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184 deck width. The steel girders have Fy= 350 Mpa and all concrete has a 28-day compressive strength of f’c= 28 The concrete slab is 203 mm thick. A typical 2” haunch was used in the section properties. γc = 24 KN/m3 , γwearing =22.5 KN/m3 Concrete barrier 380 mm. wide and weighs 9.34 KN/m and Allow for a future wearing surface of 75mm. thick bituminous overlay. Consider the outline of AASHTO (2005) LRFD Bridge Specifications, Section 6.

Solution

A. Develop Typical Section 1. I-Girder a. Composite or Noncomposite Section [A6.10.1.1] This bridge is noncomposite, does not have shear connectors, and the shear strength should follow [A.6.10.10]. b. Nonhybrid [A6.10.1.3] This cross section is a rolled beam and the same material properties are used throughout the cross section. The section is nonhybrid. c. Variable Web Depth [A6.10.1.4] The section depth is prismatic and variable-depth provisions are not applicable. d. Section Properties: Girder spacing, S = (2438 mm) Span length, L = (10,668 mm) Deck thickness, ts = (203 mm) Deck modulus of elasticity, Ec = (24,827.6 MPa) Girder modulus of elasticity, Es = (200,000 MPa) Modular ratio, n = Es /Ec =200,000 /24,827.6 = 8.05; use 8 Girder area, Ag = (20452 mm2) Girder moment of inertia, Ig = 4470 in.4 (1860.55×106 mm4)

1

Girder eccentricity, eg= 0

(for noncomposite section) .

Stiffness parameter, Kg = n(Ig + eg2 Ag ) = 8×(1860.55×106) = 14884.4×106 mm4

B. Design Conventionally Reinforced Concrete Deck : The deck will be designed later on C. Select Resistance Factor . Strength Limit State φ Flexure Shear D. Select Load Modifiers η.

Strength Service Fatigue

[A6.5.4.2] 1.00 1.00

1. Ductility, ηD 2. Redundancy, ηR 3. Importance, ηI η = ηDηRηI

[A1.3.3] [A1.3.4] [A1.3.5] [A1.3.2.1]

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 N/A 1.0

1.0 1.0 N/A 1.0

E. Select Load Combination and Load Factors 1. Strength I Limit State: U = η[1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL + IM) + 1.0FR + γTGTG] 2. Service I Limit State: U = η[1.0(DC + DW ) + 1.0(LL + IM) + 0.3(WS + WL) + 1.0FR] 3. Service II Limit State: U = η[1.0(DC + DW ) + 1.3(LL + IM)] 4. Fatigue and Fracture Limit State: U = η[0.75(LL + IM)] F. Calculate Distribution Factors:

.

**1. Distribution Factor for Moment [A4.6.2.2.2] a. Interior Beams [A4.6.2.2.2b] (Table 6.5) One design lane loaded:
𝑆𝐼**

𝑚𝑔𝑀
𝑆

= 0.06 + 4300

0.4

0.4 𝑆

𝐿

0.3

0.3 𝑘𝑔

3 𝐿𝑡𝑠

0.1 𝑆𝐼

𝑚𝑔𝑀

2438 = 0.06 + 4300

2438 10668

14884.4 × 106

0.1

10668 × 2033

= 0.4878

**Two or more design lanes loaded:
𝑀𝐼**

𝑚𝑔𝑀
𝑆

= 0.075 + 2900

0.6 𝑆

𝐿

0.2 𝑘𝑔

3 𝐿𝑡𝑠

0.1 𝑀𝐼

𝑚𝑔𝑀 = 0.075 +

2438

2900

0.6

2438 10668

2

0.2

14884.4 × 106

0.1

10668 × 2033

= 0.6357

b. Exterior Beams [A4.6.2.2.2d] (Table 6.5) [Table A4.62.2.2d-1] One design lane loaded—lever rule: 𝑅

= 𝑃

638+2438 2 2438

= 0.631𝑃 𝑆𝐸

𝑚𝑔𝑀 = 1.2 × 0.631 = .757

**Two or more design lanes loaded:
𝑀𝐸**

𝑀𝐼 𝑚𝑔𝑀 = 𝑒 × 𝑚𝑔𝑀
𝑒

= 0.77 + 𝑑𝑒

≥1 2800

**e=0.77+610/2800=0.987 ≤ 1 use 1
𝑀𝐸**

𝑚𝑔𝑀 = 0.6357

**2. Distribution Factor for Shear [A4.6.2.2.3]: a. Interior Beams [A4.6.2.2.2a] One design lane loaded
𝑆𝐼**

𝑚𝑔𝑉 = 0.36 +
𝑆

2438 = 0.36 + = 0.68 7800 7800

**Two or more design lanes loaded:
𝑀𝐼**

𝑚𝑔𝑉
𝑆

𝑆 = 0.2 + − 3600 10700

0.2

2438 2438 = 0.36 + − 7800 10700

0.2

= 0.83

**b. Exterior Beams [A4.6.2.2.2b] One design lane loaded—lever rule
𝑆𝐸**

𝑚𝑔𝑉

= 1.2 × 0.631 = .757

Two or more design lanes loaded
𝑀𝐼

= 𝑒 × 𝑚𝑔𝑉 𝑑𝑒 3000
𝑀𝐸

𝑚𝑔𝑉 𝑒

= 0.6 +

= 0.8 𝑀𝐸

𝑚𝑔𝑉 = 0.8 × 0.83 = 0.667

3

G. Calculate Live-Load Force Effects: 1. Select Live Loads [A3.6.1] and Number of Lanes [A3.6.1.1.1] Select Number of Lanes [A3.6.1.1.1]: NL = INT(w/3.6) = INT(13.424/3.6) =3.73 ≈ 3 lanes 2. Multiple Presence [A3.6.1.1.2] (Table 4.6) No. of Loaded Lanes M 1 1.20 2 1.00 3 0.85 3. Dynamic Load Allowance [A3.6.2] (Table 4.7) Component IM (%) Deck joints 75 Fatigue 15 All other 33 Not applied to the design lane load 4. Max Moment : The following design vehicular live load cases described in AASHTO-LRFD are considered:

1. The effect of a design tandem combined with the effect of the lane loading. The design tandem consists of two 110 KN axles spaced 1.2 m apart. The lane loading consists of a 9.37 KN/m uniform load on all spans of the bridge. (HL-93M) 2. The effect of one design truck with variable axle spacing combined with the effect of the 9.37 KN/m lane loading. (HL-93K)

MLL+IM =mg ((MTruck or MTandem)(1+IM)+ MLane ) MTruck = 145(2.667)+(145 + 35)(0.5334)=482.73 KN.m MTandem = 110(2.667+2.05) = 520.74 KN.m (governs) MFatigue = 145(2.667)+ 35(0.5334) = 405.4 KN.m (used later)

**MLane =(9.37*10.6682)/8 =133.29 KN.m
**

4

Truck, tandem, and lane load placement for maximum moment at location 105.

Fatigue truck placement for maximum moment.

The absolute moment due to the tandem actually occurs under the wheel closest to the resultant when the cg of the wheels on the span and the critical wheel are equidistant from the centreline of the span. For this span, the absolute maximum moment is 526.15 KN.m. However, the value of 520.74 KN.m is used because the moments due to other loads are maximum at the centreline and thus can be added to the tandem load moment:

MLL+IM =0.757*(1.33*520.74+133.29) =625 KN.m Mfatigue+IM = (0.757/1.2)[ 405.4 (1.15)]= 294.1 KN.m

5

5. Max Shear :

**VLL+IM = mg((VTruck or VTandem)*(1 + IM/100)+ VLane
**

VTruck = 238.335 KN governs VTandem = 207.62 KN VLane = 50 KN VFatigue = 165.9 KN (used later)

VLL+IM = 0.83[238.335 (1.33) + 50] = 367 KN VFatigue+IM = (0.757/1.2)[ 165.9 (1.15)] = 120.35 KN

(used later)

Truck, tandem, and lane load placement for maximum shear at location 100

H. Calculate Force Effects from Dead Loads: Analysis for a uniformly distributed load w

Mmax = M105 = wL2/8 =14.225w

KN.m

Vmax = V100 = wL/2=5.334w

KN

6

**Unfactored Moment and Shear
**

component Steel Girder(DC1) W (KN/m/Girder) 1.567*1.15 . 203 × 24 × 14.184 = 11.517 6 2 × 9.34 = 3.11 6 . 075 × 22.5 × 13.424 6 = 3.775 Mmax (KN.m/Girder) 25.79 Vmax (KN/Girder) 9.67

Deck slab (DC1)

163.838

61.43

Barriers(DC2)

44.307

16.61

Wearing surface(Dw)

53.702

20.135

LL+IM

N/A

625

304.6

Fatigue + IM

N/A

294.1

120.35

I. Factored Loads: 1. Strength I Limit State: U = η[1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL + IM) ] Mu=1[1.25(25.79+163.838+44.307)+1.5(53.702)+1.75(625)]=1466.72KN.m governs Vu=1[1.25(9.67+61.43+16.61)+1.5(20.135)+1.75(304.6)] = 672.9 KN governs 2. Service II Limit State: U = η[1.0(DC + DW ) + 1.3(LL + IM)] Mu =1[1.0(25.79+163.838+44.307+53.702) + 1.3(625)] =1131.387 KN.m Vu=1[1.0(9.67+61.43+16.61+20.135)+ 1.3(304.6)] =503.825 KN 3. Fatigue and Fracture Limit State: U = η[0.75(LL + IM)] Mu =1[0.75*(294.1)= 220.5 KN.m Vu =1[0.75*(120.35) = 90.3 KN

7

Check design section W30x108 : from AISC manual: A= 31.7 in2 ,tw =0,545 in Z = 346 in3 I=4470 in4 tf = 0.76 in Mp = 1440 ksi bf =10.475 in D = 29.83 in S =299 in3

Compactness :

All rolled sections in AISC have compact webs for Fy ≤ 50ksi Based on this the section is compact Flexural : φf Mn ≥ Mu , φf =1.0 Mn = Mp = ZFy Mp = 1953 KN.m > Mu = 1466.72KN.m OK. For Flexural. Cross-Section Proportion Limits [A6.10.2] : 𝑑 29.83 − 2 × 0.76 ≤ 150 , = 51.9 tw 0,545 𝑏𝑓 ≤ 12 , 2𝑡𝑓 𝑏𝑓 ≥ 𝐷 6 , 10.475 = 6.9 𝑂𝐾 2 × 0.76 29.83 = 4.9 𝑂𝐾 6
𝑂𝐾

10.475 ≥

Shear :

Vu ≤ φVcr = φCVp = φC(0.58)FyDtw Vp =0.58*50*29.83*0.545 =471.5 kips =2100 KN Vu =672.9 KN < 1*1*2100 OK Fatigue [A6.10.5.1] [A6.6.1] : Allowable fatigue stress range depends on load cycles and connection details.

(a) Stress Cycles Assuming a rural interstate highway with 20,000 vehicles per lane per day, Fraction of trucks in traffic = 0.20 (Table 4.4) [Table C3.6.1.4.2-1] ADTT = 0.20 × ADT = 0.20(20 000)(2 lanes) = 8000 trucks/day p = 0.85 (Table 4.3) [Table A3.6.1.4.2-1] ADTTSL = p × ADTT = 0.85(8000) = 6800 trucks/day

8

From Table 8.4 [Table A6.6.1.2.5-2], cycles per truck passage, for a simple-span girder of span 35 ft, is equal to n = 2.0 N = (365 days/year)(75 years)(2.0 cycles/pass) (6800 trucks/day) = 372×106 cycles (b) Allowable Fatigue Stress Range—Category A

1 3 1 3

∆𝑓𝑛 𝐴

= 𝑁

250 × 108 = 372 × 106

= 4.1 𝑘𝑠𝑖

0.5(∆f)Th =0.5*24 = 12 ksi < 4.1ksi

There for (∆f)n

=12 ksi

(c) The Maximum Stress Range [C6.6.1.2.5] The maximum stress range is assumed to be twice the live-load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load. However, the stress range need not be multiplied by 2 because the fatigue resistance is divided by 2. For fatigue, U = 0.75(LL + IM). Dynamic load allowance for fatigue is IM = 15%. MLL+IM is maximum in the exterior girder, no multiple presence (live-load range only): Mfatigue = 0.75 (294.1)= 220.5 KN.m = 168.8 K.ft 𝑓

= 𝑀

168.8 × 12 = = 6.77 𝑘𝑠𝑖 < 12 𝑘𝑠𝑖 𝑆 229 𝑂𝐾

9

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