




In seeking an unknown word, or one known only in another transcription, it may be necessary first to find it in the Pahlavi key. The English-Pahlavi index is intended to serve as an aid to memory, and for tracing synonyms, etc., but is emphatically not an English-Pahlavi dictionary. The main entries, with two exceptions, are arranged throughout in the following order:

ii, b,

e. d, ~, r,

g (y), h, I, J, k, I, m,

n, ~, p, r, s, S, t,

ii, w, x, y, z (!).

I This [y] is an allophone of the Persian phoneme ~, while y of the transcription is a non-Persian phoneme. Parthian also had a phoneme I, replacing Persian J.



The exceptions arc: (i) abstract nouns ending in -Ih [-yh] , which immediately follow the words from which they are derived, e.g. sturih after stur. before sturg: (ii] verbal nouns formed from the present stems by the suffix -isn [-Inl] and their derivatives in -isnig [_fnykl] , -isnih [-Inyh], which are all listed under the verb. Verbs are quoted in the infinitive form, followed by the present stem, except when either of these is not certainly attested. Cross references are made where necessary. Not all verbal derivatives are included if they are regularly deducible from the 'principal parts' of the verbs given, e.g. actor nouns in -dar/-tar [-t'l], and past participles in -dagj-tag [-tkl], corresponding to infinitives in -dan/-tan [-tnl]; the abstract nouns in -Ih formed from these (e.g. -darfh, -daglh): agent nouns in -ag [_'kl] formed from present stems, etc.

Pahlavi words are always given in bold type. The few entries in italics are concessions to another transcription, made for reference. P before a main entry indicates that the word is found only in texts of Parthian origin, namely the Ayiidgiir i Zaririin and Draxt i Asiirig. An asterisk denotes that the transcription or reading of the word is unconfirmed and remains doubtful. Within square brackets the following information is given: (i) The transliteration of the Pahlavi spelling. In the case of ideograms this is followed immediately by an indication of the Aramaic (A) origin of the spelling. With verbs this can seldom be given more closely than by the form of the Aramaic root. When the Pahlavi spelling of the present stem of a verb coincides with part of that of the infinitive, however much they differ in transcription, the transliteration is given in abbreviated form, with a hyphen. Thus Ikwp-tnl denotes 'infinitive Ikwptn' (= skuftan). present stem Ikwp- (= skof-)', YMYTWN-tnl



denotes 'infinitive


YMYTWNtn' (= mlr-)',

(= murdan), present stem

(ii) Evidence supporting the transcription. For 'learned' words taken from the Avesta the form which the Pahlavi represents, however corruptly, is quoted (as '= AV.').I In such cases the Pahlavi transcriptions are more hypothetical than usual, since they can be no more than probable representations of the contemporary pronunciation of these words. Justification of the transcription of each word would require the discussion of a mass of etymological and comparative evidence far beyond the scope of this dictionary. Only that evidence is included, therefore, which is most closely related and lends itself to concise and regular presentation. After the vertical stroke the corresponding forms from Manichaean Middle Persian (M) and/or Parthian (P) are given wherever possible. The appearance of only a Parthian form does not necessarily imply that the Pahlavi word is of non-Persian origin. It may be that the identical Middle Persian form is not attested in Manichaean script. Later forms of the word are quoted from Judaeo-Persian (J-from whatever source) and the earliest New Persian (Nrarely in their Arabic guise, when this has displaced the Persian, Ar.). When the forms presented are not directly comparable, being from a different dialect or in some way modified (e.g. by popular etymology), they are enclosed in parentheses. (Example overleaf)




In Bartholomaean transcription i Altiranisches W6rterbuch) except for rv, replacing q, rv, v respectively.



win_I winiJnI didanI winwinilnig winiSn didan

-\\~ \YUmeJ'"
\I t'" "lO>"" -t'l

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) wyn-

\~t'O,. I


didan, wen- [HgYTWN-tn'
wyn-, N ......"bin-] see. ,_,isn: sight, seeing. ,_,isnil1: visible.

< A ..JJ:zzy;dytn',

I M dydn,

wen-, ,_,isn(-ig), v. didan.
(1) ~"~ is an ideographic spelling of wen-, present stem of didan. It consists of the letters H, Z (reduced to a shape of G), Y, T, W, N, being a (normal) Pahlavi development from the Aramaic root J:zzy. The infinitive (3) has the 'phonetic complement' -tn', for the -dan of didan. (7) mw dytn' spells the infinitive. didan, and (4) -t'l wynthe present stem wen-. In Manichaean Middle Persian the corresponding forms are spelt dydn, wyn- respectively, indicating the same pronunciation. In New Persian the infinitive is still didan, but the present stem has become, regularly, bin-, The verbal noun wenisn may be written part ideographically (2) HgYTWNln' or 'phonetically' (6) wynlnl• The derived adjective wenisnig is attested in the spelling (5) wynlnyk' (but could occur as H?YTWNfnyk').

A Ar.




Aramaic Arabic astrology, astronomy Avestan calendar intransitive

literally Manichaean Middle Persian (early) New Persian Parthian plural singular transitive


lit. M N P


/ ()

(N ... )


(the same as) the main entry doubtful transcription, meaning separates alternatives variant form, spelling N, etc., form not directly comparable the same spelling in M, etc.



labii.z didan 0 : 1. attribute, ascribe to; 2. appoint to. labr ... add M '{3r ! va-Ur add helpless. deleteJa-diiltag ... (read i"(iiltag) add v4'friz ['pI' c I N faraz] acclivity. vS'f8on add M "pswn. vilgir , add useless. vigoii [)kw~ I (M »w~, P 'gwc), N a,,(o§] embrace, armful. add J,,(iAtag ['gy§tk' I P Pgy§t, N a,,(i§ta] mixed, defiled. add \J\hliAwang [' hIy§wngj Ard. delete'1\hriAwang ... for vi.lum ... read va:Jum ['Iwm I N ~] millet. vasnud(ag) ... delete noble. aswir [PR/LSYA < A pr§y'; ... iAnig .. , add acquainted with. iiitih add conc.ord. ayid read ['~q't' I. for bahr and bahrag . read bahr(ag) [b'hl(k') I M bhr, N ~(a)] part, portion, share, lot; reason. (az) in bahrag riy : on that a.ccount, therefore. for bahrwar ... read bahr(ag)war [b'hl(k)wl I N bahrawarj partaking, participator, partner. ~ih : pa.rticipation, advantage. biliy add M b'l'y . add balgam [!?Igm I N bahamj phlegm. baxtan .,. add divide. bayaspin [by'sp'n' I M] ... beliir for M read P bylwr. 2boy add incense. buland ... add aloud. ~andldan ... I (M cn-ystn), J -l ... ~iAn : tandi§j ... add ~axrag [c hIk' I M cxr, N tarx] wheel, circle. ~iJnIg ... add caused, justified, reasonable. dagrand-xwadiy ... delete eternal. dast-gtr Idstgyl ! N delete: dst OHDWN, ...




~l ...

did ... add other. add dig [YTMAL < A *' tm' 1 I N d~ yesterday. delete ·drem (read balgam) drubullt add protective. drust [drw(d)st' ... dull-cihr ... add ill-natured. dull-nim [-n'm I (M dwjn'm), N ~] add ill-famed. dullwir [dw~w'll (M dwjw'r), ... ekinag ... for obedient read loyal, faithful. -Th : for obedience read loyalty, faithfulness. for Farrobig ... read Farrobiy [plnb(' )g] ... frayid [pl(y)d't' I N faryad] ... delete M pry'd. fruand [prz/z:nd I ... frullag ... add M ptwsg. garodmin ... read I P grdm'n. gazdum Igcd(w)m, gzd(w)m I ... guftir ... , ~ih : add eloquence. hambir [hmo, hnb' 1 I ... add harnest [hmyst'] whose good and bad deeds weigh equal. -(ag)in i-(k)'n'] limbo, the neutral station between heaven and hell. delete hammist , ~(ag)in ... handarz add M )ndrz. harnrnoxt.an , hammos-, ",illn : add learning. hast [TWMNYA < A nnny "; ... add hug [HZWLYA < A Qzyr'j hwk' hwg, N xilg] pig. add hukar(ag) [hwkl(k') I N xilkara] porcupine. (not hedgehog) add ·huzirag [hwc'lk I N xu]arallittle,small, few. IJadag add fortune. Judan I M jwwdn, jwy- ... add kariwull [kl'w~ IN",] wine-press. delete karbunag ... read karbug [klpwk', klbwk'llizard. kardagin ... add service (of the gods). delete karxos ... read mi ... N mal not. delete midayir ... minig ... add house-owner. mayinJig ... add arbiter. for I -3mez_ read 1-2mez_, v. Imezilln, mistan.


delete fOT for

mezfdan suck. zmezisn read Imezisn ... mistan, 3mez_ read ... 2mez_ .. , rnihoxt [11lytwht' Av. mi8aoxta-] falsehood. 2mihr .. add ~ druxtan : break faith. add mizidan, mls- [myc-ytn' I N mazfdan] suck. fOT *mo1-mard ... read mowmard ... moy ... add M mwy. read nixun [n'hwn' I P nxwn, N naxun] (finger) nail. delete niyizag (read wezag). nek, -ih add benefit. nibastan delete SKBHWN-tn' < A y'skb; nibistan read M nb'st, P nb'y-. nfbeg ... add M nbyg. nibiitan ... [YKTYBWN-tn' ... (not -stn'). nidan, nay- [D~(Y)LWN-tn' < A y'dbr I ... nigiin, ""sal' [-B'11 (P ngws'r)] downwards. add "'niheb inyhyp IN",,] fear, terror. fOT nisin read nisan . niyaz, -omandih add necessity. re ad niyoxSidan ... no [TSA < A ts' (not ts'). delete ozarak . padist add threat. pad-rrlgertsn ... for cared for, guarded read carefully. add parisp [p1sp 1 M prysp] wall. 2pid ... add (M pyt). purniy [pw1n'd Av. p~r.lnayu-] adult. add purr-marg [-mIg] deadly, baneful. raz ... add M rz. add rebis [Iyp's I N -] rhubarb. 2ristag ... add N rasta. add rox [1hw' I N -] rook, castle (chess). sahistan ... read (M shyd, P s'y-). add sirwiir [s'1w'I] helmet. add sayistan, say- [SKBHWN-tn < A y'~kb I P sy-] lie down. sneh for sword read club, weapon. Zsog add N - 'grief'. for Sosyans ... read SoSiins [swks'ns ... add S8 by iiI' !sPy) 1 ! N ""] grape syrup. skaft ... read 1. = skeft; 2. cave.





for for add for delete add and read

add for add add for add delete delete

for fOT Amend

Anixtan ... read M (sn' S-. Ausa), •.• read lIuhr . ti ... read Ita rOD < A "d I (M d", P t', N~] until, while, within; so that. 2tii [t'k' I N ~]like, peer. lUg ... read tig ... , add M t'g. 2tiig .,. tahm [thlll I =M, N -l strong, brave. tik [t' k' I N ~ 'vine'] branch. tohm{ag) [twhm(k') twhm, -g, N tuxm, -a] ... wanigar [wnykl] prodigal. ~ih : prodigality, waste. wany IH(W)BDN < A bwbdn", y1'bd I '" wany(b)udib [HWBDN'bwtyh, ... war-wesag [wl-w'yck'] andiixtan : cast lots. wizig ... read -wiizig !-w'cyk' I N -Mz] -player. wezag !w'yck'] lot. wiyiibiin, ~ig ... add confusing. Wizars Iwyzg] a demon. wiziistan, read wiziiyidan, wiziiy- !wys ' d-ytn' ... wlz udan = wiziyidan. xig [ZKYA < A zq" IN XJ(k)] leather bag. xug ... (read bug). xukar(ag) ... (read bukar(ag)). xwadiiy read N xuday. xwarg add live coal. yazd Tead yazad ... N lzad, yazd. yazdin ... read yazadiin ...


English-Pahlavi Appendix

Index and Pahlavi

Key accordingly.

(p. 142)

(i) read Ard (Ahliswang].
(ii) add Wizars.

(p. 143)
(vii) read p. 166 [142i after

frarast , are$n ....
81 add dig.

p. 179 [1l5] for karezar

read karesar .

....._,p. 220 [33] fOT arg, halag read alag , halag.

a- ['- I M '-] privative prefix, uno, -less. then (generally with a suffixed pronoun, e.g. A-i). iib [MY A < A my'; 'p I M "b, N -] water. ~ "r~ ibid ['p'tl I M 'b'd, N -] populous, thriving, prosperous. -ih : prosperity. iibidAn ['p't'nl I N -] thriving, prosperous, cultivated. <-Ih ; prosperity, cultivation. abiididA(y) ['p'thI'(d), v. plidixAA(Y)]without authority, powerless. ~ih: powerlessness; anarchy. abiidyAwand ['p'tyd'wnd I J 'b'dywn(d)] powerless, weak. -ih: powerlessness, weakness. abA~ [LWTE < A lsot-b I M 'b'g, N (a)ba] with. -ih ['p'kyh] company, assistance. abagenidan, abiigen- ['J;>kyn-ytn'] accompany. a-bahr ['b'hl] portionless, deprived. abi'im ['p'm I P 'b'myh, N (ii)wiim] loan, debt. Ablin ['j;>nl I M 'b'n, N -] cal. 8th month; loth day. aband ['pnd, v. pand I M 'bnd] erring. -ih: error. -abar [QDM < A qdm; 'pll M 'br, N bar] up; on, over. - iimadan: rise (sun). - axis tan : rise up. - llxrarnidan: step up. - burdan: undertake. - madan: cope with, comprehend. - nigeridan: consider. - nihumbidan: conceal. - niiastan: sit, be enthroned. - niiistan: seat, install. - rasidan: come to, upon. - rasidan 0: attain. "abar ['pi] higher, superior. -a~ [-g I M 'brg] superior. ,~agiin(ag) [-k'n(k)l] superior. -dar [-tl, 'rvltll M 'brdT] higher. -dom [-twm I M 'brdwm] highest. -domih [-twmyh] superiority. abargar ['plgl] god, divinity. abarig(an) ['plyk('n)'] = abarag, abiirig ['ji'Tykl I M 'b'ryg, J 'b'ry] other.

a ['J




abd sablstan

abarmiln ['plm'n'] in charge. abarmand ['ptm'nd] inheritance, privilege. abarmAnIg ['plm'nyk ] noble. ' abar-meniAn ['plm)'n/n'] proud, haughty. abarOn ['p'{wnl I N warun] contrary, wrong, sinful. -ib: sin. abar-Oz ['pl'we] stronger. ~ib: mastery. abar-tan ['pltn'] arrogant. ~ih: arrogance. abarwez ['ptwye I (M 'brwyj, N parwlz)] triumphant, victorious. ~ih: triumph, victory. abarzen, v. "maAk. abaxA ['jihS] repentant; regret. -ih: repentance. abaxAilwand ['phI'wlld] regretful. abaxAilyidan, abaxAay- ['jihS'd-ytn' I M 'bx/'y-, N baxliidan, baxlay-] forgive, have mercy on. -iAn: mercy, forgiveness. -IAnig: forgiving, merciful. labAxtar ['ji'htll M 'b'xtr] planet. lablixtar ['p'htll (N biixtar 'west')] north. abaydilg ['jiyt'kl, v. paydilg I M 'byd'g] invisible. .-ib: invisibility. abiiy- : abilyi!d ['p'ytl I M 'b'yd, N bayad] it is necessary, fitting; must infinitive) . .-lst ['p'dst' I N bayist] it was necessary. -Istan ep'dstn'] be necessary, fitting; desire, want. -iAn: necessity. -iAnig: necessary, fitting, seemly. abilz [LAWHL < A l-'(w)br; 'p'c I M 'b'c, N baz, wa] back, again, reo. _ dildan 0: attribute, ascribe to. ; Aft.i.' ho - diiAtan: withhold, restrain, prevent. - estiidan az: abandon, desist from. - kardan: open. - kardan az: disengage from, wean. - mandan: remain behind. - padan: remain, stay. - raftan: issue, go forth. - wastan 0: turn into, become. - wiriistan: rearrange. abilzsilr [LAWHLs'l] rebellious. -ih: rebellion. ilb-~ihrag ['p cyhlkl] holding the seed, essence of water. abd ['pd I M 'Pd, J 'bd-] wonderful. .- sahistan: seem wonderful (to) > marvel.





-ih: wonder. iib-dan ['pd'n'J water-holder. abdast ['pdst'] hand-guard. abdom ['pdwm I M 'bdn'm] last, final(ly). ~ih; finality, end. abd-sahlst ['pdsltstl] wonderful. abe- ['py(y)- I M "by-, N be] without, -less. ~- bar [-bl] fruitless. ~-bes [-byl] unharmed. --bim [-bym] fearless. ~- bimih: fearlessness. --boy [-bwd] senseless. ~- boyih: senselessness. --bud(ih) [-bwtl, -bwtyh] deficiency. --~lm [-cym] without reason, cause. abediin ['pyt'nl] of use, wanted. abe-I-I~uman [-gwm'nl] without doubt, certain. --gumanih: certainty. ~-mlzag [-lII(y)ckl) tasteless. _-must [-mwstl] uncomplaining, content. ~-niyaz [-lIyd'c] free from want. --as [-'wi I M 'by'wl, N beho!] senseless, unconscious. --osih; senselessness, unconsciousness. aber ['jiyl] very, much. abe-rah ['h·l's] erring. abcsar ['pysll M "bysr, N afsar] crown. abesfherrldan , abesfhen- ['pshyn-yt11I, v. abesihidan] destroy. -iSn(ih): destruction. abesihidan, abesih- ['ps(y)h-ytn' I M 'bysyh-) perish, be destroyed. ~isn(ih): destruction, ruin. abespar'dan ['f>sp'ltnl) = abespurdan. abespurdan, abespar- ['jispwltnl, 'psp'l- I M 'byspwrd, 'bysp'r-, N sipurdan, sipiir-] commit, entrust, consign. abestag ['f>(y)st'k'] Avesta, the Mazdean scriptures. abestarn ['pst'm] = abestan, abestiin ['f>st'nl] refuge, support, trust. abestan ['pystnl I P "bystn, N iibistan] = Abustan. abe-sud ['pyji swtl] profitless. ,...ih: profitlessness. a-bes ['by!] harmless; unharmed, invulnerable. -ih: harmlessness; invulnerability. abe-l-wtnah [own's I M >bywn' I] innocent. --wizend [-wznd] harmless, invulnerable, safe. abezag ['pyckl I M 'bycg, (N we.ta)] pure, holy. -ih: purity, holiness. abeziir ['pyz'l, 'pyc'{ I N bezar] free.




abgandan, abgan- [LMYTWN-ill' < A V rill'; 'Phll- I M 'bgnd, "bgn-, N aJgan-dan] throw. abgiir- ['pk'I-] provide, promote. \. )L I,\(,~' iibgenag ['Mynk', MYABynk' IN abgina] crystal, glass. l~!.l;?~ ",I' -en[-yn'] crystalline. 7' ¥., 0,1\ , J iibig ['pyk' I N dbi] aquatic, watery. ~.~ Abilag [>ptkl I N ~a] blister. a-blm [>bym] fearless. iib-kAm.ag ['pk'mkl I N ~a] a thick, sour soup. abnns ['pnws I (N abnUs)] ebony. a-b6y ['bwd] senseless. -ih: senselessness. abr ['bl, 'pi I N ~] cloud. 1'\ '/>( I abrang ['ping I N aurang] glory, splendour. abriistan, abraz- ['f>Z'stnl, 'pl'e- I M 'br'st, N (aJraftan) , aJraz-) lift, raise. abrAz ['pl'e I N aJraz] acclivity. abreiom. ['ply!(w)m I M 'bryfwm, N ~] silk. -en [-ynl] silken. abri'ixtan, abr6z- ['plwhtnl, 'phvc- I M 'brwxt, "bruic-, N afriixtan, aJroz-] light, kindle, illuminate, polish. -illn(ih): illumination. Ab-tazan ['fitenl] watercourse. a-bun ['bwn'] baseless, bottomless. a-burd-frarnan ['bwltplm'nl] disobedient. -ih: disobedience. aburnAy ['p(w)ln'd, v. purnay I N burna] under age, child. -ih: childhood. aburnAyag ['p(w)ln'(d)yk'] child. abus ['pws] (woman) having just given birth. -ih: childbirth. Abu8, -tan ['pws, _tnl I M 'bwws, v. iibestan) pregnant. ~ih: pregnancy. abyoxtan, aby6z- ['pywhtnl, 'Jiywe-l join, mix. Ab-zan ['pznl I N ~] bath. labziir ['jic'I, 'pz'll M "bc'r, N aJzar] instrument, means; spice. labziir ['pz'll M 'bz'r] skill, power; powerful. ~6m.and [-'wmnd] skilled, able. abzay-, -illn, v. abzudan, abz6n ['pzfvnl I M, J 'bzwn, N aJzun] increase, growth. -ig [-ykl] increasing, expansive, bountiful. ~igih: bountifulness. abziidan, abzAy- ['pzwtnl, 'pz'd- I M 'bz'y-, N aJzildan, aJzay-] increase, grow. -illn: increase, growth. a-fAr ['e'l] inevitable, hJrIW -ag [-k'] compelled.





a-dad ['d'l'], a-rladestan [>-DYNA, -J>tst>n'] illegal, unjust. ,~ih: injustice, illegality. a-dahrn. [''''lim] uninitiated. -iidan [-'tn' I P ->dn, N -] suffix forming secondary infinitives. a-dan ['d'n' I M 'd'n] ignorant. -ih : ignorance. -iidiin ['t'n'] wealthy, solvent; wealth. -ih : wealth. a-dard ['dlt'] painless. iidaro~ ['tlwk'], iitaxii i - : the simplest kind of sacred fire. iidehig ['dhyk'] indigenous, domestic. aden ['tyn' I M >dyn] entry. -aden['dYll- I = M] bring, lead. iidi§t ['tyst'] fire-stand. 1I. dih')~ ['J,,'h~'l etminfufilled. r&<l d'i Hl-,'S .. lldug ['twl<' ! M "dwg] capable.. ~S I ,.,,~( iidur['twr' 1M >dWT, N adar] fire; the god "Fire"; cal. 9th month; 9th day. ~iidurestar ['tzvrystl] ashes. -en [-yn'] ashen. iidur-giih ['twrg's] fire altar. I fr-:_ \ I octrme. ar, ~ ~ \"_pn,\ N [v ..~\ 'Ik« ;v'~1 \_ I' ~ f ra h [' p I' s 1M" pr 'I) teac I'ling, doctri a-frasiiwand ['pls'wlld] imperishable. iifridan, afrin/ afur- ['ply tn' , 'pIyn-, 'pwl- I M >p(w)ryd, 'pwr-, P 'fryn-, N iifaridan, afartn-] praise, 'bless; create. n afrin ['pry,,' I M 'pryn, N afarin] praise, blessing. \1\.'1"" "f<1... -a~iin [-k'II'] Afrinagan prayers. afrosag ['plwsh' I N - a] a sweetmeat made of flour, butter, and honey. -afsiUan ['jis'l'n' I (N absalan)] springtime. afsan ['ps'n' I (M "ps'ng), N afsana] story, fable. afsardan, afsar- ['jisl-tn'] cool down. afsardan, afsar- ['ps'l-tn'] cool, freeze, extinguish. -isn: cooling. afsay-, v. afsudan. afsenistan, afsen- ['psyn-stn', v. abeslhen-Idan] destroy. -iAn: destruction. afson ['jiswn' I N afsun] spell, incantation. tI\ afsos ['jisws I N -] scorn, mockery. -~ar [-gl] mocker. afsiidan, afsay- ['jiswtn', 'ps'd-] enchant, protect by spell. afAiindan, afAan- ['p['n-tn' I N -] spread, scatter, sow. afiiiirdan ['p['ltn' I N -] = afAurdan. afAurdan, afAiir- ['jiswltn', 'ji['I- I N -] press, compress, crush. iifuridan, afur- ['jiwl-ytn', v. afridan] create. -Um: creation. -.Ig [-h' : M -g, N -a] suffix forming (i) adjectices, from nouns and verbal SIPIIIS, (ii) nouns, from adjectives and present stems.




'<' ~~


-Ag [-'hi I M -'g, N -Il] suffix forming agent nouns from present stems. a-gAb eg's] without rank. AgAbeh's I M 'g'(h), N -I aware, knowing. -ih: knowledge. agAh~nidan, iigilhen- eh'syn-ytn'] inform. Agandan, ligan- ekn-dn' I P "gnd, N -] fill, stuff. a-ganJ ehnell penniless. agar [HT, for A hn I M 'sr, N -] if. agar eh'll M 'g'r-] inactive, powerless; "\tel«> -ih: inactivity, impotence. agarenidan, agiiren- [)h'lyn-ytnl] render powerless. aglirihistan, aglirIh- eh'lyh-stn' I M 'g'r.l'yh-] become powerless. ag-den Ph-, 'gdyn'] of evil religion, infidel. -ih: heterodoxy, non-Mazdean religion. ') ilgen~n ['h(y)nynl I M(')'g(y)nyn] together. '""",,1.4' agO! ekw/l (P )gwc), N ayal] embrace. ",.~ a-gOwAg ['gwb)hl] speechless, dumb. ayre ey-, )klyy = Av. ayrya-] highest, greatest. ilgrift eglpt' = Av. agiJrllpta-] crime, offence; a degree of sin. a-griftilr eglpt'l] intangible, impalpable. a-guman ['gwm)nl] without doubt, certain. a-gumeg egwmyk' I M 'gwmyg] unmixed, pure. -Ih: purity. '\) Agustan [)hwstn' I M "gwst] hang up, suspend. ~'~'l wcAhan ['h(y)n , )s(y)nl I M "hwn, N -] iron. ' -en [)synynl] iron, of iron.

-gar [-hI I N -] blacksmith. iihang [)hng] pull, draught. ahanJldan ['hncytnl] = ilhixtlln. ahaniiz ehnwc I M 'hnwn-c, N hamiz] yet, still. Ahen = iihan, q.v. iihid ehyt' I M (»'hyd] stain, impurity; confused. -ih: pollution; confusion. iihixtan, iihanJ- [)hhtn', "hnc- I M "hxtn, ('hynz-), N ahixtan, -] draw out, pull up, extract. ahlii [,ht>y I (M -)hr'y)] righteous (of Srus). ahlaw [)hlwb' I M 'hlfll] righteous. -ih: righteousness. ahlaw-diid [,hIwb d't'] alms, charity. ahliiyih [,hl'dyh] righteousness. AlJjfWI>M,\ '''jl ~Ad ahlomOy [)hlmwh' I M )hlmwg] heretic. _..) -ih: heresy. AhOa ehwhl I M "hwg, N aho] fault, blemish. iihOg~nidan, Ahogen- ['hfllkyn-ytnl] defile. a-homiinlig [)hwm'n'h'] unlike. ahoi [)hwI] deathless, immortal.





-ih: immortality. Ahr [,hi] dread, fury. ahrAftan, ahram- ['hl'ptnl, 'hl'm- I M 'hr'ptn, 'hr'm-] raise, lead up. Ahreman ['hl(y)mnl I M 'hrmyn, N -] the Evil Spirit .

Ahfll1 [TYBA < A Iby'; 'hwhl I M(')'hwg, N ahu] gazelle. ahunawar ['hnwl] the holiest prayer, beginning YaBa ahu wairyo. a-hunsand ['hwnmd] dissatisfied. -lh: dissatisfaction. ahy [KZY < A h-zy I M 'hy] soon(est), first. ajl1ahAn ['lgh'nl I M 'jg'h'n, N a:fgahan] lazy, indolent. -ih: laziness, indolence. ak ['hi I N dh] evil, harm. oak [-hi I N -] diminutive suffix. a-kAmagOmand ['h'mk'wmnd] unwilling. a-kanarag ['kn'lhl I M 'qn',g] unlimited, boundless. -lh: boundlessness. a-kard ['hrtl I (M 'gyrd)] not done, undone. AkOman ['hwmnl I M 'qwmn] Evil Thought, an arch-demon. akOmand ['h'wmnd] evil, harmful. alA ['l'y] oh! alas! Alal1 [STLA, STRA < A /lr'; 'lhl I (M "rg)] side. alAlag ['l'thl I N lala] anemone. AlAy-, v. AIOdan. Aleksandar ['thmdll M "lxsyndr, N Ishandar] Alexander (of Macedon). almAs(t) ['lm's(tl) I (M 'rm's), N almas] steel; diamond. AlOdal1 ['lwthl] defiled, polluted. -lh: defilement. Alfldan, Alay- [,lwtnl, 'l'd- I (M 'rwd), N -] defile, pollute. Alub ['lwh I M "lwf, N -] eagle. • lum ['lwm] millet. amA [LNE < A l-nh' I M 'm'h, N mal we, us. Ilmadan,lly- [YATWN-tnl < Ay'twn, ";'th I M "mdn, "y-, N -] come. amahraspand ['mhrspnd I M (')mhr'spnd] a Holy Immortal. a-mar ['m/] countless, innwnerable. Amllr ['m'll N -] reckoning, consideration. AmAr- ['m'l-] reckon, calculate. -iAn: reckoning. a-marag ['mlhl] countless. amaragan ['mlh'nl] generality, commonalty. -lg [-yh'] general. -lhl [-yh'] in general, generally. a-marg ['mig] deathless, undying. -ih: deathlessness, immortality. AmArl1ar ['m'lgll N -] reckoner. amllwand ['m'wnd] powerful, strong.

•f. . .


[' .'Ii, lw,rrl


tJ "-'




amilwandih: power, strength. ambag ['mbhl I N anbaJat] a preserve, conserve. ambar ['mbl, 'nbl I Ar. 'anbar] ambergris. ambarag ['mblhl I N anbara] hairless (animal). p amburdan [h/'mbwltnl I P'mb'r-) = hambiirldan. a-menldar ['mynyt'l] unthinking. Ami!xtan, iimez- ['myhtnl, "myc- I M 'myxtn, 'myz-, N~] mix. -iAn: mixture; element. limiz ['myel side dish, vegetables. amoxtan, amoz-, read hammoxtan, hammoz-, Amurdlid ['m(w)rdtl IN murdad] Immortality, the sixth Amahraspand, guardian of plants and food; cal. 5th month; 7th day. limurzidan, amurz- ['mwle-ytnl 1M "muire-yd, N~] forgive, pity, have mercy on. -iAn: mercy, forgiveness. P amwastan [h/'mwftnl I P 'mwft] gather, collect. an- ['n- I M 'n-] preoocalic privative prefix, un-, -Iess. lin [ZK < A zh; 'nl I M h'n, N -] that, he. ~ i: that of; with a qualifier preceding a noun, equivalent to a follounng I e.g. an i ahlawan ruwAn = ruwan I ahlawAn, the souls of the righteous. -an [_'nl 1M -'n, N -] suffix forming (i) present participles, (ii) adverbs, (iii) plurals. liniib-, -iAn, v. AnAftan. an-AbAdan ['n'pt'nl] uncultivated. an-abaxsawand ['n'phI'wnd] unrepentant. ~ih: unrepentance. an-abay ['n'p'd] unfitting, improper. an-abi!dlin ['n'pyt'nl] useless, unwanted. -ih: uselessness. anlibuhlag ['n'pwhlhl =Av. atuipi1ri19a-] inexpiable, unatonable; the highest degree of sin. an-abzlir ['n'pz'l] unskilled, incapable. -ih: inability. an-Adlin ['n't'nl] insolvent. -ih: insolvency. an-Adug ['n'twhl] incapable. an-afseniAn ['n'psynfnl] indestructible. Anaftan, linlib- ['n'ptnl, 'n';p- I M 'n'pt, ('n'm-)] avert, reject, frustrate. -iAn: avoidance, warding off. aniig ['n'hl I M 'n'g] evil. -ih: evil, harm. an-iiglih ['n'h's I N nagah] unaware, unwitting. aniig-kardiir ['n'hl hrt'l], -kunfsn [-hwnfnl] evil-doer, maleficent. anagr; ['ngl] infinite. -an [_'nl I M 'nyr'n] Infinite Light; cal. 30th day.

anagr-, rOAn(ih)



~-rI)An(ih) [-lwfnl, -lwfnyh] Infinite Light. anAhid ['n'hyt' I N nahid] immaculate; a goddess; astr, Venus. an-iihOg ['n'hwk'] undefiled. an-AUld ['n'lwtl] undefiled. a-niim~iAtig ['n'mcftyk'] unspecified. an-Amurzid ['n'mwlcyt' I M 'n'mwrz'yd] merciless. an-amurziAn ['n'mwlcfnl] mercilessness. anAr ['n'll N~] pomegranate. aniirgi!l ['n'lgyl I N nargel] coconut. an-arzAnig ['n'lc'nyk'] undeserving, unworthy. an-ast ['nA YTI] non-existent. -ih: non-existence. AnAst ['n'stl] spoilt, destroyed. -ih: destruction. AnA stag ['n'stkl] = AnAst. an-iistawiin ['n-'stwb'n', -'stwp'nl] disbelieving. ~ih: disbelief. an-iiAtih ['n'ftyh] discord, enmity; disquiet, unrest. Anay-, v. linidan. an-ayiid ['n'byd't'] forgotten. an-asarm ['n'clm] without respect, dishonoured. -ih: dishonour. -ig [-ykl] dis-, uri-honoured. and ['nd I = M, N -] so much, many. - ~and ['ndcnd] as much as, however much. -andag, v. -endag, andlig ['nd'kl I P 'nd'g] sorrow. -(g)i!n [-(k)yn' I P 'nd'gyn] sad, sorrowful. andak ['ndk' I = M, N~] little, few. andar [lIYN < A byn I M "ndr, N -] in, among, towards, concerning. ~ abiiyed: it is necessary. - iimadan: come in, enter. - iiwurdan: bring about, produce. - b6dan: be contained in. - Audan: enter, set (sun). - widardan: outstrip. andarag ['ndlg] in, between, among. andarmiih [>ndlm'h] new moon. andaron ['ndlwnl I M "ndrum, N -run] inside, within. andarwiiy ['ndlw'd I (P 'ndrw'z)] air, atmosphere. -ig [-ykl] of the air, atmospheric. and-cand, v. and. andOh ['ndwh I M 'ndwx-, N -] sorrow. -gl!n [-kn' I N -gin] sad, sorrowful. aner ['n>,'[]non-Aryan, ignoble. -ih: ignobility, barbarity.




aneran ['n'yl'n non-Eran, the world beyond Eran. an-erang ['n'ylng] blameless. an-espas ['nsp's] ungrateful. ~ih: ingratitude. 1 '1 ~...,.H v'_ anguben [DWBSYA < A dbs; 'ngpynl I N angubin] honey. l!)~ (I_,_;J-<t~ angilr [ANBE < A "nb"; 'ngwll N ~] grape. .. angust ['ngwstl I (N angust)] finger, toe; unit of length (t in.). \, ~ -arig [-lyk'] finger ring. ~ban [-p'nl] finger-guard, -stall. anidan, anay- [HYTYWN-tnl < A hyty, .; 'th; 'nytnl] bring, lead. anig ['nyk' I (N pesani)] front, forehead. anl-e [AHRN(y)e, v. any I N niz] other also. anJir ['neyll N -] fig. anOdag ['nwtk' I M 'nwdg] strange, alien. -ig [-ykl] foreign. AnOh, .anoy [TME < A tmh I M 'moh, 'wy] there. an-est ['n'wstl] infirm, unreliable. anOli ['nwf] lit. immortal, i.e. the next life; elixir, antidote. - xwardan : risk death, fight to the death. anMag ['nwskl I M 'nwsg, N ~a] immortal. -ih: immortality. --ruwan [-lwb'nl] the late, deceased. an-olimar ['n'wsm'l] countless, innumerable. anO!i-xwar ['nwshwl] mortal. ·an1!y,v.iinOh. an!iahrig ['nstr'yk'] slave. an-urnmed ['n'wmytl I J 'nwmyd, N naumed] hopeless, despairing. an-uspurrtg ['n'wspwlyk'] imperfect. any [AHRN < A '(trn; (corruptly, ZK'y = -an-i) I M 'nCr)] other. a-partug ['ptwkl] impatient. a-payrnan ['ptm'nl] immoderate. -ih: immoderation. ·apMag ['pytk' I P 'pyd(g)] lost, stray. ~dar [-d'l] custodian of stray animals. a-petitlg ['jitytykl] unrepentant, unconfessed. ~ih : unrepentance. a-petyarag ['p(y)tyd'lk'] without misfortune, unassailed. a-pohilin ['pwhsn'] incorruptible. appar ['pI I M 'prj robbery, theft. appAr ['P'l] taken away, removed. -ih: removal, loss, deprivation. apparag ['plg] robber. appurdan, appar- [YHNCLWN-tn' < A yhnslum, .; n11; 'pl- I M 'pwrd, 'p(w)r-] steal. -Hin: stealing, theft. a-purstsnlg ['pwrssnykl] irresponsible.

kN",t ~



a-pus [' BRE] without a son, childless. ar-, v. ardan. , I <"'~\t' AranJ ['Inc I N -] elbow. 'YI~ .~ •. { -a-riist [,r'stl] untruth. iirastan, iiriiy- [,l'stnl, 'Pd- I N -] prepare, arrange, adorn. -iAn: arrangement, adornment. a-rawag ['Iwb'kl] immobile. Ard ['ltl I M "yrd, N ~] a goddess; cal. 25th day. ard [KHMA < A qm~); 'ltl I N -] flour. arda ['It'y I (M 'rd'w)] righteous, truthful. iirdan. iir- [THNN-tnl < A"j thn; 'I-tnl] grind, mill. ardiiyih ['It'dyh I M 'rd'yyh] righteousness, rectitude. ardig ['ltykl I M 'rdyg] battle. ardikkar ['Itykkl, -kl I M 'rdyqr] warlike, warrior. ~ih: doing battle. ardus ['ldw! = Av. araduf-] a degree of sin. Ardwahlst [)rtwhltl I M 'rdywhylt, (N urdibihilt)) Right, the second Amahraspand, guardian of fire ; cal. and month; 3rd day. arelik ['lylkl I M {')rylk, N rafk] envy, jealousy. -en [_ynl] envious, jealous. aresn ['llnl I M "ryln-, N (a)ri!] cubit. aryand ['lgnd I N -] horrible. argawan ['[gwk'nl I N aryawan] purple. armest ['Imyltl] inactive, infirm. ~ih: infirmity. armest-giih [-g)s] secluded place for the infirm. iiroyisn ['lwdfnl] growth. -ig [-ykl] growing, vegetable. ars [)/s I M "rs, N -] tear (drop). artelitar ['ltylt'l I N arUMar!] warrior. -ib: warriorhood. arus ['lws] white. arwand ['lwlld] swift, valiant; river Orontes. -ih: swiftness, valour. arwes ['lwys I M 'rwys, N -] rope. arz [KSpl < A hsp ; 'Ie I N -] worth, value. Arzah ['Iz'" = Av. arazahi-] the eastern continent of the earth. arzan [PC < A prg); 'Ienl I N -] millet. arzan ['le'n I M 'rz'n; N -] valuable, worthy. -ig [-ykl] worthy. -igih: value, worth, worthiness. arzfdan , arz- [)lc-ytnl I N -] be worth. -lsn: value, worth. arziz ['Icye I M 'I'ZYZ, N -] tin, lead. -en [-)'nl] tin, leaden. arzog ['{ewkl I M 'wrzwg, N iirz6] desire, lust.

arzOmand arzOmand ['lc'wmnd I (N arJumand)] valuable, worthy. -ih: value, worth. ArzOr ['/zwl] a demon; a mountain at the mouth of hell. a-sag ['s'kl I M 's'g] innumerable, countless. Asan ['s'nl I N ~] at rest, easy, peaceful. -ih: rest, ease, peace. a-sar ['sI] endless. AsAy~,-ilin, v. Asudan. a~saziig ['se'k'] unfitting, unsuitable. a~sazi§nlig ['scfn~yk'] imperishable, permanent. -ih: imperishability, permanence. a~seJ ['sye] free from danger. asem ['sym I = M, N sim] silver. ~en [-ynl I N -in] silver(n). asrnan ['sm'nl I = M, N asman] sky, heavens; cal. 27th day. asn ['snl], - xrad : innate wisdom. !isnidalt ['snytk'] = iisnildalt. iisniid(ag) ['snwt(k)l] cleansed, purified; pure,~. a~sohilin ['swhfn') unfeeling. asp [SWSYA < A swsy'; 'sp I N -] horse; (chess) knight. D),) aspAniir ['sp'nwl] tomb. a-spas ['sp's] ungrateful. aspast ['spstl I N -] clover, lucerne. aspinJ ['spnc I P 'spynj, N sipanj] hospitality; inn. nS·\ ?~.?(_.n...J ..J.,..ooaspres ['splys I N -] race-course. asrO ['slwkl = Av. a8rawa] priest. -ih: priestly office. AsrO~kerpa ['slw(k)lklpk = Av. a8ro ki1hrp-] the form of fire. asrOn ['slwnl = Av. a9rawan-] priest. last [A YTI < A 'yty I M "st, N -] is, exists. -ih: existence. last(ag) ['st(k)I I M 'st(g), N hasta] bone; (fruit) stone. astiinag ['st'nkl] need, misfortune. -lImand [-'wmnd] needy. astAr ['st'll M 'st'T] sin. iistiirenidan, astiiren- ['st'Iyn-ytn'] cause to sin. iistawiin [,stwb'nl, 'stwp'nl I M "stw'n] confessing, professing. -ih: confession, belief. astodiin ['stw(k)d'n' I M 'stwd'n] sepulchre, ossuary. astomand ['st'wmnd] corporeal, material. -ih: corporeality. astuxAn ['sth(w)'n' I N ustux"an] bone. astwand ['stwnd I = M] = astomand. AstwihAd ['stwyd't'] the demon of death. iisudan, Asay- ['SWIIlI, 's'd- I N -] rest, repose. -ilin: rest, peace.






aswar ['swb'l, 'si)7V'/1 N suwiir] horseman, rider. ~ih: horsemanship, riding. asyiib ['sy'ji] (water- )mill. iisya~ ['sy'k' I N asyii] mill(-stone). ali ['I] the evil eye. iiliixtan, iiliinJ- ['Iyhtn', 'inc- I P 'Iyxt] pour, flow, overflow. askamb [KL§_E < A krs"; 'Ikmbl I M 'Ikmb, N likam] belly, womb. -a~ [_kl IN likamba] = a§kamb. 1i§karll~ ['Ik'l(')kl I M 'Iq'rg, N aIkiirii] obvious, evident. -ih: revelation, confession. iilikArA~enIdan ['Ik'l'kyn-ytn'] reveal, confess. askab ['Ikwp I N dlkO(b)] roof, ceiling. alikom(b) ['Ikwm(bl)] = askamb. alimii [LKWM < A l-kwm I M 'Im'(h), N fuma] you (pl.). lisnAg ['In'k' I M "In'g, N Mnii] known. Alinawiig ['Inw'k' I M 'Inw'g, N funawii] hearing. ~ih: (sense of) hearing. Asniidan, Alinaw- [OSMEN-tnl < A"; 1m'; 'Inwtnl 1M 'inwdn, 'fnw-, N Iuniidan, lunaw-] hear, understand. -ilin: hearing; alia ['Iwk' = Av. mawa] righteous. Asob ['Iwp I P "!wb, N -] disturbance, turmoil. Astiid ['It'tl I M 'It'd, N -] the goddess Rectitude; cal. 26th day. alitag ['Itk'] messenger. -ih: mission. as tar ['Itl] whip. iiStih ['Ityh I M "It, N aIti] peace. Aswahist ['IwhItl] = Ardwahist. asyAn(ag) ['Iyd'n(k)1 I (M 'hy'ng), N aIyana] nest, lair. iitax§ ['thI = Av. atarl I Nata!] fire. awAdag ['wb'tkl I J 'w'd] generation. iiwahan ['wb'hnl] fortified place, stronghold. iiwAm ['wb'm I M 'w'm] time, season. -iiwand [-'wnd I M -'w(y)nd] suffix forming adjectives of quality. awar [LPNME < A l-pn-It 1M 'WT] hitherl come! iiwar-, v. awurdan. a-wardag ['w[t'k'] undeviating. a-wardisnig ['wltinykl] immutable. -ih: immutability. iiwarisn ['wblIn' I M 'wryin] abode, home. a-warzid ['wlcytl] untilled . • iiwAs-, v. ·awistan. awiiz ['ji'c I N -] voice, sound. a-wazIsni~ ['wc!nykl] immobile. iiwenidan, awen- ['wyn-ytnl I (P 'bwyn-)] admonish, blame. -Isn: blame, reproach.

iiweniiinig aweniiinig: blameworthy. a-weniiinig ['wynfnyk'] invisible. awerag ['wylk'] = aweran, aweran ['wyl'n', 'pyl'n' I N weran] desolate, ruined. awestiid ['wst'tl I M 'fOyst'd, N ostM] master (craftsman). awestiim ['wst'm I M 'wyst'm] province, district. awestarag ['wstlk' I N ustura] razor. awestardan, awestar- ['wstl-tn' I P 'wystr-, N sllturdan] wipe; shave. -iAn: wiping. awestwiir ['wstf~b'l I M 'wystw'r, N ustuwar] firm, reliable. -Ih: reliability, firmness. aweiilln [OLEl'n, v. oy I M 'wyl'n, N Uan] they, those. a-wlnah ['wn's] innocent. a-winast ['wnstl] unharmed, immaculate. awiA ['wbI I M 'wYI] to him, it; postposition (= 6) to. awiiitab ['wIt'p I M 'wyIt'b, N Iitab] oppression. P awiAtiidan, awiiit- ['wIt-'tnl I P 'wyIt'dn] stand. awiiitaftan, awiAtab- ['wIt'p-tnl I M 'wyIt'b-, N Iitaftan, litab-] oppress; hasten (tr.). ·iiwiAtan, ·liwAA- [HTYMWN-tn' < A ?ltym, .J ?ltm; 'wbltn' I M 'wyIt] seal. a-wiylibiinig ['wyd'ji'nykl I N biyabani] astr. fixed (star). a-wiziriiinJg ['wcyllnyk'] unavoidable, inevitable. Awurdan, iiwar- [YHYTYWN-tn' < A hyty, .J 'th I M "wrd, 'wr-, N -] bring. axbidan ['hycytnl] = iixistan. Axistan, iixez- ['hstn', 'hyc- I M 'xyst, 'xyz-] rise, stand up. lxriimidan, Axriim- ['hl'm-ytn' I M "xr'm-, N xiram-idan] stride, strut. axtar ['htll M "xtr, N -] star, constellation, sign of the zodiac. axtar(ii)mAr ['htl(')m'l] astrologer. -ill: astrology. laxw ['hw'] being, existence, world. 2axw ['hw' I M 'wx] mind, will; vital force. laxw ['hw'] lord. a-xwamn ['hwmn'] sleepless. axwiin ['hw'n'] = laxw. a-xwArih ['hw'lyh] unhappiness. iixwarr ['hwi I N axur] manger, stable. -- !Jaliir [-srd' l] head groom. a-xwas [' BSYM] unpleasant; unhappy. -ih: unhappiness. a-xwUkAr ['hwylk'l] undutiful. ay ['y I N -] that is to say. ay-, v. iimadan. ayAb ['ywp I M 'y'b, N yel] or. ayAb- v. ayiiftan.




ayAblg ['y'p(')k') acquisitive, receptive. -ih : comprehension. ayid [>byd't' I M 'y'd, N yad] memory. - kardan: remember. -gAr [-k'll N -gar] memoir. Ayaft ['dypt' I M "ypt, N ayift] boon, favour, gift. ayilftan, ayAb- ['y'p-tnl 1M 'y'pt, 'y'b-, N yaftan. yab-] obtain, acquire. attain. ayAr [hdyb'll M hy'r, N yar] helper, friend. -Ih: help, friendship. ayArd~nidan, ayiirden- ['y'ltyn-ytn'] boil, agitate. -iAn: agitation. ayArdidan, ayilrd- ['y'lt-ytn' 1M 'y'rd-) be agitated, seethe. ayaridan, ayllr- [hdyb'l-ytn' IN yar-idan] I. help. assist; 2. be able, dare. ayllr6mand [hdyb'l'wmnd I N yarmand] helpful, fljendly. -ih: helpfulness, friendliness. ayAsidan, ayAs- ['/!yg's-ytnl I M 'y's-] remember, be mindful of. -iAn(ih): memory. ayAstan ['/!yd'stn' I M 'y'st) = ayiisidan. ilyiiim ['dim) moon. ayllxiiust ['ywkhfwstl = Av. ayoxlusta- I M "ywxlyst I] metal. ~n [-ynl) metallic. Ayllxtan, Ayllz- ['ywhtnl, 'ywe-] join, yoke. -iiin: union, alliance. 'Ayllzidan ['yweytnl) = Ay6xtan. "Ay6zidan, Ayllz- ['ywe-)'tnl I P "yu'lt, "ywz-] trouble, disturb; strive, struggle. _iiin(ih): endeavour, strife. 'az [MN < A mn; he I M 'e, 'z, N -] from, than. 2az ['el] dragon. ·az [ANE < A 'nh I P 'z] I. Ilz ['e I M "z, N -) greed, lust. ~. v,Z_ azabar [hcpll M 'e 'br, N zabar] above. IlzAd ['e'tl I M "z'd, N -] I. noble; 2. free. IlzAdih ['e'tyh] I. freedom; 2. gratitude, thanks. - guttan, - hangArdan, - kardan, pad - dA§tan: thank, give thanks. IlzAr ['e'll N -] torment. Azardan ['eltnl I M "zyrdn] = Ilzirdan. iizArdan, ilzir- ['e'l-tn' I N -] torment, injure. -iiin: torment, injury. llizarm ['elm I M "zrm, N -] honour, respect. "Azarm ['elm I M "zrm-] harm, injury. a-zarman ['zlm'nl) ageless, unaging. Ilzarmig ['elmykl] honoured, respected. -ih: honour, respect.




azg ['zg I N azy] branch. aziA [hcI 1M 'ey!, )zyI] from him, it; postposition (= az) from. --keh [oks] inferior, subordinate. --meh [oms] superior. jiz.kiima~ ['ck'mk'] greedy. -ih: greediness. azmiidan, azmiiy- ['zmwtnl, 'zm'd- I N a~] = uzmiidan. iizniiwar ['zn'wl I M 'zn] noble. azraw-, v. azruftan. azriiy- ['zr'd-] adorn. azruftan, azraw- [(')zlwp-tnl 1M 'zrw-] go out, be extinguished. iizurdan ['ewltnl I N -] = iiziirdan. Azwar [)ewl I N ~] greedy. -ih: greed.

Dahag, azdenidari, azden- ['zdyn-ytn'] inform. azer [hedll N ZiT] below, under.

azbiiy- ['zb'd-] invoke. -iAn: invocation. azd ['zd I = M] known. Azdaha~ ['cydh'k' I M )zdh'g, (N aZdahii)] a legendary 'dragon' king,

b-, v. biidan. babr [bpi I N -] tiger. babrag [bplk'] beaver. -bad, v. -bed. badag [b'tk' I N -a] wine, must. bay [b'g I (M b'w), N -] garden, orchard. bayobaxt [bkwbhtl, b'gwkb'ht' = Av. bayo.baxta-] fortune dispensed by the gods, providence. bahr [b'hll M bhr, N -] part, portion, share, lot. bahrag [b'hlk'], (az) an - ray: on that account. bahremand [b'hl'wmnd I N bahramand] divisible, composite; prosperous. -ih: compositeness; prosperity. bahrwar [b'hlwll N bahrawar] endowed, provided. -ih: endowment, provision, advantage. ba} [b'c I N -] tribute, tax. baladur [bl'twr I N -] marking nut. balag [b'lk' I N bat] wing. biilay [b'l'd I N Mia] height, stature. lbiiU\n [b'lyn'] top, peak. IbaU\n [b'lynl I N balin] cushion, pillow.





~-~ah log's] sleeping-platform, bench, couch. balist [b'lyst' I (M b'ryst)] highest; summit; astr. exaltation. ~ih: highness, exaltedness. -i~ [-yk'] on high, exalted. bliliA [b'lfnl ! I N ~] cushion, pillow. bam [b'm I = M] brilliance, glory, splendour. <l bambiAn [MLKTA < A mlkt'; b'nbfnl 1M b'nbyfn] queen. 4. "JfI'i4.h<l- 4'IJO bamdad [b'md't' I M b'md'd, N -] dawn, morning. biimig [b'myk'] brilliant, glorious. -biin [-p'nl I M -b'n, N~] suffix, -keeper, -guard, band [bnd I = P, N ~] bond, link. band-, v. bastan. bandag [bndk' I P bndg, N ~a) servant. bang [bng I N~) henbane. biinQ~ [b'nwk' I N biinu] lady. bar [bl I N ~) fruit, produce, profit. bar-, ~gn, v. burdan. lbiir [b'll N ~] time, occasion. 2biir [b'll N ~] bank, shore. 'bAr [b'L I M b'r, N ~] fruit. 'bar [b'L I M b'r, N -] load, burden; duty. biirag [b'Lk' I N -a] mount, horse. barbut [blbwt' I N -] lyre. biirestiin [b'lst'n'] patient, resigned. -ih: patience, resignation. biiri~/k [b'lyk' I N bartk (cf. tarill)] thin, fine, subtle. bar-Jamag [b'Ly'mk' I N ~a] saddle-bag. baromand [bl'wmnd I N~] fruitful, prolific. barsom [blswm I M brswm] the bunch of twigs used in the Yasna ceremony. barsnam [blfnwm] the major purification ritual. bastan, band- [ASLWN-tnl < A"; 'sr; bstn', bnd- I M bstn, (bn-), P bnd-; N~] tie, bind. bastan [b'st'nl I M b)yst'n, N ~] always, often. biiA [YHWWNf I M vt, N ~] be I (imperative of biidan, q.v.) baAkuc [bfkwc] gryphon. basn [bfnl I = P] top, peak; stature; mane (v. bus), baw-, -iAn, v. bQdan. baxs-, -iAn, v. baxtan. baxt [bC)lIt' I N ~] fortune, fate. baxtan, baxs- [HLKWN-tn' < !llq; b(»lItnl, bhl- I M bxt, bxl-, N baxfidan] apportion, distribute. ~iAn: bestowal, distribution. bay [ORHY A < A )LII; bk', bg I M by] god, lord. Im -: his Majesty. 6y -: his late Majesty. bayaspiin [by)sp)nl] messenger, envoy.






bayasplinlih: mission, embassy. ~ig [-yk'] post-fhorse). bliz [b'c I N ~] hawk, falcon. bazii [b'c'y I (N bazu)] arm. ~blina~ [-p'nk'] arm-guard, brassard. bazag [bck' I M bzg, N ~a] sin, evil. ~ih: = bazag, bazakkar [bckki I M bzkr] sinful, sinner. biizii-zaniAnih [b'c'y znfnyh = Av. biizlt.jata-] a degree of sin. bazisn [befnl] division, part. bazm [bzm I = M, N -] meal, feast. --awurd [-'wit' I N -] a sort of canape. lb~ [BRA < A br' 1Mb'] but; out; ~ ... (enyii), except. ~ ... enyii .•• ne: except ... (otherwise) ... not. ~ az: without. I 2be [BRA 1Mb', N bi-] particle with verbs, with 0, of indefinable function. -bed [-ptl I M -byd, N -ba/i/ud] suffix, -lord, -master. bedorn [bytwm I M bydwm] furthermost. begana~ [byk'nk' I N ~a] strange; stranger. begiir [byk'll N -] corvee, forced labour. beh [byh I N bih] quince. bel [by/ I (M byr), N ~] spade. beliir [bylwll M bylsor, N bilur] crystal. beron [bylwnl I M byrwn, N berun] outside. bes [by/] pain, sorrow; harm, hostility. ~ burdan: bear hostility. bes-. ~isn, v. blsrun. besliz [by/(')z] healing, medicinal. bes!lz(en)- [byI'z(yn)-, by/(')c(yn)- I M byf'z-) heal, cure. ~isnih: healing. bes-burdiir [byfbwlt'l] hostile. besidan [by/ytn'] = biStan. besomand [byf'umnd] sorrowful. bewar' [bywll M byzor, N -] myriad, ten thousand. P bid [bytl I P byd] again. bidaxs [byth/] viceroy. • biJagan [bck'nl] medicinal. bim [bym I = M, N -] fear, terror. ~~~n [-kn'] fearful, terrible. ~g~nih: fearfulness. ~omand [-'wmnd] fearful. ·bista~ [bstk' I N busta] hazelnut. bis [by/ I N -] aconite. bistan, bes- [by/-tnl I M bylt, by/-] hurt, torment. -iAn: harm, torment. bizcsk [befk' I M bzy/k, N pizi/k] doctor, physician.




b6b [btup I N ~] fine carpet. hoI' [bwil N ~] reddish-brown, bay (horse). horz [bwie I P bwrz] high. bore-wang [btview'ng] loud. -ihii [-yh'] aloud. bowandag [bwndk' I M bwndg] complete, entire, perfect. ~ih: completeness, entirety, completion. -c-rnenisnlh [-mynfnyh] right-mindedness. b6xtag [bwhtk' I M bwxtg) saved. -ih: salvation. b6xtan, bliz- [bwhtn', bux- I M bwxtn, bwz-] save, redeem. -iiin [-Inl I J bwzyln/t, N pazi!] salvation: apology. b6xtlr [bwht'il M bwxt'r] saviour. -ih: salvation. lboy [bwd] perception, sense. "boy [bwd I M bwy, N ~] smell, scent. boya~ [bwd'k' I M bwy'g, N baya) scented. boy-dill' [bwdd'il N -] scented. boyi!nidan, boyi!n- [bwdyn-ytnl] scent, perfume. boyesUin [bwdst'nl I M bwyst'n, N bostan] (flower) garden. -bAn [-p'n'] gardener. bOyidan, boy- [bwd-ytn' I N ~] smell (intr.). bozo, -iiin, v. boxtan. brad [AR < A '?I: bi't' I M br'd] brother. -s-ar [bi'ti I M br'dr, N biradar] brother. ItbrAdarod [bi'tiwtl] relative, rival, counterpart. -ih: relationship, rivalry. brlih [bi'h I N barah] brilliance, splendour. brahmtag) [bl(')hm(k') I M brhm(g)] form, manner, costume. brahnag [bl(,)hnk' I M brhng, N barahna] naked. brarn- [b(w)l'm- I (P brm-)] weep, lament. -a~ [-k' I P -g] weeping, lamentation. briizidan, brliz- [bl'e-ytn' I M br'x-, N barazidan] shine, gleam. -iiin: radiance, brightness. -iiinig: shining, radiant. breh [bly(y)h] fate, destiny. brehentdan, bri!hen- [blyhyn-ytn'] 1. create, fashion: 2. decree. -ag [-'kl] decreeing. . -Hin: 1. creation: 2. decree, destiny. brez-, v. brfstan, brezan [blycnl I M bryzn, N barezan] oven. bridan, brin- [PSKWN-tn' < A '1/ psq; blytn", blyn- I M bryd, N buridan] cut (off), sever. brin [blyn'] cut, division, delimitation: limited, determined. -gar [-kl] determiner; decisive. 1brin} [bltlC I N birinJ] rice.




2brinJ [binc I (M bryng), N birinJ] bronze, brass. -en [-yn'] bronze, brazen. brin6mand [blyn'wmnd] delimited. brfstan, brez- [blyItn', blyc- I M brye-, N biriItan] roast. brig [blwk' I M brwg, N abru] (eye)brow. biidan, b(aw)- [YHWWN-tn' < A yhwwn, '" hwh; bwtn', b- I M bwdn, bw-, N budan] be, become. bawlsn : becoming, genesis. biif [bwp I N -], ·biig [bwk'] owl. buland [bwlnd I = M, N -] high. biim [bwm I N ~] land, earth, country. ~-~andag [-cndk'] earthquake. 1bun [bwn' I = M, N ~] base, foundation, bottom. Sbun [bwn' I N~] = wan. bunag [bwnkl I N ~a] baggage; abode, camp. ~ diistan: dwell, settle. bun-dahlsnrlh) [bwndhInl, -yh] primal creation. bunih [bwnyh] beginning. bunlst [bwnyIt' I = M] foundation. -ag [_kl] principle. bun-kadag [bwnktkl] original house, home. buu-xan [bwnh'n'] source. bur-, -isn, v. buridan. burag [bwl'kl] cutting, sharp. buram-, v. bram-, burd [bwltl I M bwrd] patient. -ih: patience. burdan, bar- [YBLWN-tn' < A'" ybl; bsolm', bl- I M bwrd, br-, N -] carry, bear, take, endure. -isn: bearing, behaviour. burdlir [bwlt'l] bearer; womb. -ih: patience. burd-esnohr; [bwltl Inwhll P bwrdyInwhr] grateful, thankful. burg [bwlg I (Ar. burJ)] tower. buridan, bur- [bwl-ytnl I M bwr-, N -] = bridan. -isn: cutting. Burz [bwlc] the god of agriculture. Bursenmihr [bwlcynmtrl] the third major Fire of Sasanian Eran, that of husbandmen. burzidan, burz- [bwlc-ytnl] praise, honour. ~isn: praise, honour. -isnig : praiseworthy. bus [bwI I N - ] mane. biislisp [bwI'sp I M bwIy'sp, N~] sleep, sloth; dream. , but [bwt' I = M, N -] Buddha; idol. buz [AZ < A 'z; bwc I N ~] goat.



~libuk [c'fiwh' IN -] agile, nimble; excellent. -ih: agility. ~lldur [e'twl I N -] sheet, veil. ~agiid [ch'tl I (N lahiid), J leyad] peak, summit. eagar [chl] wife (of the second degree). ~i'i.h[c'h I N -] pit, well. ~abllr [ALBA < A "rb"; eh'll M Ch'T, N -] four. -dab [eh'ldh I N ~] fourteen. --pay [ch'lp'd I N - > carwa] quadruped. ~ak6k [ehwh I N~, cakawak] lark. ~aku~ [ehwe I N lahuf] hammer. ~ambar [cmbll N~] circle, hoop. ~amiAn [cmInl I M cmby/n (?)] urination; lavatory . . ~and [end 1= M, N~] how many, much?; so many, much; some, a few. -ih: amount, quantity. _ ~andal [endll N -] sandalwood. ~andidan, ~and- [end-ytn' I (M en-ystn)] tremble, quake. -iAn: trembling, movement. ~ang [eng I M Inng, N -] harp. -- sray [-51' d] harpist. ~ar [e'l] = ~lirag. ~arag [elhl I M eTg] pasture, grazing; flock. ~arag [e'lh' I N ~a] means, remedy. -garih [-glyh] ability, savoir faire. ~arb [elp I P crb, N~] mild, gentle; fatty, oily.
-ih: gentleness; fattiness. ~iAn [-Inl] fat, oil.

-iAn6mand [-/n'wmnd] oleaginous. ~arm [elm I M erm, N -] skin, hide, leather. ~ariig [e'lwh' I N caTu] lime, mortar. -en [-ynl] limy. ~arz [clz I N -] bustard. ~aAidan [c'I-ytn') = ~aAtan. ~aAm [A YNE < A 'ynh; cfm I = M, N ~) eye. l~aAmag [cfmh' I M elmg, N ~a] spring, source. 2~aAmag [cfmhl] renowned. ~aAmagi'i.h [cfmh's I M efmg'h] obvious, public, notorious.
~ih: notoriety, condemnation.

~aAm-areAk [elm 'lylk'] envious. -ih: envy. ~aAm-did [elm dyt') visible, obvious. c'!iiinig [e'/nyk' I M e'/nyg, N lami] taste.




tilAt [c'lt I N -] lunch, meal. l-al1 [-k'] food. IfiAtag [c'ltk'] doctrine. tilAtan, filii- [c'l-tnl] teach. -iAn: teaching. eatrang [eting I (Ar. latranJ)] chess. ·faw(la)l1an [cwpk'nl! I Ar. ~awlaJiin,N caugiin] (curved) polo-stick; polo. taxUgih [ehf'kyh] (sense of) taste. caxAiAn [chfln' I M, J cxl-, N Eal-] taste, flavour. lee [ME < A mh I M cy, N Ei] what, which. - riy: for what, why. -ih: quiddity, essence. ICe [ME, v. 'ee] for, because, since, as, that. te-ewenag [ME 'dwynk'] how. -ih: circumstances. eegilm-iz [cyk'm-c I M cyg'myc], --e(w): a little; whatever. cegiimag [cyk'mkl I N E(ag)iima) song, snatch. eiih-, -iAn, v. 2cidan. ·cehag [cyhkl] grief. cehel [40 I N tihilJ forty. eiih-widarag [cyhwtig] = cmwad puhl, celin [eyl'n' I = M, N -] dagger. -gar [-ki, -gil N -] swordsmith. cer [cyl I M cyr, N -] victorious, triumphant, brave. -Ih: bravery. cerihistan, eiirih- [cylyh-stn'] triumph, be victorious. 'cidan, ein- [eytn', cyn- I M cyydn, cyn-, N -] gather, pile up. -iAn: gathering. 2cidan. ceh- [eytnl, cyh- I M ey-] mourn, lament, grieve. -iAn: lamentation. -iAnig: mournful. leihr [cyhll M cyhr, N -] form, shape, appearance, face. 2cihr(ag) [cyhl(kl) I M eyhr, P -g, N -] seed, origin; nature, essence. eihriinIdan, eihren- [cyhlyn-ytnl] form. eihrig [cyhlyk'] natural. Cihr-AnAsih [eyhlln'syh] physics. eim [c(y)m I M cym, N -] reason, cause, purpose, meaning. - (rAy) : why? cim-g~wilgih [cym gwb'kyh] logic. cimIg [eymykl] purposeful. ein-, -iAn, v. 'cIdan. einag [eynk' I P eyng, N -a) grain, bait. cinar [cyn'll N -] oriental plane tree. cinwad [eynw(p)tl), - puhl: the 'divider bridge' which separates the souls of the righteous dead, who cross, from those of the wicked, who falloff.

23 ~lrAy [cl'y I P cr'g; N -) lamp. NA [MNDOM I P cyI] = tis, q.v. Ny6n [cygwnl I M c'wn, N fun] as, like, how, when. - ka: as if. -ih: nature, character. Mb [cwp I N -) wood, stick. -ag [-kl I N -a) wand, arrow shaft.


ldabr [dpl] sinner, deceiver. 2dabr [dpl] -dark-coloured. dad [dt' I M dd, N -] wild animal. ldiid [d't' I M d'd, N -] law, justice; those scriptures dealing with legal matters. 'dAd [d't' I N -] age. 3diid [d't'] tooth. 'dAd, v. ahlaw-diid. diidan, dah- [YHBWN-tn' < A'" yhb ; d'tn', dh- I M d'd«, (dy-), P dhN -, dih-) 1. give; 2. create. -iAn [dh(y)fn'] giving, donation; creation. dAdiir [d't'll N -] creator. -lh: creatorship. dAdestiin [DYNA < A dyn'; d'tst'nl I M d'(d)yst'n, N da(de)stdn] judgement, justice, law; case, process. diid-~iih [d't g's] proper place, fire temple; = daxrnag, dAdlg [d'tykl] legal, concerned with the Law. diid-meh [d'tms] adult, elder. dAdwar [d'twbll (M d'ywr, P d'dbr), N da(d)war] judge. -ih: judgement. daftan, dam- [dptn', dm- I M dm-, N dam-idan] breathe, blow. -iAn: breath. daftar [dptll N -] register, account-book. dagr [AL YK < A 'ryk; dgll M dgr > dyr, N tIlr] long. dagrand [dglnd I N derand] long. -c-xwaday [-hwt'y] eternal, of long dominion. dagrl-pattAy [dgl pt'd] long-lasting. --zamAn [-;-m'nl] a long time. --zi(w)ilin [-zywfnl] long-lived. dah [IO, ASL Y A < A <ir' I M dh, N -] ten. dah-, -ilin, v. diidan. DahAg [dh'kl I (N Dahak)] = Azdahill. dahlin [PWME < A p(w)m-h I M dhyn, N dahlin] mouth. dahibed [dhywpt' I M dhybyd] ruler, lord of the land.




dahigiin [dhywk'nl i N dihgan] countryman, farmer. dahliz [d'hlyc I (M dhryz), N -] portico. damn [d'hm] virtuous, pious; a full member of the Mazdean community, initiate. dahom [d'hwm I M dhwm, N -] tenth. dalman [d'lmn' I N dal(man)) lammergeyer, eagle. dam-, -gn, v. daftan. Idiim [d'm I = M] creature, creation. IdAm [d'm I = M, N -] tame animal. adiim [d'm I P d'mg, N -] net, snare, trap. dAmAd [d'm't' I M d'm'd, N -) bridegroom, son-in-law. -ih: condition of a bridegroom, son-in-law. darrienag [dmynkl] fan.' damidan [dmytn'] = daftan. diln-, -iAn, v. danistan. -dAn [-d'nl I = M, N -] suffix, -holder, -container. diin(ag) [d'n(k)' I N -a] seed, grain. dAnAg [d'n'k' I M d'n'g, N dana] knowing, wise. 1S -ih: knowledge, wisdom. dandAn [KKA < A kk'; dnd'n' I = M, N -] tooth. dilnistan, dan- [YDOYTWN-stnl < A'; yd'; d'n-stn' I M d'n-ystn, N -] know. -iAn: knowledge. -iAnOmand [-In'wmnd] knowing. dar [BBA < A bb'; dll M dr, N -] door; palace; chapter, subject. dar [d'll M d'r-, N -] tree, gallows; wood. dAr-, -iAn, v. daAtan. -dar [-d'/l M -d'r, N -] suffix, -holder, -keeper, P daray [dl'g I J -, N daray] bell. ·darak [dlk'] section, paragraph. darband [BBAbnd I N -] gate. darbas [dIp's] palace. dard [dW I M drd, N -] pain. -Omand [-'wmnd I M -somnd, N -mand] ill, suffering. daren [d'lyn' I M d'rwyn] wooden. darglih [dIg's I N -] doorway. dargardih [d'lkrtyh I M d'rgyrdyh] crucifixion. dar-handarzbed [BBA-, dl-hndlept'] chamberlain. darrgbed [dlykptl] palace superintendent. ·dlirmag [d'lmk'] fine, delicate. darmlin [dlm'nl I M drm'n, N -] remedy, medicine. darridan, darr- [SDKWN-tnl < A .; sdq; dl-ytn' I N -] split, tear. dlirilg [d'lwkl I M d'rwg, N daru] drug, medicament. dar-wiizig [d'lw'eyk' I N dar-baz] (pole-)acrobat. darz [dIe I N -] seam. -ill [-ykl I N darzi] tailor.

~ 1~




das [d's I N -] sickle. diisBr [d'sl = Av. daOra-] gift, reward. dast [YDE < A yd-h; dst' I = M, N -] hand. dasrag [dstk' I N -a] bunch, bundle, group. dast(a)gird [Y DE-, dst-krt' I M dstygyrd, N dastgird] estate. daat-gfr [dst OHDWN, (v. griftan) I N -] I. helper; 2. captive. dast-graw [dstglwb'] captivity. dasr-kar'Ih [YDEk)lyh I N -i] handiwork. dast-AOy [dstfwd] = gOmez. dastwar [dstwbll M dstuir, N dastUr] authority, priest, minister. -ih: custom; authority. dastyiir [dstyd'll (P dstd'r), N -] helper. -s-Ih : help, assistance. dasn [dfn' I = M] right hand. dli§n [d'fn' I M d'!(y)n] gift. daAnag [dInk' I N -a] 1. right hand; 2. dagger. da§t [dft' I = M, N -] plain, open ground. daAtiin [dft'n' I N -] menstruation; menstruous. -estan [-st'n'] secluded place for menstruous women. --miih [-m'h] menstrual cycle. -omand [-'wmnd] menstruous. daAtan, dar- [YHSNN-tn' < A'; fun; d'ftn', d'l-I M d'ftn, a'r-, N-] have, hold, keep, preserve. pad ... dastan: hold by, to; take for. pad ed dMtan [ef. N pindaftan] consider. -iAn: preservation, maintenance. dastiir [d'ft'l] keeper, preserver. daw-, v. dawidan, dawistan. Idawiil [dwb'll N -] leather, skin. Idawal [dwb'll N -] deceit, trickery. Idawidan, daw- [LHTWN-tn' < A'; rht ; dwytn', dsob- I M do», N-] run. 2dawidan, daw- [dw-ytn'] speak (daevic). 1,2 dawistan [LHTWN-stn', dwstn'] = I. I dawidan. daxmag [dhmk' IP dxmg, N -a] tomb, dakhma (a building where corpses are exposed for destruction). -estan [-st'n'] cemetery. daxsag [dMk' I M dxfg] mark, sign, characteristic; memory. pad - dastan: remember. az - hl~tan : forget. -omand [-'wmnd] marked. Day [ddw' I M dyy, N -] Creator; cal. loth month; 8th, 15th, 23rd days. dayag [d'yk' I M d'yg-, N -a] (wet-)nurse. -anih [-'nyh] I (N dayagi)] nursing, nurture. dazidan, daz- [dc-ytn'] burn, scorch. -Isn: burning.

debiig debllg [dYP'kl 1 N deba] brocade. debahr [dyp'hll P dybhT] anger.


pad ~ dastan: banish. deg [dyhl 1 N ~] cauldron. h (') deh [MTA < A mt' 1 M dyh, N~] country, land; village. er,'j' l'j . -gan [MT A-, d'hk',,'] = dahigan. den [dynl 1 = M, N din] religion; cal. 24th day. denllr [dyn'll N dinar] (gold) dinar. den-astawan [dY7l'stwb'n'], den-burdllr [dynbwlt'l] believing, faithful. denig [dynykl 1 N dint] religious. denOdag [dynwtkl] female, milch. der, derand, v. dagr-, dagrand, des(ag) [dys(k') 1 M dys] form, appearance. desidan, des- [dys-ytn' 1 M dys-yd] build. dew [SDYA < A Iyd", pl. [ydy' 1 N~] demon, devil. dewan [d(p)yw'n' 1 N ~] archive, collected writings. dewanag [dyw'"kl 1 N -a] demonic, mad. dewar [dyw'll M dyw'r, N ~] wall. dewj-esnlh [SDYAysnyh 1 (M dyw'snyh)] idolatry, devil-worship. ~-hagih [SDYAyckyh] = ~-esnih. dewOk [dywwk' 1 N dewuk] leech. dibir [dpy(w)r' 1 M dbyr, N -] scribe. -ih: writing, scribeship. -estlln [-st'nl I.N -] school. did [TW~ < A twb; dt'] again, then, further. didan, wen- [H~YTWN-tlll < A {lzy; dytn", wY"- 1 M dydn, wy"-, N ~, bin-] see. ~isn: sight, seeing. ~isnig: visible. didar [dyt'll N ~] sight; visible. pad ~ [N padfdar] visible. didom [dtwm] second. dil [LB(B)ME < A lb(b)-h; dyll = M, N ~] heart. diler [dylywl, dlyll N ~] brave. diz [KL YT A < A qTyt'; de 1 M dyz, N ~] fortress. dO [2, TLYNI < A tryn 1 M dw, N du] two. --axwllnig [2 'hw'nyk'] relating to both worlds. -ganag [dwk'nkl 1 M dwg'ng, N dugana] double; twin. dOk [dwk' 1 N~] spindle. aet [dwl 1 N -] bucket; astr. Aquarius. dOI-pahikar [dwptkll N du-paikar] astr. Gemini. --pay [2 LGLE, dwp'd 1 N du-pa] biped, human being. dOs [dws 1 N -] gum; plaster. do-saxwan [2 shwn'] two-tongued, deceitful. dOsen [dwsyn ] gummy; plastery; ·glazed (pottery). ' dOst [dwstl 1 = M, N -] friend.





~ih: friendship, love. IdOli[dwI I N ~] shoulder. 2dM [dwI I N ~] last night, previous evening. dO~-,~i~n, V.I. 2dosidan, Idoxtan. dobg [dwIk'] dear, loving. ~ih: love. dosaram [dws'lm I M dws'rm] love. dMastar [dwfstl] west. Idosidan, dolo-[dws-ytn'] like, love. ~i~n: liking, pleasure. 2do~idan [dwIytn'] = IdOxtan. dMizag [dwIyek' I (M dwxf, J dwfkyzh), N -a] maiden, virgin. -ih: maidenhood, virginity. dOwom [2wm I N ~] -second (in compound numerals). Idoxtan, dos- [dwhtn', dwI- I N -] milk. 2doxtan, doz- [dwhtn', dwe- I N~] sew. doys8r [dwysl = Av. doi8ra-] eye. dOz-, v. 2dOxtan. drafS [diP! I P drff, N -] banner. draf~idan, drafs- [dlpI-ytn' I P drft-, N ~] I. shine; 2. tremble. drahm [ZWZN' < A zwzn I M drhm, N dir(h)am] drachm. dra(h)nay [&(h)n'd] length. dramanag [dlmnk' I N dirmana] wormwood. drang [dlng I N dirang] period, duration. dranJidan, dranJ- [dlne-ytn'] speak. ~i~n: speech. draxt [dl(')ht' I M drxt, N diraxt] tree. dray-, -isn, v. drayidan. draya(b) [dlyd'(p) I M dry'b, N darya(b)] sea. ~-biir [-b'll N -bar] sea-shore. drayan-Joyilon [dl'd'n ywdIn'] one who speaks while eating. ~ih: (the sin of) speaking while eating. drayidan / drayistan, dray- [dl'd-ytn', -stn' I M dr'yst, dr'y-, N darayidan] speak (daevie), chatter. ~isn: chatter. draz [dl'e I N diraz] long. ·drem [dlym] phlegm. driyos [dlgwI I N daryoi, daTwef] poor, needy. ~ih: poverty. dro [KDBA < A kdb'; dlub' I M drw, (N daroy)] lie, deceit. drod [SRM < A Ilm ; dluu' I M drwd, N darod] health, well-being, prosperity, peace. dro-dadwarih [KDBA d'twblyh] false judgement. Idron [dlwn' I N daruna] bow. 2dron [dlwn' I N darun] consecrated bread, ceremony in which c.b. is used.

dron yaAtan



dron yastan : consecrate the sacrificial bread. droA [dlwI] mark, branding; punishment. ~ag [_kl] .desolation. drMidan, droA- [dlwI-ytnl] brand. drMom [dlwlwm] mark. droz-,v. druxtan. drozan [dlwenl I M, J drwzn] lying, liar. ~ih: falsehood. drubust [dl(w)pwltl] fortress. ~ih: defence, fortification. drOdan, ·driin- [HCDLWN-tnl < A '1/ 1.z!d I M dr'scd, (dwr-), duriidan, diraw-] reap, mow. drust [drw(y)st' I (M dryst), N durust] right; well, healthy. ~ih: righteous; health. drustabed [drwystpt'] chief physician. drust [dlwltl I N duruSt] harsh, rough, severe. ~ih: harshness, severity. ~-liwaz, ~-ewiiz [-)fi)e, -)yw)c] harsh-spoken. druwand [d/wnd I M drwnd] evil, sinful, unrighteous. ~ih: sin, unrighteousness. druxtan, droz- [dlwhtnl, dlsoc- I M drwxt, drwz-] lie, deceive. druz [dlwe I (P dru:i)] demon. dud [dwt' 1M dwd, N~] smoke. dudag [dwtkl I N ~a] family. dudiga'r [dtykll M dwdygr, N dlgar] second. duJ-, = dus-, ~-daft [dwIdptl] ill-breathing, short of breath. ~-danag [dwId)n)k'] ignorant. ~-den [dwIdynl I M dwjdyn-] of evil religion. ~-doysarih [dwIdwyslyh] the evil eye. ~-gand [dwIgnd I P dwjgnd] stinking. ~-gandih: stench. dum(b) [dwm(b') I N ~] tail. ~omand [-)wmnd] tailed. dur [LHYKI < A Tlzyq; dwll M dWT, N ~] far, distant, remote. durgar' [dwlgl I N ~] carpenter. dusraw [dwslwb'] notorious, dishonoured. ~ih: notoriety, dishonour. duA- [dwI- I = M] ill-, evil-. ~ih: evil, wickedness. ~-agah [dwI'k)s] foolish, stupid, ignorant. ~-agahih: foolishness, stupidity. ~-arz [-)/e] worthless. ~-faAm [-elm] envious. ~-faAmih: envy. ~-fihr [-cyhll M dwlcyhr] ugly, hideous.





~l!wllzih [-'yw'cyh I (M dwfw'cyh») evil speech, calumny. --farrag [-pig I P dw.(fr) unfortunate. --farragih: misfortune. --gOwiAn [-gwbfnl) of evil speech, ill-spoken. --humat [-hwmt') evil thought. --huxt [-hwhtl I M dwfxwptyyl) evil speech. --kAm [-k'm] ill-will, malevolence. --kanig [-knyk') hag. --kar [-kl) difficult. --kuni~n [_kwnfn'] of evil behaviour, ill-doing. dusmat [dwfmtl = Av. dutmata- I M dwfmtyyl] evil thought. dusmen [dwfm(y)n' I = M, N dufman] enemy. -ih: enmity. -iidih [dwfmn'tyh I M dwfmny'dyh, J dwfmn'dy] enmity, hostility, dus-t-menten [dwf-mynfn'] of evil thought, ill-thinking. --nAm [-n'm I N -] abuse, insult. duAox [dwfhw' I M dwf(w)x] hell. -ig [-yk'] hellish. duA-pildixAa(y) [dwfp'thf'(d)] evil ruler. -ih: evil rule, misrule. duArlm [dwfl(')m] unhappy. -ih: unhappiness. duAwAr [dwf'wll M dw[w'r, N -) difficult, disagreeable. -ih: difficulty, trouble, misfortune. duA-I-wir [dwf-wyl) evil-minded. --wurrOyiAnih [-wlwdlnyh] heresy. --xem [-hym] evil-natured. --xwadAyih [-hwt'yh] misrule. --xwiir [-hw'll N -] = du~wAr, duAxwarit [dwfhwwlftl I M dwfxw'ftyh I] evil deed. duxt [BRTE < A brt-h; dwhtl 1M dwxt, N -) daughter. -ar [dwhtll N -] daughter. duz(d) [GNBA < A gnb'; dwc(t) I M dwz, N duzd) thief. -ih [dwc(d)yh] theft. duzidag [dwcytkl] stolen; intercalary (days). duzidan, duz- [dwe-ytn' I N duzdidan] steal. dwllridan I dwllristan, dwAr- [dwb'l-ytnl, -stnl I M dw,r_] run,move

-iAn: abode (of demons), hell. dwiizdah (dw'cdh I M dw'zdh, N duwazdah] twelve. -An [-'nl] the zodiac.



e ['y I (M hyb)] particle e, v. ed, ew.
giving the present tense optative sense. ebiirag ['dyp'lk', 'dw'[kI IN ewar] evening. ebgat(lb) ['ybgtl, -yh = Av. aif3i.gati-] (onslaught of) Evil; the Adversary. ebsrllsrinl ['yp-, 'ybslwslym = Av. aif3isru8rima-] thegah from sunset to midnight. ebyAnghan [,yp-, 'ywby'nghn', etc. = Av. aif3yduhana-] sacred girdle, = kusttg , el: ['yc I (P 'ywyc), N hell (with a negative) not any. el:and, v. ew-l:and. ed [HNA < A hn' I M 'yd] this; v. dAlItan. ~ rAy l:e [ef. N z-e-ra] because, since. Mar [LTME < A l-mb I M "ydr, N~] here. edOn ['ytwnl I N €dun] thus, so. ~ih: (correct) manner. eg [ADYNI < A'dyn I M 'yg] then, thereupon. ek ['ywk' I M yh, N yah] one. ekAnag ['ywh'nk' I N yagana] submissive, obedient. ~ib: submission, obedience. ek-dAd ['ywhd't'] sole-created. emed ['dmyt'] hope. en [ZNE < A znh. I M (yn, N in] this. -en [.ynl I = M, N -in] suffix forming adjectives of material or quality. -endag [-ndhl 1M -yndg, N -anda] suffix forming present participles. -en-idan [-yn-ytnl 1M -yn-ydn, (N -an-)] suffixes forming causative and transitive denominative verbs. • enOken ['ynw(h)hynl = Av. ·aeno.haena-] heiress (under the obligation of continuing her father's line). enyll ['yny' I (M 'n'y)] otherwise, moreover. ler ['dll M 'yr, v. azer] down, below; low; under. ~ ud abar: upside down. ler ['yl] noble; hero. ~lb: nobility, good conduct. ErAn ['yl'n' I N ~] Eran, (land of) the Aryans. ~ag [-hi] an Eranian, Aryan. erang ['ylng] blame, condemnation; error, heresy. ~ih: = erang. eranJ-, v. I, I eraxtan. ErAnI-lIahr ['yl'nfl,1 I N ~] land of the Aryans. ~-wez [-wyc] (original) home of the Aryans. leraxtan, eranJ- ['ylhtn', "ylnc- I J "'rxt] blame, condemn, damn.

i!raxtan 31 ezm Jeraxtan, eran}- ['yihtnl, 'ylne- I M 'yrxt, ('yrtlz-)] fight, dispute. eraxtAr ['ylht'/] warrior. er-kall ['diM I M 'yrkI] (hands under the armpits in respectful) salutation, greeting. lermAn ['ylm'n' I (M 'ry'm'II), N -] friend; a god. -ih: friendship. Ifr-mAn(ag) ['dlm'n(k)'] humble. er-menillnih [,dlmJ'nlnyh] humility. er-tan ['dltnl] humble. -ih: humility. erwAr ['ylw'l] befitting a hero. erwarag ['dlw'lkl I J 'rw'rh] jaw, cheek. esm ['ysm] = ezm. espo, v. sp", estAdan, est- [YKOYMWN-Inl < A yqym, ..; qwmj 'st'tnl, 'wst-'tnl M 'yst-'dn, N -] stand; be, continue (as auxiliary of the perfect continuous tense). -illn: permanence, lasting, dwelling. eA ['yI I N xeI] plough. eIno, v. In°, few) [r ; HD < A lull M <yw, N -e] a, one. i!wan ['dwn'] stalk, trunk. ewiin [,dw'n'] bridle. ewar ['ywll J 'yll'r] certain(ly), assured(ly). ewarz ['dwlc] movement. ewarzidan, ewarz- ['dwlc-yln'] move, travel. ewarzig ['dwlcyk'] moving. lewAz ['yw'c] word, utterance. lewAz ['yw'c] sole, only. -ig [-ykl] particular, individual. ew-bAr ['ywb'l] once. e(w)-i!and ['y(w)cnd] some, a few. ewen [,dwynl 1M 'ywyn, (N ayin)] manner, custom, form, propriety. pad -: properly. lewenaa ['dwynk' I M 'ywyng] = ewen; v. i!i!-. leWenaa ['dwynkl I (N ayina)] mirror. So&D (ll.clj,) ?>~jn'k ew-kard(ag) ['YWkrt(k)I, -kltkl] united, joined. e(w)-m6g [,y(w)mwk'] wearing (only) one shoe. ew-sAn ['yws'nl I (N yak-san)] uniform, (a)like. -ih: uniformity, likeness. ew-tAg ['ywt'k' I M <ywt'g, (N yakta)] alone, single, individual. ez-, v. yazoo -iAn ['yeInl] worship. ezm [CYBA < A I:yb' I N hezum] firewood, fuel. ~j





[arr-, v. xwarrah. Farrobll~ [plwb(,)g] the first major Fire of Sasanian Eran, that of priests and nobles. farrox [plhwl I M prwx, N~] fortunate, blessed, happy. ~ih: fortune, joy, happiness. filiisofli [py['swkp'y] philosopher. frabih [plpyh I (P Jrbyw), N Jarbih] fat, stout. Fradadaf§ [pldtpf = Av.Jrada'8aJfu-] the south-eastern continent of the earth. fradlig [MHL < A ~r; plt'k' I N Jarda] tomorrow. friidahisnih [pl'dhfnyh] increase, progress. fradom [AWLA < Ar. I 'wi'; pltwm I (M prtwm)] first. ~ih: first, beginning. fragiin [plk'n'] base, foundation; origin. fragandan, fragan- [plkn-dn'] lay foundations. frabang [pl'hng I N Jarhang] education; knowledge. ~estiin [-st'nl] school. frahanJ-, v. frahixtan. frahist [plh(y)st' I (M pr'yst)] most (superlative oj freh). frahixtag [plhhtk' I N Jarhixta] educated, trained, skilled. frahixtan, frahanJ- [plhhtnl, pl'hnc- I P frhynj-, N Jar~] educate, teach, instruct. framiidiir [plm't'l] commander, ruler, chief. framiin [plm'n' I MJrm'n, N Jarman] order, command; a minor degree of sin. --burdiir [-bwlt'll N -bardar] obedient, submissive. framiiy-, ~i§n, v. framudan, frllmM [pl(')mwf I M pr'mwf, N Jaramiif] forgotten. framo§idan [plmwfytn ] = framustan. ' framiidan, framiiy- [plmwtn', plm'd- I M prm'dn, prm'y-, N Jar-] order, cOnlnland. ~i§n: order, commandment. frllmu§tan, frllmM- [pl(')mwf-tnl I M pr'mwft, pr'mwf-, N Jarii-] forget. franaftan, .franam- [plnptn', ·plnm- I M prnpt, prnm-] go, proceed, depart. franliftan, franlim- [pln'ptnl, pln'm- I P Jrn'm-] I. lead, conduct, remove, promote; .2. profess, propagate (faith). ~i§n: removal, promotion, profession. frliriist [pl'l'st'] a cubit (18 in.). frlir~n [pl'lwn'] righteous, honest. ~ih: righteousness, honesty. frasang [plsng I N Jarsang] parasang (4 Roman miles).




frasAwand [pls'wnd] perishable, transient. -Ih : transience. frasp [plsp I N Jarasp] roof-tree, beam, mast. ·fra! [plI] spear. fraA(a)iird [plIkrt' I M prf(y)gyrd] the Restoration (at the end of time). -ii [-yk'] of Eternity (after the Restoration). fraA(a)murw [plImwlw' I MJrfymwrw] peacock. frain [plfn'] question. frawahr [plw'hll M prwhr-] man's immortal soul, guardian angel during his lifetime. frawllr [plw'll N Jarwar(a)] bastion. fraward [plwltl I MJrwrd-] = frawabr. frawardag [plwltk' I M prwrdg] letter, epistle. ·frawi'irdan, frawlir- [plw'l-tnl] present, serve (food). Frawardigan [plwltyk'nl I N Jarwardagiin] festival of the jrowaTda, the last five days of the twelfth month (Spandarmad) and the following five epacts (v. gAhAnig). Frawardin [plwltynl I MJrwrdyn, NJar-) cal. the first month; 19th day. frilx [pl'hwl I N Jardx] large, wide, spacious, ample, prosperous. -Ih: plenty, prosperity. frlixenidan, fri'ixen- [pl'hwyn-ytn'] enlarge, make prosper. frAy [pZ>yI M pr'Y] more, much. fraylid [plyd't' I M pry'd, N Jaryad] help, assistance. frayAdidan, frayiid- [plyd't-ytn' I M pry'd-] help, assist. -lin: help, assistance. -linig: helpful. friiz [pr'c I M pr'z, N Jariiz] forth, forwards. - abgandan : throw forward. - az: after, apart from. - brehenidan: fashion forth, create. - iriftan: undertake, perform; appoint, decide. - 0: up to. frazaftan [plcptn' I (M przwps-)] finish, be perfected. fraziftan, frazAm- [plc'ptnl, plc'm» I M prz'ptn] finish, complete, perfect. -lin: completion. frazAm [plc'm I (N JarJiim)] end, conclusion. frazimenidan, frazimen- [plc'myn-ytn'] = frazAftan. frazAm-perOzih [plc,m pylwcyh] final victory. frazanag [plc'nkl I P Jrz'ng, N Jarzana] wise, intelligent. -Ih: wisdom, intelligence. frazand [prJnd I M frzynd, N Jarzand] child, son, offspring. -Ih: sonship. frazen [plcyn' I N Jarzin) (chess) queen (lit. 'guard'). freb [plyp I N fireb] deceit, deception. freftan, freb- [plyp-tn' I N fir-] deceive.







frUtar [plypt>l] deceiver; deceived. freg [plyk' I M pryyg] shoulder(-blade). freh [plyh I N firth] more, much, = fray. ~-bQd(ih) [-bwt', bwtyh] excess. frestiidan / frestidan, frest- [SDRWN-(y)tn' < A '" IdT; plyst-'tn', -ytn' I M pryst-td, N firistadan] send. frestag [plystkl I M prystg, (N firilta)) apostle, angel. frez [plyc] duty, obligation. -bAnig, -wiinig [-p>nyk', -w>nyk'] obligatory. -biinih, -wiinih [-p>nyh, -w>nyh] fulfilling duties. trOd [plwt' I M prwd, N Juro(d)] down. -Illiind [-m>nd] deficiency, shortcoming. frOg [plwk' I N JurlJoy] brilliance, brightness. frogihistan, frOgih- [plwkyh-stnl] shine. frOxtan, fro(x)§- [MZBNW-tn' < A mzbn, .; zbn I M prwxl-, N Juroxtan,furol-] sell. fru§ag [plwlk' I N Jurfa] beestings.



gabr [gpl, gwbll M gbr, N ? gor] hollow, cavity, womb. -ih : hollowness. gat [gc I N ~] plaster, gypsum. -en [-ynl] (made of) plaster. gad [gt' = Av. gaSa-] club, mace. giidan, gay- [SL YTWN-tn' < A .; sry ?; g>tn' I N -] copulate with. gAdiir [g't>l] husband. gadwar [gtwl = Av. gaSawara-] bearing a club. 19ah [g's I M g'h, N -] place, throne, bed. Igah [g>s I N -] time; a fifth division of the day; = giihiinbAr. agiih [g's] a Gatha, hymn. gAhiin [g>s'n'] the Gathas ; those scriptures dealing with spiritual and theological matters. gAhanbiir [g's'nb>ll N gahanbar] the six divisions of the year, the five-day festivals celebrated at the ends of these. gAhanig [g's>nyk'] relating to the Gathas; spiritual; the five epact days at the end of the year. gAhbed [g>sptl I N ·gahbad] treasurer, banker. -ih: treasurership. gabl [g(')hl I N gal] sorghum, giant millet. gAhog [g'hwk'] bier. gAbwiirag [g>sw'lk' I N gdhwara] cot, cradle. ill [g'l] household, following.



gallig [glwk' I N gula] throat. l1iim [g'm I = M, N~] pace, step, stride; a yard·(3 ft.). - i dO pAy: a pace (5 ft.). Maiinag [-k'nk' I M -g'ng, N -gana] suffix forming numerical adjectives, -fold. gand [gnd I N -] stench. l1andag [gndk' I (M gng), N -a] foul, stinking. -ih: stench. l1andanAg [gndn'k' I N gandana] leek. gandum [Rg < A /;ln1hI (M gnwm), N -] wheat. l1anl [gnc I (M gnz), N -] treasure, treasury. -vwar [-wbll M -wr, N -] treasurer. l1an(n)iil1 [gn'k' I (P gnd'g)] foul, corrupt (v. gandag), - menlig: the Evil Spirit. -ih: corruption. gar [gl] mountain. -gar [-kl, -gl I M -gr, N -] suffix forming actor nouns. -gar [-k'll M -s'r. N -] suffix forming actor nouns. garAn [gl'n' I M gr'n, N giran] heavy, serious, difficult. -ih: heaviness, weight. garasman [glsm'n' I M gr'sm'n] = garOdman. gard [glt' I N -] dust. gardan [gltn' I M grdn, N -] neck. gardiiniil1 [glt'n'k'] die (for gaming). gardAnidan, gardAn- [glt'n-ytn' I M grd(y)nydn, N -] turn (tr.). gardidan, gard- [glt-ytn' I M grd-, N -] turn, revolve. -IAn: revolution, turning. garm [glm I M grm, N -] warm, hot. -ih: warmth, heat. garrn-abag [glm'pk' I N -a] bath-house. garmiig [glm'k' I M grm'g, N garma] warmth, heat. garmlig [glmwk'] warm, ardent, fervent. garrnowar'(th) [glmwk wl(yh)] heat ordeal. garmser [glmsyll N -] warm region, lowlands. garodmiin [glwtm'n' = Av. garo demana- I M grdm'n] paradise. -ill [-yk'] (worthy) of paradise. yarriiniig [gl'n'k' I M grn'g ?] thunder. yarriinidan, yarriin- [gl'n-ytn' I (N yU"idan)] roar, thunder. -iAn: roaring. garzag [glek' I N garza] snake, serpent. garzidan, garz- [gle-ytn'] complain; confess. -iAn: complaint. -IAnig: complaining. gaw [gw'] hand (daevie). giiw [TWRA < A twr' I M g'w, N -] ox, bull, cow; astr, Taurus. giiwars [Pg < A prg'; g'wls I N -] sorghum, giant millet.

gawazn [gw'':l'IIl I N -] deer. gawdar [gwtl I N ~] calf. (liiw-dumb [g'fidwmb I N ~dum] horn, trumpet. gAw-mes [TWRAmyi IN ga(w)mef] buffalo. gAy-.v.glidan. Gay6mart [g'ywkmlt' = Av. gayo marsta I (M gyhmwrd), N~] the First Man. gaz [gc I N~] tamarisk. gas-, -lsn, v. gazidan. (lazAg [gc'k'] biting. glizar [g'cll N gazur] fuller, washerman. gazdum [gcdwm I N kazduml] scorpion; astr, Scorpio. gazidag [gzytk' I N gazid] poll-tax. gazidan. gaz- [gc-, gz-ytnl I N ~] bite, sting. -isn: biting. g~g [gdk' I M gyyg] thief. gehan [gyh'n' I = M, N gihiin, jahan] world. -ig [-ykl] worldly, mortal. -g~n [-k(y)n' I M -gyn, N -gin] suffix forming adjectives of quality. ges [gys I (M gyswg, N gesu)] curls, locks. getig [gyty~, gytydy I M gytyg, N geti] I. the material world; 2. worldly. -ig [-ykl] worldly. gil [TYNA < A tyn"; gIl N -] clay. gilag [g(y)lk' I N gila] complaint, lamentation. --6bar [-'wP'I] swallowing complaint, suffering in silence. gil~n [TYNAynl IN gilin] (made of) clay. (lilistag [glystk'] home, dwelling of demons. glr-. -isnig, v. griftan. (lird [glt' I M gyrd, N -] round, circular; gathered. (6) - Amadan: gather, collect (intr.). - kardan: gather, collect (tr.). -ih: roundness. girdag [gltk' I N -a] disk, round. gisnag [ginkl I P gying] short, small. gisniz [ginyc I N -) coriander. giya(h) [gy'h, gy'h I (M gy'w), N -] grass. -!zag [-yckl] a straw, blade of grass. gizistag [gcystk' I J wlfJzsth] accursed, hateful. g6gird [gwklt' I M gwgyrd, N -] sulphur. -6mand [-'wmnd) sulphurous. g6hr [gwhll M gwhr, N gauhar] substance, essence, nature; jewel; stock, lineage. g6hral1 [gwhlk'] = g6hr. --dAnlig [-d'n'k'] physicist. 1~6hrig [gwhlykl] natural, essential. ·116hrlg [gw(')hlykl) equivalent, substitute, indemnity.



·I&Okln [gwk'n'] details. Golci?"&t' -Ig [-yk'] detailed; precisely. I&Omez[gwmyc I N gimez] bull's urine (as ritual purifier). gOmez- [gwmyc- I N gimez-] urinate. gOo [gwn' I N gun] colour, complexion. -ag [ok' I M gwng, N guna] = gOo; sort, kind, form. gOr [gwll N -] onager, wild ass. a08pand [KYNA < A qnyn' ?; gwspnd IN -] (small) cattle, sheep. --~ihrag [-cyhlk'] holding the seed of cattle. gOBtAn [gwst'n'] cattle-stall, cowshed. 19OA[gwI I = M, N -] ear. IGM [gwI I N -] cal. 14th day. gMag [gwIk' I N -a] comer. gOAOBrild[gwI'wslwt' = Av. gaoIo.sriita-] acquired, learnt. gOAt [BSL Y A < A bsr'; gwIt' I N -] meat, flesh. gOliwAr [gwlw'll N -] ear-ring. aOw-, -llIn, v. guftan. gOwilg [gwb'h' 1M gw'g, N goya] speaking, eloquent; speaker. ·aOwizAr [gwwc'l] explicit, in detail. gOy [gwd I N -] ball. aOz [gwc I N -] walnut. -enag [gwzynk' IN gQzina] a walnut sweetmeat. GOzlhr [gwcyhll Ar. jawzahr] astr, the Dragon. - dumb: the descending node of the moon. - Bar: the ascending node of the moon. grAb [gl'{>I P gr'b] womb. grAmag [gl'mk' I P gr'mg] possessions, wealth. grAmIg [gl'myk' I M gr'myg, N girami] treasured, dear. -ih: affection, respect. 19raw [glwb' I P grww] cane. Igraw [glwb' IN girow] pledge, security. -ih, -(a)giln [glwk'n' I M grwg'n, N girougan] = Igraw. grAyidan, grAy- [gl'd-ytn' I P sr'», N giray-] lean, incline; intend, desire. griftan, air- [OHDWN-tn' < A"; 'fzd; glptn', gyl- I M grypt, gyro, N gin/tan, -] take, hold, restrain. -IAnig: tangible. griftAr [glpt'll N gir-] held, taken; captive. -Omand [-'wmnd] tangible. arlh [glyh I N ginh] knot. 19riw [CWLE < A Iwr-h; glyw'l neck, throat. Igriw [CWLE, glyw' I M gryw] self, soul. agriw [glyw' I P gryw, N giri(b)] a grain measure, modius, peck. griwaa [glywk' I N giriwa] hill, ridge. griwbAn [glywp'n' I N giriban] neck-guard, gorget. grlyiBtan,griy[BKYWN-stn'< A ">I bkv; gld-stn' I M grn'-stn, N giristan, giT>'-] weep, cry.

grah grOh [glwh I N guroh] group, crowd. gubrAg [gwpl'k'] awake, alert, vigilant. gubriis- [gwpl's-] = wigriis-, v. wigriidan. guftan, gll(w)- [YMRRWN-, YMLLWN-tn' < A ymlwn, '" mll; gwptn' , gwb- I M gwptn, gw-, N~, go(y)-] say, speak. -iAn: speech. gUftiir [gwpt'll N -I speaker. -ih: (power of) speech. gugiin- [gwk'n- I M gwg'n-] destroy. gugiir(i)dan. gugiir- [gwk'l-(y)tn' I N guwar-idan] digest. guglly [gwk'dy I M sws'», N guwah] witness. ~ih: testimony. gOh [gwh I N~) dung, excrement. guhriiyenidan, guhriiyen- [gw'hl'yn-ytn'] waken, arouse. gul [gwll N ~] flower, rose. gumiin [gwm'n' I = M, N~) doubt. -gar [-kl] casting doubt. [-yk') doubtful. ~iht -igih: doubt. gumllrdag [gwm'ltk') appointee, deputy. gumardan, gumar- [gwm'l-tn' I M guim'r-dn, N gumastan, gumar-] appoint, commission, entrust. gumbad [gwmbt' I N -] dome, fire-temple. gumeg [gwmyk' I M gwmyg] mixture. gumextan, gumez- [gwmyhtn', gwmyc- I M gwmyxtn, gwmyz-) mix. -illn: mixing, mixture; = gumezagfh. gumesag [gwmyck'] mixture. ~ih: the Mixture, (the duration of) this material world. 19und [gwnd I = P) army, troop; group, gathering. 2gund [gwnd I N~] testicle. gung [g(w)ng I N ~] dumb. gurbag [gwlbk' I N -a) cat. gurd [gwltl I P gwrd, N~] hero. l_Ih: heroism, bravery. gurdag [gwltk' I N -a) kidney. Igurdih [gwltyh] (some piece of) armour. gurdwar [gwltw'l] befitting a hero. gurg [gwlg IN",,] wolf. gurgiinig [gwlg'nykl I N -il of (the province) Gurgan. gursag [gwlsk) I N gurusna !) hungry. -ih : hunger. gUlln [gwIn' IN -] male. gullnag [gwInk' I J guIna) hungry. Gullnasp [gwJn(')sP) the second major Fire of Sasanian Eran, that of warriors. gyag [gyw'kl I M gy'g, N Jay) place.




I N jaro(b)] broom. l1yin [HY A < A ?iy'; y'nl I M gy'n, N Jan] soul, ghost.
--rlib [-lwp

- kandan: give up the ghost; moment of death. --abespiir [-'psp'll N jan-sipar] reckless, desperate; devoted. ~Ig [-yh' I M -yg] spiritual; vital. -war [-wi I (P -br), N Janwar] animate; animal.

b- [HWE- < A"; hwh; h- I M he] be (defective verb). Ihid [HWEtl ! = Av. aat] now, then; that is (= ii). "bAd[h'tl] a section of the Yasna. badamansar [h'thm'nsl = Av. ha8a.ma8ra-] those scriptures dealing with ritual matters. ~II1 [-yh'] concerned with the above. bAd6xt [h'twht' = Av. hallaoxta-] certain scriptural texts; a particular sacrifice. baft [hpt' I M hpt, N -] seven. -Ad [70 I M hpt'd, N ~] seventy. ~al1 [-hi I N hafta] week. -An [-'nl] the seven planets. haftar [hpt'll (N kaftar I)] hyena. haftdah [hptdh I N ~, hi/dah] seventeen. Haft6rinl1 [hptw(k)lng = Av. haptoiringa-] astr. the Great Bear. hagriz [hklc I M hgryc, N hargiz] ever; (with a negative) never. halag [hlk'] foolish, imprudent. -ih: folly, madness. haliim [hl'm I N -] potted meat. halilal1 [hlylk' I N -a] myrobalan. ham [hm I = M, N -] also; same; v. 6. -ih: association, union, harmony. hamAber [hm'pyll M h'm'byr] storehouse. hamag [hm'k' I M h'm'g, N hama] all. --den [-dyn'] a complete religious ceremony. hamaglh [hmkyh I N -i) totality, universality. hamahl [hm(')hl] = hamal. hamal [hm'll N -] equal, peer; comrade, hambadig [hmbtyh'] opponent, adversary. hambah-, v. Ihambastan. harnbah-, -ilin, v. hambAstan. hambAn [hmb'nl I N anban(a)] skin bag. harnband [hmbnd] connected. -ih: connection. hamband-, -ilin, v. Ihambastan.



hambAr [hmb'll N anbar] store. hambAridan, hambAr- [hmo, hnb'l-ytn' I M hmb'r-, N anbdrdan] fill, collect. hambasAn [hnbs'nl 1M 'mbs'n] enemy, opponent. ~ilt [-yk'] inimical, opposing. hambast [hmbst' I N anbast] compact. lhambastalt [hmbstk' I N anbasta) formed, composed. Ihambastag [hnbstk' I M hmbst) collapsed, fallen. hambastag [hmb'stk') -all. lhambastan, hamband- [hmbstn', hmbnd-] form, compose; bind together, intertwine, encircle. ~Iinlh: binding together, intertwining. Ihambastan, harnbah- [hnbstn', hnb'h- I M hmbst, hmbh-] collapse, fall down. ~\,\. ' ..J!hambAstan, haIDbiih-.(hnb'stn', hnb'd- I M hmb'stn, hmb'h-] cast down, demolish. ~i§n : felling, demolition. ham-basn [hmbIn'] of the same stature. hambaw-, -iin, v. hambOdan. hambay [hmb'g I (M hmb'w») companion, partner; adversary. hambAz [hmo, hnb'c I M 'mb'z, N anMz] partner. hambedlg [hmbytyk'] = hambadig , hambOi-, -iin [hnbwl-, -In' I N anbOlif] = hambfis-, -isn. hambOy- [hnbwd- I M hwmbwy-, N anbOy-idan] smell (zr.). ~Aglh [-'kyh], ~i§n: (sense of) smell. hambOdan, hambaw- [hm- YHWWN-tn', v. bOdan; hmbwtn'] be united, composed. -iin(ib) : union, composition. hambun [hmbwn'] (with a negative) not at all, not in the least. hambllsidan, hambiis- [hnbws-ytn' I N anbUsidan] come into being, be conceived. -iin: conception. ham-dAdestiin [hm-DYNA, -d'tst'n' I N ham-diistan] agreeable, of the same opinion. hamdam [hmdm I N~] intimate. ham-desag [hmdysk') of the same form, homomorphous. hame [hm'y I M hmyw, N -] always. ~ ka: whenever. ham-edOn [hm'ytwn' I N hamedun] likewise, similarly. hamelig [hm'yyk' I M hmywyg] eternal. ~ihA [-yh'] eternally. hamemAl [hmym'll = J] opponent, adversary. ~Ib: opposition. hamenldan, hamen- [hmyn-ytn'] unite, compose. hame-rawiinih, hame-ud-hame-rawtsnlh [(lIm'y W) hm'v luobfnyh] eternity.



ham~stAr, -ih [hmyst'/, -yh] = ham~mll, -ih. ham~Aaa [hmylk' I M hmylg, N -a] always. -Ih: eternity. --s6z [-swc] ever-burning. ham~-wahiir [hm'y wh'll N hamila-bahar) marigold. ham-~wenag [hm'dwynkl] of the same kind, homogeneous. ham-gOhr [hmgwhl I M hmgwhr] of the same substance or nature, consubstantial. ham-gOnag [hmgwnkl I M hmgwng] likewise, 80. P hAmharz [h(')mhlc I P h'mhyrz] adjutant, attendant. hAmin [h'myn' 1= MJ summer. -ig [-yk'] (of) summer. hAmist [KHDE, v. hammis; h'mstl] all. ham-kAr [hmk'll N -J collaborator. -ih: collaboration. hAmkiAwar [h'mkylwll M -wr] universe. hammfs [KHDE < A k-fuJh], az ••• -: together with. hamrnlst [hmyst'] stagnant, peaceful. -(al1)An [-(k)'n'] limbo, the neutral station between heaven and hell. hammextan, hammee- [ALPWN-tn' < A .; 'lp; hmwhtnl, hmwc-, hmwz- I M hmwxtn, N iimOxtan, amoz-] teach; learn. -iAn: teaching. halll1l'lOxtAr [hmwht'l] learner. -ih: learning. hanunOz-, -iAn, v. halll1l'lOxtan. -glr [hmwck'll N amozgdr] teacher. ham-nibardih [hmnpltyh] (single) combat. hamOg [hmwg] equal, like. hlmOn [h'mwn' I N hamlin] level, flat. hAmOy~n [h'mwdyn'] all. ham-pursag [hmpwTskl] consulting, taking counsel. -ih: consultation. ham-l-rAnih [hml'nyh] battle, combat. --sAmAn [-s'm'nl] contiguous. --sardag [-sltkl] of the same kind, like. --sAyag [-s'dk' I N hamsdya] neighbour. --tAg [-t'k' I N hamtii] equal, peer. --tan [-tnl] of the same stature, build. --tOhmag [-twhmk'] relative, relation. hamwar [hmwl I N hamwdr] level, abreast. hAmwlr(ag) [h(')mw'l, _kl I N hamwara] always. ham-zamAn [hm ODNA I N -] instantly, immediately. handAm [hnd'm I = P, N andam] member, limb. handarz [hndlc I N andaTz] advice, injunction, testament. handarzenidan, handarzen- [hndlcyn-ytn'] advise.



handlixtan, handliz- [hnd'htnl, hnd'c- I M hnd'c-, N an-] plan, allot, reckon, judge. -iAn: judgement. handiixtar [hnd'ht'l] planner. handiiz-, -iAn, v; handaxtan, -aa [hnd'ckl I N andaza] measure, manner; - i: like. handernan [hndym'n' I = M] before, in the presence of. -ih : audience, presence. handemjtngar [hndym'nkl] introducer (into the presence). -ih: introduction. handeAidan, handM- [hndys-ytn' I M hndyi-, N an-] think, consider, reflect. -iAn: thought, reflection. handMidar [hndysyt'l] thoughtful. handOxtan, handoz- [hndwhtn', hndwc- I N an-] gain, acquire, amass. -iAn(ih): acquisition. handraxtag [hndl'htk' I P 'ndrxt] oppressed. -ih: oppression, suffering. handiidan, -handay- [hndwtn' I (M 'nwd), N an-] smear, plaster, anoint. hangad [hngt' I P 'ngd] fortunate, rich. -ih: fortune, wealth. hanaiim [hng'm I N -] time, occasion. -ig [-ykl] timely. hanallrag [hng'lkl I N angara] reckoning. hangardan, hangar- [hng'l-tn' 1M hng'r-, N an-] consider, reckon. -iAn: consideration. hangextan, hanges- [hngyhtn', hngyc- I (M hgjyn-), N an-] arouse, stimulate, stir up. -iAn: arousing. hangirdenidan, hangfrden- [hngltyn-ytn'] complete, summarize. hangirdig [hngltyk'] complete, perfect; summary. -ih: completion, summary. hangMidag [hngwfytkl I M 'ngwfydg] way, manner, likeness. -i: like. hangrliyidan [hngl'dytnl] lament. hangriidag [hnglwtkl] lamenting. hanJ-, v , hixtan. hanJaftan [hncptnl I P hnjjt, (M hnzpt)] be finished. hanJiiftan, hanJam- [hne'ptn', hnc'm- I P hnj'ft, hnj'm-, (M hnz'pt, N anjamidan)] finish, complete, carry out. hanJiim [hnc'm I N anjiim] end, completion, outcome. hanJaman [hncmnll (P 'njmn, M hnzmn), N anJuman] gathering, assembly, congregation, community. -ig [-yk'] (notable) member of the community. hanJidan [line-ytn' I N -] = hixtan.




hannam [hn'm I = M] = handiim. Harborz [hlbwle I N AlbuTz] the mountain range surrounding the world. harl1 [hlg I cf. M hr'g, Ar. xarJ, xaTiij] duty, tribute; work, effort. ·harrob- [hlwp- I M hrwb-] collect, gather. -ilin(ih) : collection, gathering. har(w) [KRA < A kl'; hi I M hTW, N haT] all, each, every. harwin [hlwyn' I M hrwyn] pl. all. harwisp [hlwsji' I M hrwsp] all. -in [-yn'] pl. all. harzal1 [hlek' I N haTza] loose, free. hAsBr [h'sl = Av. ha8ra-] a measure of time (unequal hour, of daylight); a measure of length (= frasang, or t frasang, I mile). haspin [hspyn' I = M] rest, repose. hast, -ih [A YT', -yh] = last, -ih. haliiigird [h!'klt' I M M'gyrd, N fiigird] disciple, pupil. halit [Mt' I = M, N -] eight. -ad [80 I N -] eighty. -dah [Mtdh I N -, hiidah] eighteen. Ihawan [h'wn' I N -] a mortar. 2hiiwan [h'wn' = Av. hiiwani-] the morning giih. hiiwand [h'wnd I M h'w(y)nd] like, similar. -ih: likeness, similarity. hAwilit [h'w!t'] disciple, pupil. -ih: disciplehood. haxt [h(')ht'] thigh, haunch, hip. haxtan, haz- [h'htn', h'e-] lead, guide, persuade, convert. -ilin: persuasion, conversion. hazar [r,ooa, he'll M hz'r, N -] thousand. -ag [-k' I N -a] miIIennium. hazzAn ['/hz'n'] tomb, ossuary. hen [hynl I M hyyn] army. -ih: attack, aggression. herbed [hylpt' I N herbud] teacher-priest. -ih: priestly office. herbedestAn [hylptst'n'] priestly school. -ih: priestly studies. herig [hylyk' I N h/xeri] iris, wallflower. hezag [hyek' I (M hyjg), N hez] pail. hU-, -ilin, v. hlstan. hlndilg [hndwk' I M hyndwg, N hindu] Indian. -an [-'nl] India. hi!itan, nn-, (P hlrz-) [Sll.KWN-tn' < A'" Ibq; (hle-) I M hyitn, hyl-, (P hyre-), N -] let, leave, abandon, pardon, set, appoint. -gn: pardon, loosing. hixr [hyhl] excrement. hixtan, hanJ- [hyhtn', hnc- I P IIxl] draw (water).


huniyAgih P M [hwl I = P) that, he. HOm [hwm I N -] the sacred plant Haoma (ephedra). homiinlig [h(w)m'n'k' I N hamiinii, J xumiinii), 0 •.• -: like. -ih: likeness. hOmiist [hwm'st'] various series of prayers. hOm\i!n, -ig [hwmynl, -ykl] of Haoma. -Omand [-'wmnd] prepared with Haoma. Hordlid [hwrdt' I M hrwd'd, N Xurdad) Perfection, the fifth Amahraspand, guardian of water; cal. 3rd month; 6th day. hOAag [hwfkl I M hwfg, N xOfa) ear of corn, cluster; astr, Spica, Virgo. hMenidan, haAen- [hwfyn-ytnl] (cause to) wither. hMidan, hM- [hwf-ytnl I M hwf-, N x-] dry up, wither. My(ag) [hwy, -hi I M hwy) left(-hand). Hrorn [hlwm I M hrwm, N Rum] Byzantium, Rome. -iiyig [-'dykl] Greek, Byzantine, Roman. hu- [hw- I = M] good-, well-, -ih: good, goodness. hu-bby [hwbwd] sweet-smelling, fragrant. -ih: fragrance. hu-casrn [hwcfm] unenvious, benevolent. -ih: benevolence. hu-cthr [hwcyhl I M huicyhr, (N xuJir)] fair, beautiful. huda(ha)g [hwd'(h)k' = Av. hudiih-] good, beneficent. -ih: beneficence. hu-I-dast [hwdst'] skilful. --den [-dynl] of good (i.e. Mazdean) religion. --dMag [-dwfkl] very pleasing. --ewliz [-'yw'c] of good speech, affable. --ewiizih: affability. --fraward [-plwltl] blessed, the late. hugar [hwgl] easy; beneficent. hu-I-gowfsn [hwgwbfn'] of good speech. --guglir [-gwh'l] easily digestible. --kuniAn [-kwnfn'] of good behaviour. --miinih [-m'nyh] good-mindedness, benevolence. humat [hwmtl = Av, humata-] good thought. humay [hwm'y I N -] a bird of good omen; eagle. hu-menlsn [hwmynfn'] of good thought. hu-murwag [Izowmwlw'h'] auspicious. hunar [hwnll M humr, N -] virtue, ability, skill. hunariiwand [hwnl'rvnd I M hwnr'wynd] skilled, virtuous. -ih: skill, virtue. hunaromand [hwnl'wmnd IN hunarmand] = hunarliwand. hunidan [h1vnytn'] extract, express (juice). hunlyAg [/l1vnyd'k' ! N xuny<1] delightful. ~-ih: delight, entertainment.



Im roz

hunlyagar [hwllyd'kll N xUllyagar] entertainer, musician. hu-niyoxli [hwlIydwhI] attentive. hunsand [hwnmd I = P, (N xursalltl)] happy, contented. -ih: happiness, content. hunusak [hwnIk' = Av. hunuI] offspring (daevic). htmusakenfdan [hwnIkynytn'] bear daevic offspring. hu-pAdixliA(y) [hwp'thI'(d)] good ruler. -ih: good rule. hu-passandagfh [hwpsndkyh] satisfaction. hur [SKI. < A Ikr"; hwl] an alcoholic drink, ·koumiss. huram [hwlm I N xurram !] happy. -ih: happiness. hurAm [hwl'm] blissful. hu-l-ramag [hwlmk'] having good flocks. --rust [-lwst'] well-grown. --s!izal1ih [-s'ckyh] agreement. --spAs [-sjj's] grateful. husraw [hwslwb' I (M hWSTWg),N xusraw] famous, of good repute. -ih: fame, good repute. hulik [hwlk' I = M, N xuIk] dry. --kiln [-STE] impotent. hu-likoh [hwlkwh] dignified, splendid. -ih: dignity. hulinild(al1) [hwlnwt(k)' I M hwlnwd, N xulmid] contented, happy. -ih: contentment, happiness. hu-tuxs [hwtwh/] artisan. huwarllt [hwwllt' = Av. hwarlta-] virtue, good deed. hu-xem [hwhym] of good character, good-natured. -ih: good character. hiixt [hwht' = Av. hiixta-] good speech.

h~~ (~"'~

i [Y, Z Y- < A zy I M 'y(g), N i] relative pronoun, who, which; connective particle. -Idan [-ytn' I M -ydn, N -] suffix forming secondary infinitives. -i~ [-yk' I M -se. N -i] suffix forming adjectives of relation, etc. -ih [-:I'h 1M -yh, -yy, N -rl suffix forming abstract nouns. -ihs [-yh' I = M, N -hal suffix forming adverbs; later, plurals. -Ih-Istan [-yh-stn' I M -yh-ystn] suffixes forming passive and intran(itive denominative verbs. Im [I.ZNE < A l-snh'; 'm I M 'ym, N -] this. - ~lm rAy: for this reason. - r6z: today.



-(i)m [om I = M, N -am] 1St sg. enclitic pronoun, me, my. -Istan [-stnl I M -ystn, N ~] suffix forming secondary infinitives; v.
-Ih-Istan, -(i)(; [-s I = M, N -as] 3rd sg. enclitic pronoun, him, his, her, it, its. -Hln [-snl I M -yin, N -if] suffix forming (i) verbal nouns, (ii) necessitatioe

participles. -(i)t [-t I = M, N -at] znd sg. enclitic pronoun, thee, thy. -Iz [-(y)c I M -yc, -yz] adverbial enclitic, also, even. -Izag [-yck' I M -ss«. N -iza] diminutive suffix.

jAd [y't'] share, portion. IJadag [ytk' I M jdg] omen. 2Jadag b,tk'] form, property. Jiidag [y'tk' I M j'dg] share, portion; case, cause. Jiidag-gO(w) [y'tkgwb'] advocate, intercessor. ~ih : intercession. Jadag-wihirih [ytkwhylyh] transformation, alteration. JadArih [yt'lyh] maintenance . •JadiAn [ytsnl] (accidental) quality, property. ~ig [-yk'] accidental, non-essential. JAdiig [y'twk' I M j'dwg, N jadu] sorcerer, magician.
~ih: sorcery, magic.


·Jay [y'h I N ~] sissoo tree. jagar [ykll N jigar] liver. [ah-, v , jastan. JabiAn [yhysn' I J jhysn-] chance, fortune, omen. JahiAn-ayiir [yhysn hdyb'll N n. pro jMy'r] fortunate. ~ih: good fortune. Jahiid [yhwt' I N juhud] Jew. IJiim [y'm I N ~] glass. 2Jam [MANE < A m'n-h; y'm I Mj'm, N~] vessel, goblet. IJiimag [y'mk' I N Jamal = 'JAm. 2Jamag [y'mk' I Mj'mg, N Jama) clothing, garment. Jang [yng 1 M jnng, N ~] struggle, battle, fight. Jar [y'wll Mj'r] time, occasion. Jastan, [ah- [ystn', yh-) happen, occur, chance (to be). ~iAn, V. JahiAn. Jailn [ysn' I N ~) celebration, festival. Jaw [sg < A i'rt" 1 N ~] barley. JAwed [y'wytl I (P y'wyd), N ~] eternal.




jawedan [LOLMN < A l-Slmn; y'wyt>nl I (P y'wyd'n, Mj'yd'n), N ~] eternally, always. ~ag [-hi I (P -g), N -a] eternal, perpetual. jawen [Sgynl I N jawin] made of barley. jeh [Yb, yyh = Av.Jahi-] the Whore, female arch-demon. jiw [cywl, yywl = Av. jiwya-] (consecrated) milk. ·Jomii. [ywm)y] together with; both. jOrdii [ywlt'y, -'h I (P yw'rd'w), J ·jwrd)r] corn, grain. jO(y) [ywd, ywbl I N -] stream, channel. jOy-, -i§n, v. Jildan. jud [ywdt' I M jwd] separate, different; anti-. ~ az [N Juz] except, apart from. judag [ywdt'h' I N judii] separate, different. ~ih: separation, difference. jildan, J6y- [ywtnl, ywd- I M jwwdn, (jw-), (N Jawro'an)] chew; devour (daevic). ~i§n: eating (daevic). jud-I-be§ [ywdt by!] harmless, antidote. ~-diidestii.n [-D YN A] disagreeable, opposing. ~-dl!w [-SD YA) anti-demonic. --nay [-n'd] a fathom (6 ft.). jud-ristag [ywdt lysth'] schismatic, heretic. -lh: heresy. juy [ywg I N -] yoke. jumbiigih [ywmb'hyh] motion. jumbenidan, [umben- [ywmbyn-ytnl] (cause to) move. jumbidan, [umb- [ywmb-ytnl IN -] move. ~i§n: motion, movement. [umbthtstan, Jumbih- [ywmbyh-stn'] be moved. Juttar [ywdtl I M jwtr) different, otherwise. -ih: opposite, reverse. juwiin [yw~'nl I (P yw'n), N Jawiin] young; a youth. ~ih: youth. juxt [ywhtl I (P ywxt), N Jult!] pair, couple.

ka [AMT < A 'mty I M h), N hl1 when; if, since. kabiih [hp'h I Ar. qabii] garment, cloak. kabiirag [hp'lh' I N -a] container, vessel. kiiben [h'pynl I N hiibin] marriage-portion, dowry (assigned to the bride). kabig [kpyhl I N kab/pi] monkey. kabiz [kpyc I (N kawii)] a grain measure, fo griw.



kabk [kpk' I N -] partridge. --anJir [-'ncyll N -] a kind of francolin. kabOd [kpwtl I N -] grey-blue; pigeon. kabotar [kpwtll M kbwtr, N -] pigeon. kAl: [k'c I N kaf(ki)], - ka: would that, if only. kiidag [k'tkl] game, joke. kadag [ktkl I M kdg, N kada] house. --biiniig [-b'nwkl I N kadblinu] mistress, lady of the house. -ig [-yk'] domestic; servant. --xwaday [-hwt'y I P qdyxwd'y, N kadxudli] householder, master of the house. kadiirn [kt'm I M kd'm, N kudlim] which, what. --iz-e(w) [-c-HD] whichever. kadar' [kt'I) who, which. --iz-e(w) [-c-HD] whoever. kaf [kp I N -] foam, slime. kaf-; v. kaftan. kafl: [kpc I N -] ladle, skimmer. -ag [_kl I N -a] spoon. kaf§, -ag [kpf, -hi I N kalf] shoe. -gar [-kll N -] shoemaker. kaftan, kaf- [kp-tn' I P kft, kl-] fall. kiih [TBNA < A tbn' I N -] chaff, straw. kiih-, -i§n, v. kiistan. kahas [kts I M khs] channel, sewer. kiihenidan, kiihen- [k'hyn-ytn'] decrease, lessen (tr.). kiihidan [k'hytnl I N -] = kiistan. kahist [ksst'] least. kah-zubay [khlp'd I N -ruba] amber. kahwan [khwbnl 1M qhwn, N huhan] old. kiikorn [h'kwm I N -] stoat. - i sped: ermine. kiilbod [k'lpwt' I (M k'lbyd), N -] body, shape, form. -Omand [-'wmnd] corporeal. karn [km I M kmb, N -] little, small, few; v. kern. kiirn [k'm I = M, N -] will, desire, purpose. kiim-, v. kiimistan. lkiirnag [h'mkl I N klima] kinds of gruel, or soup. 2kiirnag [k'mkl I N klima] = kiim. --hanJarn [-hnc'm] gaining one's end, successful. --hanJamih: success. -omand [-'wmnd] willing(ly),desirous. --widar [-wt'll N klim-guMr] successful, independent. -v-xwaday [-hwt'y] independent, absolute. kamal [km'll (M km'r») head (daevic). -ig [-ykl] chief (daevic).




kaman [km',,1 I = M, N -] bow. . I ~ ., -dar [-d'll N -] archer, bowman. ~ w "'1. ", kamar [kmll N -] waist; belt, girdle. -c--band [-bnd I N -] belt. ki'imgiir [k'1IIh'll P h'mg'r, N -] powerful, absolute. karnlst [kmystl] least. -ih: pad -ih, at least. kamistan, kAm- [YCBEN-st,,1 < A Ylbiz, .,; Ibh; k'm-(y)stnl M k'm-yst] want, desire. kAII1I-rawiig [k'm lwb'kl I N -Tawa] successful. --:l:i(w)j§n [-zywfnl] free, independent. kam-sor [hmzwl I N -] weak. -ih: weakness. kan-, v. kandan. kanar [kn'll N -] side, edge; embrace. -ag [_k' I M kn'rg, N -a] edge, limit, boundary. -agoII1and [-k'wmnd I M -gfllmnd] limited, finite. kandan, kan- [HELWN-tnI < A"; ~pr; kn-dn', -tn' 1M knd, N -] dig; raze, destroy. kanig [knykl I M knyg] girl, maid. kanizag [knyckl I M knycg, N kaniz(ak)] = kanig. kantigr [kntgl] quiver. kapur [h'pwl I Ar, kaJur] camphor. kar-, v. kardan. lkaT [k'll M k'r, N -] work, deed, affair. - framildan: put to use. "kar [k'l], pl. -an: (other) people. 3kar [k' I] butter. kar-, v. kl§tan. karats [kips I N -] celery. kar-agah [k'I'k's I N -] skilled, experienced. -ih: skill, experience. karak [krkl I N -] quail. karan [kl'nl I P hr'n, N -] side, edge, end, limit. karawiin [k'lw'n' I P k'rw'n, N karwan] caravan, military column. -ig [-yk' I N -i] caravaneer, traveller. karb [kip] priest hostile to Zoroaster. karbM [klb'{ I N karbal, etc.] lizard. karbunag [klpnk', klbnk'] lizard. kard [krtl I M kyrd, N -] action; matter, affair. kard [SKYNA < A skyn'; k'lt' I N -] knife. Ikardag [kltkl] division, section, portion. 2kardag [krtkl, kltkl I N karda] action. kArdiig [k'ld'k'] traveller, wanderer, migrant. kardagan [krt-, kltk'nl I M kyrdg'n] action. kardagar [krtk'll M kyrdg'r, N -] mighty.


C 66S(





kardan, kun-, (P kar-) [Ol1YDWN-ln' <: A .j(bd; krill', kuin-; (kf-) I M kyrdn, kum-, (P kr-), N ~] do, make, act, perform. -i§n, v. kunfsn, kardiir [krt-, klt'll N ~] active; worker, doer. ~ih: activity. kard-espiis [hrtsp's] servant, attendant. kArezlir [h'lye'll M k'ryz'r, N karzar] battlef-field), kar-framan [k'Iplm'n' I M k'rprm'n, Ar. qahramiin] manager, overseer. karg [hlg I N ~] rhinoceros. kargas [klk's I N kargas] vulture. klirig [k'Iyhl I N kari] active; warrior. -ih: activity. kark [klk' I N ~] chicken, hen. kar kehan [klkyhn'] chalcedony. karm [hIm I P hrm] action. karmir [klmyr] red, crimson. kar-niimag [k'bl'mkl] record, chronicle. karr [k/l M qr, N ~] deaf. karxM [klhwl I (N carxult)] wine-press. -karzang [klcng I M kyrzng, (N xarcang») crab; astr. Cancer. kas [AYS < A 'yl 1M ks, N -] person, somebody. --iz roc] anybody, (with a negative) nobody. kiisken [k'skyn'] lapis lazuli. ~(ag) murw [_k' I N kiiskina] -magpie. ~en [-ynl] blue-green; of lapis lazuli. kiistan, kah- [k'sln', k'h- I N -] diminish, decrease, lessen. ~i§n : decrease, diminution. kastiir [kst'l] destroyer, wrongdoer. -ih: destruction, iniquity. kiistiir [h'st'l) diminisher. ka§ [kf I N ~] armpit. kasawag [hfwh' I N kafmv] tortoise. kask [klhl I N ~] dried buttermilk. kastig [hftyh' I N kalti] boat, ship. -kawiidak [hw'thl] young; baby; v. kodak. lkay [AYMT < A "ymt I N~] when? 'kay [hd I N ~] title of the dynasty of Wistiisp (patron of Zoroaster), Kayanian. ~ak [-hi] ruler hostile to Zoroaster. kayk [hdyk' I N ~] flea. ke [MNW < A mn-w I M hy, N hi] who, which. P kec [kyc I = P] person, somebody. ked [hyt' I P qydyg] soothsayer, magician. ~igih [-yhyh] soothsaying, prophecy. keh [ks I M hyh, N -] small(er), less(er), young(er). ~tar [-tIl N -] = keh.




kern [kym] less, fewer ; v, kam. ken [kytll I = M, N kilJ(a)] hate, malice, revenge. ~ig [_yk'] malicious, vengeful. kennar [ktl'l] lyre, harp. ~-sray [-sl'dJ harpist. kenwar [kymlll I (M hymv'r), N kinllwar] vengeful, vindictive. ~ih: vindictiveness. ker [kyll N ~] penis. kesar [kysl] Caesar. kes [kys I = M, N ~] dogma, faith (especially non-Mazdean), ~-dar [-d'l] sectary, non-Mazdean, kesidan, kes- [k(y)s-ytnl I (M kTS-), N kafidan] pull, draw. Kewan [kyw'nl I Ar, kaywan] astr. Saturn. kewud [kypwtl I M k(ywd] box, ark. kilel [klyl I N kilid)) key. kirb [kIp I M kyrb] body, form. klrbag [hrpkl I M kyrbg, N kirfa] virtue, good deed. ~ig [-yk'] virtuous, pious. kirbakkar [krpkhll M kyrbkr] beneficent. ~ih: beneficence. kirih- [OBYDWNyh-, v. kardan, hlyh- I M k)'ryh-] be done, made. kirm [kim! M krm, N -] worm, serpent. klr'renldan, krrren- [klyn-ytn'] rend; create (dae'l.Jic). kirrOg [h(y)lwk' I M qrwg] artisan, craftsman; skilled. -ih: arts, crafts, craftsmanship, skill. kis [k(y)f I M kf, N ~] furrow, line. kisniz [kfnyc] = gisniz. kgtan, kar- [ZL YTWN-tnl < A"; zr(; kysfnl, k'l- I M hyst, h'r-, N -] till, furrow; sow. kiStar [ZL YTWNt'!] tillage. kisw, -an [hyfwl, -'nl I P hy.ff'n] tillage. -(an)zar [-c'll (N kif tzar)] field. kiswar [hyfwll M hyfwT, N ~] region, clime, continent. kiswzar, v. kiswanzar. kobo, v. kMtan. kodak [kwthl I M qwdk, N -] young, small; baby. kM [kwp I = M, N Mih] hill, mountain; hump. ~ag [_kl I N Mha] saddle. -ig [-yhl I N kohi] wild, mountain-. kaftan, kOb- [kwp-tnl I N ~] beat, pound, crush. kor [kwll M kwr, N -] blind. ~-dil [-dyl I M -dyl, N ~] blind-hearted, incorrigible. kostan [kwstn' I = M, N ~] beat, pound. koso, v. kOxs-. kliSk [kzvfhl I N ~] pavilion, palace, kiosk.

ko(x)sidan ki'i(x)sidan, ko(x)s- [kz~(h)s-ytlll



I M kws-ydn, N kOffdml] strive, struggle, endeavour. ~isn: strife, combat. ~Hlnig: energetic. ki'iy [kwd I N ~] street, lane. kii [A YK < A ')'k I M IIw, N kft, hi] where; that; than. ~ gyag [N kuJa] where. ~ tii: so that. kn~(ak) [kwc(kl) I N klitak] small. kiik [kwkl] small, short. kulil~ag [kwl'ckl I N kulita] small, round bun. kulaf [kwl'p I N kulah] cap, bonnet. ~ak [_kl] I N -hak] little cap; calyx. kulang [king I N -] crane. kutlag [kwlkl] locust. kumig [kwmykl] stomach. kun-, ~illn, v , kardan, kuniSn. kiin [STE < A <IIft-h; kwnl I N -] rump, buttocks, anus. kundiig [knd'kl I M qnd'», N kunda] magician, soothsayer. -ih: magic, astrology. kundur [kwndll N -] frankincense. kunisn [kwnfnl I M kwnyfn] action, deed. -gar [-kl I M -gr] doer, performer. kunJid [SMg < A fmfm'; kwnc(y)tl I N ~] sesame. kiin-marz [kwnmlc] sodomite; sodomy. kurkum [kwlkwm] saffron. kur-rag [kwlkl I N -a] foal, colt. lkust [kwstl] side, direction; district. 2kust [hwstl I Ar. qust] costus. kustag [kwstkl I M kwstg] = lkust. -bed [_ptl] district-commander. kustig [kwstykl I N -I] sacred girdle. kustan, kus- [NKSWN-tnl < A -V nks; kwf-tnl I M k7vst, kws-, N ,-] kill.

lab [Ip I M lb, N -] lip. Hibag [l'pk I (M r'b), P n, N Iaba] supplication. liibakkar [I'fikkI] suppliant. laJan [len I I N -] mud, slime. larzidan,Iarz- [lIe-ytlI1 I P lrz-, N -] shiver, tremble, latrlkar [lfkll N -] army.
-ih: supplication.




-ig [-yk' I N -i) soldier. -igih: soldiering. Iawzenag [iwcynk' I N -ina] almond sweetmeat, marzipan. ·lipi [ipyh] a minute (of arc).

ma [AL < A 'il M m', N -] not (prohibitive). ~ agar [N magar] perhaps; lest. mad [AM < A 'm-y, v. rnadar' I M m'd] mother. Imadag [NKI] < A nqb; m'tkl I (M m'yg), N mada] female. -ih: femininity. 2miidag [m'tkl I (M m'yg, N maya)] essence, substance. -ig [-yk'] essential. -war [-uli] essential, especial, principal. madan [mtnl I M mdn] come. madar [mt'l] comer. madar [AMYtl < A 'm-y; m't! I M m'dr, N -] mother. Imadayan [m'tgd'nl I M m'dy'n] book. 'miidayiin [m'tyd'n'] essence, basis, core; essential, chief. madayiir [m'tgd'i] steward; (chess) rook, castle. madi§t [m'tyltl] ·matter, protoplasm. madiyan [m'tyg'n I N -] marc. may [my I N -] hole, pit. magas [mks I P mgs, N -] fly. - i anguben : honey-bee. maglnd [mknld I M mgyn(d)] shield, protection. mah [BYRH < A b-yr~; m'h I = M, N -] moon, month; cal. rath day. mahig [m'hyk' I. M m'hyg, N mdhi) fish; astr, Pisces. mahigan [B YRH-, m'hyk'n' I M m'hyg'n, N mdhiydn] month. mahist [msstl, mhst' I M mhyst, N -] greatest. makog [mkwkl I M mkwg, N mak6(k)] boat. malidan [m'/ytnl I N ~] = mustan, man [L < A t-v I M mn, N -] I, me. man [m'nl I = M] house, dwelling. Iman-,v.mandan. 'man- [m'n- I = M] live, dwell. -isn: dwelling, sojourn. 3man- [m'n- I = M, N -] resemble. manag [m'nkl I P m'ng] mind. manag [m'n'k' I M m'n'g, N mana] like, resembling. -ih: likeness, resemblance. manban [m'np'nl] watch-dog. rnanbed [m'nptl] master of the house.




mAnd [m'nd I = M] house. mAnda~ [m'ndh' 1M m'ndg, N ~a] tired; remiss; fault, sin. ~ih : tiredness. mandan, 1man- [KTLWN-tn' < A "I ktr I M m'nd, N~] stay, remain; v. also 2. 3mAn-. mang [mng] henbane. mani~ [m'nyhl] household member. manlstan [KTLWNstn'] = mandan. milnHa [m'nyftl] abode, dwelling. ~a~ [-hi] sedentary, settled. mAnsar [m'nsl = Av. ma8ra-] (holy) word, spell. -c--bar [-bl] priest. ~spand [-spnd = Av. spanta-] holy word; v. mAraspand. Imar [mil M mr, N -] number, reckoning, account; class. smar [ml] scoundrel, felon. mAr [m'/l N -] snake. mar-, -IAn, v. mArdan. marag [mlh'] number. miirA~ [m'I'h'] perceptive, sensitive. MAraspand [m'rspnd IN -] (= mAnsarspand), cal. 29th day. ·marfabuk [mlcPpwk'] brave, valiant. -ih: bravery, valour. mard [CBRA < A gbr"; mit' I M m(y)rd, N -] man. rnardan, mar- [m'l-tn'] perceive, notice, feel. -iAn: perception. -isnomand [-fn'wmnd] perceptive. mardanag [mlt'nkl I N -a] manly, brave. -ih: manliness, bravery. mardom [ANSWTA < A 'nfwt'; mltuim 1M mrduihm, N mardum] man, mankind, people. -ih: humanity, humanness. mardom-aadag [mltwm z'tk' I N mardum-ziidi human being. -ih: humanity. rnarg [mig I M mrg, N -] death. --arzan [-'Ie'n'] deserving death. -ih: = margo -omand [-'wmnd] mortal. miiri~ [m'lyk' I M m'ryg-] word, spell. marw [mlw' I M mrw, N -, (11Ulry)] herb. marz [mlc I M mrz, N~] boundary, march; astr. term. marzangM [mlcngwf I N~] marjoram. marzidan, marz- [mic-ytn' I M mrzyst, mrz-] copulate. -isn(ih): copulation, fornication. marz(o)biin [mlep'n' I N -] margrave, warden of the marches. -masay [-ms'd] suffix, -sized. mast [mstl I = M, N -] bemused, intoxicated.




mAst [m'stl I N ~] curds, sour milk. rnastarg [mstlg I (M mstgrg)] skull. mastO~ [mstwk'] intoxicated, drunken. ~ih: intoxication, drunkenness. mM [m'll N ~] vetch, pulse. ImaAk [m/k' I N -] mussuck, skin bag (for liquids). "maAk [m/kl I N maikO] tent, pavilion. ~abarzen [-'p[zynl I M m/kbTzyn] royal pavilion. maAkizag [mIkyck' I N ~a] small mussuck, skin 'table-cloth'. mad [mhl] fly. may [HS < A ?lmr'?; mdy I M my, N~] wine. mayAn [mdy'nl I M my'n, N miyan] middle; among, between. ~a~ [_k' I N ~a] middling, average. mayanjig [mdy'ncyk' I N miyanJi] mediator, intermediary. mayg [KMCA < A qms"; mdkl I N ~] locust. mayiAn [m'dIn'] copulation. mazandar [m'z-, m'cndl] arch-Idemon), gigantic. mAzani~ [m'znyk'] (demon) of Mazan. mlizdesn [m';,d(y)~' I M m'zdys] Mazda-worshipping,
~ih: ~ih: mediation.

Mazdean. Mazda-worship, Mazdaism. maz~ [mzg I (M mgj, N mayz)] brain, marrow. masgtt [mzgtl I N ~] mosque. medy6zarm [mytywkzlm = Av. maj(jyoi.zaramaya-] spring. mily [myy I P myg, N~] cloud, mist. meh ems I M mhy myh, N ~] great(er), old(er), rnehan [myhnl I N~] home. mehenidan, rnehen- [msyn-ytnl] increase, magnify. ~iAn: increase. mehmlin [m(')hm'n' I P myhm'n, N ~] inhabitant, guest; acceptable. ~ih: habitation; hospitality. mehtar [mstl, ms't! « P ms'dr) I N ~] elder, senior. -ih: adulthood. menidan, men- [myn-ytnl 1M mn-, N man-] think, consider. -iAn: thought, intention, disposition. -iAni~: thoughtful. menOg [mynw~ I M mynwg, N mino] spiritual, heavenly; spirit. ~i~ [-ykl] spiritual. ~(ig)ih: spirit, spirituality. men6~-wen [mynwB H~YTWN] having spiritual insight. -ih: spiritual insight. mera~ [mylkl] young man, husband. meA [HLLN < A r?ll?; myll = P, N -] sheep, ewe. me§ag [myIk'] urine. mU-sAr [my!s'll N -] having a sheep's head (ornament). mewaa [mywk' I M myw, N mewa] fruit.





1-3mez-, v. mezidan, mezi§n, mistan. mi!zd [my(')zd I N mez] offering, meal. -bAn [-p>nl I N -] host. mezidan, Imez- [myc-ytnl] suck. 'mi!zJ§n [mycfnl] blinking, twinkling. mih [mtl] false, contrary, opposite. mihoxt [mytwht'] falsehood. ImJhr [mtrl 1M myhr, N -] Mithra; sun; cal. 7th month; 16th day. 'mlhr [mtrl, etc.] contract, bond. lmihr [mtrl, etc.] love, friendship. mthrban [mtrlp>nl I P myhrb'n, N -] friendly, kind. mlhr-drOz [mtrldlwc] = mJhrodruJ. mlhrodruj [mtrPw-, mtrwk-dlwc = Av. mi8ro.druJim] contract-breaker. -ih: breaking faith. mihr-zan [mtrlznl] = mihrodruJ. mJJ(ag) [myc(kl) I N muz(a)] eyelid; eyelash. mJJiig [myc-, myfwkl I N mizii] lentil. mtr-, v. murdan. mlstan, Imez- [mstnl, myc- I N mezidan] urinate. -i§n(Ih) : urination. rnlsag [m(y)ckl I N maza] taste. -diirih [-d'lyh] (sense of) taste. -Omand [->wmnd] tasty. mizd [m(y)zd I N muzd] reward, hire, pay. -war [-wbll N -fiT] hireling. ·mizne [m(y)znydy] mist, dew. mOg [mwkl] sho-;'·moy-mard [m;tZ!mlt', -gGBRA I N muy] magus. mer [mwl I N -] ant. mOrd [mwlt' IN -] myrtle. morwiirid [mwlw)lyt' I M mumo'ryd, N -] pearl. ·mowbed [mgwptl I N mobad] Mazdean priest. moy [mwd IN -] hair. mOyag [mwdkl I N maya] lamentation. mOyen [mwdyn'] (made of) hair. moz [mwc IN -] banana. mOzag [mwck' I N moza] shoe. ·miidag [mwtkl] spoilt, destroyed. muy [DKRA < A dql' I N mux] date-palm. muhr [mwdll M mzohr, N -] seal. -ag [mwhlk' I P muihrg, N -a] bead, vertebra, piece (in backgammon, etc.). ·muhri§n [mwtlfn'] excrement. mulAn [mwl'nl] belly (daevic).

[myh I P myx, N -] peg, nail. - i gAh: astr. Polaris, pole star.




P murd [mwlt' I P mwrt !] death. murdan, mir- [YMYTWN·tnl < A ymwtwn, '1/ mwt; mwltnl murd, myr-, N ~] die. murdiir [mwTt>I, mwld'll N ~] carrion. murnJ~nidan, murnfen- [mwlncyn·)ltn'] destroy. rrrurw [mwlwl I M mWTW, (N mUTY)] bird. murwag [mwlw'k' I M mwrw', N murwa] omen. Illurwiza~ [mwlwyck'] little bird. murw-nls [mwlwnyI] augur, soothsayer. llllust [mwstl] force, violence. 2must [mwstl] = must. "must [mwstl] complaint. mustl-abarmand [mwstPplm'nd] aggressive, aggressor. ~gar [-kl] violent, rebellious. muetamand [mwst'wmnd I N mustmandi complaining, unhappy. lmusk [mwlkl I N~] musk. 21llusk [mwlkl I (N mill)] mouse, rat. must [mwltl I N ~] fist. mustan, miil- [mwstnl, m'l- I N ~] rub, sweep.


nab [liP I N nawa] grandson. nabanazdfst [nb'nzd.ftI = Av. lIaballazdista-] next of kin. niif [n'p I M n'p] family. ~ag [-kl I N naf(a)] navel. lnaft [nptl I = M, N ~] moist, damp; naphtha. 2naft [nptl] descendant. nahang [nsng] province. ·nakkirii [nkyl'ji) denying, repudiating. ~yib : repudiation. nat- [n'l- I P (n'r-), N~] groan, complain. nam [nm I N~] moisture. niim [SM < A 1m; n'm I = M, N -] name, fame. namad [nmt' I N -] felt. niimag [MGLTA < A mglt'; n'mkl 1M n'mg, N nama] book, letter. namak [nmk' 1M nmyhk, N -] salt. namiiz [OSGDE < A sgdh; nm'c I = M, N -] reverence, prostration, prayer. - burdan: pay homage. nam-burdar [n'm bwlt'll N -] heir, preserving the father's name. niimclst [n'm-, SMelt'], (pad) -: in particular, especially. -ig [-yk'] famous, well known.

-ih: renown.



niimig [n)myk' I N nami] famous, renowned. nan [LIlMA < A lhm"; n)n' I = M, N -] bread, food. nang [nng I N -] shame, modesty. oar [ZKL < A zhr ; nll M nr, N -] male, manly. nargts [nlgs I N -] narcissus. narig [n)(y)lyk'] woman, lady, wife. narm [nlm I M nrm, N -] meek, humble, soft. nasa [ns)y I M n(y)s'h, N -] corpse, carrion. nask [nskl I N -] a division of the Avesta. nasrustflh) [nslwft', -yh] pollution, corruption. nastaran [nstln' I N -] dog-rose, sweet briar. nawad [90 I N -] ninety. naxcrr [nhcyll M nhcyhr, P nxcyr, N -] game, quarry, chase.
naxod [nltwt' I N -] chick-pea.

P naxsag [nMII' I P nxfg] good, fine. niixun [n'hwn' I N -] (finger) nail. naxust [nhwst' I M nxuist, N -] first. nay [KNYA < A <Iny'; n'd IN -] reed, cane. nay-, v. nidan. nay [n'd 1M n)y, N -] tube, flute, clarion; pole, perch - pazd- : hlow, play the flute. ·niiydag [n'ywt'll'] deep, unfordable, navigable. nayestiin [KNYAst'n' I N -) reed-bed, cane-brake. niiyizag [n)yell' I N -a] small reed, straw. niiy-sray [n'dsl'd] flautist. nazd [nzd I = M, N -] near. nazdik [nzdyh' I = M, N -] near.
-ih: proximity.



nazdist [nzdst'] first. nazisn [n'c!nl I N naziS] 1. boasting; 2. kindness. nazuk [n'ewk' I (M n'zwg), N -] tender, gentle; fickle. ne [LA < A P I M ny, N na] no, not. nek [nywkl I M nyk, N -] good, beautiful. nek-gohr [nywk gwhl] good-natured,
-ih: goodness. virtuous. -Ih: goodness, virtue. nekog [nywkwh' 1M nyyqww!, N 1Ie/u}] = nek, nern [PRG < A pig; nym I = M, N -] half. -ag [nymh' I N -a] half, side, direction. --asp [-'sp] centaur; astr. Sagittarius. --roz [-lwe I M -rwe, N -] midday, south. --tan [_tn' I N -] middle of the body. nerang [nylng I N -] incantation, charm, spell. nerog [nylwk' I M nyruig, N nero] strength, power. -omand [-'wmnd] strong, powerful.




nest [LOYTI < A I' 'yty I M nyst, N -] is not. -ih: non-existence. new [T~ < A tb ; nywl I = M, N -] good, brave. --ardaxlHr [nyw'lthsyll N nard !] backgammon. nezag [nyckl I N neza] lance. neziimiin, -i~ [nycwm'nl, -yh' I M nyzwtll'n] dextrous, skilful. -ih: skill, artistry. nibard [nplt I N nabard] fight, struggle, battle. ' -ag [-kl I N -a] tried, experienced. nibardidan, nlbard- [nplt-ytn I P nbrd'd] fight, do battle. ' nibastan, nibay- [SKBHWN-tn' < A"; skb; npstn', npd- I M nbst] lie down, sleep. nibiistan, ·nibay[np'stnl I M nb'st, nb'y-] lay down. nibeg [npyk' I N niwe] writing, scripture, book. nlbem [npdm I (P nbdm-») lying, prostrate. nibiiitan, nfbes- [YKTYBWN-slnl < A yktbwn, ..; ktb; npItnl I M nbyst, nbys-, N -]-;rite. nidan, nay- [YD(B)LWN-tnl < A ydbrum, ..; dbr I M nyydn, ny-] lead. -nidom [nytwm] least, smallest. nifridag [nplytkl I N nifrid] accursed. nUrin [nplynl I N -] curse. nigiih [nk's I M ng'h, N -] look, attention. - diiiitan: watch, keep. - kardan: look. --darih, --diiri!inih [-d'[(slI)yh i N -dari] keeping, care. nigli.n [nk'nl I P ng'n] buried. nigar- [nk'l- I M ng'r-, N -] draw, design, paint. -ag [_kl I (M ng'r, N nigar)] image, picture, diagram. nigiistar [nk'st'l] guard; protective. ntgertdan, niger- [nkyl-ytn' I N nigaridan] look, observe. -iiin: observation. -iiinig: evident, manifest. nigextan, nigez- [nkyhtnl, 1Ikyc-] expound. -gn: exposition. nigez [nkyc] exposition. nigiin [nkwnl I N -] inverted, upside down. -ih: depth, downward direction. -siir [-s'll M ngwns'r] downwards. nihiidag [nyd'tkl I M nyh'dg] foundation. nihiidan, nih- [HNHTWN-tnl < A hnht, ..;n?lt I M nyh'd, nyh-, N -] put, place, establish. nihiU [nh'/l N -] sapling, self-planted tree. nihiin [nyh'n' I N -] concealment, secrecy. -ig [-yk' I N -i) secret. nihang [nsng] small, few.




nihuftan, nihumb- [nhwptnl, nhwmh- ! = M, N -] cover, hide, conceal, clothe. nihumbidan [nhwmbytn'J = nihuftan. ·nikllhidan, nikoh- [nkwh-ytnl I N -] blame, execrate. -isn: blame. -isni~: blameworthy, execrable. nil [nyll N -] indigo. nilopal [nylw(k)pl I N -, nilofar] lotus, water-lily. nlrnudan, nimiiy. [nmwtnl, nm'd-! M nmwdn, nm'y-, N -] show, guide. ntrfs- [nlps-] wane, decrease. -isn: decrease, diminution. nlrrnad [nylmt'] profit, interest. -omand [-)wmnd] profitable. P nisii~ [nys'k' I P nys'g] bright, splendid. nis- [nys- I M nyyi-ydn, J -] see, observe. nisan-, v. nisAstan. nisiin [nyl)nl I = M, N nifan] sign, mark, banner. nisast [nIstl ! N -] association. ntsastan, ni!lin- [YTYBWN-stn' < A"'; ytb; nIsin' I M nht, (nlyy-), N -] sit. nisiistan, ni!lAn- [YTYBWN-sinl, -'n-; ni'stnl, II/'n- I M nl'st, (nl'),-), N -] set, seat, plant, found. ni!liiyi!ln [ns)dln' I M nI'y-, v. ni!liistan] foundation. niseb [nlyp I N -] declivity; astr. dejection. -i~ [-ykl] declining. ni!lem [nIdm I M nlym, N -an] seat, perch. -a~ [-kl] residence, abode. nlsfn-, v. nlsastan, niwii~ [nw)k' I M nw'g, N nawa] music, song, melody. ·niwe [nwykl I (N nuwed)] good news. • ntwey-, -i!ln, v. niwistan . • nlweyenidan [nwykyn-ytnl] = niwistan. niwistan, ·niwey- [nwstnl, nwyd-/ nwyk-] announce, consecrate. -i!ln(ih): announcement. nlxwar- [nswb'l- I M nyxw'r-] hasten. -i§n : haste. niyiiba~ [lIyd'pkl I M ny)bg] becoming, fitting, suitable. -ih: suitability. niyii~ [nyd'kl I M ny)g, N niya] grandfather, ancestor. niyiiyi!ln [nyd'dInl I N -is] prayer, praise. niyiiz [nyd'c I M ny)z, N -] need, want, misery. -omand [-'wmnd IN -mand] needy. -omandih: poverty. niyo(x)sidan, niyo(x)!I- [n(y)dwhl-ytnl ! M nywl-, N ni)'/ifidan] hear. -i!ln : hearing. niziir [nz'll (P nyz'wr), N -] weak, feeble.



-ih: weakness. niziirih- [lIz'lyh-] become weak. no [TSA < A tl? 1M nioh, N nuh] nine. nog [mckl I M nwg, N tuuv] new, recent. --roz [-huc I N IIUtvroz] New Year's day. ~-ziid(ag) [-z't(h)' I N nawziid] new-born. nohom [nhwm I = M, N~] ninth. nozdah [lltvzdh I N -] nineteen. niln [KON < A k'1I I M, J nwn] now.

o COL < A 'I; 'w I M 'w] to, at; v. also oh. - gird amadan: gather, collect (i1ltr.). - harn kardan: gather (tr.). - ham madan : gather (imr.); come to an end. "obad-, v. obastan, "oftiidan. obardan, obar- ['wP'l-u,1 I M 'wb'rd] swallow, devour. obastan, ·obad- [NPLWN-stnI < A'" npl ; 'wpstnl, 'wpt- (if not oft-, q.v.) I M 'wbyst, J 'w,Bst-] fall. ·oftiidan, oft- ['wpt- I M 'wpt'd, N uft-] fall. ogiir ['wk'l] ebb. ogardan, ogar- ['wk'l-t1l'] remove, expel. "ogra ['wgl'y] declination, dip. oh [KN < A kn I M 'wll] so, thus; (with verbs, giving a sense of uncertainty) may, perhaps. Ohrrnazd ['whrm;:d i M 'whrm(y)zd, N Htrmuzd] Ahura Mazda; astr, Jupiter; cal. rst day of the month. -om [-wm I = M, N -] suffix forming ordinal numbers from panJom -omand [-'wm1ld I M -tomnd, N -mand] suffix forming adjectives of quality. ·oreb(ih) ['wlyp(yh)] disappointment. oron ['wlw1l1 I M 'wrwn) hither. az ... -: since. osan- ['ws'n- I = M] throw down. ospurdan, ospar- ['wspl-t1l1] tread, trample. ssr, v. awesto. ost ['wstl] firm, reliable. ostigan ['wstyk'n' I M hwstyg'n, N ustuwii1l?] firm, strong, sure, reliable. -ih: reliability. 'o§ ['wI I = M, N hM] consciousness, intelligence. -ih: = M. 2M ['wI I = M] death.



3M ['wf] dawn. ~Aastar ['wfstl] east. M(e)bam ['wfb'm I M 'wfyb'm] dawn. osmilrag ['wfm'lk' I N fumara] calculation, reckoning. Mmurdan, Mmar-, (Mmur-) [MNYTWN-tnl < A-vmnh; 'wfmwltnl, 'wfm'l- I M '(w)fm'r-, N Iumurdan, fumar-] count, reckon; consider,
notice, remember, study. -IAn: reckoning; consideration, study. O§murdig ['wfmwltyk'] calculated (of the solar calendar). ~§~mand ['wf'wmnd] mortal. O§yAr['wfd'll N h-] conscious. 6wlin ['wgwnl I M "wn] as, so. oy [OLE < A'l-h I M 'w)', N -] he, she, that; (pl. awe§an). ·oyrl§t ['w(k»'lft' = Av. awaoirifta-] a degree of sin. ~z ['we] strength, power. ozadan,ozan- [YKTLWN-, YKTLWN-tnl < A yqtlum, v qtl ; 'u'etnll M 'wzdn, 'wzn-] kill. ozarak ['wc'lkl I M hwz'rk] little, small, few. ozomand ['wc'wmnd] strong, powerful.

pa(t)ten [pcgnl] copy. ·pa(t)tibag [pcyj?kl, PWNc- I N ·pajiw) ·deceptive. -ih: deceit, hypocrisy. ·pa(t)tibay- [pcyp'd-, PWNc-] deceive. pad [PWN, for ·pty I M pd, N pal to, at, in, on. pad- [pt- I M ·pd-] fall. padilm [pd'm I (N pamim)] mask for the mouth, worn by a celebrating Ipadan. pay- [NTLWN-tn' < A -v ntr; p'WI, p'd- I M p'd, p'y-, N payidan] protect, watch, defend. tpadan. pay- [NTLWN-tnl, etc.] stand, wait. padasn [p'td'fn' I M p'd'fytl, N padiif] reward, retribution. padex [ptyhw'] flourishing, prosperous. -ih: prosperity. padexenidan, padexen[ptyhwyn-ytn'] make flourish, prosper. padez [p'tyc I M p'dyz, N payez] autumn. pad-gohr [PWNgwhl) 1. jewelled; 2. of good stock, well-born. pAdifrah [p'tpl's I M p'dypr'h, N ·padafrah] punishment, retribution. padir-. ~i§n. v. padiriftan. padirag [ptylk' I M pdyrg, N paOira) towards, against, countcr-, (0) - madan: come to meet.
-ih: meeting, opposition. priest.



plidirAn [p'tgl'n restrained, held back. padiriin(en)idan, piidiriin(en)- [p'tgl'n(yn)-ytn1) restrain, impede. padiriftan, padir- [MKfiLWN-tnl < A mqbl, .J qbl; ptgl-ptn' I M pdyr-yptn, N pa8iruftan) receive, accept. ~i!ln: reception, acceptance. lpadisar [ptys'll N padisiir ?) beginning, basis. 2padisar [ptys'l) bridle, halter. padisliy [pts'd I M pdys'y) on account of, for the sake of. padist [ptstl I P pdyst) promise, vow. ..... abar) burdan: promise. ( padistiidan, padtst- [ptyst-'tnl I (P pdystwd») promise, vow. padistli(g) [ptyst'kl I (M pdyst'w)l = padist. padfs [ptf I M pdys) to him, it; postposition (= pad) to, etc. padistlin [ptyft'nl I P pdyIt"n] leg. padlsxwar [ptfhwl) dish, bowl. piidixsa(y) [SL YTA < A IIYI'; p'thf'(d) I M p'dxf'),] ruler; powerful, authoritative, authorized. ~ih: sovereignty, authority. plidixiHr [p'thIyl) agreement, treaty. pad-nerog [PWNnylwk') strong. pad-mgerfsn [PWNnkylfn1) cared for, guarded. padofriih [p'twpl's] = piidifriih. pad-panag [PWNp'nk1) guarded, protected. P plidrazm [p'tlcm] battle. pad-rozag [p'tlwck' I M p'drwcg] fasting. plid-uzwlin [p't'wzw'nl] reticent. ~ih: reticence. pad-wizen [PWNwcynl) choice, select. padyab [p'ty'p I N ~) ritually clean; ceremonial ablution. ~ih: ceremonial ablution. piidyiiwand [p'tyd'fvnd I J p'dywnd) strong, powerful. ~ih: strength, superiority. piidzahr [p'tzhll N pa(d)zahr) bezoar, antidote. pad-zyan [PWNzyd'n1) harmful. pafsiir- [ppS>I-)shame. pafiir- [ppIyl-] be ashamed. ~iin(ih): shame. pah [p'h) sheep. ~ast [-stl] sheep-fold, -pen, pahikaftan, pahlkat- [ptkp-tnl I M phykf-] fall on, touch, hit, attack. ~iin: attack, fight. pahikiiftan, pahikaf- [ptk'p-tn1] throw on, make fight. pahikar [ptkll M phykr, N paykar] picture, image. pahikiir [ptk'll M phyk"r, N paykar) struggle, battle, dispute. lpahikiir- [ptk'l-] fight, contend with, defeat. pahiklirdan, "pahikiir- [ptk'l-tn1] request, claim, consult.



pahikoftan, pahtkob- [ptkwp-tn'] strike. pahlawlg [·p'hlwbyk' I (M phlw'nyg), N pahlaw(an)i] Parthian; Pahlavi. pAhloRl [p'hlwm] excellent, best, foremost. ~ih: excellence. pahlug [p'hlwl,' I N pahLU]side, rib. pahn [p'hn' I N -] wide, broad. ~iiy [~'d I N ~a] width, breadth. 'pahrextan, pahrez- [p'hlyhtn', p'hlyc- I M phryz-, J -, N parhixtan, parhez-] abstain, refrain, avoid. 'pahrextan, pahrez- [p'hlyhtn', p'hlyc- I M (phrystn), phryz-] care for, tend, protect. pahrez [p'hlyc I N parhiz] defence, care. ·pahrRlah- [ptlm'h- I (N parmas-)] touch. -ligih [-'kyh], -i§n: touch, feeling. pak [DKY A < A dky'; p'k' I = M, N -] clean, pure, holy. -ih: purity, holiness. plikizag [p'hyck' I N -a] pure. palang [plng I N -] leopard. --Rlu!lk [-mwfk' I N -] speckled basil. pliliidag [p'lwtk' I N ~a] starch jelly, flummery. piiliidan, plilliy- [p'lwtn', p'l'd- I (M p'rwdn, p'r'y-), N -] strain, filter, purify. parnbag [pmbk' I N panba] cotton. -en [-yn'] (made of) cotton. plinAg [p'n(')k' I M p'ng] guard, protector; shepherd. -ih: protection. panlih [pn'h I = M, N -] protector; refuge. pad - griftan: take refuge with. -ih: protection. pand [pnd I = M, N -] path; counsel, advice. panir [pny/l N -] cheese. pan] [pnc I P pnj, (M pnz), N -] five. -ag [_k' I N -a] pentad; hand, paw. -lih [-'h I N ~] fifty. plinzdah [p'ncdh I M p'nzdh, N -] fifteen. 'plirag [p'tk' I N para] piece, part, portion. 'plirag [p'lk' I M p'rg, N para] gift, offering, bribe. parlihoRl [pl'hwm = Av. para.haoma-] consecrated drink (the infusion in holy water of pounded hom and pomegranate twigs, sometimes with milk added). pardag [pltk' I N parda] veil, curtain. pardaxtan, pardaz- [pldhtn', pldc-I Mprdxt, N -], - az: be done with, freed of. - 0: set about, undertake. -i§n: freedom; undertaking. pardlixtan, pardliz- [pld'htn', pld'c- I N -] accomplish.



~ az : free (oneself) from. pargandan, pargan- [pIkn-, plgn-dll' I (P pr'glld, N paragandan)J scatter, distribute, disperse. pargast [plgst' I N~] let it not happcn! Heaven forbid! par'gtid [plgwt' I P prgwdg], ~ az : free, exempt from. parig [plyk' I M pryg, N pari] witch. parfstag [pIstk' I N pirista] servant. ~ih: service; worship. paristiir [pIst'll N parastar] maidservant. paristidan, partst- [plst-:vtll' I M pryst-, N parastfdan] serve, worship. ~i§n: service, worship. paristog/k [plstwk' I P prstwg, N piristu(k)] swallow. parnagan [pInyk'n' I M prng'n, N parniyan] polychrome damask. parr [pI I M pr, N~] feather, wing. par-rag [plk', pig I P prg, N ~a] wing. ~ig [-yk'] winged. par-rextan, par-rez- [plyhtll', plyc-] remain over, be superfluous. parron [plwn' I M prwn] hence, away. parrwar [plwll M prwr] winged. piirsig [p'/syk' I N parsi] Persian. parS CPU] spotted, speckled. parwiil [plw'll (P prwrz)] refreshment, nourishment. parwal- [plw'l- I (P prwrz'dn)] foster, nourish. -Isn : nourishment. parwanag [plw'nk' I M prw'ug, N ~a] guide, leader. ~ih: guidance, leadership. parwand [plwnd I N~] enclosure, comprehension. parwand-; v. parwastan. P parwangah [*'plw'ng's] throne. parwar [plyw'll N ~] citadel; circumvallation; suburb, surroundings. parwardan, parwar- [plwl-tn' I M prwrdn, N ~] foster, nourish, cherish, educate. ~iiln: nourishment, fostering, education. parwast [plwst'] enclosure. parwastan, parwand- [plwstn', plwnd-] surround, enclose, contain, comprise. parwaz [plw'c I N ~] flight. parztn [plcyn' I M preyn, J przyn, (N parlin)] fence, hedge. pas [ARL < A '~r; BATL < Ab-'tr;ps 1= M, N~] then, afterwards, behind. ~ az: after. ~ih: rear. pas [p's I = M, N~] guard, watch. - dailtan: keep watch, guard. pashan [p'sp'n' 1M p'sb'n, N~] guardian, watcher. ~ih: defence, protection.




pas-dii.nisnih [AHLd'nfnyh] anti-knowledge. pasernal [psym'l, v, harnemal] defendant, accused. ~ih: (legal) defence. pasen [psynl I N pasin] final, last. pii.sox [p'shwl I N~] = passox. passand [psnd I N pasand] pleasure, liking. paasandidan, passand- [psnd-ytnl I M psynd-, N pasandidan] like, approve. ~i§n: liking, approval. -i!inig : likeable. passaxt [ps'ht'] test. passaxtan, passaz- [ps'htn', ps'c- I M ps'xt, ps'c-] fashion, prepare; insert; test. ~i!in: preparation, constitution. pas sa zag [psck' I M pscg] suitable, fitting. ~ih: suitability. passox [pshwl I M pswx, N pOStlx] answer. past [pstl I N ~] low; astr, dejection. pa!ieman [pfym'nl I = M, N ~] penitent, repentant. ~ih: penitence, repentance. pasrn [pfm I N ~] wool. ~en [-ynl I N -in] woollen. pasn [pfnl] bond, agreement. pli.!inag [p'fnkl I N ~a] heel. p!l.!iom [p(')fwm] excellent. pa!iSing [pfng I N pifing] drop, exudation. pa!i!iinJag [pfnckl I N pifanja] drop. pa!i!iinJidan, pa!i!iinJ- [pfnc-ytn' I N pifanjidan] sprinkle. ~i!in: sprinkling. pa!it(ag) [pft(k)1 I J pft] pact, bond, agreement. ·patHin [pt'nl] noise, resonance. -omand [-'wmnd] resonant. pattliyistan [pt'dstn'] = pattiidan. pattiidan, pattiiy- [ptwtnl, pt'd- I P ptwdn, M pt'y-] stay, remain, last, endure. patttrg [ptwkl] enduring, patient, persevering. -ih: endurance, patience, perseverance. paxsag [phfkl I N pafa] mosquito, gnat. Ipay [pdy I N ~] foot; footstep, track. ~ i: after. 2pay [pdy I M pyy, N~] sinew, tendon. pliy [LGLE < A rglh ; p'dy I M p'y, N~] foot, leg; foot (IZ in.). 1,2pii.y-, V. 1,2 piidan. pay!idag [pd'tkl I M py'dg, N piyada] on foot, foot-soldier, (chess) pawn. pliyag [p'd(y)k' I N paya] base, station. paydiig [pyt'kl I M pyd'g, N payda] .visible, obvious, revealed.



-ih: visibility, appearance. paydagenidan, payda~en- [pyt'kyn-ytll' 1 M pyd'gynyd] reveal, explain. payda~ihistan, paydii~ih- [pyt'kyh-stn'] appear, be revealed. pay~ [pdk' 1(P pdg), N -] foot-soldier, courier. • pay~iil [pyg'll N payyiila, piyiila] cup, goblet. -~ar [ok/] cup-maker. payglim [pgt'm! M pyg'm, N pay(y)iim] message. -bar [-bll N -bar] messenger, apostle. piiy~os [p'tkws 1M p'ygws] district, province. paymlin [ptm'nl 1 M pym'n, N -] measure, period; moderation; treaty. 0- Madan: reach maturity. -a~ [-kilN -a] period, measure, proportion. paymlini~ [ptm'nyk'] moderate. -ih: moderation. ·pliymlir [PKDWN < A pqdwn; p'tym'l] appointment, assignment. paymay-,v. paymQdan. paymo~ [ptmwg 1M pymwg] clothes, garment. paymoxtan, paymOz- [ptmwhtnl, ptmwc- 1 M pymwxt, pymwc-] don, wear. paymOzan [ptmwcnl 1 M pymwcn] garment, dress. payrnudan, paymliy- [ptmwtnl, ptm'd- 1N -] measure. ·payram [p'tlm] the commonalty.speople. payrastan, paydy- [pt-, pyl'stn', pyl'd- 1M pyr'st, pyr'y-, N perastan] arrange, adorn. payraya~ [pyl'dkl 1M pyr'yg, N perdya] ornament, adornment. payrO~ [ptlwk'] light, brightness. paywand [ptwnd 1(M pywn), N -] connection; offspring. paywand-, v. paywastan. paywasag [ptw'sk'] leather bag, wallet. paywastag [ptwstk' 1 N -a] continually. paywastan, paywand- [ptwstnl, ptumdM pywst, (pywyn-), N -] join, connect. paywaz- [ptw'c- M pyzu'z-] answer, reply. -ag [_k'], -iiin: response. paz-, v. poxtan. pazand [p'cnd 1 N -) the Pahlavi commentaries on the scriptures (zand), transcribed in Avestan letters. pazd [pzd 1 = P] oppression, persecution. pazd- [pzd- 1 = M] blow, play (flute). paadagih [pzdkyh] expulsion. pazdenldan, paz den- [pzdyn-ytnl 1 P pzd-] frighten, chase. pazen [p'c(y)nl 1M p'cn, N pdzan] ibex. pazii~ [pzwkl I (N payid«, xabazdu)] guinea-worm. - i giih~ard I giihward: dung worm. pazzliftan [pz'jitn I I(M pzpt ,intr.)] (cause to) ripen.
1 1




pazziim- [pz'm-] mature, ripen (intr.). ~isn: maturation, ripening. pazzlimenidan [pz'myn-ytn'] = pazziiftan. pecidan, pee- [pyc-ytn' I N~] twist, entwine. pem [pym] milk. pemenidan, pernen- [pymyn-ytn'] cause to well up, swell up. pen [p(y)n'] mean, miserly, niggardly. ~ih: meanness. perilm~n [pyl'mwn' I M pyr'mum, N ~miin] around. per~z [pylwc I M pyrwz, N~] victorious. -ih: victory. per~zl1ar [pY'Zwckl I N ~] victorious. ~ih: victory. pes [pys I N ~] mottled, leprous; leper. pesidan, pes- [pys-ytn'] colour, adorn. ~isn: adornment. pestan [pyst'n' I N -] breast. pes [LOYN' < A l-(yn; pyI I = M, N~] before. lpe!lal1 [pyfk' I N pel a] trade, craft; guild, caste. ·pMal1 [pyIk'] limb, member, part. pUiinig [pyI'nyk' I N pllani] forehead. pe!liir [pyS>11 M py.f'r] leader, guide. ~ biidan: be guilty (of), commit. pMiirwiir [pyI'lw'l, v. pesyiir] urination. pe!lemiil [pylym'l, v. hamemal] plaintiff. ~ih: prosecution. pe!lenil1 [pylynyk' I (M pylyn(g), N pc/ina)] former; foremost, noble. pM-l1iih [pyIg's I N ~] audience chamber; foremost seat. pM-kiir [pylk'll N ~] servant. pe!l~biiy [pyI(')up'd I M pylwb'y, N peIwii] leader, vanguard. ~ih: leadership. pe!l-piiral1 [pyIp'lk' I N ~a] an appetizer. pe!lyiir [pylk'll N ~] urine. petit [pytyt' = Av. paitita-] penance. ~ig [-yk'] penitent. ~igih: penitence. petyarag [p(y)tyd'lk' = Av. paityiiraI M pty'r, N patyiiraJ evil, misfortune; adversary; astr. detriment. ~ih: (onslaught of) evil. lpid [AB' < A 'boy; p(y)t' I M pyd] father. lipid [p(y)t' I P pyd] meat, flesh. pidar [ABYtl, v. lpid; pytll M pydr, N~] father. pib [pyhw'] food, victuals. pih [TLBA = A trb'; pyl; I N ~] fat, tallow. pi! [pyt I M pyl, N ~] elephant; (chess) bishop. -biin [-p'n' I N ~] elephant-driver.



pilla~an [pWnl I M pylg, N ~] .steps, ladder. pirn [pymJ pain, pang, sorrow. ~gen [-kynl] sorrowful. pir [pyll N -] old, aged, ancient. -ih: age. plrmg [plng I M pryng, (N pirind)] monochrome damask. plst [pst I I N ~] browned flour. pfstag [pstkl I N pista] pistachio nut. pisiz [pIyc I N -] small copper coin, 'farthing'. pOhlsn [pwhInl] corruption, decay. pOli\wad [pwl'pt' I M pwl'wd, N poliid] steel. -en [-ynl] (made of) steel. pondlk [pndk' I Ar. b/funduq] hazel-nut. pOr [pwll N -] francolin. poryOtkes [pwlyw(k)tkyI = Av. paoiryo.tkaeIa-] (one of) the first teachers of the Mazdean religion. -ih: the primal doctrine of the Mazdean religion. pOst [pwstl i = M, N -] skin, hide; bark, shell. -en [-ynl I N -in] (made of) skin. pOsidan. pOs- [pwI-ytnl I N -] cover, put on, wear. -Isn: covering. potk [pwtkl I N -] sledge-hammer. poxtan, paz- [APPWN-tnI < A y 'ph; pvvhtn', pc- I M pwxtn, N-] cook, bake. poy- [pwd- I (P pwd-), N -] run. -Isni~: running. poz(ag) [pWC(kl) I N p6z(a)] snout, muzzle. piida~ [pwtk' I N puda] foul, rotten. -ih: rottenness. 'puhl (pwhl I N pull bridge. 'puhl [pwhl] expiation, atonement; punishment. puhlenidan [pwhlynytn'] cause to atone. purnay [pwln'd] adult. purr [MALE < A mlh ; pwll M PWT, N -] full. --~ah [-g's] at the fullness of time, about to die. --rnah [-m'h] full moon. --rawlsnih [-lwbInyh] fullness. --sarda~ [-sltk'] of all kinds. --xwarrah [-GDE] full of glory. pursfdan, purs- [pwrs-ytnl I M ptors-ydn, N -] ask. \~ ?tc:,-Isn: question. -isnig : responsible. pus [BRE < A br-h ; pws I = M, N -] son. -ar [BREI, pwsll M PWST, N -] son. -yan [pwsd'n' I M pwsy'n] womb. pust [p1V.(/1 I =0 M, N -] back; support, protection.




puAtag [pw!tk'] load (carried on the back). puAtibAn [pw!tyhp'n' I N ~] supporter, bodyguard. ~ih: support, protection.

rabih [Ipyh I M rbyh] noon, midday (heat). rad [JtI I N ~] (spiritual) chief, master. ~ih: office of rad. rlid [[>tl I P r'd, N ~] generous, liberal. ~ih: generosity, liberality. radag [Itk' I M rdg, N rada] line, rank, row. radOmand [It'wmnd] having a rad, rad-passag [ltps'k'] ceremonies of the gahiinbiir festivals. radunay [ltwny = Av. ratunaya-] one under the guidance of a rad, raftan, raw- [SGYTWN-tn' < A"; sg'i ltob- I M rptn, rw-, N~] go, move, proceed. ~iAn, v. rawlsn. raftAr [lpt'/l N ~] goer. rag [lk' I M rs. N ~] vein. ~ih: disposition, character. ray [lgy I P rg] quick, swift. rAy [l'g I N~] meadow, plain. rah [Is, Ib, lhy I M Th(y)] chariot, wagon. rah-, v. rastan. rAh [l's I M r'h, N ~] road, way. rahag [lhk' I P rhg] = rag. dh-dar [/'sd'll N ~] brigand, highway robber. ~ih : brigandage. rahig [lsyh', lhyk' I M rhyg, N rahi] child, page. ~ih: childhood. rah-nlmay [l'snm'd I (M y'hnmwd'r), N ~uma] guide. rAm [I'm I M r'm, N -] peace; cal. 21St day. ramtag) [lm(h') I P rm, N ram(a)] herd, flock. rAmenidan, ramen- [l'myn-ytn' I M r'myn-] give peace, pleasure. rAmlAn [l'mln' I M r'my!n, N rami!] peace, ease, pleasure. -ig [-yhl I N ~ifi] peaceful, at ease. rAn [['nl I N ~] thigh. P ran- [l'n-] fight. randidan, rand- [lnd-ytnl I N ~] scratch, grate, abrade. rang [lng I Mrng, N ~] colour, dye. ranJ [Inc I P rnj, (M rnz), N ~] toil, trouble. ~ag [-hi I N ~a] troubled. ranJenidan, ranjen- [IIIC)'II-"IIl'] trouble.




ranjwar [Inewl' (M rnzwr), N ranjur] troubled, distressed. rapihwin [lpys-, lpyt-pyn', -wynl = Av. rapi8flina-] the afternoon goo; south. ~tar [-tl] southern. rasan [lml I N ~] rope. rasenidan, rasen- [lsyn-ytn'] bring. rasidan, ras- [YHMTWN-tn' < A yhmtum, "mt'; ls-ytnl , M rs-ydn, N~] arrive, mature. rlispig [l'spykl] second officiating priest. riist [I'd I , M r'st, N ~] true, straight, direct. ~ih: truth. rastag [Istkl , N rasta] series, row, progression; element. rastan, rah- [Istnl, I(')h- , N~] escape. rastlirih [Ist'lyh] escape. rasOg [Iswkl I (N rasu)] weasel. Ra§n [ifni I M rln, N~] god of Justice; cal. 18th day. rastan, ·raz- [Iltnl] colour, dye. raw-, v. raftan. rawiig [Iwb'k' , N rawa] current. ~ih: currency. rawligenidan, rawligen- [Iwb'kyn-ytn'] set in motion, propagate. rawenldan, rawen- [SG YTWNyn-ytn', v. raftan] cause to go, extend. rawlsn [Iwbfn', SGYTWNfnl, v. raftan I N rawil] going, motion. ~ih: behaviour; as a suffix, forms abstract nouns. ray [I'd I M r'y, N ra] postposition, for, for the sake of. rayenlig [['dyn'k' , M r'yn'g] arranger. rayenidan, rliyen- [/'dyn-ytn' , M r'yn-ydn] lead, direct, arrange, organize. ~i§n: action, function; arrangement. riiyenidlirih [['dynyt'lyh I M r'ynyd'ryh] direction, organization. riiyi§n [/'dln'] order, arrangement. rayoRland [['d'wmnd] rich, majestic. raz [Ie, lz I N~] vine; vineyard. riiz [I'c , M r'», N ~] secret, mystery. ~ig [-ykl] secret. rliz-klrrog [['c kylwkl I M r'z qrwg] architect, builder. razrn [lcm I M rzm, N ~] battle. ~-glih [-g's I P -e». (M rzm'h), N ~] battlefield. raziir [lcwll M rzwr] forest. redak [lytk' I N ~] lad, page. reg [lyk' , N~] sand. rem [lym , M rym, N~] dirt, filth, purulence. reRlan [lymnl I M rymn, N ~] dirty, filthy, purulent. ~ih: filth. 'rti§ [ly!, N~] wound, sore. 2reli [lyl' N -] beard.



rUag [lylk' I N Tela] root, fibre. reAidan, rl!A- [lyl-ytn' I N ~] wound, hurt. reAk~n [lylkn'] hurtful, harmful. ~ih: harmfulness. rextan, rez- [lyhtn', lye- I P ryxt, M TyZ-, N~] flow, pour. ~iAn: flow. ridan, riy- [lytn', ld- I N~] defecate, void. rist [lyst' I M ryst] dead. lristag [lystk'] corpse. Iristag [lystk'] way, manner; sect. rist-lixez [lyst'hye I M Tyst'hyz, N -) resurrection of the dead. riAtag [1(y)/tk' I N -a] rope, string, thread. riy-, v. ridan. riyahrih [ld'hlyh] scorn, mockery. rOb [lwp] robbery. rOb- [lwp- I N rultan,~] rub, sweep. robah [TALE < A t'P'; lwp'h I N~] fox. lrOd [lwt' I M rtod, N ~] river. 'rod [lwt' I N -] stringed instrument. rOd-bar [lwtb'll N ~] river bank. rodig [lwtyk' I (N TOda)] intestine, gut; ~lin, (pl.) entrails, guts. royn [M(H)SYA < A mIb'; lwkn' I P rwgn, (M rwyyn), N rauyan] oil, butter. ~-xwardig [-hwltyk'] sweetmeats. rOn [lwn' I M rwn] direction. o ... ~: towards. rOspig [lwspyk' I N -i] whore. ~ih : whoredom. rOstiig [lw(t)st'k' I (P rwdyst'g), N rosed] river-bed; district, province. rOAn [lwln' I M rwln, N rOlan] light; bright, light. ~ih: light. roAnlag [lwlnk'] clear, obvious. ~gar [-kll (P -'gr, M -ygr), N -gar] illuminator. lroy [lwd I M rwy, N -] face. 'rOy [lwd I M rwy, N ~] copper, brass. roy-, ~iAn, v. rustan. royan [lwdyn' I N ~] madder. royen [lwdyn' I M r'wyn, N royin) (made of) copper, brazen. roz [YWM < Aywm; lwe I M rux]», N -] day. rozag [lwck' I M rweg, N Toza] fast, fasting. roziig [lwe'k'] lightning. rozan [lwen' I N -] window. roz(b)Anag [lwe(p)'nk'] window. rozenidan. rozen- [lweyn-ytnl I M Twcyn-] lighten, brighten. rozgfir [lwek'll N -] daytime. rozig [lweyh' I N rozi] daily bread, sustenance.




rOz-iabAn [YWM, lwe fp'nl I N faban(a)roz] day and night. rOzwirag [lwcw'lkl] daily, everyday. r6z-ward [lwewltl] changeable, fickle. rubQdan, rubiy- [lpwtn',lp'dI M rbwdn, rb'y-, N~] snatch, rob. rOdan, rOn- [lwtnl, lum- I (N riida)] pluck, pull out. rOrag [lwlk'] medicinal plant, herb. rustan, r6y- [lwstnl, luid- I M TWst, rwy-, N ~) grow. -lin: growth. ruwAn [lwb'nl I M rw'n, N -] soul. -Ig [-ykl I N -i] spiritual. ruzd [lwzd I M rwsd, N razd] greedy. -ih: greed.

sabuk [SpWkl I N -] light, easy. sabz [spz, sb« I N ~] green, fresh. sad [roo I M sd, N -] hundred. Sadwes [stwys I M sdwys] a star (Fomalhaut ?). lsag [KLBA < A klb' I N~] dog. Isag [Ski] stone. sAg [s'k I P s'g] number. sagen [skynl I M sygyn] stony. sagr [sgl I N sir] sated, satiate. ~ih: satiety. sahig [shyk' I M shyg, N sahi] worthy. -ih: worthiness. sahistan, sah- [MDMEN-stnl = A mdmh,.v dmh I (M shyd, s(y-)] seem; seem proper. -iln: satisfaction. sahm [shm I = M, N -] terror. -glln [-k(y)nl I N ~gin] terrible. -genih : terribleness. sahOg [shwkl] hare. silk [s'k' I (N saw)] tribute. sill [SNT < A mt I (M s'r), N -] year. -sillag [SNTk', s'lkl I N -sala] .•. -years-old, -ih: age (of ... years). sillAr [srd'lllVl s'Pr, s'r'r, N ~] leader, master. -ih: authority. sillwAr [s'lw'l] perennial. silmAn [s'm'nl I = M, N -] limit, boundary. -Omand [-'wmnd I M -wmnd] bounded. samor [smwll N~] sable (marten). sin [s'nl I N -) kind, manner.




sang [KYPA < Akyp'; CCA(inerror);sng I (P'sng), N -] stone, rock. -siir [-s' I] stony place. sanj-, v. saxtan. sanwar [snwl = Av. 8anwar-] bow. sar [LOY8E < A r'Ih; sll M sr, N -] head; top, summit; end, beginning. sariisar [sl'sll N -] from end to end. sard [sit' I M srd, N -] cold. -ih: coldness. sardag [sltk' = Av. sarsba- I (M s'rg), J srdg] sort, kind. sardser [sltsyll N -] cold region, uplands. s!lrenidan, sAren- [s'lyn-ytn'] provoke. sargen [slgyn' I N sargin] dung, manure. sarmiig [slm'k' I N sarma] coldness. sarw [slw(b)' I M srto, N -] cypress. sas [s's I N -] bug. s!lst!lr [s'st'll P s'st'r] commander; tyrant. -ih: tyranny. Sawah [sw'h = Av. sawahi-] the western continent of the earth. saxt [s(')ht' I N -] strong, hard, severe(ly); very. -ih: strength, severity. saxtag [shtk' I (N saxtiyan)] morocco leather. saxtan, sanj- [s'htn', snc- I N -] weigh. saxtan, saz- [s'htn', s'c- I (P s'c-), N -] make, prepare; tolerate. saxtarih [s'ht'lyh] toleration, forbearance. saxwan [MRYA < A mly"; shum' 1M sxwn, N suxan] word, speech. say-, v. sudan. sayag [s'dk' I M s'yg, N saya] shade, shadow. lsaz~ [sc- I M ss-, N -] be fitting, proper, worthy. -isn(ih): fitness, worthiness. 'saz-, -Hm, v. sazistan. saz~, v. saxtan. saziig [sc'k I N saza] fitting, worthy. -ih: fitness, worthiness. "':'war [-w'/l N sazawar] = sazag. sazistan, 'saz- [sc-stn'] pass. -isn: passing, transience. -isnig: transient, perishable, mortal. sll [3; TLTA < A tit' 1M sh, N sl1 three. seb [syp I N -] apple. se} [syc = Av. iOyeJah- I N -] danger, trouble. -omand [-'wmnd IN -mand] dangerous. sel [sl I N -] spear, javelin. sern [sym I N -] = asem, lSen(ag) [syn(k), I N sinal breast, chest. 'sen murw [synmwlw I (N simury)] a fabulous bird.





se-pAy [3-p'd I N sipa] three-legged. v. sagr-, se-§abag [3-/pkl] three-night-long, trinoctial. seyom [3wm I N~] -third (in compound numerals). s~zd [s(y)zd I P syzd, (N slz[agi?)] might, tyranny; tyrannous. si!zdah [sycdh I M syedh, N ~] thirteen. 8~zden [s(Y)Zdynl I P syzdyn] mighty, tyrannous. sl [sy] goose. sidig(ar) [styk', -k/l M sdyg, N sidigar] third. sih [30 I M syh, N si] thirty. -OIn [-wm] thirtieth. sik [HL YA < A Q/'; s8 I N -) vinegar. slslInbar [sysymbl, -nbl I N sisambar] sisymbrium, wild-thyme. ·Skandar [swkndll N sikandar] = Aleksandar. snah [sn'h] blow, strike, violence. sneh [snyh] sword. sni!xr [snyhl] snow. sni!zag [snyck'] snow. snOy [snwd] (rain-, snow-)cloud. sOfista [swkpst'kl] sophist. lsOg [swkl] use, profit, advantage. 2s0g [SWkl] burning, combustion. ssog [swkl I N s6(y)] side, direction. sOgand [nvknd I M swgnd, N saugand] oath. ~ xwardan: take, swear an oath. sOhistan. soh- [swh-stnl] touch, feel. -i!in: feeling, sense. -i!inig: feeling, sensitive. sor [swl] salty. -ag [_k'] salt (land). sosan [swsnl IN -] lily. So!iyans [swkIydns = Av. sao/yiis] saviour (especially the final Saviour who will bring about the fralagird). soxtan. soz- [swhtn', swc- I M swxt, stoc-, N -] burn. -i!in: burning, combustion. -i!inig: burning, flaming. 80ziig [SlVc'kl I M swc'gyn, N s6za] burning. sozan [swcnl I N -] needle. spiih [sp'h I N sipiih] army. -bed [-ptl I N -bud] general, commander. spandAn [spnd'nl I N sip-] mustard seed. Spandarrnad [spndrmt'] N isfalldiirmuS] Holy Thought, the fourth Amahraspand, earth goddess; cal. rath month; 5th day. spar [spl I M "spr, N sipar] shield. spar-,v. spurdan. spAs [sp's I M 'so, 'sp's, N sipiis] service, gratitude, thanks.

spAs dAAtan


spAs dAAtan, ~ hangardan : thank, give thanks. spas-dAr [sp)sd)/1 N sir] grateful, thankful. -ih: gratitude. spasl-dnils [sp)s!n)s] grateful. -Omand [-)wmnd] grateful. spiiA [sp)! = Av. 8~iifa-] space, atmosphere. spaxr [sp)hll M'spxr, N ·siparx] merrymaking, revelry. spazg [spzg I (M 'spgj), N sipazg-] slanderous. -ih: slander. sped [spyt' I M 'spyd, N saped] white. -ag [ok' I N -a] white (of egg, etc.). -bAg [-p)k' I N -bii] curd soup. ~-dilr [-d)/1 N -diir] white poplar, aspen. speniig [sp(y)n)k' = Av. spsnta-, cf. ganniig] holy. - m~nOg : the Good Spirit. spig [spyk' I M 'spyg, (N sapriy)] I. brilliance; 2. sprout, shoot. spihr [spy(y)hl I (M 'spyr), N sipihr] sphere, sky, firmament, fate. -ig [-yk'] heavenly. spinJiinagih [spnc)nkyh] hospitality. spiA [spy! I (N !ipi!») louse. Spitiiman [spyt)m)n) of the Spitama family. spiz- [spyc- I M 'spyxtn, 'spyz-) I. shine; 2. sprout. -iAn: J. brilliance; 2. sprouting. spoxtan, spoz- [spwhtn', stnoc- I M 'sptoxt, N sip-) thrust; overstep, disobey; delay, reject. -iAn: delay, rejection; disobedience. spoz [spwc I N sip6z] disobedience; delay. -gAr [-k)/1 N -] disobedient; dilatory. sprahmtag) [splhm(k') I M 'sprhm(g), N siparlzam] flower, fragrant herb. spul [spwl] spleen. spurdan, spar- [spwltn', spl- I N sip-) tread, trample. spurrig [spwlyk' I (M 'spwr), N sipari] entire, complete, perfect. -ih: completeness, perfection. spurz [·splz I P ·'spwrz, N sipurz] spleen. srat [sIt' I cf, Ar. sirat] street. sraw [slwb'] word, spell. srawenldan, srawen- [slwbyn-ytn'] report, broadcast. sraxtag [slhtk' = Av. sraxti-] side, part. sray [sl)d I N saray] house, hall. 'sray-, -ilin, v. srudan. srayidan, 2sray- [sl)d-ytn' = Av. 8raya-] protect. -iAn: protection. srdk [sl(y)!k' I (P srsk), N siri!k] drop, tear. srtstan, ·sreA- [slftn' I P STY!-, N sir-] mix, knead. srtswadag [sly!!vtk' = Av. 8risU'a-] a third. sTod [s/wl' I M srtod, N slIriid] song.

SrM Sros



[slwl i M srws, N sur6f] the god Obedience; cal. 17th day. -ig [-.)'kl] obedient. srii [slwbl I N surri(n)] horn, nail, prong. srub [sl(w)p I N U$rub] lead. ~n [-ynl] leaden. srOdan, sray- [slwtnl, sl'd- I M sr'y-, N 5I1r-] sing, recite, play (an in-

strument). -iln(ih): singing, recitation. srOwar [slwbwl] homed. srowen [slwbynl] horny. stabr [stpll M "stbr, Nsitabr] big, coarse, strong. -ih: coarseness; strength, force. stabrag [stplkl I Ar. istabraq] shot silk. stadan, stAn- [YNSBWN-tnl < A ynsbwn, .,; nsb I M "std, 'st'n-, N sit-] take. staft [stptl 1M 'stpt] hard, firm; harsh, tyrannous; very. stahm [stlzm I N sitam] power, oppression. -ag [_k'] strong, oppressive. -(ag)ih: oppression. stembag [stlzmbkl (-h- < stahm) I M 'stmbg, N sitamba] oppressive; obstinate. ~ih: oppression; obstinacy. stAno, v. stadan. star [stl] = stArag. stArag [st'lk' I M 'st'rg, N situra] star. stard [stlltl] stunned, stupefied, confounded. -ih: stupidity, stupefaction. star-esmar', -O§mur [stl'wsm'l, -'w!mwl] astrologer. starwan [stlwnl I N sit-] barren, childless. stAyIdan [st'dytnl I M 'st'yd, N sit-] = stndan, stey [styk' I N sitey] erect. stendag [styndk'] standing, erect. ster [styli N siter] stater. stezag [styck' I M 'styz-, N siteza] quarrel, strife. stl [sty(ji) = Av. sti-] being, existence. stO [stwbl I (P 'stwb, N sutoh)] distressed, defeated. -wih: distress. stor [stwll P 'stwr, N sutor] horse, mount; large cattle. -bAn [-p'nl I N -ban] (head) groom. -gAh [-g's] stable. ·stO§ [stwl] the fourth morning after death. stowenidan, stOwen- [stwbyn-ytn'] defeat, overcome. stowih, v. stO. stiidan, stay- [stwtnl, st'd- I M 'stwd, <st'y-, N sit-] praise. -iAn: praise. -i§nig: praiseworthy.

8tun(ag) stQn(ag) [stwn(k)I I M 'stum, N sutun] column, pillar, mast. stOr [stwl] trustee, curator, guardian. -ih: trusteeship. aturg [stwlg I N suturg] fierce, contentious; gross, coarse. sOd [swtl I M suid, N -] use, profit, advantage. sudab [st'p I N -] rue. sOd-abgar [swt'pk'l] profitable. sudag [swtkl] negligent, indolent. -ih: negligence, indolence. sudan, slly- [swtnl, s'd- I N -] rub. sOd(O)mand [swt('w)mnd I N sUdmand] useful. suft [swptl I N -] shoulder. suftan, sumb- [swptnl, swmb- I N -] pierce, bore. sumb [swmb' I N -] hoof. lsur [sw/l M swr, N -] meal, feast, banquet. tsOr [swl] strong. surAg [swl(')k'] hole, burrow. -ig [-ykl] burrowing (animal). -Omand [-'wmnd] holed. 8uriix [sw/'h I N -] hole. sust [swstl I = M, N -] slack, lazy. -ih: slackness, laziness. lSU8 [swl I (N luI)] lung . • sus [swI] degree (of arc). suxr [swhl I N surx] red. suy [swd I M swy-] hunger . • swabistan, swab- [swh-stn' I P swh-] sigh. sya [syd' I (P sy'w, N siyiih)] black. -bag [-hk' I N -a] pupil (of eye).


sab [LYL Y A < A lyl(y)'; lp I M Ib, N -] night, t)Oj4. ~ Sf\., -ag [Ipk' I N -a] 1. jet, obsidian; 2 •••• -nights-long, -estan [lpst'nl I N -] gynaeceum, private apartments. sabig [Ipyk' I N labi] (Mazdean's ritual) under-shirt. sabixon [lpyhwnl I N -xun] night raid. sad [I't' I M I'd, N -] happy, joyful. -ib: happiness, joy. slldurwan [l't'wlw'n' I N -] dais, platform; basin, pond, fountain. safser [lplyll M .lflyr] = samser. sagr [lgll M 19r, N ler] lion; astr. Leo. P sah- [lh- I = P] be able, can.


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