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TRENDS OF GLOBALIZATION IN THE ACADEMIC AND POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION

IN THE TOURISTIC DOMAIN

This paper aims to reflect some concernments concerning the training at academic level from the touristic domain and highlighting of its
peculiarities. To highlight these features were studied the educational offerings of some European, American, Asiatic and Australian
universities, both public and private. The methods used such as the statistical analysis, comparative studies, the historical evolutionary
method allowed the authors to include in its totality the globalization phenomenon manifested and in the touristic education domain.
This work is a systematic research of the phenomenon on the part of the authors and are is one of the first attempts of analysis of the
advantage of intervened changes after the accentuation of globalization and of the reforms from the academic and postgraduate academic
domain.
The effectuated analysis revealed the multitude of similarities within the curriculum, but also the emphasis of the globalization
phenomenon in the academic education domain. The international tourism is facing with serious problems: the growth rhythm is
decreasing, is reduced the share of the branch in the system of global commerce, is worsening the global tourism state because of the
global economic crisis.

Key words: higher education, tourism, globalization, curriculum, economic crisis.

researchers working in for example gender studies and


INTRODUCTION cultural

We can say that we talk of globalization when the


available goods and services, or the social and cultural
influences, tend to gradually become similar in all parts
of the world. In this century when the touristic activities
are present all around the world, is being imposed that
and the touristic education, regardless of the level, to
align to a standardization.
At the successful development of the tourism
participates as an important factor and the providing of
an appropriate education. Meanwhile, the needs of
touristic development must be reflected in the
curriculum. This paper explores the relationship
between education and development. The tourism
development is a complex process which requires a
wide range of knowledge. Figure 1: Tourism, knowledge and the curriculum

PRIOR WORK MATERIAL AND METHODS

Turning to tourism knowledge, Tribe (1997) The methods used such as the statistical analysis,
suggests that knowledge about tourism is organized comparative studies, the historical evolutionary method
through the established disciplines (e.g. economics, allowed the authors to include in its totality the
anthropology), through interdisciplinary approaches globalization phenomenon manifested and in the
(e.g. environmental studies, marketing) and through touristic education domain.
extra-disciplinary approaches (e.g. customer service). Benefits of globalization for higher education
Tribe further postulated that a coalition of approaches First it must be emphasized the standardization. The
(mainly interdisciplinary and extra-disciplinary) under terminology, measurement instruments, research
the banner of tourism business studies had established a methodology in all the fields of study must be
substantial inroad and major presence in the study of standardized to ensure efficient communication.
tourism. However, things have changed somewhat since Secondly, the easiness of the quality evaluation - it
Tribe’s 1997 analysis. First there has been an requires landmarks and a set of measurable quality
extraordinary burst of research activity and articles indicators. The university web pages and printed
relating to sustainable tourism. Second a new wave of materials create access to information and allow the
tourism research is gathering momentum concentrating observers accessing from outside to appreciate the
on “studies” rather than “business”. The increasing quality of the academic programs, facilities and the
interest in such approaches is signaled by new journal research activities.
titles such as Tourist Studies and the Journal of Tourism Thirdly, the intellectual understanding -
and Cultural Change and new approaches include those globalization has great potential for strengthening the
using interpretive and critical methodologies by intercultural understanding. In addition to the
2 The 6th International Seminar Quality Management in Higher Education – QMHE2010

understanding of own culture, the students, masters,


doctoral students must learn that are and other cultures Ratio of upper
and other beliefs. Upper secondary secondary gross
In fourth place, the reasonableness - if the students, education, gross enrolment ratio
enrolment ratio over tertiary gross
are studying the same learning materials, regardless of Region enrolment ratio
where they get the education and the quality of training
is of the same quality, and then the graduates from
institutions around the world will have more equal 1970 2007
1970 2007
opportunities to have success in all domains.
Arab States 46,5 52,1 2,4 2,4
Global trends in tertiary education
Central and
Eastern 80,1 85,4 2,1 1,4
The number of students who follow a higher Europe
education learning form has increased greatly in the past Central
82,8 89,2 4,7 3,7
decades, is about a fivefold increase from 28,6 million Asia
in 1970 to 152.5 million in 2007. This is translated into East Asia
an average annual increase of 4.6%, with a doubling of and the 46,3 62,9 3,3 2,4
students of the student’s number at every 15 years. But Pacific
following closely the data it can be seen that students’ Latin
boom number is registered since 2000, with 51.7 America
61,6 73,5 2,9 2,1
and the
millions of new enrolled students. Caribbean
Since 2000, in the East Asia and Pacific the number North
grew by an average of 10% each year, compared with America
6% for the period between 1970 and 2000. After 2000 and 98,2 97,7 1,6 1,4
the region has become a world leader in terms of student Western
numbers, surpassing North America and Western Europe
Europe. This is due primarily to China. South and
30,6 39,3 4,2 3,4
The expansion was significantly slower in the West Asia
Southern Europe and West Asia, with an annual average Sub-
growth rate pf 5.2%. The region has witnessed a Saharan 19,4 26,3 5,3 4,7
Africa
maximum increase of 7% during the 1990’s, but in fact,
the rates have decreased since 2000 – in contrast to the WORLD 45,5 54,3 2,6 2,1
trends from other regions. In ensemble, the total number Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Statistical
of students increased almost six-fold from 2.8 to 18.5 Table 5 for 2007; UIS Data Centre (http://stats.uis.unesco.org)
million between 1970 and 2007. for 1999.
By analyzing the growth or decline trends of the
students worldwide, we can better assess the changes in Knowledge and tourism development
the size of higher education systems. This perspective is
essential to approach the issues of funding or personnel, For the development of the knowledge and touristic
for example, in parallel with the explosive development curriculum are required four interdisciplinary groups.
of the touristic industry. Obviously, a further study is The first can be made up of finance, marketing and the
needed to understand the new opportunities and human resources development, geography. The second
challenges that arise with this rapid growth of both and third refer to the micro and macro levels of the
sectors: education and tourism. development process itself, namely, the projects
Perhaps mist important would be to ask ourselves to assessment and policies and of planning. The fourth
what extent the university systems can match the extends into a broader context of sustainability, ethic.
growing number of students, with the labor market but Ultimately, the development decisions require a
also with the needs of quality and with the trends of combination of knowledge, both theoretical and
curriculum globalization. In the same time the practical. Successful tourist development depends in
international tourism is confronting with serious part upon appropriate education provision. At the same
problems: decrease the growth rate, is reduced the share time, the needs of tourist development must inform the
of the branch in the world trade system, is worsen the education curriculum.
global tourism state because of the global economic
crisis.
This situation requires a multilateral and
comprehensive research of the perspectives and trends
of further development, as well as and the elaboration of
some measures to restore the branch location and role in
the international commerce with goods and services.
Table 1. Enrolments in 1970 and 2007
Trends of Globalization in The Academic And Postgraduate Education in The Touristic Domain 3

not surprising, given the relatively recent origin of


tourism as a field of study. It was developed, based on
subject like, economy, geography, planning,
environmental studies to name a few, and allowed the
tourism to expand into a wider field of expertise.
Table 2 Curriculum Content
Vocational Action Liberal Action
· Tourism Marketing · Tourism and the
· HR Management Environment
· Business Development · Planning and
· Foreign Languages Development
· Entrepreneurship · Sustainable Tourism
· Quality Service
· Information Technology

Reflective Vocational Reflective Liberal


· Problem Solving · Tourism and Politics
· Creative Thinking · Culture and Heritage

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Source: Adapted from David Aiery, 2007
Figure 2: Tourism development The effectuated analysis revealed the multitude of
similarities within the curriculum, but also the emphasis
Tourism knowledge and curriculum of the globalization phenomenon in the academic
education domain. The international tourism is facing
with serious problems: the growth rhythm is decreasing,
is reduced the share of the branch in the system of
The curriculum term has several meanings over time
global commerce, is worsening the global tourism state
and initially focused on clarifying its various meanings
because of the global economic crisis.
and on its boundaries. A simple definition of the
The contemporary development of the civilization is
curriculum can be found in Taylor and Richards (1985)
characterized by principled and radical changes that are
who define the curriculum as being what is taught.
observed in all spheres of society. But these changes
A more complex definitions, is given by Kerr
bear a contradictory character. The global partnership,
(1968), who includes a much wider experience in the
globalization as phenomenon, has its theoretical basis,
classroom time. There is also a literature that reveals a
indicators (the population increase, of GDP, commerce,
hidden side of the curriculum (Snyder, 1971, Combleth
and migration), components (international production,
1984, Graves 1983). Here the accent doesn’t fall only on
reformed political relations), and promoting mechanism
the explicit goals and objectives of the curriculum, but
(economic, political, technical, social) consequences. In
on the default values that accompany it.
the advancement of globalization, often are used
In fact, the term curriculum is more widely used and
imposition mechanisms in their various combinations.
accepted in the compulsory education, then in higher
There were formulated postulates of globalization.
education and, there still exist universities globally
However, real, the globalization is yet in early stages of
where is traditional that the discipline dictate what
its development. In world it hasn’t constituted a unitary
should be taught.
social and economical system. The propagation of the
Currently, is used the following concept for
European and American culture us accompanied by the
curriculum as being a program of educational
revival of the autochthon civilized religious and cultural
experiences that is packaged as in a program of high
values. The international tourism has become the
quality, and its component parts are a series of modules
permanent “generator” of development of the global
or courses, which, in turns can specify the course
integration processes in the last decades.
content. A core curriculum is a mandatory element. The
Today’s tourism is one of the driving forces of
curriculum content includes knowledge, skills and
global economy. It is increasing the number of
attitudes. The students from the education with touristic
international tourist arrivals and the tourism revenues.
profile benefit by the curriculum with specific skills and
The tourism industry produces over 10% of global
competences.
GDP. In Europe, the tourism produces directly 5% of
The interested parties have two main roles in the
European GDP and another 10% indirectly.
educational process: firstly to influence the strategic
The tourism industry based on the principles on the
leading of education through curriculum planning; and
Global Code of Tourism Ethics is a tool for achieving
secondly, of performance measurement, especially
the objectives of millennium development of ONU. The
through the quality management process. From the
tourism plays a key role in the balance of payments of
historical point of view, knowledge, extra-disciplinary
many countries, especially, of the smallest states in
played an important role in the tourism curricula. This is
4 The 6th International Seminar Quality Management in Higher Education – QMHE2010

development, for which, this often is the only mean of - understanding the role of tourism in the
competitive fighting in the global dynamic industry of communities, that organize touristic activities and
services. receive tourists;
The jobs in the touristic companies are created - to be able to asses the contribution and the tourism
frequently in the regions less developed, thus opening impact from social, economical, political, cultural
economic opportunities in front of the inhabitants from and environmental point of view;
the most various parts of the worlds and improving the - to understand and be able to asses management
social life in the rural areas. strategies to develop the tourism, through concepts
of policy and planning;
CONCLUSIONS - asses the ethical issues associated with the
operation and development of the tourism to be able
to explain the patterns and characteristics of the
All those who are concerned about the university
touristic demand and the influences on the demand;
curricula in the field of tourism studies, are following,
largely, the same principles. They consider, under the - to know how the tourist behave at destinations
sign of globalization, as a graduate regardless of the
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