Ideal for homeschooling and self-directed learning!

DRAWING
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

BOOK 1: GETTING STARTED
Brenda Hoddinott

120 pages and more than 230 illustrations!
► Choose the right drawing supplies ► Set up a place to draw ► Make a portfolio and viewfinder frame ► 10 fun exercises and projects Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 6.84 Flesch reading ease score: 74.7

Brenda Hoddinott
Artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com, and author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started.

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Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. With the help of learn-to-draw books, she developed good drawing skills by the age of 16. In 1982 Brenda left her well established career as a portraitist, graphic designer, and forensic artist, to move to Nova Scotia with her family. In addition to resuming the various facets of her art career, she began learning to paint in oils. From 1988 to 1994, Brenda began exhibiting her paintings and drawings in provincial and regional art exhibitions and competitions. She was honored with more than twenty prestigious visual art awards during these six years. Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia with their two SPCA rescue dogs, Timber (Huskador) and Katie (Rottbeagle). Their blended family includes five adult children and two grandchildren.

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I

DRAWING
BOOK 1
GETTING STARTED
by Brenda Hoddinott
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada

II This book is dedicated to my loving partner. without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. personal or otherwise.com or through her website at http://www. electronic. Canada Illustrations. and cover design: Brenda Hoddinott Editor: Suzanne Beaton Brenda Hoddinott can be contacted at brenda@drawspace. mechanical. Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace. curriculum. NS. Publisher: Drawspace. electronically sent or transferred to additional individuals or companies other than the original purchaser of this electronic book. Halifax. Brenda Hoddinott.com. No part of this electronic book shall be reproduced by any method or means. directly or indirectly. specifically the basics of drawing. recording. This electronic publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author. or otherwise. or transmitted by any method or means.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability. John Percy. loss. or risk.drawspace. book layout. photocopying. which is incurred as a consequence. Copyright © 2009 Brenda Hoddinott All rights reserved. resulting from the use or misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book. .com. and it is intended to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter. damages.

.........................................................................................1 Look into this Book ..........4 Shaping up with exercises ...............................................................................................11 In the time of the caveman ..15 .............................................................................................................................................................................6 Part 3: Go Draw! .............................................................3 Sizing up the sidebars ...................................................................11 The birth of classical art .........................................................................................................................13 The Inside Scoop on Drawing .............................4 Tip! .......................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Art Quote ...........4 A few words on illustrations .................................................III CONTENTS ***************************************************************** Introduction ..................................................................................................................................4 Eyeing action icons ..............................15 YOU can draw! ............................................................................3 Warning! ...................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Remembering the Renaissance .............................................................5 Insights into the Parts ............................14 Drawing is an action word ...............3 Info Tidbit .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 ArtSpeak .....................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! ..4 Step-by-step projects .................4 Action sidebar numbers and letters ....................................................................................................6 Part 2: Get Set! ...........................................................9 A Brief History of Drawing ........6 How to Use this Book ............................................................................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! .................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................36 Textures on a rough tooth .............................................41 Kneaded erasers .............................................................................................33 Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) ............43 ..............................24 Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums ......................................................................... hardcover......................................................................................................................................................27 Other fun pencil mediums ...17 How the “lead” pencil got its name .............25 Picking out Proper Pencils ..............................................37 Sketchbooks and Papers ....23 Finding out your grade ...............................................38 Softcover..............................................IV Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades .......................17 Traveling Back in Time with Graphite ..........................................................................41 Vinyl erasers ................................................19 Hard is light ..................................................................................40 Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics .............................................................22 Combining soft and hard grades ......................27 Charcoal pencils .......................................26 Wood-encased pencils ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers .......................................18 The link between graphite and sheep .........................................................28 Graphite pencils ..............................................................................................43 Pencil sharpeners ...39 Larger is not always better .....................................................................................41 Tools for Erasing ..35 Big smile for a medium tooth ......................34 The surface of a smooth tooth ...................................................................................................................... or sheets? ..........................................................29 Woodless graphite pencils ...................................................42 Sharpening your Mediums ........................29 Mechanical pencils ...........................................................................................29 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders ...19 Making the Grade .....................................................................................................................................21 Soft is dark ......................................................39 Weighing in on paper ................................................

..............................................................................................................44 Pencil case ...........................................................................46 Part 2: Get Set! ..............................................................57 Deciding on a size ..............................................61 Adding ties and final touches ................................................................................57 Supplies for making a viewfinder frame .....46 Spray fixative ...........................45 Nice to have......................................................................................................................... and Viewfinder Frame .............................................................................50 Good Posture First! .................................................................................................................................................................55 Nice to have .......................................................57 Action 7B: Making a Portfolio .....................43 A Few Extras ..........................................................................................................................52 Sitting correctly ...............................................................................................47 Chapter 6: Setting up For Drawing ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................53 Chapter 7: Making a List...........58 Option 2: Using two pieces of board ......45 Display boards ....44 Ruler ..44 Portfolio ...........................................................55 Action 7A: The Shopping List ..................58 Option 1: Using one large sheet of board ............................................................................................................................................................ Portfolio............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Shedding light on your art ...................................................51 How NOT to sit! ...........................56 Supplies for making a portfolio ........................49 A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw .............................. but not necessary ......................................................................................................................49 Choosing a drawing surface ........................................................................................44 Stuff you can’t do without ..................................................63 ...............................57 Supplies for a portable studio ...............................................................................Contents V Sandpaper blocks and sheets ...52 Putting Together a Portable Studio .................................................62 Action 7C: Making a Viewfinder Frame ..44 Viewfinder frame .........................................................55 Must have ...................................46 Manikins ...........

..........................................................................................................77 Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ............................................................115 ....................80 Part 1: Circular shape ......71 Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles .......................................................................................................69 Chapter 9: Putting your Supplies to Work ...72 Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ..........................65 Holding your Mediums .................................................76 Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ................................88 Just for fun! .......................................................................................................................................95 Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ..104 Squirkling shading for Mugly ....................................................92 Create a sketch by framing your view ................................................................................................................................68 Part 3: Go Draw! ..........................95 Action 10B: A Realistic Eye .....................................................68 Rotating your paper as you draw ..............................................................................................................................................90 Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ............................................................81 Part 2: Straight-sided shape .............................................................67 Finding your natural hand movement ....91 Three steps for framing a view ....................................................VI Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand .................................................................65 Becoming a Natural ......................................................................................93 Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings ......................................................84 Part 3: Circle ........................................................103 Outlining Mugly with neat lines ..........................108 Glossary ................................................67 Leonardo the lefty .....................................99 Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom ...................................................................71 Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ...........................................................................................................

her genuine and compassionate nature extends to her teaching of art and drawing. my own journey has taken me into the field of education. It was during a difficult life transition that she provided me with the gift of encouragement to explore my creative self-awareness. but has exceeded the expectations of her audience with this invaluable arts-based curriculum. her third book. For many. For the past fifteen years. Foreword . As an educator with graduate training and expertise in curriculum and instructional design. Not only because she asked me. teacher.Foreword by Robert A. but because I had been eagerly awaiting the completion of this learning resource. Most notably. and advocate. abilities. with patience (and a sense of humor). Many of the existing resources on the market are written and published without careful attention to the learning needs of the intended audience. The integration of my training has allowed me to participate in many roles: learner. as she leads students on a journey of self-discovery through self-directed learning. However. Drawing Book 1: Getting Started – the first in a series for homeschooling families and self-directed learners. and skill levels. access to quality learning and teaching materials is limited. I was filled with joy. When Brenda first approached me to write the forward for this. My perception of art and creativity was limited by my perfectionist ideals of what defined “artistic ability”. mentor. Brenda’s lesson plans and instructions accommodate a wide range of learning styles. I didn’t believe that I was creative or artistic. Roughley VII ***************************************************************** I have known Brenda Hoddinott for many years. Blending expertise with encouragement. including those who learn outside the boundaries of traditional and prescribed learning environments. Until that point. Brenda played a pivotal role in helping me reconnect with my artist within. As a learner. I pursued undergraduate degrees in music and elementary and adult education. I believe that Brenda Hoddinott has not only responded to.

unique humor. University of Calgary .VIII Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started My graduate work focused on educational and curriculum studies. I encourage readers. but are far too often limited by the influence of those who fear the unlimited possibilities that come from creative thinking. My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach).Ed. In my various personal and professional roles. Teaching and Learning Centre. and practitioners to build upon this quotation and consider that what one sees in their own self-reflection is the core of one’s creative identity. I have learned. Through her gentle and supportive directions. I have noticed the effect of inclusive and purposeful curriculum in the emergence of the creative self. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education.Ed. and worldviews. and detailed visual illustrations. Roughley B. Later in my career. As human beings. Robert A. reflective practice. B. “What we learn from others becomes our own through reflection”. negative implications resulting from the demise or discontinuation of arts-based education in traditional and homeschooling settings. University of Calgary Instructor. abilities. learners. self-identities. BAEd. and inclusive education. discover. As an educator and co-learner with students of all ages. after years of study. (or even rediscover!) your own artist within. And now. MC. Brenda joins her learners as they discover their creative talents.A. Doctoral Student.. I worked with children from kindergarten to grade six. and counseling psychology. It is my hope that you find this experience just as enlightening as you explore.. I became a consultant for change in curriculum development and inclusive education. unlearned.. Each chapter of this book represents a stage in the development and awareness of one’s artistic self. with a focus in special education.. M. Someone once said. we possess the intentions of creativity.. and relearned the importance of creativity and artistic expression in marking our developmental milestones and other life transitions. I have witnessed the long-term. As a counseling practitioner. As I transitioned from learner to teacher.

sit back and relax as I tell you about this book and how to use it. you find out what to pack in a portable studio so you can comfortably draw outdoors. Sidebar is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. and it provides you with definitions of art words and terms. Several simple exercises and projects help you warm up your drawing hand.Introduction 1 ***************************************************************** YOU can learn to draw! All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing medium. Medium refers to any drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface. You are also introduced to several art related words and terms. I also discuss how to set up a practical place to draw indoors. So. Drawing (noun) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium (Figure 02). Drawing (verb) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image (Figure 01). and shows you how to use them. you find out about each part of this book and all the different types of sidebars. This sidebar is called ArtSpeak. In addition. Finally. I explain the very best way to work through this book. In this introduction. Pencil refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have the medium inside a holder (Figure 03). This book tells you about drawing supplies. Figure 03: A regular pencil with a medium inside a wooden holder is a very popular drawing tool. Figure 02: A cartoon drawing is created with a pencil. Introduction ArtSpeak ArtSpeak is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. Figure 01: A hand is drawing a cartoon. Vision is the ability to see. .

Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. Sketch (verb) refers to the process of doing a sketch. I created the drawings in Figures 07 and 08 when I was around 14. my parents had saved them for me. Values are the different shades of gray you make when adding shading to a drawing. TIP! Save all your sketches and drawings! Someday. Figure 06: Five values from light to dark. . Figure 04: Simple sketch of a seated man. ArtSpeak sidebars are identified by a cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. Text refers to the words used in writing. Shading (verb) is the process of adding values to a drawing. Sketch (noun) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. Figure 08: Little girl with a doll.2 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Illustration is an image (such as a drawing) that is used to help explain text. Icon is an image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. Figure 05: Shading is added to the same sketch. Figure 07: A family living in a log house in the forest. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines (Figure 04) and (or) shading (Figure 05). you may want to look back on your early works to see how much you’ve improved. Luckily.

Renaissance (from the French word for “rebirth”) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. Figure 12: ArtSpeak icon is a cartoon of Albert Einstein’s face. so you can better understand what you read. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. Figure 13: Info Figure 11: A lifelike drawing of an eye is an example of realism. and show you how to identify the various sidebars. icons. Classical drawing refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). ArtSpeak ArtSpeak sidebars (Figure 12) define the drawing words and terms in this book. you find five different sidebars (identified with circle-shaped icons) that are filled with useful information. projects.Introduction 3 ArtSpeak Shape refers to the outward outline of a threedimensional object. exercises. Realism is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. I tell you about. Sizing up the sidebars Scattered throughout this book. Tidbit icon is a simple flower rendered with classical drawing techniques. Info Tidbit Info Tidbit sidebars (Figure 13) provide tidbits of information about art-related subjects. Figure 10: I used classical drawing methods to copy a work created by Leonardo da Vinci during the Renaissance. such as the history of art. Figure 09: Shading transforms the shape of a simple circle into the planet Earth. . and illustrations in this book. Look into this Book In this section.

energy. Action sidebar numbers and letters As you know. Each exercise and project can be identified by the number of the chapter in which it appears. Step-by-step projects When you see the icon in Figure 18. Art Quote Quotes about art (Figure 16) provide insights into the creative minds of well-known artists. you find an exercise designed to help you make or use drawing supplies. and frustration by telling you easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies. Figure 16: Art Quote icon is an adorable cartoon called a Wooly Woo. Shaping up with exercises Wherever you see the icon in Figure 17. Each has two or more illustrated instructions to help guide you. . and 10. an exercise icon may ask you to do a simple sketch or drawing. Tip! A tip can be more than the pointy end of a stick! The tips inside these sidebars (Figure 15) can save you time. Some ask you to make something and others ask you to gather your drawing supplies and draw. 9. Figure 14: Warning icon is a scaredlooking cartoon face with a nose shaped like an exclamation mark.4 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Warning! Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings (or yourself) from potential dangers by following the advice in these sidebars (Figure 14). you find several action icons. In addition. Figure 18: Step-by-step projects are identified with a hand holding a pencil. Eying action icons In Chapters 7. an action icon identifies either an exercise or project. A letter identifies its order within the chapter. it’s time to complete a step-by-step project. Figure 15: Tip icon is a cartoon face on a light bulb. Projects usually take more time than exercises. Figure 17: Exercises are identified by an icon of a boy doing exercises.

As you can tell by the icon (Figure 19). the first action sidebar in Chapter 7 is marked 7A (A is the first letter of the alphabet). As an added bonus. you may become inspired by examining the skills you are working to achieve. For example. For example. the fourth illustration in Chapter 6 (a cartoon artist practicing his drawing skills on page 50) is marked Figure 604. Each illustration in this book is marked with a number based on its placement within a chapter. The icon identifies a project. maybe one of your artistic goals is to draw realistic animals (check out Figure 21). A few words on illustrations You are not expected to draw all the illustrations in this book! Most drawings are intended to illustrate and help you understand the topics being discussed. For example. Do you happen to know the name of a good orthodontist? . the first illustration in Chapter 1 (a drawing of mountains on page 9) is marked Figure 101. The number and letter 10C (C being the third letter of the alphabet) identifies the third action in Chapter 10. Likewise. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Figure 20: Action 10C takes you step-by-step through the process of drawing a cartoon puppy named Mugly Wigglebottom. Figure 21: A challenging drawing of a Shih Tzu who goes by the name of Panda.Introduction 5 ► AC T I ON 7 A ◄ Figure 19: The first exercise in Chapter 7 helps you make out a shopping list for buying drawing supplies. this one is an exercise.

Each new piece of information. you’ll be ready for Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. Part 1: Get Ready! Sit back and relax as I tell you about the drawing supplies you need to complete the exercises and projects in this book. good posture for drawing. you find out what’s inside each of the three parts of this book. Nine fun exercises and projects challenge you to put your drawing supplies to work as you learn several basic drawing skills and techniques. Part 2: Get Set! In this part. You find out about proper lighting. By the time you reach the end of the book. or technique prepares you for the next. However. go back and try it again (and again if you need to). If an exercise or project is too difficult. human nature being what it is. I help you set up a comfortable place to draw. You also have the option of making an artist’s portfolio and viewfinder frame.6 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Insights into the parts In this section. go back to plan A and work through the book from beginning to end! . doing each exercise along the way. and various ways to hold your pencil. I offer the two following options: Plan A Slowly work through the entire book in sequence. skill. ideal drawing surfaces. Plan B Read through this book in no particular order. until you are happy with the results. and some projects beyond your current skill level. Enjoy the illustrations and try your hand at the various exercises and projects that appeal to you.from beginning to end. Part 3: Go Draw! The first two parts of this book prepare you for the activities in this part. When you begin to feel totally overwhelmed and frustrated. You will encounter a few challenges with terminology (this is why you have a glossary in the back of the book). How to Use this Book This book is designed to be read in order .

sizes. and spray fixative . viewfinder frame.Part 1: Get Ready! 7 PART 1 GET READY! ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. and ruler ► Manikins. and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case. portfolio. display boards. mechanical. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures.

8 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

magical forest.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 9 Chapter 1 Welcome to Drawing ***************************************************************** On a simple sheet of drawing paper. Figure 101: You won’t find this scene anywhere on planet Earth. the tallest trees on earth grow toward the sky. How about a snow dragon dancing with polar bears and penguins? Or stone faces standing guard over a river valley in another galaxy far away? How many stone faces can you find in the drawing in Figure 101? Figures 102 and 103 show you a couple just to get you started. I wonder if any other life forms besides stone faces live here? . In another drawing. ogres and trolls are chasing one another through a dark.

historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. Prehistoric describes the period in time before language was used to write and record history.10 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started In this chapter. many archeologists have excellent drawing skills. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. Figure 104: In Action 7B in Chapter 7. chin. mouth. History is a written record of the past.) Figure 106: A drawing of an old arrowhead that looks similar to some that were discovered by archeologists. (As an aside. you learn 32. For example. a very shortened version of history!) You also find out the real truth behind the silly gossip that you need a magical talent to become an artist. unaware of the creature with the huge open mouth waiting for lunch to walk by.000 years of art history by reading a thousand words. Figure 102: Imagine yourself strolling peacefully along this path. . Figure 105: Prehistoric humans drew pictures like these on the walls of caves. Figure 103: See the face of a regal male warrior gazing toward the right. I show you how to make a simple portfolio. (Obviously. Can you find his nose. Archaeologist is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. and an eye? ArtSpeak Portfolio is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage.

For example. This section offers a brief background on drawing . ArtSpeak Style refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. These drawings tell us a lot about how prehistoric humans lived. the drawings recorded their stories without spoken language or written words. realism is a well-known style. For example. in Action 10A in Chapter 10. The drawings in Figure 107 are similar to prehistoric drawings found on the walls of caves in France. Hence. Figure 108: Drawing based on an actual prehistoric drawing discovered on a stone in Africa. more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing.from the cave drawings of prehistoric humans. Archaeologists have discovered many of their drawings on the walls of caves.000 years. In the time of the caveman Artists have been drawing for at least 32. During prehistoric times in Africa. to the masterpieces of the Renaissance. You can try your hand at drawing a human figure the way some prehistoric people did. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education. an artist’s choice of a shading technique (or techniques) is generally based on his or her skill level and what works best to capture the subject. In other words. Technique is a well-known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task. a form of communication that is free of such rules as correct spelling or proper grammar. drawings of simple human figures (Figure 108) were added to burial stones. Figure 107: Copies of prehistoric cave drawings created by cavemen (or cavewomen). .Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 11 A Brief History of Drawing Drawing is a universally understood language.

and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight. Visual art refers to artworks (such as drawings. copied from a fresco that had been buried under volcanic ash in Greece for more than 3500 years. Frescos that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature. Mummy portrait is a painting of a man. and one of his most famous sculptures is the Statue of David. Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. as well as how people lived during these times. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art.12 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Mural is a drawing or painting on a wall. but others are remarkably well preserved. The birth of classical art Long before the Renaissance. Sculptor is an artist who creates sculptures. or other large surface. woman. rock. . The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. animals. or marble. A very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. Many show major deterioration. The discovery of several of these artworks helps us understand the styles and techniques of the artists. Fresco is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. The drawing in Figure 110 is copied from a mummy portrait that was discovered in Egypt. ceiling. Murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. and people. paintings. Archeologists have found the remnants of murals and frescos painted on walls of buildings in ancient Greece and Rome. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. Figure 109 is a drawing of an antelope. or child that was discovered attached to the face of a burial mummy. Figure 109: The smoothly flowing lines of this drawing capture an antelope as it appeared on an ancient fresco. For example.

One of my favorite ancient paintings is a mummy portrait of a young man. realistic sculptures and paintings of people have survived the ravages of time. The unknown artist used classical techniques to make the face appear three-dimensional. sculpture. . Hans Holbein.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 13 In addition to murals. During this time. Figures 111 and 112 demonstrate classical drawing techniques from the High Renaissance. Remembering the Renaissance The beginning of the Renaissance is identified by the very popular rebirth of classical drawing throughout Europe. created the most magnificent masterpieces our world has ever known. students of art all over the world are still learning from the masters of the Renaissance. I couldn’t resist the challenge of drawing someone who lived more than 2. Some of the more dedicated art students experimented with new ways of drawing and ended up creating new techniques. several breathtaking. Hence. and pottery.000 years ago. art students were encouraged to study and practice the techniques of the most highly skilled artists (called “masters”). Between 1480 and 1527. many students of the masters eventually became masters themselves. Throughout the Renaissance. frescos. coins. Figure 110: My goal was to create a drawing that looked like the ancient painting. during the time known as the High Renaissance. and digital art. classical drawing techniques were greatly improved and many new techniques were born. Classical drawing techniques are considered the foundation of all visual arts including painting. Michelangelo. and Albrecht Dürer. I decided to include the flaws of the old wooden panels on which it was painted. Great masters. many very famous artists (called “great masters”) further developed drawing as the most important of all visual arts. such as Leonardo da Vinci. possibly a Roman soldier (Figure 110). Even today.

As your drawing abilities become stronger. you automatically learn to observe.14 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 111: This classical drawing of a youth is copied from a work by Michelangelo. Check out the artist’s model and compare him to the drawing (Figure 113). Figure 113: An artist uses his creativity to make a few changes to the body of the model in his drawing. creativity is also enhanced. The Inside Scoop on Drawing Throughout the process of learning to draw. and better understand the world around you. Figure 112: Classical drawing techniques are used in a drawing of a young girl (based on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci). . appreciate.

With a little creative thought. The process of reading this and every other art book from cover to cover cannot improve your drawing skills. Drawing provides a way for you to document how you see the world. Figure 115: The horse has magically turned into a unicorn! . Simply put. you must put your knowledge into practice! YOU can draw! Drawing is an easily acquired skill that everyone can learn. People who expect to know how to ski after reading a book on skiing are not going to have any success until they actually go skiing. Being able to draw also allows you to take up other visual arts (such as digital art and painting) more easily than people who cannot draw. Talent is nothing more than a word that describes the process in which you accept your ability to become a good artist. people. and other subjects. All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing tool. artists can even change what they see in the real world into something completely different! Compare my reference photo in Figure 114 to the drawing in Figure 115. Figure 114: A photo of a horse in a field as viewed through the legs of another horse. In other words. Drawing is also an action word. Just as you learned to draw the letters of the alphabet. you can also learn to draw objects. You need to actually draw to achieve strong skills. learning to draw does not require a magical force to have been born within you. Both of these activities require some sort of action in order to be learned.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 15 Drawing is an action word Music students can’t learn to play piano by reading a music book without actually applying their knowledge to the action of playing a piano. The closest relatives of drawing are printing and writing. You can also learn to draw from your imagination.

16 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Developing your own style To develop a personal style of your own. . Strong drawing skills eventually come to everyone who works hard. and learn from those that you don’t like. My sketch of a horse’s head (Figure 116) demonstrates the classical technique of lightly rendering an underdrawing before beginning a final drawing (Figure 117). For instance. You CAN draw! With lots of patience and hard work. My drawing techniques reveal that I have been a student of the masters for most of my life. ArtSpeak Underdrawing is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). Figure 116: A very faint underdrawing identifies the basic shapes of a horse’s head. Figure 117: The style I use to draw a horse’s head is similar to the styles of the drawings of the masters demonstrated in Figures 111 and 112. Leonardo da Vinci often used the technique of doing an underdrawing with metalpoint (refer to definition on page 18) before beginning a drawing or painting. The techniques that you like best help determine your unique style. Always take joy in your good drawings. you first need to learn as many techniques as possible. you can become as good as you can imagine. Figure 116 shows an underdrawing of a horse.

Figure 201: The base value of five different grades of graphite. graphite has survived the test of time. you discover a few fascinating tidbits about the history of graphite. Traveling Back in Time with Graphite In this section. Some graphite drawings created hundreds of years ago are still around today. Clay is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. Hence. You also learn about the grades of graphite. . In this chapter. I share a little bit of fun information about graphite and its history. (When it comes to graphite. a B grade is not better than an H!) In addition.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 17 Chapter 2 Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ***************************************************************** Something called “graphite” is the best friend of many artists who love to draw. you examine drawings rendered with different grades of graphite to give you an idea of how B and H pencils affect the look of drawings. ArtSpeak Graphite is a soft black form of opaque (nontransparent) carbon found in nature. Grade refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums.

Styluses were made from a soft metal. Some styluses had a fine point at one end and a blunter point at the opposite end so artists could draw both thin and thick lines. The term “lead pencil” is often incorrectly used to describe graphite pencils that are made of graphite and clay (and contain no lead whatsoever). the masters created many beautiful intricate drawings with only a stylus. How the “lead” pencil got its name Before the discovery of graphite. Leadpoint is considered the ancestor of the modern graphite pencil. During the Renaissance. A stylus worked by leaving a thin deposit of metal on the surface of paper. and so they became known as “leadpoint”. they are usually more expensive than pencils made for writing. WARNING! Stay away from poor-quality graphite! When most people think of drawing. . When you look closely at old drawings. gold. On the other hand. many mistakes can be fixed. but can scratch your drawing paper instead of going on smoothly. styluses were also made from silver. graphite pencils do produce a warm-toned gray line that looks very similar to the marks made by leadpoint. you can often find a few of the faint lines from the underdrawings. ArtSpeak Stylus (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. a word of caution: these pencils are not designed for drawing! Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing. thin rods (referred to as “styluses”). However. ancient artists made drawings with long. Therefore. an ordinary graphite pencil comes to mind (like the ones used by schoolchildren). Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher quality mixture of graphite and clay and make marks that flow more smoothly. Artists also used styluses to do underdrawings for more detailed drawings (and paintings). Figure 202: The earliest stylus was a thin metal stick made of lead. During the Renaissance.18 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Another great thing about graphite is its ability to be erased. or copper. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. such as lead. producing a fine gray line. On the downside.

graphite pencils are made with a mixture of graphite and clay. and graphite quickly became a valuable drawing medium within artistic communities. Farmers are thought to be the first people who found a practical use for graphite. These sharpened chunks became the very first graphite pencils! Making the Grade As you now know. An HB grade is in the middle and can be called either an H or a B (Figure 204). Figure 203: A cartoon sheep proudly displays a big “X” marked on her wool with graphite. Graphite is very black and soft and makes dark marks.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 19 The link between graphite and sheep Graphite was discovered in England somewhere between 1500 and 1560. pencils are labeled with a number-letter code depending on the amounts of graphite and clay in the mixture. Artists often sharpened a chunk of graphite into a point and set it into a metal holder. A 2H pencil has less graphite and therefore makes very light marks. a 6B pencil has more graphite than clay and makes very dark marks. Figure 204: A computer-generated image shows the base value of 17 different grades of graphite. To make shopping a little easier. They used a lump of graphite to mark their sheep so they could easily identify their flocks. Clay is hard and makes light marks. For example. . Many art supply stores carry a broad range of grades. News of the discovery of graphite soon traveled far and wide throughout the known world. Check out the cartoon drawing of a sheep in Figure 203.

you may prefer to use mostly H grades. Figure 206: A realistic drawing of a dagger is created with 2H. HB. some grades make almost identical marks.20 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Trying to draw with 17 different pencils can be a nightmare! Besides. . On the other hand. a combination of B and H grades is a perfect choice. bolder approach. HB. and 6B. For drawings needing a softer touch. For example. the advanced drawing of a replica of a medieval dagger (Figure 206) is drawn with only these five grades. Artists can draw a full range of values (Figure 205) with only five grades of graphite: 2H. Whenever you draw. 2B. Figure 205: A range of different values can be created by each of these five grades of graphite. 2B. B grades may work better for drawing subjects needing a darker. your goal is to choose whichever grades of pencils can best give you the results you want. And more often than not. 4B. 4B and 6B grades of pencils.

The drawing in Figure 209 is almost completely rendered with four different grades of hard pencils. Pupil of an eye is the tiny. Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up the inside of the sharpener. of course. Graphite is quite fragile .especially the softer grades. brittle medium ► Make light to medium marks ► Wear down slowly ► Need very little sharpening ► Create very thin to medium-width lines The lines made by H pencils are mostly thin and delicate. Figure 207: Values created with four H pencils (HB is considered the darkest hard pencil). Figure 208: An arrow points to the pupil of an eye. they work best for small to medium drawings (unless. dark. they can create light to medium marks (Figure 207) that work well for some drawings. hence. the graphite inside the core breaks. and the pencil becomes very difficult to sharpen. hard (H) pencils: ► Have a hard. . However. ArtSpeak TIP! Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! Info Tidbit The word pencil comes from the Latin word pencillus (which means “little tail”).Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 21 Hard is light Hard pencils can’t make very dark values. circular part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. As a rule. you have lots of patience). When a pencil falls to the floor.

4H. such as the pupils of his eyes and tiny sections of the darkest shadows. Soft is dark B pencils tend to “B” soft. Figure 210: Values created with four B pencils (HB is the lightest B pencil). and 2B pencils. you can also create light and medium values. by pressing very gently with B pencils.22 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started I used a 2B (soft) pencil for only a few dark accents. and can make very dark marks because they have more graphite than clay. 2H. Figure 210 shows the base value of four B grades of graphite. Figure 209: This drawing of a friend (Christopher Church) playing a violin took more than a month to complete with 6H. HB. However. .

B pencils can also work well for rendering detailed subjects on small sheets of paper. If you are patient. 4B.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 23 Generally speaking. Info Tidbit My favorite brands of graphite pencils are made in Germany. and don’t mind constantly sharpening their points. B pencils were used for the small drawing of a peach in Figure 212. Figure 211: Loosely rendered sketch of a side-on view of a young man. . B grades of pencils: ► Have a soft medium ► Make light. and 6B pencils. you may need to use both B and H grades of pencils. and are sold under the names Staedtler and Faber-Castell. Figure 212: Drawing of a peach using HB. Check out the sketch of the young man (Figure 211) created with only 2B and 4B pencils. and dark marks ► Wear down quickly ► Need to be sharpened frequently ► Can make thin to thick lines The darker marks created by B pencils are ideal for loosely rendered sketches on medium to large sheets of paper. medium. Combining soft and hard grades When you draw a subject with lots of light and dark values. 2B.

HB. and 2B. 4B. expect to be surprised by how many different brands of pencils are available. and 6B. Professional pencils often look identical. But don’t be fooled! The grade of the graphite is written somewhere on the wood part of each pencil (Look closely at Figure 215). Figure 215: Can you see the grade written on these three brands of pencils? . and the black stripes are drawn with HB. Finding out your grade When you go to an art store. different grades of drawing pencils may all look the same.24 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started And what animal could show you a combination of B and H pencils better than a zebra (Figure 213)? The white stripes are shaded with 2H. even though the grades are different (Figure 214). Figure 214: At first glance. Figure 213: A drawing of a baby zebra (named Spot) is created with both H and B grades of graphite. 2B.

the better the tools. you need to begin learning to draw with mediums that are specifically designed for artists. charcoal comes in various grades. . I tell you about a few popular drawing mediums. As with most activities. As with graphite. the happier you are with the outcomes. I show you what each looks like.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 25 Chapter 3 More Drawing Mediums ***************************************************************** In addition to graphite pencils. ArtSpeak Charcoal is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood). Charcoal pencils have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. Figure 302: A few different types of Figure 301: Shopping for drawing mediums is a big challenge when you have to choose from so many different types. and the kind of marks it makes. In this chapter. charcoal that are designed for drawing. Charcoal sticks are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks.

(3) mechanical pencils. mechanical. I discuss three types of drawing pencils: wood-encased. Art Quote Every child is an artist. Charcoal pencils are fantastic for medium to large drawings on large sheets of paper. Pablo Picasso . Picking out Proper Pencils In this section. and (4) wood-encased pencils. intricate drawings on small to medium-sized surfaces. Woodless pencil (2) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. Sandpaper block is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. Figure 304: Pencils last longer if you sharpen only their points on a sandpaper block. Mechanical pencil (3) has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead. through the tip. Several drawings invite you to compare the abilities of these pencils. (2) woodless pencil. Wood-encased pencils Graphite pencils are ideal for either simple.26 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Drawing stick (1) is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk. loosely rendered drawings or very complicated. The problem is how to remain an artist once he (she) grows up. and woodless. from the tiny tube inside the holder. Figure 303: Four types of drawing tools: (1) sticks. Wood-encased pencil (4) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing.

wood-encased drawing pencils. Figure 306: Marks made with the worn-down points of graphite pencils.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 27 Graphite pencils Figure 305: Most art supply stores carry a huge selection of professionalquality. A sandpaper block kept the pencil points nice and sharp to do the scraggly feathers. Some artists prefer to draw with a slightly worn-down pencil point (Figure 306). some fine sandpaper. . Graphite pencils are a favorite drawing tool of many artists. or a sandpaper block. You can sharpen the points of regular pencils with a pencil sharpener. Figure 308: Cartoon drawing of an emu is created with regular pencils. The drawing in Figure 308 was created with graphite pencils. Others constantly sharpen the graphite points to make thin marks (Figure 307). Figure 307: Thin lines drawn with freshly sharpened graphite pencils. Charcoal pencils Charcoal pencils are a lot more messy than graphite. The pencil points were slightly worn down to shade the eyes. but (thanks to the wooden holder) less messy than sticks of charcoal.

WARNING! Utility knives are VERY dangerous! Utility knives are as sharp as razors! One small slip of the knife can cause permanent damage to your hand or fingers. if you don’t want to “draw blood. (And. If you want thin lines. and objects. scenery. but can do everything a pencil can do (and more). . you need to keep the point sharpened with a sandpaper block. Figure 309: Most charcoal pencils are a little thicker than graphite pencils. They are a little messier.” ask someone to help you sharpen charcoal pencils. Figure 310: Various marks made by a charcoal pencil. remember to tell that person to be very careful!) You may even want to completely stay away from charcoal pencils and use charcoal sticks instead. Hard grades of charcoal can be carefully sharpened in a pencil sharpener with an oversized opening. Check out the charcoal drawing in Figure 311. They should only be used by responsible adults who are handy with tools. Soft grades of charcoal simply crumble and break when you try to sharpen them in a pencil sharpener.28 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Wonderful black marks can be made with charcoal (Figure 310). Charcoal is fun to work with and is ideal for drawing anything .including people. So. which is much softer than graphite. A heavy-duty utility knife works best for cutting away some of the wood so you can sharpen the exposed charcoal with a sandpaper block.

The marks they make stay approximately the same size. Most are expensive. but they tend to last much longer than the department store variety. a mechanical pencil can last a very long time. However.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 29 Figure 311: A loosely rendered charcoal sketch of Christopher Church playing his violin. it tends to be more economical than constantly buying woodencased pencils. Other fun pencil mediums Two other types of pencil mediums that are well worth having are: mechanical pencils (they never need sharpening) and woodless pencils. I have several that are more than 15 years old. A professional-quality mechanical pencil designed for drawing is expensive. Mechanical pencils Mechanical pencils (Figure 312) are a super alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened constantly. TIP! Purchase only professional-quality mechanical pencils You can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. but in the long run. . When well cared for. even after hours of drawing. Figure 312: A sampling of mechanical pencils. professional mechanical pencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores.

(However. they can also make very thin lines (Figure 315). hence. A mechanical pencil can be loaded with leads of different grades ranging from very hard to soft. bolder strokes than regular pencils. When the points are sharpened. Figure 314: Marks made with a woodless pencil.5 mm is the most popular size and works best for drawing on small to medium-sized sheets of paper. woodless pencils do not have a wooden casing! A thick rod of graphite is surrounded by a thin (usually vinyl) casing.7 mm leads are too big to fit through the pointed end of a 0. Woodless graphite pencils Obviously. completely rendered with 0. Woodless pencils rarely need to be sharpened in a pencil sharpener.5 mm mechanical pencil. check the size! Read the label on each package of leads you want to buy.5 mm mechanical pencils and various grades of leads. and are great for subjects needing wider. 0. A 0. A few strokes on sandpaper and the points are sharp! They can make lots of different marks (Figure 314). you should load only one grade at a time.) Leads of the same grade are sold in a single package.30 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mechanical pencils come in different sizes.7 mm is a great choice for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both). . you may have to buy a package of each of the grades you want to use. For example. your hands stay clean as you work. to make sure they are the right size for your mechanical pencil. Figure 313: Drawing of an unusual glass bottle TIP! Before you buy leads for a mechanical pencil. A 0. so.

Brandon. Surprisingly. charcoal and graphite sticks are one of the few art mediums that work well when broken! The crisp edges of broken pieces are fantastic for rendering thin. strong lines. Both are messy. but lots of fun! For instance. Figure 316: Drawing powder can be made from graphite or charcoal sticks. . Sticks are great for rendering any subject. Figure 315: A wood-encased graphite pencil worked well for creating three sketches of my grandson. you simply dip your finger into the powder and draw! Or.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 31 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders Graphite and charcoal sticks are not considered pencils. The flat ends and sides can be used for broad strokes (Figure 317). Then. you can rub a charcoal or graphite stick on sandpaper to make powdered charcoal or graphite (Figure 316). and especially for medium to large sketches and drawings. but they are well worth having. (if messy isn’t your style) you may prefer to wrap your finger in a piece of paper towel first.

Figure 318: Various marks created by erasing sections of a layer of charcoal. you can combine a graphite stick and graphite powder with various graphite pencils to create a drawing. Try to combine graphite and charcoal in a drawing and you can see what I mean! Use either graphite or charcoal mediums in a drawing . charcoal and graphite do not usually play (or work) well together. Figure 317: A small sample of marks you can make with a stick. and a charcoal pencil in the same sketch. . You simply apply some powder to the paper’s surface and erase sections to create an image. and sticks. In addition. However. charcoal powder.32 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started You can use a charcoal stick.but not both together. as well as erasers. Figure 319: A winter scene created with charcoal pencils. You can also use erasers to draw with either charcoal or graphite (Figures 318 and 319). powder.

and rough tooth.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 33 Chapter 4 Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers ***************************************************************** Picking out drawing paper is a scary task for even the most experienced artists. medium. Some papers are great for drawing and others are not. I tell you about the textures. In this chapter. I also explain how artists (not dentists) protect the tooth of paper. almost every store with an arts or crafts department carries some type of drawing paper. . Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. Figure 403: Watercolor paper with a rough tooth. Figure 402: Drawing paper with a medium tooth. Figure 401: Printer paper with a smooth tooth. ArtSpeak Tooth refers to the surface texture of paper. sizes. You examine artworks done on different papers to give you an idea of how a paper can affect the look of a drawing. Figures 401 to 403 show you highly magnified views of shading with a 6B pencil on papers with a smooth. To further confuse artists. medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture. and weights of various drawing papers so you can make wise choices when you go shopping.

and rags were chopped up into fibers. The mold was shaken until most of the water drained through the screen. The mixture was scooped up with a screen and placed into a wooden mold. drawing papers were handmade. Some artists like smooth drawing paper. 3. This time-consuming process included the following seven basic steps: 1. Figure 306: A single drop of liquid can appear so shiny that it almost sparkles. Materials such as plants. Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) The more tooth a paper has. I also show you how a paper’s tooth can influence the look of a drawing. vegetable matter. Water was then added to create a soupy mixture. and many prefer paper that is somewhere in between. a sense of touch. The type of texture can be identified with vision. 2. ArtSpeak Texture refers to the surface detail of an object. 6. When completely dry. 4. 7. and a general knowledge of the object. Flattened sheets of fibers were stacked into a pile with a layer of woolen cloth or felt in between each.34 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Drawing Papers during the Renaissance Shopping for drawing papers is no doubt a challenge. Figure 304: Short fur (as on cats) is soft and silky. others prefer very rough paper. However. The sheets of paper were then hung to dry. the rougher it feels. leaving a flattened layer of fibers. Figure 305: A child’s knit sweater is bumpy and soft. the paper was usually coated with a substance (such as a gelatin mixture) to make it suitable for drawing. . In this section. can you imagine having to make your own drawing paper? During the Renaissance. I discuss the tooth of three common types of paper. Most of the remaining moisture was squeezed out by pressing down on the stack. 5.

. Artists who prefer drawing highly detailed subjects often choose papers with a smooth tooth.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 35 The surface of a smooth tooth The surface of smooth tooth papers (that are designed specifically for artists). Figure 407: A detailed drawing of Bill the cat on smooth paper. smooth watercolor paper. but is not shiny. His beautiful coat of striped fur looks very soft. feels relatively even and silky. The realistic drawing of a cat in Figure 407 was rendered with graphite on a professionalquality.

. Many sketchbooks have paper with a medium tooth and are a fantastic choice for beginners. and therefore too smooth for graphite or charcoal to properly stick to it. Glossy paper is toothless. Figure 408: Sketchbook paper with a medium tooth is perfect for capturing the texture of an owl’s feathers. TIP! Stay away from papers with a glossy surface! Smooth drawing paper is wonderful. They work beautifully for creating a full range of values and lots of different textures.36 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Big smile for a medium tooth Medium tooth papers are ideal for most drawing subjects. but glossy paper is just plain awful.

. He who works with his hands and his head and his heart is an artist. WARNING! Stay away from acid! Don’t be fooled by cheap imitations of goodquality drawing paper.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 37 ArtSpeak Acid-free refers to a high-quality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process. but ideal for sketching on large sheets of paper. He who works with his hands and his head is a craftsman. however. Just because the cover of a sketchbook says it’s suitable for drawing doesn’t mean it’s acid-free. Art Quote He (or she) who works with his hands is a laborer. Fun patterns and textures often appear when the peaks of the paper grab the graphite. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. Saint Francis of Assisi Figure 409: A hardcover sketchbook protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. Textures on a rough tooth Rough paper is terrible for tiny detailed drawings. Softcover describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper. Hardcover refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material. Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. Before you buy a sketchbook. The peaks and craters of rough watercolor paper helped create the wonderful textured shading in Figures 410 and 411. Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle. look for a label that says the paper is acid-free. Hot pressed refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. and some craters show through as white.

As an extra perk. Sketchbooks and Papers Art supply stores sell individual sheets of papers that are designed specifically for drawing. 100% cotton. The surface works beautifully for most drawing media and all subjects. size. The quality. hot pressed watercolor paper with a 140 lb weight. Info Tidbit My favorite drawing paper is Arches.38 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 410: The bumpy. jagged textures of trees are captured on watercolor paper with a rough tooth. . A sketchbook has several sheets of drawing paper in a book format. Figure 411: A close-up view shows how rough paper can help render the texture of a tree trunk. acidfree. and weight of paper. this paper is similar to that used by the masters during the late Renaissance. are much more important than whether you purchase individual sheets or a sketchbook (or both).

hardcover. Additional shading will no longer hold fast to the paper’s surface. However.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 39 Softcover. Weighing in on paper The “weight” of paper describes the thickness of individual sheets of paper. A professional-quality paper for everyday use should have at least a 50 lb (260 g/m²) weight. or sheets? Even though softcover sketchbooks are relatively inexpensive. If your shading begins to look shiny. Softcover sketchbooks have to be carefully stored on a flat surface. . Thin paper weighs very little. TIP! Always take good care of a paper’s tooth! The tooth of any paper can be easily destroyed by pressing too hard on its surface with your pencil. everyday printer paper has a 20 lb (75 g/m²) weight and therefore is too thin (and too smooth) for drawing. Individual sheets of drawing paper need to be stored on a flat surface inside a hard-sided portfolio. So. and protects the paper inside. You can also feel the paper to make sure it’s thick. the hard cover provides a solid surface on which to work when you’re away from your desk or table. The weight of a paper is usually marked on the packaging or front cover. it’s much too expensive for everyday use. the paper can be easily wrinkled and damaged. As an extra perk. inexpensive. remember to apply only a little bit of pressure to your pencil when you draw. Thick paper is more durable than thin because it weighs more.switch to a softer B pencil instead. the tooth is flattened beyond repair. For example. A hardcover sketchbook is much more durable. Avoid pressing too hard when you want darker shading . but is easily torn and damaged. Figure 412: A small sampling of drawing papers and sketchbooks. Heavy Arches drawing paper has a 140 lb (300 g/m²) weight and is perfect for drawing masterpieces.

40 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Larger is not always better Choose a sketchbook or drawing papers in a size that is easy to transport when you travel. if you prefer making large drawings. you finally have a chance to pick up a pencil and begin drawing! . you’ll know all you need to know about drawing supplies. I give you a checklist so you know exactly what you need to buy (or find at home). hard surface to prevent the paper from bending. you need to store the sketchbook on a large. A really big sheet can be cut down into smaller sheets. you can select the best type of paper for your needs (and budget!). stay away from sketchbooks under 9 by 12 inches or your drawing options become too limited. In Chapter 7. Then.by the end of Chapter 6. In Chapter 9. most large sketchbooks (over 16 by 20 inches) are softcover. and department stores in your community to find out what types of drawing paper are available. On the other hand. stationery. Figure 413: A large sheet of drawing paper can be attached to a drawing board with clamps. Hence. However. Individual sheets of paper (Figure 413) come in many sizes. Info Tidbit TIP! Check before you buy! Check out art supply. Are you tired of reading yet? Keep going . Some types are inexpensive and others can be quite costly.

you can use the sharp edge of a regular block eraser. (3) manikins.) .Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 41 Chapter 5 Adding to the Basics ***************************************************************** In addition to pencils and paper. For example. as well as pull out (erase) light sections from a layer of graphite or charcoal. (If the edges of your vinyl eraser are worn. you need to have a few other drawing supplies. They can erase small or large sections of drawings. I also suggest a few extra items to consider adding to your shopping list. a sharp knife can be used to cut off the end. you find out about two types of art erasers that are very gentle to the surface of your paper: vinyl and kneaded. however. Erasers that are designed specifically for artists can be purchased in an art supply store. In this chapter. and the ones you should avoid. (4) a small knife for cutting paper. I tell you about the supplies that work best for drawing. Tools for Erasing In this section. and (5) spray fixative. manikins are certainly not necessary for learning how to draw. Vinyl erasers Vinyl erasers (Figure 502) have many practical uses. To erase tiny details or draw thin lines. such as pencil sharpeners and erasers. Figure 501: A few more art supplies: (1) pencil cases. they do provide a fun way to strengthen your visual and drawing skills. (2) a metal ruler.

In Chapter 9. you simply stretch and reshape it (also known as “kneading”) several times. TIP! To clean a kneaded eraser. kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to work well. The sharp edge of a vinyl eraser created the brightest whites. First of all. Dark shadows and crisp outlines were added with a charcoal pencil. Figure 503: Kneaded erasers are simple boring blocks until you begin molding and stretching them. You can also use a kneaded eraser to carefully pat or gently rub a section of a drawing to lighten lines or values. I covered my paper with a layer of charcoal. Then. However. I pulled out light values with a kneaded eraser. The drawing of a sphere in Figure 504 was created with the help of both vinyl and kneaded erasers. a three-dimensional sphere seems to come out of the dark. Figure 504: With the help of erasers. Kneaded erasers Kneaded erasers (Figure 503) are a real joy! They don’t leave annoying eraser crumbs on your paper. . I show you how to draw with your kneaded eraser (Action 9D: Playing with Erasers). and (3) pencil erasers and refills. (2) eraser wheel. so pick up some extras. and can easily be molded into a point or wedge for erasing.42 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 502: Three popular types of vinyl erasers: (1) regular blocks.

hand-held (preferably metal) pencil sharpener. and use the next sheet. Sandpaper sharpens just the exposed sections of medium instead of both the wood and the medium. Sandpaper blocks are more difficult to find. you simply tear it off. Pencil sharpeners If you use any type of pencil media. Sandpaper blocks have sheets of fine sandpaper attached to a wooden base. choose a simple. Lots of different stores carry sharpeners . WARNING! The wrong eraser can ruin your drawings! Stay away from erasers that are colored (especially the pink ones) or very hard (such as those on the ends of some pencils). The best ones have two openings: a small one for regular graphite pencils and a large one for oversized pencils. throw it away. Sandpaper blocks and sheets Sandpaper preserves the wooden sections of your pencils that could otherwise get quickly eaten up by your sharpener. . sturdy. You simply hold the wooden handle as you sharpen your pencil point on the sandpaper.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 43 Sharpening your Mediums Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper (blocks or sheets) are a must for keeping your mediums (also called media) in shape. As for sheets of sandpaper. art supply stores are your best bet. Sandpaper blocks are not expensive. The sharpeners in Figure 505 last a very long time. and battery-operated or expensive sharpeners. Make sure the surface is a fine grade (look for anything that falls between 100-180 grit). you need a pencil sharpener. Stay away from toy sharpeners. When the top sheet of sandpaper becomes worn and dirty. check out a building supplies store or a department store with a hardware department. Figure 505: Four of my favorite pencil sharpeners. Instead.especially if they carry school supplies. especially those for which you can purchase replacement blades (available at most art supply stores). so pick up more than one.

I speak from experience when I say this is not a great idea! A good-quality ruler does a far better job and is much easier to use (plus. and use a heavy-duty stapler to hold them together at one end. if you keep everything together in one place. (I have two large dogs who consider pencils and erasers to be chew toys!) In addition. I discuss four more necessities: pencil case. resist the temptation to pick up a bunch of stuff you really don’t need and may never use. A ruler comes in handy for outlining drawing spaces. and as a guide for cutting straight pieces of drawing paper.especially if you have small children or pets in your home.) Pencil case A container for storing your pencils. however. Ruler At some point in your life. or destroyed. you can avoid the frustration of always searching for misplaced items. many tend to be very expensive (especially those made of leather). small children. (In Chapter 7 you find step-by-step instructions for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame. Cut sheets of fine sandpaper into long. and other smaller drawing supplies is essential . Metal rulers are easy to clean. A hard-sided portfolio can protect your drawing paper and completed drawings from becoming wrinkled. erasers. Portfolio Drawings stored in a pile on a shelf (or anywhere that’s dusty or within direct sunlight) can be damaged easily. and viewfinder frame. damaged. but can last a lifetime with proper care. . An all-metal ruler with raised edges may be a little more expensive. ruler.44 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started A Few Extras Have fun wandering through art supply stores! However. TIP! You can make a sanding tool similar to an artist’s sandpaper block. You don’t need to spend a lot of money on supplies to learn how to draw well. it has measurement guidelines). portfolio. you may have tried using something like the edge of a book as a ruler. narrow pieces. and pets safe! Always put your supplies away in a container when you are done drawing. Stuff you can’t do without In this section. You can buy many types of wonderful portfolios in art supply stores. WARNING! Keep your drawing supplies. and their raised edges protect your drawings from being smudged as you draw lines.

such as a square. As you adjust its size. Viewfinder frame Beginners to drawing often include too many objects in their drawings. you can choose an ideal composition for a drawing. a manikin. display board. you can remove most of the clutter and unnecessary objects from your view. Figure 507: Drawing of Figure 506: A simple viewfinder frame. or a shape you outline on your paper. Composition refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. or circle. but not necessary Before you go shopping for additional drawing supplies. Figure 508: A section of a cartoon face is viewed through the opening of a viewfinder frame. Nice to have. In doing so. a spider within a square drawing space. rectangle. Large viewfinder frames are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a drawing subject.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 45 ArtSpeak Viewfinder frame is an adjustable. . Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. so you can draw only the exciting parts. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. Small ones are great for planning compositions from photos. and spray fixative should be the top three items on your list. A viewfinder frame helps you visually weed out boring stuff in a scene. see-through rectangle or square that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints.

. You can even choose a wall in your home (or use your fridge) for an ongoing exhibition of your work. you can also purchase animals. Figure 509: A simple sketch of a figure is created with the help of a manikin. However. Spray fixative A spray fixative that is designed for graphite and charcoal can protect your completed drawings from being accidentally smudged. WARNING! Don’t use spray fixative on your unfinished drawings! You can’t erase problem areas after your drawing has been sprayed. ► Make sure you read the directions carefully. keep the following in mind: ► Spray only in a well-ventilated area (such as outdoors). and don’t talk your ears off! Manikins can be manipulated into numerous poses and viewed from any angle. manikins are wonderful models: they don’t move. Manikins Often made of wood. require no bathroom breaks.46 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Display boards Bulletin or display boards (I especially love the metal ones with magnets) are relatively inexpensive and provide display space for your drawings. ► Two or three thin coats are better than one thick coat (less is more!). before you use a spray fixative. In addition to female and male figures.

Part 2: Get Set! 47 PART 2 GET SET! ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Creating your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your drawing medium ► Discover your natural hand movement .

48 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

Figure 603: A popular type of clip is called a Boston Bulldog. .Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 49 Chapter 6 Setting up for Drawing ***************************************************************** In this chapter. ArtSpeak Drafting desk (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top (Figure 601). Clips (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board (Figure 603). and properly hold your pencils as you work. In addition. When assembling your drawing supplies. Figure 602: A sketch of a horse is attached to a drawing board with a clip. lightweight. I tell you about drawing surfaces and lighting that work well for creating art in your home. Figure 601: A simple drawing of a drafting desk (and chair) that is adjusted for drawing. A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw Your special artistic place in your home should be as relaxing. you may already have many of these items. Drawing board is a portable. I show you how to sit comfortably for drawing. I also tell you how to pack up a portable drawing kit so you can take your love of drawing wherever you go. be sure to check around your home. smooth surface (often made of wood) used for sketching and drawing (Figure 602). and free of distractions as possible. peaceful.

smoothly finished plywood. Another option is to prop up a drawing board at an angle on a regular table or desk. Consider a natural light source from a window in the daytime and from a lamp for evenings and overcast days. Shedding light on your art To prevent your eyes from becoming tired or strained. Many art stores sell different types of inexpensive drawing boards in various sizes. Plexiglas. Info Tidbit A drawing board is easy to make (if you know an adult who is handy with a saw). or drawing board. .50 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Choosing a drawing surface You can easily find a surface on which you can comfortably draw. always make sure you have good lighting. A flexible-neck study lamp is designed to focus light directly on your drawing surface (Figure 605). desk. Drawing papers can be held in place with either clips or tape. TIP! Some types of tapes can damage your paper. Consider such options as a table. Art supply stores usually carry large clips and special tapes for attaching paper to a drawing board. drafting desk. Simply cut a piece of thin. Figure 604: An artist is sketching on paper that is attached to a drawing board with a clip. Use sandpaper to sand it until its surface and edges are very smooth. Masking tapes designed for painting the interiors of homes. An adjustable sloped table or drafting desk is a fantastic choice. or another sturdy product to a size slightly larger than your favorite drawing paper. also work fairly well. Experiment with your tape on a small piece of drawing paper to find out if it can be safely removed.

Unfortunately. I don’t think people are born artists. some types can cost almost as much as (or more than) the lamp itself. his or her head may end up too big for the body. I think it comes from a mixture of your surroundings. and luck. you can end up with all sorts of problems trying to draw accurate proportions. Francis Bacon Good Posture First! Sitting correctly (and eating your vegetables) is very important. check out the cost of replacement bulbs.after your drawing is complete. but also for improving your drawing skills. Art Quote WARNING! Don’t attempt large drawings on a flat (horizontal) surface! Instead. Figure 605: An artist sits comfortably at a drafting desk with an attached lamp shedding light on his drawing. the top of your paper is farther away from you than the bottom. When you create large drawings on a flat surface (such as a table or desk). As a result. so. the people you meet. . read the packaging carefully before you buy! Also. use something to prop up your sketchbook or paper so your drawing surface is sloped. you usually find this out the hard way . not just for your health. if you are drawing a figure.Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 51 An ideal lamp mimics natural daylight. For example.

52

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Good posture and a comfortable, adjustable chair can prevent your muscles from becoming strained and sore. Arrange your chair and drawing surface so you can easily move your hand, arm, shoulder, and upper body as you draw.

How NOT to sit!
Many people do not sit up straight. They hunch or lean over too much, and twist their bodies into all sorts of positions that place their back out of proper alignment (Figure 606).

Figure 606: How NOT to sit!
You become uncomfortable very quickly when you are not sitting properly.

TIP!
To prevent cramping and repetitive movement injuries, move your fingers and wrist as little as possible when you draw. You should be moving your lower and upper arm (and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well). If you absolutely have to move your fingers and wrist (for example, to draw tiny details), take a break every ten minutes to relax your hand and wrist.

Sitting correctly
Most drafting tables and some office chairs have height adjustments. You can also position your chair closer or farther away from your table. Refer to Figure 607 and arrange your table and chair until you can: ► Sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor (or on a raised surface such as a footstool). ► Distribute your body weight evenly on both hips. ► Bend your knees at a right angle. ► See your drawing clearly without bending your lower back. ► Comfortably rest your lower arm on the table.

Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing

53

Once you are used to sitting correctly, you can fully focus on drawing.

Putting Together a Portable Studio
In this section, I suggest practical supplies for bringing your love of drawing on any type of excursion, such as to a local park or a picnic at the beach. Learning to draw is learning to see! The more you practice the faster your skills improve!
Figure 607: A cartoon artist shows you how to sit
properly at a drafting desk.

Doing sketches on a regular basis trains your brain to see as an artist (a fun way to see the world). A very thorough visual examination of your drawing subject imprints its image into your mind. You can then draw what you see in your sketchbook - often with only a few simple lines. For example, sometimes all you need is a wiggly line to capture a section of land. Figure 608 shows a simple sketch of the lake behind my home.

Figure 608: Simple lines capture a sky, hills, a lake,
trees, and a few plants.

You should keep a few drawing materials packed and ready to travel.

54

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

When you feel like drawing outdoors, you can just grab your portable studio and go. First of all, you need something in which to carry your art materials. A backpack or fabric bag with handles is great. Select something large enough to hold everything you need. Naturally, you need a surface on which to draw. You can bring a drawing board, paper, and clips (or tape). A hardcover sketchbook is a great alternative to sheets of paper; its hard cover serves as a drawing surface. Add a pencil case filled with pencils, erasers, sandpaper blocks, and a pencil sharpener. Here’s a list of additional things you may want to bring along: ► A viewfinder frame. ► Your portfolio (if you use sheets of drawing paper). ► Plastic bags to protect your drawings (and you) in case of rain. ► Beverages and snacks. ► Wipes or paper towels for clean-up (especially if you use charcoal). ► A small camera to take photos of inspirational scenes and objects. ► Depending on where you go, you may need bug repellent. ► Oh, and don’t forget your sunscreen and a hat!

Art Quote

When we speak of Nature it is wrong to forget that we are ourselves a part of Nature. We ought to view ourselves with the same curiosity and openness with which we study a tree, the sky or a thought, because we too are linked to the entire universe.
Henri Matisse

Save all your sketches! By examining your older sketches, you can measure how much your skills have advanced. In addition, as your creativity and artistic vision improves, you may look back on your early works with a new appreciation. For example, a face may be hidden within a sketch of an old log. (Remember the stone faces hidden in Figure 101 in Chapter 1.)

(I show you how to use a viewfinder frame in Action 9F in Chapter 9. Portfolio. Must have Plan to purchase (or find around your home) the items on this list first: Figure 701: Shopping for art supplies. acid-free paper: 9 by 12 inches (or larger) ► Package of inexpensive sheets of paper (printer/copy paper works well) .Chapter 7: Making a List. You then follow step-by-step illustrated instructions to make a portfolio and viewfinder frame. and Viewfinder Frame ***************************************************************** In this chapter. Portfolio. The following lists are guides for making your own shopping list.) ► AC T I O N 7 A ◄ The Shopping List Goal: Write out a shopping list so you can go shopping for your supplies. ► Sketchbook with medium tooth. Supplies needed: Paper and pencil (or pen). your first exercise is to make a shopping list and buy your drawing supplies. and Viewfinder Frame 55 Chapter 7 Making a List.

making it hard to concentrate on the view inside. HB. or table with a drawing board ► Lamp ► Metal ruler ► Metal clips (if you plan to use a drawing board) ► Comfortable chair ► Portfolio case (for storing your completed drawings) ► Viewfinder frame (Supplies for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame are on the next page. When using a brightly colored viewfinder frame. your eye is grabbed by the loud color. 2B. such as a drafting desk.) Nice to have As your skills improve and you have extra money. stay with neutral rather than bright colors.56 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ► Regular vinyl eraser ► Kneaded eraser ► Pencil case ► 2H. and 6B wood-encased pencils ► Sturdy handheld pencil sharpener ► Sandpaper blocks or sheets of fine-grit sandpaper ► Drawing surface. . you can shop for items from this list: ► Wooden manikins ► Bulletin or display board ► Spray fixative ► Mechanical pencils with 2H. HB. 4B. and 2B leads ► A selection of good-quality drawing papers ► Camera ► Hardcover sketchbook ► Graphite sticks and woodless pencils ► Pencil-type vinyl eraser TIP! When buying matboard or cardboard to make a viewfinder frame.

sharp utility knife ► Straight edge or long ruler with a metal edge ► Sharp tool (such as a scratch awl or a large nail) for punching holes for ties. or shoelaces (long enough to tie the portfolio closed in three places) ► Acid-free cardboard or matboard (usually offered in a wide selection of colors at framing and art supply stores) ► Drawing supplies for adding a design (optional) Supplies for making a viewfinder frame Besides acid-free board. thin rope. you also need two large paper clips.Chapter 7: Making a List. and a ruler. Supplies for a portable studio You need a second set of basic drawing supplies. Figure 702: A homemade portfolio. you need the following: ► Roll of wide tape (duct tape is great and comes in lots of fun colors) ► Heavy-duty. as well as some of the extra items suggested on Page 54. ► AC T I O N 7 B ◄ Making a Portfolio Goal: Make and design your very own unique portfolio. . Portfolio. and Viewfinder Frame 57 Supplies for making a portfolio If you (or someone else) plan to make a portfolio. ► Strong string. a utility knife.

Keep in mind that it needs to be folded in half (peek ahead to Figure 703). Refer back to the previous section for suggested sizes. If you decide on one large sheet. you can use either one large sheet or two smaller pieces. you may want the colored side facing outward on your portfolio. For example. flat surface that can’t be damaged with a sharp knife. the finished portfolio will be half the size of your board. ► 20 by 30 inches (one sheet at least 40 by 30 inches. In other words. each needs to be the finished size. Deciding on a size The finished size of your portfolio needs to be a little larger than your largest sheet of drawing paper. One large folded sheet of board makes a slightly stronger portfolio than two smaller pieces . Option 1: Using one large sheet of board 1. Suggested portfolio sizes include: ► 16 by 20 inches (one sheet at least 32 by 20 inches. Hence. or two pieces at 16 by 20 inches each). Trim the large piece of board to the overall size you want.it may not need to be trimmed. If your board is the same color on both sides. Place your large sheet of board (colored side facing up) on a flat surface.58 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Gather your supplies on a large. The colored side in the illustrations is shown as gray. If your board is already the size you want. simply ignore references to color. . cutting the board on the dining room table may not be the best idea! You may want to ask an adult for help. If you buy two pieces (one for each side). When choosing board. go to step 2. take into account that you need to fold it in half. Measure the board first . 2.especially along the bottom. or two pieces at 20 by 30 inches each). TIP! Some boards (such as matboard) are colored on one side and white on the other.

Chapter 7: Making a List. If your board is 40 by 30 inches. Add wide tape to all four edges of the large board. 7. Figure 704: Dots mark the spots where the ties attach. Use a ruler to measure. Use a long ruler or straight edge to draw a straight line along the points. For example. Measure the board and mark the center points along the width. the center points need to be at 20 inches. if your board is 32 by 20 inches. and each is halfway between the edge and the center line. Figure 703: A straight line is drawn down the center of the board. . Portfolio. Measure. Use an HB pencil. the middle points are at 16 inches. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where each of the six dots is marked. and an HB pencil to mark the points. 6. and Viewfinder Frame 59 3. This line shows you where you later score (slightly cut) the board (Figure 703). See Figure 704. 5. The top and bottom edges have two. 4. The sides have one dot. and the edges are made strong with wide tape. and then mark the halfway distances of the sides and top of each half with a dot (to mark where the ties go).

12. Gently fold the large sheet of board inward along the scored line. Figure 706: The bottom edge of portfolio (the folded edge) has been reinforced with strong tape.60 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. TIP! If you accidentally end up with two pieces. With your knife and a straight edge. cut very slightly (sometimes referred to as “scoring”) along the straight line on the colored side. and the inner fold line section is reinforced with wide tape. Simply continue on and follow the instructions for working with two pieces instead of one. Figure 705: Portfolio is folded along the score line. Be very careful. Open the portfolio and tape over the inside center seam. 10. The basic construction of the portfolio is complete (Figure 706). you’ll have two pieces of board instead of one scored piece. . 9. if you cut too deeply into the board. use two strips of tape (Figure 705). all is not lost. With the portfolio closed. 11. tape over the scored seam at the bottom. The colored side should now be on the outside. Continue on to the Adding ties and final touches section on page 62. To make this seam super strong.

These sides are the bottom of your portfolio. Portfolio. Measure. Place the boards colored side up so the two wide edges that are not taped (the bottom of the portfolio) are close together. 3. 5. Tape both pieces together. Using wide tape. the holes for the ties are marked and then punched with a sharp tool. You end up with three holes on each piece of board. Figure 708: The boards are butted together and then taped together with wide tape. 6. . Figure 707: Three sides of each piece are reinforced with wide tape.Chapter 7: Making a List. 2. Butt the bottoms of each piece of board tightly together on a flat surface. reinforce all but one long edge of each piece of board. 4. Do not mark dots on the sides without tape. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where the dots are marked. and Viewfinder Frame 61 Option 2: Using two pieces of board 1. These dots show you where to punch holes for the ties (Figure 707). use two strips of tape (Figure 708). The inside surfaces should now be facing you (Figure 708). To make the seam super strong. and then mark dots at the halfway distances of the sides and top of each piece of board.

Figure 711: The laces are threaded through the holes from the inside toward the outside.62 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 7. If the hole is bigger than the knot. Use wide tape to secure the knotted ends of the ties to the inside (Figure 712). 2. you may get away with using half for each tie (if they are long). Tie a knot in the end of each tie. In this section. 8. If you use a full shoelace for each tie. The holes for ties should line up on the top and sides. tie the knot in the end that has been cut. . See Figure 709. you finish your portfolio by adding ties. 3. Refer to Figure 710. Thread a tie through each of the six holes from the inside. it doesn’t matter on which end you tie a knot. Adding ties and final touches Figure 709: The bottom edge of the portfolio is reinforced with strong tape. Use at least two strips of wide tape to reinforce the bottom edge on the outside. Refer to Figure 711. 1. If you use shoelaces. Each of the six ties needs to be between 12 to 16 inches long. If using a half. Fold the portfolio so the colored sides are on the outside. you can tie additional knots on top of the first so the end won’t go through the hole. You have the option of decorating either one side or both with creative designs. The end with the knot needs to be on the inside. Figure 712: Wide tape covers the knotted ends Figure 710: A knot is tied on one end of a shoelace.

► AC T I O N 7 C ◄ Making a Viewfinder Frame Goal: Make a viewfinder frame. Figure 713 shows the outside of an undecorated portfolio. Close the portfolio. Set up your supplies on a flat space that is adult-approved. Figure 715: A homemade viewfinder frame. Place your drawing paper and drawings inside and tie the ties. Portfolio. Figure 714: A drawing of daisies graces one side of a portfolio case. Add a design or drawing to the sides of your portfolio. Decorating your portfolio is completely optional. 5. You may prefer to use it as is. You can probably think of oodles of other ideas to decorate your portfolio.Chapter 7: Making a List. . Figure 713: The portfolio awaits a spiffy design. The portfolio in Figure 714 has a drawing of daisies on the front. and Viewfinder Frame 63 4.

This means that the corners should form a ninety-degree angle (also known as a right angle).64 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Consider making several viewfinder frames in different sizes. Refer to Figure 716. Use two large paper clips to join the two pieces together to form a frame. Refer to Figures 717 and 718. Bigger ones are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a subject. Figure 718: A closeup view of my grandson (Brandon) is selected with the help of a viewfinder frame. 1. the more you can block distracting and unwanted objects from your view. Again. Figure 717: Two L-shaped pieces of matboard are joined with paper clips so the inside becomes either a square or rectangle. Smaller ones are great for planning compositions from photos. Use a ruler and a utility knife to cut two identical L-shaped pieces of cardboard any size you want. keep in mind that the wider your frame. 2. . When choosing a size. don’t be afraid to ask for help using a knife. Figure 716: Each L-shaped piece of matboard needs to be cut perfectly square.

Adjust your chair and table until you can easily move your hand. . shoulder. arm. Holding Your Mediums The way you hold your drawing mediums can affect the look of your drawings. Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. your lines may end up looking shaky and rigid. or on an angle ► The size of your drawing paper ArtSpeak Straight line provides the shortest connection between any two points. Figure 801: Several straight lines that are drawn in six different directions. If you move only your fingers and wrist. In this chapter. gentle movements of your whole arm. Choosing the most comfortable way to hold your medium depends on the following: ► Your choice of medium ► Whether your drawing surface is flat. vertical. and upper body as you draw.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 65 Chapter 8 Give Yourself a Helping Hand ***************************************************************** Moving your drawing hand naturally and rotating your paper as you work can improve your artistic outcomes. Creating smoothly flowing lines requires broad. you discover how these simple actions can quickly advance your current drawing skills.

Figure 803: How to hold a pencil when you are creating big. and is ideal for holding pencils or sticks of graphite and charcoal.66 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 802 illustrates how most people hold their pencil when first beginning to write and draw. Experiment with each of the three ways to hold your drawing mediums. The second way of holding a pencil (Figure 803) is great for rendering a medium to large sketch (or drawing) on a sloped or vertical surface. but with practice you do get used to them. Figure 804: An ideal way to hold various types of drawing mediums for sketching. Figure 802: Holding a pencil in the most familiar and traditional manner. . You may find a couple of these methods a little awkward at first. (Remember to move your arm rather than just your fingers and wrist. This method requires movement from your arm. bold sketches. You can hold your pencil this way when you work on a sloped or vertical surface. and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well.) This method is ideal for creating small drawings on a flat or sloped surface. The method shown in Figure 804 requires movement from your arm and shoulder.

I took the time to check out some of Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings. I used a graphite pencil to render a study of one of Leonardo’s pen-andink drawings. you can choose from three different ways to hold your pencil. and from the lower right to the upper left. As a matter of fact.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 67 Becoming a Natural As discussed in the previous section. .mostly drawn at the same angle. Leonardo’s shading lines appear to be rendered from the upper left to lower right. Leonardo the lefty You can tell a lot about artists by examining their art. Many aspiring artists simply jump into drawing without taking the time to discover their natural hand movement. and helps you find and use yours. Examine the close-up view of the shading lines in Figure 806). Figure 805: This drawing of an old man (including the marks and age spots on the paper) is copied from a drawing by Leonardo. The next logical step is to find the most natural way to move your pencil as you draw. Figure 806: I turned this drawing sideways as I worked so I could imitate Leonardo’s lines with my own natural hand movement. most people don’t even know they have one! This section explores the natural hand movement of Leonardo da Vinci. I found myself in awe of his shading lines . Recently. Figure 805 shows my drawing of an old man’s face.

This is your natural hand movement. before you know it. you can try your hand at drawing shapes by rotating your paper. Try your hand at drawing sets of slanted straight lines in your sketchbook (Figure 807). they often rotate their paper.68 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Finding your natural hand movement You natural hand movement may not be the same as either Leonardo’s or mine. and you should try to use it to your advantage whenever possible. But. In addition to using their natural hand movement. you are rotating your paper all the time without even thinking about it. Leonardo da Vinci . there will be one motion that feels the most comfortable. Right-handed artists (like me) often draw lines from the upper right to the lower left. Remembering to always rotate your paper takes lots of practice. You should rotate your drawing paper as you work to take full advantage of your natural hand movement. In Action 9E in Chapter 9. Some will feel comfortable and others will feel awkward. Pay attention to how you make these lines. However. Use many different ways of moving your pencil or changing the slant of your lines. Rotating your paper as you draw Professional artists have many secret ways to make sure their drawings turn out well. Figure 807: A sketchbook page has lines that slant in many directions. Art Quote The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings from the hand of a good master. This is the natural hand movement of many left-handed artists. Info Tidbit Many experts claim that Leonardo da Vinci was left-handed because of the way he drew straight lines (slanted from the upper left to lower right).

Part 3: Go Draw! 69 PART 3 GO DRAW! ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom .

70 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

Draw a portrait of yourself as realistically as possible. a 2B pencil. write the date on the back. You also discover how to use a few basic drawing techniques. erasers. and a mirror. TIP! Always sharpen your pencils before you begin a drawing project. When you’re finished. Supplies needed: Paper.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 71 Chapter 9 Putting Your Supplies to Work ***************************************************************** Finally! Time to draw! In this chapter. ► AC T I ON 9 A ◄ Sketching a Self-Portrait Goal: Document your current drawing skills by drawing yourself. sign your name. Set yourself up for drawing where you can clearly see your reflection in a mirror. you complete a few exercises and projects designed to teach you how to use your supplies. put your drawing away in a safe place. and give yourself a big hug! .

Don’t press too hard or too softly with your pencil. Figure 902: Advanced drawing of a tiny section of a phone that is completely rendered with squirkles. Apply a medium amount of pressure. . Value scale is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light (Refer to Figure 903). Figure 903: A value scale created with squirkles. Many of my students from the past three decades are very familiar with this word! In this project.72 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Squirkling is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values. Figure 901: Squirkling is great for drawing wool on a cartoon sheep. I chose this name based on the method of mixing squiggles with circles to create shading. as well as highly realistic works by professional artists (Figure 902). What do you get when you cross squiggles with circles? You get Squirkles! Squirkling is a simple method of shading that uses randomly drawn curved lines to create values. 4B. and 6B graphite pencils. Each grade of pencil has a different base value. ► AC T I ON 9 B ◄ Creating Values with Squirkles Goal: Find out the base value of each of your five grades of graphite pencils. 2B. HB. Allow your pencils to do most of the work. you create five different values with five grades of pencils. Supplies needed: Paper and 2H. Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners (Figure 901).

I’ll be introducing the various math skills very gently. Surprise! Math is a very important part of drawing! But don’t grumble yet . Accuracy is much more important than speed. The white spaces can be many different shapes. If a section has a lot of lines. and divide it into five squares that are each 2 by 2 inches. Your goal is to create a light value. Figure 904: I used a ruler to outline a drawing space that is 2 by 10 inches (divided into five squares). Refer to Figures 906 and 907. Figure 905: Each square is marked with a grade of pencil from the lightest (on the left) to the darkest. If you see a very large white space (the white of your paper). In the first square. don’t add any more. but they should be approximately the same size.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 73 1. TIP! Take your time! Work very slowly and closely watch your line as it curves around within this square. draw a curved line through it so it becomes two small spaces. 2. Small squirkles make much smoother values than large ones. Draw a rectangle that is 2 inches high by ten inches long. . Mark the grade of one of your pencils under each square. use a 2H pencil to scribble (squirkle) curved lines that twist and bend in many directions. Speed increases with lots of practice. 3.

Figures 908 and 909: A slightly darker value is created by an HB Pencil. Refer to Figures 907 to 915. and a 6B in the fifth. a 4B in the fourth. Use the same method to draw squirkles in each of the other four squares. a 2B in the third. Use an HB pencil in the second square.74 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figures 906 and 907: A 2H makes a very light value. Make sure that each new value you draw is slightly darker than the previous one. Try squinting your eyes a little to see the squirkles as a value. If you make a value that looks too light. Figures 910 and 911: The middle value is made with a 2B pencil. you can simply add a few extra squirkling lines to make it slightly darker. . 4.

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Figures 912 and 913: A 4B
grade of pencil makes a dark value.

Figure 914:
The darkest value is drawn with a 6B.

Figure 915: A value scale of five
different values.

You have completed a value scale from light (on the left) to dark (on the right). Prop up your drawing and stand a few feet away. Can you see five different values from light (on the left) to dark (on the right)? 5. Draw another value scale from dark (on the left) to light (on the right). Refer to Figure 916. When you’re done, pat yourself on the back ten times.

Figure 916: A value scale from dark to light.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

► AC T I O N 9 C ◄

Playing with Pencils
Goal: Draw three sets of lines with each of your five pencils.
Figure 917: Many different values of lines can
be made with only five grades of pencils.

Supplies needed: Paper and 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils. As you know from Action 9B, each grade of pencil makes a different base value. However, did you know that each grade on its own can make several values? In this project I show you how to create light, medium, and dark lines with each of your pencils. To do this, you simply vary the pressure you apply to your pencil. 1. Use a 2H pencil to draw a light, medium, and dark set of three straight lines (nine lines in total). ► Set of three light lines: Apply very little pressure to your pencil. ► Set of three medium lines: Use a medium amount of pressure. ► Set of three dark lines: Press firmly with your pencil. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement.

Art Quote

What we call creative work ought not to be called work at all, because it isn’t. I imagine that Thomas Edison never did a day’s work in his last fifty years.
Figure 918: Three different values of lines
made with a 2H grade of pencil. Stephen B. Leacock

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77

2. Use the same technique to draw three different lines with each of your other four pencils (Figure 919).

Figure 919: Fifteen sets of lines result in a wide range of different values.

Congratulations! You now have a better idea of how artists make several different values with only one pencil. Put one finger on the tip of your nose and walk seven steps in a straight line.

► AC T I O N 9 D ◄

Figure 920:
Lines and shapes created with erasers.

WARNING!
This project is very messy!
Stay away from light-colored carpets or fabrics. Cover your drawing surface with paper or plastic before you begin.

Playing with Erasers
Goal: Draw lines and shapes with an eraser instead of a pencil. Supplies needed: Heavy white drawing paper with a medium tooth, a 2B or 4B charcoal stick, 2B or 4B charcoal pencil, vinyl eraser, kneaded eraser, and paper towels.

as you will soon see. Gently does it! Don’t press hard with the charcoal. Use the side of a charcoal stick to smoothly fill in a section of your paper. Figure 922: The same shading after it was blended with a facial tissue. 1. you can also draw light values on a dark surface by using an eraser (or erasers).78 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Blending is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper. However. Figure 921: A section of shading before it is blended. In this section. Most artists are familiar with drawing dark values on a light surface. my section is 6 by 3 inches – but larger is even better! 2. Figure 923: A section of my paper is filled in with charcoal and then very gently blended. Don’t apply too much pressure. or you’ll grind the charcoal into the paper so much that it won’t erase (thereby defeating the whole purpose of this project). Use a piece of paper towel to VERY GENTLY blend the whole surface. The charcoal needs to sit on the top of the paper’s tooth – not flatten it! In real life. . you experiment with two different types of erasers as drawing tools.

and kneaded erasers molded into various shapes. However. Use your erasers however you wish to experiment with pulling light values from the darkened drawing surface.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 79 3. did you know that he could draw well? He often sketched his ideas and drew diagrams of the inventions on which he worked. dots. Use your imagination and the same process to create more drawings. and shapes are pulled out of the charcoal with the edges of vinyl erasers. For a few ideas refer to Figures 924 and 925. 4. Info Tidbit Thomas Edison is best known as an inventor (he helped invent many wonderful items such as the light bulb and motion picture camera). You can also use your charcoal pencil to draw more details after the white sections are erased (Figure 926). . Figures 924 and 925: A few lines.

► AC T I ON 9 E ◄ Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper Goal: Draw three different shapes by rotating your paper and using your natural hand movement. and put a big smile on your face! Figure 926: I used a charcoal pencil to add a few dark lines to my eraser drawing. Figure 927: Three shapes created by using my natural hand movement and rotating my paper. vinyl eraser.80 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Completed charcoal drawings should always be sprayed with a fixative so they don’t smudge too badly. Thomas Edison When you’re done. and kneaded eraser. a 2B graphite pencil. go wash the charcoal off your face. Supplies needed: Paper. Art Quote Genius is one percent inspiration. . ninety-nine percent perspiration.

3. It’s more important to get used to rotating your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. Part 1: Circular shape Your goal in this section is to draw a shape using only curved lines. the lefty one is on the left and the righty one is on the right. 2. Rotate your paper so the word “TOP” is on the side (Figure 929). one for righties and the other for lefties. Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper so you don’t get lost.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 81 You find two illustrations beside each step. 1. TIP! Don’t worry about copying my drawings exactly! Just take your time and do your best. Draw the first part of the shape (Figure 928). To help you remember which drawing is which. Figure 928L Figure 928R Figure 929L Figure 929R .

82 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 4. Figure 930L Figure 930R 5. Figure 932L Figure 932R . Draw the third part of the shape (Figure 932). Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the bottom (Figure 931). Figure 931L Figure 931R 6. Draw the second part of the shape (Figure 930).

Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the top again. compare my final lefty and righty drawings (Figure 935). When placed side by side. Figure 934L Figure 934R 9. Draw the final part of the shape (Figure 934). they are mirror images of one another. Then. Examine your drawing of a circular shape while patting yourself on the head and standing on one foot. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the other side (Figure 933).Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 83 7. Figure 933L Figure 933R 8. Figure 935L Figure 935R .

Figure 936: The lines are numbered in the order in which you draw them. and refer to Figure 937 as you draw lines 1 and 2. Before you begin. I have numbered each line (Figure 936). Info Tidbit In Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. Lefty’s need to rotate their paper for this step and righties don’t. Righties and lefties draw the exact same shape this time (rather than mirror images). Figure 937L Figure 937R . To help keep you on track. However. 1. you draw a ten-sided shape with straight lines. Again. Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper. righty illustrations are on the right and lefty ones are on the left. you still need to turn your paper in different directions as you work. Make sure you leave lots of room on your paper for the other eight lines that outline this shape.84 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Part 2: Straightsided shape In this section. I show you how to draw very straight lines freehand (without a ruler). locate lines 1 and 2 in Figure 936.

Figure 938L Figure 938R 4. By now you know how to follow along with illustrations to complete a drawing. Complete your drawing of the straight-sided shape by following along with figures 940 to 943. Rotate your paper again and draw line 4 (Figure 939). Figure 939R Figure 939L 5. . Rotate your paper and draw line 3 (Figure 938). Take your time and refer back to Figure 936 if you get lost.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 85 3.

my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21.86 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 940L Figure 940R Figure 941R Figure 941L Art Quote “When I was a boy of 14.” Mark Twain . I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.

and upside-down.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 87 Figure 942L Figure 942R Figure 943R Figure 943L Rotate your paper until your shape is right-side-up again (Figure 944). slanted. what would it be? Try looking at it sideways. . Then stand up and wiggle your whole body! Figure 944: If this shape was part of a familiar object.

Part 3: Circle Most artists consider circles to be the most difficult shape to draw.88 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! A square can help you draw a better circle! 1. Figure 945: When you want a really good-looking circle. Your circle should only touch the sides of the square at each of these four marks. 2. you try your hand at drawing a circle. try drawing it inside a square. Follow along with Figures 946 to 950 to draw a circle. You may be quite surprised by how well you do with help from your new skills using your natural hand movement and rotating your paper. 1. Figure 946L Figure 946R . In this section. You may prefer to draw a circle without drawing the square first. simply ignore the square outlines in the illustrations. Measure and then mark a small dot (or line) at the halfway point of each of the four sides. If so. Use a ruler to measure and draw a square on your paper (Figure 945).

Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 89 Figure 947L Figure 947R Figure 948L Figure 948R Figure 949L Figure 949R .

and a circle. You can turn each shape around in any direction. Then. A few lines and squirkles (and an imagination) gave my shapes a little personality (Figure 952). Remember to use your natural hand movement and rotate your paper as you draw. and hats). ears. now you have three very boring shapes (Figure 951). I spent many hours drawing random shapes and giving them faces (as well as noses. use your imagination to turn each into something or somebody. hair. Challenge: Draw three more shapes: one with curved lines. Stand up and turn around in a circle three times.90 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Have fun transforming your shapes into something more interesting. . Just for fun! So. How can you make them more interesting? Easy! Turn them into something or somebody. another with straight lines. Erase your square outline (if you drew it). Figure 950 Figure 951 Figure 952: As a child.

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ArtSpeak
Drawing from life refers to the process of drawing from an actual person, animal, or scene, rather than from a photograph or computer image. Landscape format (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 953). Portrait format (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 954).
Figure 953: A fun drawing of a
cartoon snake fits nicely into a landscape format.

Figure 954: A portrait format works well for this drawing of a giraffe.

► AC T I ON 9 F ◄

Framing with a Viewfinder
Goal: Use a viewfinder frame to choose a composition from a photograph, then set up a drawing space, and draw what you see inside the borders of the frame. Supplies needed: Photograph, viewfinder frame, ruler, drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and pencil sharpener.
Figure 956: Fishing shacks viewed
through a viewfinder frame.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Info Tidbit
Unfortunately, I was unable to put any actual scenes into this book (grin). Hence, this project (and many others) are based on photographs. However, keep in mind that the basic process for using a viewfinder frame with a photo is almost identical to viewing drawing subjects from life.

Three steps for framing a view
To give you an idea of how a viewfinder frame works, I have broken down the process into three basic steps (refer to Figure 957): 1. I choose a photo that I really like. It’s a landscape format, and I want to draw the fishing shacks in a portrait format. 2. I adjust the two parts of the viewfinder frame until I find a portrait format that I like. 3. I draw what I see inside the frame. (I decided not to draw the boat on the right.)

Figure 957: Working with a viewfinder frame includes:
(1) choosing a photo, (2) deciding on a composition, and (3) drawing what you see inside the frame’s opening.

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Create a sketch by framing your view
1. Choose a photograph. If you want to draw from a valuable or cherished photo, scan and print a copy rather than work from the original. Better still - take a photo of something simple that you want to draw and then print it. 2. Place your viewfinder frame on top of the photo and choose the section you want to draw. Continuously adjust both sections of the viewfinder frame until the part you want to draw is completely in view. Remember, you can choose either a square, vertical, or horizontal drawing format. Use a pen or pencil to mark small dots on the photo inside the four corners of the frame. Check out the small dots marked in blue in Figure 959. Remove the viewfinder frame, and use a ruler to connect the dots to outline a square or rectangle (Figure 960).

TIP!
Choose a photo that you really like! Make sure your subject is something that looks like it might be fun to draw. You may become bored with a subject that doesn’t appeal to you. Make sure the photo isn’t fuzzy, out of focus, or in really bright light or dark shadows. You can’t draw something you can’t see.

Figure 958: Photo
I took of a fun duckshaped candle that I wanted to draw.

Figure 959: The
section of the photo that I want to draw is framed inside a viewfinder frame.

First of all. Figure 961: I decided to do a simple line drawing of the duck-shaped candle. 3. A fun part of being an artist is that you can decide to change what you see in a photo before you draw. For example. you can make a larger drawing by using a drawing format that is 4 by 6 inches (twice the size). Then. the background clutter. or the cast shadow in my drawing. When you are done. quack like a duck as you flap your arms like wings! . Examine the cast shadow (cast by the duck candle) on the surface of the table in the lower right of Figure 960. Figure 960: The section of the photo that I want to draw is outlined. Draw your subject with any medium and in any way you want. or 6 by 9 inches (three times the size of the original). outline a drawing space on your paper that is the same shape and proportions as the outlined section of your photo. I decided to not include the edge of the table. decide if you want to leave out something that you see in your photo.94 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Cast shadow is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. if the outline on your photo is 2 by 3 inches. For example.

1. The first challenges you to draw several shapes with curved lines.5 inches long. In this project. two arms and two legs. and finally draw hands and feet. then add a head. . and a 2B pencil.from sketching lines to adding shading. Be patient with yourself. you use curved lines to draw a body. Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately 3 inches wide by 5. the second encourages you to put your squirkling skills into action to draw the pupil of an eye. erasers. ruler. and the third takes you through the entire process of drawing . Figure 1001: A simple drawing of a caveperson. Supplies needed: Paper. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. ► AC T I ON 1 0 A ◄ Drawing a Caveperson Goal: Draw a human figure that looks like a prehistoric cave drawing. drawing lines and shapes freehand requires lots of practice before you can do it well.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 95 Chapter 10 Three Simple Drawings ***************************************************************** This chapter presents three fun projects that put your new drawing skills into action.

arms.96 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Figure 1002 Figure 1003 4. For example. Draw the upper part of the arms (Figure 1004). the whole torso fits into the top half of the drawing space. arms.the torso. 5. Add a head and neck (Figure 1003). Also. head. 3. the torso is a little closer to the left side of the rectangle than the right. and hands all fit nicely into the upper half of your drawing space. . Draw a partial oval-shape (Figure 1002) as the main section of the body (called a torso). Plan where to draw the torso on your paper so you leave room for a head. Draw the lower sections of the arms and the hands (Figure 1005). The upper part of the body is finished . if you look closely. and legs.

. Their paint was often made from plants or animal blood. Begin with the determination to succeed. and the work is half done already.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 97 Figure 1004 Figure 1005 Art Quote Info Tidbit “The way to learn to do things is to do things. The way to learn a trade is to work at it. they used bones or sticks dipped into paint to draw their stories on the walls of caves. Success teaches how to succeed.” Henry Ford Long before people learned to write.

Figure 1006 Figure 1007 Challenge: Use your imagination to create other prehistoric drawings. . Add the upper legs and knees (Figure 1006). or people dancing around a fire. For instance. hunters with bows. you can draw animals. Draw the lower parts of the legs and the feet (Figure 1007). Refer to Figure 1008 for ideas. Figure 1008: Five prehistoric cave drawings. 3.98 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2.

► AC T I ON 1 0 B ◄ A Realistic Eye Goal: Lightly sketch the shapes of an iris. Eyeball (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is protected inside an opening in the skull (Figure 1010). and iris. HB. Upper eyelid (4) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. a highlight. Figure 1011: Simple drawing of a pupil. In this project. you focus on the highlight. and highlight (3). 2B. and a pencil sharpener. Remember to press very lightly. kneaded and vinyl erasers. an iris. and 6B pencils. 1. and the edge of the upper eyelid. Refer to Figure 1012. sandpaper block. and white of the eye (5). upper eyelid (4). Supplies needed: Paper. as well as the edge of the upper eyelid. Figure 1010: A drawing of an eyeball with an iris (1). highlight (3). pupil (2). . Highlight (3) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circular shape as the iris of an eye.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 99 ArtSpeak Iris (1) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil (2) (defined on page 21). and highlight and add shading with squirkles. pupil. pupil. pupil (2). Figure 1009: The parts of an eye include the: iris (1).

This line represents the lower edge of the upper eyelid. Use your kneaded eraser to gently erase the section of the iris above the edge of the upper eyelid (Figure 1016). This curved line begins and ends at the highlight. Figure 1012 Figure 1013 Figure 1014 4. Sketch a small circular shape in the upper left section of the iris (Figure 1013). The upper sections of irises are usually hidden under the upper eyelid (represented by a simple curved line). Figure 1015 Figure 1016 . Use a curved line (almost a circle) to draw the pupil of the eye (Figure 1014). 5. Its location indicates that a light is shining on the eye from the upper left.100 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Add a slightly curved line cutting through the upper section of the iris (Figure 1015). This is the highlight. 3.

7. Press very gently on your pencil to keep the lines light. Add a few tiny squirkles to the iris with an HB pencil (Figure 1018). Press firmly with an HB pencil to add slightly darker shading around the edges of the iris (especially next to the edge of the eyelid). Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being (1). Therefore.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 101 ArtSpeak Shadow refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. make sure your squirkle lines curve in all different directions. and lots of white paper is showing through. The more uneven you draw the squirkles. some lines need to have large curves and others should be smaller. 6. The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid. or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow) (2). Figure 1018: The overall value of the iris is light. as well as a cast shadow (2) on the surface on which the egg sits. Press gently with a 2B pencil to make the shading closest to the edge of the upper eyelid even darker. Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to shade in the dark values of the iris (Figure 1019). the better the shading of the eye will look. . Also. Figure 1017: A light source from the upper left creates a shadow (1) on the lower right surface of an egg.

Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. Use a 6B pencil and squirkles to fill in the pupil (Figure 1020). 10. The darkest shading of all is in the pupil. Cover each of your eyes gently with the palm of a hand (the section close to your wrist). At this point. Rub your hands together quickly until the palms of your hands feel warm. Naturally. Figure 1019: The shading is darker in the upper section of the iris and around its edges. Figure 1020: The darkest shading in the iris is directly below the edge of the upper eyelid. Use your 2B pencil again. Now. the highlight is left white. and this time press firmly (but not too hard) to make the outer edges of the iris and the shadow under the upper eyelid darker. you should see very few white spaces still showing in these sections. . 9. Add the darkest shading of the iris (Figure 1020).102 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. 3. 4. 5. 2. Make sure your pencil is freshly sharpened. Some of the light shading is still showing around the lower section of the pupil. sit comfortably in your chair and relax your eyes as follows: 1. Place your fingers lightly on your forehead. Relax your body and stay in this position for two minutes. Close your eyes lightly.

such as vases and frontal views of faces. Figure 1021: The wings in this drawing are symmetrical. Many drawing subjects. Figure 1024: Mugley’s nose. and ears are symmetrical. Figure 1022: A line of symmetry (shown in blue) identifies the center point of wings that touch. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Mugly Wigglebottom Goal: Use a line of symmetry to outline a cartoon and then add shading with squirkles. and a pencil sharpener. 2B.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 103 ArtSpeak Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines. sandpaper block. Supplies needed: Paper. Line of symmetry is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). and 6B pencils. shapes. In other words. simple illustrated instructions guide you through the process of drawing an adorable puppy. . dividing it in half. face. Figure 1023: The center of a drawing of wings that do not touch is marked with a line of symmetry. 4B. each is a mirror image of the other. 2H. HB. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (which is often imaginary). both sides need to be symmetrical. In this project. kneaded and vinyl erasers.

Each time you work on a new section. Mine is 4 by 4 inches. 2. This prevents you from smudging your drawing. but feel free to make your drawing space larger.104 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Protect your drawing as you work! Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Measure carefully! My line of symmetry is two inches from each side of my drawing space. ears. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay crisp and thin. remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. your goal is to use a line of symmetry to draw Mugly’s head. and facial features proportionately correct. Use your ruler and an HB pencil to outline a square drawing space. A line of symmetry helps you draw both sides of Mugly symmetrical. Outlining Mugly with neat lines In this section. Figure 1025 . 1. Draw a very faint line of symmetry down the center of your page. Refer to Figure 1025.

Figure 1026 Figure 1027 . Leave lots of space above and on the sides for the top of his head and ears. Draw a smaller oval (his nose) inside the large one (Figure 1027). You can use a ruler to measure distances if you want.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 105 3. 4. His mouth is slightly to the right of the line of symmetry (just to give him a little extra personality). His nose and mouth need to fit inside this oval. Use an HB pencil to sketch a wide oval as the lower section of Mugly’s head (also called a muzzle) (Figure 1026). Both sides of his muzzle are approximately the same size and shape. Add a tiny circle below his nose as his mouth. 5.

Seeing his head in reverse gives you a brand new perspective on its symmetry. Add two curved lines as the sides of the upper part of his head (Figure 1028). His very long ears will extend above this line and below the lower edge of his chin. Pay close attention to where each line begins and ends. Draw another curved line as the top of his head (Figure 1029). Take note that these lines are also symmetrical. Examine the reflection of your drawing in a mirror to help locate problem areas.106 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 6. 7. Erase and redraw any sections with which you are not happy. Figure 1028 Figure 1029 .

Compare your drawing to Figure 1033 and make any changes you feel are needed. Figure 1032 You may prefer to turn your drawing paper upside-down to draw his eyes. . His eyes are upside-down U-shapes with circles inside. Draw his eyes (Figures 1032 and 1033). Continue referring to your line of symmetry to keep his ears symmetrical. Draw his long floppy ears (Figures 1030 and 1031).Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 107 8. Figure 1030 Figure 1031 9.

your goal is to add shading and texture to Mugly with squirkles. You may have room in an upper or lower corner of the same sheet you are using for drawing Mugly. draw the value scale on a separate sheet of paper. 10. Refer to Action 9B on page 72.108 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 1033 Use your vinyl or kneaded eraser to carefully erase your line of symmetry. Draw a value scale to use as a shading guide (Figure 1034). Redraw any sections that were accidently erased. Squirkling shading for Mugly In this section. Number each value from 1 to 5 and mark the grades of the pencils used. If not. Figure 1034 .

Assume a direct light source is shining from the upper left. Use your imagination to think of Mugly as threedimensional to help you decide which areas are in shadow. Do not rush your shading. Figure 1035 Figure 1036 . Use a 1-2H value (Figure 1034) to add the shading you see in Figures 1035 to 1038. Draw the squirkles very carefully and slowly. the overall shading on the left needs to be slightly lighter than on the right. Therefore.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 109 11.

Very light squirkles are all around the edges of the nose except for a section in the upper right that is left white. As you soon discover. your speed will increase all by itself. take note of the locations of the squirkles. this shadow area on the nose becomes even darker when you switch to a darker pencil.110 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started When your shading skills become strong. Figure 1037 Figure 1038 . Before you add shading to the nose. A few extra squirkles are added to the nose over a small section of the first layer to create a crescent shape in the lower left.

Figure 1039 Figure 1040 . Don’t miss the dark shadows cast from his ears onto his upper head.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 111 11. Only add medium values over those light values that are closest to the edges of the various shapes. In Figure 1040. Use a 2-HB value to add medium values (Figures 1039 to 1042). Begin with the ear on the left. Leave the inner sections of shading light. the highlights of the eyes are outlined so you remember to leave them white.

Figure 1041 The crescent shape of the nose becomes darker when you add middle values (Figure 1042). and the tiny round opening that is his mouth (Figure 1041).112 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Medium values are added along the edges of the lower section of his muzzle. Figure 1042 .

you can shade Mugly’s eyes the same as in Project 10B: A Realistic Eye. Figure 1043 Figure 1044 . refer to the close-up view in Figure 1044. Add shading to his eyes and the darkest shadow sections of his fur. Also.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 113 11. If you want. Feel free to outline the pupil before you begin shading the eyes. Use 3-2B and 4-4B values to add shading to his eyes. Refer to Figures 1043 to 1046. Use value 3-2B for the dark shading on the outer edges of his left ear and upper head.

Put all your drawings away in a safe place. Figure 1045 Collect all the drawings you completed as you worked through this book. Use a 5-6B value to make the mouth and the pupils of his eyes a little darker. gather your drawing supplies and create more drawings of subjects you enjoy! Figure 1046 . Don’t miss the shadow on his lower face cast by his nose (Figure 1046). Sign your name and write the date completed on the back of each. Then. 12.114 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Additional dark values are added to tiny sections of his fur and nose in the darkest shadow sections.

and less frustrating! Glossary Acid-free (Page 37) refers to a highquality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process. Cast shadow (Page 94) is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. As with graphite. Classical drawing (Page 3) refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). Clay (Page 17) is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. Composition (Page 45) refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. clay is mixed with graphite to make graphite drawing mediums. Knowing the meanings of these words allows you to better understand the text. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. ArtSpeak (Page 1) is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. Blending (Page 78) is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper. For example. Clips (Page 49) (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board. your drawing experiences become more enjoyable. ArtSpeak sidebars help you understand the meanings of drawing words and terms that appear in the exercises and projects in this book. Archaeologist (Page 10) is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. charcoal comes in various grades. Hence. (As an aside. Charcoal (Page 25) is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood).Glossary 115 ***************************************************************** This glossary provides definitions of most of the art-related words and terms used throughout this book. . Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. many archeologists have excellent drawing skills.) Charcoal sticks (Page 25) are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. Charcoal pencils (Page 25) have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing.

Figure (Page 11) refers to the body of a human being. rectangle. Drawing board (Page 49) is a portable. Fresco (Page 12) is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. The hard cover protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. drawing powder can be made by using coarse sandpaper to wear away sections of graphite and charcoal sticks. such as a square. . Drafting desk (Page 49) (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top. It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. Hardcover (Page 37) refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material. Graphite (Page 17) is a soft black form of opaque (non-transparent) carbon found in nature. smooth surface used to support an artist’s sketchbook or drawing paper. the first figure in this book (Figure 01) is a drawing of a hand sketching a cartoon. Curved lines can be drawn in any direction and be any length. Figure (Page 1) is a diagram or picture that illustrates text. Drawing from life (Page 91) refers to the process of drawing from an actual person. or circle. frescoes that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. Drawing powder (Page 31) refers to tiny loose particles of a drawing medium that have been broken down from a solid into a powder. or scene. Drawing (noun) (Page 1) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium. lightweight. For example. For example. animal. Eyeball (Page 99) (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is safely protected within an opening in the skull. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Drawing space (Page 45) (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. Highlight (Page 99) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye.116 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Curved line is created when a straight line curves or bends. Grade (Page 17) refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums. or a shape you outline on your paper. For example. Drawing stick (Page 26) is a drawing tool that is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a round or rectangular chunk. rather than a photograph or computer image. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. Drawing (verb) (Page 1) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image.

Icon (Page 2) is a visual image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side. For example. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. Master (Page 13) refers to someone who is an expert in a specific profession or area of study. cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. Medium (Page 1) refers to a drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface. Metalpoint (Page 18) is a thin stick used for drawing and made from a type of metal. but can become too dirty to work properly. For example. from the tiny tube inside the holder. Mummy portrait (Page 12) is an ancient painting of a man. Leadpoint (Page 18) (also called a stylus) is a thin metal stick made of lead and used for drawing. Line of symmetry (Page 103) is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). Hot pressed (Page 37) refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. Mechanical pencil (Page 26) is a drawing tool that has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead. Others have mostly illustrations and a small amount of text to describe each illustration. woman. Leonardo da Vinci was a master of painting and drawing. Most manikins have bendable joints so they can be manipulated into various poses. Kneaded erasers are designed to absorb and pick up particles of graphite and charcoal without leaving behind eraser crumbs. dividing it in half. Landscape format (Page 91) (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom. Iris (Page 99) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil.Glossary 117 History (Page 10) is a written record of the past. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. Media (Page 43) (also called mediums) refers to more than one drawing medium. Kneaded eraser (Page 42) is an artist’s tool made of a grey or white pliable material that can be shaped by hand for accurate erasing. They do not wear away like other types of erasers. in this book ArtSpeak sidebars are identified with a circular. Some books (such as a picture book) have only illustrations and no text. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. For example. historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. Illustration (Page 2) is an image (such as a drawing or photograph) that is used to enhance the reader’s understanding of text and (or) make text more interesting. . Manikin (Page 41) is a model of a figure or animal (often made of wood) that is used for learning how to draw. or child that was attached to the face of a burial mummy. through the tip.

a mechanical pencil holds replaceable thin cylindrical sticks of medium that are manually loaded into a tiny tube inside a holder. A self portrait is usually rendered by memory or by drawing his or her reflection in a mirror.118 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mural (Page 12) is a drawing or painting on a wall. Shading (verb) (Page 2) is the process of adding values to a drawing. and one of his most famous sculptures is the statue of David. or other large surface. Shading (noun) (Page 2) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. For example. Sandpaper block (Page 26) is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. a very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. Pencil (Page 1) refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have a medium inside a holder. a regular pencil (also called a woodencased pencil) has a medium encased inside a wooden cylinder. Sculpture (Page 12) is a threedimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. Sculptor (Page 12) is an artist who creates sculptures. For example. Many prehistoric humans drew pictures on the walls of caves instead. ceiling. dark circular-shaped part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. Render (Page 3) describes the process of making something happen. Prehistoric (Page 10) describes the period in time before written language was used to record history. Right angle (Page 64) is created when a horizontal straight line meets a vertical straight line at a ninety-degree angle. Self-portrait (Page 71) is a drawing or painting an artist creates using his or her own face and (or) body as a model. Renaissance (Page 3) (from the French word for rebirth) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. For example. Score (Page 59) is the process of cutting very slightly into a thin object (such as cardboard or heavy paper) so as to fold it evenly. Pupil of an eye (Page 21) is the tiny. Regular pencil (Page 1) (also called a wood-encased pencil) has a drawing medium encased inside a cylindrical wooden casing. For example. the process of drawing a turtle can also be referred to as rendering a drawing of a turtle. or marble. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. rock. Realism (Page 3) is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. On the other hand. . Portfolio (Page 10) is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage. Portrait format (Page 91) (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom.

Many drawing subjects. Shape (Page 3) refers to the outward outline of a three-dimensional object. Style (Page 11) refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. animals. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (the center line is often imaginary). go look in a mirror! With commitment. Squirkling (Page 72) is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values. For example. or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow). Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners as well as highly realistic works by professional artists. In this book. To find out what a talented person looks like. and scenery. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. and dedication. you can turn your talent into a skill. Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being. patience. In other words. Sidebar (Page 1) is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. Softcover (Page 37) describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper. shapes. styluses were also made from silver. During the Renaissance. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle. Symmetry (Page 103) is a balanced arrangement of lines. . Stylus (Page 18) (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. gold. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines and (or) shading. Subject (Page 11) refers to whatever an artist chooses to draw. however. flowers. or copper. realism is a well-known style. Sketch (noun) (Page 2) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. Talent (Page 10) refers to the process of self-discovery during which you realize that you have the interest and motivation needed to become exceptional in a specific area. Sketch (verb) (Page 2) refers to the process of doing a sketch. Each side provides a mirror image of the other. popular drawing subjects include people.Glossary 119 Shadow (Page 101) refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. a sidebar called ArtSpeak provides you with definitions of art words and terms. For example. Straight line (Page 65) provides the shortest connection between any two points. such as vases and frontal views of faces. objects. Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. Spray fixative (Page 41) is a transparent coating sprayed onto an artwork to help the medium adhere to the paper. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. both sides are symmetrical. so the drawing doesn’t smudge.

Wood-encased pencil (Page 26) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. It’s an invaluable tool for planning a composition. or any other drawing subject. Text (Page 2) refers to the words used in writing. figures. Woodless pencil (Page 26) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. paintings. and what works best to capture the subject. landscapes. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. Viewfinder frame (Page 45) is an adjustable. Vinyl eraser (Page 41) is soft. Upper eyelid (Page 99) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. Value scale (Page 72) is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light. and can be used for portraits. For example. an artist’s selection of a shading technique is generally based on his or her skill level. Underdrawing (Page 16) is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). For example. The type of texture can be identified with vision. Values (Page 2) are the different shades of gray made when adding shading to a drawing. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art. more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing. medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture.120 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Technique (Page 11) is a well known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task. . Tooth (Page 33) refers to the surface texture of paper. see-through rectangular or square frame that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints. Texture (Page 34) refers to the surface detail of an object. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight. Hence. a sense of touch. Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky. Visual art (Page 12) refers to artworks (such as drawings. nonabrasive artist’s tool that erases graphite and charcoal more cleanly than a regular pink eraser (which has been known to make holes in paper and ruin drawings). Vision (Page 1) is the ability to see. and a general knowledge of the object.

sizes. portfolio. viewfinder frame. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures. mechanical. display boards. and spray fixative ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Supplies to add to your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your medium as you draw ► Discover your natural hand movement ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom . and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case.In this book: ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. and ruler ► Manikins.

” Robert A. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People.com. visual artist. the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.S.com ..A. Published by http://www. after years of study.Ed.Ed. author of Drawing for Dummies. reflective practice. Teaching and Learning Centre. University of Calgary Instructor. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education. And now. B.drawspace. “My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach)...) Drawing Book 1: Getting Started is the first in a series of instructional books for homeschooling families and selfdirected learners. Brenda Hoddinott Art educator. M.. University of Calgary My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. and inclusive education. Hence. MC. and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started..$20. forensic artist (retired). and owner of Drawspace. Doctoral Student. BAEd. Roughley B.00 (U. illustrator. in creating a passion for the subject matter.

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