Ideal for homeschooling and self-directed learning!

DRAWING
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

BOOK 1: GETTING STARTED
Brenda Hoddinott

120 pages and more than 230 illustrations!
► Choose the right drawing supplies ► Set up a place to draw ► Make a portfolio and viewfinder frame ► 10 fun exercises and projects Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 6.84 Flesch reading ease score: 74.7

Brenda Hoddinott
Artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com, and author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started.

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Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. With the help of learn-to-draw books, she developed good drawing skills by the age of 16. In 1982 Brenda left her well established career as a portraitist, graphic designer, and forensic artist, to move to Nova Scotia with her family. In addition to resuming the various facets of her art career, she began learning to paint in oils. From 1988 to 1994, Brenda began exhibiting her paintings and drawings in provincial and regional art exhibitions and competitions. She was honored with more than twenty prestigious visual art awards during these six years. Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia with their two SPCA rescue dogs, Timber (Huskador) and Katie (Rottbeagle). Their blended family includes five adult children and two grandchildren.

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I

DRAWING
BOOK 1
GETTING STARTED
by Brenda Hoddinott
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada

No part of this electronic book shall be reproduced by any method or means.com or through her website at http://www. curriculum. loss. directly or indirectly. or otherwise. personal or otherwise.com. Halifax. damages. and cover design: Brenda Hoddinott Editor: Suzanne Beaton Brenda Hoddinott can be contacted at brenda@drawspace.drawspace. John Percy.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability. which is incurred as a consequence. and it is intended to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter.II This book is dedicated to my loving partner.com. NS. Brenda Hoddinott. specifically the basics of drawing. . without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. Canada Illustrations. or transmitted by any method or means. or risk. This electronic publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author. resulting from the use or misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book. Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace. Copyright © 2009 Brenda Hoddinott All rights reserved. Publisher: Drawspace. electronic. photocopying. recording. book layout. electronically sent or transferred to additional individuals or companies other than the original purchaser of this electronic book. mechanical.

........................................................................................................13 The Inside Scoop on Drawing .................................................................4 Shaping up with exercises .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 In the time of the caveman ....................6 Part 1: Get Ready! .......................9 A Brief History of Drawing .............4 Eyeing action icons ...........................................................................................................................................6 Part 2: Get Set! .................................4 Action sidebar numbers and letters .........................4 Art Quote ........................................3 Info Tidbit ...........................................................................3 Warning! .........................................................................................................11 The birth of classical art ...................................................................................................................14 Drawing is an action word ...............................................................................................................................................................................................4 Step-by-step projects ....7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing ......6 Part 1: Get Ready! ...............................................................5 Insights into the Parts ........................................................................................................III CONTENTS ***************************************************************** Introduction ..................................................................................................................6 How to Use this Book ...................................................................................................................................3 ArtSpeak .................................15 YOU can draw! .........3 Sizing up the sidebars ..........................................................................................6 Part 3: Go Draw! ..................4 A few words on illustrations ...............................12 Remembering the Renaissance ...................................................................................................15 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Look into this Book ............................................................................................................................4 Tip! ........................................................

........................................................29 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders .........................................................................................................................33 Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) ..............42 Sharpening your Mediums ................26 Wood-encased pencils ......................24 Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums ......41 Kneaded erasers .............................................................................................29 Woodless graphite pencils .....................................................................................................43 Pencil sharpeners .................27 Charcoal pencils ............................................................................41 Vinyl erasers ..................................................17 How the “lead” pencil got its name ..................................................................................................................................................................................29 Mechanical pencils .......................................................................39 Larger is not always better ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers ................23 Finding out your grade ....... hardcover...........................................................21 Soft is dark .........39 Weighing in on paper ...........................22 Combining soft and hard grades .............................37 Sketchbooks and Papers ..............................................................................................................................................35 Big smile for a medium tooth ............................................................................................ or sheets? ..................36 Textures on a rough tooth ...................................40 Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics .................................41 Tools for Erasing ..........................................................19 Making the Grade .........................................IV Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ............................................................................17 Traveling Back in Time with Graphite ..................................................34 The surface of a smooth tooth .............................................18 The link between graphite and sheep .....................................28 Graphite pencils .....................................................................................................................................................38 Softcover........................................43 ............................................................................27 Other fun pencil mediums .........................................................................................................................................................................19 Hard is light .25 Picking out Proper Pencils ...........................................................................

...................................................................57 Supplies for a portable studio .....56 Supplies for making a portfolio .............................Contents V Sandpaper blocks and sheets ...............................................................................................................................................45 Display boards .............................52 Sitting correctly ..........................................................................................43 A Few Extras ....................................................................................................55 Nice to have ....................................................................................................58 Option 2: Using two pieces of board .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................45 Nice to have.........................46 Manikins ............................................. Portfolio.................52 Putting Together a Portable Studio ................................................46 Spray fixative .........................50 Shedding light on your art .....................................46 Part 2: Get Set! .............................................................................................49 Choosing a drawing surface ...............................................44 Portfolio ...................................................................................................57 Action 7B: Making a Portfolio ....................................................................................................................................63 ...................................................................49 A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw ............................50 Good Posture First! ...................................................................................................................57 Deciding on a size ................................................................62 Action 7C: Making a Viewfinder Frame .....51 How NOT to sit! ........................................................44 Ruler ..............................................61 Adding ties and final touches ..........................44 Pencil case ............................................................................................................ but not necessary ..............................................55 Must have ....................................................................................................55 Action 7A: The Shopping List ...........................53 Chapter 7: Making a List...................44 Viewfinder frame ..................44 Stuff you can’t do without ..............58 Option 1: Using one large sheet of board ............................................57 Supplies for making a viewfinder frame ......................................................................... and Viewfinder Frame .................................................................................................................................................................................................47 Chapter 6: Setting up For Drawing .......................................................................

...............................................VI Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand ...95 Action 10B: A Realistic Eye .................................................................92 Create a sketch by framing your view .........103 Outlining Mugly with neat lines ...............67 Leonardo the lefty .....................68 Part 3: Go Draw! ...........................77 Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ...............................................................................................................................................................65 Holding your Mediums ...................................................................................................................................65 Becoming a Natural ..........................................................80 Part 1: Circular shape ..108 Glossary ............................................................................................................................................72 Action 9C: Playing with Pencils .....................................................................99 Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom ................................................................................................76 Action 9D: Playing with Erasers .........................................115 ...................................71 Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ..................................................................................................................................71 Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ..........................................69 Chapter 9: Putting your Supplies to Work ..............................84 Part 3: Circle .67 Finding your natural hand movement ..........................................................95 Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ..........................................................104 Squirkling shading for Mugly ...................................91 Three steps for framing a view .................................68 Rotating your paper as you draw ........................90 Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ............................................................................81 Part 2: Straight-sided shape ......93 Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Just for fun! ...............

Foreword by Robert A. Drawing Book 1: Getting Started – the first in a series for homeschooling families and self-directed learners. For many. Brenda’s lesson plans and instructions accommodate a wide range of learning styles. It was during a difficult life transition that she provided me with the gift of encouragement to explore my creative self-awareness. I believe that Brenda Hoddinott has not only responded to. Brenda played a pivotal role in helping me reconnect with my artist within. As an educator with graduate training and expertise in curriculum and instructional design. as she leads students on a journey of self-discovery through self-directed learning. Foreword . teacher. Roughley VII ***************************************************************** I have known Brenda Hoddinott for many years. Most notably. her genuine and compassionate nature extends to her teaching of art and drawing. abilities. Until that point. When Brenda first approached me to write the forward for this. For the past fifteen years. Not only because she asked me. I was filled with joy. My perception of art and creativity was limited by my perfectionist ideals of what defined “artistic ability”. my own journey has taken me into the field of education. and advocate. but because I had been eagerly awaiting the completion of this learning resource. mentor. The integration of my training has allowed me to participate in many roles: learner. As a learner. with patience (and a sense of humor). her third book. and skill levels. including those who learn outside the boundaries of traditional and prescribed learning environments. Blending expertise with encouragement. Many of the existing resources on the market are written and published without careful attention to the learning needs of the intended audience. access to quality learning and teaching materials is limited. However. I pursued undergraduate degrees in music and elementary and adult education. I didn’t believe that I was creative or artistic. but has exceeded the expectations of her audience with this invaluable arts-based curriculum.

As I transitioned from learner to teacher. I became a consultant for change in curriculum development and inclusive education. we possess the intentions of creativity. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education.Ed. and relearned the importance of creativity and artistic expression in marking our developmental milestones and other life transitions. It is my hope that you find this experience just as enlightening as you explore. and detailed visual illustrations. B. As human beings. MC. Someone once said. In my various personal and professional roles. Roughley B. Through her gentle and supportive directions. I encourage readers. Teaching and Learning Centre... Robert A. Brenda joins her learners as they discover their creative talents. negative implications resulting from the demise or discontinuation of arts-based education in traditional and homeschooling settings. As a counseling practitioner. I have learned.. And now. reflective practice. As an educator and co-learner with students of all ages. University of Calgary Instructor. learners. unique humor. University of Calgary . abilities. and practitioners to build upon this quotation and consider that what one sees in their own self-reflection is the core of one’s creative identity.A.VIII Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started My graduate work focused on educational and curriculum studies. and counseling psychology. with a focus in special education. I worked with children from kindergarten to grade six.Ed... after years of study. and inclusive education. M. BAEd. Later in my career. I have noticed the effect of inclusive and purposeful curriculum in the emergence of the creative self. discover. unlearned. self-identities. I have witnessed the long-term. but are far too often limited by the influence of those who fear the unlimited possibilities that come from creative thinking. Doctoral Student. (or even rediscover!) your own artist within. Each chapter of this book represents a stage in the development and awareness of one’s artistic self. My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach). “What we learn from others becomes our own through reflection”. and worldviews.

Sidebar is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. I also discuss how to set up a practical place to draw indoors. Figure 03: A regular pencil with a medium inside a wooden holder is a very popular drawing tool. Several simple exercises and projects help you warm up your drawing hand. Pencil refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have the medium inside a holder (Figure 03). . Drawing (verb) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image (Figure 01). Figure 01: A hand is drawing a cartoon. and shows you how to use them. Introduction ArtSpeak ArtSpeak is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. you find out what to pack in a portable studio so you can comfortably draw outdoors. Drawing (noun) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium (Figure 02). you find out about each part of this book and all the different types of sidebars. I explain the very best way to work through this book. You are also introduced to several art related words and terms. Finally. So. Figure 02: A cartoon drawing is created with a pencil. In this introduction. This book tells you about drawing supplies. This sidebar is called ArtSpeak. Medium refers to any drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface.Introduction 1 ***************************************************************** YOU can learn to draw! All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing medium. and it provides you with definitions of art words and terms. Vision is the ability to see. In addition. sit back and relax as I tell you about this book and how to use it.

TIP! Save all your sketches and drawings! Someday. Figure 08: Little girl with a doll. Figure 06: Five values from light to dark. Luckily. Text refers to the words used in writing. I created the drawings in Figures 07 and 08 when I was around 14. Figure 07: A family living in a log house in the forest.2 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Illustration is an image (such as a drawing) that is used to help explain text. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines (Figure 04) and (or) shading (Figure 05). Figure 04: Simple sketch of a seated man. Sketch (noun) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. . ArtSpeak sidebars are identified by a cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. Values are the different shades of gray you make when adding shading to a drawing. Figure 05: Shading is added to the same sketch. you may want to look back on your early works to see how much you’ve improved. my parents had saved them for me. Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. Sketch (verb) refers to the process of doing a sketch. Icon is an image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. Shading (verb) is the process of adding values to a drawing.

Renaissance (from the French word for “rebirth”) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. Look into this Book In this section. Figure 12: ArtSpeak icon is a cartoon of Albert Einstein’s face. projects. Classical drawing refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). Sizing up the sidebars Scattered throughout this book. I tell you about. Figure 13: Info Figure 11: A lifelike drawing of an eye is an example of realism. Realism is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. you find five different sidebars (identified with circle-shaped icons) that are filled with useful information. Tidbit icon is a simple flower rendered with classical drawing techniques. Figure 09: Shading transforms the shape of a simple circle into the planet Earth. so you can better understand what you read. Figure 10: I used classical drawing methods to copy a work created by Leonardo da Vinci during the Renaissance. and illustrations in this book. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. such as the history of art. ArtSpeak ArtSpeak sidebars (Figure 12) define the drawing words and terms in this book.Introduction 3 ArtSpeak Shape refers to the outward outline of a threedimensional object. . Info Tidbit Info Tidbit sidebars (Figure 13) provide tidbits of information about art-related subjects. icons. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. and show you how to identify the various sidebars. exercises.

Figure 15: Tip icon is a cartoon face on a light bulb. . Eying action icons In Chapters 7. 9. Tip! A tip can be more than the pointy end of a stick! The tips inside these sidebars (Figure 15) can save you time. Each exercise and project can be identified by the number of the chapter in which it appears. Shaping up with exercises Wherever you see the icon in Figure 17. you find an exercise designed to help you make or use drawing supplies. and frustration by telling you easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies. Projects usually take more time than exercises.4 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Warning! Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings (or yourself) from potential dangers by following the advice in these sidebars (Figure 14). Some ask you to make something and others ask you to gather your drawing supplies and draw. Figure 16: Art Quote icon is an adorable cartoon called a Wooly Woo. Action sidebar numbers and letters As you know. Figure 18: Step-by-step projects are identified with a hand holding a pencil. and 10. an action icon identifies either an exercise or project. energy. Art Quote Quotes about art (Figure 16) provide insights into the creative minds of well-known artists. you find several action icons. an exercise icon may ask you to do a simple sketch or drawing. Each has two or more illustrated instructions to help guide you. it’s time to complete a step-by-step project. Figure 17: Exercises are identified by an icon of a boy doing exercises. In addition. A letter identifies its order within the chapter. Figure 14: Warning icon is a scaredlooking cartoon face with a nose shaped like an exclamation mark. Step-by-step projects When you see the icon in Figure 18.

The icon identifies a project. the first action sidebar in Chapter 7 is marked 7A (A is the first letter of the alphabet). Each illustration in this book is marked with a number based on its placement within a chapter. For example. As you can tell by the icon (Figure 19). The number and letter 10C (C being the third letter of the alphabet) identifies the third action in Chapter 10. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Figure 20: Action 10C takes you step-by-step through the process of drawing a cartoon puppy named Mugly Wigglebottom. you may become inspired by examining the skills you are working to achieve. Do you happen to know the name of a good orthodontist? . Figure 21: A challenging drawing of a Shih Tzu who goes by the name of Panda. For example.Introduction 5 ► AC T I ON 7 A ◄ Figure 19: The first exercise in Chapter 7 helps you make out a shopping list for buying drawing supplies. As an added bonus. the fourth illustration in Chapter 6 (a cartoon artist practicing his drawing skills on page 50) is marked Figure 604. Likewise. this one is an exercise. For example. maybe one of your artistic goals is to draw realistic animals (check out Figure 21). the first illustration in Chapter 1 (a drawing of mountains on page 9) is marked Figure 101. A few words on illustrations You are not expected to draw all the illustrations in this book! Most drawings are intended to illustrate and help you understand the topics being discussed.

or technique prepares you for the next. Plan B Read through this book in no particular order. good posture for drawing. How to Use this Book This book is designed to be read in order . you find out what’s inside each of the three parts of this book. I help you set up a comfortable place to draw. until you are happy with the results. When you begin to feel totally overwhelmed and frustrated. Nine fun exercises and projects challenge you to put your drawing supplies to work as you learn several basic drawing skills and techniques. You find out about proper lighting. and some projects beyond your current skill level. Part 3: Go Draw! The first two parts of this book prepare you for the activities in this part. doing each exercise along the way. Enjoy the illustrations and try your hand at the various exercises and projects that appeal to you. However.6 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Insights into the parts In this section. You also have the option of making an artist’s portfolio and viewfinder frame. ideal drawing surfaces. Each new piece of information. If an exercise or project is too difficult. human nature being what it is. Part 2: Get Set! In this part. you’ll be ready for Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. By the time you reach the end of the book. and various ways to hold your pencil. go back and try it again (and again if you need to). Part 1: Get Ready! Sit back and relax as I tell you about the drawing supplies you need to complete the exercises and projects in this book. go back to plan A and work through the book from beginning to end! . You will encounter a few challenges with terminology (this is why you have a glossary in the back of the book). skill.from beginning to end. I offer the two following options: Plan A Slowly work through the entire book in sequence.

display boards. portfolio. and spray fixative . sizes. and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case. and ruler ► Manikins.Part 1: Get Ready! 7 PART 1 GET READY! ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. viewfinder frame. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures. mechanical.

8 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

I wonder if any other life forms besides stone faces live here? . How about a snow dragon dancing with polar bears and penguins? Or stone faces standing guard over a river valley in another galaxy far away? How many stone faces can you find in the drawing in Figure 101? Figures 102 and 103 show you a couple just to get you started. ogres and trolls are chasing one another through a dark. magical forest.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 9 Chapter 1 Welcome to Drawing ***************************************************************** On a simple sheet of drawing paper. Figure 101: You won’t find this scene anywhere on planet Earth. the tallest trees on earth grow toward the sky. In another drawing.

and an eye? ArtSpeak Portfolio is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage. . Figure 103: See the face of a regal male warrior gazing toward the right. Archaeologist is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. (Obviously. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. Prehistoric describes the period in time before language was used to write and record history. For example. chin. mouth. unaware of the creature with the huge open mouth waiting for lunch to walk by. you learn 32. (As an aside. Can you find his nose. Figure 102: Imagine yourself strolling peacefully along this path.10 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started In this chapter. Figure 104: In Action 7B in Chapter 7.000 years of art history by reading a thousand words.) Figure 106: A drawing of an old arrowhead that looks similar to some that were discovered by archeologists. I show you how to make a simple portfolio. many archeologists have excellent drawing skills. a very shortened version of history!) You also find out the real truth behind the silly gossip that you need a magical talent to become an artist. History is a written record of the past. historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. Figure 105: Prehistoric humans drew pictures like these on the walls of caves.

Hence. In other words. This section offers a brief background on drawing . An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education.from the cave drawings of prehistoric humans. in Action 10A in Chapter 10. During prehistoric times in Africa.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 11 A Brief History of Drawing Drawing is a universally understood language.000 years. In the time of the caveman Artists have been drawing for at least 32. For example. ArtSpeak Style refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. Archaeologists have discovered many of their drawings on the walls of caves. a form of communication that is free of such rules as correct spelling or proper grammar. For example. You can try your hand at drawing a human figure the way some prehistoric people did. Technique is a well-known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task. to the masterpieces of the Renaissance. . the drawings recorded their stories without spoken language or written words. Figure 108: Drawing based on an actual prehistoric drawing discovered on a stone in Africa. drawings of simple human figures (Figure 108) were added to burial stones. These drawings tell us a lot about how prehistoric humans lived. realism is a well-known style. an artist’s choice of a shading technique (or techniques) is generally based on his or her skill level and what works best to capture the subject. The drawings in Figure 107 are similar to prehistoric drawings found on the walls of caves in France. Figure 107: Copies of prehistoric cave drawings created by cavemen (or cavewomen). more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing.

For example. Mummy portrait is a painting of a man. Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. and people. and one of his most famous sculptures is the Statue of David. but others are remarkably well preserved. animals. ceiling. or other large surface. The discovery of several of these artworks helps us understand the styles and techniques of the artists. Murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. or child that was discovered attached to the face of a burial mummy. The drawing in Figure 110 is copied from a mummy portrait that was discovered in Egypt. Archeologists have found the remnants of murals and frescos painted on walls of buildings in ancient Greece and Rome. . Figure 109: The smoothly flowing lines of this drawing capture an antelope as it appeared on an ancient fresco. Figure 109 is a drawing of an antelope. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Fresco is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. Visual art refers to artworks (such as drawings. Frescos that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. A very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. or marble. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art. The birth of classical art Long before the Renaissance. as well as how people lived during these times. woman. copied from a fresco that had been buried under volcanic ash in Greece for more than 3500 years. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight. paintings.12 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Mural is a drawing or painting on a wall. rock. Sculptor is an artist who creates sculptures. Many show major deterioration. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature.

Great masters. created the most magnificent masterpieces our world has ever known. Michelangelo. Figure 110: My goal was to create a drawing that looked like the ancient painting. students of art all over the world are still learning from the masters of the Renaissance. coins. many very famous artists (called “great masters”) further developed drawing as the most important of all visual arts.000 years ago. and Albrecht Dürer. several breathtaking. possibly a Roman soldier (Figure 110). art students were encouraged to study and practice the techniques of the most highly skilled artists (called “masters”). realistic sculptures and paintings of people have survived the ravages of time. frescos. Classical drawing techniques are considered the foundation of all visual arts including painting. One of my favorite ancient paintings is a mummy portrait of a young man. During this time. Figures 111 and 112 demonstrate classical drawing techniques from the High Renaissance.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 13 In addition to murals. and digital art. Some of the more dedicated art students experimented with new ways of drawing and ended up creating new techniques. many students of the masters eventually became masters themselves. Even today. sculpture. Throughout the Renaissance. Between 1480 and 1527. Hence. classical drawing techniques were greatly improved and many new techniques were born. Remembering the Renaissance The beginning of the Renaissance is identified by the very popular rebirth of classical drawing throughout Europe. The unknown artist used classical techniques to make the face appear three-dimensional. I decided to include the flaws of the old wooden panels on which it was painted. and pottery. during the time known as the High Renaissance. Hans Holbein. such as Leonardo da Vinci. I couldn’t resist the challenge of drawing someone who lived more than 2. .

14 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 111: This classical drawing of a youth is copied from a work by Michelangelo. you automatically learn to observe. . As your drawing abilities become stronger. The Inside Scoop on Drawing Throughout the process of learning to draw. Figure 112: Classical drawing techniques are used in a drawing of a young girl (based on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci). creativity is also enhanced. Figure 113: An artist uses his creativity to make a few changes to the body of the model in his drawing. appreciate. and better understand the world around you. Check out the artist’s model and compare him to the drawing (Figure 113).

Figure 114: A photo of a horse in a field as viewed through the legs of another horse. Talent is nothing more than a word that describes the process in which you accept your ability to become a good artist. Drawing provides a way for you to document how you see the world. You need to actually draw to achieve strong skills. and other subjects. you must put your knowledge into practice! YOU can draw! Drawing is an easily acquired skill that everyone can learn. In other words. Being able to draw also allows you to take up other visual arts (such as digital art and painting) more easily than people who cannot draw. Just as you learned to draw the letters of the alphabet. Both of these activities require some sort of action in order to be learned. The process of reading this and every other art book from cover to cover cannot improve your drawing skills. All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing tool. learning to draw does not require a magical force to have been born within you. With a little creative thought. Simply put. Figure 115: The horse has magically turned into a unicorn! . artists can even change what they see in the real world into something completely different! Compare my reference photo in Figure 114 to the drawing in Figure 115. you can also learn to draw objects. People who expect to know how to ski after reading a book on skiing are not going to have any success until they actually go skiing.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 15 Drawing is an action word Music students can’t learn to play piano by reading a music book without actually applying their knowledge to the action of playing a piano. You can also learn to draw from your imagination. people. Drawing is also an action word. The closest relatives of drawing are printing and writing.

Figure 117: The style I use to draw a horse’s head is similar to the styles of the drawings of the masters demonstrated in Figures 111 and 112. Figure 116 shows an underdrawing of a horse. ArtSpeak Underdrawing is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). you can become as good as you can imagine. Always take joy in your good drawings. The techniques that you like best help determine your unique style. and learn from those that you don’t like. My sketch of a horse’s head (Figure 116) demonstrates the classical technique of lightly rendering an underdrawing before beginning a final drawing (Figure 117).16 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Developing your own style To develop a personal style of your own. you first need to learn as many techniques as possible. Leonardo da Vinci often used the technique of doing an underdrawing with metalpoint (refer to definition on page 18) before beginning a drawing or painting. Figure 116: A very faint underdrawing identifies the basic shapes of a horse’s head. . For instance. You CAN draw! With lots of patience and hard work. Strong drawing skills eventually come to everyone who works hard. My drawing techniques reveal that I have been a student of the masters for most of my life.

you discover a few fascinating tidbits about the history of graphite. a B grade is not better than an H!) In addition. Traveling Back in Time with Graphite In this section. Some graphite drawings created hundreds of years ago are still around today. (When it comes to graphite. You also learn about the grades of graphite. I share a little bit of fun information about graphite and its history.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 17 Chapter 2 Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ***************************************************************** Something called “graphite” is the best friend of many artists who love to draw. ArtSpeak Graphite is a soft black form of opaque (nontransparent) carbon found in nature. you examine drawings rendered with different grades of graphite to give you an idea of how B and H pencils affect the look of drawings. Hence. Clay is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. In this chapter. . It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. graphite has survived the test of time. Figure 201: The base value of five different grades of graphite. Grade refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums.

When you look closely at old drawings. Styluses were made from a soft metal. How the “lead” pencil got its name Before the discovery of graphite. the masters created many beautiful intricate drawings with only a stylus. you can often find a few of the faint lines from the underdrawings. Figure 202: The earliest stylus was a thin metal stick made of lead. Leadpoint is considered the ancestor of the modern graphite pencil. . Therefore. During the Renaissance. The term “lead pencil” is often incorrectly used to describe graphite pencils that are made of graphite and clay (and contain no lead whatsoever). Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher quality mixture of graphite and clay and make marks that flow more smoothly. an ordinary graphite pencil comes to mind (like the ones used by schoolchildren). WARNING! Stay away from poor-quality graphite! When most people think of drawing. graphite pencils do produce a warm-toned gray line that looks very similar to the marks made by leadpoint. However. Artists also used styluses to do underdrawings for more detailed drawings (and paintings). and so they became known as “leadpoint”. a word of caution: these pencils are not designed for drawing! Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing. ancient artists made drawings with long. producing a fine gray line.18 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Another great thing about graphite is its ability to be erased. Some styluses had a fine point at one end and a blunter point at the opposite end so artists could draw both thin and thick lines. On the other hand. ArtSpeak Stylus (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. they are usually more expensive than pencils made for writing. but can scratch your drawing paper instead of going on smoothly. A stylus worked by leaving a thin deposit of metal on the surface of paper. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. On the downside. many mistakes can be fixed. thin rods (referred to as “styluses”). or copper. During the Renaissance. such as lead. styluses were also made from silver. gold.

They used a lump of graphite to mark their sheep so they could easily identify their flocks. Graphite is very black and soft and makes dark marks. pencils are labeled with a number-letter code depending on the amounts of graphite and clay in the mixture. For example. News of the discovery of graphite soon traveled far and wide throughout the known world. Figure 204: A computer-generated image shows the base value of 17 different grades of graphite. An HB grade is in the middle and can be called either an H or a B (Figure 204). and graphite quickly became a valuable drawing medium within artistic communities. graphite pencils are made with a mixture of graphite and clay. Figure 203: A cartoon sheep proudly displays a big “X” marked on her wool with graphite. Artists often sharpened a chunk of graphite into a point and set it into a metal holder. Check out the cartoon drawing of a sheep in Figure 203. Farmers are thought to be the first people who found a practical use for graphite. These sharpened chunks became the very first graphite pencils! Making the Grade As you now know. To make shopping a little easier. A 2H pencil has less graphite and therefore makes very light marks.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 19 The link between graphite and sheep Graphite was discovered in England somewhere between 1500 and 1560. a 6B pencil has more graphite than clay and makes very dark marks. . Clay is hard and makes light marks. Many art supply stores carry a broad range of grades.

B grades may work better for drawing subjects needing a darker. And more often than not. Artists can draw a full range of values (Figure 205) with only five grades of graphite: 2H. a combination of B and H grades is a perfect choice. HB. and 6B.20 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Trying to draw with 17 different pencils can be a nightmare! Besides. bolder approach. your goal is to choose whichever grades of pencils can best give you the results you want. 2B. Whenever you draw. some grades make almost identical marks. For drawings needing a softer touch. 4B. For example. On the other hand. you may prefer to use mostly H grades. Figure 206: A realistic drawing of a dagger is created with 2H. the advanced drawing of a replica of a medieval dagger (Figure 206) is drawn with only these five grades. Figure 205: A range of different values can be created by each of these five grades of graphite. 2B. . 4B and 6B grades of pencils. HB.

Figure 208: An arrow points to the pupil of an eye.especially the softer grades. hence. ArtSpeak TIP! Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! Info Tidbit The word pencil comes from the Latin word pencillus (which means “little tail”). they work best for small to medium drawings (unless. brittle medium ► Make light to medium marks ► Wear down slowly ► Need very little sharpening ► Create very thin to medium-width lines The lines made by H pencils are mostly thin and delicate. of course. When a pencil falls to the floor.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 21 Hard is light Hard pencils can’t make very dark values. . The drawing in Figure 209 is almost completely rendered with four different grades of hard pencils. Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up the inside of the sharpener. circular part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. As a rule. dark. Figure 207: Values created with four H pencils (HB is considered the darkest hard pencil). they can create light to medium marks (Figure 207) that work well for some drawings. hard (H) pencils: ► Have a hard. the graphite inside the core breaks. and the pencil becomes very difficult to sharpen. Pupil of an eye is the tiny. However. you have lots of patience). Graphite is quite fragile .

HB. . and can make very dark marks because they have more graphite than clay. However. such as the pupils of his eyes and tiny sections of the darkest shadows. Figure 210: Values created with four B pencils (HB is the lightest B pencil). and 2B pencils. 2H. by pressing very gently with B pencils. Figure 209: This drawing of a friend (Christopher Church) playing a violin took more than a month to complete with 6H. 4H. Soft is dark B pencils tend to “B” soft. Figure 210 shows the base value of four B grades of graphite.22 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started I used a 2B (soft) pencil for only a few dark accents. you can also create light and medium values.

B grades of pencils: ► Have a soft medium ► Make light. and are sold under the names Staedtler and Faber-Castell.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 23 Generally speaking. 4B. B pencils can also work well for rendering detailed subjects on small sheets of paper. . and don’t mind constantly sharpening their points. Figure 212: Drawing of a peach using HB. you may need to use both B and H grades of pencils. Figure 211: Loosely rendered sketch of a side-on view of a young man. B pencils were used for the small drawing of a peach in Figure 212. 2B. Combining soft and hard grades When you draw a subject with lots of light and dark values. Info Tidbit My favorite brands of graphite pencils are made in Germany. and 6B pencils. Check out the sketch of the young man (Figure 211) created with only 2B and 4B pencils. If you are patient. medium. and dark marks ► Wear down quickly ► Need to be sharpened frequently ► Can make thin to thick lines The darker marks created by B pencils are ideal for loosely rendered sketches on medium to large sheets of paper.

Finding out your grade When you go to an art store. 4B. even though the grades are different (Figure 214). Figure 214: At first glance. Professional pencils often look identical. But don’t be fooled! The grade of the graphite is written somewhere on the wood part of each pencil (Look closely at Figure 215). 2B. Figure 215: Can you see the grade written on these three brands of pencils? . expect to be surprised by how many different brands of pencils are available. and 2B. and the black stripes are drawn with HB. Figure 213: A drawing of a baby zebra (named Spot) is created with both H and B grades of graphite.24 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started And what animal could show you a combination of B and H pencils better than a zebra (Figure 213)? The white stripes are shaded with 2H. HB. different grades of drawing pencils may all look the same. and 6B.

As with most activities. Charcoal sticks are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 25 Chapter 3 More Drawing Mediums ***************************************************************** In addition to graphite pencils. ArtSpeak Charcoal is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood). I tell you about a few popular drawing mediums. the better the tools. In this chapter. the happier you are with the outcomes. charcoal comes in various grades. and the kind of marks it makes. charcoal that are designed for drawing. you need to begin learning to draw with mediums that are specifically designed for artists. I show you what each looks like. . Charcoal pencils have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. Figure 302: A few different types of Figure 301: Shopping for drawing mediums is a big challenge when you have to choose from so many different types. As with graphite.

through the tip. I discuss three types of drawing pencils: wood-encased. from the tiny tube inside the holder. Picking out Proper Pencils In this section. The problem is how to remain an artist once he (she) grows up. (2) woodless pencil. Charcoal pencils are fantastic for medium to large drawings on large sheets of paper. Figure 304: Pencils last longer if you sharpen only their points on a sandpaper block. and woodless. (3) mechanical pencils.26 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Drawing stick (1) is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk. Pablo Picasso . loosely rendered drawings or very complicated. Art Quote Every child is an artist. mechanical. intricate drawings on small to medium-sized surfaces. and (4) wood-encased pencils. Sandpaper block is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. Wood-encased pencil (4) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. Wood-encased pencils Graphite pencils are ideal for either simple. Figure 303: Four types of drawing tools: (1) sticks. Woodless pencil (2) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. Several drawings invite you to compare the abilities of these pencils. Mechanical pencil (3) has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead.

.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 27 Graphite pencils Figure 305: Most art supply stores carry a huge selection of professionalquality. You can sharpen the points of regular pencils with a pencil sharpener. Figure 308: Cartoon drawing of an emu is created with regular pencils. Others constantly sharpen the graphite points to make thin marks (Figure 307). Figure 306: Marks made with the worn-down points of graphite pencils. but (thanks to the wooden holder) less messy than sticks of charcoal. A sandpaper block kept the pencil points nice and sharp to do the scraggly feathers. The pencil points were slightly worn down to shade the eyes. The drawing in Figure 308 was created with graphite pencils. Charcoal pencils Charcoal pencils are a lot more messy than graphite. Graphite pencils are a favorite drawing tool of many artists. some fine sandpaper. Figure 307: Thin lines drawn with freshly sharpened graphite pencils. Some artists prefer to draw with a slightly worn-down pencil point (Figure 306). wood-encased drawing pencils. or a sandpaper block.

Figure 309: Most charcoal pencils are a little thicker than graphite pencils. but can do everything a pencil can do (and more).” ask someone to help you sharpen charcoal pencils. WARNING! Utility knives are VERY dangerous! Utility knives are as sharp as razors! One small slip of the knife can cause permanent damage to your hand or fingers. A heavy-duty utility knife works best for cutting away some of the wood so you can sharpen the exposed charcoal with a sandpaper block. They should only be used by responsible adults who are handy with tools. They are a little messier. remember to tell that person to be very careful!) You may even want to completely stay away from charcoal pencils and use charcoal sticks instead. if you don’t want to “draw blood. . Charcoal is fun to work with and is ideal for drawing anything . you need to keep the point sharpened with a sandpaper block. Check out the charcoal drawing in Figure 311.28 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Wonderful black marks can be made with charcoal (Figure 310). If you want thin lines. Figure 310: Various marks made by a charcoal pencil. which is much softer than graphite. and objects. (And.including people. scenery. Soft grades of charcoal simply crumble and break when you try to sharpen them in a pencil sharpener. So. Hard grades of charcoal can be carefully sharpened in a pencil sharpener with an oversized opening.

Figure 312: A sampling of mechanical pencils. I have several that are more than 15 years old. A professional-quality mechanical pencil designed for drawing is expensive. it tends to be more economical than constantly buying woodencased pencils. even after hours of drawing. Other fun pencil mediums Two other types of pencil mediums that are well worth having are: mechanical pencils (they never need sharpening) and woodless pencils.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 29 Figure 311: A loosely rendered charcoal sketch of Christopher Church playing his violin. Mechanical pencils Mechanical pencils (Figure 312) are a super alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened constantly. Most are expensive. but in the long run. When well cared for. professional mechanical pencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores. . TIP! Purchase only professional-quality mechanical pencils You can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. but they tend to last much longer than the department store variety. The marks they make stay approximately the same size. a mechanical pencil can last a very long time. However.

your hands stay clean as you work. hence. A 0.5 mm mechanical pencils and various grades of leads.7 mm is a great choice for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both). . 0. and are great for subjects needing wider. A 0. so. When the points are sharpened.) Leads of the same grade are sold in a single package.5 mm is the most popular size and works best for drawing on small to medium-sized sheets of paper.7 mm leads are too big to fit through the pointed end of a 0. completely rendered with 0. Figure 314: Marks made with a woodless pencil. (However. woodless pencils do not have a wooden casing! A thick rod of graphite is surrounded by a thin (usually vinyl) casing. For example. to make sure they are the right size for your mechanical pencil. A few strokes on sandpaper and the points are sharp! They can make lots of different marks (Figure 314). Figure 313: Drawing of an unusual glass bottle TIP! Before you buy leads for a mechanical pencil. you should load only one grade at a time. check the size! Read the label on each package of leads you want to buy. Woodless graphite pencils Obviously. you may have to buy a package of each of the grades you want to use. A mechanical pencil can be loaded with leads of different grades ranging from very hard to soft. they can also make very thin lines (Figure 315). Woodless pencils rarely need to be sharpened in a pencil sharpener. bolder strokes than regular pencils.30 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mechanical pencils come in different sizes.5 mm mechanical pencil.

but they are well worth having. . strong lines. Both are messy. and especially for medium to large sketches and drawings. you simply dip your finger into the powder and draw! Or. Then. The flat ends and sides can be used for broad strokes (Figure 317).Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 31 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders Graphite and charcoal sticks are not considered pencils. Brandon. Figure 315: A wood-encased graphite pencil worked well for creating three sketches of my grandson. charcoal and graphite sticks are one of the few art mediums that work well when broken! The crisp edges of broken pieces are fantastic for rendering thin. Figure 316: Drawing powder can be made from graphite or charcoal sticks. but lots of fun! For instance. Sticks are great for rendering any subject. you can rub a charcoal or graphite stick on sandpaper to make powdered charcoal or graphite (Figure 316). (if messy isn’t your style) you may prefer to wrap your finger in a piece of paper towel first. Surprisingly.

charcoal and graphite do not usually play (or work) well together. . you can combine a graphite stick and graphite powder with various graphite pencils to create a drawing. Try to combine graphite and charcoal in a drawing and you can see what I mean! Use either graphite or charcoal mediums in a drawing . You can also use erasers to draw with either charcoal or graphite (Figures 318 and 319). charcoal powder. Figure 319: A winter scene created with charcoal pencils. and sticks. powder. and a charcoal pencil in the same sketch. However.but not both together. Figure 318: Various marks created by erasing sections of a layer of charcoal. In addition. You simply apply some powder to the paper’s surface and erase sections to create an image. Figure 317: A small sample of marks you can make with a stick.32 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started You can use a charcoal stick. as well as erasers.

To further confuse artists. and rough tooth. almost every store with an arts or crafts department carries some type of drawing paper. Figure 401: Printer paper with a smooth tooth. I also explain how artists (not dentists) protect the tooth of paper. Some papers are great for drawing and others are not. ArtSpeak Tooth refers to the surface texture of paper. In this chapter. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. sizes. Figure 402: Drawing paper with a medium tooth. Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky. . Figures 401 to 403 show you highly magnified views of shading with a 6B pencil on papers with a smooth. You examine artworks done on different papers to give you an idea of how a paper can affect the look of a drawing. I tell you about the textures. Figure 403: Watercolor paper with a rough tooth. medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 33 Chapter 4 Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers ***************************************************************** Picking out drawing paper is a scary task for even the most experienced artists. and weights of various drawing papers so you can make wise choices when you go shopping. medium.

Most of the remaining moisture was squeezed out by pressing down on the stack. Figure 306: A single drop of liquid can appear so shiny that it almost sparkles. Water was then added to create a soupy mixture. others prefer very rough paper. 7. and many prefer paper that is somewhere in between. the paper was usually coated with a substance (such as a gelatin mixture) to make it suitable for drawing. Some artists like smooth drawing paper. 4. I also show you how a paper’s tooth can influence the look of a drawing. vegetable matter. Flattened sheets of fibers were stacked into a pile with a layer of woolen cloth or felt in between each. the rougher it feels. I discuss the tooth of three common types of paper. . Figure 304: Short fur (as on cats) is soft and silky. In this section. leaving a flattened layer of fibers. Figure 305: A child’s knit sweater is bumpy and soft. 5. When completely dry. This time-consuming process included the following seven basic steps: 1. The mixture was scooped up with a screen and placed into a wooden mold. and a general knowledge of the object. and rags were chopped up into fibers.34 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Drawing Papers during the Renaissance Shopping for drawing papers is no doubt a challenge. ArtSpeak Texture refers to the surface detail of an object. Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) The more tooth a paper has. The sheets of paper were then hung to dry. 3. However. 6. The type of texture can be identified with vision. Materials such as plants. can you imagine having to make your own drawing paper? During the Renaissance. 2. The mold was shaken until most of the water drained through the screen. a sense of touch. drawing papers were handmade.

feels relatively even and silky. smooth watercolor paper. The realistic drawing of a cat in Figure 407 was rendered with graphite on a professionalquality. Figure 407: A detailed drawing of Bill the cat on smooth paper. Artists who prefer drawing highly detailed subjects often choose papers with a smooth tooth. but is not shiny. . His beautiful coat of striped fur looks very soft.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 35 The surface of a smooth tooth The surface of smooth tooth papers (that are designed specifically for artists).

36 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Big smile for a medium tooth Medium tooth papers are ideal for most drawing subjects. They work beautifully for creating a full range of values and lots of different textures. Figure 408: Sketchbook paper with a medium tooth is perfect for capturing the texture of an owl’s feathers. . and therefore too smooth for graphite or charcoal to properly stick to it. Glossy paper is toothless. but glossy paper is just plain awful. Many sketchbooks have paper with a medium tooth and are a fantastic choice for beginners. TIP! Stay away from papers with a glossy surface! Smooth drawing paper is wonderful.

Hardcover refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material. Art Quote He (or she) who works with his hands is a laborer. Saint Francis of Assisi Figure 409: A hardcover sketchbook protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. WARNING! Stay away from acid! Don’t be fooled by cheap imitations of goodquality drawing paper. He who works with his hands and his head is a craftsman. The peaks and craters of rough watercolor paper helped create the wonderful textured shading in Figures 410 and 411. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. and some craters show through as white. Fun patterns and textures often appear when the peaks of the paper grab the graphite. Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. He who works with his hands and his head and his heart is an artist. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. . Hot pressed refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. Before you buy a sketchbook. look for a label that says the paper is acid-free. but ideal for sketching on large sheets of paper. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 37 ArtSpeak Acid-free refers to a high-quality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process. Textures on a rough tooth Rough paper is terrible for tiny detailed drawings. Just because the cover of a sketchbook says it’s suitable for drawing doesn’t mean it’s acid-free. Softcover describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper. however.

100% cotton. jagged textures of trees are captured on watercolor paper with a rough tooth. and weight of paper. As an extra perk. are much more important than whether you purchase individual sheets or a sketchbook (or both). The quality. Info Tidbit My favorite drawing paper is Arches. acidfree. A sketchbook has several sheets of drawing paper in a book format. Figure 411: A close-up view shows how rough paper can help render the texture of a tree trunk. . this paper is similar to that used by the masters during the late Renaissance. The surface works beautifully for most drawing media and all subjects. hot pressed watercolor paper with a 140 lb weight. Sketchbooks and Papers Art supply stores sell individual sheets of papers that are designed specifically for drawing. size.38 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 410: The bumpy.

the tooth is flattened beyond repair. The weight of a paper is usually marked on the packaging or front cover. If your shading begins to look shiny. everyday printer paper has a 20 lb (75 g/m²) weight and therefore is too thin (and too smooth) for drawing. However. Softcover sketchbooks have to be carefully stored on a flat surface. but is easily torn and damaged. Thin paper weighs very little. remember to apply only a little bit of pressure to your pencil when you draw. For example. You can also feel the paper to make sure it’s thick. Additional shading will no longer hold fast to the paper’s surface. A hardcover sketchbook is much more durable. hardcover. the paper can be easily wrinkled and damaged.switch to a softer B pencil instead. or sheets? Even though softcover sketchbooks are relatively inexpensive. the hard cover provides a solid surface on which to work when you’re away from your desk or table. Figure 412: A small sampling of drawing papers and sketchbooks. and protects the paper inside.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 39 Softcover. A professional-quality paper for everyday use should have at least a 50 lb (260 g/m²) weight. As an extra perk. Weighing in on paper The “weight” of paper describes the thickness of individual sheets of paper. Individual sheets of drawing paper need to be stored on a flat surface inside a hard-sided portfolio. it’s much too expensive for everyday use. Heavy Arches drawing paper has a 140 lb (300 g/m²) weight and is perfect for drawing masterpieces. Avoid pressing too hard when you want darker shading . inexpensive. So. TIP! Always take good care of a paper’s tooth! The tooth of any paper can be easily destroyed by pressing too hard on its surface with your pencil. . Thick paper is more durable than thin because it weighs more.

most large sketchbooks (over 16 by 20 inches) are softcover. Info Tidbit TIP! Check before you buy! Check out art supply. hard surface to prevent the paper from bending. stay away from sketchbooks under 9 by 12 inches or your drawing options become too limited. In Chapter 7. I give you a checklist so you know exactly what you need to buy (or find at home). Individual sheets of paper (Figure 413) come in many sizes. Then. you can select the best type of paper for your needs (and budget!). A really big sheet can be cut down into smaller sheets. Some types are inexpensive and others can be quite costly. On the other hand. Hence. Figure 413: A large sheet of drawing paper can be attached to a drawing board with clamps.40 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Larger is not always better Choose a sketchbook or drawing papers in a size that is easy to transport when you travel. Are you tired of reading yet? Keep going . stationery. you need to store the sketchbook on a large. you’ll know all you need to know about drawing supplies. However. if you prefer making large drawings. you finally have a chance to pick up a pencil and begin drawing! .by the end of Chapter 6. and department stores in your community to find out what types of drawing paper are available. In Chapter 9.

such as pencil sharpeners and erasers. (4) a small knife for cutting paper. Erasers that are designed specifically for artists can be purchased in an art supply store.) . you can use the sharp edge of a regular block eraser. Vinyl erasers Vinyl erasers (Figure 502) have many practical uses.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 41 Chapter 5 Adding to the Basics ***************************************************************** In addition to pencils and paper. and the ones you should avoid. as well as pull out (erase) light sections from a layer of graphite or charcoal. they do provide a fun way to strengthen your visual and drawing skills. Tools for Erasing In this section. To erase tiny details or draw thin lines. and (5) spray fixative. I also suggest a few extra items to consider adding to your shopping list. (3) manikins. however. For example. Figure 501: A few more art supplies: (1) pencil cases. They can erase small or large sections of drawings. In this chapter. you need to have a few other drawing supplies. I tell you about the supplies that work best for drawing. (2) a metal ruler. a sharp knife can be used to cut off the end. you find out about two types of art erasers that are very gentle to the surface of your paper: vinyl and kneaded. (If the edges of your vinyl eraser are worn. manikins are certainly not necessary for learning how to draw.

First of all. and can easily be molded into a point or wedge for erasing. kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to work well. and (3) pencil erasers and refills. However. You can also use a kneaded eraser to carefully pat or gently rub a section of a drawing to lighten lines or values. so pick up some extras. Figure 504: With the help of erasers. a three-dimensional sphere seems to come out of the dark. Figure 503: Kneaded erasers are simple boring blocks until you begin molding and stretching them. I covered my paper with a layer of charcoal. you simply stretch and reshape it (also known as “kneading”) several times. Kneaded erasers Kneaded erasers (Figure 503) are a real joy! They don’t leave annoying eraser crumbs on your paper. Then. Dark shadows and crisp outlines were added with a charcoal pencil. The sharp edge of a vinyl eraser created the brightest whites. TIP! To clean a kneaded eraser.42 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 502: Three popular types of vinyl erasers: (1) regular blocks. (2) eraser wheel. I pulled out light values with a kneaded eraser. In Chapter 9. . The drawing of a sphere in Figure 504 was created with the help of both vinyl and kneaded erasers. I show you how to draw with your kneaded eraser (Action 9D: Playing with Erasers).

you need a pencil sharpener. Make sure the surface is a fine grade (look for anything that falls between 100-180 grit). The sharpeners in Figure 505 last a very long time.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 43 Sharpening your Mediums Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper (blocks or sheets) are a must for keeping your mediums (also called media) in shape. When the top sheet of sandpaper becomes worn and dirty. hand-held (preferably metal) pencil sharpener. WARNING! The wrong eraser can ruin your drawings! Stay away from erasers that are colored (especially the pink ones) or very hard (such as those on the ends of some pencils). and battery-operated or expensive sharpeners. You simply hold the wooden handle as you sharpen your pencil point on the sandpaper. Sandpaper blocks are more difficult to find. check out a building supplies store or a department store with a hardware department. Lots of different stores carry sharpeners . so pick up more than one. sturdy. choose a simple. Sandpaper blocks and sheets Sandpaper preserves the wooden sections of your pencils that could otherwise get quickly eaten up by your sharpener. Sandpaper blocks are not expensive. you simply tear it off. art supply stores are your best bet. Figure 505: Four of my favorite pencil sharpeners. Sandpaper sharpens just the exposed sections of medium instead of both the wood and the medium. As for sheets of sandpaper. Stay away from toy sharpeners. Instead. throw it away. and use the next sheet. . Pencil sharpeners If you use any type of pencil media. especially those for which you can purchase replacement blades (available at most art supply stores). Sandpaper blocks have sheets of fine sandpaper attached to a wooden base. The best ones have two openings: a small one for regular graphite pencils and a large one for oversized pencils.especially if they carry school supplies.

Stuff you can’t do without In this section. you can avoid the frustration of always searching for misplaced items. (In Chapter 7 you find step-by-step instructions for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame. You can buy many types of wonderful portfolios in art supply stores. and use a heavy-duty stapler to hold them together at one end. . (I have two large dogs who consider pencils and erasers to be chew toys!) In addition. small children. erasers. Metal rulers are easy to clean. if you keep everything together in one place. WARNING! Keep your drawing supplies. but can last a lifetime with proper care. and viewfinder frame. A ruler comes in handy for outlining drawing spaces. and as a guide for cutting straight pieces of drawing paper. Portfolio Drawings stored in a pile on a shelf (or anywhere that’s dusty or within direct sunlight) can be damaged easily. ruler. it has measurement guidelines). A hard-sided portfolio can protect your drawing paper and completed drawings from becoming wrinkled. and pets safe! Always put your supplies away in a container when you are done drawing. and other smaller drawing supplies is essential . and their raised edges protect your drawings from being smudged as you draw lines. portfolio. An all-metal ruler with raised edges may be a little more expensive. many tend to be very expensive (especially those made of leather). I speak from experience when I say this is not a great idea! A good-quality ruler does a far better job and is much easier to use (plus. damaged. I discuss four more necessities: pencil case. or destroyed. TIP! You can make a sanding tool similar to an artist’s sandpaper block. resist the temptation to pick up a bunch of stuff you really don’t need and may never use.44 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started A Few Extras Have fun wandering through art supply stores! However.) Pencil case A container for storing your pencils.especially if you have small children or pets in your home. You don’t need to spend a lot of money on supplies to learn how to draw well. Cut sheets of fine sandpaper into long. Ruler At some point in your life. however. narrow pieces. you may have tried using something like the edge of a book as a ruler.

see-through rectangle or square that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. but not necessary Before you go shopping for additional drawing supplies. display board. A viewfinder frame helps you visually weed out boring stuff in a scene. a spider within a square drawing space. Viewfinder frame Beginners to drawing often include too many objects in their drawings. or a shape you outline on your paper. In doing so. rectangle. you can remove most of the clutter and unnecessary objects from your view. Figure 508: A section of a cartoon face is viewed through the opening of a viewfinder frame. . Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. a manikin. Figure 507: Drawing of Figure 506: A simple viewfinder frame. and spray fixative should be the top three items on your list. Composition refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 45 ArtSpeak Viewfinder frame is an adjustable. or circle. so you can draw only the exciting parts. Small ones are great for planning compositions from photos. Large viewfinder frames are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a drawing subject. such as a square. you can choose an ideal composition for a drawing. As you adjust its size. Nice to have.

You can even choose a wall in your home (or use your fridge) for an ongoing exhibition of your work. require no bathroom breaks. . ► Two or three thin coats are better than one thick coat (less is more!). manikins are wonderful models: they don’t move. and don’t talk your ears off! Manikins can be manipulated into numerous poses and viewed from any angle. Figure 509: A simple sketch of a figure is created with the help of a manikin. Spray fixative A spray fixative that is designed for graphite and charcoal can protect your completed drawings from being accidentally smudged. keep the following in mind: ► Spray only in a well-ventilated area (such as outdoors). Manikins Often made of wood. In addition to female and male figures. WARNING! Don’t use spray fixative on your unfinished drawings! You can’t erase problem areas after your drawing has been sprayed. However. ► Make sure you read the directions carefully. you can also purchase animals.46 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Display boards Bulletin or display boards (I especially love the metal ones with magnets) are relatively inexpensive and provide display space for your drawings. before you use a spray fixative.

Part 2: Get Set! 47 PART 2 GET SET! ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Creating your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your drawing medium ► Discover your natural hand movement .

48 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

and free of distractions as possible. smooth surface (often made of wood) used for sketching and drawing (Figure 602). . and properly hold your pencils as you work. lightweight. Figure 601: A simple drawing of a drafting desk (and chair) that is adjusted for drawing. I tell you about drawing surfaces and lighting that work well for creating art in your home. Figure 602: A sketch of a horse is attached to a drawing board with a clip. be sure to check around your home. I show you how to sit comfortably for drawing. Clips (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board (Figure 603). ArtSpeak Drafting desk (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top (Figure 601). I also tell you how to pack up a portable drawing kit so you can take your love of drawing wherever you go. peaceful. Drawing board is a portable. Figure 603: A popular type of clip is called a Boston Bulldog. you may already have many of these items. In addition.Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 49 Chapter 6 Setting up for Drawing ***************************************************************** In this chapter. A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw Your special artistic place in your home should be as relaxing. When assembling your drawing supplies.

Consider such options as a table. or drawing board. Plexiglas. Experiment with your tape on a small piece of drawing paper to find out if it can be safely removed.50 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Choosing a drawing surface You can easily find a surface on which you can comfortably draw. Info Tidbit A drawing board is easy to make (if you know an adult who is handy with a saw). smoothly finished plywood. . TIP! Some types of tapes can damage your paper. desk. Consider a natural light source from a window in the daytime and from a lamp for evenings and overcast days. or another sturdy product to a size slightly larger than your favorite drawing paper. Figure 604: An artist is sketching on paper that is attached to a drawing board with a clip. A flexible-neck study lamp is designed to focus light directly on your drawing surface (Figure 605). Simply cut a piece of thin. Art supply stores usually carry large clips and special tapes for attaching paper to a drawing board. Use sandpaper to sand it until its surface and edges are very smooth. Shedding light on your art To prevent your eyes from becoming tired or strained. An adjustable sloped table or drafting desk is a fantastic choice. drafting desk. also work fairly well. Another option is to prop up a drawing board at an angle on a regular table or desk. Masking tapes designed for painting the interiors of homes. Drawing papers can be held in place with either clips or tape. Many art stores sell different types of inexpensive drawing boards in various sizes. always make sure you have good lighting.

after your drawing is complete. but also for improving your drawing skills. I don’t think people are born artists. some types can cost almost as much as (or more than) the lamp itself. not just for your health. the top of your paper is farther away from you than the bottom. Art Quote WARNING! Don’t attempt large drawings on a flat (horizontal) surface! Instead. so. and luck. read the packaging carefully before you buy! Also. When you create large drawings on a flat surface (such as a table or desk). you can end up with all sorts of problems trying to draw accurate proportions. you usually find this out the hard way . use something to prop up your sketchbook or paper so your drawing surface is sloped. Figure 605: An artist sits comfortably at a drafting desk with an attached lamp shedding light on his drawing. . his or her head may end up too big for the body. Unfortunately. the people you meet. I think it comes from a mixture of your surroundings. if you are drawing a figure. Francis Bacon Good Posture First! Sitting correctly (and eating your vegetables) is very important. For example. check out the cost of replacement bulbs. As a result.Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 51 An ideal lamp mimics natural daylight.

52

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Good posture and a comfortable, adjustable chair can prevent your muscles from becoming strained and sore. Arrange your chair and drawing surface so you can easily move your hand, arm, shoulder, and upper body as you draw.

How NOT to sit!
Many people do not sit up straight. They hunch or lean over too much, and twist their bodies into all sorts of positions that place their back out of proper alignment (Figure 606).

Figure 606: How NOT to sit!
You become uncomfortable very quickly when you are not sitting properly.

TIP!
To prevent cramping and repetitive movement injuries, move your fingers and wrist as little as possible when you draw. You should be moving your lower and upper arm (and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well). If you absolutely have to move your fingers and wrist (for example, to draw tiny details), take a break every ten minutes to relax your hand and wrist.

Sitting correctly
Most drafting tables and some office chairs have height adjustments. You can also position your chair closer or farther away from your table. Refer to Figure 607 and arrange your table and chair until you can: ► Sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor (or on a raised surface such as a footstool). ► Distribute your body weight evenly on both hips. ► Bend your knees at a right angle. ► See your drawing clearly without bending your lower back. ► Comfortably rest your lower arm on the table.

Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing

53

Once you are used to sitting correctly, you can fully focus on drawing.

Putting Together a Portable Studio
In this section, I suggest practical supplies for bringing your love of drawing on any type of excursion, such as to a local park or a picnic at the beach. Learning to draw is learning to see! The more you practice the faster your skills improve!
Figure 607: A cartoon artist shows you how to sit
properly at a drafting desk.

Doing sketches on a regular basis trains your brain to see as an artist (a fun way to see the world). A very thorough visual examination of your drawing subject imprints its image into your mind. You can then draw what you see in your sketchbook - often with only a few simple lines. For example, sometimes all you need is a wiggly line to capture a section of land. Figure 608 shows a simple sketch of the lake behind my home.

Figure 608: Simple lines capture a sky, hills, a lake,
trees, and a few plants.

You should keep a few drawing materials packed and ready to travel.

54

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

When you feel like drawing outdoors, you can just grab your portable studio and go. First of all, you need something in which to carry your art materials. A backpack or fabric bag with handles is great. Select something large enough to hold everything you need. Naturally, you need a surface on which to draw. You can bring a drawing board, paper, and clips (or tape). A hardcover sketchbook is a great alternative to sheets of paper; its hard cover serves as a drawing surface. Add a pencil case filled with pencils, erasers, sandpaper blocks, and a pencil sharpener. Here’s a list of additional things you may want to bring along: ► A viewfinder frame. ► Your portfolio (if you use sheets of drawing paper). ► Plastic bags to protect your drawings (and you) in case of rain. ► Beverages and snacks. ► Wipes or paper towels for clean-up (especially if you use charcoal). ► A small camera to take photos of inspirational scenes and objects. ► Depending on where you go, you may need bug repellent. ► Oh, and don’t forget your sunscreen and a hat!

Art Quote

When we speak of Nature it is wrong to forget that we are ourselves a part of Nature. We ought to view ourselves with the same curiosity and openness with which we study a tree, the sky or a thought, because we too are linked to the entire universe.
Henri Matisse

Save all your sketches! By examining your older sketches, you can measure how much your skills have advanced. In addition, as your creativity and artistic vision improves, you may look back on your early works with a new appreciation. For example, a face may be hidden within a sketch of an old log. (Remember the stone faces hidden in Figure 101 in Chapter 1.)

(I show you how to use a viewfinder frame in Action 9F in Chapter 9. acid-free paper: 9 by 12 inches (or larger) ► Package of inexpensive sheets of paper (printer/copy paper works well) . You then follow step-by-step illustrated instructions to make a portfolio and viewfinder frame. and Viewfinder Frame 55 Chapter 7 Making a List. Supplies needed: Paper and pencil (or pen).) ► AC T I O N 7 A ◄ The Shopping List Goal: Write out a shopping list so you can go shopping for your supplies. and Viewfinder Frame ***************************************************************** In this chapter.Chapter 7: Making a List. Must have Plan to purchase (or find around your home) the items on this list first: Figure 701: Shopping for art supplies. ► Sketchbook with medium tooth. your first exercise is to make a shopping list and buy your drawing supplies. Portfolio. Portfolio. The following lists are guides for making your own shopping list.

HB. When using a brightly colored viewfinder frame.56 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ► Regular vinyl eraser ► Kneaded eraser ► Pencil case ► 2H. 4B. making it hard to concentrate on the view inside. 2B. and 6B wood-encased pencils ► Sturdy handheld pencil sharpener ► Sandpaper blocks or sheets of fine-grit sandpaper ► Drawing surface. HB. you can shop for items from this list: ► Wooden manikins ► Bulletin or display board ► Spray fixative ► Mechanical pencils with 2H. or table with a drawing board ► Lamp ► Metal ruler ► Metal clips (if you plan to use a drawing board) ► Comfortable chair ► Portfolio case (for storing your completed drawings) ► Viewfinder frame (Supplies for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame are on the next page. .) Nice to have As your skills improve and you have extra money. and 2B leads ► A selection of good-quality drawing papers ► Camera ► Hardcover sketchbook ► Graphite sticks and woodless pencils ► Pencil-type vinyl eraser TIP! When buying matboard or cardboard to make a viewfinder frame. your eye is grabbed by the loud color. such as a drafting desk. stay with neutral rather than bright colors.

and Viewfinder Frame 57 Supplies for making a portfolio If you (or someone else) plan to make a portfolio. ► Strong string. Figure 702: A homemade portfolio.Chapter 7: Making a List. and a ruler. thin rope. you also need two large paper clips. Portfolio. sharp utility knife ► Straight edge or long ruler with a metal edge ► Sharp tool (such as a scratch awl or a large nail) for punching holes for ties. . you need the following: ► Roll of wide tape (duct tape is great and comes in lots of fun colors) ► Heavy-duty. as well as some of the extra items suggested on Page 54. ► AC T I O N 7 B ◄ Making a Portfolio Goal: Make and design your very own unique portfolio. Supplies for a portable studio You need a second set of basic drawing supplies. a utility knife. or shoelaces (long enough to tie the portfolio closed in three places) ► Acid-free cardboard or matboard (usually offered in a wide selection of colors at framing and art supply stores) ► Drawing supplies for adding a design (optional) Supplies for making a viewfinder frame Besides acid-free board.

Deciding on a size The finished size of your portfolio needs to be a little larger than your largest sheet of drawing paper. Hence. . TIP! Some boards (such as matboard) are colored on one side and white on the other. Refer back to the previous section for suggested sizes. ► 20 by 30 inches (one sheet at least 40 by 30 inches. flat surface that can’t be damaged with a sharp knife. If you buy two pieces (one for each side). If you decide on one large sheet. Suggested portfolio sizes include: ► 16 by 20 inches (one sheet at least 32 by 20 inches. 2. In other words.58 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Gather your supplies on a large. or two pieces at 16 by 20 inches each). the finished portfolio will be half the size of your board. When choosing board.it may not need to be trimmed. cutting the board on the dining room table may not be the best idea! You may want to ask an adult for help. each needs to be the finished size.especially along the bottom. simply ignore references to color. Measure the board first . Place your large sheet of board (colored side facing up) on a flat surface. Option 1: Using one large sheet of board 1. you may want the colored side facing outward on your portfolio. go to step 2. If your board is the same color on both sides. Trim the large piece of board to the overall size you want. Keep in mind that it needs to be folded in half (peek ahead to Figure 703). or two pieces at 20 by 30 inches each). The colored side in the illustrations is shown as gray. you can use either one large sheet or two smaller pieces. For example. take into account that you need to fold it in half. One large folded sheet of board makes a slightly stronger portfolio than two smaller pieces . If your board is already the size you want.

The top and bottom edges have two. and an HB pencil to mark the points. Portfolio. 6. Figure 704: Dots mark the spots where the ties attach. and the edges are made strong with wide tape. Figure 703: A straight line is drawn down the center of the board. Measure the board and mark the center points along the width. This line shows you where you later score (slightly cut) the board (Figure 703). Measure. 5. For example. and Viewfinder Frame 59 3. the center points need to be at 20 inches.Chapter 7: Making a List. 7. Use a ruler to measure. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where each of the six dots is marked. The sides have one dot. Add wide tape to all four edges of the large board. if your board is 32 by 20 inches. Use an HB pencil. . and then mark the halfway distances of the sides and top of each half with a dot (to mark where the ties go). the middle points are at 16 inches. 4. Use a long ruler or straight edge to draw a straight line along the points. If your board is 40 by 30 inches. See Figure 704. and each is halfway between the edge and the center line.

Simply continue on and follow the instructions for working with two pieces instead of one. if you cut too deeply into the board. 10. The basic construction of the portfolio is complete (Figure 706). use two strips of tape (Figure 705). Figure 705: Portfolio is folded along the score line. 12. you’ll have two pieces of board instead of one scored piece. TIP! If you accidentally end up with two pieces. Open the portfolio and tape over the inside center seam. To make this seam super strong. . 9. cut very slightly (sometimes referred to as “scoring”) along the straight line on the colored side. tape over the scored seam at the bottom. Gently fold the large sheet of board inward along the scored line. With your knife and a straight edge. and the inner fold line section is reinforced with wide tape. Continue on to the Adding ties and final touches section on page 62. Figure 706: The bottom edge of portfolio (the folded edge) has been reinforced with strong tape.60 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. With the portfolio closed. all is not lost. The colored side should now be on the outside. 11. Be very careful.

To make the seam super strong. use two strips of tape (Figure 708). You end up with three holes on each piece of board. Figure 708: The boards are butted together and then taped together with wide tape. The inside surfaces should now be facing you (Figure 708). the holes for the ties are marked and then punched with a sharp tool. Figure 707: Three sides of each piece are reinforced with wide tape. 2. These sides are the bottom of your portfolio.Chapter 7: Making a List. Tape both pieces together. 5. 6. and Viewfinder Frame 61 Option 2: Using two pieces of board 1. Butt the bottoms of each piece of board tightly together on a flat surface. These dots show you where to punch holes for the ties (Figure 707). reinforce all but one long edge of each piece of board. . 4. 3. Do not mark dots on the sides without tape. Place the boards colored side up so the two wide edges that are not taped (the bottom of the portfolio) are close together. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where the dots are marked. Using wide tape. Portfolio. and then mark dots at the halfway distances of the sides and top of each piece of board. Measure.

If the hole is bigger than the knot.62 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 7. 3. Refer to Figure 710. 2. Figure 712: Wide tape covers the knotted ends Figure 710: A knot is tied on one end of a shoelace. 8. If you use a full shoelace for each tie. Each of the six ties needs to be between 12 to 16 inches long. The holes for ties should line up on the top and sides. it doesn’t matter on which end you tie a knot. you finish your portfolio by adding ties. If using a half. In this section. 1. you may get away with using half for each tie (if they are long). You have the option of decorating either one side or both with creative designs. If you use shoelaces. Figure 711: The laces are threaded through the holes from the inside toward the outside. Thread a tie through each of the six holes from the inside. Refer to Figure 711. Fold the portfolio so the colored sides are on the outside. Use wide tape to secure the knotted ends of the ties to the inside (Figure 712). See Figure 709. Tie a knot in the end of each tie. Adding ties and final touches Figure 709: The bottom edge of the portfolio is reinforced with strong tape. The end with the knot needs to be on the inside. you can tie additional knots on top of the first so the end won’t go through the hole. Use at least two strips of wide tape to reinforce the bottom edge on the outside. . tie the knot in the end that has been cut.

► AC T I O N 7 C ◄ Making a Viewfinder Frame Goal: Make a viewfinder frame. Portfolio. Add a design or drawing to the sides of your portfolio. Figure 714: A drawing of daisies graces one side of a portfolio case. You can probably think of oodles of other ideas to decorate your portfolio. 5. Place your drawing paper and drawings inside and tie the ties. Figure 713 shows the outside of an undecorated portfolio. and Viewfinder Frame 63 4. Close the portfolio. Figure 713: The portfolio awaits a spiffy design. .Chapter 7: Making a List. Set up your supplies on a flat space that is adult-approved. Figure 715: A homemade viewfinder frame. You may prefer to use it as is. Decorating your portfolio is completely optional. The portfolio in Figure 714 has a drawing of daisies on the front.

Again. keep in mind that the wider your frame. Bigger ones are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a subject. . Use a ruler and a utility knife to cut two identical L-shaped pieces of cardboard any size you want. Use two large paper clips to join the two pieces together to form a frame. 2. Smaller ones are great for planning compositions from photos. 1. When choosing a size. Refer to Figure 716.64 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Consider making several viewfinder frames in different sizes. Refer to Figures 717 and 718. This means that the corners should form a ninety-degree angle (also known as a right angle). don’t be afraid to ask for help using a knife. Figure 716: Each L-shaped piece of matboard needs to be cut perfectly square. Figure 717: Two L-shaped pieces of matboard are joined with paper clips so the inside becomes either a square or rectangle. the more you can block distracting and unwanted objects from your view. Figure 718: A closeup view of my grandson (Brandon) is selected with the help of a viewfinder frame.

Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. Adjust your chair and table until you can easily move your hand. vertical. or on an angle ► The size of your drawing paper ArtSpeak Straight line provides the shortest connection between any two points. shoulder. arm. your lines may end up looking shaky and rigid.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 65 Chapter 8 Give Yourself a Helping Hand ***************************************************************** Moving your drawing hand naturally and rotating your paper as you work can improve your artistic outcomes. Creating smoothly flowing lines requires broad. Holding Your Mediums The way you hold your drawing mediums can affect the look of your drawings. . Choosing the most comfortable way to hold your medium depends on the following: ► Your choice of medium ► Whether your drawing surface is flat. In this chapter. If you move only your fingers and wrist. you discover how these simple actions can quickly advance your current drawing skills. and upper body as you draw. Figure 801: Several straight lines that are drawn in six different directions. gentle movements of your whole arm.

This method requires movement from your arm. Experiment with each of the three ways to hold your drawing mediums.66 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 802 illustrates how most people hold their pencil when first beginning to write and draw. You can hold your pencil this way when you work on a sloped or vertical surface. The method shown in Figure 804 requires movement from your arm and shoulder. Figure 803: How to hold a pencil when you are creating big. The second way of holding a pencil (Figure 803) is great for rendering a medium to large sketch (or drawing) on a sloped or vertical surface. Figure 802: Holding a pencil in the most familiar and traditional manner. bold sketches. . but with practice you do get used to them. Figure 804: An ideal way to hold various types of drawing mediums for sketching. You may find a couple of these methods a little awkward at first. and is ideal for holding pencils or sticks of graphite and charcoal. and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well. (Remember to move your arm rather than just your fingers and wrist.) This method is ideal for creating small drawings on a flat or sloped surface.

I took the time to check out some of Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings. I found myself in awe of his shading lines . Leonardo the lefty You can tell a lot about artists by examining their art.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 67 Becoming a Natural As discussed in the previous section. most people don’t even know they have one! This section explores the natural hand movement of Leonardo da Vinci. and helps you find and use yours. and from the lower right to the upper left. Figure 806: I turned this drawing sideways as I worked so I could imitate Leonardo’s lines with my own natural hand movement. As a matter of fact. The next logical step is to find the most natural way to move your pencil as you draw. Recently. . Figure 805: This drawing of an old man (including the marks and age spots on the paper) is copied from a drawing by Leonardo.mostly drawn at the same angle. you can choose from three different ways to hold your pencil. Examine the close-up view of the shading lines in Figure 806). I used a graphite pencil to render a study of one of Leonardo’s pen-andink drawings. Figure 805 shows my drawing of an old man’s face. Leonardo’s shading lines appear to be rendered from the upper left to lower right. Many aspiring artists simply jump into drawing without taking the time to discover their natural hand movement.

You should rotate your drawing paper as you work to take full advantage of your natural hand movement. This is your natural hand movement. Try your hand at drawing sets of slanted straight lines in your sketchbook (Figure 807). Remembering to always rotate your paper takes lots of practice. and you should try to use it to your advantage whenever possible. Right-handed artists (like me) often draw lines from the upper right to the lower left. Some will feel comfortable and others will feel awkward. you can try your hand at drawing shapes by rotating your paper. before you know it. In Action 9E in Chapter 9.68 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Finding your natural hand movement You natural hand movement may not be the same as either Leonardo’s or mine. But. Pay attention to how you make these lines. This is the natural hand movement of many left-handed artists. Use many different ways of moving your pencil or changing the slant of your lines. In addition to using their natural hand movement. Rotating your paper as you draw Professional artists have many secret ways to make sure their drawings turn out well. there will be one motion that feels the most comfortable. you are rotating your paper all the time without even thinking about it. However. they often rotate their paper. Figure 807: A sketchbook page has lines that slant in many directions. Leonardo da Vinci . Art Quote The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings from the hand of a good master. Info Tidbit Many experts claim that Leonardo da Vinci was left-handed because of the way he drew straight lines (slanted from the upper left to lower right).

Part 3: Go Draw! 69 PART 3 GO DRAW! ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom .

70 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

put your drawing away in a safe place. Supplies needed: Paper. Draw a portrait of yourself as realistically as possible. a 2B pencil. TIP! Always sharpen your pencils before you begin a drawing project. erasers. and give yourself a big hug! . you complete a few exercises and projects designed to teach you how to use your supplies. You also discover how to use a few basic drawing techniques. and a mirror. When you’re finished. sign your name. ► AC T I ON 9 A ◄ Sketching a Self-Portrait Goal: Document your current drawing skills by drawing yourself. Set yourself up for drawing where you can clearly see your reflection in a mirror. write the date on the back.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 71 Chapter 9 Putting Your Supplies to Work ***************************************************************** Finally! Time to draw! In this chapter.

What do you get when you cross squiggles with circles? You get Squirkles! Squirkling is a simple method of shading that uses randomly drawn curved lines to create values. Allow your pencils to do most of the work. Figure 903: A value scale created with squirkles. Value scale is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light (Refer to Figure 903). Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners (Figure 901). 4B. . ► AC T I ON 9 B ◄ Creating Values with Squirkles Goal: Find out the base value of each of your five grades of graphite pencils. Each grade of pencil has a different base value. Figure 902: Advanced drawing of a tiny section of a phone that is completely rendered with squirkles. Apply a medium amount of pressure.72 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Squirkling is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values. I chose this name based on the method of mixing squiggles with circles to create shading. Figure 901: Squirkling is great for drawing wool on a cartoon sheep. you create five different values with five grades of pencils. HB. and 6B graphite pencils. Don’t press too hard or too softly with your pencil. Many of my students from the past three decades are very familiar with this word! In this project. 2B. as well as highly realistic works by professional artists (Figure 902). Supplies needed: Paper and 2H.

The white spaces can be many different shapes. 3. Small squirkles make much smoother values than large ones. Mark the grade of one of your pencils under each square. but they should be approximately the same size. Figure 905: Each square is marked with a grade of pencil from the lightest (on the left) to the darkest. If you see a very large white space (the white of your paper). 2. use a 2H pencil to scribble (squirkle) curved lines that twist and bend in many directions. Figure 904: I used a ruler to outline a drawing space that is 2 by 10 inches (divided into five squares). Refer to Figures 906 and 907. .I’ll be introducing the various math skills very gently. TIP! Take your time! Work very slowly and closely watch your line as it curves around within this square. Surprise! Math is a very important part of drawing! But don’t grumble yet . If a section has a lot of lines. draw a curved line through it so it becomes two small spaces. Accuracy is much more important than speed.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 73 1. In the first square. don’t add any more. Draw a rectangle that is 2 inches high by ten inches long. and divide it into five squares that are each 2 by 2 inches. Your goal is to create a light value. Speed increases with lots of practice.

Use the same method to draw squirkles in each of the other four squares. you can simply add a few extra squirkling lines to make it slightly darker. Make sure that each new value you draw is slightly darker than the previous one. Refer to Figures 907 to 915.74 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figures 906 and 907: A 2H makes a very light value. a 4B in the fourth. . 4. and a 6B in the fifth. a 2B in the third. Figures 910 and 911: The middle value is made with a 2B pencil. Figures 908 and 909: A slightly darker value is created by an HB Pencil. Use an HB pencil in the second square. If you make a value that looks too light. Try squinting your eyes a little to see the squirkles as a value.

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Figures 912 and 913: A 4B
grade of pencil makes a dark value.

Figure 914:
The darkest value is drawn with a 6B.

Figure 915: A value scale of five
different values.

You have completed a value scale from light (on the left) to dark (on the right). Prop up your drawing and stand a few feet away. Can you see five different values from light (on the left) to dark (on the right)? 5. Draw another value scale from dark (on the left) to light (on the right). Refer to Figure 916. When you’re done, pat yourself on the back ten times.

Figure 916: A value scale from dark to light.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

► AC T I O N 9 C ◄

Playing with Pencils
Goal: Draw three sets of lines with each of your five pencils.
Figure 917: Many different values of lines can
be made with only five grades of pencils.

Supplies needed: Paper and 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils. As you know from Action 9B, each grade of pencil makes a different base value. However, did you know that each grade on its own can make several values? In this project I show you how to create light, medium, and dark lines with each of your pencils. To do this, you simply vary the pressure you apply to your pencil. 1. Use a 2H pencil to draw a light, medium, and dark set of three straight lines (nine lines in total). ► Set of three light lines: Apply very little pressure to your pencil. ► Set of three medium lines: Use a medium amount of pressure. ► Set of three dark lines: Press firmly with your pencil. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement.

Art Quote

What we call creative work ought not to be called work at all, because it isn’t. I imagine that Thomas Edison never did a day’s work in his last fifty years.
Figure 918: Three different values of lines
made with a 2H grade of pencil. Stephen B. Leacock

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77

2. Use the same technique to draw three different lines with each of your other four pencils (Figure 919).

Figure 919: Fifteen sets of lines result in a wide range of different values.

Congratulations! You now have a better idea of how artists make several different values with only one pencil. Put one finger on the tip of your nose and walk seven steps in a straight line.

► AC T I O N 9 D ◄

Figure 920:
Lines and shapes created with erasers.

WARNING!
This project is very messy!
Stay away from light-colored carpets or fabrics. Cover your drawing surface with paper or plastic before you begin.

Playing with Erasers
Goal: Draw lines and shapes with an eraser instead of a pencil. Supplies needed: Heavy white drawing paper with a medium tooth, a 2B or 4B charcoal stick, 2B or 4B charcoal pencil, vinyl eraser, kneaded eraser, and paper towels.

as you will soon see. my section is 6 by 3 inches – but larger is even better! 2. Figure 923: A section of my paper is filled in with charcoal and then very gently blended. . Use a piece of paper towel to VERY GENTLY blend the whole surface. Use the side of a charcoal stick to smoothly fill in a section of your paper. Don’t apply too much pressure. Gently does it! Don’t press hard with the charcoal. or you’ll grind the charcoal into the paper so much that it won’t erase (thereby defeating the whole purpose of this project). you can also draw light values on a dark surface by using an eraser (or erasers). Figure 921: A section of shading before it is blended. 1.78 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Blending is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper. Figure 922: The same shading after it was blended with a facial tissue. Most artists are familiar with drawing dark values on a light surface. In this section. However. you experiment with two different types of erasers as drawing tools. The charcoal needs to sit on the top of the paper’s tooth – not flatten it! In real life.

dots. did you know that he could draw well? He often sketched his ideas and drew diagrams of the inventions on which he worked.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 79 3. and kneaded erasers molded into various shapes. Use your erasers however you wish to experiment with pulling light values from the darkened drawing surface. Info Tidbit Thomas Edison is best known as an inventor (he helped invent many wonderful items such as the light bulb and motion picture camera). Figures 924 and 925: A few lines. 4. You can also use your charcoal pencil to draw more details after the white sections are erased (Figure 926). and shapes are pulled out of the charcoal with the edges of vinyl erasers. . For a few ideas refer to Figures 924 and 925. However. Use your imagination and the same process to create more drawings.

80 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Completed charcoal drawings should always be sprayed with a fixative so they don’t smudge too badly. . Thomas Edison When you’re done. ► AC T I ON 9 E ◄ Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper Goal: Draw three different shapes by rotating your paper and using your natural hand movement. and put a big smile on your face! Figure 926: I used a charcoal pencil to add a few dark lines to my eraser drawing. ninety-nine percent perspiration. Figure 927: Three shapes created by using my natural hand movement and rotating my paper. Art Quote Genius is one percent inspiration. and kneaded eraser. a 2B graphite pencil. Supplies needed: Paper. vinyl eraser. go wash the charcoal off your face.

TIP! Don’t worry about copying my drawings exactly! Just take your time and do your best.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 81 You find two illustrations beside each step. Draw the first part of the shape (Figure 928). Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper so you don’t get lost. 1. Figure 928L Figure 928R Figure 929L Figure 929R . To help you remember which drawing is which. Part 1: Circular shape Your goal in this section is to draw a shape using only curved lines. the lefty one is on the left and the righty one is on the right. 3. It’s more important to get used to rotating your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. 2. one for righties and the other for lefties. Rotate your paper so the word “TOP” is on the side (Figure 929).

82 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 4. Figure 930L Figure 930R 5. Draw the second part of the shape (Figure 930). Figure 932L Figure 932R . Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the bottom (Figure 931). Draw the third part of the shape (Figure 932). Figure 931L Figure 931R 6.

Draw the final part of the shape (Figure 934). Figure 934L Figure 934R 9. Figure 933L Figure 933R 8.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 83 7. they are mirror images of one another. Examine your drawing of a circular shape while patting yourself on the head and standing on one foot. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the other side (Figure 933). Then. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the top again. When placed side by side. Figure 935L Figure 935R . compare my final lefty and righty drawings (Figure 935).

I have numbered each line (Figure 936). To help keep you on track. Again. you still need to turn your paper in different directions as you work.84 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Part 2: Straightsided shape In this section. you draw a ten-sided shape with straight lines. I show you how to draw very straight lines freehand (without a ruler). Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper. and refer to Figure 937 as you draw lines 1 and 2. Lefty’s need to rotate their paper for this step and righties don’t. 1. righty illustrations are on the right and lefty ones are on the left. Make sure you leave lots of room on your paper for the other eight lines that outline this shape. locate lines 1 and 2 in Figure 936. Righties and lefties draw the exact same shape this time (rather than mirror images). Figure 937L Figure 937R . However. Info Tidbit In Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. Figure 936: The lines are numbered in the order in which you draw them. Before you begin.

Take your time and refer back to Figure 936 if you get lost. Figure 939R Figure 939L 5. Figure 938L Figure 938R 4.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 85 3. Complete your drawing of the straight-sided shape by following along with figures 940 to 943. Rotate your paper and draw line 3 (Figure 938). Rotate your paper again and draw line 4 (Figure 939). By now you know how to follow along with illustrations to complete a drawing. .

I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years. But when I got to be 21. my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around.86 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 940L Figure 940R Figure 941R Figure 941L Art Quote “When I was a boy of 14.” Mark Twain .

Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 87 Figure 942L Figure 942R Figure 943R Figure 943L Rotate your paper until your shape is right-side-up again (Figure 944). and upside-down. what would it be? Try looking at it sideways. slanted. . Then stand up and wiggle your whole body! Figure 944: If this shape was part of a familiar object.

Follow along with Figures 946 to 950 to draw a circle. Measure and then mark a small dot (or line) at the halfway point of each of the four sides. 1. Figure 945: When you want a really good-looking circle. Your circle should only touch the sides of the square at each of these four marks. Part 3: Circle Most artists consider circles to be the most difficult shape to draw. You may be quite surprised by how well you do with help from your new skills using your natural hand movement and rotating your paper. simply ignore the square outlines in the illustrations. Figure 946L Figure 946R . In this section. You may prefer to draw a circle without drawing the square first. try drawing it inside a square. If so.88 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! A square can help you draw a better circle! 1. you try your hand at drawing a circle. 2. Use a ruler to measure and draw a square on your paper (Figure 945).

Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 89 Figure 947L Figure 947R Figure 948L Figure 948R Figure 949L Figure 949R .

Just for fun! So. and a circle. hair. and hats). Have fun transforming your shapes into something more interesting. How can you make them more interesting? Easy! Turn them into something or somebody. another with straight lines. now you have three very boring shapes (Figure 951). Figure 950 Figure 951 Figure 952: As a child. Then. ears. A few lines and squirkles (and an imagination) gave my shapes a little personality (Figure 952). . Stand up and turn around in a circle three times.90 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. You can turn each shape around in any direction. I spent many hours drawing random shapes and giving them faces (as well as noses. Erase your square outline (if you drew it). Challenge: Draw three more shapes: one with curved lines. use your imagination to turn each into something or somebody. Remember to use your natural hand movement and rotate your paper as you draw.

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ArtSpeak
Drawing from life refers to the process of drawing from an actual person, animal, or scene, rather than from a photograph or computer image. Landscape format (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 953). Portrait format (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 954).
Figure 953: A fun drawing of a
cartoon snake fits nicely into a landscape format.

Figure 954: A portrait format works well for this drawing of a giraffe.

► AC T I ON 9 F ◄

Framing with a Viewfinder
Goal: Use a viewfinder frame to choose a composition from a photograph, then set up a drawing space, and draw what you see inside the borders of the frame. Supplies needed: Photograph, viewfinder frame, ruler, drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and pencil sharpener.
Figure 956: Fishing shacks viewed
through a viewfinder frame.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Info Tidbit
Unfortunately, I was unable to put any actual scenes into this book (grin). Hence, this project (and many others) are based on photographs. However, keep in mind that the basic process for using a viewfinder frame with a photo is almost identical to viewing drawing subjects from life.

Three steps for framing a view
To give you an idea of how a viewfinder frame works, I have broken down the process into three basic steps (refer to Figure 957): 1. I choose a photo that I really like. It’s a landscape format, and I want to draw the fishing shacks in a portrait format. 2. I adjust the two parts of the viewfinder frame until I find a portrait format that I like. 3. I draw what I see inside the frame. (I decided not to draw the boat on the right.)

Figure 957: Working with a viewfinder frame includes:
(1) choosing a photo, (2) deciding on a composition, and (3) drawing what you see inside the frame’s opening.

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Create a sketch by framing your view
1. Choose a photograph. If you want to draw from a valuable or cherished photo, scan and print a copy rather than work from the original. Better still - take a photo of something simple that you want to draw and then print it. 2. Place your viewfinder frame on top of the photo and choose the section you want to draw. Continuously adjust both sections of the viewfinder frame until the part you want to draw is completely in view. Remember, you can choose either a square, vertical, or horizontal drawing format. Use a pen or pencil to mark small dots on the photo inside the four corners of the frame. Check out the small dots marked in blue in Figure 959. Remove the viewfinder frame, and use a ruler to connect the dots to outline a square or rectangle (Figure 960).

TIP!
Choose a photo that you really like! Make sure your subject is something that looks like it might be fun to draw. You may become bored with a subject that doesn’t appeal to you. Make sure the photo isn’t fuzzy, out of focus, or in really bright light or dark shadows. You can’t draw something you can’t see.

Figure 958: Photo
I took of a fun duckshaped candle that I wanted to draw.

Figure 959: The
section of the photo that I want to draw is framed inside a viewfinder frame.

or the cast shadow in my drawing. the background clutter. For example. if the outline on your photo is 2 by 3 inches. Examine the cast shadow (cast by the duck candle) on the surface of the table in the lower right of Figure 960. you can make a larger drawing by using a drawing format that is 4 by 6 inches (twice the size).94 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Cast shadow is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. Figure 961: I decided to do a simple line drawing of the duck-shaped candle. quack like a duck as you flap your arms like wings! . 3. I decided to not include the edge of the table. decide if you want to leave out something that you see in your photo. or 6 by 9 inches (three times the size of the original). For example. When you are done. outline a drawing space on your paper that is the same shape and proportions as the outlined section of your photo. A fun part of being an artist is that you can decide to change what you see in a photo before you draw. First of all. Draw your subject with any medium and in any way you want. Figure 960: The section of the photo that I want to draw is outlined. Then.

Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 95 Chapter 10 Three Simple Drawings ***************************************************************** This chapter presents three fun projects that put your new drawing skills into action. 1. The first challenges you to draw several shapes with curved lines. Be patient with yourself. erasers. and a 2B pencil.5 inches long. two arms and two legs. the second encourages you to put your squirkling skills into action to draw the pupil of an eye. Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately 3 inches wide by 5. and finally draw hands and feet. . Supplies needed: Paper. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement.from sketching lines to adding shading. ► AC T I ON 1 0 A ◄ Drawing a Caveperson Goal: Draw a human figure that looks like a prehistoric cave drawing. ruler. then add a head. In this project. drawing lines and shapes freehand requires lots of practice before you can do it well. you use curved lines to draw a body. Figure 1001: A simple drawing of a caveperson. and the third takes you through the entire process of drawing .

Draw the lower sections of the arms and the hands (Figure 1005). Draw a partial oval-shape (Figure 1002) as the main section of the body (called a torso). head. and legs. Figure 1002 Figure 1003 4. Plan where to draw the torso on your paper so you leave room for a head.96 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. the torso is a little closer to the left side of the rectangle than the right. if you look closely. and hands all fit nicely into the upper half of your drawing space. For example.the torso. Draw the upper part of the arms (Figure 1004). 5. . The upper part of the body is finished . 3. Add a head and neck (Figure 1003). arms. arms. the whole torso fits into the top half of the drawing space. Also.

Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 97 Figure 1004 Figure 1005 Art Quote Info Tidbit “The way to learn to do things is to do things. The way to learn a trade is to work at it. Their paint was often made from plants or animal blood.” Henry Ford Long before people learned to write. Begin with the determination to succeed. Success teaches how to succeed. they used bones or sticks dipped into paint to draw their stories on the walls of caves. . and the work is half done already.

hunters with bows. Draw the lower parts of the legs and the feet (Figure 1007). Figure 1006 Figure 1007 Challenge: Use your imagination to create other prehistoric drawings.98 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Add the upper legs and knees (Figure 1006). . For instance. Figure 1008: Five prehistoric cave drawings. you can draw animals. 3. Refer to Figure 1008 for ideas. or people dancing around a fire.

and 6B pencils. and highlight (3). 1. pupil (2). and white of the eye (5). an iris. Figure 1010: A drawing of an eyeball with an iris (1). Highlight (3) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. Remember to press very lightly. and the edge of the upper eyelid. Upper eyelid (4) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. Refer to Figure 1012. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circular shape as the iris of an eye. upper eyelid (4). and a pencil sharpener. Supplies needed: Paper. HB. Figure 1009: The parts of an eye include the: iris (1). 2B. pupil (2). pupil. Eyeball (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is protected inside an opening in the skull (Figure 1010). kneaded and vinyl erasers.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 99 ArtSpeak Iris (1) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil (2) (defined on page 21). . sandpaper block. In this project. Figure 1011: Simple drawing of a pupil. ► AC T I ON 1 0 B ◄ A Realistic Eye Goal: Lightly sketch the shapes of an iris. and iris. and highlight and add shading with squirkles. highlight (3). you focus on the highlight. as well as the edge of the upper eyelid. pupil. a highlight.

Add a slightly curved line cutting through the upper section of the iris (Figure 1015). Figure 1015 Figure 1016 . Use your kneaded eraser to gently erase the section of the iris above the edge of the upper eyelid (Figure 1016). This is the highlight.100 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. The upper sections of irises are usually hidden under the upper eyelid (represented by a simple curved line). 5. Use a curved line (almost a circle) to draw the pupil of the eye (Figure 1014). Figure 1012 Figure 1013 Figure 1014 4. Sketch a small circular shape in the upper left section of the iris (Figure 1013). 3. Its location indicates that a light is shining on the eye from the upper left. This line represents the lower edge of the upper eyelid. This curved line begins and ends at the highlight.

The more uneven you draw the squirkles.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 101 ArtSpeak Shadow refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. Add a few tiny squirkles to the iris with an HB pencil (Figure 1018). Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being (1). . or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow) (2). Figure 1018: The overall value of the iris is light. The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid. Press gently with a 2B pencil to make the shading closest to the edge of the upper eyelid even darker. some lines need to have large curves and others should be smaller. Figure 1017: A light source from the upper left creates a shadow (1) on the lower right surface of an egg. Press very gently on your pencil to keep the lines light. as well as a cast shadow (2) on the surface on which the egg sits. and lots of white paper is showing through. 7. the better the shading of the eye will look. 6. make sure your squirkle lines curve in all different directions. Also. Press firmly with an HB pencil to add slightly darker shading around the edges of the iris (especially next to the edge of the eyelid). Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to shade in the dark values of the iris (Figure 1019). Therefore.

Figure 1019: The shading is darker in the upper section of the iris and around its edges. Close your eyes lightly. The darkest shading of all is in the pupil. 3. . the highlight is left white. 4. Rub your hands together quickly until the palms of your hands feel warm. and this time press firmly (but not too hard) to make the outer edges of the iris and the shadow under the upper eyelid darker. Now. Make sure your pencil is freshly sharpened. you should see very few white spaces still showing in these sections. Cover each of your eyes gently with the palm of a hand (the section close to your wrist). Use your 2B pencil again. Place your fingers lightly on your forehead. Relax your body and stay in this position for two minutes. Some of the light shading is still showing around the lower section of the pupil. Figure 1020: The darkest shading in the iris is directly below the edge of the upper eyelid. 10. 9. At this point. 2. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. sit comfortably in your chair and relax your eyes as follows: 1. Use a 6B pencil and squirkles to fill in the pupil (Figure 1020).102 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. Add the darkest shading of the iris (Figure 1020). Naturally. 5.

Many drawing subjects. and ears are symmetrical. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side. kneaded and vinyl erasers. Line of symmetry is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). In this project. sandpaper block. and 6B pencils. both sides need to be symmetrical. HB. Figure 1023: The center of a drawing of wings that do not touch is marked with a line of symmetry. such as vases and frontal views of faces. In other words. Figure 1021: The wings in this drawing are symmetrical. Supplies needed: Paper. Figure 1022: A line of symmetry (shown in blue) identifies the center point of wings that touch. shapes. face. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Mugly Wigglebottom Goal: Use a line of symmetry to outline a cartoon and then add shading with squirkles. and a pencil sharpener. simple illustrated instructions guide you through the process of drawing an adorable puppy. dividing it in half.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 103 ArtSpeak Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines. 2B. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. 2H. . each is a mirror image of the other. Figure 1024: Mugley’s nose. 4B. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (which is often imaginary).

Figure 1025 . Mine is 4 by 4 inches. Measure carefully! My line of symmetry is two inches from each side of my drawing space. A line of symmetry helps you draw both sides of Mugly symmetrical. Outlining Mugly with neat lines In this section. Draw a very faint line of symmetry down the center of your page. remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay crisp and thin.104 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Protect your drawing as you work! Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. but feel free to make your drawing space larger. Each time you work on a new section. 1. Refer to Figure 1025. This prevents you from smudging your drawing. Use your ruler and an HB pencil to outline a square drawing space. 2. and facial features proportionately correct. your goal is to use a line of symmetry to draw Mugly’s head. ears.

Both sides of his muzzle are approximately the same size and shape. Draw a smaller oval (his nose) inside the large one (Figure 1027). 5. Use an HB pencil to sketch a wide oval as the lower section of Mugly’s head (also called a muzzle) (Figure 1026). Leave lots of space above and on the sides for the top of his head and ears. His nose and mouth need to fit inside this oval. His mouth is slightly to the right of the line of symmetry (just to give him a little extra personality). 4. Figure 1026 Figure 1027 . Add a tiny circle below his nose as his mouth.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 105 3. You can use a ruler to measure distances if you want.

7. Examine the reflection of your drawing in a mirror to help locate problem areas. Seeing his head in reverse gives you a brand new perspective on its symmetry.106 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 6. Add two curved lines as the sides of the upper part of his head (Figure 1028). Take note that these lines are also symmetrical. Pay close attention to where each line begins and ends. Figure 1028 Figure 1029 . Erase and redraw any sections with which you are not happy. Draw another curved line as the top of his head (Figure 1029). His very long ears will extend above this line and below the lower edge of his chin.

Draw his eyes (Figures 1032 and 1033). Compare your drawing to Figure 1033 and make any changes you feel are needed. Draw his long floppy ears (Figures 1030 and 1031). Figure 1032 You may prefer to turn your drawing paper upside-down to draw his eyes. His eyes are upside-down U-shapes with circles inside.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 107 8. . Figure 1030 Figure 1031 9. Continue referring to your line of symmetry to keep his ears symmetrical.

108 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 1033 Use your vinyl or kneaded eraser to carefully erase your line of symmetry. draw the value scale on a separate sheet of paper. Squirkling shading for Mugly In this section. Redraw any sections that were accidently erased. Figure 1034 . Number each value from 1 to 5 and mark the grades of the pencils used. Refer to Action 9B on page 72. You may have room in an upper or lower corner of the same sheet you are using for drawing Mugly. If not. Draw a value scale to use as a shading guide (Figure 1034). your goal is to add shading and texture to Mugly with squirkles. 10.

Do not rush your shading. Figure 1035 Figure 1036 . the overall shading on the left needs to be slightly lighter than on the right.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 109 11. Draw the squirkles very carefully and slowly. Assume a direct light source is shining from the upper left. Use your imagination to think of Mugly as threedimensional to help you decide which areas are in shadow. Use a 1-2H value (Figure 1034) to add the shading you see in Figures 1035 to 1038. Therefore.

your speed will increase all by itself. Very light squirkles are all around the edges of the nose except for a section in the upper right that is left white. this shadow area on the nose becomes even darker when you switch to a darker pencil. A few extra squirkles are added to the nose over a small section of the first layer to create a crescent shape in the lower left. Figure 1037 Figure 1038 . Before you add shading to the nose. As you soon discover. take note of the locations of the squirkles.110 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started When your shading skills become strong.

In Figure 1040. Begin with the ear on the left. Don’t miss the dark shadows cast from his ears onto his upper head. Figure 1039 Figure 1040 . Use a 2-HB value to add medium values (Figures 1039 to 1042).Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 111 11. Only add medium values over those light values that are closest to the edges of the various shapes. the highlights of the eyes are outlined so you remember to leave them white. Leave the inner sections of shading light.

Figure 1042 . Figure 1041 The crescent shape of the nose becomes darker when you add middle values (Figure 1042). and the tiny round opening that is his mouth (Figure 1041).112 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Medium values are added along the edges of the lower section of his muzzle.

Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 113 11. refer to the close-up view in Figure 1044. Feel free to outline the pupil before you begin shading the eyes. Also. Use value 3-2B for the dark shading on the outer edges of his left ear and upper head. If you want. Add shading to his eyes and the darkest shadow sections of his fur. Figure 1043 Figure 1044 . Use 3-2B and 4-4B values to add shading to his eyes. Refer to Figures 1043 to 1046. you can shade Mugly’s eyes the same as in Project 10B: A Realistic Eye.

Don’t miss the shadow on his lower face cast by his nose (Figure 1046). Sign your name and write the date completed on the back of each. Use a 5-6B value to make the mouth and the pupils of his eyes a little darker. Put all your drawings away in a safe place. Figure 1045 Collect all the drawings you completed as you worked through this book. Then.114 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Additional dark values are added to tiny sections of his fur and nose in the darkest shadow sections. gather your drawing supplies and create more drawings of subjects you enjoy! Figure 1046 . 12.

) Charcoal sticks (Page 25) are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. (As an aside. ArtSpeak sidebars help you understand the meanings of drawing words and terms that appear in the exercises and projects in this book. As with graphite. Knowing the meanings of these words allows you to better understand the text. Composition (Page 45) refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. Charcoal pencils (Page 25) have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. . Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. your drawing experiences become more enjoyable.Glossary 115 ***************************************************************** This glossary provides definitions of most of the art-related words and terms used throughout this book. many archeologists have excellent drawing skills. Charcoal (Page 25) is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood). charcoal comes in various grades. Classical drawing (Page 3) refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). Archaeologist (Page 10) is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. clay is mixed with graphite to make graphite drawing mediums. Clay (Page 17) is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. For example. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. Clips (Page 49) (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board. ArtSpeak (Page 1) is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. and less frustrating! Glossary Acid-free (Page 37) refers to a highquality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process. Hence. Cast shadow (Page 94) is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. Blending (Page 78) is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper.

lightweight.116 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Curved line is created when a straight line curves or bends. Graphite (Page 17) is a soft black form of opaque (non-transparent) carbon found in nature. Drawing (verb) (Page 1) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image. the first figure in this book (Figure 01) is a drawing of a hand sketching a cartoon. Highlight (Page 99) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. For example. drawing powder can be made by using coarse sandpaper to wear away sections of graphite and charcoal sticks. Drawing powder (Page 31) refers to tiny loose particles of a drawing medium that have been broken down from a solid into a powder. rectangle. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. such as a square. For example. Figure (Page 11) refers to the body of a human being. The hard cover protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. Drawing from life (Page 91) refers to the process of drawing from an actual person. Drawing stick (Page 26) is a drawing tool that is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a round or rectangular chunk. Drawing space (Page 45) (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. Drawing (noun) (Page 1) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium. Fresco (Page 12) is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Curved lines can be drawn in any direction and be any length. Drafting desk (Page 49) (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top. frescoes that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. or scene. or a shape you outline on your paper. Figure (Page 1) is a diagram or picture that illustrates text. . rather than a photograph or computer image. For example. smooth surface used to support an artist’s sketchbook or drawing paper. Grade (Page 17) refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums. animal. Hardcover (Page 37) refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material. Eyeball (Page 99) (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is safely protected within an opening in the skull. Drawing board (Page 49) is a portable. or circle.

For example. Kneaded eraser (Page 42) is an artist’s tool made of a grey or white pliable material that can be shaped by hand for accurate erasing. Mechanical pencil (Page 26) is a drawing tool that has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead. woman. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. Mummy portrait (Page 12) is an ancient painting of a man. or child that was attached to the face of a burial mummy. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. from the tiny tube inside the holder. Line of symmetry (Page 103) is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). Hot pressed (Page 37) refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. Master (Page 13) refers to someone who is an expert in a specific profession or area of study. For example. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. Metalpoint (Page 18) is a thin stick used for drawing and made from a type of metal. Most manikins have bendable joints so they can be manipulated into various poses. For example. Some books (such as a picture book) have only illustrations and no text. Landscape format (Page 91) (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom. historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. but can become too dirty to work properly.Glossary 117 History (Page 10) is a written record of the past. . Others have mostly illustrations and a small amount of text to describe each illustration. Manikin (Page 41) is a model of a figure or animal (often made of wood) that is used for learning how to draw. Kneaded erasers are designed to absorb and pick up particles of graphite and charcoal without leaving behind eraser crumbs. Iris (Page 99) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side. through the tip. in this book ArtSpeak sidebars are identified with a circular. Icon (Page 2) is a visual image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. Media (Page 43) (also called mediums) refers to more than one drawing medium. Medium (Page 1) refers to a drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface. Leadpoint (Page 18) (also called a stylus) is a thin metal stick made of lead and used for drawing. cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. They do not wear away like other types of erasers. Leonardo da Vinci was a master of painting and drawing. Illustration (Page 2) is an image (such as a drawing or photograph) that is used to enhance the reader’s understanding of text and (or) make text more interesting. dividing it in half.

For example. For example. Sculpture (Page 12) is a threedimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. Prehistoric (Page 10) describes the period in time before written language was used to record history. or marble. Sculptor (Page 12) is an artist who creates sculptures. For example. and one of his most famous sculptures is the statue of David. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. On the other hand. ceiling. Score (Page 59) is the process of cutting very slightly into a thin object (such as cardboard or heavy paper) so as to fold it evenly. dark circular-shaped part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. Self-portrait (Page 71) is a drawing or painting an artist creates using his or her own face and (or) body as a model. A self portrait is usually rendered by memory or by drawing his or her reflection in a mirror. . Portrait format (Page 91) (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom. Realism (Page 3) is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. Shading (noun) (Page 2) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. a regular pencil (also called a woodencased pencil) has a medium encased inside a wooden cylinder. Pupil of an eye (Page 21) is the tiny. the process of drawing a turtle can also be referred to as rendering a drawing of a turtle. Render (Page 3) describes the process of making something happen. Sandpaper block (Page 26) is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. Pencil (Page 1) refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have a medium inside a holder. a very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. or other large surface. Shading (verb) (Page 2) is the process of adding values to a drawing. For example. a mechanical pencil holds replaceable thin cylindrical sticks of medium that are manually loaded into a tiny tube inside a holder. Many prehistoric humans drew pictures on the walls of caves instead. murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs.118 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mural (Page 12) is a drawing or painting on a wall. Right angle (Page 64) is created when a horizontal straight line meets a vertical straight line at a ninety-degree angle. rock. Portfolio (Page 10) is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage. Regular pencil (Page 1) (also called a wood-encased pencil) has a drawing medium encased inside a cylindrical wooden casing. Renaissance (Page 3) (from the French word for rebirth) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century.

Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle. patience. Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners as well as highly realistic works by professional artists. Spray fixative (Page 41) is a transparent coating sprayed onto an artwork to help the medium adhere to the paper. Each side provides a mirror image of the other. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines and (or) shading. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education. gold. shapes. go look in a mirror! With commitment. Style (Page 11) refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. animals. styluses were also made from silver. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. Symmetry (Page 103) is a balanced arrangement of lines. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (the center line is often imaginary). and dedication. Sidebar (Page 1) is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. both sides are symmetrical.Glossary 119 Shadow (Page 101) refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. realism is a well-known style. you can turn your talent into a skill. Sketch (verb) (Page 2) refers to the process of doing a sketch. Many drawing subjects. Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. Subject (Page 11) refers to whatever an artist chooses to draw. a sidebar called ArtSpeak provides you with definitions of art words and terms. or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow). Straight line (Page 65) provides the shortest connection between any two points. so the drawing doesn’t smudge. objects. To find out what a talented person looks like. Stylus (Page 18) (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. Squirkling (Page 72) is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values. For example. For example. Shape (Page 3) refers to the outward outline of a three-dimensional object. . Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being. Talent (Page 10) refers to the process of self-discovery during which you realize that you have the interest and motivation needed to become exceptional in a specific area. In this book. and scenery. Softcover (Page 37) describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper. popular drawing subjects include people. however. During the Renaissance. such as vases and frontal views of faces. flowers. or copper. In other words. Sketch (noun) (Page 2) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject.

and a general knowledge of the object. For example. a sense of touch. paintings. . Tooth (Page 33) refers to the surface texture of paper. Values (Page 2) are the different shades of gray made when adding shading to a drawing. Woodless pencil (Page 26) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. figures. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art. Vision (Page 1) is the ability to see. Wood-encased pencil (Page 26) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky. Upper eyelid (Page 99) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. nonabrasive artist’s tool that erases graphite and charcoal more cleanly than a regular pink eraser (which has been known to make holes in paper and ruin drawings). medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture. and can be used for portraits. more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing. For example. Vinyl eraser (Page 41) is soft. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight.120 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Technique (Page 11) is a well known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task. Texture (Page 34) refers to the surface detail of an object. an artist’s selection of a shading technique is generally based on his or her skill level. It’s an invaluable tool for planning a composition. Hence. Value scale (Page 72) is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light. landscapes. and what works best to capture the subject. see-through rectangular or square frame that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints. Text (Page 2) refers to the words used in writing. Underdrawing (Page 16) is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). Viewfinder frame (Page 45) is an adjustable. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. or any other drawing subject. Visual art (Page 12) refers to artworks (such as drawings. The type of texture can be identified with vision.

and spray fixative ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Supplies to add to your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your medium as you draw ► Discover your natural hand movement ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom . viewfinder frame.In this book: ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. mechanical. and ruler ► Manikins. display boards. sizes. and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures. portfolio.

. And now. Doctoral Student. in creating a passion for the subject matter. author of Drawing for Dummies.. after years of study.. and inclusive education.com. Hence. and owner of Drawspace. reflective practice.S.drawspace.) Drawing Book 1: Getting Started is the first in a series of instructional books for homeschooling families and selfdirected learners.$20. forensic artist (retired). University of Calgary My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. M. “My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach). Roughley B.00 (U. Brenda Hoddinott Art educator.com .” Robert A. visual artist.Ed. illustrator. University of Calgary Instructor. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education. and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started. Published by http://www. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People.. Teaching and Learning Centre. B.Ed.A. MC. BAEd.. the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.

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