VhT.

'IOM

Who Says

AKBAR
Was
Great ?

Who

Says

Akbar Was Great ?

By P.N.

OAK

*m

HINDI SAHITYA SAPAN Delhi-UOOO! &**
Connaught Circus.

New

SonxOthtt Some
1

t

by the same authc
Is

Bluink'r> of Indian Historical Research

Agra Red Fori
;

A

Hindu Building

CONTENTS

World Vbdlc Heritage

4.

Some Missing

Chapters of World History

1

Page

Preface
I

The Need

M
for Reassessment
I

II

A

Chronology of Akbar's Reign

16

III

Akbar's Vicious Environment
Akbar*s Barbarities

52
70

IV

V
VI

Immorality

Drink and Dope Addiction

120
126

O P.N. OAK
AU Rights Reserved by the
Author

VII

The

So-called Marriages were

Blatant Abductions

VIII

Conquests

139 153 166 179 192

IX

The Plunder Economy The Chaotic
Administration

X
XI
XII
XIII

Akbafs
Taxes

Military

203

Greed
Personality and Nature
208
215

XIV

XV
XV!
P.B.— Rg^25
H.B.
Publishers
Distributors

Treachery
224

Hypocrisy
:

XVII

Famines
Fanaticism
Malpractices

1U. 300.00

244

XV III
:

Hindi Sahilya Sadan Ph, Hindi Sabiiya Sudan
JO/90, Connaugltt Circus.

J340064
Delta- Ilouui

XIX

New

Edition
Prinleri

J2Ph GoyalEnierpnses.Shahda.a. Delta-

June 2000

.«wm 2225770

XX
\\t
XXII

Revolts Calo
Buildings
Din-e-IIahi

264

282
322

PREFAC
In

I

Will XXIV \\\

lustreless

Gems
is

m
369
the

the

preface to

his

eight-volume

critical

Scribes.

study of mediaeval Muslim chronicles a well-known historian, the late Sir H.M. Elliot observes thai
history

Akbar

Tomb

a Hindu Palace

or the

Muslim era

in

India

is

an

Bibliography
Errata

399
401

"impudent and
But
a

interested fraud."
realization
fullv

mere vague
It
its

Index

not enough.

has to be
gravity.

of a fraud is probed for a

Other Books by the Author

415
417

proper appraisal of
Instances are

Reviews and Reactions

not

wanting of exposed pick*

An Appeal to the Reader

422

pockets dexteriously picking ihe pockets of the very constables leading them handcuffed to lockups.

Western scholars like Sir H. M. have Elliot, who have seen through the "fraud' still been duped by mediaeval Muslim claims in or instance they have failed to many respects.
Similarly
1 I

realize
in

that

as

m

other spheres

tall

claims

made

favour of mediaeval

founded cities All extant hundreds are also "frauds the mediaeval buildings whether forts, palaces, man* sions, mosques or tombs are of pre-Muslim Rajput Historians, architects and archaeologists origin.
blundered, for example, in believing Fatehpur Siku and the Red Forts at Agra In Delhi wire founded by Mogul emperorsbook titled "Taj Mahal was a Rajput Palace"*

Muslim rulers that they and built tombs and mosques by

have

thai

and

m\
and

Its

successor volume

titled

"The Taj Mahal

have already exposed the "fraud" of the mediaeval monuthai *hroudft the 'tallest' My other book ments namely ihc Taj Mahal. Research -Some Blunders of Indian Historical frauds or misconcepalso exposes some other

Hindu Palace/"

I

children— as
people

is

fatuously

who had

nothing

claimed— millions in common with him

of
in

the matter of religion, culture end nationality,

tions.

But on a careful study of historical works on Akbar I have felt that to clothe him in raiment of nobility and Divinity, putting him on a ped

to The present book on Akbar is intended palmed off. expose vet another -fraud" glibly a great namely that Akbar was a noble man and

and throwing a halo of greatness around him is doing a great disservice to logic,history, historical research and TRUTH.
tal T

evidence led from ranking in this book goes to prove that far Akbar as a man and ruler of exemplary conduct cannot be classed even with ordinary law-abiding He was a law unto and God-fearing citizens,
long.

He was

neither.

Historical

in

Misinterpreting events, failing to size them up their logical context and losing sight of con-

himself.

On

a proper assessment he turns out to

be one of the most

immoral

rulers in

nnmnical, cruel* crafty and world history,

minds who consider all questions as finally settled, are likely to brush aside Akbar's appraisal in this book, as biassed. Such an attitude
Closed
is

derogatory to the search

for truth.

temporary noting* about Akbar's atrocious career and Machiavellian mental make-up, is not only unsemantic but is an insult to human intelligence. But that is exactly what most histories of Akbar's reign have done. Most of them have been haunted by the panegyric gloss of Abut Fazal's Akbar noma. They haven't had the courage or insight of Western scholar* who correctly regard the Akbarnama to be a tissue of lies. Abul Fazal's own contemporaries, fellow-chronicler Badayum and Prince Salim, call him a "shameless flatterer/ Bloehmann remarks in the preface to his transla1

Because of a time-lag of almost 400 years this author could have had no reason or occasion for any personal tiff or brush with emperor Akbar* would have, in fact, been very happy and grateful to Divinity had Akbar really qualified for greatness. It would have spared millions of his
I

"Abul Fazal has far too often been accused by European writers of nailery and even wilful concealment of facts damaging to the reputation of his master**. to my I wish to point out that in coming
tion of

Abul

Fazal's

Akbarnama

that

abject subjects
liation.

so
a

much
total

misery, torture and
foreigner that

humi-

conclusions on Akbar's place in history I have relied solely on the evidence recorded by preceding historians.
to sifting that

he was, it would have been a matter of universal admiration and unique distinction for him to love as his own

And

My own

contribution

is

limited only

motivated

evidence from piles of glittering, and interested falsehoods, compiling

U.vj

and mandwJtfnS

explanatory obserruh off the fabc ploss pui on gory eW_ s to episodes awl affairs,
"

and

fldcnn £

iii

Pulled on one side by the traditionally djnncdjuvenile notions of Akbar's fancied greatness, and
facts

on the other by damaging

learned through

importance inasmuch as they fell with Hie sledge-hammer of TRUTH a pari of the false and seductive facade
findings arc

of far-re aching

mature, adult reading, writer aftej writer has betrayed confusion and contradiction in his writings on Akbar. page after paj*e. or instance, on page 63
I

carefully hiding the skeletons history. in the Akhar Clipboard of Indian

and

ceiling

and

filth

of

Akbar the Great, Vol. I. Professor Ashirbadi Lul Shnvaslava hads Akbar's so-called
Ins

book

Hi

us

would do

well

to

lift

then heads

mds of myths, and have a second from under the look and entertain second thoughts on India's history, to fathom, what Sir H. M. mediaeval
EJli
!

calls,

us

many

'frauds.**

book does not claim to be a complete chronological narrative of Akbar's life or reign.
rhta
It

marriage with the daughter of the Jaipur ruler, Bharmal, as "a significant, event in mediaeval Indian history inasmuch as u was a voluntary affair on both sides." And within half-a-dozen lines the learned professor somersaults and asserts "It must however be said that the proposal had emanated as Bharmal was hard-pressed and wanted to save his

famih and

state

from ruination*"

deals

with Akbar's historical role with a differ-

ent
fully

The scope of this hook is limited to forceimpressing on all concerned that Ak bar's

Such confusion results from an inadequate understanding and wrong interpretation of Akbar's baste urges and motives.
of TRUTH is that it should reconcile evidence all seemingly incompatible contemporary any into a homogenous whole, without leaving This is what. I feel, 1 have loose, dangling ends.

image projected through official dossiers, institunal literature and academic text books is totally unwarranted and far removed from facts.
Thi> book aims at lifting the thinking on \kbar from its traditional ruts. Incidentally it

The

test

it— a cohesive and rational or conciliation contradictory seemingly incompatible currents running through narratives of Akbar^ reign.
achieves
as
1

aho

see

succeeded

in

doing
key
oi

in this

book thereby providing
actions and behaviour
rule in

an
in

unfailing

to the proper understanding and-

interpretation

Akbar's
of

particular

and

Muslim

India,

in

general.

of uncdifymg episodes and wishful interpretation of events is bound to result in an unsatisfactory, unconvincTim is the feeling one gels on ing notch pot eh.
reading the usual run of books on Akbar.

Falsification of facts, glossing over

—Peoo

Chapter

1

THE NEED FOR REASSESSMENT
A KBAR, the third generation Mogul emperor of ™- India, who lived from 1542 to 1605 AD*, has
often heen represented as a great
king.

man and

a noble
is

This

assessment

of

his

personality

thoroughly unjustified.
been a mere matter of opinion or of degree it wouldn't have mattered very much if those who considered Akbar 'Great' chose to hail him as such. But he was the very antithesis of sireatness and nobility of character.
it

Had

If

a person donates,
it

let

us assume, Rs. 2 for a

charitable cause

would

certainly be a matter of

opinion whether or not to glorify him as a generous donor. If the donor is earning just enough for mere subsistence his donation of even a modest Rs. 2 - could be classified as a generous gift. On the other hand if the donor were a millionaire a donation or Rs, 2/- by him would have to be

But all low amount. said and done he would still have to be bracketed But when with donors, generous or otherwise. throughout a person's life he is all along engaged
classed as
a

ludicrously

and extortion without ever parting with of so much as a farthing of his own, by no stretch and a imagination can he be glorified as a donor,
in

usury

generous one at

that.

Such

is

the case

with

Akbar's assessment in

\

Indian or world hfctoi

Not

a

single

from cruelty, treachery, free wsi And yd he wealth or lust for conquest.
as an exemp!ar>
this

of his craving for
act
is

cited
It

iuJer

and an adorable man.

is

revived and sought to be hoisted on a public pedestal foi compelling obeisance a check-up on whether the faith in Akbar's greatness is warranted

perversion which rankles.

hv
well-Settled issues
it

fact!

becomes not only relevant but impera-

Whenever such supposedly
are

tive.

too ea$U) assumed that the person mghtg the review must It is conveniently be actuated by malice or bias. forgotten that there could be something like an indignation for righteous re-appraisal, ruTu.Ni
raked

up for re-consideration

is

those who seem 10 say past.. .let byiinncs be bygones'

To

"why
wc

rake up the have other

suitable

falsehood, and a solicitous concern for truth.

ought to realize that history is nothing else but raking up the past. Moreover, they ought to know that they or their get away from test papers in relations cannot
replies

too.

The\

who fajl to see the need for a reappraisal are those who seem to argue that since Akbar is dead and gone why worry about brand

history in institutional or

public service cxamina-

Among

others

answer papers saying "Dear Mr. Examiner Since Akbar is dead and gone why bother your own head and mine by
iu>ns by scrawling a note across their

even assuming that he was a miscreant? Frum a lay point of view this may be considered But on closer scrutiny it to be sound advice.
g

him,

king
that

me

to write

about
like
is
it

his

reign"*

This shows

whether we
II

be with us.
written

that

or not history is going to so it is ihe duty of every

uld simple

be found that

and
Tor

the innocuous as

suggestion
it

is

looks.

It

is

not as not this

right-thinking

or

Individual lo see that all that is spoken m the name of history U the
truth.

author
cd
repose.

who wants
by

to disturb the ghost
it

o\'

Ak bar's
it

truth, the

uhole truth and nothing but the

memory.

whatever
universal

may be worth, had

been
the
is
i

consent

to rest in oblivious
that

Jn spile

of ourselves we rind

The very object of teaching or studying history past^ that to draw appropriate lessons from tl

Akbar 's greatness continues to be revived and foisted on generation after generation of school and college students. The myth of Akbat
ghost of
greatness

avoid cast mistakes, and derive inspiration from whatever has been glorious. This very object is
defeated
India
-i

if

history

is

sought, as

il

vers

l>

fle n

is

in

being constantly rubbed Into the minds of the people through classroom lessons and tesi
is

papers and other literature. In social and governmental business Akbar is held alofi as an ideal narch and a praiseworthy individual. When
the ghusl of his

of mistaken notions ol secularism and iiu '-communal harmony, to be blurred or glossed over, suppressed or misrepresented, and misconsout
trued,

All
truth,

memory

is

thus

being continually

knowledge and history is

is

a

ceaseless

search

far the

a search for the truth

about a

5
,

country's

P^'

not .
ifi

therefore.

**'^

role should RM**c«*ing Aktert * ^understood to be an attempt de
'

Wnal

this

book

tries

charter

d laud, ? Akbsr had anV character* at all 10 any whether we |i.known as CaPP 'n pported with factual be

*

""grtjft and

reign to find out

people and the invaders' inimitable capacity to destroy all ancient records and implant their own spurious versions in Indian history. Even those like Sir IT.M- Elliot who had the insight to detect

"^hThad

r

Tha;; tf

T

an "impudent and interested fraud" could not fathom it* depth
the perversion

and

falsification

as

and

trace
In

its

ramifications.

SteU
the challenge.

responsibility

and

willingly

accept

of Akbars Over the centuries accounts and omission have matmc «*s of commission under His b«n carefully torn to shreds and swept

inennv

term 'historian' is very often abused. All those who earn money through teaching or administering history by virtue of their
India
the

employment

in

a school, college, university

or the

Those bits are no! easy to salvage royal carpet" glamour of the and piece together in the blaze and
red carpet which

hides them.

Attempts to salvage
only
partial

and archives departments or by writing books on history do not qualify to be termed historians/ The real test is whether history blood and bones, whether he is is in a person's constantly pondering over Us missing links and
archaeological
inconsistencies,

them have often
because
Piecing

met

with

success
missing.

whether he

is

striving to find

new

many

vital bits

have been
is

found

another laborious task, And lastly such piecing together is a thankless task which far from bringing any reward, laurels

them together

evidence to fill up the blanks, and whether in so doing he is bringing to bear on history a fresh. uninhibited, original outlook not wedded to any dogma or creed ? Such a yearning naturally

or patronage
1
1

is

frowned upon
has discreetly

in

many

quarters.
practically

presupposes a
identification

little

ii

because of such difficulties that
historian

every

chosen to toe the Jilional line of glorifying Akbar, as the best part of academic valour and called it a day,

with whose history is being investigated, and not a mere mercenary connection with the teaching or administering of history.

out-of-the-way love for and the country and the people

A
havl

few Western scholars, well-intentioned
he courage
free

and

of their conviction, because people, no doubt, possessed the

automatically ex Abyssinian*. plains why the Turks, Arabs. Afghans, Uzbeks, Kazaks and Iranians who invadIncidentally
this

principle

impartial^

attempt an honest unfoiiunaich Jacked Ihc
lo

appraisal

but

intuition

and

insight

invaders innate and

and fathom the alfoi
inicnsc hatred for the

Muslim
Indian

Mongols, thousand years ed and occupied India for over a They history. had no scruples in falsifying India's or people had no love lost for India, Us euliurr

XfiT.COM

came and stayed to exploit it ro its utmost, n'ts and the assertions They were lifa made n,
The>
their

In the victim's back.

Here

logic

tells

the

investi-

Bui

chronicles ha\e to he handled verj carefully. wh»\ we find is just the opposite. Mediaeval
.
I

gator thai
in
ISC

since

no
is

man
a

can

Fatally siab himself
it

the back the note

fake and that

is

a clear

which a discerning historian like Sir H.M. Elliot was constrained to term as 'impudent and interested frauds/' have been treatr

Muslim

ik

I

of murder This gives us one very important law of judicial investigation which is very useful Thnt law is that whenever to historical research.
circumstantial evidence conflicts with a so-called document The document is a clear forgery. Here

ed is >,icrosanei source
gether India's history.

materials for

piecing

to-

A
burnt

student
if

of Indian history
earlier

is likely

to ask in

despair that

Hindu records have been
destroyed

word 'document* should include not only writings on parchment but stone and copperplate inscriptions and all other written record. This
the

or

otherwise

by

the

Muslim

chronicles written by the invaders themselves are nol to be believed in what remains as the source for the reconstruction of Indian history ? Fortunately we don't have to
if

aders.

and

the

very important law of evidence should alert the student of history from putting implicit faith in

throw our hands up
fied

in despair.

Those very

any inscrip! ion or writing. It should also enable him to prefer circumstantial evidence and reject If this important law is the conflicting wrfting. kept in view many Muslim inscriptions and other
writings in

falsi-

chronicles contain all the evidence wc need to reconstruct history on the chassis of truth.

India

will

be easily detected to be

motivated forgeries.

This

leads

us to

the great importance

of the

law of evidence for historical research. A clear understanding of how evidence is sjfted graded and pieced together in a court of law is essential
tor historical study,

though the inscribers or writers themselves have made no claims scholars of Indian history have committed the grave error

At

some

places

of

dead bod,

ymg unc

|

a

,

med „„

»«
,


Into
t

connecting ihc writing with the creation of Akbar's instance for the monument, Thus, inscription on the Buland Darwaza (gateway) at Fatehpur Sikn, recording his victory over the Deccan. has been unwarremedly interpreted by

«niurie» by

human mgenuilv goes
sa

«nd o„ (]„ hody
J

;

«*•

A,

fc ttmc

tSSJ"

no

in vest iga i j4

* «*" Lind
is

imply that Akbar Stone galewu\ to commelofty the erected This over the Deccan. morate his victory decisive speculation could never lead to an} conclusion since the very assumption that the of inscription on it commemorates the creation
historian
after

historian

to

noticed

9

_
rec*Jfctf

rba'

human tea common
legend
arc

nc

needs to Here the historian
felting to n

«****
lion*

name or other
buffdifigs feirtoric

picnic

very valuable guidelines on be appraised as. evidence.

how

confessions* arc to

Akbar'* mscrip.
only a
royal

enjoins
pect

upon

a magistrate to
is

That code Specifically impress upon a susto

*^ «»T,
0f

^ia»oo
bolt]
'

SL^f

human weakness He wrote rtH «nimon Hindu on the slate of an earlier
Sories *
'.

Btrtand

DanvLiz^

he confession but
thai

under no obligation

make

a
i

if lie

made

a confession or record

anj

Sri
to

^ve

Mogul" that Akbar used »rThc „tbar the Great his command to masons and carvers at
/rsenptions he desired,
slight

V incent

v, 11If

h

also records in his

hook

i\t the

against statement U would be definitely used him but never in his favour. Muslim chronicles arc and it is left to the in the nature of 'confessions.* free to use it the appraiser, the historian to feel mouth way he likes. It would not lie in anybody's those chronicles should either be

to

insist

that

Intfoducins a

variation

in

the

example

3^ abo%e we Shalt explain to
person whose body
is

the

reader

how

a

This wholly believed or wholly rejected. deal. done. Evidence is never a package
In the

is

never

even though genome Let us to justif\ an event

would not be assume that the found lying unclaimed had

two instances we have mentioned above

urted from his home with a genuine note written xai signed by himself saying that he was going out commit suicide which need not be investigated,

absolutely useless as the so-called suicide notes are Yei evidence to shield the arraigned murderer. as trash. They those notes won't be thrown away the hands of the are very valuable evidence in and the prosecution to trace the other accomplices

a
Hi

£ven in such a case if the man has died of a stab »ound in the back it can clearly be inferred thai though the man left his house with the intention of commiittmi suicide, before he could carry out his resolve he was intercepted and murdered. In this
very

circumstances of the murder.
record thus be seen that while a written crime home can prove very valuable in bringing the if ever be used in to the wrong-doer it can seldom the In Indian history on the contrary his defence be gospel truth written word has been taken to corroborate it without bothering to confront or
It will
is this primary with circumstantial evidence. It evaluation of evidence that has slip in the proper and irrational, irreconcilable, absurd

curiously

the

'suicide

document'

is

nne and yet the death is not suicide but murder. This gives us another valuable law of dence thai a document may
connection

be genuine but its the event could be spurious. In i°o the circumstantial evidence will be
with

led to

many

anomalous conclusions

in Indian history.

crucial.

The
in

The Indian Criminal Procedure Code lays

the law of

general rule of worldly caution respeel confession he evidence, is that

ma

down

10

it
<

tMrcTed.BuiifiMhc
he has

ihc 0M*»>" > b,,m»l to voluntary statement! anv rinn * Inch need noi *, rthing 10 iavc his ow n count or thai statemenl
i

historian

that

as

a

man of the world he
.md
in
will
i

i

it

lull

liberty to vise his discration

m^or
i

rejecting the
i

who
or

i

oi
lie

my pan
the

>i

weptevidence
instil

allowed some
be

him thev and will

which implicate Incriminate him, can certainly be used 10 regaled and made use or as very
Innts lo
Tail

mi

i

fi

can never

mouth of the
accept or
ol

iiapect
i

"i

accused

a partisan witness to
oi

l,,i

i

the the

judge, appraiser

historian

strong evidence.

reject

whole evidence.

In a

conn

now

or accused, accused. dmissihlc as evidence to incriminate the hypothetical cast In which a longilce married Hindu couple is sitting in the drawing
..

our discussion a step further we shall suspect point "out. Hits rime in favour of the is that ai times even a clear confession
arryinjr

ll is never evidence |l properly silted as a package, Sometimes valuable hints from rejected is taken while the rest arc [I At Othet times the whole statement trash.
I

law all treated

used ruthlessly to confront and contradict accused at every stage but never in his favour.
If,

the

room of

their

home.

A

visitor

happens
visitor.

CO

come and
quarrel in
a

the conversation develops into a violent

which the host

murders the

As

good

subsequent pages of this book the reader finds lis sometimes quoting a partisan chronicler like Abu Fazal or Badayuni lo
therefore,
in

ihe

I

Hindu wife who always prefers to nrc-deceasc her husband the wife helps the husband to abscond and that he murdered ihe visitor In tell* the police case though the wife is apparently the such
murderer
place
yet
B

bring

home
we

to

Akbar

his

manv misdeeds,

and

at

(hers

refuse

Lo accept ai their face value the

court of law trying her

would no!
have
at

much

reliance

even on her

own

incriminating

confession

In

such

a case the judge will

the back of his

mind

ihe possibility of a

Hindu wife

of (hose chroniclers we do so on very sound ground* explained above. In fact not using winnow, select, -aft such discretion and cautio and appraise all ihe evidence would amount to committing tile greatest academic folly and grave in injustice in Ihe field of academic teaming, and
assertions
the search for Truth

impersonating for her husband as the real criminal, It will also consider the faci that a Hindu wife is
not prone to

commit murders, She
violent

is

noi generally

invoked

quarrels with outsiders; she generally handle murder- weapons; that a
in

having explained the importance of the law or evidence in historical research we shall now turn to ihe other equally important requirement
Alter

man

won't

generally
will

murder

a

man.

etc. etc.
n

Thin ihc court

be very chary
.is

in

using even

dcarcut confession

e\ iderice

of ihc crime,

These instances

namely logic or instance, to anybody who asserts that Akbar was great and noble we would like to The first question i* that put U few questions. ihc present 20th ccntuT) parliamentary democrat
I

il

should suffice to convince a

13

13

Reeded Aurangzeb by over

^dually from mediaeval «£"*>* evolved vcrv who died .n 1707 AD, /«d if emperor Aurangwb " NVC been very barbarous and hii^E i Akbar who could h& great grander ZSFE*
very epitome of
all

history

If*

afforded
sverc

by Ins

relations

with

Rana

whai made his son *kbar was such an ideal man turn out to be virtual grandsons and great grandsons question we would like to pose beasts? The second born and bred in a country's is thai when princes

alTc

100 years be described virtues? And .fat all

sworn deadly enemies of one as If then Rana Pratap is to be admitted another. son of ihc soil who a patriotic, brave, and righteous Hindusthan from fought, back-to-lhc-watl to save follow that Akbar cign domination, does it noi murder Rana WBS an alien villain who wanted to
Pratap.

Both

self-aggrandizement Pr&tap like many others, for and for cnsalving Hindudom?

own
jdeal

ancient
rulers

tradition

very seldom blossom into
alien in parentage.

how could Akbar.
the

religion, culture

and mentality develop an
Indian
love

inordiif

nate

love

for

people?

And

he

did he merge or identify himself wth the religion, language and culture of the vast majority of the people he ruled over? The

developed such a

alone is enough to in historydebunk and expose spurious claims and the law or evidence when we Armed with we come across studv accounts of Akbar's reign to the hilt our staggering proof to corroborate grandfather of Aurangzeb surmise that as the great For a was even worse than the former.

Wc

thus sec

how

logic

Uw

Akbar

third

question

we should

like to

pose

is

that can a

drunkard and a drug-addict who is illiterate and who swallows principality after Indian principality for no ostensible reason except self-aggrandizement be a

of history, thereproper studv and understanding documents as logic and the Tore, it is not so much and are indispensable. Logic lav, of evidence which us to locate the needle the law of evidence enable writings. of truth in a haystack of false

man
ask

with noble motives? Fourthly
that
if

we should

like to

H
histon

LvJ»| seen
is

an invading gang of dacoits claims that it looked after the children of a village with ten* der filial care better than their slaughtered parents could, will any man endowed with reason pay any heed to that claim? Likewise when histories claim thai Akbar who killed or conquered one Indian ruler after another did so only to lavish more loving care on the Indian people than those slaughtered or conquered Indian rulers ever could one must at once di*mi*i Mich a claim as nonsensical.
Anoiuvi
easy
tally

would like to importance. role assumes considerable
Firstly
interest

of how an accurate reconstruction records we "possible from even falsified of Akbar s indicate how a reappraisal

in the such a reappraisal is necessar> record of history ot truth, to put the

straight.
logic compel us to Secondly requirements of conclusions from debunk absurd and illogical reign. available evidence of Akbar'a

to

assess Akbar** role in

XhT.l-jM—

14 IS

Tr

nidi
tfl

wrong conclusions
the rationality of

We

allowed

to

persist tliQ
j,,„,
,.il
|

viilK

man. and

make

prone to
without

pi

am

Ml}

,

readymade conclusion*
is

&CCCp1 and put
in
all

deductions

up with similar illogiknowledge and fields of

education*
i

whal has actually happened In India in the field of history. False nolens of secularism and Hindu-Muslim amity permanently incapacitated and precluded have
questioning.
Tins

ii

If

Akbar

is

to

be accepted a$ great

students and

scholars,

teachers

and professors,

and noble Ran a pratap. Rani Durgawati and a Other Hindu princes and princesses would
have
to

authors and

be

classed
'great

as

villains

who wanton))

opposed the

and noble' Akbar.

.i

Fourthly the presumption of Akbar's greatness mounts to saying that an alien could love and nurture his Hindu subjects better than their own

orators from prying deeper into true history. Such terror which prevents any free questioning and cross-examination of long-standing dogmas and shibboleths is unacademic The late American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had must said that to be able to find the truth, one A student or teacher of feci free to search for it.

rulers

would connote that an illiterate monarch who had all the vices on earth could still very loving, considerate and efficient.
Fifthly,
it

Indian history has never felt free to piy into true Indian history. His inquiring faculty has been deadened and his voice has been gagged so that he may accept unquestioning!) all that is dinned into
his cars

even

pathetic

be illogical and unscientific. The belief in Akbar's nobility also makes
if
it

Sixthly,

it

leads

to

the absurdity

that

though

nonsense of the Law of Evidence. of Akbar's role thus assumes great importance not only for a correct understanding of dial sordid chapter but also for academics

Akbar's ancestors and descendants were all very cruel yet he alone was almost a saint, an angel and
an ideal man.
If

A

reappraisal

Akbar was

so

noble

how

did

his

sons,

in general.

grandsons and
\icioui sadists?

great

How

grandsons turn out to be were all of Akbar's Muslim

Our two earlier books: The Taj Mahal is a Hindu Palace; and Some Blunders of Indian
Research, have attempted cleaning some other parts of the Augean Stables of history hoped that this book would prove to be is It
Historical
yet
thai

courtiers

and generals vicious and cruel?

Such anomalies and contradictions which follow from the assumptions of Akbar's greatness Hid nobility if thiust down the throat of generalion* of students, they will permanently impair and benumb students* rationalism and make them

another beacon
its

in

reconstructing

history so

other chapters
the

may

be equally purified

by

climirtlMmL'

dross of falsehood

contaminating

them.

n
was Badruddin (meaning 'The full moon of Mohammad Akbar. The adjective religion"*
birth
2
11

OF AKBAR'S REIGN A CHRONOLOGY

"Afcbar" means "very great" or "senior."

March
cision

A
the

4

discuss

the main events of chronoloeical survey of before we proceed to ^kbar's reign is ncccssar) roles as man and king to evaluate his
his
in historv.
It

regarded

Akbar was circumcised. Circumto We tnay have, over the centuries come Muslim as a sacred and indispensable
1546:

origin to necessities of religious rite but it owes its Since Islam had Us birth in the desert hygiene.

are all approxi\anous dates given hereunder Though there have been ever so many mate recorded the events of the chroniclers who have Muslim rulers, and reigns of mediaeval lives

Place

may. however, be

stated that

and princes yet they differ hopelessly on they narrate since they were the dates and events mamlv concerned with eking out a soft living m times by humouring those dangerous and turbulent and reading out to their patrons, by recording
counters

not wash themArabian desert where people could was found as a way selves for months citcumcision phymosis. Circumcision owes out of complaints of needs tf therefore, to the Its origin, and cannot have an> hygiene in waterless deserts, where In countries like indta

M
P-S*

religious significance.

is enjoined as a plenty and a daily bath becomes irrelevant even for necessity, circumcision more so for spmtual physic^ well-being, much

water

is

bliss.

them concocted, flattering panegyrics disregard of accuracy or truth.
1

in

callous

Monday

January 27.
in

I5S6:

Humayun
fall

died

Delhi,

His

at

Thursday, November 23, 1542: Akbar was born Umarkot in Sind where his father Humayun.

from a staircase of a building He was earned, about QUa on Frtday, January 24.
"

^«*»£* Puuiu
inside the

Akbar's

father

to having been defeated by Sher Shah, and made India, had flee leasing his crown and throne in

*

Akbamama

gives the date if Oclobci

U

On

^

chieftain sought the hospitality of the local Hindu ai Rana Virisal alias Rana Prasad- Akbar's name
Vincent Smith *uy? an page 10 of his book "AkbarTneGrcal Mogul" thai many Persian and English author* In FaCl it <* Vincent erroneously a-> Amarkol.
I

Sunduv

instead or Thursday

and Akbar

*>

hirtndai

23 to October hack from November

IS.

write the

name be Amarkol. Smith who ii wrong. The original name could only After Muslim occupation it must have been chanted W appear Muslim in origin* Umarkot io make
il

on muaUj
Akb#r,

referred
fi

WiWplM

,i',

.

18
19

W"*-.
l,c,

,hic

nalace

He was
palace

buried

in

dlei

K

his

r:!,^ The
deaih.
I:

believed

,„Ma
,

in

which

T

Chakr. -«he Hindu Shako
all sides.

where Akbar had encamped. Those hmld.ngs had been ruined through successive Muslim onslaught* from ihe beginning of (he 8th century A.D.

cm

November
Pantpat
lived
against

S,

1556.

flow
d.cd
in

in

depicted on the centre

the

Akba

.hcrHumayun.

therefore

and

Akbar
region.

Akbar won the battle of Hindu warrior Hemu, making
his

the master of the Delhi-AgraFatehpur Sikri

On

page 29 of

palace $ usurped Hindu
ihc

two months old) was m Akbar (then 13 years and of the Punjab at Kalanaur, the Gurudaspur district Khan, engaged b> h is guardian Behram
accompanied
in military

at

time of hit

father s

death

in

Delhi,

but for tI, accident that he was struck in the eye by an arrow which pierced his brain and rendered him uncon

Probably

Hemu would

hook Vincent Smith says
have won

His army scattered and made no further resistance Hemu's elephant (led to the jungle."
scious.

operations against Sikandar Sur.

Humayun's For about a fortnight the news of courtiers look death was either suppressed or the
time to pro claim young

Akbar

king.

marriage is unknown. According to the practice of marrying the paternal uncle's daughter Akbar was married to Ruqaiya Begum the daughter of his uncle Hindal. He was bethrothed to her in November 1551.
first

The date of Akbar's

February
ui

Delhi

in

February
in

14.

K

Akbar was proclaimed king Three days later thai is on absentia 1556, Akbar was formally enthroned Hindu the plinth o! an ancient
//.

1556:

\mccnt Smith is mistaken in observing r page : his book! that -the ornamental and subsidiary buildings subsequently acted and visited mast than once by Akbar t disappeared Such canards of Akbar having fabulous buildings and townships which mysteriously disappeared without lea\
trace

Akbar was married to Abdulla Khan's daughter. This was Akbar \ second marriage. His guardian Behram Khan had frowned on this match. This was probahtv the beginning of the feud between Akbar and hi* guardian Behram
I

Early

Khan which ended

in the laiter's assassination.

May
that

1557: Sikandar

long siege of

Mankot

Sur surrendered after a h was during this campaign
guardian of Akbar
a as

Behram Khun,
to

the

have been gullibly believed in and

repeated

by historians like Vincent Smith. mat ion is thai Akbar was proclaimed the rums f a.iuent Hindu buildings
,

Akbar's lather's sisieis daughter Stilima Begum Obviously Akbar had his eye on her because this betrothal so angered him that he ordered the royal elephants to be •.lauipcdcd into

beihroihcd

Behram Khan's

tent.

1

AfC

: ic »»t pi-imco e elephant ««"l«

and agam the Ttsah^Be e ,mto frighten Bchram

«^h«

later at .tiillundur

Behratn Khan
to

21

assert

or believe

that

Akbar

built

Fatehpur

repeated £im tadication of havhtg

Sikri

m

£Ufl
,n

!U-M|*

envy

uJ

ro y3 ,

,re.

. *~ in ^gr* 1 later aeain Akbar made Aera ,avvi •" . , , After reiiirn to of bullying ht. iruard.an mstrumem elephant the

Bchram IChan.

removed his seat of govern* This clearly Sikri. fr. m Aura to Fatehpur before Akbar. rve Tat Fatehr- Silii existed by the Muslim the change is given ffe reason for Akbar s nurse
,tffl

4

/>

**kbar

January 1561 Behram Khan was assassinated at Siddhapur Pultun In Gujarat. He was obviously murdered by assassins sent by Akbar since for three years earlier Akhar had vigorously hounded him out of office, stripped him of all power, inflicted several defeats on him in open battles and finally Ultimately he was cornered and exiled him. murdered. Soon after his murder his wife accompanied by her thiec-ycar-old son, who later became Abdur Rahim IChan Khanan, was brought to
:

hronicler

Ferishta.

He

says* that

A k bar's
and Pir

harem and forced

to play wife to him.

Scared design to imprton Akba. safe in longer considering himself this and no bv to cause which determined Akbar ra '-was the " This shows that all talk and belief that Asra Sikri just for the heck of

S S£
bam Anaga

accidentally overheard that

it

was

March

29, 1561: Akbar** generals

Adham Khan

^

Baz Bahadur the ruler of Mandavgad at Sangrur near Dewas in Great atrocities were committed in central India. this campaign by Akbar "s generals.
defeated

Mohammad

Akbar moved
himieir

Fatehpur Agra because he felt burin. Me had to quit move at short insecure there. That he could
to

Akbar left Agra post haste April 27\ 1561: because he was informed that Adham IChan had
holding back the harem, and choice spoil.
been

women

of Baz

Bahadur's

with bag, baggage retinue, notice to Fatehpur Sikri harem of 5000 women and a the entire court, a animals shows that menaceric of 1.000 wild composed Fatehpur Sikri was a captured township some that we see now in it. and

June
seizing

4, 1561.

the

Akbar relumed to Agra after women and adding them to his own

of

all

more

the buildings great It is. therefore, a
p
121. vol
R

harem and appropriating the captured booty.
June 1561:
ihc

blunder of history
people

H

Power

in

Hisiorj of ihe Rise ol the Mahomedai* I four volume*) nil the year A D, 1612,
iroruliilcd

himself led an attack against of eight villages in Etah district (Sakit

Ak bur

Pargana). In Parokh village a house was set

on

fire

Mummed
John

Ratlin FtfMlM,

Trom the original Pen
by

and
death-

about

a

thousand

Hindus

were burnt to

Bri^s.

I0fifl

reprint,

published

S Dey

59 A

Snambttar St reel. Calcutta-

sar.wM

22
r ((
,

f<A/

*kh.ir

Kfrm

undertook an ex* Zaman Ah Kuli khan)

23

of forging inter-communal
deal with this matter quent chapter.

marital

tics,

We
a

ihall

in greater detail

in

subse-

H
,

\,s

remade

Khan, brother Babadut to surrender.

who were n
first

Jto was the
o*u

*S
,11
\r.

by his rcoli agains. Akbar revolts galore by Hlmosl slo be followed by and subordinates of Akbar's male relations Akbar's lechery, ircaprotest and disgust or

courtiei*

Baz Bahadur, the ruler of March 1562; A D M and a v gad. finally surrendered and agreed to be a minor courtier at Akbar's eourt.
:

chery.

usun Mid cunning14. 1562',

Agra ostensibly GhistTs shrmc in Aimer. to visit saint Ifflamuddiii shrine were conObviousl) ftkbar's visits to that reduce His ieal intention was to temporary ruses
January

Akbar

fcfl

A senior nobleman and tela1562 ion of Akbar bearing the name Sbamsuddin Atga Khan was murdered outside Akbar** bed-chamber Adham Khan who had led Akbar's army in the
May
16,
:
i

by Sangrur

on the date thisincident as on other important dales. The Tabakat-i-Akbari chronicle written by Nizamuddin
battle.

Authorities

differ

e

and patriotic Rajput rajas to submission

attributes

this

gruesome murder

to the succeeding

Some years later cmc after the othet object was achieved he Mopped going to Ajmcr.
This
first

when

this

Some others place it as Adham Khan was punished by
year
live

late

as

1565 A,D.

being thrown from

Rajasthan was to comJaipur plete the humiliation and submission ot the
sally of his hi

the it. second storey of the palace apartments Being only hall dead, he was again Port in Agra. hauled up and hurled down a second time.

Raja Bharmal and compel htm to sunender Earlier Bharmal his daughter for Akbar % harem. subjected to cruel and devastating raids by general Sharfuddm, and three Jaipur \\t-j.\'ruler.

Rs.

Akbar asked for a petty sum IgfromKhwajaJahanthe treasure! 1 he lattei
1562 A

D

:

replied that the even that petty

treasury was absolutely empty and amount was not available
:

princes

were held

in

captivity!

under pain of

torol

1162 A.

D
in

Munim Khan

die Chief

Minister

turous death unless Bharmal consented lo surrender his daughter for Akbar*s harem, and grandson

Akbar
Sarwat

rebelled

at

He W&S captured and fled Saharanpu. district and rcinsi
grandee of Akbar's cou,

Manvingh and son Raja Bhagwandas to reside In perpetual tutelage at Akbar's Court as hostages 10 ensure the Jaipur Hindu royal family's permanent
iithinisw
ii;i

He was

the second

rebel against

\kbar
,

Whs

blatant

i-.-i

ol

glorified in

been mnusiiliablv Indian history us a scry

kidnapping and atrociously
noble gesture

a

IS&\ Shariuddm the ^^ Jaipur ratal who had terroraed and hounded the
Novemi
in

Bharmal

eaung

his

Rajput prideiifldsu

24

hi*

bi,i*I

was another daughter to AH*W* ubar's court to revolt. An arms was l«m and he was hounded away first to
harem
Mecca.
days later

25

Oujerataitd then u
\ ftw

Abu
on

I

Mali, another senior

courtier, declared
efce
that
his

WW

Akbar.

Like everyone

around Akbar he was of such a bcastfo nature a princess and murdered Bl K.ihul he married

he was passing alongside the Parana Qila in Delhi his way from the Nizamuddin shrine lo the Red Foil (The Red Fort in Delhi is a very ancient building and was not built by Shahjahan as is mistakenly asserted), This attempt on Akbar's because he was nosing about to life was made abduct good-looking vvives, mothers, sisicrs and daughters from many families,

mother-in-law

Akbar is said to have been tigerA.D, 1 References to 'hunting in hunting 5 al Mathura. Muslim chronicles arc not to be taken literally
>3
:

March IS64
the .liziya tax

:

Akbar

is

said to have abolished

which was
the

levied by

Muslim sultans
This

on Hindus
abolition
is
\

for

preceding 800 years.

\cr> often
It

they

mean hunting down Rajput

rulers.

is

common knowledge

that military operation*

Accordingly hunting expeditions of Muslim monarchs were mere contemporary ruses to throw he people off their guard This Mathura 'hunting* enln in Muslim
are b closel)

guarded secret.

I

hoax as we will describe later. Akbar is also believed to have forbidden the enslavement 1562 and of prisoners of war in abolished the tax on Hindu pilgrims in 1563. It will be pointed out later that these are canards and motivated myths blindly believed in by writers of history books without undertaking any investigation.

chronicles,
at

therefore,

only proves that

Akbar was

Mathura on one of those missions to destrov Hindu places of pilgrimage Ancient Mathura has been razed to the ground in successive Muslim Some of these were by Akbar. It will bus

1564 A.D. of Akbar,

:

Khwaja Muazzam (maternal uncle
half

awn
place

later

that he visited every to

ma ior

centre

of Hindu pilgrimage

similarly

destrov

those

queen Banu Be gam) became ihe mother Hamida fifth courtier to revolt against Akbar, He was then sent a prisoner to a dungeon in Gwalior fort where he became mentally deranged and died.
the

being

brother

of

I

January
shot
at

12.

1564
a

:

A
47

poisoned

arrow was

Se pi ember
rak

1

564
i

:

Akbar with

view to assassinate
page
o!

him while
book

QtMOgfe on
tiic

Vincent

Smith's

Great
ntiir

Moguf

apiiv
lor

•«r>

Mnihura

records thai "i.gcrv have inan> u year." What was

Akfcar buuttuji then

f Shah, ruler daughter for Aklnu's harem. This again was no marriage but abduction since the poor, helpless girl was seized and carried away to Akbar's court by the principal eunuch Ait mad Khan.

Akbar forced Mi rza MubaKhandesh to surrender his

27

CJ

;r^er
fe

vhdulla Khan region became the r ,nhe Vfalwa to revolt agai^Akba,

Uzbek who was
childless
lefi

fitf

senior
I

Begum itllasBega Bet'um widow of Humayun o
Hajl
to

liiruHN-

Mecca but ordered the

const rucl inn

Akbar
d

is

Mid

to have ordered
bu.lt
..ear

fi/
met
ol

:

the

Nagarchain to be seen mile, to the south of Agra magnificent fine buildings and

* said to have ordered, can be found Akbar did hoax is is yet another jnvwh buildings, mid even a single building. All gardens 01 gateways ascribed to

^dem,

he

of Humtiyun's tomb in the mc while. The o n is said to have been completed when she returned three years laier. n rosier mother. Hi** own moth lama was Ha mid a Banu Bcgam This buiidh of Humayun "s tomb by a childless widow is another canard Humayun ties ruined m the cellai I a captured Rajput palace
I
1

1

'

1

1

:

urn
India

usurped or eonquered

by

him

from Red
Fort

1365

:

vkhiii

is

said

to

h

J

rebuilding (after demolish ins thc earlier fort) the

Hindu

niiei

Kii

flman.

a

leading

courtier

Another \ersion says that as early as 1561-1563 Akbar had started raising some
in

Agra.

rebelled

against

Akbar.

>c%emh leading figure of
1564

He thus became the Akbars court to revolt.

buildings

in

thc fort.

Bin

rding

U

ishta

dun Nabi appointed to look after royal grants 10 fakirs and other indigent persons, proved to be rapacious and unwon]
ordered his general A saf Khan ravage Ram Durgawati's kingdom with a view annex her excellently governed principality and
that beautiful

what the chronicles call "the fort" was the ancient \kbar have wall surrounding Agra at) ordered a few repairs to the cltj wall battered at H places during successive Muslim invasions minor repair work hai> been fraudulently magnified and misrepresented by erring hi
building of the

Hindu Red

Fort

in

That

1

Akbai could
chain,
his
for

start

foster

building a whole mother could order

oFNagar«
.1
1

palatial
11

queen for

his

own harem.

tomb

Lmtinl56i

2

7a

Twin 50ns Hasan and Husatn ar. Chough Akbar had a host romclcrs swarming around h.m the ,h nwl,,w of «* '*** has * Hit been a Thc IW,ns dlcd *«•«« a month of
[h

ind deceased monarch if u ma u thc thai at the same time Akbar could if :he Red Fort in Agra demolition and rebuild while engaged in h war against Rani fawati
thc
I

id
is

faced with rebellions bv main oftljs court*!
in

absurd

the extreme.
1

1565*66

A saf Khan

the

general

who had

29
...tft

kingdom was another
stood The Ranis realm
against
his

wined out.

Almost

ill

chroniclers unanimously

record that Akbar thoroughly enjoyed the 'spirt*

h "<

"°2i

LoS
,

U.n,

erstwhile,

firr/r/Jtf; .,„

;;

hie

n

vtf^

While

Ubar's brother Mohammad Punjab. Akbar arrived inv aded the his brother, February 1567 to stem Lahore Akbar organized a
at

Hakim,

brother Bahadur who had been in open revolt for over two Several other years were defeated and killed. adherents of the rebel leaders were executed bv
1567:
Ins

May

Khan Zamau and

being trampled to death by elephants.

Ind

hunt.

AH

g^e

m
the

10 miles was killedous sport for five days

or Akbar enjoyed the murder«, thin a circumference

using the sword, lance.

Akbar ravaged India's richest and most famous Hindu pilgrim centres namely \llahabad and Benaras fVaranasi). People fled in terror as Akbars armies ran amuck.

May- June 1567

nd

lasso.

Taking advantage of

Ak bar's

absence

from

Akbar returned to his capital July 18 \ 1567 Agra from his 'Operation ravage'.
i

Delhi-Agra-Fatchpur Sikri region a host of high his relations classed as Mirzas and holding ranks at Akbar's court revolted against him. Akbar
had, therefore, to hurriedly leave to

At about the same time another
yet another

revolt led by

courtier

named Iskandar Khan was
courtier

suppressed.

He was another important

Lahore to return

to revolt besides the other

uncountable Mirzas.

Agra
April 1567
:

way back while Akbar was campjng at Thancshwar in the Punjab two sects of priests called Kurus and Purus complained to htm about a dispute between them regarding
his

On

to
his

Akbar began preparations September 1567 invade Chittor. On October 20, Akbar formed
:

camp extending

for 10 miles to the north-east

ofthe Chittor Mil.
February 23. 1568: Brave Rajput
themselves in
at the

women

burnt

the

sharing of the

offerings

made

at

the

local

amass

pyre to escape molestation

Hindu -shrine by an unending stream of pilgrims. Akbar had them lined up armed with swords, sticks and daggers and made them annihilate one
another.

To

ensure that

both

sides

got killed

he kept reinforcing the weaker side with a band of fid fanatic Muslims and saw to ii that both
the
pries! iy

hands of Akbar* s barbarous Muslim hordes. The next morning Akbar rode into the fortress and ordered a general massacre in which 30,000 Many thousands were taken were slaughtered. prisoner to be turned into slaves. The holy threads of those slaughtered, weighed 74£ raaunds.

factions

numbering about S00 were

n

U,

Akhm

returned to Agra,
in revolt

uuaiu rose The Miffli
frfejiarv JJ»*

confined in the solitary during mediaeval Muslim
fort, a strong.

recesses
rule.

of the

burqn

Ranihambhore

loMorili

bTccd
I


3i

*W
monU

uonaf.hc-nu.uJiancl.ui was Swrjan had tn surrender the

Akbar is *aid to have inspected the newly built mausoleum of his father emperor hi m ay ii, On pace 74 of his book Vincent Smith
April 1570
:
I

n

look eight or nine

years

to

build.

Mirak

within

fogim/i*
trict)
1 ,'

kalanjur

fort

(in

Buiula

dis-

This is a canard. Mtrza Ghiyas was the architect Humayun lies buried in a captured Hindu palace
in

r

possession

B

,

(he

Rewa) famous
to

of Raja was besieged
singei
AU'i.ir

Ramehand
and

of captured'

which he

lived.

Ram Ramehand

ransom The Raja was given isial. and msi!
August 30, 1569

a

was surrendered by along with a huge jagirnear Allahabad

concubine bore to Akbar a son named Murad and nicknamed Pahadi being born on the Fatehpur Sikn hillock,
JutteS, J 570

A

to have said \kbai it September 137Q the arranged for the enlargement of the fort and

Salim (the

future

emperor

erection of

many handsome
is

buildings

in

Aimer. The
three years.

Jahangirj was

bom of the daughter of Raja Bharf Amber, whom Akbar had kidnapped from

work

is

said to

have been completed
a

in

SaraW

very ancient Hindu town and all exist from belu historic extant buildings there emperor Prilhviraj's fore the I2lh century Hindu

Ajai-Meru

A daughter Khan am Sultan

lime
precise

1

remembered that this* •* the period when Akbar is said to have launch1

may

be

,Akl
n

l

on Daniyal was born of September 10. 1572. at Aimer,
I

Sikri while ed even the building of Fatehpur suppressing manyengaged in incessant wars and

a
re volts.
in
,,

Sheikh

Daniyal
least

believed

to

be

were at

two other daughters was allowed to mar
d.ed unmarried durrarely

*ano Begun,
!"

who

The daughters are

and stayed in on page Fatehpur Sikri says Vincenl Smith and magnifiThis proves thai majestic his book. we see m our own das cent monuments which Akbar s time and Fatehpur Sikri existed even in townshio is i that he founded that
August
IS71

Akbar

came

the

assertion

me» were

illiterate non-cniitie*

canard.

n
J2

.

33

Mnmn
In

v

'-*"'

Raaft Prattpihc iramortti

son of India wfc

iucccssfillly defied

Akbar 's might

Ihc service that

Gl

attrition was enthroned at t 1oi«diaw« war of Udaipur The 16 miles north-west ol i

forma! coronation

took

place a

little

later

Bhayvvandas rendered to the alien mi march an empty honour conferred on him was never beihc grant of a banner and kettle drums fore bestowed on a Hindu.
February 26.
1

at

kumbhalmir

fort.

573

Smut

rebels capitulated.

Juh
Sikri

A. 1?

on one of his Sikri was ihc may be noted here that Fatehpur he starts though fraudulent place from which Muslim chronicles would have the reader believe

out from Fatehpur It life-long wars of aggression

The commandant
excision of his
father's service.
[jfrtl

Akbar

set

Ham/.aban was punished by the tongue. He was a general in Akbar's

IS,

1

573:

-\kbar

leaves
3.

Ajmer and

arrives in Fatehpur Sikri

on June

Fatehpur Sikri was a township built by Akbar and that it was completed only in 1583 A.D.
that

August
Gujcrat

23 % 1573:

Akbar had
led by

to

leave for

to quell

a rebellion

Mohammad

Sirohi the headquarters of the Deora sect of One the Chauhan clan was stormed and taken. hundred and fifty Rajputs deliberately sacrificed
their live* in

Hussain, an irrepressible Mirza,
Sep!. 2, /57JT

fought-

A

The battle of Ahmcdabad was pyramid of more than 2,000 slain heads
5,

a

futile

attempt at resistance
its

Sirohi

was

raised.

was famous for the excellence of
.Sovember

sword blades.

Muzaffar Shah 111 the alien Muslim sultan of Gujarat was captured and his kingdom annexed. His followers were ordered to be trampled to death by elephants.
:

\"2

Monday, Oct, Fatehpur Sikri.
:

1573

:

Akbar returned to

At
time.

Cambay Akbar saw

the sea for the

first

Akbar in concert with Todarmal 1571-1574 the compulsory branding issued a proclamation for and every person owning of all horses so thai any became a royal slave such a horse automatically ordered. bound to be on duty whenever
October 2.
1573
:

The

three

rnnces were

Khan-i-Azam. fMirza Aziz Koka) foster brother wa a ppoi e d g i e r no r of G ujera t

circumcised
1574

at

Fatehpur

Sikri.

I

i

Ibrahim Husain were in revolt. Sural was one of their centres. Raja Bhagwandas and his adopted son Raja Mansingh Akbar in this campaign. Bhu "wandfls'S
iot
killed.
It,

The Mirzas

led

by

the first ; presented himself for of Akbar s court of an did not create much lim e before Akbar but

A D.

chronicler Abul Fazal the fawning

impression-

recognition

of

June

\5,

1574:

Akbar embarked on a

river

1

SvKtion wwwl

vovft ce

to

conquer Bihar
vessels

prince

During At
Akbar
.

35

foundered off Etawa.
1

for iyt B.nnris where he halted arrived nf the capture of Bhukkar At this time news tfcsv 111 Sind

L^U off Allahabad

After 26 days' travel

!L, lC d

anyone could go on pilgrimage at State expense Vincent Smith's book "Akbar the Great (p. Mogul"),

%

March
Oi,

The

Tukaroi battle was fought with Orissa and Bihar. iter of parts of Bengal, massacred and their prisoners laken were
,\

I57S

ids

were piled up to constitute eight

sley-hj

Aziz Koka, Akbar\ foster brother revolted and was subjected to house-confinement in Agra. He is said to have resented the compulBui there sory branding-of-horses regulation. could be many other reasons besides, such as Akbar* s licentiousness In helping himself with
nrza
others'

minarets,

women
since

Though we have
all

already

lost

Muniin Khan the general April 12, 1575 accepted the formal submission of Daud and left
.

him

m

possession of Orissa,
74-1575: Gujerat suffered

of Akbar's relations and generals revolted against him, we may tentatively class Aziz Koka as the 1th eminent person of Akbar's court who turned a rebel.
count,

almost

1

from severe

pesti-

lence

and famine,

Akbar's wife Saliina Sultan Begum (widow of fie h ram Khan), his father's sister Gulbadan Begum and Akbar's mother (some say

October 1575

Afghan ruler of Bengal was killed in a battle and his kingdom came to an end. The battle was fought near Rajmahal an ancient capital of Hindu Bengal.
July 12,

1576:

Daud

the

Those ruins are wrongly
quent Muslim
rulers,

attributed

10 subse-

Hamida Bano Begum left on a pilgrimage of Mecca They were detained in Surat by Portuguese for about a year The group retur cd in I5&2 Guibadan Begum who is supposed to
I-

In fact

the ancient Hindu

mother'J

buildings are in ruins precisely because of repeat

cd Muslim assaults.

have written her memoirs has

left

no record of her

experience as a pilgrim. It could be, therefore, that the mem that go in her name are a concoction.

between Rana Praiap the immortal hero of Hindudom and the aggressive Akbar lasted for a quarter of a century. Ultimately it was Akbar who withdrew from the and struggle white Pratap emerged triumphant
1572-1597
:

The

titanic struggle

pilgrims under the charge of a leader was also sent The novel and
ui

A

invincible though with a reduced realm.
lar^c

party

of male

m

The

l

;roi

continued for five or issued a general order that
i

The famous battle of Haldighat was fought, It was in this battle that Rana Pratap's the temple charger rested his raised front legs on redoubtable of Jahangir's elephant and as the
June 1570
:

36

gol oaboui who

fSfgt S
,

.

.

Jchangir with a blow forward lo kill haneir hid bchind thc P0Qr

37

*

killed.
!

jfemfer tf« **
d
long time
in

A comet

with a

long

tail

be furnished as a travelling mosque in which he ostentatiously prayed five times a day as a pious Muslim should
to

tent

the sky

and remained

visible for a

1*77 A. 0,
Gujerat with a
executed.

from party of rebel prisoners. They were
Raja Todar Mai

arrived

1579 Akbar issued the infallibility decree declaring himself the absolute temporal and spiritual head in his realm. Within a week he left for what turned oui to be his last visit to
1,

September

Ajmer. ostensibly to Khwaja Moinuddjn Chisti's tomb. The promulgation of this decree has given
rise to the belief in

from an epileptic fit tough some fawning chroniclers prefer to term it His temper became us j si range spiritual trance.
1578

AD. Akbar
:

suffered

Akbar having founded

a

new

religion called Din-e-Ilahi.

profoundly melancholic.

1579 A, D.
vjchcrjee

:

A

Zoroastrian theologian, Dastur

January 1580 Influential chiefs in Bengal revolted against Akbar. The revolt was brought under control only in 1584.
:

Rana who had become acquainted with Akbar during the siege of Sural in 1573, and took part in some debates at Fatehpur Sikri in 1578
went

Mirza

Mohammad
in 8,

Hakim,

younger

half

brother ruling

Kabul threatened invasion.
:

home

early in 1579.

End of June !579
preacher at thc

emphasize his temporal head of his realm.

Akbar displaced the regular chief mosque in Fatehpur Sikri to position as both the spiritual and
:

1581 Akbar left Fatehpur Sikri for India's north-west frontier. Shah Mansur, Akbar's finance minister was in league with the potential invader. He thus became the 12th important courtier to revolt. He was hanged by a tree at Thanc<ihwar and between Shahbad, midway

February

of Portuguese minionaries left Goa and reached Fatehpur Sikri on February 28. 1580. They presented Akbar with
;

November 1579

A

mission

Ambala. Abul Fazal himself acted
August
0,

as the

hangman.

a Bible which he returned at a

much

later date.

Akbar entered Kabul while his half-brother Mohammad Hakim the ruler tied. Akbar started on his return journey after only a
1581
:

About

this

time

Akbar becoming alarmed

six-day stay.

'novations

On

his

bv aroused of calculated ^ncent Smith's book, page 130). way back from Ajmer he caused a lofty

''despread

resentment adopted a policy

January

17,

1582

:

Ak bar's

step mother died.

Since her return from Mecca she is said to have spent most of her time first in the construction and

,

n

SrKS&i ^..j,,

husband Hurnayun's *'" '", "llT™r*aie««rnt on page 391-92. Vol. Nhrivastava's book "Akbarthe
,

.

^-nflcenicnt of her

about

SJ

had

reports that consvariance with other .eft, started before she

f58l-$2 4

A
to

large

number of Sheikhs
for

house wheic 20 newly born children, purchased from their mothers, had been brought up in absolute isolation since 1578 under the care of dumb nurse* This was a sadist and whimsical experiment wh" completely ruined the lives of all those innoc
:

Augtist 1582

Akbar veiled

a

I

children.

e^ed"mostly

Kandahar and exchanged

horses, to be enslaved.

October 15. 1582 two-mile broad lake

:

The
at

six-mile

long and
burst.

Fatehpur

Sikri

Khan Farhankhudi, anMarch 1582 : Masum Akbar, iirticr to revolt against other important co way from murdered one night while on his
was
ihe palace in

Akbar who was

at the time engrossed

in

a birth-

Fatehpur Sikn

despite

his

having

or Akbar's sought and got the protection
1582
at

mother,
stayed

AM.

:

Hirvijaya Sun, a Jain

monk

day party with some courtiers, had a narrow escape from drowning. This hurst made the lake go dry. The township having been deprived of its source of water Akbar had to leave it for good in 1585. having found it impossible to live there any more.
important courtier to revolt, conspired against Akbar with the rebels He was imprisoned. On expressing in Gujerat. repentance he was appointed governor of Gujerat.
another

Akbar's court for some days.
/5lh April 1582.

Aitimad Khan,

Daman,

a Portuguese posses-

was invaded by Akbar's forces. treacherous attack on Diu was foiled.
sion

A

similar

The debates on religion which had commenced in 1575 came lo an end in 1582 A.D.
About
this

time Sayyad Muzaffar accompani-

Aquaviva left Jesuit priest 158J Fatehpur Sikri having obtained Akbar*:; permis.it He sion to leave, with great difficulty the court for over three years.
Early
:

ed by Father Monserrate

was asked to proceed on an embassy to Europe. This was Akbar's way of getting rid of Sayyad Muzaffar. He deserted and
concealed himself August
in the

Mu?affar Shah, ex-king Ahmedabad and proclaimed Gujerat captured irj from J 1584 onwards he himself king,

September 1583

:

Deccan.
Christian youths were

f

1582

Two

was successively defeated and later forced lo retreat
of Ktltch.
1591-92

at

Surkhei and
the sandy
he

Nandcd
wastes

into

murdered

He continued

to

rebellious ur
is

because they refused to accept lilanL A ransom of 1.000 gold coins offered for the relca&c of the Christian youths was refused.

in Sural

when

he was captured,

He

then report-

40

td I0 have

eommftted

-cidc

*

**«•«

41

hi,

J^bl> on a, than But hard!y h.d he *f **-* of death SrSi!
errand.
,

nine and he was forced to submit by paying personal humiliating homage. Earlier, in 1563 he had to pay a big ransom and surrender the musician

Tunsen.

couri

is

said

to

The dragged away

latter bitterly

we pi

when
in

virtually

to the

Muslim court
raged
in

Delhi

his

his

A
in

great

famine

Akbar's termor

J? ^ffi
Akbar
ccratcd
all

d?o W to

have reached
ostensibly to

(he the

spot

1583.

1584 A.O.

A new

era

known

as

the

Divine

5£um
pyrCi
,..

her from tannine
This
is

relatives

save the
s

herself

on her husband
This
is

obviously a hoax.

yet

an-

beginning Era was started with retrospective effect Years day March It. 1556. the first Muslim New was a part of Akbar afier Akbar's accession. This

r
r

episode of Akbar murdering a
|g
,.
j

Hindu

prince

i

ik-

to his

harem.
Aicbai celebrated Id-ul-Fitr.

attempt to assert claim to divinity

Ins

unfettered

sovereignty and

Daswant

a

OmherS,
B

1583:

on the day Raja Birbar was Akbar is said to have n bis hoi thrown gractousi) breathed on him and revived him. This
po
atch
pail;

lircdoflhe lechery stabbing himself with a court ended his life by
dagger.
foi. Ghtti Khan Bads court, died at Ayodhya. ,cai favourite at Akbar's \yodhya inctudi Some of the ancient temples in to buried were converted the one where he lies mosque-, and tombs by him,

young handsome Hindu painter and treachery at the Mogul

of the

many
off

make-believe acts of Akbar
his

July

I ^

1584*.

a

nting
lou

to

show

some of

vaunted miracu-

spiritual

powers.
/

iter

the Mlaliahad fori

\kbar is said to have built ind founded a city around it.
also said to
fort

\nd

li

urtiersare
city,

ns in the
Mtbai

The
the

and

have buiU manPrayag city are

of immemorial
i|

antiquity
of

Crediting

them

to

Prince Salim, February ft (SSS to Manbau the emperor Jahan.m was married M.msmgh. From her he had WQ sister of Raia Begum died A daughter hen
!

(the future

bland a*

m

juvenile naivete with which fraudulent Muslim chronicles
to disfigure
u

3S

ftdW

been allowed

and disgrace
questioning-

text

booki of Indian history whli

2

January 29 l«22 August 6. 1587, died on with his mother ,r.cc imprisoned along B*. H.s'o-called tomb m KhUSfU

W

,n

Wa4ra

^

Ml 'Lb

d

dl
:

M

RajaRaroChandfaorBhatha
Muslim armK...,,
i

he

third

s.n-'LruinedHnuliM « KhU^S prison to?

iuk-uI w.r

S3

and UUer as

hi,

42

43
in

^S^-^,K.
,

.nnarenilv murdered in 1604

Pnnoc Sa ,, m

.

This a scries of forts in this area. continued even beyond 1600 A.D.
:

tribal

re

1

D

m

tSSS:
uler

Akbar sent an army to Yusuf Khan, and his son
in

iTkJ* court,

had

Bed

panic.

Two

o her

Raja Bhagwan Das signed February 22\ 1586 Khan. Akhar a treaty with the Kashmir ruler Yusuf upbraiding Bhagwandas refused tc honour the
treaty.

In
,00th and nu.l

two sen to conquer the
led

mountain

Bhagwandas deeply

hurt,

apparently behimself.

cause of Akbar's

faithlessness, stabbed

gtnesofS^nondBaJaut.

ThcRa ashliniya Afghans
January 22. I5S6

by Bayazid fought forces, against Akbar's invading
.

general belief, This shows how, contrary to the court came every Hindu connected with Akbar's
to grief*

Birbar was ordered to join

the ihc expedition against

Kh

claims

Yusufzai Afghans. Zain bar's forces apparent]} a commander of Ak chronicles to have .false credit in Muslim
I

Akbar's forces led by Qasim October 6, 1586 and Khan entered Srinagar, capital of Kashmir,
:

indulged

in

plunder, repression and torture.

Yaqub
har

and
the

his father

Yusuf Khan continued
guerrilla warfare.

to

he hilly north-west fort in built the Lhakdara His Birbai was slain in this campaign. frontier. He was born original name was Muhcsh Das. about 1528 A.D. m a poor Brahmin family of the Bhaua chin, in Kalpi town.

enemy by
July !589

surrendered. Yusuf Khan annexed. The was released after Kashmir was Akbar and was made a minor courtier by
:

Yaqub

latter

sent to fight in Orissa.

A
ble

second expedition to subdue the irrepressiYusufzats was sent soon after tinder Raia

During

his

prolonged stay

in

Lahore Akbar's
sortves

Todarmar* command.
But
predator)
this

only

incited

all

the other Afghan
ly

and ravaging forces indulging in desecrating coerced a number of against defenceless Hindus to sue fOl Hindu rulers of the neighbourhood included: Those surrendering to blackmail peace.
'

tribes in the region to

relenM

resist
I

forces.

Maniingh,

then a

Akbar's Kabul, was

ordered to join the campaign with his forces.
fell
ill

He

Parashurani RajaBidhi Chand of Nagarkot. of Ja.swal. lUia Jammu. Basu of Mau. Anuradha and a number Kahlur. Pratap of Mankot
Tila of

for a

month and was
Afghan

sured for not being

of other principalities*
It is

able to cniili the

tribes.

Many

tribesmen

were slaughtered
«i.

those taken

prisoner

were
built

said,

at

this

time

Yaqub of Kashmir

The

chronicle,

Akba.rnaijta

was done

to

to him a death by Akbar by sending

liaudulc

credits

Zain Khun with having

44

*l rrthtt

the

wearing of which
because of

43

"lodarmal's usurious regulations at

proved
r

fetil
A

Tr
mteUi

and Great Tibet /592: suzennrm. All accept Aktar-i
Litlk

Akbar's henchman,

SV «*«*'* Eft ««*
das.

daughter for iahangrr
to

harem Tl„ Lahore and dumped ,„ r ,hc MusI,m
s

Akbar' a first grandson prince Khusru was born to Manbai, the Jaipur princess and jehangir. He led a life of dissipation and
\ugust 6, 158?
:

u volt and was done
Manbai was Begum.

to

death

m

captivii

iter.

given the

Muslim name of Shah

People were /W-/55J? A.D. a vast region. penury and destitution in
June
tf

reduced

to

Akbar's third son Daniyal was married to the daughter of Sultan Khwaja.

May

30,

1588

:

was brought to Lahore to be Jehangir) s harem added to Satim (future emperor many times earlier. though he had been married
ruler

J5#

The daughter of Rai Singh,

the father August 1588: Prince Murad became of a son named Sultan Rustam,

of Bikaner.

April 26, 1589

:

The famous

court musician

Tansen died

at

Lahore

after being Forced to entert-

Raja Basu of November 16. 1586 time. irpur was subdued a second behaviour repressive and treacherous
.

Man alias Ak bar's
had
so

His body first buried in ain the court for 27 years. to Ovsaliorlater. Lahore is said to have been carried

He decided hereafter to two governors to each of his twelve appoini provinces so that out of sheer rivalry they may keepfindin fault with one another and carry tale* Akbar so that he may keep both in check by
alienated his
officials that
i

Akbar set out on his first Burhanuddin was despatched visit' to Kashmir Dcccan kingdom of Ahmednaear againsi the
April 28

/>

Burhanuddin returned unsuccessful.
June
5.

1589

-

Akbar reached Srinagar and
of Kashmir's
erst-

Itved for 36

days

in the palace

iiirj one against the other.

while rulers.
a

Early 158?
ordinance

Akbar promulgated
ftich

usurious

Akbar During (he trek to Kashmir Salim. The latter refused to see his son prince .vmained mprehend.ng vengeance from Akbar

undo

to present to the or cold
ins
Bjj

every visitor io court was sovereign according to his status
in

fins equal

number

to

the

years

Rulers of Little and confined to his own tent. their wits because Great Tibet frightened out of apprehension ol fearOf Akbar'* proximity and an ransom. ful raids sent him a large

Juh
night

1

ioiUrmal

Btsailant

who

tabbed al bore him a grudge
vt

Orlober

S>

P&9

!

Akbar reached Kabul and

XhT.-IOM

4h
i

ilicre

for 48 days.

While there he received

4T

darma|\ Icticr of resignation. Todarmal went uid lived m retirement In Hirdwrar but was later
I

his wealth by Muslim priests of ihe Kaba. Finding life intolerable even there, he reluctantly returned.

retail"

Novembei

9,

1589
/

:

Todarmal died

in

Lahore.

Sheikh Mubarak, tether of IS 1/ J \hul Faizi the poet and Abut Fazal, the chronicler, died at the age of 88.
August
5,

Raja Bhagwandas who while pariKipaimg in TodarmaPt Caught strangury and ncrul suffered from vomiting and Hi sistCl was Akbar's wife Jodh Bai>
\.*M-mlur 14,
'

The poet Faizi died at October 5, 1393 Lahore suffering from dropsy, vomiting blood, breathing difficulty and swollen hands and feet.
\

d

Akbar launched an invasion against Sindh and Sibi (north-east of Quetta ln Kandab large chunk of terriBaluchistan) und captured a
v

Hakim Humara, superinOctober JO. 1595 the tendent of Akbar's kitchen, reckoned among died, nine eminent people of Akbar's. court,
April
visit

L

1597

:

tory.

end of 1588 A.D.
was completed
1

:

A

campaign was launched
Its

Kashmir. were prince Salim (Jahangir)
to

on his third Relations between Akbar and

Akbar

set

out
so

strained

even

against the Afghan ruler
in

of Grissa.

conquest

1592.
in

on
revolt against

call prince dare not during this trip that the A severe famine raged in the vale his father.
'

lie

Orivsa public rose
tit

Akbar's

upjnestfi
ic

were soon suppressed
of Cooch

principality

Hindu king. Ukshmi he was forced to submit.
July 22. 15
vit.it

Behar ruled by a Narayan. was ravaged and

of Kashmir from May homes The their compelling people to ftce ruled by LaWuni Hindu state of Cooch Behar Narayan was ravaged and subdued.

November

1597

May

3,

159?

A

nearby

ruler,

Raghava De\
harass-

(cousin of Lakshmi Narayan)
set

was

similarly

Akbar
to

out on
local

his

second

ed and subdued.

to

Kashmir
reached

quell

a

revolt.

The
be
in

November
ihe

o,

15%

;

After over 13 years'
for

stay

rebel

Yadgar's head
he

was

presented to
7,

Akhn

Punjab Akbar
to

left

Agra to pay more
king-

the

Kashmir

capital.

Akbar

attention

the

subjugation oftheDcecau

I

reached
25 days.

Snnagar on Oct.

1592 and stayed for

doms.
Prince Murad died 2' 1599 excessive drinking and of coma because of state Daulataabout 20 kos from drugging, at Dihbadi,

May

while in a

:

Akbar's foster brother Vln \nf Koka Med from the court ostensibly to visit There he was robbed of a large part of

1

„ks of he Poonia
I

ri

vcr

'

Akbar

49

scnt

1595 Of

wan notorious
fi
1
1

for
18

making broads
officers.

he
siege

JlOnOUl of ihc

m

' i

of his

In the

!f ie

Decean.
t

h

-

f

The

Jesuit prieart

Francis Jerome

^hmednagat by A k bar's forces, which began on December 18. 1595 under Shah baz Khan, the commander of Akbar \ forces, the people or

Mim

in

m

were molested and

iheir property

Mdrct: B yme thai

the emperor Xtvfcr requested enough Persian \ k bar snubbed discourses

i

^

at

Agra that since ^pentjittcdto

was

looted,
1

htm by

he

Mugals plundered
Pat tan.

neighbouring town

speak a bom permission given to htm to
ti

>wn re ijgi

was freedom enough.

pressurize

Agra ostenSeptember 16. 1599 : Akbar left reality to an hunting expedition but in prince Damyal to find time from his
life

was negotiated on February 23, 15%. Berai had to be ceded lo the Mugals in return for recognition to Bahadur as the feudatory ruler of Ahmednagar. The exasperated

Mungi

A

treaty

people of Ahmednagar plundered Mogul baggage when they began withdrawal on March 20, 1596.

lewd

to

conduct ihc Decern campaign more
visit

vigorous

August I, 1601 Akbar arrived at Fatchpur Sikri and stayed for
Jehangir,

on a
11

flying

days.

Singh of the Jaipur royal family who was Bengal died about to lead .in expedition against this time due to excesshe drinking and melancholia
Jag.il

now

over

31

years and S months old

was

beCBi

>ftlic life

of abject slavery and dissolution

he had to lead in the

Mogul

court.

February 1600
treachery.

A

besiege fort Ashirgarh.

army was sent to The fort was taken through
large

open revolt, From the age of -0 onwards he developed an over-increasing hatred lot Ins father Akbar. On July 8. 158'? when Akbar suffered from a severe colic he moaned in a state of delirium thai he suspected his son Jchapgil to have He also susadministered souk poison tfl him. pected Hakim Hu mam (reputed lo be one of the letted the nine jewels of Akbar's court) lo have
in

My
intrigue.

1600

Chand
was

Bibi the

Muslim queen
death

poisoning.

On May

16,

1597 while

staying,

in

Ahmednagar

done

to

through

August

Rajouri (a pari of Kashmir) Jehangifs body-guard had fought a skirmish with M>me of Afcbai To (roups commanded by Khwajaei Faleultah assuage Jehungir lest he become more dangerous Fateultal ttbar ordered and uncontrollable
Early tongue to be cm udered him to lead an
In

19.

1600

Ahmednager
Burhanul

fort

and

cii\

we

aptured.

Two
\

earlier attempts, in

1586 and

flopped.

nagar

of

Chand

Bibi)

Mulk of Ahmedwho died in April

1598

when Akbar
lo

expedition

furun

50

refused point-blank, to. rrmnsoxanla) Mangif advantage of Akba r ho end of 1599 laking *t Deccan Salim < Jehangir) marches absence in Hie

51

iugust 21, 1604

:

Akbar

set

out For Allahabad

to

subdue

Agra and then to Allahabad rcpidlv from Aimer independent ruler. tvherthescl liimsclf upas an Abu! Fazal was ambushed August v. 1602 and murdered at Jehamnrs instigation, about 35 miles from G waiter between he villages of Sara Burki and Anlri,
to
:

inrn back

but was forced to midway having received news of his
his

rebellious

son

mother's

illness.

Akbar's mother August 29, 1604 Makani died at the age or 77,

Ma nam

I

j

nemher

9,

1604

:

Jehangir (Salim) arrived

February

?

Gulbadan Begum

1603 died

:

Akbar 's

fathers

sister

in her

82nd year.

Agra on the pretext of paying a condolence His companion Raja Basil of Mau and visit. Pathankot was made a scapegoat and was pUl

m

She has written
October 1603

her

memoirs of her brother

emperor Humayun's reign.
Salim asked to march agamst Rana A mar Singh (son of the late Rana Pratap) proceeded some distance and returned under pretence of inadequate troops and equip:

But the Raja escaped to his princiLater Jchangir too was put under house pality. arrest and spanked,

under arrest

Prince

Prince Daniyal who refused repeated to return to Agra from the Deccan despite emperor Akbar died, of excessive

March

II,

1605

:

summons from
Septerilbei

ment.
<>4

drinking and drugging.
22.

A.D>

:

An

1605

:

Akbar

fell

ill

in the

expedition was sent out againsi

Bit

Singh Dto. the chief of Orchha who had organized the ambush againsi Ahul Fazal. AkbaA
effectively repulsed.

palace at Sikaiulru,

army was, howevet.
Jehangir** wife

vhe

is

stated

Manbai was murdered u have commuted suicide.

though

Akbar died at m In it the October 15, 1605 months 4S years, age of 63 after having n tgfl and three son and 3 days. He bad rtw died. Two daughters. Two of hifi sons had (Khanam Sultan) md ShukrunI

daughters: Shah/ad

Hiding his bed
ing

stepped exasperated that he ordered the man to be thrown the par,,,- ,-i Agra fori and dashed to

when

he

chamber attendant dozin for a siesta, was so

third, Aram mssu Begum had been married, The Begum died a spinster during Jehangir** rule.

pieces.

such a sadist that he had a news toyed nKvc, a page castrared and a domestic servant beaten death
i|

Wjj

AKBAR
Ail of

S

VICIOUS

ENVIRONMENT

prodding win. igfc and the law or evident Thi tottered myth of Akbar's greatness and nobility is one such. Obviously a Muslim Akbat has been artificially boosted as jjreal and noble ruler to provide a
i
I

svhicli

crumb*

n

the nHgtitew

11

.-

even down And so were his descendants vicion Aurangzeb and others grandson to his Steal Akbar himself and h.sconiemp,n,. downrh; As we shall see m were links m that chain. n^ chapters the tyranny and torture
that Akbar and treachery and horror limits. generals practised knew no
the

Attn*

ancestors were barbarous and

communal counterbalance Hindu emperoi Ashok whu
literature for his piety.

to
[s

the

name of

the

often hailed

m world
side

Akbar was descended on the paternal

succeeding

and

his

and brought up in an illiterate and was further fouled h.irbarou?, atmosphere which drink by inordinate womanizing and by extreme and drug addiction. Akbar could not have been And ir the paragon of virtue that he is made of. heat all were to be a freak virtuoso his sons, grandsons and great grandsons would not have been the degenerate sadists that they turned out to

Bom

from Tamerlain. and on the maternal side from Chengiz Khan two of the world's greatest marauders who made the earrfr quail under their feet. Justice J. M. Shelat observes Akbar'* "grandfather Babur was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh, the king of Fargana, a small principality on the eastern border of Persi Umar Sheikh's fathei was Abu Said, a great grandson of Timur. The first wife of Umar Sheikh and the mother of Babur. Qutlug Nigar JChanum was the second daughter or Yunas Khan, a direct descendant of Chagtai Knm. the second son or the great Mongol Chengiz Khun.
1
i

be.

This

ib

sheer logic.
logic

And
full

the

conclusions

we
in

ch through
account*,
if

find
reign.

corroboration

Ak bar's

Akbar's grandfather Babur was dreaded like a man-eater and people used to llee in terror in his bsequern chapter of It will be shown in a wake. this book that Akbar himself was rated by his
contemporaries as no better than
prowl, and people
lied at

fortunately India having
le

been
i

under

alien

Tor over a
1

thousand years,

a

iditti n to

write

panther on his approach.
a

the

lit

communal or

political

expediency,

About Babur Mr.

Shelat

says-

"Babur took
garrison
to

under

Govtrnraenl has become so patronage ongly entrenched that writing an unvarnished straightforward account of India's past is considered a sacrilege, It j&, therefore, that Indian

the city iDipalpur) putting the

entire

t.

Page t, Alto, by J. M. Shelat, l%4, Vidyu Bliiovan, Chowpaty. Bomb.n. Pags
6, ibid

Rtinratiyi

haphazard dogmatic, slipshod, *urd and anomalous conclusions and concepts

•ounda

in

2

i

i

54

the sword

jnd
them

,

t1

,di,nni:
III
,s

'Bahur's *ani!unrd.„bcst rhe cnemv terror m Ibrahim (Lodt)'s forces e towards Delhi) ihc former's |Hi t sword" ..« Then he quotes Babur: «0 rhe
.

I
I

Mogul dynasty R „d gran, lather Akbar was no better than hoodlum
'"
|C1
l,f

^e

i

when we came io Agra. All away iti terror. Neither the inhabitants had run for our horses was t grain for ourselves nor corn be had, The villagers, out of hostility and hatred for robbery us had taken to thieving and highway B\ the labours of several years. ..by deadly slang]),
ihe hot season
fcr.

I

Ba b " r Nkmo rs ^ntain many confe* 'V " r j of he barbarism that he Kions
practised.

m

,KwextT,ci,:"^Vctook
falter The battle against the

re

are

a

number of pHsonei Tambol) whose heads

I

we beat these masses of enemies
Describing the demonaic pleasure which Babur

u*ed 10 deri\ c by raising

towers

of heads of the

people he used to slaughter
after

C

I

Tod

writes

11

that

defeating

Rana Sanga

at

Fathchpur

battle between Hangti)as had been brought in alive, andam'naret was erected of their heads "> (At Hangu too my troops) cut off a hundred or 200 heads ol refractory Afghans. Here was erected a minaret of heads." The Sanger (fortification or
.

ordered to be struck off Thiv was mv first battle • Orders were given for beheading such of them \fghans who surrendered in the

Kobai

find

il

Sikrl

•triumphal pyramids were raised of the heads of the slain, and on a hillock which overlooked the Id of battle, a tower of skulls was erected; and
the conqueror

Babur assumed the

title

of Ghazi."

account of Asaf Khan's banquet quoted by Vincent Smith says" "Intemperance was the
'

r

was taken. A general massacre A pile of heads was formed m the Bannu ensued. coimiiv. Such persons (of my urray}as had not repaired to their posts had their noses slit." The nemy troops provoked us to tight... A minaret of skulls was erected of these Afghan " The expedition of Bajour being thus terminated to my
the Kivi
tribe),
' 1

besetting sin of the
s

Timuroid royal family, as it of many other Muslim ruling families. Babur
'

entire satisfaction...! gave orders
*

for

the
1

erect
I

was an elegant toper

ofa pillar f >kull» mi a rising ground, * sent Ihe army under the command of Hindu Beg to
plunder Panjkora.
Before they
fled. "
1

On

reached

Panjkora

own confession Babur was also a sodoFrom all accounts, therefore, Babur, the
his

ihe

inhabitants

had

the

inhabitants

of
by

Memoir
P»B5
k,

ol

/ct mud din

Milium mud Babur.

I

r;i

related

Shclut't

tank.

ibid.

A


F*gt
*

H\ Shelur quotes Babur'* Memoirs, Routlcdge
.

John Lcyden and William Erskloe and annotated and revised Sir Lucas King, two vols.. Humphrey Milford. Oxford
University Presi
B

KCftfl Paul Ltd

London.

1921
1

10. ibid

P P
1*.

I

IK. Vol.

9
\2. 15.

P.

a

10, p 12.
16.

P*^

24.
' '

t.

AnoaU
-J.

„ nd

"
,„
'•>•
p
i

-

P 239
p. 85.

Vol
P.

II. p.

38.

**

m

*** 294, vinccm Smith''.

two voli Akbar the Great Mogu

»3.

149.

56

^w
.
'

;

;;i; e

were put to the sword, th cir who mto cap llV|lJ Children were earned Plundered" Ibrahim Ud?
resisted
r

57

pUi>

When, aS! 33 A burned" mutual :;^;;;^ratherewasa.tron,

I,A,-re

repulsed

and

Lahore baz* r
fir*

dislike

wd hostility between peasantry

my people

and

the

men

Humayun Will opium h Smith Vinoenl highwayman and extortion! quotes Humayun'a faithful servant Jauhar to my king thai when Akbar was born "The discrowned being in extreme poverty, was puzzled how to celebrate (the occasion), The king hen ordered
slave to the
1
il
'

i

of

and soldiers of the connThe th men. Afterwards abided and (led from my only in Delhi and Agra the m e?cmvhere except obey," When I refused to submit or

Z

habftants
to

(Jauhar io bring the articles given in trust to hifC on winch I (Jauhar) went and brought 20Q and a Shahrtikhts (silver coins), a silver bracelet, pod of musk. The two former he ordered me to back 10 the owners from whom they had been
give
taken..."
birth

II

came

All «hc was the hot season from terror The villagers, out Inhabitants had fled to us, had taken to rebellion. of hostility and hatred The roads became impassthieving and robbery. 30 Kasimi who had proceeded at this time able. Bavaria had cut off and with a Hgbt force towards 21 Mulla Turk Ah away several heads

Agra,

it

Tins proves that sometime before the

Akbar his father Humayun had at commuted a dacoity and robbed somebody of Happy silver bracelet least 2 50 silver coins and that his robbc that he had got a son and fearing Humayun may entail a curse on the infant. restored to their ordered the robbed ai tides to be
of pnnce

brought

was instructed to see that everything orders done to plunder and ruin Mewat. Similar proceed to were given to Maghfur Diwan to and ravage and desolate some of the bordering remoter districts, ruining the country and carrying
off the inhabitants into captivity."

possible was

owners.
rulers in India As was common among Muslim with his Humavun was engaged m deadly combat

own

father s throne. brothers to grab bis deceased Humayun captured his After repeated battles when the alter he subjected elder brother Kamran

Coming down
father

the

line

we

find that Akbar's

perhaps even more cruel and degenerate than Babur because while Rabur had to sweat and toil and shed his own blood for plunder

Humayun was

Vincent Smith says* to brutal torture. to hanl .hud been obliged pressed >o

-Kamran..,

di.gu.se

himsetfasawoman (but was Humayun rendered to Humayun.

and ravage, his son Humayun was kingdom, and unearned richer
Vincent Smith
observes-*:
IK.

heir to a vast
a

S
23.

captured and) ws decided that it
beat

Buffiec

to

blind

hint

The

and mos
narrative
felt

detailed account

is left

by Jauhar.

His

"Humayun was
19.

ges
P

the

im pression

dm

Humayun
ibid.

little

3
20,

P. 151.

P

m
Akbar

P P

246.
279.

P. 247,

It of Vlnceol

SmiUVs book,

24, P. 19, ffeW
ibid.

22. P. 9.

ibe Great

Mogul,

58

fa
culled

hfi

brother**

rtifferings...One

,»r, he

tling

on

(Kami**)
and
fl

knees,

(He)

wa8

contents.

[

horsebnc*

was thrust mto .1.1 of the leni .Some (lemon) mice and sail was piu lt After some time he was put o n His family was not molested by
lancet

certainly never expected such
I

from hjm, and being extremely huri, sent him ome letters containin
reprehension/

conduct wrote .ind the several

Humayun was
thiii

io

tyrannical

and overbearing

Humayun
Thai

may well imagine the Humayun was capable of
ne his

cruelty

and torture inflicting on others

he imposed a humiliating rite to be observed by all (hose over whom he ruled The chronicler

when he subjected
id

own

brother to such torture.

mercy that he did no molest his brother's wives shows that Humayun used in molest all women he could lay his hands
the
reference

to the small

Badayuni notes:- 'When he ( Humayun > arrived ai Agra he imposed upon the populace a new selfinvented form of salutation, and wished ihem to kiss the ground {before him),"
Vincent Smith
stave of the
asserts-'

thai

"Humayun was

a
30

on throughout his

life.

And who knows whether he
not spare his brother.
flatter

actually

desisted

from molesting his brother's wives when

he did The assertion may be mere

Emperor Babur himself appraising his eldest wn Humayun (the father of Akbar, as a potential murderer of his brothers) beseeched- htm on June if he became 27, 1529, not to murder his brothers
king.

opium habit." Mr. Shelat observes and til that in Agra "Kamran suddenly took suspected that he had been poisoned b> Babur's m After spending wives at Humayun's instanci about a year in Badakshan Humayun showed suddenly characteristic laxity towards duty and returned to India without the permission of his
father, deserting his post.

Displeased at
his jagir in

Lhe con-

duct

Babur
l

sent

him

to

Sumbhal *
in

After
28

lie

capture
573. Vol.
1,

of

Champa ner

Gujerat
by

Young Humayun "s going

berserk helped

by
F
Miiiititkli.ibul

Tawuriklt

Abdul
I

immense wealth and a phalanx of hoodlums is testiBabur fied to by Babur himself in his Memoirs, Humayun had repaired to Delhi and there opened several of the houses which contained treasure md taken possession by force of the

QwHi
i ,

ibu

Muluk

Shall alias AI Badayool, trnmlaied

ii»

IgmAlFertl
ihc

nd edited by George SLA
Sociclv

(tonkins

primed

Press,

m
i

Aiintic

Of Bengal.

Cilcuu.t. Bupnsl

Minion

P

9.

Akbu

2nd

edition,

revised

Greut Mogul, by Vinccnl A. Smith. Indian repnni 1958, S. Chnnd &. Co.,
il.c

H
26
b

P.
f».

20

ibid.

30
India,

«'

32,

Akbui. by J.M. Shelat.

Bh«T»tiyi

Vfdyi

231, Crescent in
1966,
II,

b>

S.R. Sharuui,

Hind

Bhuwftfl, 1964,
31
i

Bombay.

Ltd.,

Bombay- 1.

20, ibid

17.

P J15, Vol.

Babur't

Meinour ibm

32

P. 24, ibid.

61
. !

nng.uHl indolence as he

H
on
i

did

umeniv! occasions
\khai brother Humayun
profligate
sadtsl

iacoity
circuin

in
itai

the

sandy waste* of Sind

In

the«

was and an
from

a

kchcrou s
apparent

incorrigible
is

\i u

jrug iddici and a following extracts

torturer

On Ins return 10 business was Public drive B« of opiumwhen the Moguls entered the fort penalty o n huimrlRumy Khan inflicted barbarous Humayun acquiesced. The ihc garrison in which
,

Mr. Shctofs Agra Humayun took t

Humayun came to >cc hi-> brother (I lindali. In Hindal\ harem Humayun saw Mamida Dost who was Banu. daughter of VI ir Baba HmdaPs religion!* guide. Humayun was ihen 33 Humayun while llamida Banu was hardly 14.
Sou gilt her hand. The girl herself was opposed to marrying Humayun. Hindal also opposed the Humayun 1541, match. At last in September married her giving two lacs of rupees in dowry-' Baba Do&t\ Humayun purchased Obviously daughter by threats and bribing him with somebody's stolen money.
of Akbar's ancestors Khan from his rather Humayun upward to Chengiz barbarians. and Tamerlaia were the mosl cruel WK AaKlJlQ* sadists and drink and drug-addict-. too were equally

hands of no
but

less

Rumy

300 Afghan artillery men Khan was appointed commander
than

was poisoned by jealous chiefs.** Jn Gaur Humayun unaccountably shut himself up for a

Having noted

thai

all

harem and abandoned 3" himself to every kind of indulgence and luxury. The reasons for the dissatisfaction amongst the igainst Humayun were obvious. By 1538 the character of Humayun. his indolence, his excessive addiction to opium and his slothful ways had heme notorious ..Finding two of his brothers iHindal and Kamrani ready to stab him in the Humayun decided to cut his wa> back (from
considerable time in his

5C

that
i

all

let

i

«

.

.'US,

descendants cruel and misbehaved.
his

li

may
b<
.

noble

lineage,

being first-rate

was argued thai Akbar himself barbarous 'me freak though born in a his nd that he could not help expectedto sadism no, could he be
be

*&

«en

Bengal) to Agra

."'

Thirty-three year-old

Humayun

taking

14-year-

was a virtual rape of a irl. Humayun then was a desperate outlaw mi and fugitive, expelled from India and living
nida
as a wife
33 34 35
3fc

Banu

anv moderating influence argument Even accepting this for . cruelt> son phenomenal. Mr. Shelat says?

on
s

11

Lang*

rt**™^
use

hj™*^ Akbar
sake

Sta
llictctl

excessive khansir) gave himself to tomt and under their
flayed

He had barbarous punishmeiU. and he ordered the his presence
alive
I

^'f™^ "^J££ to^
of opium

p.

U,

m

AJtbw,

ibid.

P, 27. Ihid
l>

37. 3S.

"p.

30,

1

7.

'bid

1H, Ibid

P,

359

ibid.

P. 29, ibid

*3

ration
CTl

oma*
'II

lervanl

with

whom

(

hi,

love. greai

»nu noble hjs SOn md u^ic been keen on murdering tan* would not have attempts 10 murder Bm Jehangil made several to one such cuheT Akbar. Referring H.J
Urttti

been

.

vn

Smiih
s

-i

"A

*

early as

1591.

when
eldest

suffering Tor a time

from stomach-ache
that his

he
-»n K

expressed

suspicion

This episode Jehangir's villainy as of Akbar's is much of iT his times ns the most hated person of
(Jebnngir)

had poisoned him."

Not having succeeded
\fcbar Jehangir

in

poisoning his

father

Mr.

wanted to capture and kill Akbar. Smith records-*": (In view of Jehangir's Vkb-ir relumed to Agra probably early
>' rSalim while
in

rebellion
their

sought

:he support

of the Portuguese and
his
father)..
,J

Abul »hli a lance and promptly decapitated, Salim His head was sent to Allahabad, where re. Lh unholy joy and treated it with shame.It... The elder prince, when safely estabhed with his court at Allahabad, far removed himself parental supervision, abandoned out restraint to his favourite vices, consuming
don
against
*'

animuniwas Fazal

or
39

ind Ntrong drink to nidi an extent that his

m

Smith VAktowr die Great

Mogul".

64

army n tne himself -<« the rime ofd C ar . p * Durine- May 1580 to May 1598 Akbar K d tore alienated from Salmi, and ihc seed become
» asked
to

ukc charge of the
I

royal

f>5

j

capital

]

,

n in the prince's mind., The of rebellion was became of sexual older he grew the more fond he d olher youthful follies, indulgence, of drill* had in June 1596 \1 though he had a large harem he

^

punishment for ordinary offences. One day drunkenness he had a news-vwiter, who ,n a fit of seemed to have reported the prince's indulgence ,n excessive drink, to Akbar, horribly flayed alive He castrated a page, and had a in his presence, " domestic servant beaten to death

Not only Akbar's son Jehangir even Akbar's
grandson Shahjahan who happened to be emperor after Jehangir, was a degenerate barbarian like all his ancestors upto Chengiz Khan and Tamerlain and beyond.
'European Maulvi Moinudd in Ahmad writes historians have sometimes charged Shahjahan with
11

fallen

violent 1\
li

in

love

with

Zainkhan

Koka's

daughter,
early love

nun

be that the story of the prince's

Mihirunnisa (future Nurjahan) and 60 When he was foiarkali wen- not without substance. the Rana of Mewar lent with the expedition against
for

from self-indulgence, wine-drinking and bad company (Salim) spent much time in Ajmer, Taking advantage of Akbar's absence Salim decided on n rebellion, He marched rapidly from Ajmer
ards Agra, confiscating more than a crore 51 nh of cash :md effects of Shahbazkhan Kambu. On return to Allahabad Salim had relapsed into

bigotry traced to the fountainhead

of narrow-

mindedness

in (his wife)

Mumtaz."

52 E,B. Havell notes

"The

Jesuits

were

bitterly

of drink and self-indulgence. Surrounded by unworthy companions he imbibed He had Tor years been excessive love of flattery, he carried them familiar with these vice?, but
.*!d

habit

before persecuted by Shahjahan, Only a short lime who was a relentless her death Mumtaz Mahal, Shahjahan enemy of the Christians, had instigated settlement in Hoogly." to attack the Portuguese

to excess to

He became
extent
that

addicted to wine at
it

all

hours

such

ceased

So he began taking opium m a the age of H and at this He started drinkti of period he look sometimes as many as 21) cups Undei the double intoxidouble ilcd spin! he sometimes inflicted cation o! id upturn
1
i

to intoxicate him. addition to wine.

Many Another historical work records" the monks and seen times did Shahjahan invite Mobommadans (but when they priests to become greatly overtures) Shahjahan was
repudiated his
51

px The

Mainudditi Ahmad.

Environments, bv Mm G. B.nsal 2nd edition, printed by R.
Taj

and

Its

&

Agra. Co., 339 Kasmrat Bftiar,

«
be T,j

p

,041

Revlef JTid

&

lu Designer*,
Pp.

i l>™ «*> HavelL by E.
B.

The

19th Century

&

After.

d

Mom

r

V,U
-

*

" llCd

49

i<

53.
mill

of VHMX, The Traction*

the Archaeological

1878. Society of Argn, Jun. lo June

51

Y

I

,„, 157

in

d

be
u'nst

and then and then ordered ihc priests ncd the next iU\\ by the tori u re then u / the worst out Jaws, that of being trampu

brought 400 Christian prisoner* mate Bad female, young and old. with the idoh of tht warship to the presence of the fahh-dcfending He ordered that the principle* emperor.
B nd

Kambu

kecne slates* "'Shahjahan surpassed all th. Mogul emperors in autocratic pride and was Mi lirvt of hem l« safeguard he h rone by murdering " According to Roe all possible rivals, who knew Shahjahan personally, his nature was u . n bending and mingled with extreme pride, and contempt of all."
4
I

Muhammadan

of

the

religion be

they be called

upon

to adopt

explained to them md it A few embraced

I

I

the faith but the majority in perversity and wellness rejected the proposal. These were distributed

among

the amirs

who were

despicable wretches in to pass that ii came
prison to hell.
likeness

directed to keep these rigorous confinement. So

many of them passed from

Shahja ban's
ertfi*
(

own

official

court

chronicle

Such of their idols as were the of the Prophets were thrown into the
rest

had been hrought to the notice of His M q\ HKit during the late reign many idol temples had been begun, but remained unfinished m Bauaras, the great stronghold of infidelity, The infidels were now desirous of completing them. His Majesty, the defender of faith, gave orders that at Einaras and throughout all his dominions in ever> ce. all temples hat had been begun should be cast down. It was now reported from the province of Allahabad thai 76 temples had been destroyed in ihe district of Banaras."
'It
;.

were broken to pieces." Like Jehangir's Shahjahan's whole reign is full of the most cruel dealings. Shahja ban's son Aurangzeb who succeeded htm as emperor is a byword for ext-

Jumna, the

I

In

connection with the conquest of Daulaiabad slated in the same chronicle" "Kasim Khan
ECeene'l
|

Handbook for Visitors to Agra Si tr Handbgok of Hindustan rewritten and brought up-to-date by E A Duncan)
ll

Neighbour!.,

i

,

reme fanaticism, cruelty and treachery. Aurangzeb died a bare 261 years ago (in 1707 A.D.). If he could be extremely cruel and barbarous how much more cruel and barbarous would his great grand father Akbar have been So, no matter how many generations above or below Akbar we probe we find them a long line of barbarians, Akbar was but a link in that chain He was not the least Had he been different from others of his lineage. noble his descendants at least should have been good, noble, well-behaved and universally loved and respected individuals. This is ^heer logic. One who has not read accounts of the reign of Akbar but has heard of the cruelty of hts ancestors and
!

55

P. 155. ibid.
?y.

descendants would Akbar's nobility.

at

once see through the bluff of

Ihc Badihuhnamn, by

Mulla Abdul Hnmid

Laden
57,

Before referring to Akbar's

own

cruelties

and

P 46

ibid

:-m

torbnrii
;

i

we
:

shall

see

what the

,

dar(J

*"«

* JS

w
nle
|l(l

wpnaw power, been r wielding would not have Ins contemporaries bee* In fact ijw mmir hemrus crimes
been ier\

»** Akb*

^
i

inurden massacres, rape and plqnd
half-3-«ni
I

did not make even die diflercncc to the pattern or standard* :diae\al behaviour. Had Akbar been grevi knd
posterity

would
k„i
liven, jn

luivc

realit)

cukured and well behaved cruel ^ wo], es the? *«« and

"

ik

change

w-Thc mother of Chungiz Khan, the a i« f Gujerai, at this time (1573) preferred a rCT un 10 Akbar that Joojhar Khan Hub?
.

had put her son to death

vho fled toAbul Mali, a senior courtier** wards Kabul wrote to Mah Ghck (a lady frAkbar's o%n foster brother's royal family; reca
(father of ing earlier friendly tigs with Huraayun Akbar), She welcomed him and gave her daughter

d that durinz or Srnce even hu great grandson after bis reign. rangzeb was the very embodiment of exuehy sheer logic should tell u\ that Akbar far from being virtuou* must ha%e been a deeply bated person worthy to be the great grandfather igzeb and cert more barbarous than the latter because Akbar was Auraugzeb* senior by 100 years in an age woes cruelty and brutality lost er a ong nd edge ste-4 . tber
life
.

m

would before Akb_

noticed a

et
1

period.
In the next cbaptc
x
p

bafl
i

narrate Akbar

rod his genera
thereby
hi

Fakhrunnisa
mother-in-law
killed her

in

marriage to him. Later finding
in

his

and

prove

cruelties, other oft, -t the conclusions we

an obstacle
'

his

way he

himself

reach by logic and world:.

iotn are fully borne

with

n

dagger
him-

out by

•"Akbar's
self

own uncle Kamran "disgraced
on his opponents the most
even
v.

by

inflicting

fiendish

tortures, not sparing

omen and

children."

above should suffice to convince the reader that the whole environment before, after or during Akbar's reign reeked *
The
instances quoted
58. P. 147.
in

Absurd and dlogkal dogmas like Akbar's fancied nobility base been embedded in writers and teachers Indian hi -i to avoid making use iuousry have beer e law of evidence from consMera of logic a of political expediency m a mulenrum of ahen Through long babit the legal and logical role.
'

faculties

of scholars
if

of

Indian history, of the

Hi*tor> of the

Ri*

of

tommadaji ?ov&
rh*
orifiail

traditional school, b

India

till it
I

Pcismr
1!,

.hamnud
b> S.

D 1612. iraniLited %mkm Fed
>

they express surprise

±Hen into such duuse that told that logic and the law

Brttfs.
Street.

«*

published

Dc

bitlr

Cak

rcpf [filed 190-

touchstones of evidence murf be used as supreme iocuments >f dogmas o .-si the records, chronicles, inscriptions and aidueoJogtcal finds.

59.

P U.
P. 18

M

3

60.

Vmm

S

cut's book. ibid.

book, ibid

frflT.COM

Chapirr IV
71

"Akbar would have laughed at the r the miseries remorse fell by Ashok caused by
observes
3
I

AKBAR'S BARBARITIES
In
his

and would have utterly the conquest of Killing* condemned his great predecessor's decision to
all

abstain from

further wars of aggression/*
life

no
his

a\

wasAkbflf

less

cruel

than
|j

How
sickening

the
tale

whole of Akbar's
of
cruelty,

ancestors, descendants or
crafty,

contemporaries.
treacherous he wielded

torture

anything

scheming and

was one inflicted on

those

whom

he disliked,

and treachery,

may

be

jure and the unlimited power that over a vast region qualifies him to be considered one of the foremost tyrants and sadists in world
history, leave aside India's alone.

noted

from the following extracts from accounts written by a number of scholars.
Smith says* "Kamran's only son (who was Akbar's cousin) was privately executed at Gwalior in 1565— bv the order of Akbar. who thus set an evil example, imitated on a large scale by his descendants Shahjahan and Aurangzeb/*
Vincent

"Generations of martial races (The Rajputs or Kshatriyas) were cut off by his sword, and lustres rolled away ere his conquests
asserts
1

Col

Tod

were
J]

sufficiently

confirmed.
Alia

He was long ranked

(Allauddm) and other instrument* of destruction, and with every just claim: and like these he constructed a Mumbar
j Ipit

Siiahbuddin,

The above observation makes it clear that the consummate villainy of emperor Shahjahan (Akbar's grandson) and of emperor Aurangzeb (Akbar's
great grandson) were not
a precious heritage

their

original traits but

or platform of Islamite
altarl

Komi from th«

preachers) for the Of tklirwju tthe deity of

handed down by Akbar.
a

the Rajput warriors i."

Sadism was
consistent
trait itself

prominent, permanent and of Akbar's mental makeup. It

Communa lists

or those seeking

academic or

manifested

throughout
last

his

life

from early

other patronage under alien regimes in India have tended to mention Akbar, in and out of contexi. atcompaiablc in nobility of character and grealof heart with the ancient Indian king Ashok.
i

childhood to his very

moments.

On November
mere
stripling

5,
less

1556

when Akbar was a
14

of

than

years of age he

slashed

the

neck of

his

Hindu adversary, Hemu,
and bleeding.
after by
this

Debunking

this

view

Vincent

Smith

justifiabi

brought

before

him

unconscious

Vincent Smith
Vol
bv

describing
,

incident

the

tW*c

\nnal»and Antiquities of Rajiutthait. Tod, in two volumes, reprinted 1957.
1,

2. Pp. Smith. Jbid.
3.

50-51

Akbar The Great Mogul,

Vincent

£ kccw
-'
S

fail Lid,. BriKidws)

House, 68-74 Carta

L*ne, Lopdua

P. 20, ibid.

72

******

f^z° H:m r::«
«M0W which P,erccd
hisbn,,
s c le

n

7.1

EKX"
^d Mdcaar.

^thfcd Wo A

Heniu M fttfthw rcsisiance. brou -hl jungle W"
tta

p ha b ** and

After defeating Baz, Bahadur the sultan Malwa at Sangrur near Dcvvas in Central India. Peer Ku s generals Adham Khan and disgraced themselves and their Mohammad sovereign (Akbar) by disgusting cruelties, of which
I

m
2t

ad to

on the neck with his Akbar smote Herau plunged their swords The bystanders also Hemu's head was sent to i-caing bleeding corpse. exposed and his trunk was gibbeted
be

Badayuni was a horrified witness. They had the brought before them and troop after troop capn of them put to death, so that their blood flowed
river
jests,

upon river. Peer Mohammad cracked brutal and when remonstrance was offered replied *in

of Delhi. The official story, that one of the gate? sentiment of unwillingness to strike a magnanimous already half-dead compelled helpless prisoner his guardian (Ben ram \kbar to refuse to obey
n
s

one single night all ihese captives have been taken, what can be done with them/ Even Sayyids and learned Sheikhs who came out to meet him with Korans in their hands were slain and burnt/
After the battle

Adham Khan who was

for a

instructions

to

strike

a

semi-conscious

enemy), seems to be the late
Elaucfers.'
I

of courth Ins last observation of Smith under time flatterers have from time to
invention

was recalled lime appointed governor of Malwa and Peer Mohammad was appointed in his place/ conferring such an important trust on a man
"In
so unworthy

history by varnishing their patrons' beastly deed*, needs to be carefully no Led by alt students of mediaeval Muslim chronicles.
falsified

Akbar committed a grievous error, peer Mohammad attacked Burhanpur and Bijagadh,
a
general,

massacre at the latter he practised to the fortress. As Badayuni observes, utmost the code of Chengiz Khan, massacring or
perpetrating

Akbar's victorious forces pushing
Panipat after thai great victory J
to Delhi, which

south from
straight

enslavinc

all

"marched

opened

its

gates to

Akbar, who

Asirgadh, to the south of the

the inhabitants of Burhanpur and and destroying many towns and villages

Narmada
laier
fort

(river)."

made

Agra also passed into his possession, In accordance with the ghastly custom mc$, a tower was built with the heads of Immense treasures were taken with the famil lemu whose aged father was executed/'
his entry
state.

m

Adham Khan W*8

ordered to

be

thrown

and dashed to pieces called Alga Khan. Refer r for murdering a courtier Khan was thrown this Smith says* "Adham
over the parapet of Agra
ing lo
6,

mem
5. p, 29. .bid.

Smith's book, ibid.

u
w*lk>M
fct'in

to
'•'

ly ha,f Bc ne *?.

IS

H'lH^r.g him up

!

^

killed

•icuimiMs adds that(Akb«r)wai highly delighted with this sport. The other historians cell utihat
Hi.

^

dashed out. The horrid hi* toam» Uhani khan hi "" being dashed oui fc produced in one of the Akbarnama South Kensington/'
I

numbers onriuially engaged were two or three hundred oft one tide and SOU on the other,
with
the

that

reinforcements the

total

came

to

about a UQOQ
ihc sight'.

The author of the Tabaqnt agrees with Ahul Fa/at that 'the emperor greatly enjoyed
It

VVae*

hkbu
eight
in

l'

|cd ttn attack
'

a S»«nst

tJu

villages

in

Etah

district

like

Akbar

disappointing to find that a man could encourage such sanguinary
is

(Sakit

Paronkh village 8 house was set on thousand rebels consumed.'*
incident
the

sport.'"

v

extraordinary
"i

winch

occurred
at

while

royal

camp was

This incident throws a lurid light on Akbai tastes and motives. A- I fanatic Muslim it gave him great pleasure to see that two faction* of the

famous Hindu place of pilgrimage,
tb

of Delhi, throws a rather unpleasant Akbar - character. The sanyasis who
L

hated Hindus slaughtered one another That he derived immense pleasure from two groups of men stabbing and stoning one another only speaks tot Akbar's very sadist mind
(hat people of his time used to regard Akbar's approach with the same terror is thai of a man-eater

the holy lank were

divided

into two

\boJ Faial calls
ader

of the

latter

Kurs and Purii, complained to the kin|

aeKurshad
place

unjustly occupied the accustom-

on the prowl,

of the

Puris,
tlie

who were

tim-

ed from collecting
ranted

pilgrims* alms.

(They
swords,

from the two crowded Hindu pilgrim centres, Banaras and Prayag [Allahabad getting deserted on Akbar's visit there. Vincent Smith says 11 "Akbar then marched to Prayttg and
is

clear

I

\

permission
riiL-

to

decide the

issue by

Banaras, which were plundered because the

people

fight

began

with

were discarded
hese again for stones.
re
>re

for

bows and Akbar seeing
signal to

were rash enough to close their gates/' Obviously people who are generally eager to see royalt> and pay homage would run have barricaded doors or
run

outnumbered gave the
savage
followers
to

away

after

locking
the

help the

panicked

from

homes unless they rape and rapine that Akba
their
in
its

^n*
I

The reinforcements enabled the he Kur-, mio headlong llight The ued and a number of 'th<
to annihilation!.
10

phalanx of hoodlums spread they went for hall a century,
It.

wake wherever

in India

»

The

chronicler

P. SH.ibid.

*«L

Pp. 56.57. .bid.

76

Mu-ak of Otic mstii M mafjimad Zaman ispeotoJ confidant of Khan
revolted against

\u (who "JJ5

77
,.i.

Akbirj waa tortured for r v ground, e-,^ 5$sivc Jays on Hie execution day tie was trussed up in a wooden frame llnt The etephaw. placed before one of the elephants caught lijm in his irunk and squeezed him and flung him from one side \o he other. As a clear
j
I

i

d a general mussacrc.
<ii/"'i"

whicft

death ol
i

M

n

;uli d

in

'*»

ihv

were made prisonci

In

November

1572 whea Akbar approached

;n

for his execution

played with him. barbarity without a

was not given the elephant IbulFszat idates this horrid word of censure."

Ahfjicdubad the fugitive king* Muzjiflat Shan v. brought in. Certain found hiding in a cornfield imp followers having Insolently plundered his effects, Akbar sel an example of stern justice b> ordering tht offenderaiabe ir.tmpled to death bv
i
i

elephants."

mass immolation by fire preferred N Rajput women and infants to escape rape, humiliation and molestation by Akbar's army men

The

terrible

working of Akbar's illitemet rate mind is offered by the punishment he This courtier called Ham-2aban. ,.iii too senior

An

insight into the

courtier

had been

in

revolt

at

Sural

in

Cujerat

after

of Chitior fori, testifies to the brutality that was practised during Akbar's reign, \ incent Smith observes" "The Jauhar sacrifice
the capture

province. Since the
his
m,,

He"
word

pturcd on February 26, 1573. Hanwaban signifies 'one true to
h

tongue (word)
In

barbarously punished

completed before the final capture was on a large The fires were kindled in three distinct scale places. Nine queens, five princesses, their daughters
as well as

Pv

excision of his tongue."

two

infant

sons,

and
to

alt

the

chieftains'

be away on their estates perished either in the flames or in the assault. During the course of the following morning when Akbar made lus entry 8,000 Rajputs
families

who happened

not

'""Husain Kuli Khan (Khan with his prisoners, The Julian) waited on Akbar had been sewn up eves of Masud Husam Mirza drawn up before The other 300 prisoners were hogs and doc, Akbar with the skins of asses, Some of them were over their face*
1573

A.D

drawn

executed

with

various

ingenous tortures.. ....It
like

is

vowed to death sold their lives as dearly as possible and perished to a man. Akbar exasperated by the obstinate resistance offered to his arms treated the garrison and town with merciless severity. The 8,000
strong Rajput garrison having been zealously helped during the siege by 4u.in.ni peasants, the emperor
12.
1

disgusting to find a man barbarities which such
extirpate

Akbar sanctioning
inherited

from his practised did not Tatar ancestors. The severities which soon the Mirza trouble,
he
finally

broke out again

In

Gujeiat"

was fought on •'-The battle of Ahmedabad
P. 79, Ibid
13.
i'

si, IbEd B6,
th d

P. 5b. ibid

16.

I*

H2

ibid

I"

p,

3,

P.HibM.

78

accordance with the September I. Pyramid was byf,, Jmc custom of [hc rimcs amore than :, O 0Q rebels, ln with the head* of the
157*.

In

^
1*

79

royal couch

'

Enraged at the sighl he ordered hinv to be thrown from the tnwt-r, and he was dashed into a thousand pieces"

number"

Afghan leaders ki|| c<1 »**Thc heads of Ihc and forwarded to Daud were thrown into a boat Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) lihe Afchan ruler of awaited him »«o n warn him of the fate which
to

""Sheikh Abdun Nabi the laic Sadar and his opponent Makhdumul Mulk were sent into exile
under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca. Both were allowed to return. Makhdumul Mulk died
at

Ahmedabad

in

1582

leaving
all

great

riches

March

decisive 3. 1^75 the battle

was fought

with

Daud's forces at Tukaroi....Munim Khan follow fashion of the times massacred ing the barbarous were sufficiently num. his prisoners, whose heads erous to furnish eight sky-high minarets/'
'"Another battle against 12 near July Thursday.
prisoner
*

valuable books, which were sons several times suffered

confiscated

and His
were

torture

and

reduced to abject poverty

Two

years later
in

Abdun

Nabi was murdered presumably of secret orders from the emperor".

pursuance

Daud was RajmahaL
asked

fought on

Daud
for

t

a

overcome with

thirst

water.

and brought it to him- To behead him they look two chops at his
They
:k
filled his

slipper with water

""Special cases of severity to individuals fin Bihar and Bengal) increased the ill-feeling, and is said that the officials added fuel to the fire it by their greed for money'
any scruple about ordering the private, informal execution or assassination of opponents who could not be executed publicly"
****Akbar never
felt

without success .They stuffed his head with straw and anointed it with perfumes, and gave II

met Akbar at village Birar and cast down Daud's head in the Daud's headless trunk was gibbeted at courtyard. Tanda/'
in

charge to Sayid Khan,

The

latter

•'"Notwithstanding
general tolerance

the

fine

phrases

about

81

In

or about
retire

1603
his

A. D.
in

Akbar, who was
the afternoon for than was earlier

which occupy so large a space in the writings of Abu Fazl and the sayings of Akbar, many acts of fierce intolerance were committed.. In the years 1581-82 a large number of Sheikhs
I

used to
rest

to

room
emerge
could

happened expected and at
servants,,.

to
first

not find

any

of his

apparently those who resisted innovaand ex* tion, were exiled, mostly to Kandahar, changed lor horses, presumably being enslaved*

and

fakirs,

1

came near the throne and couch he saw a hapless lamplighter coiled up like
he
a snake,
P. f

When

young handsome Hindu painter named Yashwant (mis spelled by Muslim chroniclers as

A

in a careless

death-like
19.
|>

sleep close to the
92, Ibid

22.

P.

I

JO, ibid

23.

t»,

132. ibid.

«. IN*
K»» ibi*

24.

P. 135, ibid

23

P. 159. ibid.

21.

p.

H7,

ibid.

80
at

DHiv

iboed

himscli
I

u>

death,

from

melancholia Akbar's conn recking with sodomy, doping, drug*, drinking and prostitution.

becat^

the

foul

almospheu 2

Vincent Smith mentions but two epi ,,,,1, Akbar acted with groat tyranny and cruelty
i

in

,v hj

ch

campaign of Akbar whether

yet every

one of Akbar's most senior Raja her-in-law, and general also stabbed cout himself in dfogus* because he found life in Akbar's humiliating, degrading and court intolerable, The official explanation is that he and vicious DaswandJi stabbed themselves in fits of insanity
Bi

was attended or a rebel there is no reason why any

agafotl a political rival by brutal severitj and
,>
I

nc shoul bt "li improbable thai Smith add ,,,.,,. his(Ak when shown, often was die clemency, "' policy rat Iter then by sentiment

sj

-led

|

by

All such

acts

in

protest

against
1

power are always dubbed
not.

'insane.

therefore,

take such official

regime in Historians must versions at their

the

Smith says28 : "He (Akbar) was truly as the 1 Jesuit author calls him 'the terror ofthe East, and certain extent bj more he had been spoiled to It is possible he than four decades of autocraey was feared rather than loved. The dread of him
i

face value.

even at an earlier
himself free
feelings

time was so potent that he

fell

Smith says 20 "Wheeler asserts that Akbar kept a poisoner in pay" whose duty it was to poison people at Akbar's orders. ..The sentences on convicts were of the appalling kind. The modes of execution included.. .impalement, trampling hanging and elephants, crucifixion, beheading, (flaying) without Babur had ordered Otto
Vincent
I

to

flout

and

insult the

of his subjects.

At the

most Miered end of SSI his
l

personal ascendancy was established so firmly thai he could venture to do what he pleased. He used
the liberty to

do some outrageous

things-*

scruple
ing

As minor

penalties mutilation

and whipp*

ordered of great severity were common);, records of proceedings civil or criminal were kept. Persons acting as judges thought fit to follow Koranic rules. Akbar encouraged trial by ordeal.

•"Tfie horrid punishment of mutilation which js prescribed by the Koran, was used freely. Neither Akbar nor Abul Fazal had any regard for the The judicial formalities of oaths and witnesses. Faujdar was expected to reduce rebels, always

numerous and whenever necessary
against
recalcitrant
villagers
in

to use his troops

order to enforce

The horrors of an execution ground are realistically depicted in one of the contemporary illustrations to the Akbarnama at South Kensington".
showed severity in his treatment of the garrison of Chittor and in the tortures ire ofthe Mintas." Though inflicted on the fol
"(Akbar)
lb. P. 250,

payment of government dues,"
Col.

Tod

me

i

a

pecutiai
illiterate

instance

of

Akbar's despotism and
2

coercion

He

P.

251. ibid
II

28,

P. 256,

29.

P

27...

Ibid

27, P. 251. ibid.

On
»**"

J

Ki

,

„t, ofi

\khar
h ead

command
,nd
,

S3

.^
'_„
of
.

beard n the royal bj.rbe compliance, w
hjs

mc mandate

Bui

when

th ej

Rajpat. Akbai'sorder w» therefor, The galling to the proud Rajput jorty Vkbar himself not wanting to lost .,, j
brflve
|M
L
,

parttetiluj

n

one

.the Mad- in «*, of manhood, they were rep, t0 ten*. Tta flnd contumely. SraSof^howasoneofAkbarsgcncah and,

^
i

W

<

,

,on

pTnrjan the ex-chiaf of Ramhambhoi aggravated his crime of resistance and
i

the

outrage upon wi expression barbers Was accompanied departed princess, the memory of the
the royal eai
thai

the

opportunity of humiliating the pride of the R occasion to \m those who we -vu yjed this shed their beards and mou him. to sen ienl to their heads The Rajputs who as and shave off orthodox Hindus would otherwise have willingly shaven off couriered it particularly humiliating shed their hair in homage to one who had
I

to

l

their

proud tradition down.
Killing
i

to

har

forgetting
ihut

his

vassal's
sh< aid

gallant

services

mmanded
fo

Rao Bhoj

deprived of his Mooch to their arms. The
tumult,
wcenc

be pinioned and (moustache). The

camp was

thro

into

wild

and would soon have presented a of hi odshed had not the emperor, repenting of liis folly, repaired to the
"
have

and massacring others was regarded Lime and diversion by a bereaved Akbar. Could there exist a more sinister kind of sadism u Prince Murad The chronicler Fenshta notes Mir/a Falling dangerously ill (May 1599) was buried The corpse was afterwards removed at Shapoor. to Agra, and laid by the side of Humayuu, the
\

prince's grandfather.

The

king's grief ibr the death

fioondi quarters in person

The Rajputs
•»n> fl

a*

a

community did not

of his son increased his desire for conquering the Deccan, as a means of diverting his mind.'

for

such of their

women who

had

An account of
perpetrated
31.
India,
till

mend
^' u
'

their lives a*

sha
their

tl,cir

deienues in Muslim haremi re. deeply resented having to beards and moustache, which were
of manly

on

the horrid cruelties thai the defenders of Chit tor

\kbar
fort is

P
of

171, Vol. 11.

Hi«

'

Malionwdsin Power bl
anginal
I

cherished symbols
io

the year

valour,

foi

Italian

had
i

A.D 1612 Mahomed K^im
bs

Misted Bromine Feriihto bl John Bri
11

lafoni Stn
*

fallen

the statu

from grace and accepted Muslim whore instead of being
I,

volumes.

Published

S

J9-A

ffluunbasu

Calcutta «i.

nwried

in the traditional

ok

style

and custom

to-a

InddentaSlythU point*

ti

ihi
h

,jn
'

s

;

Snm
bv u. Col. d> ,

u

Delhi being u Like

W
ol

'

l

,roved
,Q
>i

V lnm\

''
f

"• Annuls and

boo*

titled

Sonic
j*

Blunder
oul

Indian

1

Anuqmiic*

ol Rjjiislnafl>
'

Uuii

vxt, ibid.

wlmi
is

pointed

m

the

mausoleum of Hu

Delhi

an aneleai

Hhdu

polo*

j

84 85

™rou of g^ml *«*« yjedw order invaders roamed m the H V
the

* mi 1»*M 105-109 of Ml SheLn\honk aiiitoronJ :4.

K
1

5r & >

8 ,,

strcct

Ji£*N
mcir

The numb,
threads

killed

w

tiered
rt

alone weighed

fi

fc

7<t

of

see rs

each'

A wounded

"In the campaign against (he rebels in Gutaat -lhe heads or Mohammad Hus un and Ikhtiyai were sent to be hung and displayed on -the gates of Agra and Rilehpur. Following the custom of the Timurids, Akbar had a pyramid made of the heads of the rebels who had perished that day."
"•It would not be unreasonable to think that he two Rajput generals (Bhagwanoas and ManSingh deputed hy Akbar to assist Shahbaz Khan
I

[\ iUll

S^TtJicGDvindshyam

alias

Kumbha*!^

3a

Zlk wm
'

trampled to death b) ikbar s 0Wn A ^ irl from Sf0DO fig,nm£ RttJ» >u «v
th«
fori
.

re

master* *a* ihcio were put
1Jlt
,i,

about 40.0(H) peasant, inside The order for genera] lllg SCI rM withdrawn umtl about 30,000 cif
i

against

Rana Pratap) were abruptly dismissed by him because they showed their opposition to the
methods of barbarity
and
brutality

Shahbaz

pro-

to

till,

though
hoj

the struggle

was

posed to use to achieve his object of capturing the Sisodia hero."

Neither the
|

i] tem s

the towers escaped

of the

invaders.

When

everything

The weird

fear that
is

Akbar

inspired in

all

those
inci-

U
pilgrimage
a

ar started

on February
This
is

2s, 1568

on

a

subservient to him

well

illustrated

by the
fled

Ajmer."
g

like the

proverbial

bberTeJIi

Lhe rosary aftei

the robber

*Husain Quli Khan came
cap
1
'

with

300

prisoners

from Lahore, Pchlwan Gul Guz. Ins keeper, committed suicide through fear of the emperor's anger"

lie says? dent narrated by Badayuni. the very Lime of the accession. Abul Mali

'When

at

i

luring

Ins

battle

with

Ibrahim

Mirza

!

Punjab,

Among them was Masud
eyes

Kusain
rcsl

were sewed
skins

were hr ought

in

cow

up while the from which (even)

^"Whcii emperor came

the second
to

day

after the victory,

the
built

Pampat, he had a minaret
slain.'"

the

of the heads of Lhe
34,

bona had not been taken away.
pf'

A

few of

these
P.

ordered to be released but the rest death by various ingenious tortures,

141. ibid.
1

35
36.

P

77, ibid.

Khan arrived from Multan presented Ibrahim** head. The punishment! o he rebels were barbaric and cruel.
da;

J

Qadir IK Muntbkhtbul raaaiik*, bj Abui oriiina! Ibn Muluk Shall alias A Dadayum tmailflM from the printed for «" Persian and ulucd b\ George S.A. Ranking,
P. 4.

Vol

I

i

Asiatic
1838.

Society

or

Bengal,

Baptist

Mission

I'r

itetjun,

J-M
I'p

SlicJi

i

|

ubli

lied b)

Bhnraiip
37.

Bi

n

I2H36,

mi

bay, 1964.

v. io, ibid-

gi

yham Khan
On

.md Peer Mohammad Badayuni sty* ,cnc>ai>).
the day of the victory

soiier.

thcnTpiit 10

troop after troop of bdbre lhcmi and blood flowed r.ver dent)., so that ihcir
Peer

was not content unless he pi ictisud ^mos' the code of Chengfc Rhan jng and mwkmg prisoners ufali u.c mhahu.-mts of Bnrhanpni and Asheergadh and then crosstnu the rfver Narmada he raised the conflict lo the verv heavens and utterly destroyed many towns and Mid sue pi everything vill il'c clean and cleat KhandeNh
Bifid

»*

ur,onri>crand
his fcce said in

Mohammad

with

a smile on

fm
ri .1

has

N and
I

'Wbal a planue or a strong neck a river of blood has flowed

uncle Khwaja Muazzara murdered his own wife Akbar ""first having had him mauled with kicks and sticks, and then gave him several duckings, and packed him off to
Gsvalior (where he died),"'

Aktar'a

maternal

(When

conveyed to liim
replied
4

my

abhorrance)
all

Peer

Mohammad

ln

one single night

In

the

year 971

A.

H

these captives Jiavc oeen taken, what is to be done n? And the same night these plundering marauder ing slowed away their Mohammadan capme*;. cons js ting of the wives of Shaikhs and Savvids. and learned men, and nobles, in their bov J saddte-bags brought them to Ujjain. And the Sayyids and Sheikhs of that place came

"the emperor had
together

Miiv;

i

Muqim of

Isfahan

with

Mcer

Yaqub of Kashmir put to death on the charge The two (had) brought to court the being Shias. daughter of Husaiit Khan a<* a sort of present
This
is

shall

an instance o[ Akhar's lechery, with which deal later in an independent chapter

him with their Qtirans in their hands, arnmad put them all to death and
Brat llicm

Quit Khan came from the Punjab and brought with him Masud Husain Mirza with

' Husam

Adham Khan
Peer
to

sent the

whole account

of tin victory to die court/*

*•*« those

Mohammad, who,
and

after

Khan went

court, possessed collected a great force

absolute
led
ii

and a number of other prisoners of the followers of the Mirza to Path pur. They numbered nearly 300 and he brought them prisoner* before the emperor with the skins of asses hog* and dogs drawn over their faces. Some of them
eyes blindfolded

were put to death In
Said

various ingenious tortures
to
pa)

Ski ^ nc.Kiaughtcr >T V*

****** and Then he turned towards

***-»

Khan came from Mult an

homage
the

'o

the

emperor

and bronchi with him

head of

Ji

J
l

125,

IW

«.

I'

163

Arid

9*

tfm
I
,

"M,Ji.m

Riisaio
ir

wliich

lie

death

had disseve^ nns became
(|)e
.,

«c
,

!H

ihers.

need only Hindus,
I

rtoi

hc

xir eN v,>,«

One ma

gft
rhe chrnSS
'

,

j

vkh.u mcvl to he

whence,

^^
£A
p
.
.

hose

unfortunate moihere.

ftuni
town and lemp1 c In or „ «re savagely attacked and captured fe V( ^° through their zeal a nd Uibar'samn hiexcessiw hatred of Jtfotatr) filled their shoes wm, ,.u wo j i,i slaughtered cows and men) and sp i a j H on ile doors and walls of the temple

state,
J

-AtthMim, fabo*^

V

H, 980

when

Ihe

H-

[)0r
j

they brought a man to court whn h J, my t race of the orifices of the
ear.

l:

he heard everything that wai said I,, >l- " r •••«««» to verify the circumstances of this case an "" mis case Iirr order was issued that several suckling infants dcr
of lh
s

t..

w

,

~——

m

.

kept in a seclud should be
.

of

(|i

in ,

W hcrc they should

place fur from habil not hear WO rd spoke
I i

r'i

iubiTc
is

waj of murdering
illustrated by

unwanted people
Mtii/yiii

cold blood the end of \\ n
in

Mulk
that

.ind

Mulla

Mohammad

Mil-disciplined nurses were to be placed over them refrain from giving Litem an) instruc|,u were to
,

v

Yazdi.

These two arrived at
sent word

Finvabad," The emperor ihey be separated from their guards,

tion

in

speaking-

To

carry out

this order

about

put into

a

boat and Liken by

way of the Jamna

to

were taken from their mother placed in r or a consideration in money, and were which got the name of Dumb 8J3 empty house
twenty sucklings
House"'
oul

another order thai they be done away with. So they put them in a ho 1 and when they were in deep water, ordered
It

GwalioT,

A

erw a rd>

fie

sent

After

three or four years

rh'_-\

all

turned

1

since they were brought up of silence where no human voice w;

dumb

In

a

world
to

[lowed

the

iMors to

swamp the

boat... After

some days

Qazi

Tall

on Their ears"'.

Many

of them soon
take the cake

died, ddd^
foi

Vakubcame from Bengal and
him to follow the other
he sent
all

emperor sent two.„Attd one by one
the

Badayuni

Akbar should
piece

invent*

the
[

WulJas against

whom

he

had was

'JMCfoa
|

»nihilatfbn,„Haji Ibrahim

of cruelty which perhaps no ever thought oilier monarch in the world may have or or could have executed with such immaculate
ingihis rare

Ranthamhhnr.
Strangled)
satiate

There

in

diet]
I

The} found
cloth.'*
h

Wi

and ruthless efficiency,
1,1

with long Strip!
idle
illiterate
.,

Sheikh Outubuddin ofMcsot was
10

sent into

his

curio

\kbar

icd the live* ol

ml

<*
fuqn.

Bhakkar

(in

Smd)

together

with
1 '

oih

infants

aniiwrcBtedawaj il.cehu.tel trom
i

purchased their indigent and

'I" pherc bodied." obviously from dewrt. ^nger. being left high and dr> In a sandy

fi

4*

[ '

MS,

«bid

*$

I*

29().

ibiJ

40

r

•mmhwofSheiicIi* and
'"

h

I

^^ L„gcd
c

*&\5*# ***
for

"' f

^ mLllu,r

faqta Wcre
-

91

whir*

horses.'

Obvlou^

„bvinusly a euphemism for starvina thev These examples eliou thai Akbar ca„ih

AkK,t
,|,an

mC
?
i'l

Jru
i 1

nioMmiJmsm
evclu"!

men

llC ulSllK*-*-

in ,M

bartering away the for beasts of burden.

rally

„Xn^ as a mail u d
nounic
,

The Harrtu:

f^who
lo

rated

nil

religion*

0r

lccls

Sheikhs
'

by another similar e* ,hc cnl P emr cami "^ tf-About thi* timc known as llahii. They had fa»
|fhisTr: ,

had no scruple* m toning ever a man to a mob of hooligans to he killed He ased rim.method to b„ .-, about the
Sheikh Abclun
A. H.) and
the face.

Akbar

death

-The Sheikh came

^buBadayuni the chronicler
to

of

r

Faihpur

(in

"2S ^r^mtnland
similar

those
the

of

th,

laws

„*
Hi s

the

made

year

use of

:

v

0imli|

whether they repented of*. they were set to Bhakkar A. his command merchants to 4iul wee given to
,

SZ
lljr

Past

of

Islam.

some rude language
in

9^
The
him

emperor unable to
in

restrain his p

returned the

Then (on the plea thai he had not sum orRs. 7,000 loaned to lum for

struck

the

coto" Zwg* for Turkishtowns and
thai

Akbai used the

These .nsiances sh, markets ol Bhakkar
for

Mecca) he was handed over as a prisoner to Raja Todarmal and for some lime like
pilgrimage to

MdQandahara,
people by filing

'clearing

houses'

unwanted

them as

slaves.

a defaulting tax-gatherer, they imprisoned him the counting house of the orifice, and one night mnh strangled him/*
il

In

grandson of Khwuja Mui""Sheikh because when he nuddin he banished to Bhakkar do obeisance to the returned from Mecca he didn't prescribed manner.-. .The grands

Bmta

courtier Haji Ibrahim ofSirhind was similarly stripped of all power and wealth and sent io

A

Ranthambhor
death.

fort,

obviously to

be

tortured

to

emperor
Sheikhs
he
ii

in

the

of Sheikh
o!

grea Adhan who were some or the fomiliei lannpur, with their wives and

Akbar banished
Dcccan
part

w

Quzi

la la

I

Multam

to

the
that

thinking

"it likely ilu.i the rulers of

m

Ajmci and gave them a hvinj ,-,. nc) ol them died and some were The w*rds "fixed provision' poverty/'
icnl
,i

to

fixed

pr*

would put the Qa/i
wishful
liim,
t

to death with varsbiu tor-

W

tures" but his

thinkimj

was

noi

fulfilled

^eeause
shelter

lie

Dcccani

Muslim

niters are stated to

have rewarded
I

Perhaps they were happy

Muslims
i

hostile CO

Akbar whom
Ibid

they hated.

Ml]
'.

ibid

3t)

p

321. bid

51

p

W

52

P

SS.

ihfd

n
92
hi

the outside

world

We shall see
j
foj

in

fl

Imw

(chapter

thai
1

AkharY
1 ,

.„,d

neai relation*.

inclu,i lna lh( . lcw
;

Parental

home

to have been inch vaunted 'marriage* said

lou

cornmunaJ Integration and harmony wq^ mji outrageous kidnappings brought about Tin- most publicized .imong niis wi: the one in which Akbar these pseudo-marriages was lifted BharmaTs daughter with the force of u\. Thai on this occasion he was noi
proceeding groom should
man-lifter
Is

Akbar. a fanatic Muslim and a psedto usurp Hindu hou.

«fatberSto P

and Cliristiai t T-r"* Shrivastava says **" a tothl8 Dl notable hmdu fan claimed a few houses thai had
.,ke

m

them over to

^

lUH,

^-hat Cr
10111

.

as

a

happy,
like

bin

smiling bridea lecherous, frowning
loving,
b)
a

led Christian converts,

^^mZ£ZV^
Xavier succeeded
I

b,„.

5 %
4
'

rr '

proved

footnoti

j

T1

D' AshirbadilaJ Shrivastava's book saying "The marriage did not take place at Deosa as Vincenl p op fe of Deosa and othei Smith asserts, places on Ak bar's route fled away on his approach."

^^

Akbar's orders from Agra and i„e the possession of die I in ahore

1
o"u

^ndu f^ly mf^r^

the preai satisfaction

y

of PinheJro.'

406 of Dr. ShrivastavH's hnhe.ro and Jus colleagues in

^ ^ZJt S?
!,
1

mamed

"^

a

btok

Hindu women kidnapped and shut up in his harem may be judged the fact that the daughter of Raja Bhurmal of Amber Jaipur was allowed by him only once, as small mercy, to visit her lather's hou Dr.
Akbar's cruelty towards the
i

i

Shrivastava

observes:

'

The emperor's Hindu
was permitted
so as to be
to

queen, the
a
01

Amber

princess,

pay

of kidnappmg chl £ dren, and oi killing young men. An attempt was also made to poison the fathers through the coitussion of a domestic servant On the X'mas day of K.iH) PiJtheico was able to report the baptism of 39 people, One of the men converted wu» Polada (may be Prahladj, a physician belonging to a resfl, s „.

accused of eatmg

human

.he church

^
were
i

Io

[Actable

Brahmin

famijj

"

visit

to her parents at

Amber

present

mourning ceremony for her brother Bhup.ii was unusual courtes That means that the women in Akbar's harem were treated as though
the

life-convicts

kept

in

close confinement.

person's nature can often b< feed up try his tastes, Akbar derived immense pleasure and relaxation in gory fights between men and lu Monserratc narrates how when Akbar invited the
J,i

A

forever forbidden from
bar

biting

anybodj

Jesuit fathers
" Plied
i.i.ii

to
, ,

see
1 1 1

a
i

gladiatorial
.i
(

contest,
ii

they

M,.-,

..

in

L.mph

r,

wasabsotti-

ttie

Great, b)
A@;irwa1

f'r

Ashlrbadl
(PJ
Li*l
''

>v«u»*u,

Strive

Ul

& Co

publhbctn.

107, ibid.

56 P 61, Fnthcr Moasei

"Common

i«J

W.P

14).

,1,

94

v

discipline and to the Christian or even lo look on at

wu

^

^
m
i

95

place to which he had told

him

p

,,

,n

ne

jj x

Akbar s so-called pro grc s. produced a> evidence ol abolish that custom. s in wanting u> This
a nriSfcpieseniatioii u anted to drag the

dnrti

on some occasions n lhfi ntmg Hindu widows from burni*. dcad hwbands of flu
lerfetcncc

ehed

on an upon the

to

no

,

inflated ba R of
river.

.locked to the riverside to see

Al^^^e ? J "?
,

ox hil

^

J Und UB "

th

'

y

an

JJ*

is

middle
,

of

t

...

^Pn^

Akbar interfered only when unhappy women to his own
i

cries,

harem.
torn

Far Groin wanting to abolish the Sat cu s Akbar treated it a> a gala spectacle at which

and trying to move the king to mercv \ he was earned past the royal pavilion, the king gave order, tor htm to be rescued from
the river

he „ver at the mercy ol'the curr niiplonng pardon wi
th

JS£
,

mviied foreigners for
ih

-and

cony,

'lo

ringside view from a;e records that ""The

entered in the inventor.es as royal property, expos! ed lor sale in all the bazars and finally
as a slave.

kin c ordered the pries ts to be
instance

summoned

to see an

custom of Sari). They went in ^nce of what was to take place but when they and out, die) plainly indicated by their saddened feces how cruel and savage they felt that crime to Finally Rudolf publicly reprimanded the Ki
of
this
<

made money in the bargain by trading him as a stave, and earning some money for his treasury
Monserrate narrates how 3 » *«pn emerging from the Gaybar {Khybar) pass and reaching the plain the king had several villages near the coas burnt, because their inhabitants had refused him
grain

by one of his friends pieces of gold, which were for 80 paid into thc royal treasury". So besides punishing an erring Officer mercilessly the usurious Akbar also

He was bought

auctioned

-showing openly by approved of such a
sur
it

hi*;

presence

there

that

he
for

revolting

crime,

and

by his weighty judgment and
This
is

explicit
far

emphatic evidence that

and supplies on

the

acting to itop Sati

Akbar treated

it

as consi-

was he did not retaliate
be

way up." Shrewd as he on his way out lest his army

derable Fun.

Once an

officer

commanded by Akbar

to

find

pounced upon in ihe narrow confines of the mountain pass or its retreat be cut off when it
wanted to return to India.

out a iuitabic place where the Indus could be fordturned saying there was no suitable spot "he king a<kcd him il he lad gone to the place

he Icarm he had not gone that far, thc kln orated him to be £ seized, dragged to the
-

rated.

When

to

Monserrate found that w "princes sentenced imprisonment are sent to the jail at Goateris
l
i

156, ibid
21
1,

ib.u

58. P. 83, ibid.

111

I*

ibid.

90

Chapter
vhcre
,;

V

thej

r ot

a\va v

%btc
'foi

*?*££*
^Tvcn
SSSti

b handed '*Z offender* pu.w^mcnt. hut ,hc ba.e-bom

IMMORALITY
...Tim
latier official
i

<f"<

isequi. the king whh and bd in the palace of pumslunent such as lcathei fitted with sharp spikes Lhjtf bow-strings .lock of wood used or pound.
I

chains,

pieces his Lthcmoifiials'sWesor erasnmg which arc tied a number of snd scourges in dull with sharp bronze nails, (This 'mall balls studded one called by apon must. I think, be the Jau Various kinds of scorpion). ancient! tlu tbt manacles, handcuffs and other irons are
.

to

Contemporary Muslim and European records prove that Akbar had an inordinate lust for women. In fact one of the chief motives of h wars of aggression against various rulers was to
appropriate their harems.
saries
If the

defeated

adver*

were Muslims Akbar appropriated their teeming harems. If they were Hindus he compelled them under pain of cruel reprisals to surrender their sisters and daughters or other females.
Besides that Akbar had various other modes of acquiring comely women for his harem namely through obliging visitors or generals by way of gratification for the emperors pleasure or as a sop
to his anger, by direct interference with or trespass
into the marital privacy of his subjects at his
will

huns up, n one or the great palace gateways, " which is guarded In the chief executioner
Quite ahead of their
value of mobile exhibits
in India

times

in

realizing the

used to

rig

mediaeval Muslim ruler* oui display* of weird skeletons

and mangled, stuffed bodies to terrorize their sub's into" submission. Akbar was no exception. chief It Beg was looked upon by Akbar as the igato liv'hrain Khan's rebellion. Wall Beg
died of over

and

wounds received
be cut

in battle

(Akbar) ordered
all

by swooping on Hindu women about to go Sati (i.e. burn themselves on the pyre of then deceased husbands) and carrying them off to his harem, and also by capturing en masse the
pleasure;

head

off,

which was (then) sent

women of vanquished

troops.
lot

Hmdusthan (for display) When it was bro* to Elawa Bahadur Khan killed the loot soldiers
ji

One may well imagine the women retained in hordes to
1

thai carried

h
cd

of these helpless be at the beck and call of the emperor's lecherous pleasure when even the 'imperial consorts selected to accompany
their lord

Am-i-Akburi,

b)

Abul Fw/n\ Allan".

he out? id J Periian by M. BUwhmann. ood edition, BaUiotbeca InUica icrles published by H">ji Sialic Souei. ,,r uengul.
i

Uom

up

in

were carried by she-elephants and shut To them life meant only decorated
'

~T

P.

267.

Vincent

Snurh'-

Akbar

the

Great

Mogul

ibid.

98

99
olil

a

existence covered inside the hy the emperor. birnp until dfecovttfcd

dumb.

N&MMfa
*0

his

life

matter of

wn

allowed himself ample latitude Utd concubines/'

in the

Referring

Smith say* mission under Aquavit in 1582 proves, beyond that at that time.. Akbar possibility of doubt drank hard. The good father had habitually boldly dared to reprove the emperor sharply for

contemporary Jesuit testimony "The... experience of the first Jesuit

Akbar's inordinate obsession for more and more always different women is best illustrated by and

his

conduct after his general Ad ham Khan had defeated Uaz Bahadur, the debaucherous Muslim
jVfalwa. at

ruler of

women. Akbar instead his licentious relations, with of resenting the priest's audacity, blu shingly excused himself."
addiction from
Jesuit father
sion.

Sangrur near Dewas in Central India. Akbar was informed in his capital Agra that Adham Khan was retaining with him all the women of Baz Bahadur's harem. Nineteen -yearold

Since
all his

Akbar

inherited

his drink

Akbar incensed

at

the

thought
his
1

that

the

forefathers the
in

could

make no dent

reproof by a Akbar's obses-

.women who should have been in after all usurped by his general
April 27. 1561

harem were '•left Agra on

Maham Anaga
the

(the high priestess

of Akbar's

harem and
son)

mother of Adham

Smith narrates a murderous attack on Akbar provoked by his wanting to abduct other people's 1564," says Smith "Early in January wives -Akbar moved to Delhi. On the llth he was
.

Khan, apprehensive of Akbar's cruel
her

miscreant

revenge on sent swift courtiers to warn

returning from a

visit

to the

Nizamuddin

shrine

when

a

man

standing on the balcony (of a inadrasa)

which injured Akbar in the shoulder. The assailant was a slave (i.e. a Hindu) named Fulad. Akbar seems to have discouraged attempts io ascertain Fulad "s accomplices. He was then engaged in a scheme for marrying certain ladies belonging to Delhi families, and had compelled one sheikh to divorce his wife in his favour. The attempted assassination put an end to these discreditable proceedings, and probably was prompted by the resentment at the royal invasion of the honour of families. Akbar throughdischarged

an arrow

Akbar*s departure), His submission was accepted only when his nmthcr (Maham Anaga who quickly followed the emperor) came. (But. the villain that he was) he secretly stole two special beauties. (Akbar delayed his return to Agra until
her son (about

two damsels were also surrendered). Maham perceived that if these two women were introduced would be to His Majesty her son's treachery revealed. She, therefore, caused the two innocent
those

ones to be put to death (saying that the "dead tell no tales) The Khedive (Akbar) overlooked it and regarded the done as not done. Abul Fazal who
records

atrocious deed was not ashamed to praise the wisdom and perspicocity rf the guilty
that

woman." This and other
4.

lavish

praise

that

Abul

2.

P. hi, ibid

Pp. 37,38, ibid.

3

P. 47, ibid.

i 100
101

by Mi mans lurcm women thai M ah , m aary of the Amiga controlled. uir to nn em P |f e at th« a young Akbar, arm) ol ruffians 14, having a targe
being
in-,,,,,.
'

2Swe

1*2,1 often

l«s«W

on

Ibis

woman
the

made

fccherou

can only be

m
«
j

according rcivc power.
to save her

to

their

ranks,

We

i„ fluence

scruple in nc did not
US
r

have already recounted how murdering two Hindu

0I

son from Akbar's wrath.
\khar's
It

women
women

Dealing

with

craving

for

icndei

plundered wealth and a harem increasing everyday, was bound to be a bv leaps and bounds And SO he was. Smith says person kj or repeating thai Akbar •Abut Fazal never tires behind a veil " if early years remained

md

barbarians at

his

command,

a

possessor

o|

hnmens

Badayuni Majesty's intention of connecting himself that His (sic) with the nobles of Delhi was by marriage
place (Mathura)
first

says

was

at that

broached and
into the

qawwats and
for

sent

harems

the

eunuchs were purpose of selecting
their
ci1

daughters of the
conditions.

Akbar remained almost during his youthful years of the harem women. wholly in the arms end taps with women In the rest or the time that he spent
his lift

daring his

And

nobles and investigating a great terror fell upon the
a

Abdul
of the

Wasj's

was

wonderfully

beautiful

and

charming wife without a peer:

One day

the eyes

was only

stightly less.
his

After

stripping

guardian

and

minister

Behram Khan f 11 power, and ultimately murderentirety by strumpets. ing hun Akbai was governed Akbai shook off the tutelage oi Smith notes Behram khan only to bi Eng himself under the influence of the monstrous regiment or unscrupulous

emperor felt upon her. It Is a law of the Mogul emperors thai iT the emperor cast Ins eyes is bound iiJi desire on any woman, the husband to divorce her and the virtuous (sic) lady entered This passage makes it clear the imperial harem/ that Akbar subjected all women in his realm to
«a

his

close scrutiny either personally or through his henchmen, who were under otders to subject these

omen
potent
u.l

to

a

close

personal

physical

check as

women.
ment
interest

He was subject
worsi

to the

petticoat

govern-

of the
in

kind

the

business

apparently taking no of government which he
to

whetstone* f. r -Xklw'slittt. One can well ima'gine the horror of a situation when tnightj officials of a despot, bacfc d up with fierce-looking,
srmed-to-the
innermost
teeth

towed

Mnham Amiga
of
this

control.

She

V

barbarians

enter

the

dark,

onworth) of the trust reposed in hei

Hie wli
a

woman, Mftham Anaga
She was
a Influential courtiers

li

house curtained-oft recesses of even with the specific objed of carrying off the beai
age

nui been properly appraised.

pimp atw
diSoi

toofanj
v.

and

an;

ttutus for tlie

emperor

pander for Akbai and
i

sexual gratification.
r|. ,,,
v.,,i
II
..,

bursi
5.

I
i

tiicm the largesse of
6

harem
ibid.

beauties

mukhtta

'•*•

'

k:i

b

"

m^

Qiitlu BiidtiN.im.
1'.

Ibftl

31. ibid

Pp

25,

zi>.

10
in.

with fir. or acid to burnt themselves and unattract.ve to the ro heir face* ugly •- -?a» agcntu n«^ may have bribed the royal agenfc abductors* abductors, many escape perma% gratification gratificat ion to esc; pe rma . iifh ad hoc sexual h *;„« ;« tfc# emperor's gilded capfrt rmnemr's Gilded cages and detention in the

Manv WOm*n

or

their ciders

were bound

u

we
;;,t

^^

A kbar'» saying my <"'
of

^.^

would -«« my own have taken no woman from **,j wwn kingdom llUVC .-g(l0 mn *»
I

:

-Had

I

been w, Sc

earlier

wrael-o. fornv .object, :irc „, mc £ me ,n «• c 1 sanciimnniAH. Such sanctimonious «_.j in ren. children.
I'

T
<

k

« me

place

*> humb "&
£il 111*----

may have been ir v U reemmc harem; many __ ... -„ r— .« r»«.i stripped teeming mm."-. ..—-. it-*. limit. _i.. whether their form and physical nude to ascertain of an emperor who could drag allure was worth) harem with the force of h» any WOimMJ to his m a vast empiic This was yet another 11S a terror and people used reason vUiy Akbar was People dreaded him not only to flee in his wake. wealth, not only his T orturc for his plunder of their but the lifting or then and maiming their persons sisters or women-folk whether wives, mothers,
daughters.

---- 8 m, vv v u 1| 3 of b aCCOlims written by genunexmg chroniclers reign rtto should not L.* n /4tvink lilt: the reader in a f* n ~« n ~. . in n correct hoodwink appraisal r A k bar's role in history.

T

and
1

i

hypocr..,-

y

l^"'"

Ws
.

in vogue in Akbar's reign for offer as gratification to Akbai himself is illustrated by Officers, courtiers, or

The

free traffic in

women

that

was

"In this yea r (A.H. 971) the emperor had Mirza Muqim of Isfahan together Hr Yaqub of Kashmir put to death on a with
Badayuni.
charge of being Shiaha. The two (had) brought to court the daughter of Hu&ain Khan as a sort of This indicates that anybody could a present,'

He

says;"

Contemporary records also indicate that Akbar used his "large stock of female beauties serais, whether confined to his harem, prisons or
not

anybody's daughter, sister or wife reign and gift her away or detain her
lift

in

Akbar's

in his

own

only

for

his

own

gratification

but

also to

house.

them exchange them with others or bestow Smith says* gratification on visitors or courtiers.
"Grimson's statement that Akbar had confined his other himself to one wife, and distributed
consorts

wrested from their men folk by mass raids on localities or towns or after vanquishing a hostile force in battle were mercilessly handled as sexual cargo and then dumped in town to eke out
a living

Women

among

the courtiers

is

firmed

from other sources, had promised to do so or even asserted thai he he made the sacrifice, but it does not follow that the exact actually kept such a promise or told Vol, III. p. 398 quotes Ain-i-Akbari nth/'
P

not directly con(Akbar) may have

as prostitutes.
helpless

It

was. therefore, that the
increased every-

number of these

women

day in geometrical progression. "Prostitutes of th«" imperial
gathered together
as
in

Badayuni says™ had dominions swarms gitalin such

to
0.

defy
P. 128,

counting oc numbering- (Akbar) apVol.

U$,

Vincent

Smftll

Akbai

the

Grcul Mosul/'

n BsdtyimiYchniifclft

10,

P 3U.il

B deputy and a secretary f0r pointed a keeper, and who wished to Zir quarter SO that anyone people or take them to his hou^

Z|M

m with the* connivance of
With the
certain)

^

105

numbers of women wreMcd from defeated foes were subjected to rap, and prostitution is men.

the

imperial

office*

any of them tha he pleased. Tate connection with to lake dancing permit any man But he did not at night without conforming mrls to his house anyone wished to conditions. But if

tionedbyBaduyunlwho and Asaf Khan who had

-ZamKhanKoka
been appointed to punish

the Afghans of Swat and Bajur, and to extirpate JaUal h the Roth oat, killed many of them and tptured the wlvc? and family il Jaltalah and his
,

ho

have a

virgin,

if

the petitioner
petition

was a

well

known
deputy

brother

Waliftdat

Ali

with

their

relatives

and
sent

courtier, he sen! a

[through) the

under assumed debauchery led to many acts of drunkenness and And however many were brought o
so.

permission from court. Nevertheless nd obtained carried or, rules all the libertines in spite Of the

breiheren to the numbers of near mi And of the rest oj litem roc

14,0

and
i

these prison ci a
j

who can

take account!"

Itwa

tht

drafts

names, and

hese

affair*

of women herded and
distribution

were despatched

to

Akbafs court
used
for

hounded, who

tvere

free

among

the vicious
lo

men who thronged
visitors

of delinquents would punishment another troop departpast the inspector of thai strut arrogantly prostitutes And a number of well known ment him, and inquired called privately before
Jcbar)

bloodshed.

Aktuir's

court,

and

occasional

The

wretched condition ol these women used as prey by sex-wolves would beggar description. They were subjected to uninhibited molestation, starvaapartments* intion or undei -nourishment, filthy slavery and imprisonment in suits, menial duties
solitary celts of the
tip

(from them)

who had seduced them.". Muslim rule reduced Hindustan
and Akbar the
king or

to a

great

burqa coming as close as the very

brothel

Muslim

kings

of their noses
i

gloried in being the king
vast brothel

and chief patron

of

this

main stipulations in treaties such of UN* en vanquished foes was to surrender «" men as Akbar or his officials wanted. By host Akbar had introduced a whole method' into n» the daughters of eminent Hinu Rajahs

One of

forced

ous habits, that he once intendlo the baz ir gossip of the time
ed to
distribute
his

-< Akbar) was unable to give up his polygamand no importance need be attached

the

wives

among

editor of an historical in substantially true. quite right. The bazar gossip
says the
12.

the grand,,*, work. He is not

1

Muuiuklnibui r*«nrikl>i ibid P. 401. UiUlayum'*

...

il,,.

r<immentarv. of

Fill

harem"
instance of
1)

how day-in-and-day-out
Mil turd

f :n,

ibid.

107

106

\nd vet there

ween
\\

Die

I

ad no

no bethe clearly understood t„ al It must specific number of wives He regard,
is

apparent contradiction

Monscrrate Males- -In addition to this quarrel there was another regarding a ship captured by Tile Mongols basely sent epic's the PorlugiK

fattm. All conquered cd the whole realm as In found sufficiently attractive OT wrttted women W were transferred for being pan of
mpereir
i i

Damanas (Daman) under a pretence Of friendship and when a Portuguese fleet
into
district

the

of

iKia-m.

This

constantly

swelling

stock

f

sexual gratification he used for his own he wanted to favour. well as of those whom two statements that Akbar litThis recoi

women

under Jacobus Lopczius Coutigi, > lying at the mouth of the Taphtus fcpti) river ihej suddenly attacked out of an ambush laid at night Nine sailors were captured, dragged in triumph to Surat, cruelly treated and on the next day executed for
1

i

used to distribute women that were at his his wives (namely the mctcv in the harem with whom he may or may not

polygamous as

well

as he

had refused to become Mu^lmans even though promised riches, honours and beautiful and noble wives. The Mongols regarded this as a
they

very generous
the

offer.

Their heads were

brought 10

his courtiers. Such have' actually cohabited) to make even a whit of a distribution did not to Akbar's over-married status because

King

at

r-aiiepuraio

(Fatehpur

Sikri).

Akbar
had

pretended

he

had

never

heard

of what

happened,"
promised to neo-converts wen Hindu women enslaved and kept invariably prostitution for and rape. The reserve in were rounded up after every battle or raid on peaceful Hindu localities. The word 'noble* is used

difference
Ij,

of harem women was being constantly bursting by over-flowing and replenished to
s

slock

The

'wives*

overcrowding.

Alluding to their frequent discussions about with the relative merits of Christianity and Islam, on serrate states how one of his Akbar's courtiers

M

in this case to describe

those

women

only because

they

colleagt
that
their

'

"Rudoir

cast

in their

teeth

the

fact

were lo be used as bait for neo^converts. Usually Hindu women are invariably described in
as

precious prophet in one passage (which quoted) permitted the practice of unnatural and

Muslim chronicles and dancing girls.

whores,

strumpets,

slaves

oS mi liable vice (namely

sodomy).

When

this fact

was

discovered, the

Musalmans reddened

with

Non-molestation of the women of captured or vanquished foes was an act of special grace, big

ahum*

Despite Akbar's overtly professed friendliness 10 wards the Portuguese his generals often swooped

mercy and a rare exception. This is illustrated in the campaign undertaken to suppress the revolt of Masum Farankhudi. He was forced to leave his
15.

upon the
14.

latter.

Referring to one

such

incident

P. 167, ibid.

P. 60. tbid.

if.'

4
.*

SSVwibo
Ucbar
the "fam.lv
pararoly this

rrensow and family

Ayodhya. Akbafi Khan occupied th. for. and lhe not to moles, mercifully ordered him
in

the Tort of

rebel and dependent, of the

And

which Akhar intervened suspiciously similai to the one mentioned c jl it-Raia Bhagwandas's cousin Jamratl sent on dui eastern provinces, rode hard -j, lh the

Another

instance

in

was no small mercy.

earlier chapter h-ve alreadv noted in an to stop the custom of that Akbar fur from wanting Hindu widows burning themselves

Wc

Sau {sorrowim* on their husbands'
ful

and died near Chausa from the effects of the heat and over-exertion. His v. daughtei of Udai Singh imade preparations 10 »o Satil- Akbar rode to the Spot... and stopped
urgent orders,
-,

pyre,

treated

those

mourn-

and

grand occasions as gala performances courtiers his Muslim spectacles to regale himself, in which he is foreigner!;. The few instances
to
!

and

The relatives were granted tlieir lives and mcr The exact location and date oft imprisoned. incident are not stated. Abul Fazal's narrative as usual is lacking in clearness and precision/"
1

1>.

said

widow

have interfered ware to take away the us own harem, We quote two instances:

»""The daughter of Rai Raisingh was wedded to Bir Bhadra* the son of Raja Ramchandra of Pinna. When Ramchandra died Akbar sent his
son to
the

Discerning students of history must not take such garbled versons at their face value specially when Abul FazaJ is universally dubbed to be a They must examine and shameless flatterer"
analyse
rule

them as

detectives

do.

This

is

a

precious

Panna to ascend the throne.
Bir

When

ncaring

Bhadru fell from the palanquin and died. His widou declared her intention to be This, therefore, is not a Sati. Akbar intervened," a mere abduction of a Salt but seems to be accompanied by a pre-med Rated murder. Bir Bhadra having been ut Akbar's court Akbar must have seen his wife and have had an eye on her The incident has many suspicious details. How should Bir Bhadra
capi.al
fall

methodology. Reconstructing of historical the above garbled and truncated version one finds thai J aim nil was in excellent health smoB He must have died soon deputed on a mission.
I;

after

ihe parted from his near unddejt be that That nid colleagues at court prcceed must have been given a fake order on a mission and was pounced upon and killed ss scon as he was defenceless and unaware,

Akbar was
the

obviously

kept

fully

inform-..
I

<f

Janquin before he reached his cap) d lUt all he fell from the palanquin through accident how did that L\\ from a few feel prove so
r
fatal
kill

from

Thai Akbar rode out immedevelopmenl diately in person to the exact spot shows that
JaimulJ died very close to Akbar's palace. indicates that AJcbai knew the exact spot
the
It

him then and
J,

there?
Aihirbadi

because

M.Vol.

U1

Shliv:.vl,»\.i

Akbar The Great, bv Dr
"Akbar,"
ibid.

murder was pre-m
'*
P
163,

dilated

and hirelings had

ibid.

I?

P- 347, Shctat'i

"Akbnr

the Grctl

Mogul", iW*

>

110

tit

£«****
j
tjH

fcprtpan

SatUt is said. He is .;..* to Have reached
,

Akbar rode

A kbar"s
U ||

soldiers) followed

a*

usual."

there

nicfc

Line l.Tc.rv
cc curtain.

like a hero rrori, of t.mc riding romance, as though from behind q

alive. Kaniuluvaii lister of Rani w omcn left and the daughter of the Raja ©i ti)

"The two

He

did not (nisi

any detachment of

(daughter-in-law of The deceased warrior queen were sent lo Agra to enter Akbar's harem." Fanatic

m

Dunn

Purangad

any

myorpolkc nor could he entrust the task to him. And since the widow's officer under
i<,

relatives

Akbar
them

into

obviously resented this blatant abduction them and thrown said to have arrested The episode ends abruptly dungeons

Muslim authors add that though Ditrgawati'i son nir Narayan had been married to the daughter of the Raja of Purangadh yet the marriage wa* not This is obviously a bluff meant consummated.
lo insinuate thai lo his harem ont> was not so represented it was supposvirgins. If it ed to detract from a 'proud' Muslim monarch's reputation. The fanatic qazis, courtiers and Akbar

Akbar admitted

happened to the -how namely Akbar 01 hero of the stage-managed After all her relations who ihe bereaved widow accompanied her to the cremation ground had
there vnihoul

mentioning what

had

himself would, therefore, tell the obliging scribes to record that the apparently married woman was
to all intents

been safely tucked out could prisoned whom

ofthewayby
Akbar send

being imthe
poor.

and purposes

a virtual virgin.

Naturally very' reluctantly unattended widow to poor Akbar had to give her shelter and protection Akbar's so-called prevenic) in his own harem.
tion of Sati ultimately reveals cases

of murder of

the

husband and abduction of the wire.

above two instances we can deduce Akbar's devious modus operandi of obtaining for

Akbar's court chronicler Abul Fazul known for his extreme nailery of his royal patron, tries lo glorify even Akbar's womanizing as a burdensome duty graciously and condescending!} undertaken 20 lo sci an example to the world. Abut Fazal says "His Majesty is a great friend of good order and
propriety

From

Ihe

m

business.

Through order
reality;
it

the

world
that

himself the wives of those of his
he coveted.
tory
ings.

courtiers,

whom

becomes a meadow of truth and
which
is

and

but external receives through

u spiritual

With
scan

this

new

insight

students of

meaning.

For

this

reason,

the large

number of

may

other simitar suspicious happen-

women— a

Durgawaii was killed white battling jauhffl with Akbar's invading forces a terrible iituary mass suicide by tire by Hindu women
After
I

vexatious question even for great statesmen— furnished His Majesty with an opportunity to display his wisdom, and to rise from the low of worldly dependence to the eminence
t,
i

who considered

this

mode of death

preferable

to

15.

cruel molestation

and humiliation

at the

hands of

20.

P 90, 91 S Mat's "Akbar," ibidAi» 15, Ain-k-Akbur', hy Abul F<waJ.
,

ibid.

112

»f

Berfeci

Iteedom

The

Imperial

palace

£md

dd

w e hnd

ruins or
a

Akb Mr \
for

times

com

m „„

lU ites
,

of rooms.
i

s

m

\

MS
is

n typical

example of sycophant humbug
in

Akbv
thu
i

lust

women
,„

m
,

winch

followed
«he

an

equally

preposterous

L v,

n courtiers

wives were not safe

prodtoioui

^ mth treountnes;amlsecurcUn
princes
,,

ll.mh.Mhan and of these lies or ha*

Zmv

U,c peace of the

Hmdu kingdom

m of devout and drink &«»*** and murder
fa
,

raid, on were meant to abduct the prmce,, pious Hindu riders or his own

*orloV

Akbar

*

m Mr W1 ve» or desire to be presented ifaj other Rrsi nutlfj wish and wait for a reply. Those eligible their are permitted lo enter the harem, Some women of rank obtain permission to remain there for a whole Notwithstanding the great number or month. women
faithful

^yjM

-Whenever Begamv

Badayum

und

-lmdu rulers rather women than have them nrefcrred to burn their Abu! Fazal's remark that imo Akbar* hands. fall brought about world Akbars kidnapping raids amounts to adding insult to unity and pence, be .s called a not for nothing that
massacre.
I

^f

d

guards,

f™T*

His Majesty does not

dispense

with his

own

vigilance.,.."

Scrutinizing the above passage we would like what married woman would yearn to be to ask molested by Akbar? Could there be so many women,
:

all

wives of courtiers,

who would

io yearn to enter
pilot

Akbar's

harem, as to indefatigably

their

iniurv

It is

1

applications

for special entry into Akbar's harem.

shameless flatterer.*

from pillar lo post?
21

Was

the admittance lo Akbar's

Abu! Fazaj says Describing Akbar's harem a laigc enclosure with fine »»His MajestJ has made
buildings mside, where he
axe dim,, iii/n 5.000

reposes.

Thougli there

a

women he has given to each He has also divided them separate apartment
sections,

harem a matter of such rare privilege for the wives of courtiers that they should consider it a rare honour to be away from their own husbands. homes and children for cohabitation with Akbar
The words "those (found)
eligible"

only

mean

:

into

duties

and keeps them attentive to the been Several chaste (Sic) women have

women whom Akbar found
as to feel

sufficiently attractive so

over pointed as darogah- and superintendents duties Edion, and one has been selected for cai

or a writer,
\hu!
Fteol'i
i

impelled to drag them to his own harem. uu for The phrase "obtain permission to rem im a whole month" means that Akbar ihed to detain his courtiers' wives (and of course daughters and
i

rtion
suite

that each
in

one ofta*
a large
in
en-

listers) if

he enjoyed their company,
But here
it

at least

mom

1

1

mi
closure
II.

vm
li

vena
r

of roomslie.

need not
a

despicable

Nowhere

l» Ji: '

month's
others'

limit

Is

mennigless.

be added thai the have if Akbar could
,

wives

fbi

month what prevented him

ibid.

from detaining

them longer or even permanently

n

-

Ain

is,

Atn-j-Akbari, ibid.

114

The

last

sentence ihai thou.ch there were p| cnty

115

faithful

guards

Akbar

remained
r

vigilant

only

mean*
;

that these

women
by force

obviously

*

Wteit

and detained under dire meir homo Such seemingly innocuous passages lldc threats. reveal tin.- most > avagc ,-iJstcr meaning Mid a Vc
|

sodomy, prostitution, drunken brawh and murderous assaults. That there should be a
f

regular
scale

jlourisfafaS

sodomle icrvfce on a very

large

be considered a rare, unique, unparalleled nl ust embellishment' of Akbar's reign.

prevailing during Akbar\ and ledterous conditions
icicn.

Sodomy was a
ovm family

'precious*

heritage of Akbar's

:,•

\kbar also took great interest in maintaining brothels close to his palace, and found timcta
.tccounl of

how many of the

v,f_i
:

and also
:im

id talk to them.

prost itutes were A bul Fazal r*.

Akbar's grandfather Babur has, m given a lengthy description of his nis memoirs, sodomte infatuation for a male sweetheart while mother used to coax him out of his reluctance ,s
n
to

His Majesty (hasj established a wineshop counts nearthe palace. The prostitutes of he realm who had collected could scarcely be counted, so large was
I

go to

his

own

wife with

whom

Babur was not

ihcir

number,

(Their locality

was called

Shaiian-

on good terms His son Humayun. also had picked handsome lads always at hand. Akbar himself maintained a whole regiment of catamites near his palace as Abu I Fazal mentions.
Ii

puia or De viTs Ville), The dancing girls used to be taken home by courtiers. If any well known courtiers wanted to have a virgin they would first ha\e Hi* Nlnjirstys permission. In the same way boys prostituted themselves, and drunkenness and His Majesty >rance soon led to bloodshed. hiiroelf called some of the principal prostitutes and asked them who had deprived them of their
. -

was not uncommon during Akbar's

time for

courtiers to have male sweethearts in their retinue. 14 "In the 12th About one such Abul Fazal says

year

was reported that Muzaffar loved a boy named Qutb. Akbar had the boy forcibly removed, whereupon MuzafTar assumed the garb of a fakir, was thus obliged and went into the forest. Akbar
it

virginity?**
In

to recall
" H

him. and restored the belovc-i

Muslim chronicles the word
time connotes Hindu
into

prostitutes"

many

a

women who

were

dragged

and prostitution after their husbands and brothers were killed in Muslim raids.
slavery

society Another instance reminiscent of Muslim Shah iwhoj was of mediaeval times is of* 'Adil handsome murdered in 988 A. H. by a young for an immoral eunuch whom he a- tempted to use

The above passage reveals the most civic life thai existed in Akbar's times.
p 276,

purpose.

Thekim

known

for his

mania

for

shocking It speak

boys and unnatural crimes.

He

obtained with some

Am

-Akban.

ibid.

M

I\ 374, ibid.

25. P. 520. ibid.

116

117

mnMMO***"*
of the

£Statt

eunuch, torid^Bcdiir.waw^ slabbed by the elde, attempi of satisfy^ [li( the v. Tim nuhca.es that sclec

han^-u

^

This

is

•»

new high
iK

in cruelty, lechery

^d

lortatt

W

A nd

to sav thal
N

ca^ntted catamite

raised

d«i,

,

handsome boys mc diac*al Muslim

WW

preoons commodity under
covctuousty sought, perverse grat.hcatbn

rule to **

and dug large tanks i* the hemht j)ms|0tl of tameless academic audacity .md fraudulent eon* is how ancient Hindu buildings coction. This h* ascribed to various Muslims by cheats and been
forgers

m

on a wry Muslim chronicles.
I

for the cutml or presented with women, wine and wealth superior*, along 'sodomy prevj*. number of such instances of v Aide scale may be quoted from

posing to be chronicle- writers
practised

Another form of lechery
in

by Akbar
to

his

own

repression
their

grand, royal was to force
for

style

of cruelty with

his

subjects

and parade

women
Tod

him

to

fool
this

exclusively.
institution

mentions yet another instance * was passionately •Shah Qui' M.«hram-i-Baharlu the name of Qabul iched to a dancing boy of the boy forcibly Khan and as the Emperor had as jogi went dressed removed. Shah Quli foreslv Bcbram traced him with mucn
,ia\

Qj1

t

mentions
by

unique

conceived
states:
27

Akbar s inventive genius. Tod "The Noroza or "New Year's Day*' is not

into

the

trouble and brought restored to him.

him back, when the boy was The emperor from goodwill towards htm. admitted him to his fcmal apartments. After the first time he had been allowed to enter the harem, he went home and had his testicles removed, Maharam means owq admitted to the harem. He died at Agra in luTO A.H. At Narnaul where he
chiefly lived

but a festival especially instituted which he gave the epithet by Akbar. and to on the 9th day Khusroz, a day of pleasure, held festival of each (No-roza). following the chief The Khusroz was chiefly marked by a

Mew Year's Day

month
fair

court, attendheld within the precincts of the merchants wives exposed ed onlv by females. The ladies of manufactures of every clime and ihc

,he

the court
there
in

Maiesiv W also were the purchasers. His learns the disguise by which means

U

he

erected

many splendid

buildings

value of merchandise,

and dug

large tanks

ery

The above passage is a curious blend of chican* and fraud. No one would voluntarily castrate passage only indicates that Akbar
i

and hears whan the character of fce the state of the empire and officers of the government.' unha lowed pu P Fazal thus softens down the

of

T^TTlr

of this

day; but posterity

ennot admit

that the

used to compulforily castrate those unfortunate males whom he chose tokeepa watch over his harem.
26, V

W, ibid.

Hmu».

68-74

i

E.c uur Lane, Icadoa.

H9
118

\\

despoiled of her chastity
fiffit

hm

UNr

these ninth day Rajput honour Wa| tc markets in which fan brave Prithviraj makes bartered and to which the he composed and s illusion {in the poem that

posh*

on

was to obtain these results amidst or the of the dames of

loaded with k*.

.

i

Mam

nc

mixed

Bhakaofthefairof Rajasthan,

^Dde. tramping to the tinkling laments of goidand gcm 5 on
Where,

my

.

brother,
is

is

the moustache on ,h C y h p

*

sound "
sol

r

J*

L

r

Above

just a
is

j

have sent to rekindle Rana Pratap's fiagg. to Akbar's aggres. ing spirit of dogged resistance not a shadow of is onslaughts) There sive doubt that many of the noblest of the race (of
alleged to

It gross venery tial reader thai

of uninhibited

of Akbar to convince an imparAkbar s whole career a licentiousness mduteed

random sampling

enough

«w ZL
in

JE
vnsi

barbaric
a

Rajputs) were dishonoured on the No-roza t and the chivalrous Prithviraj was only preserved from being of the number by the high courage and virtue

abandon backed with the brutal fore huge army of hoodlums rampaging over a

empire.

of his wife, a princess of Mewar and a daughter of the founder of the Suktawats. On one of these celebrations of the

Khusroz the monarch of

ttie

Moguls

was simck with the beamy of the daughter of Mewar and lie singled her out from amidst the
united fair of
is

Hind

as the object of his passion.

It

improbable that an ungenerous feeling united with that already impure, to despoil the Stadias of their honour through a princess of their house under the protection of the sovereign.
not

from the fair she found herself entangled amidst the labyrinth of apartments by which egress was purposely ordained, when Akbar
retiring

On

btood before her. But instead of acquiescence, she rcw a poinard from her corset and held it to his
breast, dictating

and making him repeal the oath enunciation of the infamy to Rae all her race.
princely
wife

ngh. the elder brother of the so fortunate.

bard had
either

Hh

wanted

or virtue to withstand returned to their

the regal tempter, dwelling in the desert

121

DRINK \M> OQ¥B ADDICTION
UKir
in

incorrigible

and spirituous liquors

stuping

addict or strong drugs. Unull,.

nn d their elder brother was saved from the juime Tate by a strong constitution, not by vh\\n The biographies of the nobles recorded by Blochsurprising number of deaths tnann record due to intemperance. One of the most conspicuous victims of thai vice was Mirza Jani Beg of Sind. who drank himself to death in the Deccan soon after
jsnlt

crimes heavy with the burden today has to find an escape niltif up from da} This addiction was Akbar's in stupefaction.

of brutal

the

The entire aimos. brought up reeked with often in aIikIi McbUT was inu stupefying drugs, murderous plots
cimi>'

ancestral

hcrimge.

of Asirgarh. Another noble of high rank (Shahba? Khan, No. 57) used to drink a terrible mixture of wine, hemp and two forms of opium. Many other examples might be cited."
fall

Smith records- how when Akbar "had drunk more than was good for him he performed various

i

,,

.

r*plots

and womanizing.

pad

freaks.

At Agra he galloped
the

the

elephant
at

Smiti
i

quotes Terry's account of Asaf Khan's MHis sovereign (Akbar)* asis to saj had no scruples on the subject, and i,
'

'Hawai*,

across

bridge of boats, and

Sural

tried to ftghi his

sword.

He

specially fancied a very
that

heady

toddy.

As an

alternative at

period

less heavily, generally

more

during

adds "Intemthe greater part of his lire.'' Smith perance mis the besetting sin of the Ttmuroid
families
fatlu

was of many other Muslim Babur (Akbar** paternal grandii

used to take a spiced infusion of opium. He followed the practice of his family for many generations in consuming both strong drink and preparations of opium sometimes to various
(1510) he
excess."*

iantJcgani

roper.

Humayun

(Akhar's

her)

made
him
d

liimtclf
.elf

stupid with

permiiU'd

die practice
in

opium. Akbar of both vices. Some
he

freaks

which

indulged while

u»d

mi

e

influence of liquor

COJil

have been narrated rafy chronicles) The evil example set followed only too faithfully inccs and nobles. Akbar's two younger
jarlj

*Thc Jesuit testimony concern tog the experience of the first mission under Aquavtva in 1582 proves, beyond the possibility of doubt, that at that time, some nine years after the fall of Sural Akbar habitually drank hard. The good father had
s,

boldly dared to reprove the emperor sharply for Ins
licentious relations with

women,

Akbar

instead

resenting the priest's
2
f
l

audacity, blushingly

excused

wns

died

m

manhood from chronic

atchol?44, ibid.
3,
I

neenl Smith'*

*Akhnr the Great Moi

P. 82. ibid.

1*3

If,

and even aoq^l t° wMue the flesh The abstinence was r several d.

123
|

v
,

,

l0|

dom

extended to Include lienor.
in

Be went
ol
fasti

to such excess
ig

was lost merit g that the «, di inebriation. Sometimes Akbar seci*. demerit of
to

shockingly drunk/'

Mansingh and squeezed him hard S MnzalTar had Co twist Akbar\ hand to rclcas, hold on Mansingh ! throat. Akbar must have b
,

,,j

1

hi
u

ed

forge!

Padre

Rudolfo altogether, allowing
without

in, long intervals <o elapse say something to Even if he did »m lie the priest before Akbar about God. he had hardly begun beini* that he made too fell asleep, the reason use sometimes of arrack, an extremely heady

summoning

'-Although the uncritical pane ymts of Akbar fi make no mcnl ion of his drunken bouts, and his published sayings include phrases condemnatory of
excess in wine, it is certain that for many kepi up the family tradition and often

years he

drank

more

much

sometimes of post, a similar pre* paration of opium, diluted and modified by His bad example in various admixtures of spices. the matter of inebriety was followed only too

palm «

inc.

and

Jchangir remarks My father whether in his cups or sober moments alway called me Shekhu Baba'. The phrase clearly implied that
the writer's father

than he ecu Id carry.

was not seldom

in his

cups."

faithfully b> his three

son*

Two

of them.

M urad

who attained manhood. and Dan iyal, died from the

to

cunning Akbar's chronicler tries gloss over Akbar's failings. Abul Fazal says'

With

his usual

effects of their

intemperance, and Salim never freed himself from the vice altogether."
chronic

*A "queer story narrated by Abul Fazal (says) The talk there was (once) a select drinking party. lumed upon the disregard for life shown by the
heroes of Hindusthan. It was said that two Rajputs would run from opposite sides against the point of
a double-headed

Akbar "does not drink much, but pays much attention to (the Abdar Khanaj matters. Both at home and on travels he drinks Ganges water.** Probably Abul Fazal means that strong liquors
that

passing
into

down Akbar's

throat

became

transformed

sacred

cflTccts

Ganges water or that to offset the of drinks and dopes Akbar washed them

dow.i with

Ganga

water. Probably the reference to

by third parties 40 that the points would transfix both of the rivals and come out at their backs. (Hearing this) Akbar had the hilt of his sword fixed in the wall and announced that he would rush against it. P
spear,

held

Ganga water is meant only to hoodwink Akbar's Hindu subjects who formed a vast majority.
7 *•

Whenever His Majesty wishes
calls
all

to take

wine,
i.e

opium or kuknar (he
the

the

latter

subras"

Mansiit-li kicked
his

down
hard

Ihe sword

and doing so

cut

and drinks) the dop J servants place before him the stands of fruit. quintessence of
*

sovereign's

Akbar promptly knocked
5,

P.

H2

ibid.

6.

P. 57,

Ain^Akbari, by Abul Paul
ibid.

*

t*.

Ml.ibia

All 11 mi, translated
7,

by H. Blochmnnn,

P. 69, ibid.

s

124 125

idiot to all^ E.thcrAkbar should have been an before him when he asked his servants to taj fruits servant >h"u|d have vine and dope or the

been

given

commands
drugs.

compelhnc him

authority to override Akbafi and like slcrn governesses they must be or wine and to accept fruit in place
ihc

bow el-complain I; and as His Majesty had adopted Hoomayun. bis the habit Of eating opium, as had done before him, people became appre father naive on lus account
drunkard and a drugIf Ilk* Akbai he u backed by a ferocious ftddicJ barbarians who have the potential of army mowing down all opposition one may well in the menace he is 10 humanity at large. Akbar's reign was. therefore, one of the darkest periods of Indian history, when a targe pan of India was Mibjccl 10 his drunken despotism and mischief.
is

Abut Fazat'&code word for the dreaded liquors and drugs that his imperial master habitually consumed.
table
isthftt 'fruit' is

A

third alternative

which

seems more pro-

Even a common man dangerous company n he

is

considered bad and

a

the flatterer

^

Father Monserraic a Jesuil priest

who was

at

Akbar quenches his thirst ^kbars court, says' with po*f or wafer. When he has drunk immoderately

of

pi

si

he

sinks

back

stupified

and

A

Sanskrit adage say

shaking."'

him is illustrated by a contemporary chronicler Badayuni who says1 "His Majesty appointed Qa2t Abdus Sami as Qazi-ul-Quzat who used to play chess for His cup-draining a wafer, and to give great odds. was notorious!} a congenital habit, and in his sect
Akbar's preference for drunkards
like

Youth, wealth, power and intemperance Each singly ma> spell ruin Imagine the havoc when they all combine.
Akbar's reign well
illustrates the truth

of that

maxim.

briber)

and corruption were considered

as a duly

for the

moment."
observes:"
1

Chronicler Ferishi a
(1582

"Ai

this time
ill

ADl
P

the king

was taken dangerously
Commentary,
ibid.

of a

P, 199, Monserraic'*

324, Badayuni, ibid
I5fj.

10.

P.

\u]

II

Hivtory of the Rise of the

Mobam*
from

dan

Pr.vktr in Itidtu.

till

ihc year

A

D.

1612 "

translated

Fenian of Mahommed Kasim Ferishta. by John i&. puWiihcdhy S, Dcj S9-A SI1an.ba7.ar Street. Calcutta-*'
original

taeprintcd Calcutta, 19 i6

A

D.|

Chapter Vlf
lin

127

TUF SO C U FD
I

M

VRRIAGES WERE

way back from Mankot the royit elephants mpeded into ailing Behram Khan's tern. Tf w8 Akbar'J way of displaying his royal anger lichram Khan who got married to Salirna
the
<.

m

vi

VNTIBDACTIONS

atJullundur w hen ihc army was on
I

its

turned marital adventures \kbar*s much described as lyrical symphonoften rhapsoditally icr-communal Harmon) and lofty essays in
blatant abductions. salesmanship were nothing but

an earlier chapter highhandedly bereft ho* Sheikh Abdul Wasi was History does of his attractive and alluring wife. was robbed trace of Abdul W a^i after he
\Ve have already noted in
i

territory) to Lahore. Mankot There* was systematically hounded. cr Behram Khan Many more times Akbar's elephants stampeded Probably Akbar's mto Bcliram Khan's tent have Behram Khan trampled to intention w death. Gradual l> stripped of all power Behram Khan was overthrown in open combat, exiled,

in

Jummu

*ay from

and murdered. Partisan contemporary accounts have often tried to show hat Behram Khan was murdered by an Afghan
chased
to

Paitan

i

find

his wife.

In ill

probability he was murdered by
hirelings.

who bore him a
written

private
flatterers,

grudge

Such accounts,

by court

could never be expected

one of Akbar's own

to indict
v

Akbar of Behram Khan'* murder when

Even AkburS own guardian the elderly Behram Khan met with the >ame late because Akbarhad an was e>con bis wife Sahma Sultan Begum. This lady srUefs daughter. Depriving her Akbat at husband Behram Khan of all power and position wife court and later murdering him only to grab his Akbar's for his <»wn harem was a heinous crime on ungrateful because it was It was also very part. Behram Khan * ho had chaperoned minor Akbar kbars career through a to his throne stcerii
'

were subservient to a wily and ferocious Akbar who wielded despotic power. That it was Akbar who caused Behram Khan's murder is apparent from the fact that Behram Khan tt hounded from the very day that he was engaged to Salirna Sultan, At the time of hi-, murder he was not alone but was accompanied by a large group of wife adherents. Soon after he was murdered his Salima whom Akbar had long coveted, was
Sultan,
speedily sent to

number of formidable
Dr. A.L. ShfivMSU

challenges.
\ys
l

car-old

Akbar\ harem along with her four rose to be son Abdur Rahim who later
Stripping

thai as early as 1557,

when Akbar was only

15 years old.

suspected a conspiracy against
l.

Behram Khan him when one day

the highest loyal servant ofthc crown of all his power and then ot h.shfc: Mbars aiyofbis wife because of a 5-year-old

Khan

Khun.

1

.on for
">

Behram Khan's

legally

wedded

wile

Wa a ghastly crime.
P. 41. Vol.
I,

Akbar

the Great, ibid.

,

I2fl

139

India*

I

-

s

have

:,lso

nccn stained

*>y

marriage W falsehood aboul it|, This marriage h Jaipur* Hindu royal brails a* a shining example of mcr _ as hc, M paraded mnHJii.il integration brought about by Akbii,
so-called
j

\Uur\

a bas c

Akbax's harem may be gleaned from Dr 1 Bharmal, the ruler SiKJvasiav's book

w

A

L

of Jaipur

to humiliating submission w a» reduced by Sharcommander or Akbar's forces, through fuddn^ a repeated terror and horror raids on Bharmal's
principality-

statesmanship.

emphatic proof of how the oommunallsl and politician have falsified Indian tory to bolstei their own imaginary theories.
fhis

episode

is

ing

and

In these raids he succeeded in capturholding as hostages three Rajput princes

:

K hangar,

Rajsingh

incarcerated at

and Jagannaih. They were Sambhar and apparently threatened
It

pjth torturous death.

was

to

redeem those

three

Most

histories
ts

state

that

while
to

19-year-old
to

princes that the chastity of Bharmal's daughter was

Akh homage

on

his

way from Agra

Ajmer

pay

at

the shrine of ihe

tomb of Sheikh Mom

Akbar's harem door. In ordinary circumstances even the nail of a Rajput damsel's
sacrificed
at

and white he was passing through Sambhar, an elderly brave and proud Rajput ruler Bharmal of Jaipur hurried thither and offered his This is an atrocious falsedaughter in man Even on the face of it it is absurd. Anyone hood.
Chisti,

toe or finger, as they
the

say,

was never exposed

to

lecherous gaze of a foreigner, and a marauder

at that.

Dr.
chief

"The Kachwaha (Bharmal) faced extinction and hence in a
Shrivastava observes
:

who knows
old
r
•>

and tradition of the mediaeval Rajputs but does not know anything of history
the spirit
ui this version

eu

spurious.

Thai

a
lo

leading

member of

a

community who

preferred

burn their
their

women

in

a mass bonfire rather than

sec

sought the intercession of and an That was the reason why. alliance with Akbar.'" soon after the Rajput damsel was surrendered the That was why the three princes were released. not transaction took place at a wayside place and
helpless condition
at
It

honour and chastity defiled by alien marauders should hasten to willingly and voluntarily surrender hi* daughter to Akbar, is a base calumm against the fair name of proud Rajasthan. The real story is very heart-rending. But it has been carci oppressed and its bits have been very bed-chamber swept under Akbar's
carpet

either. Bharmal's capital or at Akbar's capital was too shameful and heart-rending a surrender

Tor

Bharmal lo enact

in his

own bmneUW

tu in

the

heart of the glorious Rajasthan
his

and kin. It shameful and worse than perdition
kith

own

and in the midst ol was considered most
for a Rajput

have to surrender his daughter lo a Muslim.

An account of what made Bharmal
his

n^7.63 of Dr. A. L.
swall

Rajput pride and surrender his beloved daughter

Great/ Vol. t contain an «*>«* marriage. wrongly described a>

*»^*£SE
ol
tTlc

130

wns

therefore, 116 fun
il

tor

Bharmal

to

talcc

ft at
foi
;|

bcen a
,a

decision

It

ww
he

worse than
felt

death
three

wedding they would Sambhar.

nil

nave been nre^nt

,!

Rajput.

But

he had no
Ins

alternative.

allow Po him the choice was to red to death and later ,, U
|

princes

sec the

whole of
or
i

Ins

realm
for

1

tfd

waste

with

similar

atrocities

Hli,

1

n

1

an abject peace \\ wrhc could not apparently

losing his daughter,
steel
his
i

Kear|

Bharmal negotiated this surrendering his- n dca of foi seeming the of the three princes, through n release Muslim named Chagtai Khan. Had it been a wcddin Rajpul ruler would never emptoj a Muslim as The go-between.
i

An other due

that

|

B$

alK
iiil!

,

,

Immortal Rtma Praia p. preferred he meek to a brave, fiahlol Shameful surrender,

Soon
obtained
ravage

after

B harm a Is
directed

surrender

had been

Akbar

resistance

Akbar
the
•bride"

the very nest da\ for Agra with sunendcred ?ir) euphemistically called the
left

another Rajpul accounts which describe this transaction as a wedding, are

Sharfuddin to similarly prinaipaUty— Merta All
concoctions.

therefore,

gross

Tliough

Thai
In

is

to

say

there

were no marriage

Akbar didn't much care he couldn't have had any
shameful surrender as a So far as Bharmal was concerned it was marriage but natural that he would wish this abject surrenBut it is for der painted as a voluntary wedding.
objection
to
glorify
this

those days royal wedding rejoicings and feasts lasted (or months. Why did this one
festivities,

end

in

a

da:,1

1,

euphemistically described

as a

huge

posterity to scan the circumstances

and

refuse to be

doik ;y consisting of thousands of horses with gold saddles, elephants, jewellery and cash, was nothing

hoodwinked by

political concoctions.

but

.!

ransom.
also

mentioned that tin ofDcosaand the surrounding region had Thai proves that Akbar was fkd in A Khar's ival dreaded like a tiger on the prowl and was not
Dr. Shrivastava has
1

'.loomed as a smiling royal bridegroom.

•Near Ranlhumbhor
d

BharmaTs

sons, grandsons
to

Dr. Shrivastava who believes that the wedding (sic) of Akbar with Bhunnal's daughter was "celebrated in the most admirable manner" (p, 62 of his book) lakes a somersault and says in a footnote on page 1 13 "No mediaeval Hindu, howevei low in social status, liked U marriage with a Muslim. though of royal blood, as in Hindu eyes the mere touch of a Muslim was defilement or pollution,"

other relatives were
Dr. Shnvastava.

introduced

Akbar,
larly

While encamped

at

Mandavgadh Aklnn

simi-

Tins means that they were
Il

-demanded
3. P. 11 3.

the

hand of the daughter of
&* StarivasuM.

nut present
natural

DJ

the so-called wedding.
they

was
at

but
Vol.
1,

Akb;ir the Great, by

should not be present humiliating tuficndcr of their princess.
thai

the
it

ibid.

Had

132

133

\uimad Khan, ;vasl harem in September 1564.uid entered Akbar's not a marriage because is dcarij
,

Shah, Mjrm Mubarak

ruler

of Khandesh.

ft* the principal cu llUch

sfl nvastava

significantly adding

mi

sent to Bikaner lo

•R aja Bhagwand
l

royal
these

camp

It

may

Phis again

the

vm

brought and

Ktary general o( arms. ruler with the force

dumped in Akbar s harem by who humiliated the Khandesh
(sic) the

equipped with the lassos or military detachments, used to drag the poor helpless princess to

weddings Akbar's general mume.pa darogans rounding up straycows.

called

bring the princes to the be noted that in each one

'•Akbar married brother of Katyanmal
Bikaner
service but

daughter of Kalian, Kalyanmal was the ruler
Raisingh

from the unwilling
parents.

Akbar's harem and sorrowing bosoms of their

His

SOB

was taken

into

K ilyamna] being too

Tat

to ride a horse

The brave Bidhichand ruler or Kangra alias Nagarkot when reduced to submission remitted,
besides other valuables, five

was allowed 10 return to Bikaner.*'
This too was no wedding but an abject surrcn« der. In none of these so-called marriages'* is the daughter's name ever mentioned because her chastity
a mere chattel to be bartered
lo save despoliation

maund» of gold "but

he did not
a

fulfil

the other terms such as sending of

dola to Akbar's harem and acknowledging Mugal 1 suzerainty.* A footnote quotes chronicler Badayuni that 'the Mugals riddled with arrows the golden umbrella over the image of Goddess Jwalamukhi, stew 200 black cows maintained by the temple for
worship, and filling their shoes with the slaughtered

away on

surrender

of

ravaging

or the entire realm at the hands Muslim armies, Had the ruler of

kalyanmal been really taken into service by Akbar as a mark of special favour, allowing him 10 return to Bikaner wouldn't have arisen The fact that he was "allowed** to return shows that he was forced lo buy his freedom by surrendering lit* brother's daughter and also throwing in a large
Bikaner.
I

of the temple with it," That despite such atrocities and having been made to pay a heavv ransom Bidhichand refused to surrender the women of his family shows how high the Rajputs held the ho uir of their women and how tow mean Akbar's behaviour was
the
floor

cows' blood splashed

and

walls

T-om

into the bargain.

In this case

it

is

clear that

in

collecting

he muht not have had a daughter of his own, at least one marriageable. Had he one he would
e

military

harem women wrested with force from his subdued adversaries,
in

his

been forced to

surrender his

Akbar

m

own daughter

to

addition to his brother's,

Rawal Pratap the ruler o\' Banswara and Ravvul Askaian of Dungarpur were persuaded to 'They wait on Akbar. " says 7 Dr. Shrivastuva.

"Jaisalmfr't (ruler)
his

Rawal Mar Raj gave

'4
I

daughter
*.

in

marriage to
Akbar

Akbar"

says

Dr.

AJ*

k
7-

Pp 143
Pp. 21

144, ibid

J- 15,

Vol.

I,

Akbar

(he Giwtfi 'bid.

*

5.

Pp. 120-127,

the Great, ibid.

155

Akbar 'married" the dau g lle The negotiations Hu- ivniMrpur ruler We ^ iducted bj Lon Karftn and Birbnr, who brounhr the l«d> to ftfcbar** camp. when the latter was oi Fatehpm Sikrj return jourrus
became
his vushls.
j
I i

A kbar
Bjtder vtirretide
for
his*

not

only forced his subdued

then

women

to his

own harem

focs

lft

s° ns
-

and other

bur ah,
of propo*.

relations

AJi

LlJIie

nw—

;

-- -"« »wuruy

f

lie
i

,ih,nc pass ige

is

a typical

example of how

e d the

va ncl ly Indian histories have been written Hie words persuaded to wait on Akbar" cleari* means thai hey w e re to iced a nd h umil jated th ro Ug
t

marriage of his daughter with Prince Salim was brought to Lahore and the tnarnan The lady e on January I, ]592." ,, lS performed

j.

complete their htimfliiition w is proved by the surrender of the Dungarpur jgluer. That U was no marriage is clear from the thai Lin: Karati and Bsrbar dragged the help, less girl firm the protective custody of her help], father and dumped her in Akkir's harem while he Falehpur Sikri. Dishonouring Rajput princesses and molesting them had become
si
, i 1

How

The above passage again shows that Little Tibet was threatened with total destruction by
ravage unless
l0

the ruler agreed to send his daughter prince SaJim's harem. Likewise on 10 -June 2fi

j586 in

Lahore Prince Salim's second marriage
with
the
'

,

performed
Bikaner
It

daughter of Rai Singh of
a 'marriage 1
is

To

call

this

hypocrisy.

a prtn<

icnet
»hi\

of Akbar's
insult

rule

and

life.

By

was 'held' in distant Lahore and not at Bikaner because the ruler of Bikaner was obviously ashamed daughter to an alien of having to surrender his
maraudar.
isic)

a

and humiliation has been dfied a* a magnanimous gesture of Akbar. Such partiality and blatant falsehoods are perhaps unparalleled elsewhere in world literature

eniclfam)

He dare

not* celebrate any marriage
in

his

daughter with a Muslim potentate capital Tor fear of public obloquy.
of his

and

acade-

mic

text

books

Sheikh
Mil.

Abdun Nahi who

objected
to

to

Akbar'*
against
in

numerous marriages1 was exiled

Mecca

return to India in 1583 he died ncious circumsmm obviousl) murdered
a-

On

bj

Muslim Abdun Nabi Mcbar'i taking Hindu His girls.
fanatic
.

The chronicler Ferishta describes how the daughter of the Bijapur ruler was kidnapped for Akbar's son Daniyal. In 1600 A. D. n "Ibrahim Adil Shall of Bijapur sent an ambassador to conciliate Akbar and consented (sic) to give his daughter in marriage to his son Prince Daniyal Mirea A Mogul noble named Weer Jam dtiddin Husain
Anjoe,

did

nol

protest
of

Akbar invadim „ the privacy Milium femiUe He. har of Abdul Wasi!
r»>t
I

was accordingly despatched to escort the wide from Bijapur In June 1604 Meer Jarnaluddin
9
111

P.

354, (bid.
I

Pp 354-357. Akbar he Great,
-

ibid
ol

r'<'

231 132

u
[bill.

Pp 173-174, Vol
chronicle,, ibid.

it,

Brifigi" tmiwbUlofl

Ffemwi

iv;

137

„ u%ai „ Mu>ain

returned

villi
i

the

royal

down

ifc)

He

bride ind h delivered the you
,

subjugation.

w as
uurtuib
(sic

In the latter case Rai Sfngh'f daughter brought to Hhaawandas's house in Lahore

S^ftfttam whett

S«S
\
L
,
, , ,

lha

magnificence
ProIfi05

nuluddm H«fefl

**»*

were cc duarcu n which r Kim the k,ng«

M*

unwilling parents in distant Rajasthan from her then handed over to Jehangir. Bhagwaada**s aTl d family had since the days or his father Bhar-

On

April

8,

Dttnipl died

in

Burhanpur

ma

l

rolled

up and drowned
to

its

Rajput

pride

drinking." owing to excess of
the a hove description that H is mpurenl from kidnapped under g ipur ruin daughter was
.

ynd allowed Akbar and
therefore,
it

be

lifted

as

many women
liked.

as
t

his

successors
rulers

For thcm
to
sec

was some consolation
similarly

other

brother

Rajput

duress

the marriage The celebrations were not of

abduction gin. but of the successful and therfore is not men* Her name did not matter Danival died within a few months of the

or another's

honed

poor hapless

girl *s

abduction.

Left to himself the
to
his

given his daughter Bijapur ruler would not have of depraved drunkard sprawled on the brink
grave,

With that adopted son Mansingh were frequent agents for Akbar and his sons to abduct Rajput princesses. It was on one such occasion that Rai Raisingh's daughter was made over for Jehangir *s harem from Bhagwandas's Lahore home.
humiliated.

humbled and view Bhagwandas and his

Mr. Shclat
prince

mentions two weddings

(sic)

of

Salim With

Hindu

princesses.

He

says 11

February 2, 1584 the marriage of Prince lithe daughter of Raja Bhagwandas was Salim In June Unrated at Lahore with crear pomp. 1586 the wedding of Rai Singh's daughter with

On

ii

S ilim

was celebrated
learned

at the

house of Bhagwandas."

has been mistaken to thinking that the celebrations were for the marriage Tii.it they were no marriages but abductions 5

The

author

Badayuni says 1 * **Salim in his 16th year married the daughter of Raja Bhagwandas. The Raja gave as his daughter's dowry several strings of horses and boys and girls of Abyssinia, India and Circassia, and all sorts of golden vessels iet with jewels, and jewels and utensils of gold, and vessels of silver and all sorts of stuffs, the quantity of which is beyond computation. And to each one of the Amirs, who were present, according to their station and rank, he gave Persian. Turkish and Arabian horses with golden saddles
'

1

apparent from the fact that the girl's name ifl not mentioned, and that ihc was brought to distattl The celebrations were to gloat over the Lahore.
12.

This description should serve as a sample of the lavish ransom that subdued Rajput rulers were required to surrender along with their beloved
daughters and sisters to alien invaders.
13-

To

describe
by Al

P,

352,

Vol,
ibid.

U Muntnkhabui

Txiwjrikh,

P. 19&,

WdMf.bj

I,

m

Shfllat ibid,

Itadayum.

138

ChdP!2J"t

it

as

dowry

is

to five wall
-

a iravesty of truth. Who would want brought up, beautiful daughters
'

ho were drunkards, drug-addicts, masscrers t of Hiiidusand llindustrun Even the rod to themselves 10 be ultivery Rajputs who allowed mately subdued and humiliated did so after stiff resistance and burning of their women en masse
|i
L
i

(

OMH

EST*

fti

was only when their flagging spirits ho;[ seemed to wither awaj and wraps under unending and colossal Muslim atrocities that they decided to submit and purchase a semblance of peace at any
It

has been mistakenl) asserted or insmuat Indian historical text books that Akbar" s n average conquests were intended to wipe oat smaller
tt
j

cost.

Indian histories have no right to twist Tacts, warp the truth and give a wedding-wash to blatant

abductions, and thereby rub galling insult into the brave Rajputs by alien tries inflicted on the
invaders in wars of attrition.

which India was divided only to weld them into one strong, united, homogenou nation. Such an assertion prc-Supposes that Akbar was an Indian and that he was bubbling over with patriotic fervour and innate love fur the future of overwhelming majority of her India and the citizens, the Hindus. Both these assumptions being wron<» the conclusion derived from them is also
principalities into

unwarranted.

The historian Histories must be impartial the must not assume the role of a politician or of
handmaid to twist truth or varnish to dastardly acts. The reader expects the historian withit properly investigate the truth and present
politician's

Akbar was not an Indian either in thought, mind, body or deed. He was an absolute alien, .in aggressor and an aggrandlzcr whose conquests were meant to ruthlessly mow down the Indian people
and their culture for self-glorification at the cost the people's lives, property and honour.
1 Vincent Smith rightly observes that was a foreigner in India. He had not a
i

out adding any gloss of his
historical
this roie,
texts,

own

Current

Indian
fulfil

generally

speaking,

do

not

"Akbar
dr»p*'f

Indian blood in his veins.

fact* to their

audiences but the histories as truth a"*1 state only the truth, the whole ust lied m* nhmg but the truth. In the case of the so-ca nothing b plain marn of Akbar and his sons the marria]
J

m

their Administrators or politicians, may add hisio "-' homilies or footnotes when presenting

a direct descen{on dant in the seventh generation from Tamerlain

He was

his

father's

side).

He was

descended

through

Baburs mother, the daughter of Yunus Khan, Grand Khan of the Moguls, from Chagatui. second son of Cbingii Khan, the Mongol icourga
.

7TAkiw

the

Gtc*

Mo B

i»J

bj

vin«nl

Snriih. ibid

that they were all blatant .inductions.

MO
of Asia m rhc Persian"
B> descent,
alien

Ui

13th

century, .His

mother

was
Afefciwislhan

and

Abyssinia

heir father-lands

SJccaand Medina as
therefore,

Afcbui

was an absolute

then .ireued thai though not in Indian by descent Akbar was an Indian by Choice because and two of his ancestors and his descendants

U

is

and the ma jo' n f the Indians as their dire enemaThey ril> massacring of the Hindus and the ravagconsidered
,

their shrines

irlg

D r their

those who
BveT
nliH l e or
t

home. Many readers arc taken in and misled for the whole of then lives by such Had Akhar really merged his identity, cant. and religion with that of language, culture the majority of the Indians namely Hindus, he could certainly have been entitled to be deemed a

made

India

iheir

Could sported such ideal, md ideologies be regarded as Indians even though they had
India their

homes

as

their

pious duly

operating hereby perpetuate their depredations with greater closer quarters and as an incessant cas ,e from
It

home? Making India their horns base made mailers worse, They could

routine.

is

not, therefore, physical presence or

,

naturalized
religion

Indian.

If

retaining his

own

separate

length of residence in

a country which
for

is

the soul

and culture he would have devoted his life to the welfare of the Hindus he could still have been deemed deserving of gratitude. But Akbar's whole life was spent in humiliating, insulting, massacring and fleecing his subjects. As such he cannot be deemed to be even a naturalized or His mere physical residence in domiciled citizen. India is no criterion for identifying him as an Indian If a gang of dacoits successfully defies the residents of a village aud continues to plunder Ihem by using some village dwellings as their base of Hon can they be deemed to be residents of that village? If an intruder occupies two rooms of a house and kidnaps the housc*owncr*s daughters can he be deemed to be the son-in-law in residence of his victim-host ? Likewise India was an unwill|mg victim-host to Akbar and his descendants. Till the very end none of them ever considered India as their home or Hindus as their hrethcren They always regarded Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria,

of citizenship
the

but love

the soil, affection for

people and dedication to the service of both. Far from having any of these qualities Akbar was a menace to India and Indians from every aspect
and his death
only

was regarded as a good riddance not

by the people at large but by Akbar's own ion Jchangtr and by all his courtiers.
Since
that

Akbar was not an Indian

it

is

no wonder
ruthless

he

cruelty

Indian rulers with subjugated and systematic relenllcssncss,

Vinceni

Smith says 2 "In reality a more aggressive king never existed. The ruling passion of Akbar was ambition. His whok- reign was dedicated to conquest... His

were aimed at destroying the independence of every slate,., The people of Gondwana were happier under Rani Durgawati than under Asif Conirar. opinions exKhan Akbar's general) pressed by Mallcson and Von Noer. Smith dismisses as "untrue" and "nonsense."
attack*
1 " <

2.

P. 251, ibid.

142
143

"Akbar

V luM

Tor

dominion was never sat
extend
fu!

He longed

Raja

with intense fervour 10

bis

ru j

overall the nations and kingdoms lying within the
not necessary to adduce any

Riinl
f

«ii

'

Ml

is

particular

incident as supplying a

Rana

<Prat3pf.

who

is

motive Tor the attack on represented by Abul Fazai

(Akbar's self-appointed court chronicler) as deserving of chastisement by reason of hi* alleged arrodisobedience, gance, presumption, deceit, and His patriotism was his offence, dissimulai

had been obliged to lower hi* pride and rive daughter to the wealth) Gond Raja, far his inferior position. She proved worthy of in her erned her adopted country no ble ancestry and lV ,ih courage and capacity dome great things' as remark dint of far-seeing abilities. Abul Fazal
father
.

Mahoba, which had been one of the great" pow* India 500 yean ago. Her impoverished er5 of

Mnthnttsd to rule the kmsdom The princess of the famous Chandcl dvna*t,

I

campaign of 1576 was intended to destroy the Rana. and crush finally his pretensions to stand outside of the empire. The emperor desired the death of the Rana and the absorption of his The Rana while fully prepared to territory. sacrifice Jus life if necessary* was resolved that his blood should never be contaminated b> admixture tth that of the foreigner, and that his country should remain a land of free men. After much tribulation lie succeeded and Akbar failed.'
e

(She fought battles) with Baz Bahadur and Mianas, and was always victorious. She had 20.000 good cavalry with her in battles and LOGO famous elephants.
fell

treasures of the Rajas of those countries She was a good shot with gun into her hands.

The

and arrow, and continually went a-hunting and shot animals of the chase with her gun. It her custom that when she heard that u tiger had

governor of Kara and the eastern provinces, having subdued the Raja of Raima in Bundclkhami was directed by Akbar to
af
|l),

A

Rbun

turn his arrnie.1 against

Gondwana

The count rj

appearance, she did not drink water till She earned out many useful she had shot him. public works in different parts of the kingdom and van the hearts of her people. Her name deserved is still remembered and revered. Akbar's attack on a princess ol' a character so noble was mere aggression, wholly unprovoked and devoid of all justification other than the lust of conquest and
his
I

made

564) governed by a gallant lady Ram Durgawati. who 15 years previously had become

was then nn
regent
Tor

1

plunder.

M

rs,

.

Bevcridge

is

quite

right

when she

declares that

her minor &on

Although he had now
lavv-

attained

manhood, and was recognized as the

Akbar was a strong and >tout annexationist before whose sun the modest star of Lord Dalhnusie pales. Having men and money he went to work and took trad after tract' (A. S. Beverid§

3.

von Noer, vol

1,

p. vu").

*

Pp

1Q64J, .hid

59.51, ibid

"Akbar would have laughed

at

the remorse

144

14?

fettty

Ksdka Tor ihc miseries caused

by Ihe con-

utterly condeof Kalinga, and would have mned his great predecessors decision to abstain from all further wars of aggression.*'

quest

intolertwcc of any limitations on hn despotism may be Scen fo his lfcachcrmji om overthrow of his own loyal guardian Behram

Ak bar's

Smith dismisses as "sentimental rubbish" Count %on Noefi belief that Akbar's conquests were intended to achieve the greal goal of welding Smith adds 6 the lesser suites into a great empire -Akbar's annexations were the result of ordinary kingly ambition supported by adequate power. The attack, devoid of moral justification, on the excellent government of Rani Durgawati was made on the principle which determined the subsequent annexations of Kashmir, Ahmednagar and other kingdoms. Akbar felt no scruples about initiating
a war, and once he had begun a quarrel he hit hard and without mercy, His proceedings were much the same as those of other able, ambitious and

,

He even went to the extent of having murdered. To add insult to jKiirani Khan brim usurped Behram Khan's wife and made Behram 1C young child subservient to himself, |tlian*s
K han.

Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa, was subdued to serve as an ordinary subaltern and forced m Akbar's armies.

Rani Durgawati's kingdom was overrun. She committed suicide on the battlefield, while her jister and daughter-in-law were dragged to Akbar's
harem.

Rana Pratap, the immortal hero who made
his

mother's milk resplendent by

his

dogged

resis-

tance to

"

ruthless kings

Akbar's entire reign is a horror drama of his barbaric hordes haunting, chasing and hacking down one principality after another to ^lake his iMrst for despotic power over as large a portion
of the earth a* possible

Akbar's repeated attacks and who kept the flag of Hindudom flying in the face of relentless Muslim onslaughts was many-a-time reduced to
for

desperation
lust

and destitution reducing everybody

just

because Akbar's

to abject

submission

was unquenchable.

Immediately after his general, Sharfuddin had completed his assignment of compelling Bharmal
the ruler of the Jaipur
his

which were hacked by Akbar's imperial sword in an incessant orgy of
principalities

The

mass

massacres,

plunder,

rape,

arson,

ravage,

(Amber) kingdom

Rajput pride and surrender his

swallow daughter to the
to

woman-lifting, carrying away of a "d desecration of temples to
Gujcrat, Bengal, Bihar. Orissa,

men
be

into slavery,

turned into

harem of the alien Muslim. Akbar put him on the ob to reduce Mcrta (in the former Jodhpur Stale) noihcr stronghold of Hindu freedom.

mosques, included Chittor. Ranthambhor. Kaiinjar,

Kashmir Khandesh, Ahmednagar, Ashcergadh, Banswada, Dongarpur, leaner, Jodhpur. Jaisalmer, Sirohi, Kabul. Nagar'

t

F.Slibi

and Boondi.

146 147

and monetary hii Uctmrused to extract from subdued n in 1} be had from the terms of the chief; treaty Hftdft, chief of Boondj. .-<ncludcd with Rai Snrjtui This ruler was made to surrender fort Runthambhor coaxing and cajoling him into submission. He

An

indication

of the

sexual

c0 efl*

i

vanquished leaders to send their women to If the vanquished leaders harem. h)S were Mohammedans all their harem women had
If the

auto-

the victor's harem. ntaticalJy to join
foe
j

vanqui-

could therefore ask for some special exemptions, The chiefs of Boondi I. These terms were" -.ild be exempted from that custom degrading t 1 Rajput, of sending a dola to the royal harem.
i

was a Hindu, Akbar and his pedecessoi s lC(I made him surrender choice women ,nd successors family to the imperial Muslim harem. This of his was greatly resented by the Hindu chiefs because
E

Exemption from the Jiziya or poll tax. 3. The chiefs of Boondi should not be compelled to cross The vassals of Boondi should be the Attock, 4. exempted from sending their wives or female relatives to hold a stall in the Meena Bazar at the palace on the festival of Noroza. 5. They should have the privilege of entering the Diwan-tAm completely armed. 6. Their sacred edifices 7. should be respected They should never be placed under the command of a Hindu leader. Their horses should not be branded, with the imperial dagh. 9. They should be allowed to
2

a world of difference between the kind led and the Muslims led. While Muslim of life they used to be steeped in murder, massacre, life
there

was

and counterplots, opium and drugaddiction, drunken revelries and illiterate barbar* ism the Hindu chiefs used to lead a holy, clean,
treachery, plots

god-fearing

life.

Indian historians have been tutored to believe

Dola system was a marriage. It was far from that, It was a blatant usurpation and kidnapping under duress. That is why it was all completed within a day. The term Dola' though singular must
thai the

not be interpreted with only

to

beat

the naqqaras or

kettle

of the capital as far as the they should not be commanded to
tration

drums in the streets Lai Darwaja and that

one woman collective noun indicating

only one palanquin seated in it. It was used as a
signify that the

Muslim

victor

make
10.

the pros-

on

entering the

presence,

Boondi
of

should be to the
capital.

Had as what

Delhi was to the king

who should guarantee them from any change

Analysing the above conditions is very revealfhc fizsl condition shows that Akbar used to
J82-3K3,

could dictate to the vanquished as to which women he would have for himself, his sons and courtiers. this heartIt would be a travesty of truth to call rending abduction anything akin to a holy marriage where a woman is graciously given and respectfully honour. received. She is given all protection and

She

allowances allowed freedom and sumptuous RH Hindu women taken to Muslim harems were,
is

Vol
Col,

ft,

Annuls
[bid

and Antiqaitic*

of

JUjuihnn

hd,

ever silenced in the curtained off recesses, were not v °icc was for ever stilled. They

even

148

149

permitted

generally ever to

visit

their

parental

connections with i| lc erstwhile Hindu relatives. In a harem teeming i#ui conqured women they could hardly expect i meal much less toilet receive even a square Recently even in our own times facilities.

homes

or to retain any

the

of the late Nizam's harem women Their plight was so desperate thai came to fight they would not get even a thimbtcfull of oil for their hairdo which used to be infested with lice. n most cases they continued to be hated and looked
pitiable condition
|

ened that conditions acrced to h« »h. n—« agreed by the Muslin only to effect a subjugation. usuallj

„ Buondl ndi and the chieftain citizen, remained exempt for long from the Jiziya, Became it oftei e
It

U

sanctum of such exemption h c r™. JU " W please the visitor and send him LnLlnJ P yC ° n,enl * the court. c d outside W|,c™ h
ihe

bothered.

^m^^^l h^S
TontT*'
Once
th

"S3

subjugation was accomplished the cond.t.ons wcr^ overboard and the vanquished all thrown soon*

found themselves reduced to utter servitude.
cross the Indus Cat Altock)

upon with contempt by the other harem colleagues, by the Muslim sovereign and by his retinue Some* times they were also murdered and poisoned as happened in the case of Jehangir's wife Manbai the Even her own brothers' high Jaipur princess. position at Ak bar's court could be or no avail to
save her
ign's
life,

The exemption asked from compulsion
is

to

often

inerpreted
to

Hindu reluctance or orthodox the boundaries of Hindusthan.
pretation.
triction

as

objection

leave

This

is

a misinter-

\1any-a time
to be gifted

women
away

in

the

severe*

harem used

to other

Muslim

couniers as vehicles for their amour as is evidenced by European accounts of Akbar's time. All talk, there h re, of Ak bar having forged marital relations
with Hindu
chieftains for a
lofty

puts no reson crossing the boundaries or the country, it positively encourages and demands conquests of its brave sons -the Kshatriyas. The Boondi chief's demand or exemption from being made to go beyond India's borders was to ensure that he did not become a pawn and a slave for Muslim
'-•"iiqu,
-,i'.

Hindu

religion not only

and laudable

in

distant

regions only

to

frengthei]

purpose

is

baseless.

The second condition of
treaty reveals that

Ranthambhor the notion that Akbar had abothe

lished the hateful Jiziya tax is false.
later that ever)
1 .

We

shall

see

important Hindu personage coming to Akbar" court had to beg for remission of the In each case Akbar is stated to have Jiriya tax ostensibly ordered a magnanimous exemption. But They his orders were not meant to be carried out. were meant, even if the few recorded Instances of
*

domain and stranglehold on Hndusthan. Moreover, a Hindu chieftain did not want to lose his life io enhance Muslim prowess, in a distant land. Even if he expected to come back alive hc was not sure that on return his women, children and other relatives would be safe. Ma ha bat Khan
their

though a Muslim convert found that while he was fighting in Kabul for tehangir his wives and children were summarily lumed out of their residence because aceommodnerstwhile

an

Rajput

3M

156
151

had to be found for Prince Parwez, Afnjjj of such highhandedness and abduction and pili a „ e a Hindu chieftain was averse to leaving his family and serving in a distant place for a Muslim. [„ going to distant Muslim countries with Muslim armies he also ran the risk of being himself converted to Islam under duress and threats of For all such reasons Hindus disliked toriure. crossing the Indus as henchmen of Muslims.
(ion

*tid *

temples
q ues
in

which
first

Muslim tronn*

,

the

flush of vj c

J,

different

; ous

Muslim use. As a practka monarch Akbar could iiot^S

oryte re Tat

"2

The condition that Boondi chieftains be exempted from sending their women to the Meena Bazar proves that all courtiers and chieftains subservient to Akbar were compelled to send their most beaunful

wives,

daughters and

sisters

to

that

annual
their

where Akbar was free to play with chastity and womanly virtue.
festival

Muslim he most captured buildings, fcsired especially Hindu temples and shrines should automatically be Akbar could not allow lofty used as mosques. Hindu temples and mansions to be all converted into mosques when he needed them for other temAkbar was as fanatic a Muslim as poral use. He would never dream of converting Badayuni.
that

Hindu buildings being turned into mosques H, ^„icd them for-other use. Historians have nSunderstood and misinterpreted this particular remark of Badayuni. As a fanatic

J^S

anf P"

any

erstwhile

genuine mosque into a

serai

or

brothel.

Boondi chiefs be allowed to enter the royal palace fully armed indicates that Hindus were disarmed while en ten rig Muslim palace precincts. This entailed the risk of the Hindus being treacherously pounced upon and murdered or held prisoner or hostage and made to

The condition

that

The Boondi demand that their horses should not be branded with the royal mark shows that every citizen who owned a horse was made to have his horse branded with the imperial mark. This
was a very hateful
of war,
in

practice.

It

at

once reduced
In

agree to degrading conditions.

In

Muslim

history

each single individual to royal serfdom.

times
rule

such cases were very frequent.

and wars were endemic during Muslim

India, every individual

who owned

a

branded

The

stipulation that the sacred edifices

of

the

Boondi kingdom may not be desecrated clearly shows that during Akbar's limes Hindu religious shrines and temples used to be freely turned into mosques or Muslim serais or stables or brothel* V\hen Badayuni complains that Akbar turned mosques into stables or appointed Hindu doorkeepers he only means that the Hindu mansions

and forced to die fighting for the alien Muslim monarch This ancient Muslim practice was continued by Akbar with his own cial vigour and rigour. Thus branding a horse
amounted vistually to branding every man as a ''c of the court.

horse could be coerced

The demand that Boondi bca t their drums to announce

chiefs be
their

allowed to
to the

approach

152

palace was lo ensure that were not snatched away.

their

royal

privjw

The

stipulation that

to be their capital

was

continue that they won't to ensure bc

Boondi ought

to

uprooted from their ancient moorings where ih ev niainkd reSpCCl and allegiance from their own subjects, into totally strange surroundings where they would soon be reduced to total serfdom of and dependence on the Muslim sovereign*
If the

THE PLUNDR ECONOMY
Indian history often elaborate descriptions of what they contain call the administration of rulers like avenue Raziya Khilji. Ferozshah Tughlak. Sher Allauddin Shah such descriptions are fictitious. All or Akbar

Books on mediaeval

Ramhambhor

treaty

is

thus

intelligently

They

analyzed it reveals the various ingenious ways in which even during Akbar's times all vanquished chiefs were in no time reduced to non-entities so that the Muslim monarch could make free use of

are either based on genuine misunderstanding or communal propaganda. They are all are motivated attempts to bypass the truth, and reveal a mentality

which does

not have the courage to face and

Hindu women,
conquests
India into
were,

wealth

and

territory.

Akbar's
to

express the stark truth.

therefore,

not

meant

weld

one kingdom or nation but to subjugate

everybody to his despotic rule, Vincent Smith's remark that* ''Akbar's annexations were the result of kingly ambition supported by adequate power" acumen, talent is apt and displays real historical

Without exception the reign of every Muslim ruler in India from Mohammad bin Kasim onwards until the end of Mogul rule in 1858 AD. had no
revenue administration as

such.

Theirs were

all

plunder economies based
Spurious
taxes,

on multiple usurious and

and

insight.

and kind at every stage, confiscations, acquisitions of all his property on the death of any noble even if he had heirs, and frequent military swoops for organized dacuity and plunder under imperial auspices.
bribes in cash

A revenue
pectable
Public

system to be valid, legal and respresupposes that the revenues are used for
:

provide essential services, to ensure security for the citizen, and to maintain peace and order. and It also presupposes that taxes
welfare
to
0In cr

levies are

Jttlaln
I. P.

51,

Akbar

the Great Mogul, ibid.

based on some principles such as a percentage of incomes, fixed periods at
of

Wfl ich

such taxes are to be paid, and provision

154

155

judical remedies
,,,

these
t

\|»

in H

anyone is unjustly taxed, No ne eve* governed the extortions tj n dc r critet rule which pass for revenue administra
if
.1

2pmp
|f

Tl

Thai such

usurious conditions should
rule
Ft

rulers used to do for o*n Kshatnya claims of ruler after Muslim „ thc
a
L-Xh|

n2 short distance, are absolutely baseless* descriptions plag.arized from what ind ?, They are
at

„ncrlaiTi

having

built

serais

and roads

all *|

their

people

ruler

havL
resting

under Muslim

was

inevitable

established

serais,

charitable

considering
otherwise.

human
cause

nature.
i

could not have been

he rulers
to

and
local

their

vcrablc
, .
I

the

were not people and they had no
retinues

deemed themselves Koran, They all |je looked upon Mecca and Medina as their poles. They hated the Indian people. They never called
i

the country's soil They answerable only to the
.,

true we should have found places were almost an unbroken series of such buildings on both sides of But there is not even one such. Even all highways. which earlier Hindu rulers had planted to the trees make highways shady and comfortable for thc traveller were uprooted for the invaders* need for
fuel,

homes and

boats, staffs,

scaffolding, ladders, mangonels

They always referred to the local people with some invective like infidels, scoundrels, slaves, thieves, reptiles and robbers. When
them Hindus
this

and other uses.

was

their ordinary

outlook

is it

not
fit

plausible

and examiners in Indian media* cval history, therefore, do great disservice to the cause of truth, to the student community and to
Paper-setters
the lay

that they regarded the

Hindus

to

be

only to be

public in asking the students to write about

mulcted and squeezed? Indian histories have fought
shy of admitting this truth.

the

so-called

reforms, public

welfare

schemes,

revenue administrations or principles of administration

Another point worth considering is that in the accounts of Muslim reigns we find the sovereign ajwdvs engaged in incessant warfare against his n kith and kin, against rebellious generals and Hindus. This warfare involved the against the plunder and ravage of the local population by both tenders and at times several contenders as

of a Jehangir, Akbar, Sher Shah,
they

Mohammad
better
if

Tughlak or JFerozshah.
instead

They would do

asked students to write about how Shivaji and Ran a Pratap ruled their kingdoms despite the ravage caused by incessant Muslim onslaughts; how they marshalled their resources and w «n the love and respect of their people despite
'heir

happened in the case of Dara, Shuja, Aurang/ b and Murad fighting against one another. Such regimes could sustain themselves only by plunder.
Fauci
like

having

10

sacrifice

m °lherland

people been constrained to ask their more and more in defence of the and during a millcnium of chaos

accounts of Muslim rulers or tavadctf

teachers rampage caused by alien invaders. History good aad scholars can ask such questions m
c

Akbar, Fcrozshah Tughlak,

Shcr

Shah

or

°nseience

only about indigenous Hindu

rulers.

XAT.COM.

116

157

Akbar is supposed to be the best or the lot So if wc prove thai even his administration was based nothing but systematic plunder of his 00 subjects we shall have dealt a death blow to the notion that Muslim regimes in India had even a semblance of
an administration or about public welfare.
that

Men

fi'

vcn lo him for lhc pilBninn Re to

and made use of some rude ailgU8w F emperor was unable to restrain his The oas<i*n
,thpur
|

ft!nl

yf J
him
settle

Heikh

Abdun

Na^nTe^
Rs

M^

they

were

£

struck

in the face.

Then

du

with a

concerned

make him
which the

his account

v^wto
7

of about

Muslim chronicler like Badayuni the pay of Akbar says' "The emperor (Akbari made Mulla Mujdi ofSirhind (formerly)
Even a who wa* in
fanatic

warrant-writer to Islim Shah, the Receiver-General of revenues And Samsher Khan he made Superra And these through tcndcnl of the Exchequer.
the vilencss

emperor had given him when he set off Mecca he was handed over as prisoner to for Raia Todarmat and for some time like a defaulting ias. gatherer, they imprisoned him in the counting house of the office, and one night a mob strangled
1'

000

him.

•In990 A.M."
Path

"says

Badayum "Sayyid Mir

of their birth perpetrated all sorts of oppression and tyranny.. .and so annoyed the soldiery that they compelled Masum Khan to revolt "
In ihe above passage the word "revenues" h to be understood to mean the amounts extorted pretexts ih terror and torture under all sorts of or by regular military raids on the populace. Badayum also observes- "In this year (AH. 987) appointed in Qazi Ali of Baghdad who had been the adspite of Sheikh Abdun Nabi to look into and their ministration of Madad-i-Maash lands,
grants encroachment brought these holders of land and left court and cut off most of their lands

Ullah...came to ^ Fathpur. He was honoured post of Sadar whose only duty was with the erasure, in order that he might confiscate the lands of the poor."

A.H. Akbar 1 "issued a that every person from the highest " should bring him a present
In 991
fl

general
to

order

the lowest

In the year 982 A, H.

Akbar "gave

orders
let

that the

holders of grant lands should

not be

ofFby the Kroris of each pargana unless they
ught the firmans in

bro-

which

their grants,

subsistence

allowances

pensions were described, 10 the Sadar for inspection and verification. For this fl

and

them precious

little,"

on Recounting how Abdun Nabi was arraigned which a false charge of withholding an amount

number of people from the extreme east of India to as far west as Bhakkar (on the Indus) came to court. Jf any of them had a powerful protector
large
3

m

4

-

P< 321, ibid. P- 325 ibid.
**.

I

R, 274, Vol

II,

Bad»)uni*4 chronicle.

*•

332, ibid,

2.

Pp 2B2-W.

ibid

*

P> 20?. ibid.

c '

IS

one of the Amirs or near friends of His Ma' be could manage to get his affair settled, but i ut2/' had to bnbe Sayyad Abdur Rasul. the Sbeft^.1 ' head man or make presents to his chamberfe? door keepers and sweepers in order to get 7J2 anket oat of the mire. nless, however, j|? recommendations or had recourse hid strong t bribery, the> »ere utterl) mined. Many of the
.

m

|a find jritO

them grave* or gnve

doth^n*

with tne exception cf thoie ^^^diatciy from the crown. *aj held by the j,gir. and as ihey were wicked and

b^

whole

\mn%

^

(land grant holders; without obtaining their object died from the heat caused by the crowding

Amahs

of multitudes. Though a report of this came i© the ears of His Majesty, no one dared to take these unfortunate people before the emperor."
All the parganas of the country whether drr or irrigated, whether in towns or hills, in deserts and jungles, by rivers, reservoirs or wells ware ail to

Urge sums on their stores ar.d *orkjfeopi j amassed wealth, they had no leave to look after the troops or take interest m the people. In joine cases cf emergency they came themselves wan tod |ul attend* son* of their sh he of war but of really useful soldiers there were jcene

rebdSeus

^d

spent

none-" Carefully analysed the above passafe reveals mat the much vaunted revenue system invented

be measured and every such piece of land
cultivation

ai

would produce one crore Tankas was to be divided off and placed under

upon

of
the

of a Todarmal for his overlord Akbar. was a most ruthless machinery for extracting last farthing from the people at the peril cf floggings and torturous death, requiring them to fell their wives and childem. This is what is lauded in Indian histories as a wonderful revenue administthe stooge
*

charge of an officer to be called Krori. Security was taken from each one of these officers A great
portion of the country was laid waste through the rapacity of the Kroris, the wives and children

ration

of Todarmal. and

is

sought to be rapturously
students,

«axed upon by history
professors.

scholars

and

of the subjects were sold and scattered abroad and everything was thrown into confusion. But the Kroris were brought to account by Raja Todarmal. and many good men died from

knowledge of history is required to debunk the claim that it was a wonderfully public welfare-oriented scheme. Had it been so it would
have been adopted by a free India jmmediatery after loreover an British rule lapsed- This is sheer r t alien monarch gulping one Hindu kingdom ar
another by waging ruthless wars was not itching to usher magnanimous administration. Indian

No

whicn were administered, and from the tortures of the rack and pincers. So many died from the protracted confinement in the prisons
of the revenue authorities, that there was no need of the executioner or swordsman, and no one cared
i

the severe beatings

d. en

historv that is

m

colleges being taught in schools and makes India and other parts of the world, thus
all logic
I

nonsense of
«bsurditie«.

It

also

benumbs

the thinking

Power of readers of

^nd reduces history to

192

160

m
j

The B»slC hieli handedness of this si n stcr scheme w&a that all land in the domain of Akba r
whether fallow, litigated, mifrrlgated, desert, fertile mountainous, eroded, ravine or occupied by | a stream, river or lake was divided into standard pieces of uniform acre-age, This itself was atrocious

I.
4

On tvP cs to devise a system of extortion which of that P compel the cultivator to part with at least
lUj 2

of land was an atrocious assumption,

^
RS
|

crore

was the very

limit of cruelty.

To pan

realize

crore per year the cultivator would have Us. 2 at least Rs. B crore from his holding.

of such a division was the assumption that each of those areas must yield h, he crown one crore rupees revenue. Whether it actually yielded that much even to the cultivator

To add

to the gall

could Whether he
JJfount
is

earn even a fraction of thai

doubtful-

i

or owner

Akbar

be realized that rupees as annual revenue only four crorcs.

Moreover it must a cultivator could remit one crore
didn't brother.
if

one crore rupees for the crown had to maintain a band of plot the Krori mulct two crorcs from the odiums vv ho could
In extorting
citizenry-

he

made

at leasi

of the
lo

In the alternative the barbarous soldiery crown was put at the disposal of the lCrori

produce that much whatever the quality of land and through famine or drought was another very sinister assumption.

To

expect him to

help

him extort that much amount.
last

The

sinister

characteristic

was

that

the

The
that

third sinister

aspect

of the

scheme was

middle-men extortionists called Kroris (because they were supposed to procure for the crown a crore rupees each as revenue) had been appolned to tap that much amount from the public tit any cost. This completely shut off the peasantry from the crown. The latter was not concerned with the state of the land or Us crop, The administration extracted one crore rupees as revenue from every Krori.
Naturally the Krori must extract at least Rs. 2 crore to be able to pay one crore to the crown under all
eventualities
hi*

screwed out of a tormented amount once fixed was severity which broke up homes public with extreme to death or by being and families either by torture
scattered for sale as slaves.

A more demonaic
where
in

system couldn't

exist any-

the

world.

hoisted as

an ideal

And yet Akbar is atrociously monarch-a virtual demi-god,
permitting

Todarmal was deeply hated for setting up this himself to be an imperial stooge, and of ground ana devilish system based on every inch wonder thereevery person in the domain. It is no
fore that

and

to

save a substantial amount as

there

is

at least

one attempt

to assassinate

wages. Thus what was ostensibly one crore rupees revenue turned out to be in actual practice a levy of at least two crore rupees per annum. One

own

him,

on record

When

Todarmal was Gujerat was conquered
intr ociu tc thither to quickly a there That such extortionist system after that proi

Promptly despatched

can well imagine this burden when it is realized that even the one crore revenue yield per plot of

«* same mtm was introduced immediately

|fi2

163
lAt

impt^itiurt. rodannal was presented a sword bv u hen Todarmal brought with him a clean Akbar balance sheeJ of Hie accounts of Gujerat"* Siu>

nnd impoverished by vincc had beef) ravaged , vv Muslim irfflte contending- to overpov^ tartaric the extreme cruelty of t| lc each other, underlines

so

much

praise

on the

revr.n...

,

of ihc

imperial

atartling

Jayimi.

The clean balance
its

sheet

wn was reimbursed

to the last

means that the pic and perhaps

devastating campaign of unabashed conquest and plunder of Gujerai.
also given a large profit for

Such atrocious regimes could obviously be sustained only by liberally parcelling out the plundered

money to
rule,

the

barbarians extracting

it

lest

they

disappointed cmriier and exasperated fanatic He be fairly described in those terms but bis statements of fact, when they can be checked from other sources, seem to be usually correct/
a

think, to disregard his testimony this matter as being merely the malicious invention of
possible
I

' Badayuni had hi, personal grlc Akbar and Todarmal, and was embittered by the most rancorous bigotry, it i s not

administration generally, thai it u» ' ead a severe (as Badayuni\,

«*«* w

Although both aq;ijlis i

m

my

1

turn against the sovereign himself.
therefore,
it

Under Muslim
the

Vincent Smith

is

slightly
it

mistaken

was
the

in

all

economy,

leaving

plunder to squander crown always almosi
a
it

calling

system a failure becasue

resulted in so
that

much
it

cruelty.
b

The

said that at least on one occasion" when he asked his treasurer to produce Rs. 8 the latter couldn't produce even
is
J

bankrupt. In Akbar's case

signal

extract

was very purpose was to the utmost from the populace at any cost,
success because
its

fact

on the other hand was

which

it

did with ruthless efficiency.
1

that paltry

sum.
Dr. Shrivastava observes K
*

'After his

attributes

the

as usual virtue to the reform, Badayuni, on other hand, gives on account quite different

Vincent Smith observes 3 "

momen-

"Abul Fazaj

tous success (against

much

hadur and
to

Khan

Uzbeks, Junc9, 1567, when BaZamart had been captured and put

and presumably nearer the truth than Abul Fail's courtly phrases I fear n s mic Juu t lc ncw system of revenue »d ministration must be regarded as a grievous failure resulting m shocking oppre* ssion of the helpless peasantry and cruel punishment of the ocal oppressors, The ordinary histories
,
,

,

death under elephant's feet) Akbar paid a visit to Allahabad and thence went to Banaras, which was plundered as the people of the city had the audacity
to

close

their

gates against

the

emperor.

From

l

he went to Jaunpur and thence to Kara Wanikpur weeding out principal partisans of the Uzbeks."

Bonaras

8.

%

ibid.

" ,olt
10.

We
.

Mogul Vp, W-I00

"

Vincent

Smith**

"Akoai

the Grcjt

Q ad

have seen earlier that the people of Deosa other town? in Rajusthan had fled in Akbar's
Pp. 108-10, Akbar, the Great,

t

ibjd.

ll '

voU.

ibid.

IM
Banaras Now we sec wake. Allahabad) also barricading themselves again* enough to indicate that whe Akbar** advent This is r. went his barbaric hordes spread ever Akbar
terror

:*<

that residents of

^
lc
vv|]ich

this boot> Asaf Khan presented to only a small part and of a 1000 king elephants he took he sent only 300

Of all

w

the king,
In

and none of the

indifferent animals

jewels."'

raping
lines,

women,

looting homes, desecrating

Hindu

sJi.

burning buildings and plundering the populalion, Why else will the people barricade or flee their homes. The populace usually goes out of its way t pay homage to even common place or slightly tyran-

what way did Akbar's aggressive attacks on and Muslim kingdoms differ from Hindu ordinary
dacoities except in their gigantic
scale

backed by

People are generally prone come royally and consider it a great honour.
nical sovereigns.

to wetIf

then

people fled in terror from

Akbar

it is

clear that they

regarded him worse than a horde of man-eaters. This

enough indication that far from being a noble monarch and a great man Akbar was one of the worst tyrants of history. Even if there had been no other evidence in history about Akbar" s tyranny except the two sentences noting how people took to flight or shut themselves up in their homes trembling in terror, that is enough proof of his being the world's most cruel monarch. wonder It is a
in
itself
is
f

While gangs of dacoits swoop homes Abkar's terror-force swooped on ordinary The treasures he plundered on rich kingdoms. throughout his life from the citizenry in general and from rich kings, queens and the aristocracy, makes the Arabian Nights treasures in tales like 'Alibaba
imperial

might

!

and the Forty Thieves* pale into insignificance.

and

mushrooms should sprout wild in India in the name of profound histories or treatises ironically praising a sadist Akbar sky high
pity thai literary

as though he

was an archangel

After killing Durgawati in battle 1 * 4 *Asaf Khan (Akbar's general in the aggression against Rani

Durgawati; proceeded to Chouragadh. and took it by storm. The Rani's son was trodden to death Independently of the jewels, the images of gold and silver and other valuables, no fewer than a 100 jars of gold coin s also fell into the hands of the con12

Pp 133-144

vol

It,

Fcrishta't chronicle, ibid

167

Chapter

X

IpV md
ial

fJ0 d

conquestf. rather than or rational and evolution.

must necessarily be a chronicle of kin«

THE CHAOTIC ADMINISTRATION
Tha is no administration as such to talk of A k bar's reign. It was a free-for-all and during
of wrestling "catch as catch can*' waj the general rule. It was a melee of lawlessness
Dice

a- When
qualities

we

try to picture the effect

on the people whom he conquered and governed, and seek to decide whether or not they
,

of (Akbar's)

a

style

or prosperous under his rule than were happier under that cf many other despots. . . it is not even an outline sketch. The record cas y to draw
hardly hear anything definite in the histories about the common people Information about the or their mode of life,
fc

whimsicalities, sadistic tortures, cruelties, unending

painfully

defective.

We

aggressive wars, interminable revolts, plunder cam. paigns conducted by Akbar himself on his own

mass conversions, extortions under duress, massacres, corruption and briber)', woman-lifting, dacoity and robbery on highways, desecration of Hindu shrines and murders galore even in the environs of Akbar's court.
subjects,

working of the revenue administration, a matter all important to the Indian peasant is almost wholly lacking, and the record of the state of education, agriculture and commerce is extremeactual
ly

meagre."
In

Vincent Smith notes 1
tion
the
stringent

'The whole

administrato

was absolutely persona] despotic, directed
of

collection of a heavy assessment, the

view of his remarks mentioned above we wonder on what grounds did Vincent Smith title tf Akbar, the Great Mogul'". On what his book as
grounds does he use the adjective
'great*?

provision

numerous

military

forces,

and

the

maintenance of imperfect public order in a rough and ready fashion under the sanction of ferocious punishments inflicted arbitrarily by local despots,

The

ordinary use included impalement, trampling h\ elephants, beheading, amputaBui tion of the right hand and severe flogging. here was no effective law to hinder the infliction of ma Tud forms of punishment accord." ing loth price of the official
penalties
in
i

As Smith aptly notes there is no record to show that Akbar's rule was public-welfare-oriented. Had his rule been really enlightened as is superhave been immense ficially claimed there would
evidence.

,

'"The
I

history of India
ilie

n

the
ibid,

Muhammedart

hoodother hand it is our view that v-»nked by the hullabaloo of Akbar's presumed flatterers, 'greatness* raised bv a long line of court -mmunalists and history-writers even oiscernmg merely to a 2*kW like confine themselves

On

the

Smith

P 277. Akbar
279. .bid

great

Mogul,

*

P. 280,

it

. .

169

o-Btffve

assert. on

thai

thm

is

no evidence

m!
frol .,

that the

*UwN

people or the country benefitted We quite agree that there role.
\

lo

%

that effect, But what COT [om of evidence to evidence that Abkar's about the overwhelming

murderous and plunderwas a sadistic, torturous, This evidence would not have some regime? escaped the notice of history writers and teachers
.id

impossible to doubt thai n practice onr.ose imposts and cesses continued to ny be as Oldham drily remarks fleeted, and ,n a note not all, of these taxes were subsequently •most, if The assessment unquestionably was reV ivcd.' ases of hardship must have severe been ^ .* numerous.

But

it

is

\

.

.

.

.

.

*

.

they not been reduced to

a state of hypnotic

The

fanatic
is

slumber and insensitivity by the hue and cry about
Alt bar's so-called greatness,

Akbar's rule

at

and discriminatory nature of once bared by the above remarks.

*"The whole framework of the government was military. A local governor was not bound by am rules of either substantive law or procedure

While in Muslim lands the sovereign look as little of the farm produce in India Akbar as a 10th
extorted a third

part.

He was sworn

to

reduce

Hindus to destitution as a fanatic Muslim. *The horrid punishment of mutilation, which prescribed by the Koran , was used freely.
••
. .

He was
his

the

representative of the imperial autocrat

and as such could do
jurisdiction.

much

as he
the

pleased within
subjects

is

Ordinarily

had

Neither
to

Akbar nor Abul Fazal had any
formalities of

regard for
.

of the treatment which their local rulers thought fit to give them. The officers who did not much embezzle were few."

make the

best

the judicial

oaths and witnesses.

The Faujdar
troops

was expected to reduce rebels, always whenever necessary to use his numerous, and
against
recalcitrant
villagers
in

order to

" s Abul Fazal admits that 'throughout the whole extent of Hindusthan, where at all times so many enlightened monarchs have reigned onesixth of the produce was exacted; in the Turkish empire, Iran and Turan-a fifth, a sixth and 10th
respectively/

enforce

payment of government

dues.

prone to swear by Abul Fazal-s Ain-i-Akbari to eulogise Akbar's reign as very enlightened. Vincent Smith rightly cautions
Historians are often
such
Uie
T

gullible

writers
is

and teachers of
tissue

history that

But

Akbar asked

for one-third

i.e.

Ain-i-Akbari

a

of

lies.

He

observes

to say, double the Indian

and Persian proportion.

Fazal seems to think that the abolition of a host of miscellaneous cesses and imposts justified the doubling of the government share of the proI

Abu

4.
5,

Pp. 267-268, tbid Pp. 274-275, ibid

^d escription
5

"A reader glancing hastily at the Ain-i-Akbari or Institutes of Akbar*, and seeing the elaborate statistical tables might suppose (that the) work contains ample material for an economic history
of the country under
his

master.

P 276,
-

ibid,

7

Pp. 280-86, ibid.

i

hf

170

171

But closer *tud\ subject >
iim
ticn.'

wW

The of -Regulation regarding Educ*
25),

SOOIJ dispel the illusion.

time to do what he pleased. monarch in of his a position lay under no obligation to have ch a

A

(Book

ii,

Ain

for instance,

is di,

shed a new light on schools, and can a bright lustre over Muslim schools. The curriculum recommended obviously has no relation No school in India or elsewhere has the fact
to

section nhese regulations

words intimating that with a fe* perfunctory the should be taught reading and writing. boys baseless assertion is dosed by the
. ,

m ,,* d

^

that

Nolhing required maintain any particular number of ^c autocrat to or to have a council of am particular ^n.sters LaUr m lhere.»S« Me) officers numbered formTheir appointment, retention, about 160*'.
council
. • -

*>f

ministers at

all.

promotion and dismissal depended solely on the will of the sovereign. The emperor arbitrary himself as the heir of all his subjects and yarded
ruthlessly

The ever attempted to work such a programme desired to lay another morsel of author simply shrine flattery at the altar of Akbar's
Historians would do well to heed those wise words. The Ain-i-Akbar from beginning to end, The whole chronicle imaginative account. is an

seized

the entire

property of

every

deceased official
start

whose family had to make a freih ." contingent on the goodwill of the emperor

systematic assessment of the empire and Todarmal are given so much for which Akbar primanh intended to increase the credii was
imperial

The

was manufactured by the flatterer of an Abul Fazal at his desk as the wrote it from day to day.

revenue Akbar was a hard-headed man of business, not a sentimental philanthropist, and his
quisition

whole policy

He

quotes no authorities

and

his observations are

was directed principally to the acof power and riches. All the arrangebranding,
etc.

all self-contradictory

and confusing.

ments about jagirs r
for

were devised

*The
against
rebellion

onl> remedies available to the orthodox

the impious

or

latitudinsrifin

king were

the

one purpose namely, the enhancement of power, glory and riches of the crown. We do
the

(when he disregarded Koranic precepts

not

know anything

substantial about

the actual

both operations being extremely dangerous to attempt, A really strong king could defy Koranic law as far as he thought fit. Akbar did so in greater or lev- degree throughout most
or assassination,

effect

of his administrative measures on the welfare

and happiness of the
they did
the

common

people.

Certainly

not

of his reign, and earned his defiance to The utmost Hii lengths during the last 23 years of his life. action endangered his throne i.» 15** J but when he

most lated northern India
1598.

prevent the occurrences of one of desoterrible famines on record which
late in the reign,

from 1595 to

The

enormous hoards

Akbar had collected and kept
la
!<

(of treasure that Lhen in six cities)

had surmounted that
Pp
:

cr

he

was able

for the

rest

'die in
9-

the treasure vaults'"

ibid

Pp. 253-255, ibid.

172

175

»**AI1 office-holders, as • ru!$, " to cheat the government

did

their

k..

cs *

^ cfC
thfll

w*l! must be dearly undcrsiood that the octg vcuiion of he imperial orders was extreme?*
I

upon (a proper) footing ." Badayuni add* great economy, unknown before, w
p«t
l, effected

expenditure.
|n

imperfect from first to last, all sorts of evasion^ and frauds being continually practised with can. Akbar was well aware that stderable success he must wink at a good deal of attempted deception"

T hc

"new* revenue

rules are a clear

hoax

since

^ne of the contemporary writers mention what While Dr. Shrivastva bewails of were. the thcy lapse of contemporary writers "unfortunate*
1

it

is

Smith's observation above is fully justified, it however, needs a little amplification. Akbar was ruthless enough not to wink where his own interests

in

that he himself gullibly believes most unfortunate If rules are said to have been such a hoax.

were involved His 'winking' at the non-compliance of some orders was a sheer make-believe. As the supreme pontiff of a cruel and wicked system there was a tacit understanding between Akbar

framed but court historians arc silent as to what were the conclusion is clear that no rules (n ey On the other hand the reference to were made.

would pass certain for mere window-dressing, to throw like a ing dry crumb at the Hindus but that those were not meant to be carried out.
and
his

henchmen

thai he

orders
temptorders

economies proves that the new system enforced by Aitimad Khan was to tighten the the eunuch of an and extortion noose of repression, oppression round thc necks of subjects and at the same time introduce the greatest thrift where the question
of

rewarding

or compensating

anyone

for

his

services arose.

Dr. Shrivastava notes that an eunuch named Bahlul Malik.
i

"Akbar appointed Djwan of reserved

That

those

fancied

regulations

were

new

(crown lands, exalting him to the title of Aitimad Khan. The emperor sanctioned new rules for the collection of revenues which were enforced sometime in September 1562. Unfortun ndy no indication is given by any contemporary writers regard-

methods of imperial robbery leading to the impoverishment of the helpless subjects is borne out He says w -Akbar by a footnote by Blochmann. Atgah after the death of Shamsuddin Mohammad Khan, his foster father, commenced to look into
matters of finance,

and

finding the revenue depart-

Abul Fazal contents were himself by saying thai *the revenues which o» the foundation of sovereignty and the basis the dominion, and the source of military strength,
ing these

new regulations.

Khan ment a den of thieves, he appointed Uimad the lo remodel the finances. In 1565, he conveyed Khandesh daughter of Miran Mubarak, king of
(1535-1566)
to

Akbar's

harem-

When

tn

1578

10 P. 265, ibid
I
]

"ii^MTAin-i.AkbAri by Abul tout
theca Indica
series, Calcutta.

Blochmann. From thc original Persian by H.

^^Sgjg
hid.

P 102.

ibid

174

173

Akbar'v presence

Khan

desired

required in the Punjab \\ "in him. In order to c^uin^

WM

m

contingent, he collected bli rents

and outstanding
This
the
]

had been allowed to entef the harem he home and had hi* testes removed. "«,! * s one admitted to the harem.
he

m*W

as u appears

wfeft

much harshne
life.

Ctl

a

conspiracy against his

In

was murdered by Maqsud

same yea r

^
i.

J^i»I010A.R
sd
]3rg e

he erected
tanks.

many

He dto^t AtNan.au! where he ehfefll
splendid building anVdul 5

Alt,

When we
called

find

that

each

one of Akbar's

so-

were sought to be murdered (since Todarmal loo was sought to be murdered) the cruelty and repression of their levies and the torturous nature of their extortions m^ In the case of Itimad Khan well be imagined. what could one expect from a mere eunuch who roped id royal princesses for Akbar's harem as though the> were cattle for the slaughter house Todarmal too carried out similar functions. So these so-called revenue ministers turn out to be When they could procurers oi women for Akbar. stoop so low as to be imperial panders what kind of revenue regulation* can one expect from them!
revenue-administrators

Akbar's court reeked with such eunuchs and sodomites who were given despotic
helpless

authority over

subjects.

It

m ust

mishaved and therefore was compelled by Akbar to have his lesiicles removed. Who would otherwise volunteer testicles removed especially if to have his he is as lecherous as Shah Quli. The reader may also
have
note the building bluff.

also clear that Shah Qulj in the tempting harem
js

could a mean," cringing, indigent eunuch build splendid buildings and This graphically illustrates dig wells in Narnaul! Jiow earlier Hindu buildings and wells have been

How

unashamedly ascribed to one or other Muslim.

An

idea

of the worthless men through

whom

of what kind of men or rather eunuchs used to be in Akbar's confidance is graphiHe says cally described by Abul Fazal himself.

An

instance

-Shah Quli Mahram-Baliaralu was passionately attached to a dancing boy of the name Qabul Khan, and as the emperor had the boy forcibly removed, Shah Quli dressed as a Jogi went into the forests Bchrum traced him with much trouble and brought him back where the boy was restored to himThe emperor from goodwill towards him, admitAfter the firs ted hmi to his female apartments.
1J
• •

Akbar carried on his disreputable administration may be had from another instance noted by Abul Faz.il. He tells us " -Ismail Quli Khan brother of Khan Jahan kepi 1200 women and was so jealous that whenever be went to court, he put
J

his seal

over the strings attached to their night drawers. Resenting this and other annoyances they made a conspiracy and poisoned him/'
Describing the stabbing of Itimad Khan. AbuJ
Fazal says
14, ,5

"Maqsud

Ali

who

killed liitnad

Khan

P.

388, ibid.

1J.

P-

387, ibid

15.

P, 473, ibid.

m
is

1

71

slid to

nave ocen mi no

in

one

eye.

w^
Put

vplamcd to litmad his miserable condition" h* master retorted by saying 'someone sho
urine' in his blind eyes, (Infuriated by this remark) Maqsud stabbed him on the spot. Accord

and to promote the glory of protection hlanij the and to show contempt io ;„£,.*. viiu,m pi to lake rettpon, fate rclifc h. [rue S ,r ° rd CrS US hl l0dcSpi5clheni °t ,o t r 'out of 1 hand while they arc says (Sur.9.29) « sap To treat the Hindu ow li d low'.
.

«~- G
"duced

m

-

'^

he was stabbed by Maqsud \XThe filthy lanuuace gelling up from the bed." that Akbar's courtiers used and the despicable circumstances of their death throw a lurid light 0n the tyranny, torture and moral degradation that formed the foundation of Akbar's rule. It is also significant that no one took any notice of even How else can the different courtiers* murders. versions of Itimad Khan's death in his own house It hardly mattered or in the court, be explained. to anybody if such mean men were murdered.
another account
In fact all

rdinp in

I

contemptuously duly, because they are the greatest religions encenc £9 Mustafa (Mohammad) because Mustafa, jjes of the killing and plundering of Hindus, regarding making slaves of them, has ordered (that) an d must either accept Islam or be killed, or be they and their property must be slaves, made

"

plundered.

.

,

Royal Muslim practice of admitting men to ow n harems only after castration or rendering seems lo have been widely them impotent
practised, since
of

Abul Fazal

describing Itimad
l7

Khan

rejoiced

at the

every courtier was a tyrant
his prolific

good riddance because for his harem women,
290

Gujerat tells us that Hindu, servant of Sultan
erat.

"He was originally a Mahmud. King of Gujfrom
gratitude,

progem and

his subordinates.

Being trusted by his master he was allowed

to

enter the

harem.

Ills said

he

Blochmann quotes a footnote from page
ofTarikh-i-Firozshahi
to
illustrate

used to

eat

camphor, and thus rendered

himself

the

status of
1

Hindus under

Muslim

rule.

"When

the collector of the

The note says * Diwan asks them (the
must pay
it

impotent/*

There are
passage. If the

many
sultan

contradictions
trusted

in

Hindus) to pay the
humility

tax, they

with

all

and submission. And if the collector wishes to spit into their mouths, they should open their mouths without the slightest fear of contamiIn this nation so that the collector may do so. state (with their mouths wide open) they should stand before the collector. The object of such

humiliation and

spitting

into

their

mouths

is

to

Itimad of his allowed him into the harem, the question have arisen. rendering himself impotent should not with If the intention was that he should consort of the some harem beauties as a special favour it B monarch, impotencv was a disqualification, some supwas u question or appointing him for charge cm ervisory duties, who would put a man

above Khan and
the

m

prove the
16.

obedience

of infidel

subjects

under

uoaw u.mingand tempting \mem when women
".
P. 418, ibid.

P. 247, ibid.

XhT.COM

m
only p. that he safely jippoimed. This Muslim used to castrate or of henvise cmascu| sovereigns
to be chosen to In this respect too superintend the harem. Akbar better than other Muslim sovereigns. was no
individuals
it
|

<r

XI

whose misfortune

was

at

dentally

it

may

also be noted

how adverse

ncj>

AKBAR'S MILITARY
Like his civil administration Akbar's military a loose band of barbaric hooligans who to0 was sed to be collected in teeming swarms at the beat

inferences

emerge from fraudulent, flattering Muslim chroni* clcs t which try to twist the truth in favour of
base patrons and to the detrement of the
individual.
In the

their

wronged

U

Akbar's court A bill Fazal lists Jagannath, son of Raja Bihara Mull of Jiapur, as the 69th grandee, adding that lSi *he was an hostage in the hands of Sharfuddin (grandee, No. P).*' We have already seen earlier that Bihara
list

of grandees at

loose uncared for, The soldiery used to be worked up to a feverish fanatic
of the
pitch

drum and

later let

by their commanders when an attack was imminent on an adversary, The generals and their
troopers

perpetrated

horrid

barbarities

and

sent

Mull agreed to surrender the virtue and chastity of his daughter gulping his Rajput pride because

heads of dreaded decapitated opponents as veritable bouquets for Akbar's delight, or the slaughtered heads and bodies used to be piled up in tall towers
for

I

namely Raj Singh, Jagannath and Khan ear had been held hostage by A k bar's General Sharfuddin on paid of torturous death, at Sambhar, unless Bihara Mull agreed to humble himself by surrendering his daughter for the royal harem and in addition pay a huge ransom. This shameful transaction has been unashamedly described by all historians as a rare honour that Akbar did by condescending to marry a Hindu princess out
three

princes

the

delight

and

self-congratulations of the sol-

diery for the rich toll

they had taken of the enemy.

Thus in addition to Akbar's revenue officials loose bands of army stragglers, deserters, part time
employees, rebels, imposters, pseudo-fakirs, cheats,

and hoodlums used to be on rampage throughout Akbar's rule tormenting the
robbers,

dacoits,

public,

desecrating

their

shrines,

looting

their

wealth,
tticm to

of lofty motives of communal integration, friendship, amity, understanding, etc. etc. It need not be added, therefore, thatAkbar's other marriages too,

kidnapping their women and converting Islam under dire threats,

Vincent
ganization

were blatant abductions. All the above details should convince the reader that Akbar's was one of the most atrocious _gnd chaotic rule in world history.
girls,

even with Muslim

Smith observes "Akbar's military orwas intrinsically weak, although it was
1

^ better than that bours
His

of

his

army would

happy-go-lucky neighnot have stood for

«.

P.i21,Ain-i.Akhari

f

ibid.

Jjjn^m against the better kinds of European troops. JSjcverjiis officers ventured to attack the PorL Pp. 265-66. he Great Mogul, Ibid
Akbar
I

COM

ISO

181

tuguese settlements th cy failed disastrously. Al dcr the Great wouk J have mad. short C orl Akbar's mightiest host If Akbar had the r

_
^
]

.#

>

emperor ordered Maniingh to proceed °f and K "^atmer dW by Kana kije.

"2

tune 10 encounter lhc Marathu light horse ft possible that he might net have fared much better than his great grandson did. Akbar's
mtlitarv

mj s 0r

ruled

^

,
,

r aim RHna

{thereui

P ralap)i
in

£"

flighting
applied

administration
Failure,"

had

in

it

the

seeds

of decay and
-

Smith quotes Akbar to say thai a monarch shvuld be ever intent on conquest.* That being Akbar's stofi an it is no wonder that by hook or crook he humbkd everybody on whom he could
1

Nakib Khan (Nakib Khan) made objections, L, first he and 5 ,iS" Hindu (i.e. Mansmgh) had not been the leader l(il army. I should myseir have been the first to of this masked permission to join It l' represented an audience with Akbar) that [ getting had a (cm desire to lake part in a holy war ^ji strong (i. e. I have the ton massacre of Hindus). v , n presurnp:

against the mfidels kindled to the emperor through

mybw

^

|

thro* his military net.

The army's slogan was to kill any Hindu even if he was fighting on Akbar's side, because a Hindu The chrokilled was considered a gain for Islam. nicler Badayuni who was himself a soldier in Akbar's arm> which battled with Rana Pratap in the famous field of Haldighat. reveals this when he asked the commander Asaf Khan-ll (he I says"-.
from A safKJi an- 1 who fought against Rani Durgawaiij a& to how to distinguish foe from friend when the Rajputs on our side had got mixed up with the Rajputs in the enemy's army and was assured in reply thai could do no wrong even if because on whichever side they 1 shot anywhere may be killed it will be a gain to Islam."
is

dye these black mustachios and through loyalty to Your Majesty's beard in blood person... and when I put out my hand towards the touch in order to kiss his foot, he withdrew it; but out of the audience chamber lie jus! as I was going

im

to

desire

to

called

me

back,

and

filling

both his hands presented

me with a

sum of 50

Ashrafis and bid

me

farewell...

different

'"War was declared because Rana Kika had refused to send his royal elephnat to Akbar as a mark cf submission."
This atrocious

demand of Akbar
his

wanting Rana
just

to
nothing

surrender

elephant

for

I

except the

whim of Akbar to humble

him,

By quoting
a

his

own example Badayuni
army

typifies

end of the wedge. If that had been conceded demands of a huge ransom, personal Prosuatjori and surrendering of the beauties of his
'he thin

every soldier of Akbar's

thirsted for

the

fanty ""'Cm

^d

(jf

hjs

courIicr

v

families for Akbar's

blood of th
2.

Hindus.
Vol

Badavuu* says4 "In 984
Biidiiyuni'* chronicle, ibid.

AM.

would have inevitably followed.

P. 251, ibid

-^J^cnbinji
11.
5
'

how Rana

Pratap baitm-d

mid

3
4.

F

23"?,

p 235,
-

ibid.

Pp 23304,

ibid

183 18?

proph* Mohammad. Badayuni says* -'Kazi Khan (woundt in his thumbs being no longer able to hold his own recited the saying •flight from overwhelming odds is one of the traditions of the prophet* and fbn
.

u s t heven in their cowardly Right Akbar's soldiers us*d to justify their action with reference to

ihittered the

Muslim army Badayuni

tells

0]er

A ,k»rafi
vk!lill

refused to break with
to

R ana

PralBp „
i

used

compel prominent and

persons to be Ins rcci ultfng * %mt BmJ v factors to produce army contingents It t B Dr. Shnvaoavt dewibes notice.
,

n (Wn '
,

mo .

m ent'*

wed

his

men

compelled to maintain a fixed L, ple were number elephants etc. and bring horses* camels, them for 'f
[faction at fixed periods.

how

(in their retreat)...

"Mansingh exhibited such
passes
all

imagination.

And

intrepidity as surthat day through

the

generalship of

Mansingh the meaning of this fine line of Mulla Shiri became known :— 'A Hindu * ields the sword of Islam ."
1

according to the the conquest ehtonfclcr Ferishta* Dcccan as a diversion being grieved on the tlf t he Petishta says dn of his son Murad Mirza.

Akbar was

a

sadist,

since

Akbar undertook

Badayuni describes how when he 7 "returned to Fatehpur Sikri with Rana Pratap's elephant the emperor was exceedingly pleased and putting forth his hand to a heap of Ashrafis presented me 96
Ashrafis/'

da ngeroush ill (May The corpse was 1599) was buried at Shapoor. ufterwards removed to Agra, and laid by the side
-Prince
falling
rf

Murad Mirza

Humayun, the

prince's grandfather.

The King's

grief for
for
his

the death of his
!T

son

increased his desire

conquering the Deccan, as a means of diverting
mind.
is

Badayuni's account
training,

gees to

indicate that no

or drill was needed in Akbar's time to join his army. All and sundry Muslims
discipline

It

The above passage gives us an insight

revealing

in

two

respects.

into
his

by taking part in the massacre of Hindus* and such Hindus as were ready to abet that slaughter could merrily pull out their own bows and arrows, spears and swords
hatchets and staffs and sally out for unbridled rampage, as easily as a woodcutter slinging an axe on his shoulder goes out to the forest to hack wood.

who

thirsted to attain salvation

which sought to
Ins
itic

drown

Akbar's cruel nature grief over the death of
and

son in the flood of the blood of the ruUrt

populace of the Deccan.
Secondly
it

Dr. Shrivaviava notes that the 7 "Mugal army blundered Dungarpur territory when its Sisodia
*. 7,

exposes the hoax or the so-called rTutnayun tomb in Delhi If according ta Ferishta Humayun lies buried in Agra and his grandson Murad is buried the c alongside, his fancied tomb "> Delhi intended to keep a Hindu
is

u

fake just

Nation
*•

falling into

Hindu hands because of
1

the

Pp. 243-47, ibid.
P,

'V 177-78,

ibid.

145.

Akbar

the Git

ai,

Vol

I.

ibid.

'

Pp. 170-71. Vol. tt

irishu'i qhroawB.

QfiWWQf.

T84
T85

of deiecrating a tomb similar faftana oJ a fake grave in BhujiaicH ^ " iit.ir Pradesh has been brought to jjg nt Ac"' titled fa** tf«f % *sN in which the

Hindis

pathetic

fear

dnenl
,

individuals

respoi

.,,.,,

]

Mr

Biharilal Shnsiri

points
I

out

how

v?rft

contingent! whenever rar , Jgndeeimwrn used o as,,^^, L, pf underlines and thus it was
svs ,em

m^L J£ Wa ^
curried

Io

tomb of
Ghuzni

Salar

Masud
is

in

Bhainch,

he nephew of Mohamm a usurped ancient

th c fan <7'
rt

7

Hind

a|lh
P,

of contractors and sub-contrartoHchiriS providing troops just for thc emperi
,

temple called Baladitya. Salar Mahraud runni ! n away from the field of battle pursued bv king Suheidc climbed a tree where he was surprised
and

d

moment's

notice.

If

anyone

theemperor's order he wastortnrcd to death were sold as staves or taken hostage an( kin
|

-skin, failed to C!lTry ou ,

Sometime later when that region came under Muslim occupation the Baladitya Hindu shrine was desecrated by burying some Muslims in it and
killed.

was confiscated. Under duress, therefore individual was ultimately coerced into Lch joining army and present himself for military duty ihc
prope/l)
,

knh and hi*
his

renaming

it

as Balay Miya's tomb.

equipping himself

many

a time,

at his

own

cosi.

Father Monserrate, a Jesuit priest who was ai Akbar's court from March 4, 1580 to April 1582 Hindu administration with contrasts Muslim
administration

Monserrate says 13
5/ino
directly

There are 45,000 cavalry. elephants and many thousand infantry, paid

saying 11

"Brachmanae

(Brahmins

ihcsc

from the royal treasun. In addition to there are troops whose command is inherited

ie Hindus) govern liberally through a senate and council of the common people; but the Musalmans have no council or senators, every tiling being

chief officers from father to son, like an hereditary estate: these troops consisting of cavalry,
by
their
Infantry
their the

and elephant detachments,
officers out of the

are paid by

decided by the arbitrary appointed by the king,"

will

of the

governor

commanding

revenues
1

I

The roads were infested on all sides -by robbers. Musalmans are easily induced to put Christians (and Hindus of course) to death/'
Monserrate
iclts

provinces which they hold from the king government of such (conquered) territories is vested
11

H'.ibles

on condition

that they pay

some

stated

tribute to

the royal treasury.

us

how Akbar

held some pTPdaied Apr
8 roU,w

buted in their turn cities, the king grams each noble a district large enough to enable him it^ maintain due state and dignity to

These nobles distritownships and villas

K

IV 7

<,i

the

Hindi weekly

ari^PP

support
JJtc

19t>H,
i

S:uv„<k>hlk

Pratimdhi Sabhu. RamliW

properly his share of the military forces..... the cities and lands in the empire belong ti
as

1

1

New leihJ. P 219, Monurritc't *Commcniariut."
IV

.gjjjUndthc whole army obeys lum
li

comma

1*6. ibsd.

Pp 80-90,

ibid

w
der-in-eh.cf. \et

iumi of the troops have

pes

nd Officers to

whom

their
y

they arc attached I*

an hen
i

This fact suprn cau*e \mi opportunity for conspiracy 4 Miitf and nnnnrlunitv Irir r«n«h M
ry allegiance.

„***•* *
,

a

,

used w Akbar

to

adi ^^reat.Th C vkne. ^f peopltfer.W.£ mulct
v
t

treason *

••

mi

m

and
ir

making
l,iC

mem
d

sell

^
orture

their
lbeit

W|Vci

arm:?* sustained themselves by plunderis which they traversed. Such plunder ing the vusht in from da\-to-da> and the loot w cheap price to the soldiery. The Comments-

Al

rt^wawa)

\fL prices Akhar

T
k

idl

how

B**«
terrcrize

ndu

to

them to

r

extract from them their earnrecovering all joms of bogus
the

levies).

When he advanced beyond

frontier

s

us notes

an

8,

pc
small-

began to advance on Febru> 1581 (in the campaign agatnsi Mirza n Inn few days the army seemed remarkably $1
l,
|

The army

However, it increased so rapidly that It extended over n seemed to hide the earth. readtfa of a mile and half covering the fields th. id filling the woods with a crowding multitude The priest iMonserrate who was with the armyi tonished (because he was unaware that it was procured under duress by open plunder to be
it

\kbar was an ag foresight and carefulness wa teen in the king's the which he sent heralds to announce to the M-ay in inhabitants of the country (in such a waj thai aewa

empire (Le. when 0f his

V?

announcement may be carried far and '.vie po one would be harmed or ieported who did rms. that, if they would bring supplies not take up he camp they should be made to pay no imposts,
•be
i .

but
if

should

they

be free to sell as they liked... But that »uld be heawlv disobeyed him the
All of

sold to Akbar's hordes at a price by the cheapness of the grain amongst so great a multitude, especially
i

punished.
hi*

them
,

terrified

as

they were
prices

huge army

there

were no high
in a hostile

and no

nsidenng the

number of
skill

elephants.

achieved by the careful

and

This was foresight of the

bcl of provisions

en

country."

chosen king himself. For he despatched agent> cities and for their diligence, to the neighbouring provisions from ti instructions to bniri m towr
all sides

Monserrate's testimony proves how Akbar's army collected the merchants under dire litre
al ludicrous made them pari with their -uch res U can well be imagined that circumstances goods could even be freely looted. lew transactions which did take place at cheap Thu& e\ :s were mere and sheer exceptions. -\khar Jhile the army we. d in a campaign 'l People were also forced paj its own wa

i

i

'

and he tmded up

unced to the merchants (who
in
i

Rett
all

fctiuyj

who

brought

maize, pulse and

and other mi
cheap rates .m impost* and taxes
ell at
|

manner of provisions » te > the camp* that if them he would exemnl
litis is

.ua not as in.u

^
b
>

conversion or by dire threats to join
I

the

air

?r

7740.

ibid.

m™

** mvade nciohbourim'
their

ona.

Those forced to

turn

through plundered the regions

188

ISO

which I hey passed, from sheer ocoessny u> sa| ihcir needs, now that they were torn from th homes, families, native moorings, their culn religion end friends. They were thus turned SS ° \wust eiimin.jls overnight from the peaceful, aw abiding and god-fearing citizens they had bee only a day before.
-

^Jves

^troopiortekelritet-., of emergency. ,h cv with some of slaves and' .|H!ilS e .v " fUie war; but danistotlu --:, really use teIl f' there were none...The Amirs
L

look

.iter

In

cases

Nr

?™

|

^efS

leir

own

^™"

ts

and

m 0Untcd

PU(

L,t

itllCnda|)K

L

soldiers'

of Akbar's rekm one often comes across terms like Do Hazari and Pach Hazari, They never meant that the persons concerned commanded it many troops. The terms conferred, on the individuals so honoured, a certain status allowing him
In accounts

m — jequuw—
'
,|

clothes....Whcn a new emergency dr mustered as many borrowed* soldier* as w Hence while the income and .- •« ire d

vApL-nauurc expenditure
dust
fe||

ie

Mansabaar remained

tn

status

quo

into

m

i

the platter of the helpless soldier so he was no longer fit for anything.*'

much

so

entry to the court

and a
ranks.

right

to

stand

in

rows
also

What greater indictment could

there be

than

assigned

to

those

The

status

was

accompanied with land grants suitable to the rank. which made the recipients virtual sovereigns in Blcchmann cautions he areas allotted to them. 15 *"A commander of 5,000 was not the reader that necessarily at the head of a contingent of 5,000... Contingents of Mansabdars, which formed the greater part of the army, were mustered at stated times and paid from the general or local treasuries Akbar had much trouble with these musters as faudulent practices were quite common."
i
1

above of the utter misery of the life of the common man during Akbar's rule, whether he was
a soldier

or a civilian.

Shetat rightly observes that17 'Notwithstanding the several striking conquests that Akbar
Justice

achieved, the
be called

army under him cannot by

any means

efficient."

Akbar's and in fact other Muslims' success
India

m

method* of total war that they adopted. Among Hindu* when one king invaded the other's domain tliev did not harm flu
to the ruthless
oupuiace.
ided

was due

chaos and tvrannv at such musters says " "The whole country was with tie exception of Khalisa (cmwn) lands wickeu held by the Amirs as jagir: and as they were

Badayuni

referring

to

the

utter

The two armies mel
issue
in

race

to

too

and

1

^

The Muslim invader had an altogether different and savage tpproach, Muslim armies used to be on the ramthe

open combat.

store and rebellious, and spent large sums on their had n and workshops, and amassed wealth, they
Pp. 251-352, Am-t-Akb.ui. ibid.
t0.

''

aN along the way.
citadel

Thus

llc
|

!^
P.

V|

of their victim them Pleads, occup) all temples and turn
p 327, Akbnr by
(

before they rci the) used tobttratil

WO. Vo«

If,

Buddy urn'* chronicle

ibid.

,7,

i.

M

Sliclul,

iWd

191

190

entire townships mosques, enslave ,nio
as guides

and

force

hv

W
"

readily is ro

accepting back into their fold Hindu Islam, by'Converting th,
invadi
es

Zm

^niil duties, acting thousands BBd »"^acrc multitudes, convert them 10 fight for h\m nco-co.ncr«s force

or bringing provi^

ynrilms ihcmse n0 reason
tting U
sl
*

to Hinduism, massacring whole Lltiiudcsand burning all ilicir belongings their

why
P

s
"

The Hindu garrison wait, earrison with supplies. walls or fortress found that the Sue inside the city outside, who constituted people in the entire region had been converted to Islam, their very kith and kin property was looted, their homesteads
all their

Muslim imader* while ai the who would help the Hindu same nme leaving none
the ted flic tank* of

compatriots Such Liitsl their recruitment sweruthless methods of forcible and

own

erstwhile

the B urbons neither learnt anytnii Hindus like enemies nor forgot any of their orthodox n their Far from converting any of the alien practices. invaders the Hindus in their orthodoxy Wouldn't
,,

pU

they should not have succeeded to iL3slu » invasions. But ihc

their even admit pioaists back into
converts

own

forcibly

Hinduism.

converted co-rcliThis made the neo*

more
on

bitter

and they

swore to wreak

vengeance
factors led

their erstwhile co-religionists. Alltlu

were burnt, their

women and

children were kidnap-

converted into mosques. ped and their shrines were upon to Thus even before the soldier was called nothing left to fight for. fight he found that there wa>
Ifany
spirit
al

Muslimseflhe

to the subjugation of Hiniusthan by the And yet ii must be recorded to the glory

was

still

left

in

him

after witnessing this

Hindus, their fighting spirit, their morale, and their bravery that in spite of such heavy odds and self-imposed handicaps they waged a tight against
wove after
This feat

mischief there was
bring

practically

no one

left

wave-of invasions
unparalleled
in

for i.ooo
Id

long

years.

provisions. That starved him In into a desperate last ditch stand or surrender. addition the enemy's ranks swelled out of all pro-

who would

him

is

win

histor

All other

portions through military service forced on multiwas these ruthless It tudes of nco-converts.

which led to the inroad of Muslim invaders Readers of Indian history who into Hmdusthan. do not ponder on this often wonder what made mighty Hindu rulers and their devoted armies knueklc under the undisciplined hordes of the alien Muslims. Given these methods of total war any adiog force could bring its victims to submi*
iods

from Africa to Indonesia which came under the rampant and rampaging Muslim sword were reduced to complete submission and conversion while Hinduism did flourish after its millemum of Iravatl and trial, in the form o\' the resurgent
regions Rajput,

Maratha and Sikh

forces.

History has, therefore, a lesson thai in tinu the side which resiles from retaliating til for
i

^cannot escape enslavement.

m.

Had

the

Hindus
for

retaliated

with
for

hke
eve

measures

tooth

tooth

and

eye

Chapter

MI
aed

m
Fort at

Agra

(since the notion that he built

«

TAXES
h would be wrong
.mv
fixed

Hindu lownship of Fatehpur Sikri (which was not bu.it by Akbar) he used to impose JJ B levies on the subjects. Thus |Jl(loru ,l

Unt

to

imagine

tliat

Akbar

Subjects

were made to sustain a
their

the poor

ha

system oJ taxation namely specific levies This holds good Tor the specific times em ire r-lonc Musi tin rule in India, DO Even if a semblance of any such they were there was lost l maze and haze of additional and arbitrary
ad

iidWP* d
lilOlwi'l".
(irpe d |irp ed

wome ".

regime which sold -*-««* slaves, them as moves, usUS-

their shrines

j ay in

and plundered their property and day out. By no stretch of imagination
such extortions

coU id estimates with the cost
Lln

hoc extor lions made ai will by officials or importers and impersonators under dire threats. Even the usual levies would more often than not be increased considerably
official at

iounts extorted

be exactly commensurate of the repair work. The under pretext of carrying out

usurped Hindu townships and buildings were usually much in excess of the most liberal
repairs to

the

whim and mood

of the

estimates for actual repairs plus generous embezzle-

concerned.
get

Sometimes while the Muslims

ment
It is

themselves exonerated partly or wholly i'u ini- the partisan officials or by appealing to their sense of Islamic fraternity, that loss was made good by higher extortions from Hindus. At limc^ even a wily or cringing Hindu could also avoid
coutd

against such a background that Akbar's

io-called

tax-system

must be

studied,

First

and

foremost

was the hated Jiziya. Indian sunders set foot on

Eversince Muslim
soil

from

about

whole or part by humouror bribing the sax-collector. Hut such instances re vcrj rare and at times they entailed consider* lo of property and honour to the Hindu subject inasmuch as lie had even to bribe the officials by providing Jhem with some hapless
in
'

payment of the taxes

the
lite

beginning of the 8th century they imposed ern Hindus living in the territories under then
a

control

heavy

levy

extracted with

much

called the Jiziya which v. The levy was based cruelty,

on the

doctrine

that

since

the

sovereign

was

i

Muslim his
those

kingdom was a Muslim kingdom.
suffered to
I

All

men
hmn may
Utile
to

for their

ban nrm

who were non-Muslims were
Muslim sovereign only
if

by the
11

they agreed to pay

When
have
short
i

armies were on the march there was nO
extortions*
(escribed
oi
v,

these

Though the
as

taxation
It

extortions they were
is

lotesalc

plunder.

also on
die

record

hat

hei

er

Akbar wanted

lo

repair

^ious hecaase u was based on an ironical pan the £»*• TJie Hindu, were supposed to pay (sic) wnicn " ro «gh their nose foi the 'protection'
air
l

heavy tax foi the sustenance of a hosi to to faarjglchold. This lax was considered

mm

bfl

vtT>'

fifiT.'

I

i.

i

«i

a Muslim sovereign 'graciously' (sic) provided f them lest he exercise Ins religious prerogative massacre them en masse. But actually he
I

m
.
1

V
|

HOW

1

'proic

Was a
10

fiction.

The Hindus were
extortions.

all

alon*
.
. ,

passage needs closer Thc above examination -— '*""»niung ^rds -issued orders confirming abolition WO,MO of - clearly mean that he original order, ivll jf anv dead letter and the Ji«ya continued to a be Had a decree ocen really issued ted.


I

;

subjected
torture,

humiliations,

ma

|fl

the

Jiziya
it

kidnapping of their women and children burning and breaking up of their homes, a H ri wholesale plunder. To add insult to injury thev were made to pay for being allowed just to live" to be mulcted.
described by both of Ak bar's chroniclers Badayuni and Abul Fazal as having been magnanimously abolished by Akbar because of his fancied greater tolerance of Hindus. European writers and other evidence indicate that Akbar continued to extract the Jiziya with
lev)
is

s

Akbar never ordered the abolition of the Mentions to the contrary in Muslim jkiya. be dismissed as mere fulsome chronicles must and window-dressing to project the fancied
Ll

cn ;

that

Akbar was ruthless enough to was earned out. So the concii

abolfeh-

have
j

s

Battery

This obnoxious

magnanimity of Akbar towards the Hindus who formed a vast majority of his subjects. Had Akbar decree Hirvijay Sun would not really passed that have been given any 'confirmation/' Even after
'

that

''confirmation"

was given

it

couldn't have

stopped

the extraction

of the Jiziya when even the
Again
visited

traditional severity

and

rigour.

imaginary original
the

decree did not work.
Shantivijaya

have already noticed earlier that in tin treaty of Ranthambhor Rai Surjan the Hindu ruler of Bundt fell the need to ask for exemption from
the Jtziya as a special concession
the
Jiziya

We

other Jain

monk

who

Akbar's court in 1587
departure)
is

two years after Hi rvijaya's again handed a royal order "again
(i.e.

and favour.
not

Had
have

confirming

been
it.

abolished

he would

the abolition of thc Jiziya and also an animal-slaughter- ban'' thrown in for good measure.

mentioned

Dr.
Hirvijaya

Srivastava

describing
at

the

Jain

monk
issued

Sun's stay

Akbar's court (frorn June

7 r 1583 for

two

The hypocrisy and dishonesty of these socalled abolitions and bans should be immediately apparent to the reader from the above pnssage.

years)

notes that 1

"Akbar

orders confirming

|nd abolition oftheJi/i the pilgrims' lax both for the Hindus and Jain> in

the

Kathiawar. When (anoihci Jain divine; Shanii (came lo court j in 587, Akfau granted him a farman, again confirming the abolition of the Jiziya and prohibiting animal liaughw

Gujtrat

and

1

Akbar passed any such orders they wci ^vcr meant to be carried out. They were only a intended J°«rt!y make-believe, an empty formality *« gullible to swallow and to send the distraught ^apparently happy at the deceptively persuasive to find to m* J»8ntinim
^en
if

ltV

'

o( Ml

,

""Win on return to

Pmpe ror only his own province

that

Akbar

>

I

P

2'»5,

A

-ur

the

Grem.

ibid.

1

97

196

never ncd order was member ©fhiS adifmifetruti
Shclat

tnteeti
It

seriously

bv any

didn't

make Ule

to the collectors of the Jiziya. least difference

wave of destruction of tcrrrplc* bc a as pari was destn yed by Ferozeshah lh CvCT l " peaC* ful ,imes« a ruler like hl'Hrun Lodi in a spurt of frenzied rclig'tositv
idaf
S

observes* "In theory Justice J.M. doc* not recognr/c anoa« Islamic jurisprudence

'^,d
ftn8

desecrate

and destory temples and

salve

h<$

of LlW Slate. The Muslim g*vc such subjects a qualified jurists, therefore. certain disabilities and fines for Status bv imposing

Muslim as

u

citizen

c

the .»Babur confined One of his chiefs

'

In India the beme suffered fuel thai the m problem was accentuated by the
to
exist

in the state..

Muslim population formed an overwhelming majoSince it was impossible to destroy such a rity.

a great many temples atChanden *Hir desecrated 29 Mir Bagi destroyed a famous temple at
\ 5 28 his orders and built a mosque Avodhya under
its

rt3e at

Sambal into

a

stamp duty to the Hindus Hindu Beg converted a mosque. Sheikh Zain. his

in

number them to several
vast

of subjects, the ruling
inequities

class

subjected

place (Sri

Ram Sharmas
9).

Religious Policies of

thus casing their conscience blasphemy which subjected the

and disqualifications, There were laws of
to

the

Mogul Emperors/* P
-Sher Shah's

attack on Maldeo of Jodhpur

in ihe whims of the Mvllu laws of which ^omc of the Mullns applied the blasphemy is illustrated by the case of Bodhan a Brahmin of Kaithan, who was beheaded during the assertion that reign of Sikandar Lcdi for a mere The Jiliya Hinduism and Islam weie both real

non-MuslimsThe bigoted manner

was partly political
convert the

and

partly

due

to a desire to

temples there into mosques,

\ temple

exunt m by him into a mosque is still mosque. His treaJodhpur known as Shcr Shahi was explained as underchery towards Puranmal His successor infidel taken to exterminate an under the complei Islam Shah brought the state
converted

was

heavy tax, The next was the pilgrim impost Since even the village fans were taxed, this Though the seems to have been almost universal fre payment of these taxes w; s intended to ensure freedom exercise of religion to non-Muslins the was nonetheless, limited to private worship ° d to build new temple* Hindus were not a]
B

tax

domination of the Malta..* (Attart) Bavaml convened an ancient temple
into

commander
at

Bcnaras

a

mosque."
.lima,
tax

or tlu-

the abolition Smith also calls off the bluff of a footnote in

by remarking
the

in

mention

of the abolition
at

of the

Ji/«ya

and

uu.

P%im
d'seiplc

even to repair old

Sun. instance of the orders issuj" proves rhat the general

mJM

"When jT~5
Bin* an,

fresh

territory

was conquered,
Shelat.

there
s

*i reign for the cessation of thoKl -"
tailj


,|m5

l

> !,ja

AM»

I.M

Baan*

obeyed/ 1
120-21.

Biimhufc. 196?

'V

Akbar

the Grout MOB"*'

T98
199

ing

Smiil1 '* remark thai "they were never Tully carried our' not justified. The orders remained un

make-believe and were never intended to be "** plied With according to a tacit understand between Akbar and Ms official! Secondly
implemented

WewouJdliko t- amplify Smith's undcrsia a of Ibc aisc. The sso-i orders were "^
I

I

formed

i

by th e *'&*&* Yenisei ves. They a Uo r«H id system or assessment the (hc
Batai
a

my P>

advantageous to them inasmuch as they could pari ol the actual rather lhan
Xr

ant,cipaied

The
al1

local revenue

officers

^

le

greedy

and corrupt

were on the and were not % \ ow in

in

their totality.

BjtBCtinS
iier
.

the other taxes Smith notes 1 that "Abu] Fazal is rather obscure in his description, because he seems to say that 'a tenth of the total of ten years was fixed as the annual assessment/ and

About

sorts of unauthorized imposts from the Their corruption found its roots the

m

which prevailed throughout pernicious custom, period of ottering costly presents to >gU
l
I

the
the

and the higher officers, who in their turn took presents from their subordinate staff... Bribery still
ruler

then to state that as regards the last five years of the period above-named the superior crops were

flourished

on

a large scale."
fi

taken into account

in

each year, and the year of
If the best

Dr. Shrivastava says

"At

the beginning of 1587

the most abundant harvest accepted'.

Akbar

year was taken as the standard, the assessment must have been severe.*' The reader must not,

any credence in Muslim chronicles. Their statements were intended to be mere court flattery, dnd before they are accepted at their face value they should be subjected to the closest scrutherefore, place

Usually their assertions themselves contain enough contradictions and vague, tortuous, anomalous statements w hich should shatter their claims
tiny.
r

promulgated an ordinance according to which everyone who was presented at court had to contribute according to his circumstances, as many duns or rupees or mohurs (gold coins) as he was This again was an atrocious levy. old in years." approaching It effectively discouraged anyone from the sovereign with complaints of torture, tyranny or extortion. Because such a visit entailed paying another tax for a royal audience. Even after such a call a that the visitor could expect, if Akbar was in
'II

good

Mr. Shelal obscrses 5 "The upper strata of Uic administration was on the Turko-Persian model." (That shows how it was alien "The peasants
i

mood,

at best,

was

to

come back armed

with

i

were generally antipathic to the collector mainly because they derived no benefit from the si
i

after, order of the exemption sought When, therefore. **fch no official took seriously Aklwnai Dr Shrivastava quotes Abui Fazul's *as IH, pp. 4*0-94 and 533-34) that the levy

deceptive

I

Even the functions of
4.

the

police

had to be

per*

'

on wells, reservoirs,

b
6"

Pp. 135.36.

rbid.
J.

5

P 31S-I7, Akbar. by

M

Shelal. ibid-

^rmgai
PP

gardens and oil help for the benefit of the public, we cannot ofwritew WW the pathetic guHibiluv
serais,
J54-57,

Akbar

ihc Grc.it. iW*L

?f.|

200

whose writings have substituted factual history l,j m by wishful accounts.
"In accordance with established custom Akbar is weighed twice a year, on his solar against cold, silver and otiie and lunar birthdays given to the Brahmins of precious things which are

rl

of corn on every jarib of land

thus

Badavuni s»>

-

even for such works Akbar called for special addition to the usual extortions. in How lflxes a monarch spend anything on public could such The above statement also exposes
welfare.

in the dfotffci

-

how

T

Hind and 10 others." This is a typical piece showing how Muslim chroniclers bedecked lie cruel regimes of their patrons with the frills of enlightened Hindu
t

has been led to historian Akbar constructed Agra Fort. Badayuni believe thai states that the utmost that Akbar did was
clearly
to

after gullible

historian

provide a stone pitching to the wall surround v..

who had themIt was the Hindu monarchs rule. metals and treasure setves weighed against precious distribute that to the Brahmins and the indigent. How could a Muslim sovereign who extracted the Jiziya to allow the Hindus just to exist, ever commit he sacrilege of distributing to them a largesse. All that is to be understood, from the above custom,
i

and \ U ia fort
if

any*

Agra town That stone was done at public cost. But
of stone pitching
as
is

pitching too,
in

our view

even the claim

false.

What
fort

Akbur sought
usurious tax

a

pretext

for levying another

was some minor

repairs to

the

and town wall.

is

that this

was

yet another cruel

levy.

Far from

giving

anything to the Hindus Akbar expected them to contribute treasure equal to his weight at This treasure was obviously least twice a year.
appropriated
to

Badayuni specifically states" "At this time (983 ATL) Sheikh Abdun Nabi and Makhdum-ulMulk were ordered to examine and decide the amount

of tax to

be

levied

on

Hindus, and firmans

were issued in all directions".
ike usual

This gives the

lie to

the

royal

treasury.

Another

claim that Akbar

made no

discrimination

conclusion from Badayuni's vague statement, could be that at least twice a year Akbar had himself
wetgl cd

against the

Hindus.

passing
taxes
nil

gold, then in silver, then in precious things lie gems). One may well imagine how much he earned at least twice a year by this
first in

other

any orders Akbar took care to

also proves that far from abolishing any discriminatory
It

issue

specific

orders

"in
or

laxity directions" to see that there was no doubt about the extractions to be obtained from

strata gem,

Hindus exclusively with

all severity.

"*ln 971", says Badayuni **thc project of building the fortress of

Agra was conceived, and its citadel which had before been of bricks, he had buill of hewn stone and he ordered a tax of lltfce
P. 85,
I*

son or daughter of tbfi common off.ee to be married until they had gone to the tfU* chief of police, and been seen by his BgCf

^

" ,0

No

people

;md

'li,

corrcc
k '

,

been f* agpof hoih panics had
I

Btfbyuni't chronicle, ibid.
"'

2ii, Badoyuai'j uhramcle,
405, Ibid.

74, ibid.

f

cora-]

202

XIU
B

vcstigated.

In

this

swq
all

host

of profits

computation, gues-^ imagination, found their way ml ^ i nc
perquisites

surpassing

of

those

in

office,

especially

certain

,!|

GREED
of his very large domain, arbitrary and levies and wholesale plunder, curious Akbar's greed for money led him to phenomenal
,

officers

and

effete

KJianhngs

and

other

vil

oppressors."

n

S pitc

marriage ta\. Bui besides the money pan of it, which itself was a great burden on the populace, the manner of extraction of exposed Ak bar's Hindu subjects to illimitable indignity, dishonour, humiliation and immorality. The reference to the determination of age of the parties to the marriage could mean a nude medical
a
\\

This was

other

ingenious

modes of

various

collecting money.
selling as slaves

Akbar used to earn money by
prisoners

recounts

taken after a battle or raid Bidayuni that around 989 A. H -the emperor
l

captured a sect
'disciples'.

examination and appraisal by profane and corrupt It could also have led to the abduction officials.
of handsome girls and boys for prostitution or Obtaining permission for a marriage sodomy.

of Sheikhs, who called themselves His Majesty asked them whether they

repented

of their vanities.

At

his

command
1

they

were sent to
to

Bhakkar and Q and a liar and vveregi merchants lo exchange for Turkish colts,*
Akbar also earned money by
confiscation of

from a corrupt and lecherous administration obviously meant heavily bribing them with perhaps women for prostitution and wealth and costly
presents,

the

property o[

his

deceased

subjects.

Badayuni

A
shows

review of Akbar's taxation policy, therefore,
that

by pointing out thai- -Makhdum-uU Mulk died at Ahmedahad and in the year 99Q Qazi Ah was scot from Falhpur to ascertain what proper*
illustrates it
1

any excuse was good enough for him lo mulct his subjects. These included repairs to fortifications, marriage tax, Jiziya, pilgrim lax, UtXi court-audience tax. weigh ing-the-sovereign wholesale confiscations of all property of any ject dying, military campaign-tax, and open plunder. This too does not speak of any greatnett m Akbar. On the other hand it only confirm* that he was one of the most tyrannical monarch* in world history.

he
1

had

Several boxes full of ingots of gold discovered in his sepulchre where he had
left.

wd
''

litem

to

be buried as corpses.

And

the

u|ll »

which lay open to the eves of the world was as none but the creator could ascertain. All ingots of gold were placed in the public
h£| s

^umjjv
poverty
"

sons
fell

l(lcr

** of distress

at

being some tune on the last into the most abject

,

'*

-08, Vol.
,bid.

II,

Bwtoyunfi

chronicle, ibid.

V 321,

AkKu also Own Uie pen
i

Issued1 o "general order Hint Itighwi to ihc lowest slum id

C v crv

nplli?

bring

and laid by the side of her husband pvhlim -he-hail outlived by 48 year
|,e

'

lurn R prevail

5^'j
i

to

the
to

notion that
lofty

J

m,

99° Sheikh Ibrahim Chisti <bn thi ChJsti) died at Fathpur. A sum of Sheikh Saliffi of Retort- of ready money together with elephants and horses and other chattels were appropriated

•In

\

H

SJlimi used

build

Akbar and and palatial

X
lfri

other

by

and the remainder became the ponton of his enemies who were his sons and hfe And since he was noted and notorious for igcnts. and vice was accursed "base of disposition and vile Sheikh,"
the imperial treasury
i

died were buried in usurped those Hindu The deceased left ,„ Visions and temples) her a large treasure and a will directing that j| house ,|dbc divvied among her male descendants.

U

who

t(1mbs

;,

ml

Mtbarwas too fond or money to withstand the of her wealth, the whole or tempting annexation appropriated without regard to The terms which he the will (Footnote, Du Jarric, iii. \\w
i

"Shahbaz Khan Kambu kept in confinement for three years had paid a fine (ransom) of seven lacs of rupees, was set free and appointed to manage the affairs of Mahva and be vakil to Mn/.i
fi

'•*He

was rather penurious and

retentive

of

money/' says Monscrrate.

Shahrukh.*'

Though an emperor possessing fabulous treasure and the power to ask for anything' " Akbar himself was a nader and did not disdain to earn
com men
ial

Thus a
governor.

prisoner could

And

overnight become a since Akbar knew that such goverextortion

profit/

1

""He
and custom
death, kings
tlic

also

derives

much

revenue from the

nors
in

made enough money by usury and
of extracting a huge
naturally

hoarded fortunes of the great nobles, which by law
all

the regions assigned to them, he took the precau-

come

to the king,

on

their

owners'

tion

sum

in

advance,
usual

in

in addition there are spoils

addition he
presenis

expected
tribute,

the

costly

and the annual

Akbar did not spare even his own mother's property from confiscation. Smith notes "Akbar S mother only 15 years older than him died on or about August 29. 1604. Her body was taken to
11

tlie

and chieftains whose treasure great levies exacted, and gifts received from inhabitants of the newly subdued districts in
or his dominions.
as to

of conquered seized* and is

every part
to

These
in

gifts

and

levies

so large

ruin outright

many of
Trading on
to

his

new

Subjects.

He also engages
and thus increases

hi lOtfjj

account
3. 4.
5.

his wealth

no small

?p

3J2-2-, ibid

P. 381

bid.

7

-

P.
I'

252,

ibid.

6.

Pp 401-2, .hid. Pp 229-30. Akbar

*•

the Great

Mugul,

ibid

9-

29S, ibid Pp. 207-jmm, \i ( „i>cniUc"»CDmmcniArtu».ibid.

COM

:oh
dt
profit.
i '

ZO

r
,

gerly

exploits

every

sourc>

Moreover he
in
I

illows

changers
business

his

empuv

no bankers or mo nc enormous The piwrm,,,,, k
*.

%*****•*".
-

r '-

IIlkl

,

the royal

treasuries ifies)

nn brings

u lc

arc pmcj ilver or copper accord Jng to their rank. Th« it comes aboul thai those who are paid in one tvn orcein need to change some of it into another Such means of increasing wealth may be thouehi sc (bu! nothing was loo base for Akbar) There
is h

great profit

The government

ki

J

officers

J ^ed
1[iirTl

Dv by oronerrv of every property rt r ration deccajj through compulsory prcsems d (> everybody coming to court, by havfoX *f f bullion,
„..:nn

of oi

me the

nmng eambl '«8

booth''
.


«

against

jewellery and

gcm^l™

law also that no horse

may be

knowledge 01 that of his c. Jalaluddin Akbar) is sparing and tenacious of his wealth and has thus become the richest oriental
Icing's

sold without the agents, Zeladinus

through various usurious levies extras flogging and torture?, by robbing valuable l6d by dead and wounded on battlefields, the through plunder or vast regions and crowded outright locaconquests of rich and through lilies, prosperous adonis, through heavy ransoms and in
year, rice a
I;

reparations

jiid

and

a number or other modes that human Ingenuity cruelty could devise.

king for at least 700 years.

money
and

has sacks of copper publicly piled up (into a heap 10 ft wide
high.
:

He

Each sack holds aboui 4000 copper coins (Footnote The Fathers of the third mission record that once they found the king busy counting
3Gfcft.

As a result of such extortions and a parsimoncollected a large hoard. 10 ious nature Akbar had \i Akbars death in 1605 the cash in Agra fort
exceeded
have

20,000,000 pounds

sterling,
J

It

can hardly

a large

sum of gold coins of many
to mint.

different

values

been less ihan 15*000,000 in

600 A.

D

which he had ordered

some

150 plates-full

Behind him were of them, and a good number

of bags. (Counting money) is his chief distraction everyday when he has retired. When the money has been counted and put in bags he has it put among
treasures which arc very great/*

According to Monserrate,
Jesuit, therefore,

the

contemporary

Akbar

far outrival led the fabulous

king Midas, in the avaricious pleasure he used to derive from playing with and counting and recounting
bis

treasure

in

the

dark cellars where

his

hoards were stored.

Akbar accumulated

that vast treasure by

sell10.

p 2 ^,
-

Akbar

the Great Mogul,

i

209

Chapter

XW

**$
l4lf0

-r

uossip of bis wives

the time that he once

among

intend,.,.

his grandee"-

*

, l

°

PERSONALITY AND NATURE
appearance Akbar was ugly and ungainly, By nature he was cruel, treacherous, and an itliterate sadist according to contemporary records.
In

? HOW*-*? imperious

prevent the great nobles from becoming fiUmm ° n kin COUrl *

U

many

commands,
has

l

'

-«dtf Itt

verc his

slaves/

no'-s Monserrate,

as though ih *

s.'Zcladinus

(Akbar)

broad

shoulders

jepewhat
!

bandy

legs well suited for horsemanship,

The editors introduction to Monscn n, l4 2n the long line oflndian Commcniarius states sovereigns the lowering personalities of Ashoka and Akbar (because of his dread Maud high above the TJu\ iiu> be compared, and with profit, re Akbar** greed for conquest and glory and hiv La. of sincerity form a marked contrast to Ashoka's paternal rule, genuine self-control and spiritual ambition. A k bar's war*, were those of a true descendant of Tirnur. and had all the gruesome
|

complexion. He carries his towards the right shoulder, His forebent hea d broad and open, his eyes so bright and head is they seem like a sea shimmering in the Hashing that His eyelashes are very long. His eyesunlight. ows are not strongly marked. His nose is
nd

a

light-brown

br

straight
nostrils

the left

and small, though not insignificant. His are widely open as if in derision. Between nostril and the upper lip there is a mole.
his

He shaves
that

beard

but wears a moustache
yet

like

associations which

this fact implies.

Turkish youth who has not manhood. He does not cut his hair
of a
a

attained

(He

wears)

The old notion that Akbar was a near approximation to Plato's philosopher king has been elicited by modern researches. His character with its mixture o\ ambition and cunning has now been laid bare. He has been rightly compared to a pike in a pond preying upon his weaker neighbour* He was so close and self-contained with twists of words and deeds, so divergent one from the other, and at most tiroes so contradictory, thai even by

turban

into

which he
there.

gathers up his

hair.

He
too

limps in his left leg.

though

indeed he has never

received
ihin

any injury

His body
is

is

Mite

nor

too stout.

He

somewhat or a moros

remarkable people around love of keeping great crowds of about hat lu •"* »n his sight ; and thus it comes of men* court with multitude,
disposition.

He

is

specially

m

is

always thronged

**
wl»om
1||l!

type,

much seeking one could not
oughts

though

especially
to

find

a clue

to Hi*

r period eacn reside at court for a certain

he

commands
4

come from
ibid

"l*jtZ '"ur
.

Akbn
habits, for

unable to give up hJ

J
i

I-

Pp790-92 Commentariui.
Pp. 196-200. ibid.

no importance need be attached

it>

l|ic

L

>;at.-:om

m
When he
and
211
|

0W*

them a nod to indicate that they may 'He wears garments
jngokl
far

goes outside his palace, u j. ., followed to these nt*hu< " "n.i, b} nobles and* aiJ^mti The, have to goon
'

^
,

Ite

ST?**
JgL*
,

m*mmi

as the knees and his boot, y a* cover hi, completely. Ife wears gold ornaments *££*** P and jewellery. He is fond of carrying a fd and dagger. He fa never without always surrounded even within his private! »

m

beauiifuHy emh, cloak cn mc ,

1^^ |^ S^

£ma
,

into to** ** BRfcMi viceroy of Arabia Felix, Jj*^ « *£«, so ungraciously that Jjg cloud of smoke. For the chief
However he
1

manner to that which countrymen and subordinate, "Low* marked courtesy es with
.

-vetf

different

k

V*U
!

cl "*

an dfck,«

*^

put in irons and banished for a long tt aS his attendants made horc while g0O d

ambassador

p.^
lheif

U

escape

secretly... Zeladinus

JS.
mg

b0d > g,]ard of aboul 20 men varkJJ
very sumptuous generally consistthan 40 courses served in great dishes broughl into the royal dining
is

'•His table

of more These arc hall covered and wrapped in linen clothes, which are tied up and sealed by the cook, for fear of poison.
by youths to the door ofthc dining hall, other servants marching ahead and master of the household following. Here they are taken over by eunuchs, who hand them to the
carried

nobles who one of them believes himself to be re,hat each garded not only as a contemptihle creature but as lowest and meanest of mankind. For the very
wards the
instance these

behaves so sternly to. are under his proud sway

nobles,

if

they commit

offences, are

punished
rest

more

severely

and

relentlessly than the

of the

people, even those of the

meanest

degree.'*
*

They

are

"He

is

entirely unable to read or write."
chieftains as

•"Zeladinus has about 20 Hindu
ministers

wait on the royal table. He is accustomed to dine in private, except on the occasions of a public banquet. He rarely drinks wine but quenches his thrist by 'post' or water.

serving grls

who

and counsellors. They are devoted to him and are very wise and reliable. They are always with him and arc admitted to the innermost parts
allowed

of the palace, which is a even to the Mongol nobles,*
1

privilege not

has drunk immoderately of 'post* he sinks back stupefied and shaking. He dines alone

When

he

That

Akbar allowed

on an ordinary couch, which is tth silken rugs and cushions stuffed with down of some foreign plants."
reclining
3

covered
the
fine

apartments ^interpreted and misunderstood
1

'nnermost

to the only Hindu nobles not he of the palace musl to connote

'N'ty

i

n Akbar's nature.

He

rom did so purely

i

laments of his own
J
*
P. 201, ibid.
P. 203, jbid.

safet)

and

treasure that ol his

'*Zcladinus receives foreigners and stranger*
Pp. 204-5.
ibid.

3.

212

213

and harem. His faith in Hindus s also a left. handed compliment to thai community whicl when compelled to submit to any tyrant tl *^ 1 treachery and torture still remained
i

fycn Badayuni,

a

fanatic Musi irT1

, nr ,

niHhfifl

subjugator out of a sheer BOd*fearinn comu us nature and an innate stupidity offov Ml "' serving even a cruet and misbehavine «u
its
*.

? mJP

Statesiy**

™ cnemi« ?W a.m.Krsofso.d.e.swercno,"^.^
e° od luck overca
all

Akbar did not tak;e Muslims into confident »«* except when Hindu localities were to be raided jJd
because he could not trust them \vjthh, harem, with his palace treasure and with his own person
looted,

*

.'

u ^pu

n5
,

i»Akin to his habitual control over a natamiw temper was the artfulness with Solent wt jic h he ,' to conceal h.s thoughts arid real wont
p Urp08

says Bartolt, 'gave anybody the chance Hc never/ rightly his innermost understand scntimenti ot t0 what fauh or rcl -ions lie held by, know

w
Dr, Shrivastav writes "-Akbar was a truant child, and did not sit down to read and write. So

but

whatever way he could best serve

k

his

own

interests.

he remained illiterate all his life. Akbar himself admits that one need not be ashamed of being unlettered. He says 'the prophets were all illiterate.
Believers should, therefore, retain one of their sons in that condition." This remark of Akbar is
characteristic of his illiterate stupidity.
7

one party or the other with the to he used to himself, humouring each hope of gaining him words, and protesting that he had no de with fair
feed
other
out

object with his doubts than to seek and And by the guidance of their wise answers the simple

truth
this

then

hidden from him.

And

in all business

"Akbar was

a

strange

compound

of reason

and superstition ... It is too much to affirm that Akbar was always above board in the matter of state-craft and in his dealings with his rivals and enemies He was moreover sensitive to a point of honour in his relations with those Indian rulers, who declined to render him personal homage or
Dr. Shrivastav 's weakness of fancying goodness even in sheer evil makes l record only a i"» hin all evidence and

was the characteristic of king Akbar ipparentl\ free from rnystcr} and guile, bi and candid as could be imagined— but in
so

a

man

Iwiuesi reality

closed

and self-contained, with

twists of woids

and

and deed so divergent one from the other, much most times so contradictory that even by

seeking
ilius
it

one could not find the clue
often happened
ihul
i

to his though

person comparing

made

delay in doing so.*'

could with what he was yesterday, observ no resemblance, and even an attentive
nim today
Jtor

rebuke about A
I

i.

ictcr.
|

knew
:.

and familiar no more of him on
lung
Vol,
II.

intercourse with

the

last

day
j[*j ibul.

\m ™

M

f,

,

I

I

|

Ibid.

"•"~PM94-20O.
9 P.

hadaafnae.

7.

1

I
;

-I I,

ibid.

Mosul. 24%, Akbar the Great

XftT.COM

214

k!KWn OriMst.- That admirably wom ofrcfonol AkK,r\ peculiar mind hStaTffl cal Mudcm
i

torinous

on so

sonic perfidious oral occasions marked the emperor' emperor's

understand diplomacy and

to

io

dcs * h,slor <-

J£TL*»
ich

TREACHERY
Thc frank appraisal of Akbar's C aracipr , honest writers quoted m the last ch a 17. borne out by _ his dealings throughout iHv h His slaiecrau was crafty and treachery n. rcic w weapon Akbar used as frequently as any
]i

Si

eeedftigs

r P o| llJCa
,

mt
.

t

other ht

his

armoury
u Akbar*s Smith notes that policy with regard the Portuguese was tortuous and perfidious. At
1

to

the

thc missionaries were approaching his court in response to the friendly invital|pn addressed to the viceroy he had organized an
very

moment when

army to capture the
Portuguese

European

ports because the

never allowed imperial ships to proceed Gulbadan Begum had to to Mecca without a pass. buy the pass ceding village Bulsarto the Portuguese
in

After her return she directed that it be retaken. "A party of young men was attacked and They were nine Portuguese were taken prisoner.
1575.

brought

to

Surat and executed

for

refusing to

stauze.
Perayra
b
V

Their

stout-hearted

leader

Duarte

bu t

de Lacerda deserves to be commemorated Siin name. Their heads were sent to Fatehpur Akbar pretended not to see them,"

counter*^ ^.devilry and treachery as their male
t
1

The above passage has many Went of history. Firstly it show. M °N women had the same combination
fc 145.

*^**£

W £• otm

Akbar

the Great Mogul.

ib&

216

217

Then
ir

Dfesque

vfefous natures.

names should not prove n
Secondly
it

that

Akbar was

niav

I

J
*

Ud

kHfs

Highness (Murad) in th esc fau K MI " rather (Akbar)'." »»<»«ed JJJrioitt
, ,

hii

as fanatic a

and

"hichis believed to have been completed J 1585 existed even in early 1580 wh« ihe first es '' Mission had arrived. They saw us lowers and pel from | distance. This should awaken the ret earchcr to the realization that Fatehpur Sikri is an ancjem Hindu township. What Akbar did was merely to transfer his seat of

^

[hat during bis reign too torturing and people who refused ro be converted emtim.

Muslim as ant "T'*

T|lW

wE? K
™.
"

Akb
lhc

Asirgarh, a strong fortress wa* ar through treachery Smuh

r^
1
'

J^
,

century Asirgarh was reckoned of the world. The su mmi lenders t about 60 acres in extent, was space
I6lh
11 < Sth Burhanpur). f

ob^^w "by

««•

is

"bout

12 mile,

aeS^** duc "Mb
l>

o?^ «* a amolv L \

ln

divergent and apparently irreconcilable accounts of the manner in which Akbar
attained

•Two

government

to

of allowing those buildings to be wasted on Sheikh Salim Chisii and his band of fakirs.
instead

it

Smith again notes 2 -The fathers were disgusted at the clear evidence of the duplicity of Akbar, who pretended a desire for the friendship of the king of Spain, to whom Portugal was then subject,
while actually ordering hostilities against the Portuguese. Their Jesuit superiors had sent urgent letters requiring the missionaries to return.. .The missionaries themselves were eager to go, being

purpose are on record. The official historians aver that the surrender of Asirgarh was to an outbreak of deadly pestilence. due The based on unpublished letters Jesuit version, of who was in attendance on Akbar, Jerome Xavier,
his

ultimate v

that possession of the fortress was gained by wholesale bribery of the officers of the garrison,
states

Miran Bahadur, the king. WW lured into Akbar*s camp and made prisoner by an act of shameful perfidy. The tale of alleged fatal Akbar pestilence... seems to be mostly invention.
and
that
earlier
did
iioi

wholly unable to accept Akbar's denial of the about war"

facts

disdain to

tise

the

weapons

of subterfuge

and want of faith.
41

Smith observes3 that "Prince (Murad). a drunken scamp, was filled with overweening pride and arrogance (when commanding a Mogul army along with Khan Khana Abdur Rahim). Badayum in his accustomed ill-natured way observes ihnt

Akbar occupied Burhanpur on March

31. 1600

Pp

196-204.

Akbar

ihc Great Mogul. Ibid.

H W ^s
i

the opposition and took up his abode in Palace of old rulers. (This should alert historian Fatehpur t,la Tar from building any structures at 8 Ajmcr and other places Akbar occ«p^

without

Peaces of earlier

^'ved under the walls of Asirgarh. Akbar iMj emperor
estimated
at

Hindu

lulersj.

On

April 9

200,000 men.

The

218

219

resolved *o rely on those arts or intrigue **A Hi which he excelled. gUi,c He, therefore

Miran Bahadur to come out for Vn taring on his own royal head thai the would be allowed to return
'

iJl

in

peace

out wearing a scarfsignifying submission, Akbar sitting
statue.

accordingly

came

Tk

^
,

ng
''"

T

.•The free speech of Xavier .rrit such a degree.i3n to says with rage, and gave order. >*"! foamed the fathers from the imperial on of instant return to Goa. ||idr
colleagues, therefore,
f

gj "*«N
«b*

,

^

he

**"*
CCand
hil

8

As Miran Bahadur

' andwasadvancing... a Mogul officer caunhr l by the head and threw him'down perform complete prostration (Sijda)^a ceremn cerc ™°*y on which Akbar laid much stress,"

dK*,^
motioni!*

**

withdrew

XavLr and

But <J,ti,

some friends they did not quit the Akbar to have cooled tater found

W7

advicc (and

down)/-

frrc^tt

Akbar was now i„ a broken his pledged word
fort

fix.

Jn

spite of \»

u

.

there

surrendering.
at

Time was

son Mukarrab Khan to Akbar. asked him whether his
his

h in t0 Send ordcr * '" writing to th. fort s garrison rn r toe to surrender When he refused he was detamed by force. When the K fnS Abyssinian commandant heard the news he sent
'"

b3r

"^

elder son,

Jehangir was then

sm r ? precious bcL* L
in

was no

active

reigning

Allahabad as an

reblir

independent

'He was thus forced to use his only remainj weapon -bribery. The capitulation
took
effect

S

on

January

17,

1601

nearly

101

months

When Akbar
command""

after the

preparations for the siege had begun.

father (the

was wtllmg

to

then saying that he might never behold the face of a king so faithless, taking a scarf in his hand and addressing the garrison asking them to defend the place strangled himself
siege continued. Akbar asked Xavier to arrange for getting some Portuguese engines of war. Xavier refused on the pretext of its being un-Christian.

kk"^ stabbed.. ..The Abyssinian

he gave a spirited 'nstantly ordered the youth to be

surrender,

the gates of Asirgarh were opened the population was found to be like that of a city, and the

When

commander

The

were so numerous that there was a continuous throng of people coming out for a week Some of them had suffered from weakness of sight and paralysis of the lower extremities. "The assertion of Abul Fazal that 25,000 persons perished a P^ilence is now seen to be an undoubted lie If. story of the deadly pestilence i$ an invention fended to conceal the discreditable means adop-

inhabitants

M
*

reason was that the Portuguese had only a short period before concluded a treaty with

rite real

^r

by
Jn

Akbar
India.

to

gam

possession of the
1

greatest

There were also some Portuguese ulficcrs in the garrison who had advised Miran Bahadur against believing in Akbar's pledge.

Miran Bahadur.

^rposely
cr
a s
,

The official authors muddled traveslv f

stories

give a

the fa*
represented

of the
.

commandants
would be

son

is

a

uicide

|d e

and other
it

w hich

are clearly false statements to specify here/

tedious

220

221

The captive king and
in

his family '

\verc

the fort of Gwalior.

Crtt LOnfi

-

nei|

^expedition

to task.

Bhagw^
'

The student of Indian history would be c on the safe side if he presumes all eases or ,i]\ !!]\ Q suicide as murders in Mogul history. Jehansr wife was murdered in cold blood by Akbar
•».

2*

ily

forbidden the court and Y ^uf surveillance. Akbar then

'**« * ^Po*"» pi a
**
,

Son-

\

Jehangir in collusion, Daswandh he young Huidu died a suspicious death, painter also Rajput courtiers whose wives Akbar coveted were murdered. Bertram Khan was murdered. Such instances could be multiplied
I

BlK,,wandasfeelin 8Br :: v of his pledged word for Yu Louse himself The ty stabbed

^r^
LlJ

^ liUh
im

J"^ expedit^y^
r
'

Yaqab assumed the title prepared to defend his Email and count™
U p his father a s lost

oa-

on

June

28,

1586

^
ak
f

of «k J

Smith notes that "even in an Asiatic country in the year 1600 perfidy such as Akbar practised was Abu Fazal and Faizi... felt to be discreditable,
I

Qasim Khan's forces entered the caZ Kashmir, Snnagar and read the proctamZ' f name. "Qasim Khan's policy in Akbar's
October
6,

~

rossion

and
a

reprisals

kept

the

alive for

Sirhandi agree

in

hiding their master's treachery.
be

guerrilla

few years more, tactics attempted

Kashmir rebclhor and Yaqub by his
create
diversion

to

On many
crafty

Akbar showed himself to and insincere when dealing with affairs
occasions

among the
succeeded
1589.

of

Mogul troops, Mirza Yusuf Qasim Khan. Yaqub surrendered
kept
in

Khan
in July

state."

He was

custody.

Later he

was

Even an ardent admirer of Akbar, Dr. Shrivastav is constrained to admit of Akbar's perfidy Akbar had sent an expediin subduing Kashmir. &hagwanda$.j under against Kashmir tion

Bhagwandas made peace with Yusuf Khan of Kashmir on February 22, 1586. The conditions under were: I. The ruler would deliver the land nm the saffron crop, the duty on shawls and the acknowledge to the imperial treasury and would temW Akbar's suzerainty, and 2. That he would

Yusuf Khan was released liter Kashmir was annexed. Yusuf was made a mansabdar of 500 and was given a jagir in Bihar. He fought in Orissa (for Akbar) under Mansingh The Kashmir episode leaves a bad taste, and is a blot on Akbar's character. He disregarded the plighted word of a favourite general. The petty
granted a jagir in Bihar.
iagir

granted

to

him (Yusuf) was

derogatory

to

one

who had

hecn a sovereign of a

flourishing

state/'

On the promise charge of his principality Khan <_ safe conduct Bhagwandas took Yusuf But Akoar court arriving there on March 28, 586.
in
1

Another instance of Akbar's readier? concerns the Hindu kingdom of Bhatha (modern R< "^ramajit, a boy of tendet age who w*
i

m

4.

ibid Pp. 950-353, Vol. Akbar the Great,

5-

Pp. 382-3, Vol.

J,

Akbar

ibe Greit,

m*m
iaa

r
223

grandson of the ate Raja Ranichandra ro„ allegiance to Akbar. PUdi Consequently ^d an army under Rut Tipurdas m IS9 « was depute? a

Z

,

»
in-

t

ilionS
tfcf

with those Indian him personal homage

ruler^v^T'm
or

(When

the

by force of arms, it was) agreed ^render G allow? h ng ruler Vtamajit togoto
i r

mar. tnL . garrison could not be made f rt S

^iilst

ycars

,M
-

J*.
nlfsh

«

to h failure

f.«

win over R ana Pr irea.ment towards R aja

This exaggerated wnsiiiv sensitiven^M en *

to

Bandhu and Laran of life and restoration of the stated a safe conduct back to Bandhu. The wTrkn urally expected that they would (then) be
to

great noble

came

AkbarW,

^ £f» RamchSJ*
***««»
RajasthLTv °
is

decline mZ*^ h by
n

fi^ ^
7jt
i„T-

L^

T?°"' fa

mam possession

of the
first

that the fort
it

must be

would be restored

ev^W^CS
the

fort.

p But Akbir

8 d a period of incessant activity of! *' with only small intervals ipaigns of peace he won the imU dexienously cooperation (sic) of the Rajput rulers #port in
|isri(lJtc

5

paying

them off against one another deserves to be told in one separate

a st

to

young

volume,"

ruler

The

The Mugals who had occupied the country cut off supplies which caused some distress to the besieged Moreover, Tipurdas seemed to have been able to corrupt some members of the garrison, for Abul Fazal writes that liberality was made the key for delivering up the fort,' The siege lasted for eight months and 20 days. For want of supplies the fort capitulated on July 8, 1597. The fort was evacuated
and a great deal of plunder was obtained.
not
restored
to
It

was

Raja Vikramajit, In April 1601 Duryodhan, another grandson of the late Ranichandra, was recognized as Raja, and the fort of Bandhu was made over to him. Bhartichand was appointed the Raja's guardian."

*"U
and
in
6.

is

too

much
in

to

affirm

that

Akbar was
statecraft

always above board
his

the

matter of

dealings

with

his rivals

and enemies.

Pp. Sli-Kibid.

^the reader
.

will

not

t :i

j|

Ul

-the

inconsistency between th*

HYPOCRISY
Despite some, imaginary sanctimonious sayingi of Akbar recorded by flatterers like Abul Fazaj

Jj

U) be interfered with on account or { ,d ^anyone was 10 be allowed io
lin ..-«

Ration

,cdby^> ^
nd

•*

mat
*

»lpon

f

he

^

pleased. i«d pi

f3> If. Hmdtt ^IftHmS

\

a 0Vt ,v.th

Akbar's seemingly innocuous actions were ably characterised by hypocrisy
Vincent Smith observes that

.

invari-

md

Mu.saJnian and entered Musalman. the ; -ould he taken hy f she sh< nrw restored loher family." and

"* ',JW Mu I! *£I

Akbar "stopped

without ever reaching the point of definitely becoming a Zoroastrian. He acted in the same way with regard to Hinduism, Jainism and Christianity,

Smith rightlj, points out the mutual inor the scvei regulation* tt »d consistency to wish to emphasis been issued by Akbar have
While
i

m

lhat

no such

regulations were

ever proclaimed.

He

went

so far

in

each

They were all a hypocritic make-believe concocted
and recorded
lo

religion

that different

people bad reasonable
to be a

ground for affirming him Zoroastrian, Hindu, Jain or Christian*'—
(1580 A. D„), becoming the widespread resentment aroused by
this

beguile

by inventive flatterers the tedium of a wean

like

Abul Fin]
i

miskid

Ihe public,
flattery

hum*

ur

s

lie

sovereign with unctuous
gratifications for inv

-About
alarmed at

nme

and obtain irnmnral
prevarications

ing

pious

Had

they been

reilly

adopted a policy of calculated hypocrisy. When on his way back from Ajmer he caused a lofty tent to be furnished as a
travelling
five

innovations,

Akbar

promulgated \kktr himself, his sons, and courtiers should have been the first to be deproed of the

mosque, in which he ostensibly prayed limes a day as a pious Muslim should do
he carried his hypocrisy
still

A A

little later

further.

Mir Abu Turab had returned from Mecca bringing with him a stone supposed to bear
an impression of the prophet's foot. Akbar knowing well that the thing was not genuine went c«* in person to meet if
*.

cedaj

Hindu women that were being ndcdupto be dumped in the Though Akbar possessed innumerabie Hindu girts hk harem he had a lecherous eye on Raaj ^rgawaii, Since she died fighting. MAai iily only mih her a** to mu
hundreds of
c=

*

«s

i

'

»*

frughter~iii-Iaw.

harem.

The> were promptly *<>*&* Far frum restoring aov
tear

Aktw Uk

™* ilwir homes and hufbam
Great Mogul,
ibid.

husband Akbar used to

awa)

*««

H.ig««r
aa*

;

P. 130. ibid.

^fuddin. Asaf Khan. X P IM. -bid

Adham Kb"

*

326

common Muslim

227

soldiVrv used t„

m
,

...

Mncmonioui humbu*

of

c

e

'

ICVc

»i£

»o intersperse the *iri™; of .heir C

MnciimoniiB utterances and fended ,* old game of Muslim

p«5

„S 5ftS* Jf.^^-i a

^^

which he had washed big fc,i Acc <"* Badayuni this dirty and humilm w Privily was specially reserved by Ak could stoop so low an illu ,;, L,have forced worse indignhiw on h* y

40

in

1

iccts.

^f* ***** ^T m W™
h
cn .

.™ « »rj
tl

t^r*
»*
f

1

»

S
,

^ory a.vakes
and pathetic.

Jehangtr and a h ' Shab, „, of other the most horrid and heinou massacre, torture and rape are all fSL**? credned u Itn having mercifuHv cons ruetedr^' " serais, rest houses, alms houses shadv i J ks» booths and the like Ii is nme every reader and

^ S&T™*
scholar

•Mkbar was not influenced merely curiosity and religious sent dledu al irn
(Jesuit)

stowed unprecedented personal
rcVC red

Vent
«,l
coun

favour.
to
his

Hl

.

W as a

lathers accredited crafty and tortuous

politician

Itways

cherished

the

hope of

hc
*h c

destroving

-

S'oS^ ?
To

Portuguese dominion (but) the rebellion of the death of the younger eldest son and prince! He openly avowed put a slop to all his ambitions
his

Jr

designs with his intimates."

to rhis realization.

such sanct.raon.ous hypocrisy in the face of over" wftelmine incriminating evidence would he puerile F

rT^h

I

Smith quotes Xavier, a Jesuit priest at Akbars court, thaL AJcbar used to pose as a prophet 'wishing it to be understood thai he works miracles through healing the sick by means of the water in which he washes his feet. (Foolnote Badayuni record* that if other than Hindus came and wished to become disciples at arty sacrifice His Majesty reproved or punished them.V This testimony by a Jesuit visitor and a Muslim counici clearly pruve* ih.it Akbar's tyrrany over the Hindus included pouring down their throats
'

One of the sayings of Akbar fabricated by his chroniclers is ""were it not for the lhiui=.ht ofiht difficulty of sustenance. would prohibit men from eating meat. The reason why do not together abandon it myself is that many others might willingly forego it likewise and be thus cast wo despondency/ 1
I
I

The hypocrisy of the above meaningless con*
Action
is

:

apparent.

r '

"'Akbar's actions at times gave substantial mnds for «the reproach thnthewasno 10 be regarded as a God on earth (FootflCM
p
I
\
-

'90. ibid.

A

\\ 1*0. jluj.

*

2tt, fold.

P 255, ibrd.

k

J

tfft

il.nt.rvr.

I.n/h

mured
if

to

write

by Bloch m ann the old-fashioned
.1-

ITOnSl

'

d

proMraiion

no advantage see God (Am. Vol

to

thee
!

ra

\kbnr and

I

page

'

Vet hi calming public. **5led Abdun Nabi and At Sambhar. on
,

ha d

lost

faith

,

»*rf

the

g£-

hU^^***
proeec;;:;:;-^
ih at
hi,

Mto£Z*fri

^
true.

«

»

' Vfter Badayuni says

a

Htm

the

JtrfShuhbo. M,an
ut| C s
1ne
,-,i..r."

to

only one.

the

tbsohite,

the Perfect

Man

became Here
jst

commonly applied

to the emperor."'

Dr.

Shnvastava admits
jusi to
is

B.idawmi. a fanatic
with Akbar
b> idolizing

Muslim

trip to

Ajmer was

A kh

hoodwink

notes"

,

with re,
fiivou r
,,

lC(y
lc d

This

only partly

vwu'

pentance thai ficroptcd like others to curry

Had

!S*
t

VkKn son blessed In Mullas, only to find thai

htm) he had his new-booi instead of by Qazis and
his

Bon

died

Muslims into the belief n! himself was a devout Muslim he need k QO faraway Ajmer. In his capital hive gone to
to lull ranatic
itself

within

six

mom

i

could have visited some other shrine or recited His real motive was Koran five times a day.

he

ihe

Akbar
a prophet,
'"Friday*

tried
a

ail

along to project

himself as

perfect

man and God

himself "On

pilgrimage to perform any He had never any Aimer.
anybody.
organize

never to the Chtsti tomb m

faith in or respect

i,

M
i

June 26. 15 9 te [polluted the pulpit m the grand Jami Mosque of Faiehpur Sikri and Akbar recited Khmba... According to Badayuni stammered and trembled while reading it and had ed descend the pulpit. It was believed to be by some that the emperor was inspired by an ulterior motive" which was to impose himself on subjects as emperor, prophet and God hishelpl
all

A bars
ruthless

trips

to

Ajmer
against

re

campaigns
Rajaslhan

the gallant

Hindu kings of
inspiring

mustered under the

of Rana Pratap. Ever since Akbar decided to discontinue his atrocious, all destroying inroads into Raiasthan he ceased going to
leadership
Ajmer,
pedition

What
or
I
,

is

usu;
|ii
i

liy
i i

described a*

hunting ex-

w as nothing but

a run

rolled into one,
t<11

On September 8,1579 Akbar
his
last

set on, what

proved to be
shrine at

Ajmer

pilgrimage to the Khwaja tW This was within a week ol
infallibility decfl

Muslims swoop on Hindu areas unannounced, Such ruses ire always spi vssive wars. The reader should, therefore. "i' Ucbart « tllhcr believing any more
nable

he

promulgation or the so-called
»
10
11

Maslim rulers' religious pretentions
Dr.

I

Shnvastava

who had

carlkr stated

ttaJ

P
P
r

266, lluiljniim'
ibid
24',,,

ll

elflj,

IbM

^ijselfAkbar had

lost faith in

Wan
celebrate
r

AM,„f the Great,
ibid.

ibid.

SRJtt^Qn
13

MS,

P. 323,

Octobw 8, 1583 Ak ha Akbat the GfW, '"' d

ftp

T.

COW

230

23|

holdmc a banquet. \i a p I3jrh.il Tell from his horse. Akbar went Raja and graciously relieved him hy his
Jdul
Pltf

hv

»

*^
t
I

° ^ )K

hcSh rine of Sheikh Moinuddinchk,°r A mi]Q cry then was «Ya Muin^l J ||s Jmcr. H', Kl-w»ja." When , „.„,» *£ thenj |ie

ing."

'

nK*%
once

^

or
i

twice

a

From

the

above passage

it

is

"" powers were another irksome so.ir Ins mth) (>rannies on his subjects \v e h already seen how he compelled Hindus
, ,

never ceased to be a N^jMiidly his pretensions to prophet-],,,
(Kid

Aktw

quite clear it, fanatic M,J

dcar y
"

spiritual

to

he used to blow hliquor-smelling and dope-laden foul breath other peoples' drinking water or face. The* Ln ictim dared not remonstrate lest he be seiuT* the gallows and his women be molested' He therefore meekly put up with Akbar's filthy antics and feigned to derive great benefit from it Tha satisfied Akbar's vanity. I„ this
<

ttfcSh-watcr,

Similarly

1Z

7

deadly game the name of Moinidd in r^l 1 use d as a convenient decoj l0 is hide 7u" motive of his move out of the capital to djiS Uft Ajmer in Rajasthan.
f„ this

Aj mot RujpuU. not spintual solace H| * objcC twas through death and destruction Be " but dealing on hi ft"* 8 *
merely

means that Akbar used hat Akhar»;-.i to wage battle against

nn ,0n
t

wobvim,. VlOUj,
i

80

t0

the

TT
ih*
ii

Z

hoax

practised

on

that he

his

hapless

victims

cake

among

Akbar

takes the

sometimes said that Akbafs conduct matters of religious belief and in worship was guided by political expediency.- This is a clear admission of Akbafs rank hypocrisy. We only wish that it be brought to the fore not "somebut always in talking or writing limes" about
is

H1

all

Muslim

rulers' malpractices.

Akbar.

Birba had to suffer the added humiliation of havmg Akbars fou] breath blown on his injured
face.

Poor

""He would cure
ing

at

them or

TTi.s literally
,a

the ailing children by lookgiving them water over which he

amounted

to

adding

insult to injury.

had breathed.

He would
miracles,

have people
his feet.

believe

"Akbar was

stern to his nobles

^ performs
and
vassals

healing the

sick

with the

so that none dared lift his head too high. pleased to accept their
presents though

w ater with

He

was

which he washes

Many young

Women pay
,ha *
J[.

prudent dissimulation he them.
I5

often with

vows

to

him

te get their children cured

pretended

not to see

they

may have

children.

And

if

to

Until 1579
otlce

Akbar used to pay regular cv ery year, and sometimes even
ibid.

visits.

come to pass they bring him offerings, as to lf "ta, whtoh though they may be of little worth. * rc willingly received and highly valued by him
\l "'

lhm Bs

twice

(3.
14.

f>.

5U3 -Akbar the Great'

£ p

506.
61,

Akbur

the Great, ibid.

.

P- 504, rbid

-Payne,

Akbar and
the Great. V

Hie
I '

u
'

^uKcd

P»8e 5JI.

Akbar

lb,J

£33

23*

court have oft c ,„' misunderstood and therefore creduloutlj represented dealing* at Ubat \ court. To get at the real import of heir notfogs one has i<» under

Europoun

visitors

to

Akbar\

atari

,

ft d ha
]ijs
,

ordert and thc rapacity nfiw d ror I00 ° yca " b

r

been

a

common

>

practice

«fci
* f0r

nm

rm%

i

stand

All these the contemporary atmosphere. Western practically no knowledge of the Motors had court language and, therefore, had to depend on super. rkial DbsetvatioQS or motivated Muffs u»d brainwashing by sycophant Muslim courtiers. We know

to the tyrant ;nen to rush itn their children at his feet in a h;a .! , ay bitl lo B|ld TO fkft K:ar , so that he may call a halt

o****?
to

£?*

the gi

committed by his barbaric, greedy , Iul lewd horde Those who could escape rape, plunder and maaic"
p; fled in

terror to seek

some

relief

from Ak

from experience
tacts

thai a foreign

visitor circles

whose

con-

are restricted
^

to

cabinet

goes back

of his royal hosts. Those who ect the opportunity to know the people and listen to their talcs of misery would paint a dif-

and

the praises

That scene of multitudes thronging hit-own in abject subjection sobbing, day and night wailing
artd

pathetically imploring

the

voverign to have

Thus. European visitors to Ak bar's court laboured under a double disadvantage namely oflanguage and contacis. Hence readers of their memoirs must be extra cautious in properly interferent picture.

mercy on them and their darling children bid at his feel in complete surrender and humiliating submission
of

was misunderstood by the Persian and Hindi as signifying
obtain spiritual
bliss

Jesuits ignorant

people's yentu

lug to

from Akbar.
gratified

preting their notings.

Such a scene immensely

Ak>

It

We.
the
bliss

fully accept that

Akbar used

satisfied his

vanity.

The

*feer of absolute power

to be surroun*

ded by throngs of men.
observation that
for

women and

over

children.

But

they came to seek or their children

spiritual

themselves

or

to

be

such masses of mortals to make or mar their He felt greatly elated fortunes exhilarated him. *hen thronging crowds looked up to him in pathetic submission as the one and only
and arbiter

blessed with children is incorrect.

of

their

destiny.

His cruel Maje

The crowd around Akbar was always of a mixed sort. The throng included courtiers body
guards, menial servants, cringing scribes, prisoners.

Akbar would then 'graciouly" break into his untie drink hi. of 'comforting' them by asking them to warn filthy wash-water or foul- breath -blown

European or Indian visitors, si.me mere idle and thc common men, women and children.
These
la

gazers

.(-mentioned

common

people didn
solace
bill

\

The descriptions of an Akbar or a Wing in the palace-window at >unsel Q jnd ^plicated by crowds of tag"

Jcftu

come

to

Akbar
relief

for fun or spiritual

l°r

^
'

to

be understood

„, this light

W nea

temporal

from

A kbar's

tyra mi ical

and whim-

tors refer to such scenes their de*'.r

234

XVII
[

he
light
i

properly understood
.

and interpreted n of what we know of A k bar's character
Earlier historians

lh

a

domes
.11

have

!h

all failed

to era

this aspect

of the throngs that kept hanging around k bar's door. A

FAMINES
Interminable revolts,
reprisals,

reprisals

burning and sou

*****
life

massa cre characterised the 1,000-year, long
rule in

^
i

na

JS"*" m u JZ
,h
r

India.

W tth their civic

shattered

Homes battered and Uicir family life reduced to a shambles the citizenry had to run for its life Those who escaped massacre had to remain m hiding
forests
to

and mountainous

in

country. Such turmoil led
reign was

frequent famines.

Akbar's

no excep-

His tenure too was marked by some of the tion. most horrid famines in human history giving a he to claims that Akbar's was a benevolent rule. His
regime
sultan

being as atrocious as
or

that
it

of any oiler

Bad shah,

if

not mote,

was bound

to

result in

severe famines,
in -the

Vincent Smith writes 1 that
l555-5<
i

famines of

capital (Delhi) was devastated and the mortality was enormous. The historian Badayuni

be

with his
their

own eyes witnessed the fact that men own kind, and the appearance of famished
scarcely
.

was so hideous thai one could was look upon them The whole country to ^sert. a„d no husbandsmati remained
sufferers
.

till

W

ground.

-Gujarat, one of the

richest

wl

generally

reputed to

i!*£^am ine? suffered
TTSTatS-IW,
Akbaf
the

severely

provinces^ Into iron be almost cwmf* months for
i

Ore* M<»l*

m

*

:

<;.,.

:^7

in

f5?3-74.
ition,

P.Milemt
ilic

IS

usual

follow

so dull

inhabitants, rich an

the country
••AhuJ

and were scattered abroad.
. i • ;

0nc may well imagine i he il?***; action of revenue by the Muslim admin «,*'
vagueness
qt Mf,

*
i

with

characteristic

records that

In

1583*84,

as

prices

were high

p

account
sul
li'

of the dryness ol the year, the means a nee of many people came to :ni J
CJ
iii.

brave the gemma, tore* beast* than tortured to pieces by human h r or a .. A t the time or famine and cTistr

m„

get

i

m

ess

omen,

Chapter IXX1V, p. 625) to give any details or even to mention which provinces were affected. If we may judge from the slovenly way in which he treats the tremendous calamity of 1595-98 we may infer that
famine of 1583-84 was serious. It does not seem 10 be mentioned or even alluded to by other
the
chroniclers.

(Akbamama Vol, He does not trouble

to were allowed

sell their children

touch of irony in Badayunft above. While Akbar. it vee™, gracio Observation allowed his subjects to sell their children for |y of famines, children used to be food in tunes almost everyday m the chaoi that kidnapped

There

is

a

reigned in those days. Citiz< as were also compelled surrender or sell their children for paying Akbnr's
to

1595 and lasted three or four years until 1598 equalled in its horrors the one which had occurred in the accession year, d excelled the visitation by reason of its longer
in

"The famine which began

revenue.

Such children passing through the mill of wdonn abject slavery and menial duties including Islam, ultimately ended up by being converted to
Hinduism That automatically estranged them from

duration.

Abul

Fazal, as already

observed,

slurs

and Hindus! ban and
or

mad

m

feel like

para-Arabs

over the calamity by using vague words designed to neea the severity of the distress and to save the credit of the imperial government. (Footnote
I

para-Turks
rule in

He
in

gives details of the famine

in

the accession

year

Mustitn So, famine or no famine, undci for sale India children were a commodity respite i- chattel either to obtain food or

pw»
d

order to show that things improved ascended the throne).

when Akbar

mental revenue.

Epidemics and marred Ak bar's reign.

inundation ... occasionally
. .

«Un

this

year

(981

A*

)

«>*

^heitwasi..C,ujcrutapcncr.ilpt«il«
a dearness

^

of grain

to

*uch an

»w n

-The emperor Babur, mentions that the parganas
jungles,

in

his

autobiography
in
Si"

and
i-

that

were surrounded by the people of the parganas »>fien
4

his
IICS

tramkti

'

^'hkWit B*
.

I

m,

dud

P

189,

B^av.m.'^lK-uJcJ^

m
nniun*
less

239

iwaiijoM

for 120 Tankas.

and number,

hour

people died."

g*
|;oU

and every minute news came Khan, of the death
listen.

tdnt

?* * <^ **«*
to
''

,

,

h( he

but

A student of Miislrrn chronicles must remember that iln> general Iv mention famines, pestilences or tyrnmn and torture only when such calamities afloci and afflict a substantial lection of Muslims
themselves,

the reference to (Muslim* h to Hindu cremations none the r e ad an d Tr

From

* b ° ve*

As

for instance

Badaytmi condemns
for the
atrocities

of our remark made chroniclers record calamities
(he

justice

earlier

and

Jl

ilTu^ m
-

,

A k bar's

General Peer

Mohammed

when a substantial section of the

be committed,

not

and ulamas
talismans
clers
-

holdini'
-

on Hindus bin on Sayynds fcorans on their heads as

t

cum

helmets.

To

Muslim

chroni;i

was afflicted. To them the Hindus were of no consequence at all because Muslim rule Hindus were expendable

J^ZR Iw

pt0
v

w«iZ

° nly

Hindu men. women and children were natural fodder for fanaticsm to feed on, that is why almost invariably they use he words dancing girls' and "prostitutes" for Hindu women and 'slaves kafirs. thieves, robbers, dacojis and infidels as ipnymous wilh Hindu males. Even though Muslim chronicles had a lOOO-ycar-chain succession in Hindustan, a Hindu majority country* as a rule they seem to be unaware of live Hindu. They show a marked preference for the biltetst invectives uttered with fanatic emphasis when referring to
I

The implication of the Jisziya tax was precisely Hindus were suffered to live, if at all, and
they lived

thai
-

even

*

they were to be ruled by Muslim* and were to sweat and toil and slave for Muslims.

As seen above, during Akbar's domain from Bengal in the east to
west
felt

reign his entire

Gnjera!

in

the

prey to

deadly pestilence and

frightful

famine.

Dr. Shrivastava describing the Gujerat famine
observes 5 that

Hindus.

"when

the (Bihar) military campaign
progress, Gujerat
in the

was
test

making successful
was, in 1574-75,
in

Describing another horrid pestilence, in Gaud tpital or Bengal), Badayuni notes "various diseases attacked the constitutions of the Amirs, everyday hosts upon hosts of people having played out their existence bade farewell to one
another and

how many thousands so ever were
country
returned
lf , c
,

the throes of a dreadful famine and epidemic the like of which had nut been seen or heard in living memory. Both lasted for five to six months, The famine was not cm but wn bV drought or the failure of seasonal rains, due to prolonged wars and

destruction wrought bv

Id off Tor that

it

cannot be stated thai
i

n

hundred even
»UCh a PUS, lh;„ the dead, und

home. Things came |Vmg WefC unabJc to bury

Kbcllions, constant marching and counwr-mai of I'oops, * the killing of men on

»!£*
n»dua«l

threw

mem

^l^breakdown
5-

of administrative
I

into die river.

Every

Pp 169-171. Akhar

lie

Great.

^

1

24

and he economic system. The historian Mohammed H.nif Qandahan rightly observes hal the- plat eue d famine conned not only on account of u lc ntamination of water and air but also because of the misrule and oppression by the Afghans, Aby . s The epidemic which was sinians and Mirzas. most the plague, preceded the famine. probably The larniiv was widespread and covered (he whole of and a large number of inhabitants left the Gujerat, The mortality was so high that on an province. average 100 cart-loads of dead bodies were taken out for burial in the city of Ahmcdabad alnne, and was impossible to find them graves or grave it clothes The severity was equally felt in the towns and districts of Broach. Patan and Baroda, and in fact in the whole of Gujerat. TJte price of jowar
i
(

>

and partial, irftamtnad bin Kasim downwards
is

being

partisan

Turks, Arabs, Iranians, Afgh ans 'Mongols, to whichever
belonged,

2** ^ "***
1
'

»hey

dynasty

^"^ni

proved

equally

cruel and

There is rest. lhan the

no basis to choose

a nd the firm belief that the surest shared way q f islamic heaven was by destroying ing H

,Jtre d

for

They were animated by Hindus and Hindu culture

a few as bette

^1^ r"
* ,lf

*

a

2?2

1

and compelling everybody

fadi£

to profess Islam.
in

Another point to be emphasized
tion

thedescrmif

100

Gujerat famine cited above, is that of Muslim corpses alone had cartloads
of the

to be

taken out of

Ahmedabad

everyday

the

number of

maund. Horses and other miiTLils had to he led on tree barks. There is nothing on record to show that government undertook an\ rehef measures, Abu] Faza the court historian, silent on the calamity. Had Akbar ordered any nd of relief he must not have missed the upporturose

to

six

rupees a

Hindus dying must have, been a hundredfold more
since
I

he

Muslims may have formed only one percent of population. Moreover the Muslims were the
If

rulers.

they themselves suffered 100

cartloads of

I

day the loss to the downtrodden and dc* cply hated Hindu community may well be imagined.
casualties

a

Of praising his royal patron."
Dr.

The 100 cartloads
exclusively

of corpses a day

were obviously
the

Shrivastava

has

hit

the nail quite on the
the famine was not

fact

When he observes

that

of the Muslims as is they were taken for

apparent from

burial and not cre-

that

mation.

about by natural causes but by Muslim and misrule. But we would like to add that
'gned to this particular famine reign applies equally to all famines a rn.llcn.um of Muslim rcgrmci in India,
i

»u*

during during

during Akbar's reign almost ° f India famine suffered from a terrible rr <>m east to west but also from north to
That
*PParent

every part
not on ?

from

the
in

report

that

Hanif Qandnhari is en m blaming the famine on the misdeeds of ;hanv Abys inians and Mirzas alone. In this he

The

histi rian

Mohammad

Juror's stay

^nejMhc
*•
-

Kashmir valley (May

there

wm* ^«f«J wa> •

to

November

p 40g, Akbar

the Great, ibid-

24:

243
|ass

i

jmips

became very d«w and Imshandsmen had Jon their hearths and homes. Jerome \.
4

of «hc
VI,
i

indigent

w as cm
-

of

.

itci

thai

mothers
Jesuit

left

their children

m

u lc w

*

J

powson,
i
tially

falsi

tu The

iv<|), '
" '

nat hat

(Elliot

Yemeni
for

k

iodic.

I he

missionaries

opportunity
to his

JC

&

,an "

end baptized them (Maclagan.
pp. 77-78)/*

picked Lbem*^ p, 56; Du
rric

^
»

Urc
Abul

morsel nfnauery

About

the

Gujemt
J

Fazal far more strongly than the less million* The mortality ntlim
appalling.

Ucr^Lt

oflVn

famine

Vinccm
from

Smiti

Fcnshta, whose
the

observes that "Gujerat (fess liable to famine than most parts of India suffered severely
bn'i

considered
history,

does noL even mention
is

known work I best Persian summary of Indian
this famine, which

well

X£ mm ^t
£
The

famine and

pestilence
.

(I

574-75) lasting for ncarfo
iree

accordingly

m\ months Prices rose to an extreme height Horses and cows were reduced to feeding on
barks (Tabakai-i-Akbari. Elliot p. 384)."

&

ignored by Elphinstonc, If a minor had not happened to write the few lines historian quoted above, even the bare fact that such a calamity occurred
reports of
1

Dowson. Vol V

would not be on

record..

Jesuit

Around 15%
suffered

Hie
terrible

whole of Northern
famine/'
says

597 note that in that year Lahore suffered from a great pestilence which gave the fathers ihc

India

from

a

Smith,

opportunity

and

intense satisfaction of baptizing

"which lasted continuously for three or four years beginning in 595-96. A contemporary historian records a kind of plague also added to the horrors of this period, and depopulated whole houses and
J

many

infants

who had
M

been abandoned

(Footnote,

Maclagan,
Fully

p, 7l)*

endorsing Smith's

observation

above

ernes,

say nothing of hamlets and villages. In iibcquencc of the dearth of grain and the necessities of ravenous hunger, men ate their own kind.

to

chronicler about the utter unreliability of Muslim Fazal menwe would like to add that when Abul
lions the

poor having been
that

entrusted to the care

and roads were blocked up with dead bodies., and no assistance would be render, 01 their removal (footnote: Nurul Hakk, p. 193). Abul Fazal characteristically glosses over the calamity in language which gives no notion whatevei
streets
I
1 i

he

mea of the well-to-do, that has a deeper
possible

some poor

Muslims,

have been billeted «ith or made a AU> on some well-to-do courtiers whom
to

M"2
if

at all.

W

,

punish or impoverish-

of the severit>

their

of the situation.

Abul Fazafsay*
and

er the imperial orders, the necessitous received daily assista nce to every their

millions Akbar cautious and alert mind -Mvuiuiiu aicn i""" u

JJ^ £; ^^^^[J^dersV
is ".

About

dy
very

died cai

for

satisfaction,
ibid

7*.

P. 93,

Akbar ihc Grcai Moeul,

and interpreting the overt vc|! °f accoum7wriu en by M«hi* «f" account;
'"£

-^.^

revert covert

nu*» " »
, ,

Pp. 19:

MbiU

chroniclers.

KAT.COM.

Ctmpu-r

Witt

245

have already proved erlions of flatterers like Ahul fl8S Fall ouL Akbar having abolished ihTl ob

We

lhc

P',0 «i

d8
{

^'

FANATICISM
Akbar was born a Muslim, he Muslim and died a Muslim— and a
at lhai-

discriminatory exaction was a taken ffi?
a s0 that

"h

^

Muslim monarch may

lived

as

run of histories he is painted as having been anything from a devout Hindu, to an agnostic liberal or a generous synthesizer of the best principles of all religions, Like every other aspect Akbar's Islamic fanaticism too has been whitewashed. Such an image of

And

yet in the

common

fanatic one

contradicted by tacts Individual " |S afteT^V Jain monk Hirvijaya Sur. 1lkc the and l!**"?^ " Sh to ask for special exemption. ? I

suffer

mdu '
11

was ostensibly [hal exemption never taken or meant to be taken
Similar
is

M

And

granted
ser jowly.

**

cow-slaughter.

the case with the fancied ban on In Akbar s reign
it

Cow-slanghtef

continued unabated as
rule.

A number of

did throughout Muslim historians like Sir H.M,

Akbar was

Hiot

deliberately fostered
l r

under Muslim

rule

GOO-year-Song history of unrelieved and sickening atrocities at least one Muslim monarch should be presentable to posterity. Since Muslim rule lasted for 253 long ye;
after

so that in an unbroken

and Vincent Smith have repeatedly that sanctimonious and self-righteous
chronicles like
not
they
did the

pointed out
assertions

m

Akbarnama and
seriously.

Jchangtrnama are
that

to

be taken

Those who claim
I

Akbar

that assiduously

fostered image took

have a written firman indicating hat Akbar ban cow slaughter should first examine whether

such root in the public mind that Akbar came to be unquestiomngly accepted as a broadminded ruler who was very liberal and tolerant in matters

document they possess is genuine or a forgery. Secondly they would also find that Akbar's makebelieve

orders were a form of

deception.

Like lhc

of religion as also rule. A few who

in

every other aspect of his may have suspected this image

exemptions from Jiziya agreed to on.Htaijajfl orders Suri's or Surjun Singh's entreaties lucse
were a

to be counterfeit dared not air their views under the delusion that such falsehoods if left undisturb-

dead

tetter,

ed lead to
voice

communal harmony,
not be heard

or that their slender
in

Vincent
Jesuits
al

Smith notes how
his court

the the Bible which

may

or would be denounced

presented

to

Akbir

the

public

hullabaloo of Akbar's greatness.

We

'"returned to

have overwhelming evidence to prove that Akbar wail no tesf fanatic an Islamite than any other Mublim ruler in India. There is nothing to choose amogust them. They were alt fiercely fanatic.

Ut that

it

datigk the carrot

**« them at a much later ctate was no use or no long* "j"*"* or of &»« * his liberalism
,

*

of

Christianity. Precipitate love with

rjTm, Akbar the Gtnl UanLM

247

246

Smith
.

li»hman who HAktai died in the
4lB

www Sit Thorns Roe. a contemporaty visited Mb. as
«

lives to

that

extend Akbar's empire ka Akhar was a fiercely fanatic
liberal

rl

filter P
mS
I

last

died as

WThe was born, a Mohnmmaden."
fine

had SilVl formal profession of his ct VMUcl Boelh0 osscrts lI,Bl Akb ^r
phrases

been the

he

is

p a med
i

Mu ?' m
,

'^^
Hid
he

and soldiers would not have dared

J?

Hindu

allies

and

helpers,

,„>^ m*

tew

about so large a space which occupy n general tolerance Fazal and the sayings of Akbar writings of Abul
j

Notwithstanding the

the

main

acts

o\'

fierce

intolerance were committed."

despatched on December 10, 1580 rector of Goa says 'our ears by Aquaviva to the hear nothing but that hideous and heinous name

••The persons invited io SnafE debates were confined ai l0 the firs, i M ^i™"r four classes, namely Shaikhs. Sayyids, UuT.2 The House of Worship Amirs. was duto^ tEne* the use of Muslims only," for
. . -

*"A

letter

In a word, Mahomet of Mahomet. .. . Anti Christ reigns.' thing here
* Ifc Akbar

is

every-

Gulbadan Begam were extremely devout Muslims and hostile to all innovation. Accompanied by Salima Sultan Begum (widow of Behram Khan
sister

'"His mother Hamida Bano Begum and fatk

reaching the point of definitely becoming a Zoroastrian. He acted jd ihe same way with regard to Hinduism* Jainism and Christianity. He went so far in each religion

stopped without ever

and wife to
of

Mecca

in

Akbar) they October 1575,

started

on a

pilgrimage
in

fhey were detained

Surat by the Portuguese for about a year. Ultimateaway safely, performed the pilgrimage ly they got

reasonable ground for affirming him to be a Zoroastrian, Hindu, Jain or
that different

people had

and landed safely in India early in 1582. Gulbadan Begum who wrote memoirs of considerable interest.
preserved
in

Christian."

one incomplete

manuscript, has leu

We
the

no record of her experience as a pilgrim."

have already quoted,
against

in

an earlier chapter,
in

court chronicler

Badayuni that

the

battle

of Haldighal

Rana Pratap Badayuni and

Akbar's general were unanimous in shooting into the ranks of the Hindus of Akbar's own army on
the

""A large party of male pilgrims under sent charge of a leader (MirHaji) was also continued novel and costly arrangement was warned five or six years, and Akbar
io pilgrimage himself (but he yielded great dangers.. of his ministers because of the
the

the

Mg Uic very
2 3
i' 1*

ground that a Hindu killed on any side was gain to Islam This spun of murdering and massacr-

di«uw£

Hindus who were jeopardizing
iind.

Uieii

v«d).
6
7.

The emperor
Pp. 94-95, ibid.

issue d

/general

oflfcl

m.
I!*,

159, ibid.

J

P
»'

125, Ibid.
i

P

9(».

ibid

hid.

8.

P. 96, ibid.

!

MS
anyone could go
treasury." i he
v\

240

Oil

pi er image at state
I

«p«M

'•The Christian father* KOI "in.li
i

lit I j.

of

M,oldmg
her*

religious
in

discussion

monarch or Hindxisthan himgo on pilgrimage to Mecca and gives self warns to anybody may go on the Islamic blanket order thai at state expense from money pilgrimage to Mecca usurious and discriminatory extracted by way of to send Muslim citizens to taxes from Hindus is he if not a fanatic Islamic territories what else
hen a Muslim
i

fencing him

tuFfS****

were fenced Xavier by
acCO

favour of C hh,w, gradually losing
telling

him

lhal

rdedhim

in preaching his

rcli ei0n

at t gre

serviceP. 57,

(Xaviefs
also

letter

Michigan,

Du Jarric.
a

^JJ A ^ ^ ^ $
,

Tfc

of Aug.
9n-i,T

PP

Muslim
have also quoted earlier that Akhar had provided Ahdun Nabi with Rs, 7,000 for his pilgrimage to Mecca.

We

sworn enemy of Hinduism he used to oblige Jesuit priest* by « T acm w that |y making over to them forcibly seized Hindu temples for conversion into churches and mansions or Christian use. Thus mediaeval churches similar
in

Akbar was such

Ak bar's
the

goading two sects of Hindu

priests,

Kurs and the Puris at Thancshwar, to annihilate each other, and aiding the weaker side in that
deadly combat with his own fierce Muslim troopers so that ihey may see to it that none of them re-

Agra are Hindu buildings- Dr. Shrivast. IWi 'A notable Hindu family claimed a records
houses that
provide
converts,

i

had been given accommodation to

to the fathers

to

married

Christian

mained

alive,

shows how

fiercely fanatic a

Muslim

Akbar was.
have already quoted references to Akbar's pilgrimages once or even twice a year to the lomb of the Muslim fakir Sheikh Moinuddin Chisti in Ajmer, and his patronizing Sheikh Salim Chistii Had Akhar been inclined towards also a Muslim.

Xavicr succeeded in getting Akbar'! houses remained in the orders from Agra and the hostile Hindu possession of the Lahore mission. The
family suffered
tion

from

vicissitudes to the great

satisfac-

We

of Pinhciro (Maclagan, Pp.6|.«|. "1 he ehurch being in;, dated Sept. 6, 1604 wrote
large

Xavicr

in his

no

and
"'

can be beautiful, everything

well

carried

out
note

any other religion he would not have confined
demotions only to Muslim
fakirs.

his

The reader may atrocious it was for a
than to turn
its

how

Muslini

so«W
to the

*+*gg* «
J to*
I

Throughout Akbar's reign temples used to be razed to the ground or misappropriated as mosque* and cows used lo be slaughtered in them as happened in the battle foj Nagarkot exactly as under any
other Muslim ruler.

Hindu out n wealthy

•£
1

property
Q.

and make
Akbm

it

vet

or

"
Pp.
ibid.
10.

409 410.

Ihc

GM

A

t

»

p, 407, ibid.

l

250

251

«o that he m with

may continue

to

pet

armaments

which he could

mow down

from

,

the Hindu.

tJ ,

Ju nml

marched

llS ,

/from

1*1 tu

'

r„ ampa
..,.
, pill

t

her with

iiu-

general

Rcuardinc the Nagarkot campaign Mr, SheJat ,,4 'A treaty was arrived at. The Mogul notC5 thai caused a mosque to be built over the gate

urDa,y,Kha,M n

Z

tonV
,

way

of the Raja's palace.

throughout Muslim chrom has been used to mean cks the word "built** building for Muslim mpropriating a Hindu thai Hindu gateways used It is well known use music house on top. So the mosque to |,nve a was nothing but u ihe Niicarkot palace gateway of at least a part of the ,he atrocious occupation Here
a:*

elsewhere

pictures of vulgar company. On Uimedabad he was once agl, ln a mdta n n At last relieved from the tyranny irping nobles Muhmud wielded tfo
,

lllfi

J^I ™»
-injects'

,

aU) for the next nine years, ft began to ^religious zeal by persecuting Hindu

sceptre per

m

^

,',

r

how during 1.000-ycare of M usli ro rule Hindu shrine left without there is practically no mosque wholly or in conversion into a tomb or
That
is

Hindu Raja's palace.

This was a

common

practice,

Hindu was allowed to ride on horseback in was he allowed to enter a bazar withn y city nor patch of red on the back of a white garment on a red one or to weat en or n patch of white The Hindu festivals of Moti or one colour. piwali were banned and so also public worship and
flo
;

,

,ii

;i

i

the

existence of a Muriim mrt. This is proved by ihe Hindu shrines like nb at almost all important Lord Krishna, Vishwanaih. birthplace of
the palate died the place where Lord Krishna hdls, Somnatn, of Lord Rama, Palitana and Gintar many mosques and tomos.

home* did No Rajput or Kolt was allowed to move li fear. tout unless, like a criminal he was branded
privacy
»if

ringing of belts irshipped in the

in

temples.

Even those who
their

Kashi

liisnrm.

Anybody found
at

without
to

this

humitomg
iBajl-

iwk

was

once

put

death.

Gujerat, 427)."

an d Ahmedabad's

is

are

Hindu buildings or Hindu land to favour alienated by India's" Muslim rulers
Christians ot the cost of the Hindus.

Agra church And from the instance of the churches too clear that all mediaeval Christian and
isurpedt usurped
inip
'

Jt

Hud Akbar abolished the*
ana
lories
i

humiltatina ,nv

on

Hindus,

that
it

prevailed

m
'

Gujera

other About Gujerat ruled over by notes during Akbar's time Mr. Shelal
11

IWjg

h1IA generosity and sense °*J' *lhe«ia«o mention of widUion of he Hindus even aRei ***
inliiv,
I

would have

hailed

as prool

Ak

gj
;

te

Jg jffjff
.

«1

Gujerat

ii

is

obvious

thai

Akbar

>

ru

rf

,,

'

J«*e
I\
Pfl

any

difference

to

r iheir nv c

uti%

US, AUiir J.M.Shclal,
122029,
ibid.

ibid.

"^ni
"wu the

12

ofihc Hindus in the **»*"* regime of every Muslim

low^X

,„.

152

153

I

end of Muslim rule, in lgj^ whichever race, dynasty or nationality, and what, Hindus a period of errX)f his age. was to the
tury
\o

from

Mohammad
the

bin Kiisim in the early

8ih cClJ . "

Akbar was so
vert not

fanatic a Muslim thai h only men but alio
lc
.

ever

i

and great cruelly torture, slavery* humiliation

temple and elephants to hl am Badavimi tells uM that RanaP ra ,w leV »*** Prasad which preyed to
lhe

C 7/*«*
Peer

"On" October

22, 1573

Akbar had

the cere-

llnKiiirhai battle

was named

tnutZ
captured |

mony of circumcision of the three princes performed Willi i!rcat eclat- -In far olTMcwar (in 1574) i Wo districts Mohan and Rampuni were renamed Istarnpur.

Akbar.

Around 989 A. H." "the emperor
sect

or sheikhs,

who

called

Akbar also tried

to set

up Muslim colonies

in the

other district therby giving large tracts to Muslims

but were

generally

indented similar

kno^n names for the

ihemsclvei 'diicipfcv as Hahiv They had
la*>

and

religious

m

Budhnor. Ruhlia Bavebra, Pur, and Bhimravar,

(Shri

Ram

Sharma's Maharana Pratap, pp.

38-39.)'*

In September 1577 Akbar

sent a party of Haj

commands of Islam and for the fast Hi -i y them whether they repented of their vamti .i>ked At his command they were sent to Bhakkar and
Qandahar and were given to merchant in c\chnge This instance proves that colts," for Turkish Akbar was such a fanatic Muslim that he would not suffer any para- Islamic sect to exist

pilgrims with five lacs of rupees and 16,000 khilats to distribute among the residents of Hijaz (Abut

PaxaTi Akbaniama, Tr, Bevendge, III, 305*6. Even Badayuni admits that the emperor sent many
j

to
at
it

Mecca with gold and goods and
considerable public expense.
is

rich

presents

"When Shah Abu

Turab

>ind

Itimadkhan

From

this evident

impossible to give credence to the accusation an of Badayuni and some others that Akbar was
apostate

they daimed Gujcrati brought a piece of rock which Akbar « bore Mohammad "s root impression hi: receive it and commanded eight miles to a few st« courtiers to carry it by turns,
this

Badayuni being a dissatisfied courtier and a Akbar's rabidly fanatic Muslim he couldn't tolerate he occasional highhandedness and the only way was could vent his spleen on a despot like Akbar. ludub him a Hindu. That was the highest abuse
that a lowly, subservient

manner they brought

it

to the city.

""The
point of
of all
aler

1,000 of the

Hijmcit^Bow^J
should

completion, the emperor -mui. km&sof Islam !«' be written,

;^™[

fanatic Muslim despot like Badayuni could fling at an all-powerful

courtic

m HMusthn
14.
15.
16,

commemorated

P.243.VoniH^u«m-»cBro«m'c.lba.
P. 30t,
P.

like

Akbar. with impunity.
13,

Vol

It.

ibM

320, ibid

Pp. 203-B, Akbar, by

J.

M,

Shetot, ibid

17,

p. 327, ibid

^

255

354

I.OOOdiyeHJ of>tta Hijra
0ftjj

and cause a
is

history

f

Muslim

rulers

to be written

indicative of

^ Kmadc
.

-

t

Abul Fatal writes"
reign), after

"i nl K-

U<*

the

Husayn Khan

£^TLT
governor of

hfe Islamic fiuiaJfeisin,

ft*
As

Akbar, like every other Muslim ruler, thirsted

Badayuni says •] represented for Hindu Mood. (io Akbar) that I had a very strong desire to take massacring Hindus). «i e. part in a hoh war to dye these black to lie presumption to desire moustachios and beard in (Hindu) blood (in the Rana Pratap war) through loyalty to Your Majesty's person' and when I put out my hand towards the couch in order to kiss his feet, he withdrew it, but was going out of the audience chamber he just as called me back and filling both his hands he presented me with a sum of 50 Ashrafis, and bid me
i

days)

h.mseif a zealous Sunni. he showed

Aryans
as 1[in aus

did

with the J.wa, he

Z
thc

ordered

unbelievers to wear a pa ich (Tukra) shoulders, and thus got the nick name of near the Tukriyatpatcher):'

t

That patch was obviously to mark the Hindus so that even through inadvertance as pariahs

they

may not

get

humane

treatment.

Such div

I

crimination

under which the mere Hindu was than a dog or pig, was endemic seated, worse
throughout

Muslim

rule,

farewell/'

Manv
when out of
loyalty
1

students, teachers and scholars of Indian

Badayuni's statement that
to

generations history fed for

on concocted
at

stories of

Akbar he expressed his yearning to dye his black Muslim moustachios in Hindu blood by massacring Hindus, Akbar far from expressing any disapprobation presented him a handful of gold coins shows how much premium Akbar put on
massacring Hindus. This should disprove the claim that Akbar unlike other Muslim rulers was well disposed towards the Hindus. Akbar like every other medieval Muslim courtier and ruler deeply hated the Hindus.
In

Akbar

s

have fancied benevolent rule

best

had

sneaking suspicions
tional tutoring.

about the

validity

of tradi-

city

who doubt But even these people Akbafs of assertions about
still

theauthenti-

believe that though humane rule appeared Hindu-hater overtly Akbar
conciliatory.

.^J*
to

covertly
be very

Akbars lime
citizens

persecution of the
third-class

was no let up in the Hindus. They were treated as
there

This view is hatrec ounaged nor minimised his
as
is

»rt»kMi mistaken,

Akbar aku

neither

^

^^

conv

quoted instances apparent from the

methods.
18. P.

deserving of third degree Evidence of this is found in the Ain-i
234
ibid.

iT^Toh Ain-i Akbwl.
Blochmami.
edited

wnshied mw D. by Lt. Col

^^

1927edition. Calcutta,

254

,er

M*

Hindus were as openly despised, as conic tuously treated, humiliated and humbled and*?* cruelty treated under Akbar 's rule as under an! There was not the slight other Muslim's rule mi Akbar was one of the many links in a difference. chain of Muslim rule in India. That link was of t piece with the other links of the Muslim clu u which fettered Hindusthan,

MALPRACTICES
Akbafs
tyrannical,

faminc^clccn

dden, war-worn and corrupt regime «,* ri very cruel malpractices The* n some were

»,*

w'
1

almost from Ihc beginning of ancient legacy Muslim lasted until Mogul power in Delhi ended. TU le and

No blame should

attach

to
hnc

Akbar

foi inventing

practices, is wugm to he »ughl built those practices. generous, nsidcrate, „n as an ideal, noble, gencrou considerate, mcrup tolerant monarch we wish to point ,ful and
c

But since mil

that
at

malpractices of Muslim rule continued Akbar's "He neither their worst during n»"« * ral heir woi s*i uuimg
all

abolished

them nor

softened

their rigour.

One such

malpractice was of the compte;
the realm, to
-ever

branding or all horses in the royal mark thev belonged, with all horses only usurpation of
automatically enslaved The possessor o [ * h horse.
servant
service

every

M*£ M>^ c(W
w

J Th»w*art

^
of

farthing

b^ w «^J -^ruther of the crown **3K * much without Whenever WJ ^m
so
as being

con4 , U ered

in

return.

any

new

ruthless territory all the
hi

formed Hie basis of ll|,NlJ new territory. Thi- » Vincent Smith Gujeral.

"Jg^ ^ ™ mt
.7,
ii

econq. .imiedthou emperor fDuring 1 57.'.74) the
l.

^

^

D^ U rbaiK-

imJ i

*Kh

W

P

K6.

Akbar

the

G«*

i

258

25&
ft

Todarmil, promulgated the branding regulation a regular system of branding horses.. .based ,, Allauddiii Khilji's and Sher Shah's practice,"

tiered and when according

the horses of his 20 tmo, br0 ught then to be made a was

to 1K

The branding
even

practice

was

deeply

relented

m0I camels
to

c

They were
in

likewise
to

proportion
rule

tffiSl01 **
com™™?
,

COrrim

«* fe had f^n**. °

foir

ar> d

by Ak bar's own relations and wealthy courSmith remark* 3 "Mirza Aziz Koka, Akbar's tiers. favourite foster brother was so particularly hostile
(to the branding of horses) that to confine

the

same
their

When

**«£****
rf
\

new contingent comp^ ^ster h according to thc.r bc promoted merits
EanceS 10 the port o

^'*
I 111 *

Akbar was
at
f

obliged

commander

him

to his

garden house

Agra,"

&r
«r

cvcn5.WO.wh.chi S thehigJt e stcomn«ni^
they

m

and

^

rite

Todarmal. a Hindu, became Akbar s hot favouat court only because he permitted himself to be
ruthlessly enforce all of

Akbar's matpractices throughout the realm. Since it was a Hindu who was enforcing hose unconscionable practices on behalf of Akbar Hindus, who formed the vast majority of Akbar's subjects, found themselves between the devil and the deep sea.
a
I

stooge to

did not do well at the musters they were he degraded -The conditio of the soldiers to gi« w because the Amirs put most of their worse

servants

and mounted attendants into soldiers' clothe* (and) brought them to the musters. But when they got
their jagirs

they gave leave to their mounted attendants, and when a new emergency arose they

mustered
required

as

many

'borrowed"

soldiers

as

were

and

sent them away again when they had

The great Bengal revolt of 1580 was partly due to the resentment provoked by Akbar's insistence on the resumption of jagirs, the preparation of descriptive rolls, and the systematic branding of
horses

served their purpose

Hence

while ihc income and

expenditure of (he Mansabdars remained in status soldier quo duM fell into the planer or the helpless

"

'Shahbaz Khan the Mir Buksh. introduced the custom and rule of Dagh-uMahail, which had been the rule oTsultan Allauddin Khilji and afterwards the law under Sher Shah. Ii was settled that every Amir should commence as a commander of 20 and be ready with his followers to mount guard, carry messages, etc., as had been
'

Badayuni records that

was no longer Rl fot l<W tea SBui from all sides there came a lot ol c ^enters™ people. weavers and cotton Cleaners, and greengrocers, both Hind,
so

much

so, that he

wpm

M«ta
°'

brought borrowed horses, got * comma] were appointed lo
i

effl

.11 KrorJs/or A hades or when a few days afterwards HP

Dak* 10

found
saddle

of the
I

imaginary

ho* <*

3.

P.

Ml

ibid,

P. 265,,

4.

Pp. 193-W.

tfudayum\ chronicle,

hey had to perform* !»«_ Many times it happened at &c emperor hnn^ii Ifl

^^^ ^ ™**^
iuJ
hc
i

J~^
vr;

JJ

d<

* fe

**

ibid.

COM

260
lha!

tlun

were weighed

in

their

clothes

inls

who
the

fleeced the

wilh
.

common man

rhe> werc f feci tied. 0Und thdr hands and three maurtds more or less, weigh from 21 10

net inquiry it god that their very clothes

m&

found thai they
all this

and

ln

were

all

hired

rowed an

ides,.. Lo

!

and saddles were borin my day but ask
no

Sharif

of

Amul

23rd year of Akbar\ **.

-In

hii

frdayum. "he came
,t

questions."

The horror of the above atrocious practice maj well be imagined. Every man was reduced to serfdom. Each one became liable for mtJitan In addition he had to bring his own service. animals like horses and elephants and camels Each one was also supposed to progressively enslave more and more men to be turned into soldiers One who did not submit himself and scores of
others

^ and the rate m disposition but he was of the ££*"* *™»* k iH htm) u

^

to Ulc Dukllm self-restraint h e bet raved ,hc

*2£«*

fil.h

ay,

|0

01l

5ct

x* shown
Hindusthan
for
is

about
a

the

m

4****
is

wide place where there

licentiousness and no place one interfere* another's business so that everyone itfith tan do 1 Thus, according to Budavani lusi as he pleases-/
all

m

u Dcn

to

such
for

military

tutelage

to

ravage

Hindusthan

flogged, tortured

Muslim monarch was and even killed. It was methods
the alien

under Muslim rule the whole of Hindusthan, whether the Deccan region or Northern lndm. reduced to a place open for all licentiousness, and every Muslim could do just as he pleased.
himself,
It

such as these that caused the spread of Islam
Islamic rule in India.
Since everyone

and
to

was
as

a practice during Muslim slaves or

rule

in

India

treat

all

prisoners rounded up after every wra*
massacre
its

paign

them.

I

is

saaie

was forced to enslave men and

practice

continued
.

in all

rigour and

t'urv

e\

persons aspiring to get some land and rank from Akbar had to resort to plunder of animals and kidnapping of the
animals for the royal musters the
defenceless
for

Akbar's re ig n
people

We

ha \ c already noted
then

a<

were enslaved along with
live

««
R.

and other
Fitch,

stock

.cr^cc for military

being

produced

before

Akbar

This gave
theft,

other malpractices such as bribery, murders, massacres and torture This proves
rise to

an English traveller rio iu« Fathepur Sikn during Ak bat "s
I

w

William Lcedes the jeweller

that far

from being kind and noble Akbar was one "ft he most ruthless and rapacious monarch* known
f

Echebar iJalaluddm Akbar) in Certain him very well and
id

^V^ i^ 'P^
%|l

" history.

five

slaves

Though

ai

umj

vlc

Thus Akbar happened to be at the apex of y tapacious system based on tiers of big and small

rounded up utter u revolt was
3<

quw

u

Pp. 252-53. ibid.

Liitt

262
263

majority of slaves throughout Mu n „„ slaves the as s m of Akbar, were India, including that in Hindu? stock, like animal stock" used to This human be for any menial or immoral duties at assigned nc his courtiers pleasure of the sovereign or

mk

i

Ajcbar also took as hostage, one ot m. defeated adversaria The of tr ns quired to prostrate themselves mabjee UubLt! ^ytimcthcy were ushered

^™ *
,

.ntothe^fc

Referring

to

Akbar's discussions on various

Nl ost
earliest

of these practices
invaders.

subjects with his courtiers

Badayum

says

Muslim

'The

originated from ih* Over the cenum«

h,

of these questions which the emperor asked in these days was(AJf. 983) "How many free-bom Women man legally marry by Nikah ? (i.e. Muslim) may a The lawyers answered that four was the limit fixed
by the prophet.
that in early

were

perfected,

sharpened and imposed

with ruth,

During Akbar's time efficiency. less those malpractices was abominable.
f

the

rip
all

Akbar was
perfected

truly

the greatest

among

those

who

The emperor thereupon remarked youth lie had married any number of
both
free

cruel practices.

women
and
that

he pleased,
(i.e.

born

(i.e.

Muslim)

slaves

Hindu)/

Akbar kept and women -as slaves to be apportioned
will

This observation proves innumerable Hindus — both men
at his

between himself,

his guests

and

courtiers for

immoral purposes or menial service.
7

A
to

large

number of Shaikhs and

fakirs were

mostly to Qandahar, where they were exchanged for horses,.. The emperor captured a sect of Sheikhs... At Akbar's command they were sent to Bhakkar and Qandahar and were given to merchants to exchange for Turkish colts."
sent

other places,

Another
that

sinister practice

was Akbar's

insistence

vanquished adversaries send choice women from then entourage and families to Akbar** harem,
*•
*•

P. Ill, ibid.

P

308, ibid.

COM

.

ii
the

1GS

REVOLTS GALORE
Every
aspect

^
was so

peered
s

country, and many turbulent people. Same bv Shai
the

mm ^

parganaofB,^

u

plu
'

"^d
mthc

ome
the

Gurgaon m odern

others laid their hand,
district of the

>
?

R 8jpuil

***»,
Shahba *

of

A k bar's
1

character

Khan

collector

tWk
fii!?

of Bauat

mate relations inson. Jehangir alias Sallm, and courtiers ins C The whole of his reign w revolted against him
revolting "that practicall)
l

II

h

1

is

powerless, fled to Koil (Aligarhi" under one Diala

U

him * lf

try near the city of Mcerm." to

^Jt£*f
and out to be

«t of

.

marked by unending
wars.

revolts,

besides

interminable

Had Akbar been
ru!er that

the generoib.

he

,s

often

made

Vincent Smith remarks' "Akbar usually had a rebellion somewhere or the other on his hands and
the unrecorded outbreaks of disorder in the provjnmmarily dealt with by the faujdars. must

contentment should have prevailed during hh time, and on his death his subjects should
looked
hope,

m 2tl
-

k

it

upon
love

have

his children with passionate devotion

and

respect.

Instead

rumour

have been innumerable/'

Akbar's death unleashed the pent up seething d content of the public. It was only Akbar s cruel

The vast empire Dr. Shrivastava notes thathardly ever enjoyed complete immunity from some
*

and ruthless

measures, which were the despair of ever>'body from princes to paupers, a hich prevented
them from overthrowing Akbar.
that

kind of disturbance" or

rebellion.

Some

chief or

They

all

wished

other taking advantage of slackness of administrathe occurrance of a tion, lack of vigilance... or
natural calamity raised
his

Akbar died or was

killed.

To

give the reader an idea of

the

serious
reign

head

in

revolt

It

is

and continuity of revolts throughout Akbar's

tedious to recount cases of civil

disturbance.

One

important example will suffice. In February 1590* while one dav riding a female elephant, which was

Hacked by a ferocious male companion, Akbar fell to the ground, received serious injury in the

wc reproduce below relevant passages from a cross section of historians who have written on AJctett Muj/wnv Vincent says 3 Khwaja

Smith Mother of Akbar s
orinain
ihc
i

and became unconscious. Rumoi: ab^ui the seriousness of the injury and p< alh, w hich caused revolts in distant
face
P. 276,
2.

spread
bly
,

Suin>

rmtlier was lurbukBt irders and other dfcnc
is
if

«»«

''

*»*d
driver
3-

irts

of

*Hmnww

*Ju

to

hunti"

attacked,

arrested

**>

alone.

Akbar

He

thfl

Great Moaul,

ibid.

P. 3bl. ibid.

JSanjnCwalior
P. 49, ibid.

did not drown. where he dr«J fort,

m

w^
.'..I-

2ft?

Mi issued
hunting'
is

,.
1

nav be noted ft**
,,

not to be
Muslin,
indicate lo

!cad

that whoever brought in aWn should get a gold mo!

^"g
I,?
CT

*t
h ">"

ft*

value
is

Throughout
used not
all

hl a

Sj S

Hindusthanri head shows how the head
mv,

should

hi5W>
Muslim
i

!

"

,

«„rd •huntinghut of

1

Hindus, and so mc

u j||dU rthan was rated

griien Mogul.

rebel*

^g
expedition

killed

everyday

^*^j£^
to

™"8«|

m

their thm.

,„

i

nf Pec,

Abdulla Khan Uzbek, successor Julv 1564 Malwa revolted Mohammad (governor) in

pretext or the other.

°n

m« me

organize an xkb:ir had to

iucrcd
Gujerat/

Mandu
pleasani

and

drove

Akbar Abdulla mto

•-Just about this time (1572 end) it Ibrahim Mirza had murdered a person of that donamed Rustam Khan, and was mediiaiin? uomww iwwiii ixiiau, ana unction Lincuo" mediummisdeeds. Sural was the chief s cnicl further

*****

stronghold

T h,
prince of

life

at

Nagarchain lodge was

Kabul had invaded the Punjab, Khan khutba in his name. Towards Zatnan recited the February (1567) Akbar arrived at Lahore
the end of but his brother had
Indus... Intelligence

interrupted bv the

news that

Mohammad Hakim

Akbar, then near Barodu, decided to Barodu. of the Mirzas. march against the enemy. When he came near he learned thai the enemy the fort of the Mahi
was holding Sarnal, a small town on the ol the east of Thasia. Baupu five miles to brother of Bhagwandas was slain* 24." Akbar returned to his camp on December
ide

ihc

already

retired

across the
Mirzas...

having been received of the

rebellion of the nobles
distant relatives

of

commonly Akbar.. jt was

called

-Soon
rebellion

after

Akbar's
out

return

from Gujera

necessary to quit

broke

under

the

fatal*

the Punjab

and return to Agra..."
or

•"At the beginning Agra
in

May

1567

Akbar
rebellion

left

Hitsain one of the b and a chief named IkhtiyarulMulk.

Mohammad

Ate
milriu

order to deal finally with the

of

little

Khan

Zaman. The rebel chiefs given over to drunkenne** and debauchery had no sentries posted. In the battle which ensued Khan Zaman was killed brother Bahadur was taken prisoner and beheaded.. Several leaders were executed by beiil trampled to death by elephants. (The tight took place in a village of Allahabad district). An order
:

organized more than a loosely equipment been exhausted and the to It wai necessary, iherebie, Oa« '„ pedition from imperial funds. fca wto he was ready and rode out rhcbimkJ f

M

^

^
:.

covered

a

dtNluncc

ol

600

11

l

foughi Ahmedabad was fought on Mohammad llusa.n Mirza
7,

^cinbcr

151

prisoner.

**"

P. 53, ibid
P. 56.
.hi,!

Pp. 79-80;

ibid.

5.

8.

P. 185, ibid.

k

57.

ibid

,

:68

7m
was slain. The Mirza Wasdeca&i In accordant with the gruesome custom laicd" of vas built with the heads the toes, a pyramid f 2.CO0 in number. Shah rebels, more than the MirJ
Uhtiv.tru]

MMk

n Akbar
Burop-

intended
I
ii

to

H

v

,

is

M
'

V

to

ay
cc
iM[

I

awnv from
Deccan.

uher Monserrat. forth c
the court,

became a homeless wanderer.**
Describing the discontentment in Bihar and 1 Bengal Smith says -Special cases of severity l0 individuals increased the ill-feeling, and it {$
sa that the officials
..->ney.

*****

|h-

added

fuel to the fire

^

The

influential

by greed for chiefs of Bengal revolted

Muzaffar continued to giv c m,„u, regions or Kathiawar an, wild <vhcn he « is captured He suicide by slaving hi, emitted ,.,./
I

is

,

In April 1380 Muzaffar 580 January. Khan of Tanda was captured and killed with all sorts of Akbar dared not go in person to tortures.
in
1

.-I* August 1592 Akbar
visU to

quell

Hi,

Kashmir... He received new thai , governor the valley had rebelled

started 0IV „

m

n cph

j

By 1584 the rebellion had been generally suppressed. Rebel leaders were punished n diverse ways,".., Akbar never felt any scruple
the disturbances...

up as sultan on his own account, (but soon tin after the rebel's head was brought fei hkbtr'i
1

m

inspection)**
II

about ordering the private, informal execution or assassination of opponents who could not be exccuted publicly,"*
leader of the conspiracy at court was Shah Mansur the Finance Minister. Letters from him to Mohammad Hakim (Akbar's half brother
10

Asirgarh
for

marked

the

waning

of

\!
:lly

fori utu'.ie star.

Hiscortquesi

tadbeenpi
His

I

cont in tunts
u"The

45 years.
In

rem
Jchaai

were few and evil, Mcbai returned
babl) early in

view of
(fi

RbcuV

to Agra

May

Ml

Pimo
itl

Sutim*< prolon

who

ruled

epared to

Kabul) were intercepted. {Akbar crush the conspiracy by a combination
in

rebellion, prince

DantyalVd.
»

md

oili

tadd
while
v,

of guile and force) Shah Mansur *ned and is hanged on
evidence partially
forged)...

was
the

finally

im-

or Akbar's the closing: wport in rebellion sougtH the
I

Wb

^ the

I

strength

of

On Februarys,
Sikri.

1581

marched from Fatehpur

L7^

y
B

«C
£ w
-

r
1

en

solemnly k hanged."

At Shahbad, "rt^hwar a "d Ambala, on a tree Kachhwaha Shah Mansur was
ibid.

im d their ammunition ai .hue hc*« did Ins best to pcrsu-k them "l do lol j, c rhriNiian id
|

an

,>

l0

G<*
his
.'

atkmj?
rival

Iha
'

accredited
I".

to
147
i.,.'-

court

iri

AW*

Hc

J* ***, I
1
-

II
i

pp
P,
|

9,

Ibid

137. Aid.
g

Ibid
Ibid

n

pp.

207-m

'

'

"

270

27l

subscribed his letters with

the

sign

of the

Po of Jesus and Mary.,. Throughout the ve 1*02 Salim continued to hold court a Allahah^H and to maintain royal state as king of the province which he had usurped. He emphasized his claim t* royalty by striking both gold and copper
traits
I

and round

his

neck wore a locket containing

cross.

cd

m
Z

Bahadur and Iskander to ravne parganas of Surharpur near Fai^aT,^ aman one of Akbar B generals,
wa«
„-,

JjJJ?

monev

specimens of which he had the impudence to send to He sent his adherent Dost Mohammad his father.

was dining this rebellion thai Hindu temples in Ayodhya red sftC Rama, were desecrated aJec^riS^ of Lord mcd «*o mosques by the Muslims.
It

T*™"

-During Ihe Uzbek
Dtwana
revolted.'

rebellion Sher

of Kabul as

his

Mohammad

envoy to negotiate with Akbar. Dost remained at Agra for six months, His
to
all

takmg

advantage

Mohammad
confusion

of

«he

conditions were that Salim should be permitted visit his father at the head of 70,000 men, that
his grants to his officers

"»The

rebellious

Mirzas

proceeded

to the

be confirmed, and

neighbourhood of Delhi plundering

the country.

that his

adherents should not be regarded as rebels... On August 12, 1602 early in the morning Abul Fazal

•"Mohammad Amin
officer, fore,

Diwan.
to death.

an

important
there-

shot an arrow at a Faujdar, and was,
to

was attacked, as he was about
march,
by
Bir

to

make

the day's

ordered

be put

His

life

was

Singh,

the

Bundela

chieftain of

spared

Orchha, whom Salim had hired for the purpose. Abul Fazal was transfixed by a lance and promptly
decapitated.

the intercession of some courtiers But he was ordered to be beaten up and so he fled

on

His

head

was sent

•'S'Junaid Karrani, another

officer,

tied

from

to Allahabad,

where Salim received it with unholy joy and treated with shameful insult. (Abul Fazal was murdered near Serai Barar, 10 or 12 miles from Narwar)"

Hindaun. his assignment, to Gujfi revolt on hearZaman again set up the standard of to Hakim was on the march ing that Mirza
Lahore.'"

w "lt
father's

is

certain that Salim ardently

desired

his

demise/" must have

"-On August
hunting expedition

K),l 567 Akbar
tfllh

the

^'iehangir's rebellion if successful, resulted in his parent's death.'*

the Miflt* suppressing the rebellion ol

P{^™* -M*J £-«

and Qf conquering ChittorIK

About the numerous rebellions during Akbar** reign Dr. Sh rivastava says ""Khan-i-Zaman deput15.

P.

234, ibid

"
IT,

P. 237, ibid

P. tOt,

Akbar

the Great, ibid

272

m
..it

I
Mi
***
trit.

I

Above
have failed
chronicles
irtcd
in

is

a dear

ion of

how

liisto

-

»2
,

and joined the
br ouBhi

rebellious

understanding and interpreting
Dr. 5hrivnst.it u
firsi

MuSF
AVk **
,

asserts that

to the couri JlL S|J thrown before the feet ,as
life
\

on a hunting expedition, and then n tions two objects which have nothing to do Hence \vc wish to caution animal hunting.
students of
ing*

Jh
'

was spared and yt was In* Khwaja Ahdu* Shahi<T ;; cll Saml s \Tirza free was rejected;"
,

^^M^ * y**
1L" I** ppcal *t
X

t<J

Jj

term •hum should be understood to mean waging war
*

Muslim chronicles

thai the

That shows how Akbar'* ow n henchm™ k fe-ful raids on Hindu under

,

A
inislic

proper understanding of fraudulent, chattyand fawning Muslim chronicles cannot

Hindu women ki dnap

be

had from the superficial men n ing of the word* They need a special key. For example, the term 'destroyed temples and built mosques* only means that Hindus were ousted from their temples and mansions and the same buildings were used as mosques and tombs. That is why all mediaeval mosques and tombs in India look like Hindu temples and mansions. Similarly a Muslim's
marriage with a Hindu woman must be understood to be a case of kidnapping and the word dowry

Akbar's harcrn Them disgusted with Akbar's got selves trcachermi deal" d revolted against him. It also shows an h„u panders and ravagers were recommended even

for

SSn^

kp

leniency
fact is

by

Muslim

Tor

fakir, revolt

Another
lasted

pertinent

that Sharfuddin *s

for eleven

years before he could he brought j on g

to book.

— Hbraluni
and
the
*'

Husain Mir/u retreating to Sanbhat Punjab was ruthlessly devasiaiing

territory

"' Gii jerat
;,

had not been

completely subdued

should be taken to mean ransom as seen by

us

in

BharmaFs

case.

when Akbar left Ahmcdabad (April 1573). Ikhtiyartdar ul-Mulk supported b* Raja Narayandas. or Rana Piatap) and the mmh ot (Fuiher-ui-la-A
•!

After conquering Gujerat "•Akbar resolved a nrpate the Mirzas w had seized a considerable part of Gujerat. When the siege of Sural vin progress Ibrahim Husam Mirza attempted to
t

Sher

Khan

I

Mohammad

m Husam Mim,
auladi

was

veiled

who turned

from

was Daulaiahad, as soon as Akbar's back
joined the rebels.
1*

turned,

make a surprise attack on Agra...Mirza Sharfuddin Husam, a former governor of Nagour and Ajincr
iio

had helped Akbar

in

kidnapping

the Jaipur

Khar other things Vtuiaffar tk regulation of branding of Min. qucmly dismissed from the Prime

-Among

mw£

honj^JJJp

Bharmal's daughter for the royal harem) and an inveterate rebel who had fled from the court in
ruler

**
25.
1

1*

143,

t>p

145-150.
151. ibid.

ibid.

Pp 137

,

ibid.

P.

«

i.

x

'.'

(Coka

had

Med

27S

to

maintain

immlvi ofcavalij in his services to bring l>a\c Ins horses branded. » the muster and arrested and degraded! Altbaf. Ihcrefbre had him bceo m n e c \ pre ss on s a bo u 1 1 he re fo mis.
,

fixed

.^Early in 1580 Akbar had
Bengal
It

rebellion of his officers and i r0 o d

to fat,

,

i

,

i

i

i

lo

darted almost simul.aVoJ^ (while) the rebeUioM provinces
.

a* *?***'

»*
lhc
f

\...k.i
I

>

\klMi%

foster

brother.
"

He

\

Vas

provinces
fjcfS Bt lhe
kl
!t

was

in progress and

some

free in 1578 after

apol< gteing

Shal bai

P ,iifn rime

inM

Khan a general engaged in the cam" RauaPratap. Mwas recalled some*
1

Fatehpur Sikri who were k rebels formed a plot the object of whlc h Akbar, proclaim Mirza Hakim
10 join the
rebels
tn Bengal,

JJ^g
as the

JL

?

***

w^

despatch to Bihar and Bengal where the Mogul officers were in rebellion.'

m

1580 for

march a „d

The plot leaked out. the conspirators were imprisoned and among them, Miraki, was pat to death. the chief
ss

»"Raja Madhukar. elder brother of Bir Singh Dc\ Bnndela and ruler of Orchha was in rebellion. Akbar sent an army under Sadiq Khan to reduce him to submission. After a brave and stubborn resistance he submitted (in May 1577), He however revolted again and continued to give trouble till ht> death in 1592 A.D.
"Sheikh Abdun Nabi who had enjoyed great ascendant in Akbar "s mind for over 10 years fell into disfavour aboui the end of January 1578. At the end of 1578 Abdun Nabi, was dismissed and
.

(n

Bengal "the

victorious rebels proclaimed
recited the

Mirza

Hakim

as their ruler, and

khmba

Mirza Sharfuddin, an arch rebel and in his name. governor of Nagaur and \jmcr who was a former kept a captive in the fort of Tanda and had managed lo secure his release on April 19, 1581 was The real leaden were elected leader of the rebels. Masum Khan Kabuli and BaHa Khun

however Qaqshal." " 33 Azad
Jaunpur
to

Khan
arrest

Turkoman was

deputed to

replaced as chief S idar by Sultan Khwaja returned from Mecca. Towards the end

who

had
will.

of 1579

Mohammad
emperor.
the

and bring to court MiitU Mtffc *ho Yazdi and Mir Mwazzul
against religion* disaffection speedily exceu
; c
1

Abdun Nabi was

exiled

to

Mecca

against his
in

were spreading

On

return

tt»

hid in

m

1583 he died

suspicious
at

The order was

circumstances/

Obviously he was murdered

boat

were being in which they

coi

duej,d«*

£

Akbar's behest.
near

Etawah, and the two

"^™\
news

P
28
19.

188, Ibid start

"Encouraged by
to
31

lhe

«

Hikilrt

? 220, ibid. ? 230 ibid.
Pp. 231-232. ibid,

invade

India.
ibid.

MasuiD Faiaai

30

Pp 26S-273.
p. 274,
.

32
33.

ibid
'bid-

p p 276-278

^

*

:<J

i

tali

Bahadur (son of
the
title

Md
,. 1S

r.>r
.

some time
In

secretly

entertained

Said

icditfou
,

opcnl)

unfurled
riw

the

Hap

ol

rebellion

h

tanpur.
ht the fort

campaign
his

Shaltbaz Khan occupied of Ayodhya Akhar mcrciHie city rhe next da) Ifce tbrt and Khan ithc royal comntanderi fully ordered shahbai not to molest the family and dependents of the
rebel."

to k him, in a us forced

undertaken against family and treasure

of king, d Ul |. was compelled to r 0r death by Akbar's orders/' „

wW med

Kh

M

*£*£^ «*,

^ ^

e T, fhut hj

nd *<U jmt

|h ,

•'Shahbaz Khan who had hl ,h post of chief Bakshi

fur a fexw

farmy,^*

td

acid conspicuous m,lu ar C J2**** miolcnt behaviour was '"* gU ilty of put unl' arrest in custody." n d kept

had rendered

,

The

fori

of Ayodhya was Lord Kama's citadel

li was desc and a place sacred to the Hindus, crated in Ak bar's lime for the umpteenth lime by mediaeval mosques m Muslim invaders. All

•WAftcr his success (against the Bengal rebel* Chan-i-Azam begged to be relieved nf Khanthe hisdi du rebellion of 1580-83 constituted a Thc
to

Akbar and the Mugal

great danger

empire,

h wa t "a
is

Ayodhya arc ancient temples and mansions hallowed b\ the divine incarnation. Lord Rama.
Akbar's special
instruction
that the enemy**

prcad rising not confined


and

to Bihar as

gencralty

supposed, but also embraced, besides
provinces,

those two

most of
the

Orissa, the districts of Ghazipur

women

should

not

be molested,

and
is

Banaras,

clear evidence

provinces of

Allahabad,

campaigns Akbar"- troopers had not only a licence but were specially encouraged to molest women of the rival side. The exception made m this case indicates lhat Akbar wanted some of Hie captured women for his own harem.
thai in all other

Awadh, and
ministers

modern Rohilkhand.

Some

of the

and topmost

courtiers were involved."

Itis

"^Gujerati noble Aitimad Khan had thrown lot with the Gujerati rebels and was, therefore.
it

to

jail.

The

important province of
in 1583."

Gujerat

witnessed

''During he period
I

when Akbar

was proceedin

another rebeilion

ing against Mirza

Hakim, a rebellion occurred Katehr now known as Rohilkhand."

" ao

The

Transoxarestless Jalala returned from
Tirah

"ia early in

'^Masum Khan Farankhudi sought
tion of

the protec-

Akbars mother (March
I,

1582) hut

one
|

nighl

while

,h c

,

y

fr(mi

the

pa acc
j

1C

w as

1592 and once again rallied in under foe wild Afridi and Urkzai tribesmen • rebellious standards On March II. Akbar frontier forces ob %ed to depute the Kabul and
l

assassinated."
n
34

291. ibid

P
P

315, ib.d

m

n

Pp. 293*294 ibid.

h'

129

'ii.

ibid
ibid.

t

[bid

Pp. 347-49.

,.M

279
I

and Asaf Khan respectively under Kasim Khan (o Raushaniya rising. Kaktani aud pui d^wn the

ler (hc rU

Mahmudzai

chins also joined the revolt.

The
The

Jgyof

ing

of Jaipur. While he was submission and made
his

rcduccd
r

lo

beloved

revolt
of

BJ , oppressed
Jalala held his
revolt

But

Wahadat AH

a

relation

own

at the fort Kanshali.

tubal

^
vv|(h
flS

a huge ransom because of most accounts have fraudulently

.ta^S** «"£
SLS"'
1

«

*mni.

continued even beyond 1600 A. D/'
«***No v, T6, J5S6

Bharmal hv and patronizing Akbar. descending

a great

honour conferred on

T *"'
a

"

On

Raja Basu or

Mau

alias

Nurpur came and did homage. Although he had submitted to Akbar long before, yet when the royal army had suffered a reverse in the frontier region Accordingly an army he felt disposed to revolt.
was
sent against him.'

ii-During Mansingh's absence at Agra occurred in Bengal (Mansingh rebellion and undertook a prolonged in |599
routed

rmh

mm*

the
1

Afghans

in

campaign He 1601 February by which
practically

lime the
an

Bengal rebellion had

come

and several other historians are wrong in stating that "Bharmal came and submitted to Akbar, Raja Ramchandra came and submitted. Raja Basu came and submitted", and so on. This
Dr. Shrivastava

end)/
«*" Another

rebellion occurred

in

Bhatha

or
his

Baghelkhand.
capital

Ak bar's

prolonged absence from

gave an opportunity to

the ruler of Bhaiha

misleads the reader into believing that

Akbar had
lustre which

(modern
43,,

Rewa) to

assert his independence,

some
sent

irresistible

attraction

and unique
ruler

ruler after

Hindu

voluntarily
like

and

irresistibly

hurtling

towards Akbar.
It

moths

hurrying towards a light.

was

just the opposite.

During Akbar's absence in the Deecan in 1600-1 Raja Basu of Mau in the Ban Di-ab of the Punjab, the Raja of Jummu, and some other
chiefs

Akbar was a great repeller
with great loathing, hatred
is

All looked

upon him

and

disgust.

be voluntary behind a gruesome and ruthless campaign of cruel plunder, massacre, rape, arson and desecration of shrines. It is an insult to the bravery o\
to
it

insinuated

So, what submission had

of the north western region revolted, The powerful contingents of troops had to be sent.
chiefs

of Lakhanpur.
in

Jasrota, Mankot.

Ramwrh
of u

*ud

JCobast

the

mountainous
in

tracts

m

^njab also revolted

imjtef

had

suppressed with powerful forces.

fought the MuiUm invaders for ,000 long years and ultima^ I) rendered them impotent, to insinuate thai iln-'V for submitted to Akbar out oftovc for him or just The mi st glaring instance is that of Bharmal
gallant

India's

Rajput
1

rulers

who

«to Kashmir.
PP. 376-78.
4 2.

At

tins

time

U#* w

J

"

P

38|, ibid.

43

P

158, .hid

Pp. 383-387, ibid*4- Pp. 387-95. ibid
-

!K»
i

i

emeiod to undertaken ,,Mr was probabl) ,,i y«dgarii»to submission

-

local

rebc

n

and
to

th c

l111pLMl)r ,

x

ad

unsuccessfully

l|t

.

overawe

th

ar A kbor.
,
LIS

was during destroyed ilie famous
It

his

Kashmir visits thai Akbar and magnificent

Thus throu E hom al! ^^i throughout /SjKj*^ Hd tt regarded a, public enemy N* ) >'<

^t

Verinaa

sons.

When
it

towce of tfceJhclum river, and several other Hindu shrines which doited Kashmir By a cruel irony ihe Kashmir archaeology depart! ment ascribes to Akbar the construction of the very buildings that he ravaged and razed to the p|j ni
temple near the
|,

crime to «i ?? '* av «'lThe souls of the •great malthaa"*? * kb * rormented and tortured must *
'

able

is

such preponderating an academic

"

J^
ng
,

hil0 *"

be
fl

agony at ilie academic insult form of Ak bar's glorification

Un _

ZZ mm du
l t
,

l

*m h

mb
the

level

and reduced 10

their prevent

state

of gaping

ruins
i4
I

"Mirza Aziz Koka.
did not see eye
to

Akbars
and

fostei

brother
secretly

i

r
)

eye with Akbar.
set

out for Diu under the pretext of making an attempt to capture it from the Portuguese (March 25. 1592), He

prepared to leave for Hedjaz

embarked on a ship with his wives, six sons and six daughters He was shamelessly fleeced by the priests in the lemple of Kaba in Mecca.*' Finding
unbearable he returned torn between and the deep sea.
|A»«*

the devil

Ahmadnagar people were so exasperated agamst the Mugal.s that they plundered some of
ing

the

Mugal baggage when the Moguls began on March 20(1596 A. D.)
The
late,

retreat-

years oT Akbar*,

life

were tormented

tLn

r,

msubord,na i'on of his sons.

The

eldest of

himself proclaimed king in Allahabad
*(
<

Earlier

JP- »«-S. .bid, »' 432, ibid

CHAPTER

2H3
\

There arc innumerable
lll0

rcferenc

!

uicle8

to

the

exisl ctlcc
;

Bt'll.DlMiS

cd

wnv cemurau aching back into many c™.,._ _ \k ? Pyr What is more Fatehpur Sikr, ha, r "' *«" 10 as the royal headqua,
r
,

r%!^ nMu ,Uch

^
and

til,. ikr,

,,/

Muslim monarch* preceding Akhar

have built u number offQft founded many towns. This and palaces and is a hoax played on B gullible world by a big

Akbar

is

said to

At
t

the
l

outset
C
!;

wc w '*h

to

i

lC

succc

^°? l

TJ^^
Any
township
of

m akc
{

it

dear

th*.

«

q»«e

Wr"
Siir

of Muslim chroniclers as the one projeciko a cruel and Fanatic Akbar as n noble and libera]
ssion

as unl;

Sikri.

Fathpur or
indicate

chapter that all those palaces. Forts and townships are of ancient Hjndu origin. The) existed centuries before Akbar was even born, and were merely occupied by him as the heir to Ba bur's acquisitions India.
It

ruler.

will

be proved

of the for« names Fatehpur Sikri have bee
which

in

this

the

the hillock

bedecked with beautiful Hindu redsione palaces! the focal point and the dominating feature forms

m

A clear
are

indication that
is

all

those three name*
chronicler

synonymous
1

given by the Muslim

Fatehpur Sikri

Twenty three miles to the southwest of Agra is a township called Fatehpur Sikri. The ancient

Yahya Bin Ahmad in his Tarikh-iMubarak Shahi He says that "by order of the Sultan the family and
dependents (of

Mohammad
who

Khan, son of Auhad
had surrendered Bayana
fortress
i

Hindu
Muslims

capital

SIKRI when

Khan
fort)

ruler of Bayana,

captured

by

the

was renamed Fathpur/ And Fathpur' means only a 'captured town" it was
It
it.

were brought out of

the

and

sent to

since*

Delhi (on 12th
fore

November
the

1426

e

130 year* be-

called

'Fatehpur SIKRI.

has a massive defensive wall
enclose

around
plain

The
a

Akbar ascended given to Mukul Khan.
Fathpur was Tub fa."
as

walls

a

very

large
a

and

Baynna known Sikri, which is no* Khiiniddio entrusted to Malik
throne).

ImU-ek,

On

the hillock

there

redsione gateways and a majestic palace complex, They are purely in the Hindu, Rajput style,

magnificent

B
1

these

beautiful niyal buildings

and

iheu

Before Muslim occupation of an independent principality *«l* B as its fortune garters according J
the origin

FaiehgwrSifcri

^ »J

1

""

tcways which have 'J;iras the creations of beentheblatantly ptf th.rd-genera-

of the redstone towering gateways reaches Ting

palace conn
into

Mogul

Akbar,

ruler

m

India.

tT^Vol

tv, Eilioi

k 0o*m

284

Testifying to this!J Cot Htaiht histoid says- "(Rana San Todd, a ™> tcd hisioiten,
Singh) came
to the

jW
g
,

..\nntii.-i

reference in

Mewar

Jlrn

,„h

1405

which

is

151

throne

vcatK^'W
Ke
v

p ateW

in

1

Rim ol the higfocsj Eipht> thousand horse, seven rank, nine Raos and 104 chieftains, bearing
of Rawal and Rawut with 500 elephants folio wed him into the field (against the Mogul invade, The princes of Marwar and Amber did Baburi him homage, and the Raos of Gwalior, Ajmer
titles

509 A. b

; sls

defeated and

lied,

the

U

feH upon him and ° tse l He uUl not escape se,U to Fatehpur/'

woundcd^l^ *
1

^

Kh *«

*« kllW^'SftS
TCs

S||BW1

Mahm.iid.

SIKRI, Raisen, Kalpee, Chanderi, Bnondi, Gagrown Rampura and Aboo served him as tributaries.
.

lo scare potential l, rebels n, indicates, therefore, thai the towering gateway f Fatehpur Sikri, known as Buland D arw
aza existed

ung on gateways

Such decapitated heads

*?££+
1
Th
ncanceof

The above passage makes it clear that during the time of Ak bar's grandfather, Babur the Fatehpur Sikri principality «j> ruled over by a Rao

even 151

years before Akbar.
the

sending
pur

Sikri

severed head, of all was that u was the

places, lo Fateh-

royal residence

who owed allegiance lo Rana Sangramsingh of Mewar. The redstone palace complex which modern visitors are made to
I

Rajput chieftain)

generations before Akbar, having been conquered by Muslim invaders from the Rajputs who were
the creators

and builders of

the magnificent palace

believe

the

was the residence of Rajput Rao centuries before Akbar,
as

Akbar's creation,

complex there
is stated that At mother place than (the rounder of the Sayyad dynasty)
it °

'Khizr

Tracing the origin of Rajputs of the Sikarwal clan Col. Todd says8 -'They have their name from the town of Sikn (Futtdipoui which was formerly an independent principality Sikarwal Rajputs
* 1 '

remain

cd in

Falhpur and did not *. u> Ktan Sayvad ascended the throne
This
prior

Delhi
in
is

Kto
i

May
ol

reference to
to

Fatehpur Sikn
accession.
\\

are a very ancient clan

whose origins reach into the hoary immemorial past They did not originate in
the post-Akbar period since the Rao or Sikri had fought against Akbar's U grandfather Babur.

Akbar's
palatial

soon became the sultan
Sikri

is

clear

had

buildings

-^ Mw KM ***** m °"
Since
that
r

W

should, therefore, he dear that the Sikarwal Rajputs the redstone palace complex in Fatehpur =>i*ri several centuries before Akbar.

Akbar.

m

Babur the
the palaces at

grandfather of

iLhar A r
-

Fatehpw

Sikn, aW'"
13

Mtbtf't coronation
J

and

yw

^k ^ xm
*'i

lesiifies lo

d r

o?\ y/, ibid

Vo1,

'•

Annals

fl

nd Anliuuitics of Rajastoan*
4.
5

P

-JO,

Vol. IV Elliot

ADo*

44, ibid

Cf:l#K-35

28?
hiriti.

Babur say* "In Agra alone, and
I

f sl

cunerslul.ngmgtothai place only,
palaces 680

C

i

persons; and ; employed on my »„ SIKRI. Bayana. Dhulpur, Gwalior and Koel Agra. ">ycd on my works 49 he re were employ sl0
1 '
1

evcry(la

SIKRI being ihan„ whfch was upon the whole -bundani
fcaod.

frfon
taking

for a

camp,
it

the

** S **£
1

«*«

o"When
any
(i-e.

was
is

Abdul
five

curlers'*.

kanwaha
the admisin

which

precautions he advanced

Aziz's h

W lhow
l

From Ba bur's own mouth we have
sion
that

Agra,
fCb'el

Gwalior and

(now known as Aligarh)

SIKRI. Bayana, Dhu| pUr
there

Rana Sanga's Hindu pagans armv? march forward. When thc V ,TnL the 8
sooner

kos from sikbi

**

V

n

were several palaces a II equally magnificent. This clearly means that the red stone palace complex at

Fatehpur Sikn is an ancieni pied by Muslim invader^

Hindu

building occu*

than a body of 4000-5000 o once pushed on and fell u pon him.' ai On first charge a number of very Abdul
learned
we re

the

Babur
ing

conquered
Sikri

Faiehpur Sikri after
in

defeat-

Aziz's men taken prisoner and carried off the field t detached Mohmnerd Jang Jang to cover then (The enemy) had reduced Abdul their retreat.
.

.

Rana Sanaa's Hindu army
Historians
1

the plains around

Aziz

and his detachment
It

to great

straits."

Fatehpur
that
his

decisive

mistakenly believe kittle was fought 10 miles

is

clear

from

the

above passage

that

the

away
at

Kanwaha alias Kanua. The engagemcni Kanwaha was between he advance columns of
at
I

Rana Sanga and Babur. A large reservoir of water several miles in circumference used to exist outside the elephant gateway of Fatchpur Sikri. That reservoir supplied water to the Faiehpur Sikri township and the large herd of elephants maintained by the pre- luslim Rajput rulers in Fatehpur Sikri. Babur observes 7 "There being a
large tank

engagement fougnt at Kanwaha alias Kanua was not between the main bodies of Babul's and Rana Sanga's armies but between small detachments of both and that Babur's Muslim detachment was

Students of Indian history fore, been grossly misled by their which assert that Rana Sanga was
routed.

have, theretext

books
at

defeated

K

it 11

w aha.
It

on our left. encamped there to have benefit of the water "It occurred to me. situated as was. of all places in the neighbour| I

'

••

1

3, T u ,ik .i-Bataan. Vol. IV. Elliot and Do*»<M»26B. Vnl. IV, Elliot Oowion. ibid. zbj, ibid.

*

authors of Ncre academicians who have nertftf ™P ^ar^nor have made any study of At
9
-

believed that mediaeval *ere fought in open fields or baie plains, meowa a gross error in the understanding of history. This error has crept into bee because those books have
is

commonly

battles

^^feS

?. 267, ibid.

*
289
in his

always been Mediaeval bottles have rough, walls and bastions. Even modern g massive An army Me fiw*M * cross tarricikh-s shdMol in an embank. encampmeni *> '1"^* up earthwork, bunkerj nH3U barricade, thrown The three decisive battles fought at Panipai eic. 1556 and 76 1 were fought there because in (524 the defenders had entrenched all the thiee cases

uaiwa

own

capital

j

s

a

c

.

.

mn

Like

the

engagement

at

was entrenched behind the ftanga fcitade. the final decisive and that of Babur was

Kanr

.
,

nL

**«»

J,

1

Sang a
inside

was
its

camping on

fci»»** Ib^^ *
pal.ee
walls

the

Fatehpur

S ***
J

m

battlemented walls and

themselves behind the
palaces
rtjys,

beayily

fortified

township,

Babur was camping outside those

co" J
nea/th

and

citadel of

Pan
be

i

isolated

bastions,
still

Magnificent gate pavilions and rained
pat.

We
his

fortifications

may

seen

have already quoted Babur

testifying

to the

camp was

ihose three in important destruction wrought battles and innumerable raids and engagements 1000— year long Muslim invasions and during
revolts

n0 w quote which says

close to Sikri and the reservoir. We another passage from his Memoirs

to *a ythal

""The

battle was fought within view
this hill
I

of a small hill
a

near our camp. On

directed

tower of the skulls of the

infidels to be construc-

The battle of Kanwaha was no excepts On his march towards Fatehpur, Sikri which was then owned by Rani Sanga, lie had encamped at Kanwaha because there he had a palace and a fort. Such fortifications and royal residences existed Even after at every few miles during Rajput rule a millemum of destruction by Invading Muslim nes such palaces and citadels may ^ill he seen at Kanwaha, Fatehpur Sikri. Bharatpur. Bayanu.
Dhoipur, Agra, one another.
rectifying

ted".
l2

"When

Adil

Khan and Khawas Khan

reach-

Fatehpur Sikri they went to visit Sheikh Sulim one of the holy men of the age. This reference" again is of a time when Akbar was yet unborn.
ed
,3,4

The Mir

died at Sikri," says Yahyj

Bin

Thu Latin "in A- H. 971 (1563 AD.)" was only seven years after Akbar's accession and
Abdul
refers

Gwalior— all

within a few miles of

to

a

^t even

of Sikri period when the founding to contemplated even according

wothe

of a palace at Kanwaha Tud says "''Rami Sanga was of middle -' He was celebrated for energetic enterprise of which his capture of Muzalfar kin!
to the existence
1

traditional fraudulent accounts.

""After
"
'1

this Sultan

Mahmud

Sultan the son of

P.

272, Vol. IV. Elliot

&Da**0D.

P. 483, ibid,
P. P.

1(1

PP
IbU

M64*. Annuls ,nd

Antiquities of

«*»••

^

294, ibid.

'*.

346

ibid.

290

291

w
a &c
-

SiUndar. whom had sec up
fil ,

Hasan Khan Mewati and R

n

Fatehpur Sikri two generatW .r h}; refers to who is supposed to have founded before Akbar
Fatehpur
Sikri.

Shfti the

Emperor Baburm

^

the 2nd j ani an actio., near Sikri.

«^g?d

a

Cfrcikli

^h
for

and hi* eBln decided to make Akbar Faichn . Salim

Sa1.ni

Chisti

Chis^ ^

m,
rQom

him-

"^ *>*

Giving the reason for Akbar\
capital, the chronicler as the

is- when Sher Shah marched from the capital arrived at Fatehpur Sikri he ordered of Aera. and army should march toeach division of the
that

mch

incensed
a

Sher Shah ruled from commenced iwo years born and it ended when Akbar before Akbar was Akbar was at that time was only three years old. yet Fatehpur Sikri existed in in Afghanistan and
order of battle/ gether his reign J540 to 1545* i.e.
in

him (i-e. mention

came to Bchram Khan)
scheme

Fcmhu ST!?8 ***
office

the resolution

or

eL^
Pnv,n
&
**

$ J

while other says, that she discovered protector (Behram Khan's) design the to confine him. a plot she is stated to have
seals
;

n*
|y

(Maham A naga)

suggested to the

kJT ^ ^g»J «& ^
accident!

India,

"* Adil
k

Khan went, accompanied by

his nobles,

a conversation between Behram Khan and the queen dowager. This, they say was which determined Akbar to quit Agra/' the cause
overheard,
in

to

Shah, son of Sher Shah). When he reached Fatehpur Sikri, Islam Shah came forth to meet him in the village of Singarpur." This reference to Fatehpur Sikri is of a time when
his

brother (Islam

Ferishta
reason

thus gives us a

clear

and cogent

why Akbar moved
Sikri.

his court from Agra to

even Akbar* s father

Humayun had

not

returned

to India after his exile.

Innumerable such references to Fatehpur Sikri reach back inn the dim centuries before Akbar.

Agra being an ancient seat of government it was full of senior and powerful nobles who were privy to Bhcram Khan. Ai this He had fallen time Akbar was only an adolescent. Therefore out with his guardian Behram Khan.
Fatehpur
his he might be done to death by piqued guardian Akbar moved from Agra to

fearing that

The reason why Akbar left Agra for Fatehpur Sikri was his fear of being murdered. He, therefore,

fatehpur Sikri so
»al adherents
traditional

that he
It

could be

sure

who

hi

thought

it

prudent

to

shift

his

capital

W

were

was

not for nothing,
believe

Fatehpur Sikri which had all those palaces built by the Rajputs before the advent of the Muslims" 1 India. T hose palaces had been the haunt oi
15 >*
t*

accounts would have us Akbar suddenly thought c( 'building "" Sikri and as suddenly leaving it.
'"

a

•*

m
ew '

a

404, ibid,
.bid.

17-

P-481

P.
1 •

,21,
i*n

vol.

IL

***********

Brigs*, ibid-

CTOICM?.

193

292

Fatehpur Sikri from about 1562 t is the precise period in which This 1585 Akbar s sard to have buill Fatehpur Sikri.

reported to have Soon moved Fatehpur Sikn dnd his campa.gns began from to
thereafter he
is

and ended

al

the popular belief that Akha h» S,hm Chist.s hermitage m *v* a canard pa mcd on offbyT'^b aS ed to credit Akbar with the "anted bui,£

F^

.

j

T^«
Wllh
lVei

liut e

cross examination.

Firstly

AkW*

Akbar's entourage consisted of live thousand harem women, a menagerie of ,000 wild animals
J

wh0
fl

and thousands

of

nobles, generals

and

lesser

to Fatehpur AH officials, Sikri at a moment** notice and live in a capital of which even the foundation had not been dug,
these could

not

move

m
to
is

observed strict purdah W0U |d (Fakir Salim Chisti) for deliver ma ie
recluse

worth

his

name and

J 1* * fe?
7
not

5 alt

undertake the deliveries of others' nol w, vc shuns the world precisely to get recluse rid or Thirdly Sheikh Salim Chisti is , ,rries.

himseS
* such

'*' Akbar s earliest Hindu Mr. Shelat notes consort, the daughter of Bharmal of Ambar, who
k

running a maternity home. have He also not known to have been a specialist in
living

been

known

gynaecology
been

was
In

in the

family

way was

sent

to

Sikri

for deli30, 1569.

and obstetrics. Fourthly in some miserable shanty

had

he

very.

She gave birth to a son, August.
1569 a
in

Akbar*

November

daughter,

was born and
birth to prince

July

1570

Khanum Sultan Sali ma Begum gave
1!,
1 .
.

Murad, Daniel a third son was On born at Ajmer on September 10, 572. September 23, 1570 Akbar again visited Ajmer halting at Sikri Tur 12 days on the way." The above passage makes it clear that Akbar had visited Sikri before 1570 and that all his principal
.

have been sent there for delivery. Monserrate and Badayuni, Fifthly according to quoted by us earlier, Salim Chisti was of an immoral character. Akbar himself being very shrewd, wily and immoral he wouldn*t venture to send his wives for delivery to a person whose
wives couldn't

moral character

was suspect
mentions
that

Mr.
marriages

Shelat
(sic)

afar Akbar's

Fatehpur Sikri at least from the beginning of 1569 A.D. According to traditional accounts Fatehpur Sikri was not even
wives had been staying
in

Kalyatimal with a relation of Rai Har °f Bikaner and with the daughter of Rawl Rai Singh *> -Akbar again went to Sikri.
I

conceived by Akbar before 1569. Then could he and his wives visit there unless Fatehpur Sikri already possessed palatial buildings where emperor Akbar and his wives could >iay in royal comfort
\Z. IV.

%

*°u1d have been no idyllic and dreamland
There.

didn't make frequent trips to F* h P"*EL on honeymoons with every new **«!", pa^

P. 102.
!».

Cambridge Hlrtory of
Akhar, by J.M. Shelat.

Indiu, Vol. IV.

llf, f

*

P.

m,

Akb«r. by

J.

M. Shebw.

M

294

2!»S

u On
r ur Sikri Gujcfflt)"
is

stinted from Fatch to Ajmei and then to tfiral Hiat shows that Akbar had

Julv 4.1572

Akhm

Sikri

between

1570 and

|

i^,
arching out of Fatehpur
me""ajj

5 ac

moved

capital to Fatehpnr until 1585 and thai thereafter
Sifcri

even before 1572 A.D

»» August 23, 1573 saw him (AVk
with

Akbar

transacted

a^)read^nd droi
?°tti

royal business from
started

Fatehpur

Sikri

His armies

*of3Qtt,

and returned to Patch pur Sikri bet5": and 1585 or even earlier. According ween Fakhpur Sikri was built accounts to traditional 1570 and 1585. tf the capita] bj Akbar between
from
J

Akbar couldn't have entered P a ,^ and left it two months June J573 law?"'
bv

in

hU ge armies unless Fatehpur

was being
there

built

how

is

it

thai

Akbar was

residing

precisely

during the period of construction.
that

Akbar is said to have Another absurdity is Tor good in 1585, Thereafter left Fatehpur Sikri That was in 1601 only he went there only once. on a flying visit. Akbar with his robust commonshrewd nature luxurious habits and disso lute ways wouldn't slay in an open field called Fatehpur Sikri. all dug up for building a new And he wouldn't be so idiotic as to leave capital. a brand new capita] for ever tn the very year in which it is said to have been completed.
sense. *

enough to house accommodation thm„ soldicrS| hundreds of generals, a big bodyguard, a harem of ra c e, a 5,000f menagerie of ,000 animals, and horses i and camels belonging to the cavalry.
_ 1

Sikrikl?^

Si* XtnT*
.

c]^

"-The

heads

of

Muhammad

Husain and

Ikhtiyar were sent to be hung and displayed an gates of Agra and Fatehpur. Following the the custom of Timuroids. Akbar had a pyramid made of the heads of the rebels who had perished

day in the

campaign

against the rebels

in Gujcrat

The mention of
pur Sikri,
gates or

the gates of Agra and Fatehthat
the

Akbar entered the gales of Fatehpur after an eventful and triumphant e*pediSheikh Salim Chisti and others came and tion,
June
3,

On

1573

as early as 1573, clearly proves
built

of Fatehpur Sikri were as Agra. Had they been newly

ancient as those

or under

welcomed him."
of Fatehpur Sikri existed before June 1573 there must be equally grand mansion* to which those flatcs; led. .lurid in hose gate dates won't stand in*n Gales won
If

construction
bracketed

be the Fatehpur Sikri gates wouldn't

with Agra gates.

the

gates

>

1

*

i

void. before
21,

Thus s

Jum

both the gates and palaces existed IS73 tip canard that Akbar built batchif
,b,U,

Haldiglut '""Badayuni carried the news of the fctau against Rana Pratap to Fatehpur there aching there on June 25,1576." Hew
Pp. 138-40. ibid. 24 P. 370. Vol V.,
*5 >

P. 129 P- >2y,

E

&

D.

NiwrmKldi^^^

14*

Albar b>

J.

M.

Shcl.U, ibid.

P. lf>0 4

Akbari quoted by SJielal Akbar, ibid

296
297

of the construction going on. m. no mention construction huge detachment, rhca.v been under cavalry couldn't move in and of infantry and
0U|

Goa on November 17 1579 year they left thc same
t

of Fatehpur
Dr.

SJteri

Feb ruary 28, 1580, Fathers arri ved at Fatehpur Sikri.
ing

Dam^r^^f 0«r T%m
2Zl°

Sflrivastava relying
-'

canards asserts that

"the foundation of Fatehp Uf 1571". laid in November Sftri was
Dr.

on unverified Mu*|i m

^ul m **& £g'£

been taken

ill

at

capital a

adds "A brief account of construction work ts given by Father Anthony the Mnnscrraie, who was an eye witness of the operaThe stones were brought ready-made, lions.
Shrivastava

on March 4 Mo »A Th received at court. Abul Fazal and Hal*^ were asked to look to the comforts ,5" Al Ciilani

week

Narw ar

11°?^^
'

later

*"%

pc*."
Lived

Here
in a

there

is

no men

Fatehpur
it

shape according to design and fixed up in their proper places and the city rose as if my magtc within a short space of time {Commentarius,
chiselled to

section. Had would have had
stone,
in

Bk^fi******
ar0Un !

1

u

fhoflhe

been under comu-"

tc.live in

the

dug up earth and lime lying al! dust and din of thousands of
in

^SS^A
*•[
pvitci

T

pages 200-20 1 J."

ing all over.

hboum No emperor himself lives or ever ^Sf
such surroundings.
palaces

ambassadors
gullible piece

This

is

a

typically

betraying a

The

wrong understanding of what Monserrate has said. He has never said that he was an eye-witness of
the construction.

they

were made comfortable

fact that

mansions*

and

also shows that the existed in Fatehpur Sikri

much before

their arrival.

Let

lis

refer to

Monserrate's writing, ourselves
mis-

instead of

depending on the second hand inter pretat ion of Dr. Shrivastava,
Since

This Father Monserrate meticulously wrote his diary every night before retiring. It is that diary which has been published as his "Commentanus

(commentary)".

Akbar wanted to hoodwink the

Portu-

guese by professing superficial admiration for them

and

he kept pressing the Portuguese rulers in Goa to send their representatives to his court in Fatehpur Sikri.
their religion

Accordingly »**TJw
26,
P. 130, Vol. I,

first

Jesuit

Mission

left

Monserrate ^"Buildings erected by Zeladinus (Jalaluddin Akbar)in various parts of his dominions •have been built with extraordinary speed. For instance he built a very lanje peristyle, surround* w ith colonnades, 200 ft. square m three mort
a nd
,n £

some

circular baths 300

ft.

drt*in circuit.with

Akbar
s
.

the Great, ibid.

rooms,

0.

Editor'*
ibid.

introduction,
j.

Monwnite,

Commentary Translated by I S.
the

of

Hjtj|J

r

private

many * apartments and

Hoyl**

1'

2y

>

Pp,

200—201 The
.

Cummcottflui.

'

^
299

298

channel^
noise

Her* he himself bathe* u himselJ being deafened by order to prevent thc with which stones arc of the tool*

m

six

months,

The host
tradition

in

shaped

had every, elsewhere, in accordance with thing fashioned the building and then brought to the exact pla and fastened together. Th spot, and there titled
i

other timber cut. and beams and

he

would reply ..„ unnu,- M He would never children. acknowJS* ar< *£ children, in the presence ,he ™ * be hi8 of hk^if A flatterer who can or king. stL* !** **"*
parentage of his

the unabashed

and

^

own

c

cribc

gave close attention to all this, and were reminded of what is said to have happened at the building of the temple in Jerusalem, when no iron trumenl of the builders were heard. They saw
priests

usurped Hindu buildW hs
a
14-year old
later

ny children would " all,raU
t

*

the
> a*-

lhc

creation.

**w<n\

Since

throne in four years
lhe
as being

1556 A.D.

Mo^?^*«***
dismayed l0

Akbar

w.

was

that this could

have been

true without

thc

inter-

Fatehpur
slightest

Sikri which was

1J*T

vention of a miracle."

of recent
trace

This
rius

is all

that

is

mentioned
(sic)

represented creation, showed not

£
2

in the

Commcnta-

of Fatehpur Sikri, Closely scrutinised the above passage is very revealing

about the founding

though superficially misleading.
It

of any debris, scaffolding workmen. The absence of all these was explained away by another bluff namely that since Akbar didn't want the dust and din of the construction
the

Monserrate who kept a daily diary does not testify to any building activity. He mentions buildings in Akbar's dominion which he believed to have been all built by Akbar from the bluffs conveyed to him by Muslim courtiers and flatterers.
first

must

be noted

that

work, the stones were cut and dressed requirements in far away quarries and

to specific
just

piled

one over the other blindly and
Still

silently

surprised thai even
there
still

after that

absurdity

is

swallowed
pulleys

remained

the question of

We may

visualize a gullible

haul

Monserrate

arriv-

and scaffolding and hammers and chisels to >us up, hoist and join stone slabs Bl
it

ing in Fatehpur Sikri early in I58U surprised at thc pleasing red

A.D. Agreeably stone palaces, their

ornate interiors and towering gateways. He asks the courtiers who built all those ? According to the cringing Urdu and Persian tradition of Muslim

ail to Monserrate ultimately ascribes magic of the kind which his religious gulWlgf associated with the creation of Uw chief temple

heights

in

Jerusalem.

everything including one's own continuing existent is credited If t* to the sovereign. mperor visiting a courtier's house was introduced to children he would ask whose children were iRv

This clearly shows that Monserrate washed by Muslim flatterers at Afcbar's
But there are
u PTrom
Sikri.

m

brum-

court.

many more

absurdity wjudi

«»

Akbar's fancied

authorship of

>:h

T.C^^H

300

!61

how many

Questions such «s who selected and surveyed who desgined long did it take th c lc The mc ? bow township who planned the builds lavout of the years did the palace complex take
'

^inihcp.l«ccm^ int
stand
(5)

hillock

clearly indicates that the a

^di
pcralc
,

rt1to

_

3!

4 ltch

to

constructed huiJd ? and who and when houses for noblemen,
the rime, peace

the
?

thousands of

The hundreds
the Buland

of gr a v cs

did

Akbar have
i

inside

and the funds while engaged n his own guardian Behrani bitter warfare against Khan and innumerable Rajput chiefs, rebel courand imposters ? and after ail tfcfs, Muslim rulers Fatehpur Sikrf an entirely Hindu this how is structure? remain unanswered.
There
is

...I.* were killed ^vho w»w no

«-—

in

palace
( 6)

complex two
Fatehpur

are that last «* msi cnoaeem^n,

Gatewaj

^^ste —
AkS
-'

n

1h

Muslim, ,mi

generations before

*
n

Sikri has a gai c flanked h, w elephants with their trunks slone arching This design is exclusively mis ocsign

such overwhelming evidence to
will

the historical

expose fraud which ascribes the creation of
it

pictures of Goddess lp Ukshmi, statues at gateways and elephant inside
sc en in

^

J^,

Hmd«

Z^l
the

Fatehpur Sikri to Akbar that

need a whole
to shreds.

a common Hindu motif. adorn the Gwahor Gate
interior

palace,

Such elephant statu* of Gwalior fort

independent book to tear that

myth

content ourselves merely by summarizing the prominent points to call off the bluff of Akbar's authorship of Fatehpure Sikri.
shall
(1)

Here we

of the Maharajah palace in Udaipurand the gateway of the City Palace in Kotah Elephant statues are found flanking the royal gate or the Red Fort in Delhi. Similarly
in
it is

on record

that ele-

phant statutes flanked the royal gate of the Red

Fort

No

design-drawings and

blueprints

or

names of designers and workmen are on record for laying out the township and erecting its magnificent buildings.

Agra. They were removed by iconoclastic Muslim invaders and occupiers. We have already proved in our book titled 'Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research* that the Red Forts in Delhi
and Agra are of pre*Muslim Hindu
(7)
ling
origin.

Fatehpur Sikri was constructed by Akbar why does that name recur in histories af pre-Akbar
(2) If

There

is

a

fat.

Hindu

stone Litnp post bratoutside

times

?

0)

Badayuni, a courtier of

Akbar

clearly

says

before the decisive battle with father Babur. Rana

Akbar's grandSanga had reached Fatehpur.

refcrcnC€S hJP of staugtcred ^ the hillock Heads T^

with stone brackets to hold lamps, Elephant Gate. Such lamp posts may still temples all over India infront of goddess lamp post in Fatehpur Sikri is tu a cd away as Akbar's memorial

^«W^^gj

and tower of Hindus being raised on the

to

or

elephant.

One

wonder,

dear deer or elephant had whispered

Jjj W

^

otiimh?.

302
103

in

Akbar** cars that

if

wished to be

And considering ?! hv a HmuIh lamp post. of jooo wild Afcbur kepi a menagerie an iJ ? should have had similar memorial columni ?

commemior

cd

he an idiot to live n a ;;;;;;^n and leave v;;;hV5:!;
j

,

ufi
[;

m

every hyena, bear, wolf, cheetah, tiger, Hon, ass. elephant, camel and pig around all
buildings ascribed

J) Akbart final «., rrn mFal jcessitaicd because the large iieccs jC BTOi««« arge rc ri

"^^
^
c
.

.

to

Akbar.

towns a
also

S
i

It

must

Ur re**^**** L ^ >ri »^muwc of water t^X h for mA the October 1h I583andw burst m '"wniw
]

r ^au« mc
in

em

remembered that Muslims are image-breakers not image-makers and Akbar was as fanatic Muslim as any other.
(8)

h!
*

fCser voir mentioned

drv

I

Babar's

a

rations before Akbar. Had u been Akbar's orders it would not a!

McL
a

'*

,hc

,W ° 8cnc "
Clfcllmn

a reservoir

had

have

Hindu mythological scenes: Swastik peacocks and palm trees have been etched on ih
inner walls of the red
in

burst Akbar would

all

those involved in that shoddy const IT™*** fact the lake burst precisely
because the

h^

h™

^

Falehpur Sikn.
with

palace apartments All Hindu motifs have been
chiselling

stone

disfigured
(9)

Muslim

and

tinkering.

Muslims did not possess the know-how to the captured Hindu reservoir. Having been darT ged during Babar's assault and in
skirmishes the lake
nance.

S

subsequent
mainte-

There arc tanks in Fatchpur Sikri still known by their Hindu, Sanskrit names such as Anup Talao (peerless tank) and Karpur Talao (camphor tank). Camphor is a sacred requirement
for

burst
it

from want
continued

of

The

fact

that

lo sustain the

Muslim usurpers from 1526 to 1583 despite war damage and lack of maintenance is a compliment
tu its

Hindu idol-worship.

Hindu engineering

competence.

Had Akbar constructed Fatehpur Sikri he wouldn have permitted the huge Buland Gate Quadrangle to be turned ,nto a Muslim graveyard. " ™PPJ; ned l0 be a graveyard because Muslims
t

Concocted descriptions of Akbar having buili a mosque- and a house of worship and other buildings are all anomalous and contradictor).
(14)
(15)

aiea lighting there during

Visitors like
that

Francis Xavier have men-

Babar's assault against Rana Sanga two generations before Akbar. "

tioned
Sikri

even
that

in

Akbar's
is

lifetime

Fatehpur

was

in ruins

This

been a-building froJil^ 1585 h0W did Akbar I** there precisely during u that period
Sikri

F *! hc P ur

had

tooe u proves
Sikri

Akbar

evidence very important Fa»Jip lived in J

Xf

which his grandfather Babar had
a painting which

taken

*

storm.
(16)

?

whvdW A [w* tchpUrSikriwa » completed why did Akbar caV€ „
,

,

precjsdy

^

m

in

1585

A

year

?

*"** alongside page 82 of Mr J JJ A ^baf (latest edition publish^ t>> J

There

is

*

gg ^^

.

104
SOS

Vidya Bhawan.
n\'i
*nai
it

>urtiers in

depicts Humayun seated with h* Fathpur. Since Humayun was Afcba

Bombay-7) the caption of w

.

(l

0)

Smith

says**
in

..,

n

an d stayed
,r«crs.;

Fatehpur This has a

father that painting belonging to a period befo \khar"s birth emphatically and visually proves \\*

'

Lui

had stormed Fatehpur Sikri Muslim fakirs headed by Shckh
the

^ d^2*»8
SjL L
]

**W

T **
A

of Fatehpur Sikn before Akbar. (17) The building of Fatehpur Sikri is said t have begun somewhere between 1564 and 1571 A ^ according to dilTerent versions. This Vagueness would not have been there if Fatehpur Sikri had We have at been really built by Akbar.
rstencc
least

redsone palaces, 'ccupied H tim e maintained any at n0 Two aen^f.^. Fatehpur decided to move from hen Akbar
,

l ** mmnm £**
'

Salim

rT*

* "^
at

w

Agr

Sikri

for

security

reasons

n

to

F Qteh .

three

contemporary chroniclers namely Badayum Abul Fazal and Nizamuddin who were Akbar's

pomeni s notice was made possible only bccL* were grand, majestic palace, and th ere
already fence walls
mawive de
existing in

move

Fatehpur

courtiers.

They would not
29

differ

in their

accounts

unless they were

all blufliing.

Smith observes the passage quoted might
that

For instance Vincent "The language of Abul Fazal in
be

Since Sheikh Salim Chisti had already settled and had been guarding the premises against re-occupt ion
pied

Siltri

there

Akbar

is

Hindu said to have come and occu

understood

to

mean

Akbar did

not begin his extensive

programme

of building at Fatehpur Sikri until 1571, but this is not a fact, his buildings had actually been begun in
1569."

may be even earlier Akbar's queens had their Fatehpur Sikrfs palaces.
it

ChistiN building.

But

recalled that
deiivcriei in

(201
the

In a redstone-paved quadrangle

amidst

above observation it is apparent that Abul Fazal has used vague and devious language regarding Fatehpur Sikri and that subsequent historians like Smith are hard put to divine the real import or meaning of Abul Fazal, They, therefore, indulge in vague conjectures which are all wide off
the the mark.
(18) Sheikh Salim Chisti's

From

Fatehpur Sikri palace complex, infront of the Paiiclimahal is an ornate Astrologer VSeai. The
the
seal's
in
all

decorative stone festoon which adorns

tophus
it.

figures

Horn Hindu my tholog)

carved
in

An
(21)

astrologer was a prominent

official

Hindu royal households.
Seat In front or the Astrologer's ctfern end of the courtyard is a stone
Uje .ghati-patra'
at the
far

brother was known
not get that apsettled

as Ibrahim Fatehpuri.
pellation

He would

Hindus used to
so
ln

or the water clod reckon their

d^M"
m amcnt

knw£

W***"

family had £atbcpur Sikri for pencrations.
29.

unless his

down

in

auspi necessary in finding out the feslivtiics* begin Hindu worship or
30*

P

75,

Akb

i

the Great

Mogul,

ibid.

Akbar

the Great Mogul,

ibid.

CClfK45<

)QU

309

Sikn has a dninvh 0Usc part of ail Hindu essential is an palaoej Muslims frown on music. temples.
(22) Falehpui' (2?)

nt"Maryam
^

ki-Kothj

r

u

Sunehra-Makun. ff called a wu room oi with deists of » long consist

»"»«

ftjj Howg, Z**« tiaeS***:
m
^v,l

W
mn
Sikri

Fatehpur S.kri has Ashva-Shnla. Ga H Shala. Ooshlra-Shala (i e. stables for horses Ju phants and camels). No Muslim palace had Vhe Se Hindu palaces do have it.
i

sides. * three

One of the pillar,'kS

"covered with the figures of **£ ^Hindu gods, and the wall.
*

paintings

(24)

has been inscribed in

The board of Chaupat, a Hindu ganic
the

The myth or the
can A kbar
in «le.

building of Fatehpur

centre

courtyard in front of the

Panch

of ihe redsto Mahal. Chaupat

An

be blown to pfa*, from exhaustive discussion
thus
will

C

J
We

h

was a very popular Hindu game in mediaeval times. Muslims never played or play that game.
(25)

separate
therefore

book on
leave
it

require

Fatehpur
at that

Sikri

a| or, c

and proceed

to examine

Incidentally the

presents the

layout of

Chaupat design Fatehpur Sikri.
the

also

re-

s

equally fantastic claims of A k bar's authorihe other townships and buildings. hip of various

Hindu

architects used to

carve out

basic scale they

The Red Fort in Agra

used in constructing buildings, in some part of ihe budding. In the Taj Mahal courtyard, it
is

the

on the dome which has been inscribed on the floor below as the basic scale used in the construction of the Taj Mahal. In the case of Fatehpur Sikri the design used to plan the township is that of the Chaupat

full

length trident pinnacle

Keene's Handbook for Visitors to Agra andjlu Neighbourhood, gives a 2,000-year history of the Red Fort in Agra, and then quotes a rumour of
Akbar' s times
1565

that

Akbar
or

demolished

ihe fort

in

for

no
In

rime

reason

and

constructed

another.

game

board.

1566 Adhain Khan who murdered thrown down Aigah Khan, was punished by being
from
the
inside

evidence of the Jindu origin of Fatehpur Sikri. that it was a Hindu capital before Rana Sanga lost it to Babur. found ,n ihe figures of Lord Rama, the Hindu negation, and o( Hanuman, the Hindu hercuhan «arnoror the Hindu epic Ramayana, found in

A

very important

piece of

royaUprtmcnts second storey of the per n^ Keene expresses a very the fort.
if

doubt in a footnote, that
in

1565

how come

that

Akbar had begu no
tnat even

the fort

^dcniobkd

^

second storey.
*»•

Keene adds

P. 310 Part II. Archneol

An

Archaeological Survey of India publication

,publKlicdinl^«^ IndM.P* Archucotogical Survey m
Muac U m
fc

^ZTkcW <***"

J09

308
fori

of the extern Under these circu ms years. cd wiihin ihrec ance : evacuating the Red Fort, its demolition Alder's debris, digging up removal ofihe heaps of of digging the new and foundation old foundation filling it up, ordering the after a new plan,
t

could

1101

have been co mplel

ye dinlhe

palace

in

^

like V, grahr jjtfo Kings Juhviraj had l.ved earlier. That Muslim accounts claim that

Aj m£r cu y

^ ^S^ *
; which

cities and built towns and forts n All this magie speed. flagic J of
si

^H« m
*
,

B

required

ons

at

and lime for the superstructure and having the whole edifice decorated wjih and multicolour ornate plastei shining 0ra the space of 12 months smacks designs, all within
redstone, marble, bricks,
fl
|

courtiCK cringing j*n
buildings to

a

earlier

Hindu

wh&fe ^ Akbar.
Similar

^
^

building Khilji too.

magic' has been claimed forAlJdf aai "

of Arabian Nights magic. Unfortunetly Indian History has been loaded with such fantastic myths without arousing anybody's suspicions.

Moinuddin Chisti
In

Tomb

Ajmer at the
is

fortress,

foot of Taragad/ihemour^n a shrine, where Muslims gather

every

year to

commemorate

Ajmer

of Hindu Kings centuries before Akbar. It is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit term Ajaya-Meru (meaning the invincible Mount Mem). It derives its name from the fort Taragarh built on a mountain top. At its foot lies Ajmer city. In the city is an ancient palace now occupied by Government offices. It is this palace, tlte fort and the other remains surrounding fakir Moinuddin ChistPs tomb thai are credited
seat

Ajmer had been an ancient

Whether he was investigated because there have
fake

Sheikh Moinuddin Chisti actually buried there needs to be
been instances of
the
ihrine
are

tombs.

The

precincts of

clearly

a part of the fort's outer defences. A huge This was a pan stone archway leads to the shrine. stormed by Muilim Hindu citadal of the
invaders.
Chisti

After

capture
in
all
all

fakirs like Moinuddin ruins.

lived

amidst such
to

When

they died

they

were buried

their

dwelling

places,

applies equally
India.

mediaeval Muslim tombs

to Akbar. But
the

Akbar used to frequent Ajmer from

They

'are

Hindu

temples misused

if

no ready before the advent of Muslims Ajmer had a long succession of powerful The ll: n du monarchslaces, tombs, fort, gateways and the other ruins nielli Hindu constructions stormed and
devastated

age of 19 to direct his aggressive operations Rajput rulers. He could not have gone and ^ ayed there had there been palace. Even

Muslim tombs.
Allahabad Fort
rhe fraudulent
*

Indian histories taken
assertions
in

in

Kv b>

*

Muslim

chronicles

na

^^ ^^
fl|||!

Akbar with the construction c me Allahabad at the confluence ol
*

m

successive

Muslim

assaults,

Akbar

a muua.

310

311

,o

for instance "«One Vincent Smith observes, of sacred place* of pilgrimage and known the most appear to have been Hindus a* Prayag does not
rtjficd.

prayag is not a ancientmost city
millcniums.
ihc

1

m

modern town

but

Us

India with 1 l *» a of n fort could on1vh*!£

hyJ?'?

in

October 1583 Akbar

travelled

from

most of the way by river. Agra to the confluence, the fort in November. He began (he building of remarkably short lime, A n was completed in a modern Allahabad, grew up in the jzreat city. he
I

thc at least

confluence of the Ganga and' y two streams constitute

mm^

it

two

sides of thc fort invulnerable

natur^roau^ t****

W

inilu

neighbourhood of the fortress."
There are many flaws in that statement which betrays remarkable gullibility of authors of Indian historical text books. Firstly, the very vague statement that prior to Akbar "Allahabad does not is very naive. Ln appear to have been fortified mediaeval India every town and village used to
1 "

Allahabad not only had an ancient fort fa, had towering nver fronts paved als0 with c steps rising tier upon tier and th eir bristling Wl n temples, as we still see in Banaras, Akbar had them all uprooted when he plundered Allahabad, been no Allahabad what did If there had Akbar And since Akbar plundered Allahabad plunder 7 clear that he did not found any city, A is ii plunderer never builds a city for the very people he The two are paradoxical. plunders

«*

Z

,,

TO

have massive fortifications.

Allahabad fort is of immemorial antiquity built through and through in the Hindu style. Its inner royal apartments are all carved in the style of

So, far from building Allahabad city or itvfori Akbar invaded them and razed thc innumerable
magnificent temples and
stately nver fronts.

Hindu
like the

palaces. Inside the fort

arc

Hindu

shrines

Pataleshwar temple and the sacred banyan

Historians have grossly erred in not subjecting close lOfuitu claims of authorship of buildings to

tree (the

Akshayawatj.

Had they

Towering inside the fortress is an Ashokan stone pillar which shows that the fori is at least of king Ashoka's time iff not of earlier origin.
Secondly, Allahabad being a pilgrimage it woukTnt be

thc arehtcct tried to investigate who him, when where are the drawings prepared by end. the construction start, when did it

m,
dtf

was the expense, why has
a

the fort

Hmdu

»"d
Jvas „e
"

hwm*

place
left

of Hindu
unfortified.

Hindu pillar inside^ *hy are m the Hindu style-trie hoax of AkWr * would not have passed »**"&
statement that
ships
all

um

On

the opposite side of The fort across the Ganga an ancient township called Jhusi which dates back to the Ramayana. Similarly Allahabad aim
I*

o

Vkbar
in
is

9

»>«'

d "*
on

were raised
that

miraculous
nothing

shows
such

there

^Jmor(

^

yv

abound bogus claims which

16],

Akbar

the Grcal

Mogul,

ibid.

"

of M8Slim ruk in India which constrained Sir H.M, history "^isan impudent' Elliot to remark that thai

and

interested fraud.
at

Nagarchain
Like oiher building hoaxes Akbar
to
is

supposed

township and named it have founded a If a lay visitor asks to be shown that Nagarchain. miracle township which, Akbar founded, pat comes the traditional historian's reply thai the township has vanished so thoroughly that there is not the
slightest trace

m

Here again we come

across the

of

it.

Muslim era in India abound For instance Humaytin is supposed is such bluffs. If you ask where it to ha\e built his own Delhi.
Histories of the
is

phrase that the building of a whole executed so rapidly, almost overnight,

t*^
oft

r™

i?

thai

knows when

it

was

begun

i
it

or

when

the answer

is

that

during

his

short

five-

completed, designed the township.

how much money

^

was

spent or «|j n

Similarly nobody know*

year tenure as sultan Sher Shah wiped out the new Delhi founded by his ousted rival Humayun. He

how and why it vanished. We alio brail even Akbar's own contemporaries like Badayani
confess

did
iheie

such
is

a thorough job of the demolition that

their

ignorance about

the township.

It

no

trace

left

ofHumayun's Delhi

In the

should, therefore, be clear that Nagarchain
is

(which

same breath we are also told that Sher Shah during his nominal five-year reign not only wiped out
every trace

ofHumayurfs Delhi but
This
is

also built ano-

ther Delhi of his own.
taking especially

when

something breathSher Shah's entire reign
survival

Hindu, Sanskrit name) was not built b> Akbar but was destroyed by him. Allahabad was not founded by Akbar. Fatchpur Sikri was not built by Akbar but its Hindu ornamentation xvni disfigured
a
important This then leads us to a very Mudii deduction namely that Akbar and other

by

him.

of five years was a bitter struggle for against powerful adversaries.

About Nagarchain Smith says " a *Executcd rapidly at the close of 1564, on return from Mandu.
Introduction to Elliot
g4

from building anything in out damaged, misused, mutilated cr dejWJ" magnificent Hindu palaces. Mfd* nnd reader
rulers far

M*wp*

rn«

Unifications canals, bridges
ancient

&

Dowgon's eight- volume study
ibid.

Mi
54 55,

urometer.

India was famous.
unwilling!*-

34

I'p

Akbar

ilic

Great Mogul,

Badayuni, perhaps

.

315

\poscs the hoax
i

about Akbar's claim to *\ Nagmhain, Badayuni states 3 * », n t uundine B j (972 AH.) the building of the city of lsi «**
took
place.

one of \h~ nobles, at the time of the composition of the Miiunu ordered me to compose some lines here insert without alteration. which It s wonders of the world, that of the traditional that city and edifice not a trace now is left, so that
chain
' I

On

a

?m

he was ordered )0 __ feunded by Akbar, It. hu has been rash in
tfhich

m

,

this

subject

founded

Nagarchain
recall a

^ *>*• Z *£& ^
i*
Hun

^

Here we
jlt

his

critical

study

footnote of Ihc

j»*H M
i
" '

*

.

E|1

j

Muslim
illusion

chroniclers

had

the

fabricated

of

reality,

claims with minute detJL mi%

habf

to create

it> site is

become a
is

level plain.

,J

very important statement of far* reaching significance for a correct understanding
This
a

Manoharpur
Dr.

His is a very honest of Muslim history in India, and frank statement which seems to have escaped

Shrivastava

writes;

a

*"Whi!c

at

a**,

(old Jaipur)

Akbar

decided to restore an
his

from his pen in an angry mood when he must have been hurt by some orders from the court.

but deserted city
its

and on November

anSS
,

9,1577 h e

foundation with
architects

Bld

own

hands.

He ordered

Badayuni inadvertently leads us into the

secret

of how Akbarnama (i.e. the official history of Akbar's reign) happens to be a blatant concoction

and fabrication

and modulated according to the dictates coming from the court from time to time. This should open the eyes of j II students and scholars to the fact that all Muslim chronicles have been made to order to rehabilitate the vanity, and comfort the conscience ul alien monarch s spending lifetimes in (heir
I

manufactured

and engineers to build a fortress and other buildings and named the new cjt) Manoharpur after the name o[ Manohardas, wn of RaiLem Karan. Manoharnagar is 28 miles north-east of Jaipur, and is known as Manoharpur."
his

The above passage
gullibility

is

lypical

of

the

pathel

of writers of our

history text

boob

ind

heads of university history departments.

The ciie
i

wuh which they accept
chronicles without
'« pathetic imtvct

fraudulent claims verification, is abounding

for

tic

destruction, aggressive campaigns, ruth-

less

plunder and drink-drenched and

drug-sodden
confesses

amour,

As
lie

for

Nagarchain
not
find

itself

Badayuni

Even h cursory examination of ihc onfin Manoharpur Mated above would reveal "™ w nolc story chauvinistic concern

of

iM™

is

a

did

any trace of the tow
chronicle, ibid,

ginning
36.

to end.

Mifc-70, Vol tl.

Badayuni

P. 229,

Akbai

the Great,

ibid-

116

317
is

The thousands of decadent there existed Of c rime'when deserted bv people fleeing from roships extinct row what made Akbar choose on c Muslim atrocities
Jaipur aloue
..

" luestion nr<t que

m

wc ask we

mat that during Ale Akb bar's

ruler

people ? What hus,,^ provocation or pretext did
r all

Tor

restoration.

The secom

j

cutters

what architects he question centeniion that he possessed sess? It is our with him only an army of stonc none. He had who at Akbar's or his courtiers' bidding
inscribed

and engineers did

d ** Hindu township in tnc v a capital ? Were there not clse -s cnlh defunct towns all around Delhi Aera kri which were the haunts of avL*tL si

Akbar^

*
rc

Vc^
elipUr
*'

conclusion, therefore,

^rtTheohti,

is

an ancient Akb ar founded it is a hoax.

Manoharpur

is

city

Th!™^
fi!

Muslim

claims

on

earlier

Hindu
paid
for

^Otigh

h

-one

He may

ofhisrnanv'iS/
sycophant

buildings.
the

The

third question is

who

Rajasthan. giving his

chm mcIm

must have been revival of the township? If incurred on the Akbar spent it what interest did he have and
huge
expenditure

which

occasion 10 concoct the

story that Akber founded
Prostitutes
hi*

Apartments Tor 5,000 Royal

what return did
long did
it

he gel for his

take to resurrect

investment the city? To

?

How whom

Abul Fazal records to the glory of 37 "His Majesty has made a large lord
with
fine

ov*r-

mclmurc
reposes.

were the palaces, fort and dwellings
for

occupation ?

handed over Were they given gratis or on a
earlier

buildings

inside,

where he

Though there

township had been de&erted which people were asked to populate the new buildings? If people residing elsewhere were persuaded to occupy the new city what
hire-purchase
basis? If the

are more than 5,000 women he \m given to each a separate apartment. He has also " We wonder where divided them into sections

on earth that huge building complex
5.000
suites,
is.

consisting of

Had

there been any such our
vers

were they offered ? Is there any corresponding exodus on record to justify the claim that people from some neighbouring township came and occupied the new town Akbar?
incentive

been government or any factory would have * happy to use it for staff quarters in tee

housing shortage.
the

We

have

unsuccessful

founded by

whole of dead Akbaf . erstwhile
remotely wmflai
to

y^ domanto M
;

.rcd

Akbar named the new town as Manoharpur why called Manoharnagar ? If Akbar gave it a new name what was the name of the old defunct town ? >M &av;> it a new name he chose a it
i

anything even complex*
the

aM
*
a

This should blatant lies that Abu.

^J^JS F^^fi.
we may
co

and not some Persian or Arabic *mcc he had even converted an elephant's „" nwnc im ° a Muslim name ? Why did Akbar name the townsh.p aftef the son of gome Hindu
.

m name

how

is

glorify his master.

All that

where mere pig-siy-lype enclosure
37.


Rtobfl'"
*

^

unuU-

Ain

15,

Aini Akbari

Vol.

m.

tion,

*IS

abducted women were herded up to h c beck and call of the emptor's amours.
lcs<

a(

Wicre Muslim
le

If

Muslim claims are subjected
can

l-cxamination cro»-cwimination their fraud
time. no time,

such C ° * be exposed
| ? |

to

Masters of historical methodology ha lav repeatedly emphasized that statements n chron* clcs. especially mediaeval Muslim chronicles.
j

Fcrozshah w ot a lhj« conceded even taking a very ,. * bc »» at the most. spcm a «K lhal be, ,ep * building damaged when Hindu it was even thai pa u * 0nnttl nl0Sl invariably ry sum was extracted fro* limes that

chronicles built a pa|, Cc

etofa, ,l

X&*m*
r

m

^

lhe

they should be subjected to a detective-likc scrutiny, and
every case should be argued threadbare as a These very wise principles >er would do.
f

not be taken at their face value:

that

dcn

that

aw .

levying a lax Such for the repairs to Fatehpur Sikn ^adc Fort in Agra are on record though

subjects

by

.

T^ laSSS
ma iuu
and
fori

£»»*

they

been given a clean go-by
disastrous-

in

books of Indian history.
It

have the compilation of text The result has been

ra de as

sums spent on
Sikri.

building a new

new Fatehpur
ruler did

Akbar3*

not lay even one

or any other Mui|j m
that

single brick over another
they

has burdened

Indian

history

with

at least in India.

All that they did was
mansions.

blaram falsehoods which through repetition and sheer passage of time have acquired the sanctity of
truth.

usurped and misused Hindu
Jestifying to

this, Monserrate a Jesuit contem-

porary of Akbar,
Itfe

who

observed mediaeval Muilim
1

of a cross-section of the building claims made on Akbar's behair should
of Indian history to be very cautious when studying Muslim chronicles. Very often truth is turned so topsy turvy that the very oppo* ite of what is claimed will be found to be correct. We have already illustrated this by explaining that whenever a Muslim ruler or courtier is credited
with having raised a building or ship that should be
alert students

•This examination

and practices at close quarters remarks *. .."the Musalmans whose nature is indeed that of barbathings (i.e. erecting rians take no interest in such and township* massive and ornate building*
and Their chronicles being scanty
full

unreliable

*nt

of old wives

1

tales...

However
Is

I

was

told

its

M'
mat
b00fcl "J th*

founded a townof a different
point
:

understood to mean that hc ravaged, plundered or destroyed it as Akbar did with the Hindu township of Nagarchain.

tribe from

38. This
tilled

hai

Some

Where Muslim chronicjs say that temples were destroyed and mosques were built what they ally mean h that Hindu temples were seized and pui to use as mosques (and tombs).

Rescarch" and author written by «he
39. P. 16,
ibid.

The Comment™"

^^ ^^ft*. ^^
also

been

KBU «p ded

Blundct*

moual p,^-

ol

4

of

320

m
For
their
it

been celebrated
thai

in

our own limes.
the

IS

200 years tgo,

nav J generations of European visitors been to In 1579 when on!) 53 years had elapsed India since Babur the first Mogul invader established
bluffing

Of a fmh DOUntr> to occupy. lefi encampments, invaded India and dho." This passage shows how

Mongols being In'ieaS
ancestral settled at ivfe„

said

aeration

it

is clear

Mu

m uprooted Hindu ima^ and iho palaces and tcmpki* mansions m <^* * residences have been credited d them, through fraudulent
'
"

that the very

\

w "^ **
^

buill

juries

of

Mushm

mf* clahnsrSJ?^
h

occupatton.

students, teachers and scholars of thal archaeology took a second look at

^ZZ hml
|JJ£

himself

in
1

India.

Muslim
tell

flatterers

at

Akhar's

Monserrate that two hundred years earlier another Mongol tribe had occupied Central India and built the massive and Hindu temples and mansions in magnificent Mandavgarh. The statements of European scholars which arethe result of mediaeval Musiim brainwashing must not. therefore, be accepted without a careful check-up and corroboration from other unimpeachable sources.
Monserrate adds *°*'the religious zeal of the Musalmans has destroyed all the idol temples which used to be very numerous. In place of

court had

he cheek to

buildings in India with a view to trace fair uu« of relying on mere bluff and history instead bi UU4r
as

hitherto.

The

guide rules

mentioned above

provide the long lost key to a correct understanding mediaeval history which has been badly of India's tampered with, mutilated and fabricated all these
years.

Hindu temples, countless tombs and little shrines f wicked and worthless Musalmans have been reeled in which these men are worshipped with vain superstition as though they were saints (Footnote -The persons whose names stand out conspicuous in this business of destruction were Atlauddiii Khilji and also Malik Naib Kafur. Sikandar Lodi and Babui)."
:

Taking the evidence quoted above, into consi*
P. 27,
t*i

C

Commcniartus bv Father Monserrate,

>b»d

123

CHAPTl R XXII
d f

Incensed by such Ucemicm, they would rar, Viour
place

orthodox

restr a , nt
at

^2?/^ *«£
Ht

ind

irled

by flinging defiance

WN-E-ILAHI
interpreted

in

g
Literally
rod's

iw followed his

^v
as
io

notam own religion,

T^

d**, J*!! etot
which

^n52*s
wwc^*"
,

the
1

term

Din-c*1iahj

Thus,
flaunted
turns

on a
be

closer

analysis,

This term has been much abused, misunderstood and misused in accounts Akbar's reign. In most Indian hist ones ii is lustily boosted as a wonderful religion invented by Akbar by blending the golden characteristics of all religions known to him and it is added for good measure lliat it was inspired by compassionate concern for ihc temporal happiness and spiritual bliss of his subjects, [f we goto the root of all such fantastic praise heaped on an imaginary system hc find that it is much ado about nothing.

own

Wnt

religion

or system.

Akbar's wonderful

H
hi

rcli £lon

anti-reli^> n or a defence or ill curbs on his licentious and religious autocratic This is exactly what a contemporary behaviour.

2

out

Jesuit,

Monserrate has

recorded from

pcrwnal

observation of Ak bar's court. A disappointed and disgusted Monserrate justly complained "'wemay
justly

suspect

that

Zeladinus

(Jalaluddin Akbar)

been led to summon the Christian pntsr* not curiosity and too by any divine prompting but by or perlapi ardent an interest in hearing new things, of ma desire to attempt the destruction
had
by a
souls, in
Jesuit

The term Din-c-Ilaht arose out of a constant acrimonious tussle and war of nerves between a
fiercely

some novel

egotistic

Akbar

and a

fiercely

fanatic

priesthood
Btanas
notions.

consisting

of qa/is. maulvia

hoped that the worrfup of converted from a wicked life to « God, (Rudolfus) was delivered unscatn* ¥
priest)

fashion... RodolfuMwouw Zeladinus would

fed

on archaic

and antediluvian

As

art

alt-powerful despot

Akbar wouldn't

from the midst of barbarious and threatening roans, from many
destruction.

any restrictions placed on or any objections *cdat Ins autocratic behaviour. Correspondingly

.He was

murdered

in

fa*^J • W « i«arof
r(

^ age on July
Monserrate

15, .583/*

ST"

Muslim priesthood was plagued by Akbai -'s 1 '" roads imo t,lt Privacy of their married abduct Uieir wives and sisters to his own 11 compelling them to take spirituous £"""• Bdolhc "defying drugs; and to n»p1undcrort .fiscal ion will.
-'
: '

.M>«n* is right in
crt ,ik souls.

,n

laMh *Dr>*
.

fof ibe
f

J*l was a
dcMr..^:-

in« diabolical system
n
.

^ruetbn of human

and

^

Ovation.
2. r.

'

L

of

tMrJwaltbH

p P- 192-196, the Commentariui.

324

325

There are
shrines,

specific

tif

i

*

ascertain

itt

cn

whether
jfcfch
its

system is a religion.

Every religion has

message from ih iron* migiH nave might have been uu
king.

temples, mosques or prayer hulls. Di„. e Every religion has ;, pricsu Ilahr had none such. Imve. hood, which Pin-e-IIahi did no) Every prayers which also Din-c-Ilahj religion has some
.

<)XVn

chri stian

ausalman and

CV e n «+. docl J* hc attributed no

He

e

^*»*
vZlf
Toll °

,

h

hammad. saying NlLl
Since

that he

wail

without a rival" Jone

^**d« w*
ofc^
i

**Z

did

not have.

Every religion has some memphy.
n0 l

Akbar used
^ their

to

flout

.iboiit the creation of y explanation steal lc philosophy for attaining salvation universe and a Dm-c-ilahi had nothing of ,r its own concepi.

that hc was no anfl0 uncing Mus|i m

he

M

**«

b,

subservient to

religious

have therefore, blundered m Historians asserting thai Din-c-lluhi was a religion, withoui
these.

poor maulvis and fanatic chronicler* lit'T? likel ma de it a convenient peg to
hang
against
|fa

au

the
*'
ijii

m

Akbar on. As poor

subjects

applying any

tests.

Commentarius says that A footnote devotion to Akbar was the main tenet of Din-eThis is absolutely true. As observed earlier llahi.
to

the

mercy of a cruel despot lite weapon they had to strike Akbar within th, fanatic wrath, was to dub and condemn firm w and an apostate. In those days of religion, renegade

Xi£SKj

Akbar was a fiercely egotistic egoist whose vanity made him desire that every human being bow down to him as sovereign, plenipotentiary, prophet
and divinity
all

orthodoxy
a

the

priesthood
religious

could

threaten

monarch
in

with

sanctions

But

Akbar's wile
resulting

more than matched his mauWi guile
the latter's impotent
frothing, fretting

rolled into one.

Akbar's flouting the authority of- the Muilas is often paraded as proof that he was not a fanatic Muslim. This is not true. Firs) and foremost

and fuming.
In

order

to

cut

the maulvis to siw and
"the

pui

them in place
Islamic

Akbar

1 used to skip

custom*)

Akbar was an

he regarded as God and prophet. But the hard core of his heart was always that of a fanatic Muslim, wholly
egotist
to

who wanted

prayers

at

the

time

appointed

Monserrate Muslim and nothing but Muslim. cautions us against misunderstanding Akbar'* over! moves or protestations. Monserrale -notes (Akbar) went on in the samerati am (praising th c Pope and asking the Portuguese pnest to kiss the Pope's feet (when the Jesuit went to Buropa oil Akbar's embassy; m proxy for him and bring sonic

Mohammad, and did not observe the monuYi ft* ml* called Ramadan. He frequently made jokes expense of Mohammad, especially at his
out of doors without shoes. acc »unt of his licentiousness. All
,hr «si
this

"?*ny

Musalmans and
Mansur)."
64-65.
i

especially

&*

«g£

^aJi

I'p.

he

Com men

i

an us,

«»

ctoiph?.

327

i

The above

description

of Akbrii oi

akmt

reviling

prophet Mohammad, recorded by Monserrate tvc if has to be properly understood pi .(v true. Bui

Vionserrate has also ime Islam reigned kh;ir
i

Ported

fury.

^"*
i

crra

W^^

supZTL
ii

ho fr
lt

_
1

running down Mohammad, Akbar wished him. o prophet and God by all his self to he regarded lis This does nol mean thai he had shctl subjects
in

u
;

.|,iuir-i:'.'"

n, r

K

,

rrom Agra whieli ami from Fatchpuran,

th €

P^puiju
°f

vvhcreT*

*•

any

of his

111

itei

ate
to

Islamic fanaticism.

Akbar used
was
the
his

keep

I

lie

maul vis

guessing by
This

destroyed aindcl temples which used to very In place of Hindu lumcrous. temple counties tom bs and little shrines of wicked and
I

professing lo be impressed by other religions,
I

fear that

mode of making lie maul vis cower in the Akbar may at any time renounce Islam. If
fate

Vjusalmans have been erected m which with vain superstition arc worshipped
they

worthy
men

those

were saints/'
This

as though

vereign look to another religion Ihcy knew

should

convince

what the a

would he.

They would have

historians that

all

been

converted or tortured- to death. In ludu that such a threat should be kept hanging perpetually over their heads &o that they may not
either forcibly
raise
>us

mediaeval Muslim tombs and are erstwhile Hindu temples
should
also

mosques

in

Indy
It

and

mansions
to believe
in

persuade them not

the

objections to

Akbar's despotic

sophistry that Muslim invaders aimed at u fusion of Hindu and Muslim styles in the buildings ihcy
erected.
It ts

and licentious behaviour he used lo often parade a As part of this faked love for other religions. ategem he used to have priests of other religions
It surround him. This served a double purpbsi being the in his vanity and egoism satisfied

wrong,

therefore, to explain away the

and out Hindu architecture of Fatehpur Sikn. fancy for Hindu a*, having been born of Akbar's Firstly Akbar has been proved lo be architecture. Muslim other mediaeval as fanatic as any
out

central

figure

admired by

a

throng of people

Sccondlv. as
times all
-ly

belonging

to
it

many
the

faiths

and
his

regions,
at

and
bay

Monserrate slates, even Hindu idols and motifs used to
In
this

in

Akbar

be rut

secondly
or
in

kept

Muslim
pari

maul vis

disfigured.
in

context whei
first Jesuit

leash.

As

of

make-believe.
i-

thai

1580

when
fathers

the

mission
ar
i

Monserrate records, that when the Jesuit priests m> to the palace precincts "Akbar (went their quarters, and) prostrated himself on l*JJ
i

and
est

«»the
delight

perceived from

£

1

or Fatehpuram...they began to ga*

upon
of

the

great

ground

in

adoration of the Christ and his mother-

«V nd
B

f*™^ ™ U*

appearance
5 P. 26,

the

en

ihc Commciitwriu*.

W*

*

6
I
'

*

ommcniariuft, ibid,

P. 27, ibid*

328

329

Fatchpiu Sikri was a grand inhabited city even When lhal is so Muslim accounts before nSO, auhpur Sikri was completed by 1583-85 saying veil after completion concoction* .11 irc how it take tor about two hundred many years woutd
I I
,

sWC ar

temporal and spihtUtl *' ***<and adherence to Akhan. vieitce fa and of course it ceased l**u fl0 to 'f t0 say. Akbar...The whole ,hc cath of
alt

?

T

^

ichc^Clh^
Faith

thousand people to occupy the city and hold regulis stated to have had ? ar bazars as Fatehpur Sikri
7 "wliai ever pertains to Monserrate states digressions from the direct course o( my narrative have gathered primarily from King Zclaluddin

ridiculous vanity, a mc of autocracy The Divine imr cstramed Unument of Akbafs folly, notllf

rn^Z^t,

J^
1

*

i
(

J

right in dubbing the Din-e-Uaht at . political religion arising out sham of AkbaVi vanity and monstrous autocracy. ridiculous

Smith

is

Akbar) himself." Fatehpur Sikri to wouldn't confess Hindu township
<

This explains wh\ he attributes

Akbar

As

a vain egoist

that he lived in

Akbar a second hand
grandfather

conquered

by
it

that Akbar's pretended 'religion' essentially in the assertion of his personal consisted supremacy over things spiritual as welt as things
is

•»The truth

his

Babur

He

misrepresented

newly constructed by himself yed at seeing no sign of recent construction

having been Apparently dismaas

temporal (He assumed primacy of the faith by means of the infallibility decree),"
10 Bartoli

Mtttlim

writes on the authority of

his mis*

Monserrate exclaims that if it was so constructed it must have been raised overnight as though by divine magic with material fashioned in distant quarries

sionary bretheren that Akbar, summoning a general proclaim council "sent a distinguished old man to
in all

quarters...

-

the law to be professed through....The

and

silently piled
fi

and

fixed in place.

out

the

Mogul empire
to

four degrees of
in

"The number of adherents of the Divine Faith. Akbar's political sham religion, was never consideBlochmann has collected from Abul Fazal rable. and Badayuni the names of 18 prominent members. Raja Birbdl being the only Hindu in the list.. .The

devotion

Majesty consisted and to sacrifice property, life, honour

His

radii*

religion.

The above four requirements mud, boc£ picture of what Akbar, was. He wanted everyone *~
honour, property and
;

give

ui *

^
„,,..

*Jf

organism

cannot well have survived the murder he Abul Fa*al (because according to Badayuni to was an areh flatterer who mobilized people
7.
».

religion

Akbar's mercy and oi was renouncing the authority nd P ropw qazis. Surrender] us life *
9.

disposal.

*?££*
gul, i*"*

"^^

^^

aod

Momciuic\
I
i

introduction to the

ComnicnUrius
Vincent Smiih.
P. 153,

tfM60i Akbar

the Great M«yul, by

Akbar

the Great

W

ibid

10.

Pp. 152-154,

ibid.

531

«

MIS

w
Ml ,
if

increase

SST^ib
ivnuind

wealth and extend hH of surrendering 0n c\ hnpKcation undertaking not to object to Akb^,
his for

any.

from

for ihc.r n.nniics

sodomy and his own or

lifting wonici,

his

courtkn'

or gOCSte* harems.
11

was

tMit

natural, therefore, for a
like

few abject

flatterers

alone,

Abul Faxal and Birbar, to

who ruled over D»i h generations before Akbar had ,j miiarlj *
Khilji
-

Allauddin

*

**

conditions of despotic kowtow to those humiliating Thi> was no religion but a ganging up autocracy. aggrandizement. r personal
With a view to make 11 "at the end of June 1579, dispowerless Akbar. placed the regulai preacher at the so-called chief mosque in Faichpuri Sikri. In order to emphasize
the Islamic priesthood
,

fhe

sec,
to

desire to displace both

Allah
failed

himself
be

But Akbar and
hailed
as

Moh^^
Allauadin both
leaden.

spiritual

remained what they tyrants and despots.
lual
in

Tha
sadist

were,

namely cruel
failed

They

to inspire any
tpiri-

spiritual allegiance because they had nothing

them.

Their

entire make-up wiftur un-

restrained licentiousness.

disposition of spiritual leader of the nation, to which he laid claim, (he) availed himself of certain
alleged ancient precedents

A
are
is

typical

instance of how Indian

histories

and

resolved to recite the

The use of the ambiguous phrase Allahu Akbar gave colour to the most extreme criticism... Even Abul Fazal admits thai the innovation aroused much uneasy feeling .At times he
khuiba himself.
allowed himself to fancy that in his own person he had bridged the gulf between the finite and the

based on wishful thinking and unverified hearsay ta "Akbar showed equal the following passage
:

attention

to

religious

men

of

all

creed* and

grant of subsistance allowances

for the suppoi

Hindu, Jain and Parsee
testified

id« scholars, saints.and

institutions as well as those of

Mata*

i

and skilful flatterers Abul Fazal. Faizj and the rest were only too willing to lull In. mind with such notions, and he after the manner of kings swallowed flattery with pleasure."
Infinite

His learned

edicts

by a number or preserved in K.M.

M«y entitled Royal Firmans anc Hindu scholars, and same*

^ ^* To
extant royal
erl

n^m
nU

i«-J^
«
'

e
f

jreat:

term "Allahu Akbar" means "Allah U But it also connotes that "Akbar himself
l»P

Hindu temples in many wmi must have been made tollo granbdeeds hi« nately most of the :ely
12.

other pari*

^ ^^ m
Ucd
I*

£
.

w

Pp.

238-239,

Vol.

I

'

v

II

125129,

ibid

Shrlvasuwa.

Or:l«-M5

.132

«*».
time. tunc

«««m ncgloc.

and wear and

, ear

of

*£%!£* *>'".,
to

The assumption that Akbar treated all religions on a par is wrong. Throughout this book Wc have
quoted many contemporaries and many events proving that Akbar was a fanatic Muslim and a
If his equal regard for all religions cruel tyrant sought to be defended on the ground that he is always used to have at his court monks from

f f threshold of the tli re

tf

h

s

ou

f

S
,..
i
.

»3
*" h '«
.

bul

^m n <£t**"+*
*..

Ie **«ittii

«•

palace he
extortion,
|

f

; or ld
;llld

of usury,

ponderous swoops,

n
ii

various creeds like Christianity, Zoroast nanism and Jainism. we have already pointed out that Akbar
:

dangerous travel-modes * ai £*! second visit to the emperor. pay a Evwff? were undertaken there , u-visil (T *ano«Zf an audience would be granted, or thai" emperor was in good heahh w *^ .„

md

mi^ ^ J*
„„
u
|n

if. md

*°»*hi
J

t

^
all

had those men
his

all

around him for two chief
felt

frau-

dulent reasons. His vanity

ingratiated by having

own person surrounded by men from different faiths and regions, looking up to him for protection and favour Their presence was also meant ot be a constant threat to the Muslim maul vis that if
they ever ventured to assert
rity
I

to be Very often Akbar difficulties a second visit did all these same game of empty assurances used

used

<

i

,,,„.

^
rf
the
I

materi

to

over again.

There was

a tacit undersi...

between Akbar and his officials pretending to be fair and genr u
to

thai

Im onk

ere not

m
ever

heir

religious autho-

be

executed.

The

visitors

themselves,
thai
i

would embrace some other religion and then wreak vengeance on them. The gambit of moving bishops of other faiths like pawns into his ambii was a part of Akbar's
over the emperor he
nefarious political game.

though sorely disappointed in finding orders were for mere make-believe,

A

and inscrW preserved or paraded those orders them on shrines so that the} mayicwi

scarecrows and totems
their shrines
official

to

proton
and (ft*

»"

Moreover, it has been shown by us that Akbar's decrees insofar as they professed to give generous donations or protection to people or
of other faiths, were all sham and make believe. They were never intended to be carried out. That is why we find priest after priest coming and over and over again begging for abolition of the discriminatory Jiziya tax, and protection from Muslim atrocities, Akbar had no scruples in
shrines

from molestation marauders who might
fake
orders

once
beiafl

»*

taken in by those
their

mm

mere show

value.
.

Soon
adds

after

asset tins

..,,.

thai
p.

wl Akbar twd «*

regard for all religions and

^^

"-Akbur

every

*&*£*«
!

i***"

»ry of prophet Mohammad
13.

appearing to be very sublime, generous, forbearing.

R

244, ibid

m

m
remained a fanatic Muslim. Had he n heen so he would have equally meticulously Q^ served and celebrated the birthdays of Lords Rami and Krishna, revered by the Hindus who formed a vast majority of Akbar*s hapless subjects. On the contrary Akbar is known to have paid at
that he
least
ftie

thai ^cr^. KClar. (By that decree scCl1 |ar. .JJ bar Akbar was authorized to
n
'

idca of subordination to j

superficial

homage

to

Christ

and

never
idols.

prostrated

himself before The reason is again found

Mary but he Hindu or Jaj n
in his political

provided that it wa 8 lhai *a „ oJ law Quran.. 1 h, vcrsc of the Quran.. The decree n! vcl se Akbar wide powers a ad on and m H ,t make him a mujtahid, dld
<-

mini.. p r(y n

'hlt)ii», '"••I

^coT
i
'l

^V

^
to


1 1

.
,

,

Hind

COn, <"'"%ii
1 1

,

expediency.

He wanted

to

humour and hoodwink
from them
a

supreme head „rthc Musi ^bu»F.»l admit, that the two 1 great dissatisfaction and unrest

in its o
,,

l"
;

",

diitg

mU ch

less the

£££*
Amission
,

'

the Portuguese because

he desired

The above passage
Akbar remained
Muslim.

is

B

clear

continuous supply of their superior armament for his aggressive campaigns and he sought exit and
entry facilities, specially for the
at

ha .

at the core of his heart a All that he craved was .upreme

m

fitnoi

Mecca n
the

pontifical
just

pilgrimage

authority over the destinies of men
he pleased
ed to.

do

the

west

coast

ports

which

what

Portuguese

unhampered,

unquestioned or unobjectcxcfusiu-ly

controlled.

He

continued to think
to

m

terms
all
i

(Akbar mounted the pulpit in the grand Jami Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri and recited Khutba (proclamation). According to Badayuni Akbar stammered and trembled while reading it and had to be helped descend the
pulpit.

M **On

Friday June 26. 1579

of he
I

Koran and

the Muslim law,
synthesize
all
is

Therefore

talk

of bis trying

religions or

pay equal respect to
lory

all religions

sdf-contradic-

bunkum.
lfi,

He

asked the khatib
It

*Frorn amongst the Hindus

tml)

Birbai ***
as

(priest) to read the

remaining pan

was believed by some

(hat

the

emperor was inspired by some ulterior motive.., Within two months of the reading of the Khutba Akbar took the bold slep of declaring himself to
be the chief interpreter and arbiter of the Shar or Muslim law This was done through a doeumeni
called

came a disciple. So serious a historian and asserts that by means of bribery ** more or less prominent converts (Cambridge History of India. * IW meam willing ^id
thai if discipleship

1^»

fee one's life
a

Mahzar, to which he secured the signatures of the prominent ulema of his court... Badayuni
correctly

observes he
I'P

was not
I,

inclined

to brook

and place it at the ep*«£ pbcc the \ ll[Kn. emperor would then make hn« hm an on his head and give
hand,
fl|(

he was Person had to approach

r already one . the cm]

^ ^
|

n

!k

U

240-244, Vol.

Akbar

the

Grem,

ibid
15.

by Pp. 255-257. Akbur,

.

J-

i

vl sl sh«W

331

h

-

..

re

cneraved
i

1

';

M

hu Vkhar-

r;


.

Ulfl

name of Akbar and
-

cause
Uic

they
nfolk

nmted Akb.^

Din-c-Jluli. vra
<

U^ofderwliosc^rpose
rion for
its

by no Attfc.ni... i. Wtt Perhaps was veoeta-

m^

does not prove* founder of anj new proves that he was t he ra ther decency. p human

'

£
f

^^ {***
CS adW
be

y
-.**
:,„

author

"

*°«*«U| „£
Ida,

demanded
,ot

the learned author. The \\c fully agree with initiation proves that Din-c-tlahi verv Mie* ©f subjection to Akbar's person and
total

must be remembered that iil. even himself. Had inverted h, rZ!?**' ' *• ion he would have declared rclig
[t

adherence 10
it

any rules of conduct

Mansirgn's
t,

remark too

revealing-

He s&w

very clearly

loyalty sans reliAkbar demanded only personal sans scruples which all his n. sans morals and courtiers and others conceded to him in
oges,

everybody else, to be the first religion, and that he was no longer to He would in that cist , Muslim.

',

***

r<

name and his own
replaced
reality, d his
it

tit
and

that of

his

vim

2S!
chilZ
it
I''

He would have driven out
by
that ol his

the

MusUiaeldgyS
beta

measure even without his ostensibly asking for of the dread of Akbar's vengeance. it because renouAkbar further desired them to swear by it. nce their fear, if any. of Muslim priests outlawing any of his immoral practices, and holding him m
fti]|

new faith, had
hit

With Akbar's

pretensions to sainthood

great military might he could

&.
ft

ed

thousands had he

really founded any new

even as
all

such awe and respect as though
.If

he

were

divinity

Muslims tortured and over the world to join their
In

threatened millions
faiih.

view

of what we have
scholars,

said above we hope

One who

flouts

an existing religion
if

is

not

that

authors,

students,

teacbea
Teiiib

nccc sarily tbefoundei

anothei

religion

Take

conform to mother's or grandmother's orthodox rules on the specious plea that as a •modern' he did not believe in antiquated notions of religion, and that
he instance of a son

who

refuses to

of history would stop making a in fe " uc of Din-e-Ilahi as a religion, and see Mobs was a system (a* colours namelv thai
examiners
it it

for the destruction of souls complete surrender and submission
ate says)

and
to

tc
>

en»
j

*

Atwr

he had

That callous disregard for the religious susceptibilities of the elders by 8 thoughtless youth amounts to the uprooting of U
his

own

religion.

^ of
h

one's

life,

property

no stretch of imagination can
g«on.

^ ^X% **
our
this
<

old, established religion bin

does not

in

the

lcast

on be glorified *as a pernicious system which create

Nor can
all

an>

it

^^

amuunt to the founding of a new religion. the same anal <>y we may say that Akbar's haughty berejection oft! authority of fanatic maulvis

«wd

around and

led to

several

C£WM£.

339

Chapter

.07//
,

AbulFaizi

3.

Todarmal

4

u
hir)n r

THE LUSTRELESS GEMS
Like every Olher aspect of Akbar's reign some historical texts try lo boost Akbar as a great patron

I

Tanscn9. Hak.m Humam.
already mentioned ahm-c the slightest regard have for
It is

n0t

of arts, literature and able men. Am such we are lotd that his court was adorned among others by nine men who were veritable gems whose lustre shed additional glory on Akbar's benevolent (sic)
reign.

had any memorial * N of them raj^T, bT Akbar, and none of them ha\ C v« h. oecn Huottd * posterity. emulated by
,lrT|

m*

***

f

Abul Fazal Ailami was the so He was horn near Agra d„" Mubarak. and was ambushed and 1551

all

The evidence on record proves that they were worthless panders, stooges, flatterers and oppor*

Crown Prince J changes orders on Aueuu 9 11 1602 while proceeding from Suraj 12, Burkivill^ to Antri six miles away,

Z^S *

1

!

Sbnkh

tunists

who

by their abject subjection

to

Akbar's

autocratic despotism
science or scruples.

had ceased to have any con-

Abul Fazal was an Arab. His Must was a resident of Arabia.
invaders to Sind.
fattier

jncesirr Sheikh
In the

m

A

1

1

he outset

we have Akbar's own

appraisal
!

century his forefathers accompanied some Muslim

f the

wonhlessnessof his ministers. He says *'It was grace of Allah that 1 found no capable minister,

From

there Abul Fazal's grand

would have considered that my measures had been devised by him/* Since Abul Fazal, himself one of Akbar's ministers and classified as a gpm\ has recorded Akbar's none-iotcomplimenlary appraisal of his ministers there should be no doubt that they were all lack-lustre
otherwise people
l

Sheikh Khiz. an itinerant Mir moved 10 (father Nagor near Ajmcr. There Sheikh M> of Abul Fazal) was born. Soon after hi

and other member* of the family perished in « famine. Sheikh Mubarak in hn so«ul reached Ahmcdabad and stayed there for
faiher

Km
"***

Later he

moved

to

a

village

DOS

undeservedly boosted by doting historians.

'^ing shelter with a fakir, a Sunni btil 10 »hc Shi, sect. Reports of his beuv

mi W"*"**

The nine individuals often classified as special class gems (sic) of Akbar"s court are: I. Abul Fazal
1

conveyed to Akbar.

The
Sheikh

bittr

**the Shias ordered

Mn*
Afcbjrg &
1

*

2

•tod

U»n*l.

Akbar the Great Mogul, ibid. ?. Kl. Akjwr. 1(b trl 387. v„i tu Abul Fail's Am-i-A 1 fey H. S Jarrci
'

^ Abul m murdered

**h

Mubarak convinced
left his

that

two young * turned Fazal at Agra and

lugiu

34)

340

Towards
shelter with Salim Chisti. The younger fled to seek le was introduced A hul Fazal. to of the two was brother FaizL elder in 1574 by his
I

the end of i« te

died.

Ab *

,

H*g
footfci

**The
jeftaogir

courtiers

Akhar

were against

Akbar, make any impression on failed to in 1574 A. D. his fate since he was Akbar. Abul Fazal cursed opportunity to be near sure thai once he go! an Akbar he could worm his way into Akbar' s heart. Expressing his keen disappointment at being spurned by Akbar Abul Fazal records in the Akbarnama

Abul Fazal when

fir*t

introduced

to

visit

|eiU

by Jehangir to Abul Fa *alt: opportunity to charge f1
Faza|

AbuTpa^ ^m
An
vk-i

house he "foniT^! * r lcr copying commentaries on then * bui follow him at once, he l0ok ^Sihem hei ?, mpeT0 '. an d showing the copies Jehangir
entering the
1
'

L?*M**
excel
> t

**£

a,

'^^
/
m

,

almost became The pride of learning had selfish and conceited. made my brain drunk with the idea of seclusion. The advice of my father with difficulty kept me back from outbreaks of folly. I was sick of the This shows how Abul learned of my own land Fazal hankered for a life of luxury and royal patros

"As fortune did not

first assist

me

Fazal teaches

1

quite different practices in the house.' **
is
'

me

,ii
f

Abul
*hai he

This incident perhaps convinced aw. Fazal was the right man Abul
to be

where

Machiavellism

was

a

1

dowt^
Akbar

Lt

*

**

nage

at court.

-Towards the end
commander of 2,000
to

of 159: A, D.
(i. e,

«-

"When Abul

Fazal was introduced at court at

moted Fazal to Du-Hazari
the great

to a status of a

Agra Akbar was busily engaged with his preparations for the conquest of Bihar and Bengal. Abul Fazal attended court immediately on the emperor's return to Fat eh pur Sikri where Akbar happened
to notice

footmen).

He now

belonged

amirs (Umra-i

Kibar)

at court.

His father died at Lahore on Sunday, oer4, 1593 at the age of 90.

Septem*

him

first in

the Jami

Mosque."
also

Two

years later Fazai's

elder

brother
5. 1595.J

E

About Abul Fazai's innate knack for flattery which ingratiated him with emperor Akbar Bloehrnann notes
in

died, at the
In the

age of 50 (October

43rd year of Akbar's
for the
first

reign

Fazal wa*

the

preface

to

"Abul Fazal has far too often European authors of flattery and even of wilful concealment of facts damaging to the reputation
of his master."
Preface, AiiM.Akbari,
BJoclunitn.il

Ain-i-Akbari been accused by
the

Se nt

on active service
not

\luwd time. Prince

ha <i
a

^ therefore

managed

matters very
sen!

well

m

Uic

Fazal was

with to return

^excessive drinking caused tlie<mr*ro *n amved ^Y. On the day thai Abul ?w\
3-

if

Vol.

Ill,

translated

by H.
Preface, ibid.

XftTjCera

542

343

on the banks of , okos from Daulatabad Fazal continued the died.
py( urftd
'

dared not approach his own tliat Ahul Fazal would

rather 4

m

r
fc 1r
"

prejudice

,

"tcrcd

into

a

ueaty with Chund

5Rj»*n
dom
of

regent of the Nizamshahi king-

A hmednagar.

jehangir by some insinuating almost barred from approach uu'*' ft, plotted Abul Fail's Jehangir mJe'

AVh?

ZTl

ttfi


t

insl

UI
Hindu

" 1Cr

Akbar's reign Abul Fazal Inlhc j7ih vcar of mtcnt to send him against prince ,*« ret tiled mtJl in revolt and , Jehangir who was then
,

a

Abul Fazal had all lire v«s that a man Muslim court could have, M c is fiunoui
It
is

ahnu(
for

fiq

his

gluttom

I

*ct

I

Deo Bundcla to ambush Abul Fazal and slay tamos he passed through the Bundela's Orchha
Singh
principality.

he wnitfl

up a* emperor in Allahabad. Hearcamp in u Abul Faial had started from Ins asked Bir 10 counter hi* revolt, Jehangir
him^cll

consumed was away from Akbar; ai. the >upreme commander of the Mogul army in t'nc Dcccan "his tabic luxury
exceeded
all belief.

that exclusive uf water he daily 22 scerl of tood When he

said

In an immense
daily served"'

tent

one thou-

TO

sand rich dishes were

Abul Fazal had

a foster brother
kepi

anil

two

otj

\hu! Fazal and his part> were set
all

upon from
tree.

brothers
so
far js

born uf conaihmes
is

by

ho

futiier

sides while

received

a spear

Abul 12 wounds and was finally transfixed with His head was severed from the body and
Fazal lay
in

under a

Fazal

Sheikh Mubarak, He had

also at least four sisters.

known.

forwarded to Jehangir
great glee flung

Allahabad,

Jehangir with

That Akhar consul importance map dip

*%»*££
«ver
I

heap or filth. That was p-.rhaps deserved divine punishment for a mouth which had sung undeserved praises of a degenerate A) bar and burdened history with heaps of shameU
in

a

*"?*22f?m
n»4y
I

on

Jd.angir tor because he had

with »"" to curry favour

&S^ert ^ <%"£&,«.«<
™"
-.in

,h<

less

falsehood*.

mud, one didn't mauer
„„

.oh-n,

held Abul Fazal in great dread. ^'winjMhat he held Akbar's confidence Abul art lued to brQwbeaUehangJT and tick him off «J AkUffi presence in the supercilious maimer

Jehangir

,0 * n hurt Anul I"'*"
1

welWuher

contemporary and at Aktar's court Ahul

P^'M^m"
,

*' now. *»
rm**rvtag.

oj**

Wf
P.
-""

',...„

,,.,iu

"ap**'"*"*-

Conscious
his

of Abul

laithk-.,.^" "
1

11

""-,, „,,„;„:
1

.,

Batterer
4

K-'"
X ''

ihttlwuiL r «*» work Abul Fazal w* s
i
t

Hc4 ^«n
With

(he

^^

Memoirs
he

clirollk,c

Ibid.

„ Bnaiy«n*'»

344
143

Thus most European authors, Jehniiifr and Badayuni arc unarm nous in certifying that Abul Fazal wjv a shameless rattcrcr. h
of
on.
I

w^re he could make and
as well as reU.n for oth ers him* elfa position with the emperor so lhw bask in the sunshtneof impend

at

is

therefore That

Akbar^

\in-i-Akbari chronicle reign must be kindled with great, cautihit

^

l

***.

of

^ **
*

here are

many

things

thai

Abul Fatal has
Following

skipped over or grossly misrepresented
in the footsteps
to

of his elder brother Faizi

who used

compose poems in Ubar\ praise Fazal hit upon the idea of singfng the cm ptror's praises jnjprose. Gradually and unwittingly he found himself writing
highly

These conside r.t.ons made Abut f niorc or a confirmed flatterer 25 ith cway day at court Abul Fwa| passing maiuied * matching at his ex p erl fulsomc „ fa nc,cs wMia* lhc changing moods mc nis of Akbar. The resulting Aktanni
'

Hindu

"term

t

££
2
»

e

imaginative
court.

Ak bar's
The

accounts of happenings at These he would show to Akbar.

therefore, not a truthful account of Akh. but a vs ishful concoction. All those who

-r

--^

latter gratified in finding J flatterer

effectively

rccable

who could present his cruel and crafty deeds man shroud of fabricated glory to hood-

academic truth, and hate
in

tm falsehood must bear thU
|

care

mind when handling Abul FazalV matter any Muslim chronicle.
In

wink the people at court and the general public, suffered Abul Fazal to continue his literary ficuon. Thus both Akbar and Abul Fazal
colluded
in

fabricating

a

fraudulent
as

fabric

of
or

Akbars

reign,

now known

order that his cuj>hy and strategic assignment may never end Abul azal kepi mflafu) expanding the chronicle into an iiuci m in iibk account of tents and shamianas, bazar rates, market g
I

TJ

Akbamama

Ain-i-Akbari

undertaking this labour of love Fazal assured lor himself a cosy and easy job at court with all luxuries from kitchen delicacies to the proximity of a teeming harem at the royal court, thrown in for good measure. This occupation was
In

rumours, religious discussions, Dick concocted sayings, accounts of Toms, «* ** Harrys at court and everything d*
couti
or

conceived. Like Penelope's ** he or a wauled the account to end until It is therefore that lie neve. quoJ« and his statist.es about
revenue and
vague.

*

'.j I

also a

good excuse

for

him

to

shun

all field

assign-

bazar

rates arc

™*»£^* «
ec

^ ^Vl^
M

££

ments where intrigues, incessant warfare, privations and usics made life precarious.
ric*

court writing the empror's panegyalso ensured for him a strategic position from
at

Staying

Smith say s^-I do appraisal of Abul Faal)!*

not tninj
1

L

-

l

,r

tit

*

1

undine Rlochmnnn's opinion lo rhc contra ihc author of the Akbarnama and Am-i-Afch was a consummate and shameless flatterer. Almost
,

347
SI

-

-« ^ bu|

F
i

considered detrimental to Akbar's renown i»re suppressed, glossed over, or occasionally even falsified Kb books are one-sided panel gyrfci Aotil Fazal availed himself of i nc liberty allowed h\ hi£jon in his relatioriswith
rs

-Abul Fazal displays unbh, running down Bchranj (to Kha ...and even lavishes
unsiinicd

He had
..

rhc canonical tour wives. prodigious appetite rivalling thai of
at teflSl

women He had

the worst of Akba r \ period," Btthia
'•'The

Mohammad,

^ J!
l!

*lko(
'

Pi r
•-

--r

,

Mohammad

Bighara of Gnjerrat
Persian

and Kashmiri wives, in addition to a lads or Jn honourable house He says the cxira contorts were occasions of great joy him An Vol HI. page 449... He had a good conceit of himself as appears from the concluding paragraphs or the autobiography, found in Ain
"

married Hindu

Sultan (Footnote: He

who t deed (or Maham A nBff tious h of Akbar's harem slau.htcrm^wobc^K" 1
,

same Abul

Fazal

led ,

Hindu women

U. tamed

mba/Bahadw

=1*?

hom, after defeat mgB.zBahudmMta

son

Adham Khan
snook
all

sought
iit

to appr.

..^
enraged

cocking a

Akbar.

An

Aihw

journeyed

Vol

01, 417-451)

way from Agra to Central India to the entire haremofBaz Bahadur for Mimdf secure His general Adham Khun Surprised by tkcmptr
the

^

The reader may well assess the character of an Abul Fazal who was a glutton and a 'shameless flatterer* and who wielded unlimited power in an at it. ,tc seething vs ith intrigue, and who smacks
li
;

unexpected
the

visit

surrendered

all the

women en
Alt-

two cho ice beaut ies mentioned iib en bar was informed of it he ordered tbatAdhai be brought to book. Maham Anag
in

academic

much of
had

flattering

accounts of Akl

lips

in

nostalgic delight

recalling his

lecherous rexclries

with a
at

wide

those two

women

murdered

in

cold

r

m

women, aome of whom

least,

own

assortment according to

of
his

villainously observing that 'dead uomeati
^o that her

Mushm

,11 fame and mean status, when Abul Fazal mentions a lady of an house he means a Muslim woman. ers wh... he implies, were rtol of an honourable were abducted and kidnapped Hindu women •ding lo tin: jargon and terminology of

confession, were of
'Urse

son mav besaved
that
the

front

Aktw

by pleading

women concerned
but

been

retained

I

bv

him

had

» not ashamed

to praise

mew"1
Abu.

'

P«acity of the guilty woman/ wfers to Maham Anaga am

chronicle

A*»gn

in

such glorifying terms

» P
,M

*
7

P. 33. Akb.tr the

Gred

'

P

8ft,

ihid.

348

149

They deserved his meed because, knowing as we do Abut nazal's Licentious weakness f0r was but natural for him to be supplied women, with a wide assortment and variety of abducted Ak bar's ever-growing harem sweet-hearts from pool, by Those two women and other so-called v, nurses who managed the women-herd.
vfftU&'
it
i

Notwithstanding the fine iHris general tolerance which occupy *<*»* 4** writings of Ahul Fazal "g»ipi*
»*•
the

Akbar committed
t

mat

and

acts

tht

T**

m

of

«Buc

f, C r

ce
Hmrjy

»=Abul Fazal mel
pf his age
to

crimes of Pj r Mohammad and laments "so loyal, able and gallant a man underwent such a fate* {namely, was drown*
bul

8 * *A

Fazal slurs over

the

WW?*

spiritual

ed)."

people, succeeded in 1574, by meant of*

\ as well as the lempnral gu,daio fh
in

The <° A^bar

death theologian wim
the
idea

his

in the

uttfuif

s2nd

of


the

commentan
barbarity (of

attracting

Um

t

the

attcnti.

,^
road to
hii

•**Abul Fazal relates this horrid

emperor.

Having once
he

entered on
care
la

Mohammad

Miralc being tortured for five successive

advancement

took good

bob

days by being trussed up in a wooden frame to be tossed and flung by an elephant) without a word

continual progress, His favour

at court became so

marked
the

thai the Jesuits speak of himasuVw Incidentally
ihe
fact that a atujj
p.i^pftfi to

of censure,"
""'At Shahbad,

Jonathan."

and Ambala, on a Shah Mansur (Akbar's Finance Minister) was solemnly hanged (on a charge of treason), Abul Fazal suppresses the informal ion that he was entrusted with the unpleasant duty of execution which is known only from Monserrate." Tins adds a new dimension and a rare 'lustre' (sic) to Abul
Fazal's
versatile genius

midway between Thaneshwar tree adjoining Kot Kachhwaha

Koran proved

to be Abul Fa/ulS
thai

V

Akbar's heart

proves once again

Altai

N

never ceased to le a fanatic Muslim.

»"Ahu]
able to

Faial's prose

style,

as read

hi

Bevcridac's translation of the Akbani--

me. Sirrbk facts are iffappca of almost meaningless rhetoric.'

'"

J

*
icjJ

for he

has

been

earlier

described as a womanizer, flatterer and glutton, and now he turns out to be even a hangman. He was truly a minister since lie ministered to every

Even .hough Indian author, >» arc not m, oulspken as bm*» 8* "uMims Lire io uc Muslims arc to be aPP™'^, ., lh «
«*i
f

^
,„,,,

Dr. Sitrivastavrt

demand

nf Akbar.

He was

ready to play

any part

thus a perfect factotum at Akbar's bidding front

and
fttt

its is

si/c. si/e.

book encompWHiigthttt eiconipassnigtUref
titled
"

M™

|

|(

^

pen-pushing to stabbing and hanging.
S.

he has o spechiH) \inil Fazal yet even in

wjfl
hi

a^Jj
k

^

^

h0-»

P. 42. ibid.

9.

P. 58. ibid.

10.

Pp. 1J7-M2,

''

tones
'«-

come
p.

now*in for adverse
'2

maid.

*»*

)'

151
J 50

r

Abul Fajal ;md apparent from Di. is Hctitfoua Vkbarnamn "Akbar t| lc aMava\s preface to his book S states "Abu| Fazal's Tltf teamed author Great.' Akbinn;]ma must alwajrs remain the most valuable source (compared 10 other accounts) of Akbart life and times 85 its author had made use state records and other dceumertta including
ni
for Shrtvastavtt's reverence
, , ,

Since there were no record « r qu ...,, on ol Ahul Fa, al

isi

^ence

matenat does not
his

J^ atem^ trilT^St
mr
colleag^"
c

beingan executioner of
,

Hindu

and a shtelder ol H^hamnwd and Vtaham Anaga
(cr ,

mJd^^Jr

hardly

the

man who
statements

would

'^

Abul f
Tht
!

7*

*


;

which included \erbaiim everyic aide roemoires, and which was did thing that Akbar said 01

basing his
a

o n court docao
Tru , h wheit

meticulous

regard for

by writers who were These records and aide employed on this duty mcmuii s have unfortunate!) perished, but Abul was, without any Fa / ifs work remains as
rccnrdiJ
there

mid

I

hen

^gtnation could devjseand ^v lllcgrdndll
accounts of his master
s nctitjout dory.
\

W|

^
felt

We. therefore

find

Smith's apnrai
Smith

ii

(Vincent Smith) was Injihly distrustful of Ahul Fazal whom he unjust h accused of deliberate perversion of facts smd even of forgery."
diminuirik

n

ns

interpolation;

Perhaps even Vinccai more accurate. propei vords which tould the want oi

exjutsihii
perfidy
rr;

Igony on reading Abul Final's academic lhat goes by the name of -Ubarnama.

Despite

Dr.

Shrivastava's rexercritulswc
Is

D
verbatim
that

Shrivastava

is

r»c«rds of

all

wrong in thinking thar that Akhar said or did

Abul Fazal's historical genius he

constrained to

intamed
should
be

in

Akbar's time.

none of those records
perishci
is

The very fact have come down to us
That
a

\bul Fazal's itvle is samewhal iJwohd hi* patron and vitiated by his fulsome flattery of whom he considered a superman.

word

ll>

ical

an eye-opener.
as
maint.iins
thai

those
plea

records
as
the

ttshouldbeevide.it to anyone
*d

thai

specious

winch
n

y

-

billed

Nagarchaui

Akbar built a mighty Much became so defunct
as
to

and devious style is always devious mind which strives hard
Ntertn.il.

the

H>

thin his
*ttg

own

lifetime

leave not

even the

by circuitous
the
flurry
is

*«*£«„
ofluiw

of iis locaiion. Similar is the case wnh tic Agra which Sikandar Lodi. and the
trace

%oud
believed

it

with
it

Secondly,

unjust to Abul
to be
a sup;

lmlt

W

¥atA

Shah are claimed have founded We hope studcnls. and teachers of
-

winch Httmayun and Shcr
history will

Akbar

'

no t hereafter

in such fraudulent assertions,

pm

pathetic

faith

^a superman.
'4.
|>

had \bu1 Fazal
'hiJ
f

uorrec

>

p 4c.b-409

353

J52

vengeful despot, and as a shrewd m ol lie world Abut Fazal took core to remain " That was the only i.du vide of Akbur. tin

•Ukir
i

;*s

.1

was murdered, not tomb, for whfch lific cnt
.

i

<

NV[l

he could

live

uid live well under Akhar.

proclivity This i„ i0C h a slan a gu.de to historians t« r ^fve us

^Z *>i*

ux

.

Akbar had no dearth of flatterers he hardly mis^d hazal when the latter was murdered
Since
Dr. Shnvasiava remarks "Akbar did noi consider lum tAbul Fazal) indispensable did not always accept his nd vice, and more than by forbidding him Otice punished him publich
nip to this

Sled

Spies

palat.aHombsareer,Uvhi, tH and mansions which came

^ >
;

M^
,

ttf

Ic hi

of Muslim conquerors. 1n L«. where no Hindu palaces or

5.
^.j
1|S

l*^**

3 ^

*.
I

«**
.

Himh

,rby

-^'PP^dmthecaseor^Xj

ishadioremaincontem^hhunprcC
grave nu'unds. The> were noi as lucky a^ts of Akbar, Jehangir, Muminz Begum
1 0«

court.

over

f

unpretentious tomb was erected Abul Fazal's) body" Even that triangular
small
brick

A

and lime was not commissioned by Akbar but by some local VTuslims. Even thai was completely Ignored as is apparent from the fact that only about 40 years back some archaeoloai depart men t fliciafs tried lo locate Abul Fazal's tomb guided b\ vague historical descriptions ol the amnuscade. They came across a cluster of tombs all around since in the ,000-y car- long Hindu resistance to Muslim onslaughts there are dusters of tombs found all over the country. The archaeology officials bv an academic fiat arbitrarily identified one among several clusters of tombs as lie which should include Abul Fazal's tomb The that one was half a fool or one foot taller than the others in that cluster of graves clinched the sue with hem Thai grave has since then been stamped in archaeological records as Abul FazalX and official machinery was set into motion CO maintain that grave. A small room was then built
i
1
i

mound of

Jgyun

iii

gel lofty

Hindu

or Huedifices far their burnt.
Faial'i
tyj

When Jehangir
crn y
to

exposed Abul
latter

Akbar the
done
is

ostensibly

fawned on
-Thii

Hbul Fazal.
|S

But Dr. Shrivasura
to
please
io

fcchihat u
Salim,
for

probably

the

tortan
s,'

uas restored
This

favour

within a fa*
betvi

proof of
Fazal.

the collusion

Akbar and
iluu

A luil

Abul Fa/ul

was

Shrhuttm*! Wtf a hisioriun. is howewmfe-

Dr

pliiced

and unjustified.

the elder brother of Akbun court K reckoned as another gem of he have been a pJtt though I said to
(2)

Abul Faizi

Abul Fazal

quoted or included in
I

any respect^

,„,,„, ,„,,„

0II

September

WW*
'

«£*

i

„" Introduced to Akbar in I* hwl Jled \gra since he wa* &**

j^

ftalAkbui wanted to execute

turn
.

over the grave

We

thus
sit

e

how Akbar

hardly cared
his

mark the

where one of

much

even to vaunted

wmctime employed is atutoi ^ler was appointed Sadai
1
1

in

TTT46I.

AkburllicGre.it-

ibid

'

*
355

of nr mil

in

the

books of European

\mir

He an<J honoured with a poet laureate. reckoned as two noteworthy KhusnJ are
among Muslims
to

authors based on Indian the imtorians Yet that Hindu Persian
too)

(n ay |C

vcn

wn poets

mediaeval India. have authored 101 books. Such
in

man of Image
himself,

m

Indta^«utcr

«K*
tta,.

even
fl

properly and meticulously darrw mu*t however he believed. Ftuzi was at investigated before being
times deputed as

an envoj

In 1592

lie

visited

the

He suffered from Deeean on one such mission On Saturdy (October 4 or 5, 1595) he
:i

died

at

\yra.
lias

inasmuch as the eonqt^t f the heZ and minds of millions of men and women effected by the poet was an achievement infinite!) nu, rc lasting and important than any or all of lie vi ries gained in war by the monarch. He does not ever U> have been brought to the notice of appear emperor or Abu) Fazal, Tulsittai either the
t

A

b

Vmcent Smith
cticmuse

scant
10

respect for

Faizi's

He observes "The versifiers, or tailed poets fat At bars court J were extremely Abu Fazal tells us. that although
I

enjoyed no advantages of hirih, tion, being the son of ordinary

fortune or educaBntlimn.
p.nei

^TO

who exposed him
because

in his

infancy to
in

live or to

he had been born

an

unlucky hour.

continually

thousands are at court," tn fact it is these fawning leisineishanginft around for filthy lucre who have 'aken for series and chroniclers by comemJesuits. It is no wonder, therefore, that nn
ncyl

w

did

not

care

for

them,

should be Fate or providence willed thai the child who gave picked up by a wandering mendicant,

records to talk of are

found of Muslim

him sustenance as well as instruction Fazal dary love of Rama.jAbul the extracts from the writings of have read in their English rift*
single sentiment

»«aim

What

worth

is

found

is

J***-

^. tto**

a pile f panegyric
little

"toto* tin uxte Mo.age possess
interest

extracts include passages brother.

?£jg*£ ^*3ftr t taaw
t
•''

M
,

in the

legen-

fl

#m **

*g

>

Abul
a)
i"

KfcjE^
ofmtt?
,.'

and '^l^nty of most of

FaiZK the -lung Fazal considered to Most of the authors Jf^ uoholjfp^" tlic service of the
1

that way like others. *.i«;«,-^ iUa honour

}k

viany - n
title

»"* £ ^rf ** ^ Md ^ pBROns who
\

...

Fa,/t

sinatn

-''^'ircein the magic garden
not be

^ T
.

of poor.

hm composes he ,lh ^i

Muslim
I

H «~mcwill ifceAfaiaR^m lne Pa £ cs "'? in the pages annallii tv7,
wcliurvcn
> 1

h« better
aorta

i-m claim
far

to that '° "

.;.».

'f has.
i

hvC

U

f

S,d

_u
all

acrostics

of any ° ranv

"ie

,"

kr Proof of
Mogul,

their pcrvc.

the fanatic

XiSBssZ'*
j

svords into

__

ofmediaeval Muslim regimea)

of shapes-

P J*

92 ail

lAkbar,h

^^«

ibid

-

3S7

J56

constructing cunningly devised chronograms, and such like trivialities.. .Blochmann held lhal a fIrr Amir Khusro of Delhi, Muhammedau India has seen no greater poet than Faizi .Admit ling the
justice

dependable stooge he ke an n 8h :i _ , 5» and cajole proud R aj ihcir daughters rendering fo

'

n

«^^l
Wtt0

^£?Sii ^
T

« P'QVc*}

^y+fc
^kht
sur-

it)

can only say that of Blochmann's verdict, the other 'poets' of Muhammaden India must be
I

y-a-time

Mansingh

Hind

and

selve*

have with substance in it sufficient to written anything All, nearly all of stand the ordeal of translation. them -"arc disgraced by the filth mess to which
allusion has been

WQTth

very

little.

They do not seem

to

|0

made

"

i„

|p

brought such daushwc .^ rffial them. them. I* 1 ** ihr„ u&h In 1567 to Akbar. TodarmJat was dcpw subdue the impostor Sikondar f Shah SiiT in the Ayodhya region. He achi^/ and the subsequent m% that camroiZ! ? ***** Like Abul Fazal TodarrTal him.
'

ToTlV^'

Smith has thus very effectively and competently pricked the bleated bubble of fantastic claims about the literary merit of not only Faizi but of all Muslim authorIn a 1,000 year* long rule in an atmosphere surcharged with cooperative conjoint chauvinistic flattery mediaeval Muslim chronicles, poetry, treatises and translations of Hindu works, have been boosted as rare gems of Muslim scholarship. Smith effectively scotches
Vincent
these claims
rarely
in

That was the surest Akbaryavour. In 1^76 when Akbar Gujerat he deputed Todarmal to see that cnJ\ money was extracted from the Gujeratis to
perfect
ail

factotum.

Z

T^
seiiic

eo££

claims,

pay for

all

expenses of Akbar'saggrw.
*>

sion

and yet leave a handsome margin for the*.

treasury.
u

Todarmal

did such a thorough
Gujerat was

job

that

an impoverished
to

stalked by

an

unprecedented

famine.

Akbar's

chronicler!

pointing out

thai

the chronicles
the

were

bound

boost Todarmal's

financial latent

any truth worth the name and poetry rarely embodies any noble sentiment, imagery or melody. Readers who care for real history and nut communal fantasy must therefore carefully examine all claims of mediaeval Muslim be thai imperial pressure propaganda It could he expertise in astronomy and Sanskrit, geometry
contain
i

Inch

squeezed the wealth of
a

poor, downtrodden,
ui

defenceless

WMain

% modern
Llud 'ng
fr,

subjects to fiil Akbar's treasury rod parasitic nobility but that is no

authors
lyrical

con in blind faith should

in

rapture

TodanoaTi
si

*ardry in the

same

old imperial

rain.

Vti

S «tith,

and geography claimed in the name of authors like Al Biruni and Badayuni ne gross exaggerations of art age of rampant illiteracy. H (3) Todarmal was a Rajput Kshauiya.
tf

A

and Todarmal are given so «**«* Charily intended to increase the impend

> ^r

an independent

obser thinker, rightly

systematic assessment of theentp«t

Arrf*

wa*

firat

employed on a

minor

post

to

KC*P

^252-254. Akb* the Great M**^'

m
358

not u sentimental philanthropist, and his whole policy was directed principally to the acquisition or power and

AkKtrwis a hard-headed

man of

a

Khatri

business,

a urinal in
,ncc
Bt£

from privati murderous assault
'

hatred

cutdown

tk

^

,,nd

'art

MI the arrangements about jagira, branding (of horses) do* were devised for the one purpose namely, ihc enhancement of the power, glory, and
ties

richesofthe crown. We do nol l"o\\ in substantial about the actual effect of Im administrative measures on the welfare and happiness of ihe common people Certainly they did not prevent the occurrence of one of the most terrible famines on record which desolated Northern India late in A Knit the revenue the reign, from 1595 to 1598.' system devised by Todarmal which is praised sky high in average Indian histories, Badayuni a con-

M'time -ordered that
should

to which Todarmal fhc lengths favour w.th the Muslims may r¥ h^tll from Lt that in Hindusthan where fact ma]o r ||y population was Hindu, rfthc etnona accounts used to be 1||]m main(a tfpaous languages it was Todarmal who tir
,!,'

,J^ m

and^

,

^

all

govenment
in

thenceforth be written

p

m

.c

l

\

",

,

an

forced his co-religionists io learn the court ianeJ b & of their rulers."

temporary

chronicler

notes that 18

the

usurious

Dig

Blochmann quotes Badayuni about Akbarh passed "orders that the common people
the

should

exactions were squeezed and 5£TCW0d out of the pOiT subject^ with such ferocity that the wives and were sold (as tiidren of the raiyats (peasantry)
slaves* and scattered abroad, and everything was thrown into confusion. But the KronS middle men) were brought to account by Raja Todarmal, and man) good men died from flu sevue beatings which were administered, und from the tortures ©I So many died from Ua the rack and pincers. reveproctracted confinement bl the prisons of the the nue authorities that there was no need of
|

do longer learn Arabic, because such generally

people were

cause of much mischief"

ITcun

Akbar realized that
mischief in
Io

perpetuation of Arabic caused
the same rule should apply

Hindusthan
Justifying

Persian.

the

abolition

ci

\i

Di

Shrisvastava observes 31 that obviously Arabic could not be a language of the people of India*"
Hut

he forgets that

Persian too

is

equally alien

to

India.

Despite

executions t oi
r

-wordsman and no one cared

to find

wi
1lfl

Todarmai's toeing
io his
credit
his

the Muslim

line

ii

bc

said

that he remained
life.

u

and

distress,

graveclothes... At the time of famine their patents were allowed to sell
at that (on July 28, I5H7

"nch

Hindu to the end of
Ainl-hAkhari. Vol.
111.
I

He

W
*""''

children.
It
is

&
no wonder then

odtfitth

•*«*

Abul Fazal as grandee No,

WocIibm', comment t* AbuJ
i

I

p 192. Vol. U. Bodtyunl'i chronicle, (bid

Todarmal, p-tt7. Vol.

ibid.
1,

.thid. Akbjir thedic:.!

OM

so
3ft
|

W

fully

deM
*

<

«,n ope""md

to convert or n*btf« pressure
iin „

sister sis'cr

|slam
for

Once when

Punjab he folllld l0 of worship missing v Hnkand pamphcmalit .doHand p alMht obvi4lUS y it was a subtle imposing upon an orthodox

^
nfl

* C ^l,l.canipa..n

was married to was married to

J chanqrJr

L
*

Akha r
at

**"*>*

Mansingh was

born

Akbar when
his

a

,
.

|

Zto£
oT

Of

daughter to sent against Rana
to

his grandfather RhT,

A&^KB
Pratap an d
wi.I,
f„

*+«

liiuj.

had
three days in a state of and water for his devotions. for having missed "JLttl tormem himself to the he had to reconcile Urtimaid

cross

swords

battle

of Huid/ghat WneB Vansingh) was appointed

J

Z "*
l

B^LZ^
governor
,

J"*"*
Hmb

Mansingh commanded

ihcdnirfctsalo^thernduL

ntredloss.

Later he was sent to restore order in Kabul Hn uncle Bhagwandas dhgtmed wjih the readier), debauchery and fanaticism at the Muslim court
i

m

pin-pricks and affronts Disgusted bv such insults, and lived in Banaras a harried T darmal resigned He did not however tod Hard war hut was recalled
live Hi.

went mad,

according to AbuJ

Fazal, and

bier

stabbed himself At

his death in 998 AJ-f.

Mansingh
Muil
for

long thereafter At the age
1589 he died in Lahore,

of 54, on November

succeeded U the title of Raja On his subordinates complaining against turn pandering
to their fanaticism
lie

*ai

recalled from

(4)
ruler

Mansingh was the grandson of the Jaipur
Like his

« a hra\,e Hindu ruer* of patnotie a„<f bray H

the region,

two immediate ancestors nsmgh forgetting his proud Rajput tradition •wielded the swoid of Islam" and allowed women of his family to be lifted at will by alien Muslim
Bharmal.
rulcTi

m

'"

,nVa C f

?

|

»h„nc ft««« Hindu
"
|

far

hi

and nobility
bated
h,
Pi

m

India.

deepp.

Rana

He was therefore Pratap. Once when he
"ii

Muslim OvWlwJ

ipuri

for

tIK

ump.ccm

*emio Rana
i

ibode to negotiaic

behalf

Akbur

ii

(

brave and patriotic

Rana of

indomitwrested

able ipim refused

iodine with Mansingh, a Muslim "*. as he wiled him. Alter Mansingh's deparhe had the esiU, at the meeting place dug up*


"
,

:1< ,

„,

bury

i-

'<
,

nh ,. Jf

^dand.hc

weoiils thoroughly cleansed and

dis-

Man*"*'

f„

=d frutn the

contagion of slavery.

Mansiflf

362

Manbai

his wife

who was Ma ttsfngh's

sister

Man-

harried soul. Far from since he --was
priests
in

sham^' ^^,
15

ch had plotted to prevent Jchangir from corning to lite throne and proclaimed Jehangir's son Khtisru. emperor aftei Akbar'* death.

the

templc

y«*«Cj
"

n » ,yre,Urncd >oir^ u {||i Akbar s court thinking
a
,

w

^^M4^
rc

"

of
'

Despite his having spent
ing

a «

hole Lifetime In light-

Mecca, with

hisatt^L !*»toi«.' attachi
died
,

AkbarS battles and

indirectly helping the spread

down.
at

-He

of Islam Mansingh was deeply hated by Akbar. Once during a drunken brawl Akbar had tried to The lauer was saved because throttle Mansingh.

disillusioned in the

«S,n *"'S| J ,;"'<•

,

Ahmcd.1*.
6.

after

fortune.

X

r

<J» °I>5^
I!'

of some other courtiers then of the 1605 Akbar wanted to poison present. In Mansingh by administering him some poison pills. Unluckily for him however Akbars perfidy boomcranged on himself. He had prepared two doses of pills looking alike. One contained poison while the other was a harmless dummy. Through
intervention

of

Behram

Abdul RahimlCh an
Kha,,

Rah.nrs fatl,,-, kl,,„" Akbar's instance though Beh tL Akbar's faithful and murder of Behram Khan the
,

£m Behram
»l«

ur-year

T*
Kb*

**

L

^
then

^ £*«
inc

oversight he swallowed

the poison

pills

himself

Rahim was
his
niily

brought

to Akbar's

while singh

passing on
in
all

the

innocuous ones
ine
result

to

Manthat

mother Salima
to

W «*,;
dfc,

Sultan who had
to

confidence,

was

play

wife

Akbar. Unm.
uf

Akbar died while Mansingh survived. Disgusted with the lecherous and treacherous atmosphere at the Muslim court Mansinglis son Jagat Singh and a number of other descendants drank themselves
to death,
5.

murder of bis owed mother
ireacherous

father and abduction

by

Akbar
life

and

wwc:
hi*
i

court

Abdur Rahn

life-time fighting ihe battles of Akbar

Mirza

Aziz
rebelled

Kuka

brother.

He

was Akbar's foster against Akbar because of

ing the sorrow and tedium of hb life poems. He was born at Uhuie fa

by

'

Abdur RnliinVs motto
one's

wasili.it one

Akbar's despotic behaviour. Aziz Koka refused to have his hordes branded with the imperial mark. Apprehensive ol Akbar "i vengeance he left for on the pretext of capturing it |>nm il lv.rtugucse. But instead he set sail in 1593 foi Mecca iHfldj nh his many wives and a dozen sons and daughters to seek spiritual solace for his

Dm

enemies under the musk of All charge him with malic« I™" taaess. He lies buried
1

...

called

Humayun's tomb
345, Vol
111.

in

*a

f*.

2J.

P 360. Vol

AIM Mb * III. Aim

m

164
L

Hindu king
,s

U was
to

when living. manfton The Hindu He lies buried in his own reside im two Shakti hakra (the esoteric design made up of seen adorning interlocked triangles) may snli be
which
he

m
ie ad

had occupied

BhW*its

i,mi & alcd
liirb
ir

*****
'!'
'

ruler

led

the

^

each of the four facades Of that

mansion

From
is
i;

I_
t

he sacred

with its dome, adorned Gwalior fori). U Fashion of the Hindu palace in the time thai called Nila Burj by Muslims from

blue Hindi,

tiles (in

the

(do

Hindu rs canopy was

.dol in

il^JJ
\\

riddled with

came under their occupation.
7.

shoes Id the ed

invaders slaughtered 2r co* & with i^c blood of the

n

slaughtered^

Birbar

is

often

referred

to

as Birhal

in

popular parlance.
ent,

Birbar In eon* means the strength (or grit) of a warrior. name Birbar is temporary Muslim chronicles the 528 in a poor Brahmin used. He was born in As a original name was Maheshdas.
1

The two words arc quite differmeans a top-class warrior. Birbal

temple walls. Despite inch could not be foisted on the Birbar Nagaik^Z? " rone sop he is said to have been oflWerf .1 As a and a jagir at Katanju. But he was not
j|!
"
I

DeJ

* Z^ ^

^

S^Jg
pern*
w;

*8

Hi

to

enjoy even

that.

In

I5»3 he
I

i^
froniiw

l0

td an expedition against Afghans on tlmdusthan's

he

rebellion!

Ywufhi
n

northwest

wasslain in that expedition The self-appointed crnm
chronicler
Islamic
joined
for his

family.

His

young boy he Bhagwandas of

joined

the

entourage

of Raja

Ambar

(Jaipur),

When Akbar

Badayuni in style remarks
other

rabid!)
that

fanatic und tarty
ini

"Birbal the

Birbar ascended the throne Bhagwandas presented used to style to Akbar. At that time Maheshdas He himself as Brahmakavi (poet of the universe).

the

infidels

in hell

mju«

rdiihuiiot
the

many

misdeeds:'

Badayuni u«s

»i*

rank rose from a mental position at court to the of a grandee because in him Akbar found a ready tool and a perfect factotum ready to execute any
Akbar* s Rahim, Maheshdas also used to relieve the agony In 1574 he was of his heart by composing poems.
job or
at
Light

when intemperate and abusive Imgo* to the death of any Hindu/For
to
in

»«*
fad
the
l *

the deaths of Raja

Bhagwand^n
days
'"
.

Lahore within
,

five

man

command.

Like

Abdur

November 1589. Badayuni Pf "* «.*.-««! rt the w **» taenedtolheabodeofheMJ^ ^hastened lo <*» abode ofhelM
it!

.,,

mS

the lowest pit

ihefoi^ became ilw^*^;.
scorch them
the
lidUi
liifl

to be foisted as

the

ruler

of Nagurkol

in

scorpions.

May God

^

tupercestion of Nagarkot's lawful ruler Jaichatid.
li

was a
will

common

high-handed

practice

away a reigning Hindu dom tuh i& own puppei and set with imperial Muslim might, as a

of Akbar monarch's king him up, backed
ival

feems to be unaware of "ic Hindus who,accoiui..e
^t"ld not

have been so

*"'

^^,1, ^

^*

|

i

of

live

reign-

w « the

first

b a. *.-* to arrive at
Vol. U.

W

jit***

P

m,

&**>»*'

^
307

meticulous list ofall the Hindus whom he thought, a Muslim Allah consigned to the
Islamic heJJ.

to

make*

d pro——

10

be

his »"*

un( uiicioiiii;
j
1

fnnscn's music

las! its sacred

quired
w
i,

the

profligacy "'

Some Cheap

stories of

Akbnr-Rirbal

and wnncism* current in India have been invented by some ingenious « rfter ;uid added to from time time hy others, giving ihem a historical AkbavB.rhaf background. The real Birbar led a horrid precarious and deeply detested existence far removed from am humour tr poetry.
I

repartees

associated with drunken A disconsolate j £m ,ion

V"^* ^T
t

if

I

'fa

en

^w*ii
«
in

1

w,l * ,

^

pjtiowly
pari

when

abducted

lo

JS*

}^
'

of a huge ransom m men worna' j cavalry and footmen that Ramchand bi'!' der to buy peace from Akbar's nZt At Akbar's court Tansen C mcUt
:i

*

"

-;;

fanatic

Muslims

Tansen was born sometime m 1531-32 in a Brahmin family in Behat village 28 miles from
8

at court Utrustinghair^
their

hy morsels of betel leaf from
lhe

own,

hisearly training in music in Gwahoi which had a tradition of high class Hindu mi Tansen has attained legendary fame as a wjcal musician par excellence, saint musician,

Gwaljor.

He received

mouth of Tansen opening to sing hh mclod may well be true. Shunned hy orthodox Hmdm
and dragged and addressed
style
as

Miy

Mtahm
rcprw
life lie

A

Haridas of Vrindavan, is also said to have imparted imiion in musk to Tansen. He took up service as a court musician with Raja Ramchandra of Bhatha (modern Rewa>. It was there thai he received the inlc of Tansen because of his mastery
in

Tansen has been willy nilly as a Muslim though till the eml of hu tnaincd a Hindu. He died in 1588
six years' forced
tin

I*

rorraent-

cd career of twenty
alien

monarch's
al

court

erstwhile temple pavilion

He lb bu near Mdiunm

singing

In

J

56

when Akbar invaded

temple-tomb
entire area

the foot of

Gwl

that

kingdom Tansen was wrested away. Badayuni says, ** 'Tansingh did not wish to leave his royal Hindu patron. Finally (a fierce Muslim general) Jala) Khan Kurchi came, and brought him
to a sense of duty.*'

Hindu

where these two lie cwnplH » with ruins of a huge temple
several
ftkbai
sites

^

centuries

o\

Muslim

Tansen is often flaunted as an example of Akbar's encouragement to music. But that is a bogus claim msen was already an accomplished musician before bting dragged to Akbar's court, in fact his expertise in music
I

Like lltouumds *t West a thrughout India and

«M °™"
-mpk*

at

the foot of

Gwahor

fart too

*
of
Ml

Muslim ccmeteiN They arc tombs but misused Hindu
9,

no

Hakim H.m>um
'
i

1|M
'

25.

P. 14%, ibid.

HrV rrt « n ifiichen Akbar's royal kitclic i* Uiva» *he nine gems.

fMI
,

J^

but

till

l

Med
he

19

'rtf

in

•'

courl where food «nd

^r^ch.ehJv coveted.

As kitchen Miperf*
the preparation of

supervise hid to

I

mm
„ Hakim

Akhar suspected "Hakim him is evidence enough BVe poisoned Wumam, M* everybody else hated
ihii

•Ubar.

^
<

«

Chapter

XXIV

SCRIBES

hardly ever menThe very fact that Ifumam ie history is eloquent proof of j n nay standard
,

In looking for contemporary recordi Akbur's or for that matter of any Muilim'i in India one comes across two contradictory

about
reign

mu-

men ts.
while

uncance.
sheer invention

Thus the nine-pem story of court flatterers who sought

Writer after writer complaint that nn won records me available while k tho
it

is

a

confidently asserted

that

their

favour for self-aggrandizement.

record of every word

a plethora of twtioilma of Akbar was mide trai
disappeared

somehow
all

il

has

all

Both
understood

Thus the so-called nine gems
mi etossr scrutiny, lustreless,
voluntarily

turn out to be, base opportunists inhate
their

apparently irreconcilable statement!, if -naseont^n are justified in their proper context,
will

embroiled in a
miserable
-I

game of mutual
disgusted

Smith. be apparent from Vincent

«N

all led

lives

with

We

have

ready quoted

dered none of his courtiers
i

Akbar that he consito' be worthy of any
too deeply hated

undertakes
reign
State

tlicir

part the court ieis

AJthir aiii reflected

their dealings with liim :«w the nine-gem story for from shedding any
<>n

m

Ifth century,

M

Akbnfs regime, adds a new dimension

diligent student

notoriety

The biographer 8
different

^ J£ *of-any...no«b^P«'«^ «*2£Sm,5 h*^** f, ***** papers h-^:, a- I^7,; A
to

deal w,ih

t

te Ufe

ef

is

J

so

matter lh«

"f

,

'

have not

»

1*
a

Akbar'. ««»•• °r
compilation

•"

lS-**^?2** MrtPJ
«*" „ Tahh
lc
„.

ft'^fflf*
P.»

J e «n

one

f «*>">'?%

*„,„,„<

sss*
I*
St

^
10

*

;:::-

"
,T1

Fiild,,

vuni'% chronicle quoted by
ilic

,„.n>d«c.J«'

Akbar

Greni, Vol. i,J»gfl

*&

"

371

mmis.

tni

w&iB i««**
nwsier

™d

Poises

with.

the time.

All these totem were

^contmiWinj
h«c cp^iks

to their fclfilmeot

But

H M.HIbotbyLt.Pritchard^dnX^
ted thai they were not more woittiy of bestowed upon them.'*
the

in, mIa , cd

-

ml
in

..«

f^rm one of h.s monuments to of interminable sentences, involved
to

frequeni

parentheses difficult

unravel, and

paralleled i" the
taste.

West only by the

decadence of

Gibbon justly remarks, BOtrfnj rn prose, as if poetry, and in poetrj to the vicious affectation and insipidity of prose.,, linking below the flatness
I

Apparently these modem writenof medtaevaj history have been misled by contemporar> itate-

ments of court --cribes like Abul pean visitors like Monserrai

Faial, and
<-

Euro*

Luge group of

have not

felt

hound
te,\t

examining the

undertake ihe labour of nflbose difficult compositions)/'
to

Muslim scribes swarming around Akbar used to on its tiptoes 10 take down every word of whil
he said.
fectly

Those contemporary statement »
if

lie per-

So even
Akbar's reign
rians are

the
is

scanty
all

record

that else

exists

of

true

understood

in

the

proper conn

trash.

What

can be

expected of a regime

of illiterate barbarians! Histobelieving tliat there
to
all

while ihe eomplaint of modern available are no worthwhile record*
Basically
tt

writers
r*

il»o

jitfatt

mistaken

in

other record that used
has

was much be maintained. What
the

is

come

d™ n

to us

of all

important

is

record

that

was

Akbar

tittered were ever

ever kept.

iff** of such records
systematic respect for economy where

«^^^im J**** *
dm*»

nor true

'^-^^n^

The lack of State papers dealing with the Akbar is not due to any failure of his to
I

**j^i& *«*
llC() ,

M iw*** «

dk fcmnun

ep a record of his sayings and doings. Each day ilc he *as giving public audience watchful standing below him committed to paper

«

tv word uttered by his august lips,
trivial

and recorded

Wuwalring minuteness the most ordinary and
actions of his
life.

technologic'
Americacaim|'
of
their

u i^>>

S?£53:h n99

JkJn^l!!!
or? and

» t ?T thWl
Li " t,lc
*

Uy|, '' Thelelten
T
!

of a *°«iP in * and arc ^bellished with plenty
arc
" lain

° r importance, i t "** upon the political relations of

***"«

»»3
10
pjpe«-

r**&d

*#

^ *&

svhe

ruled

!*».

JS3

rU w itta i* J ^".L top**"' with

M
'

VI. Elliot

urf Dowsoi,.

,

«

m
justify their existence

Sm
winded
letters thai

unknown, copious m stenography «n% er kcpt k ttW so 1! that while unimportant, long, „ rd to believe alone of all court record have sur,,j

•«»*

v

V

and eftMl used to put Up J* themselves, tiptoes to take down an

Even

if

they had honesty

uft«%*

letters

record has wdusively and vived the rest ofthe The fact thai (he mvslcrjouslv disappeared. have come down to us constitute about
al
all

>ai ,ng al and reduce to * thai m above, it was im observed posslblc cable to reduce even a Traction ofit ****> of mechanical the absence means * "* *
, ,

m

,^y **
of

<*

T

be

Ik rest waj wag ever reduced to writing. done verbally. That most transactions should oral was necessitated by the very nature of the
I

stenography and the
standard of literacy.

requited slWw Besides, the

?°W>.
*5

kS ? *
Tkurd
ife tu-

interested in exerting at all

ctetJings

at Muslim courtsnepotism,

It

was

all

a

medley of
bribery,

themes Jn

intrigue, lechery, treachery,

faithlessness,

record of all itmutim. a meticulous was also impolitic to reduce to writing

corruption,

confusion,

plotting

counterplotting and cringing flattery. In such a of life there is no administration as such and there*

and way

no records. The few letters that have come down to us had to be written to coax and cajole or threaten and control recalcitrant tends or rebels and imposters located far away
fore there arc

nings at court which were mostly v cry dirty for any Despite all this, cringing scribes Ifo record. Fazal and Badayuni had to make a ihow of then being busily engaged in writing. After ill
,

ro

from the capital.

Therefore,
they

modern

historians

examine what they had written, How ihev written or whether they had written wiythmi There were no supervisors over than. all ?
1

at

1

can be dead sure that

have almost all the record '»f whatever was reduced to writing There was nothing more and. therefore, the question of its being destroyed does not arise.

were no responsible,
superintendents.

conscientious and

i

Like wayward
themselves

siudc^

room who engage

useless scribbling to

make

the

what should one make pf confident assertions by contemporaries like Abul Fazal and Monserrate that meticulous records of all that transpired at court were assiduously maintained ? The explanation for the statements of contemporary Muslims is slightly different *B that fur Statements by Luropean visiles
It

would then be asked as

to

dingenl they are taking down also a swarming around Akbar

their

and pens on parchment in lawning and feigning and deed of the sovereign .^

^ ^ app^^
*
,, |cJ

^J*^ *» m ^^
^t^
f

-

down nothing,

like

Monserrate.

to pens and *l record some imaginative

"v^S,**?* dfi**« „ parchment

t

«*J»

Court employees

like

Abut Fazal

in

order to

did record

something

t^t

^n-

]

375

374

hardly drtUoyed
This
Jc

be expected

after

the

make-believe
tctuaU y

was
record

t

over.

makc

intelligible notes.

«y

intelligent

or

isthc

reason

why we have on

only
dls "

u

CJ s
i

which

WM«

wrrUcn

and

They

also

couldn't

be

expected

patch

foolhardy as to record any. the sovereign or any courtier

to

ling which dj

J^
any-

*H

iu

secretaries write down all duly each day. These the king, all the measures rhe business transacted by They lake betakes and all the orders he issues
.

four

*Akbar 'appoints Monscrr.ite records that a body of scribes for 01 five secretaries out af

even by

impk ulj on/

Even
thing

if at

limes any
it

scribe dared record

deprecatory

was not

retained wiUiout (he
ail

sovereign's approval

or consent. If at
lo submit
a

»ny idiot

ot a scribe ventured

written calumny

down what he

says with

such

speed

that

they

and preserve his words before they can fall to the ground and be lost. (Footnote They were called Waqiah Nawis or
appear carefully to catch
:

or invective or derogatory note note could not escape being torn

both

lie

and

to pieces

There were such

heavy odds

agalaii any worth
role in

."

script writers)

Muslim while records being Kept during and roatfacre Regimes thr.vj.ig on murder 1 iid ia.

above observation being that of a third, disinterested party But tike all other evidence we insist that it should be properly anary&td. silted and understood.
attach great value to the
Firstly, t-ince

We

ravage

and

drugging and never dare or afford anv such records
posterih

^^^J^SK ^
to
falf

plunder.

t— J^^>
hanJ ,

.f^Jf Mo

1

^Lanently dh*d»
What
personal
then

*

"**
_ rf

in

«hc

O-

b>

adn

Akbar liked to be surrounded multitudes the scribes used to be a

,,r

vlons

part of that stage-setting.

-p

b
f

Secondly, this pretension of being at the of Hii Majesty was also to ! the advantage venbe* because they got paid for it. Being sovereign and in
:

obs.rv.^J Monserrate being •«JJ»

* "S
'

1 J

modes
court

**»«"'£,

il

he

*&l*

,„,,

oZT.1l
who

dl,W

^

bis

confidence

inflated

e

,hem

Z

lid ".""a fead
not

,eis

o he

Se^X^

w hoic interests lopia and court J"* ***** *» Koran and imr
iguc
r

aUd WrUc a " d

a***** advantage Bcm * «"* a

«*« ^
they could

And

r:

,:

376

317

,um-pushns iiflml ever ..ally Se mo.io.is Of very pushing their peal Sorting anything or

ZSFvmmkm

SSSWS^oo. -round

^mmitnl

douMftil noting

We
out

fully

view

endorse too the
all

by the nattered dc spo| , T basic concepts of luli
|

the emperor

muted

.opsyturvy.

before aspiring to g cl

T^^^
"•"•
'

*t q d
hc

4

'

t0

,

h

understood in the statement needs to be properly When it was made relevant context of the times.
was made should be and wh) and by whom it often reveal that considered. Such analysis would nothing or sometheir statements either connote they ostensibly mean the very contrary of

UM

This

should awaken students or every Use fact thai

researchers

.'Some Blunders of .hat buildings and

tow^;^in rait

\Jhu

Hc-un,

W

mediaeval

Muslim

rulers were

Similarly

here we have subjected to a Muslim rulei
the
it

pr^T^
'

d

,ft4

*-'

**
•Kg

all

more

worthless.

n,,kci

may
we

then

be

despaired
all

.tut

historical concoclions are

m
mcfo
iiabto.
left

the

times

neonlm*

should
history?
lutely

give

up

recaiwrudui|

their superficial import.

We

assure the reader
for despair,

Most modern scholars place great reliance on Abul Fazal s Akbarnama even though they seem to be aware that he was a thoroughly unreliable
f

that there

no cause

Hamaningtt
as to be

intelligence are not so shallow

Mufti?

or blanked

Ain-i-Akbari alias flatterer. In considering Akbarnama as a fairly reliable record of Akbar's
the

when confronted Bring to mind the methods of
Such

with

fabrtcn

crimim

lion used to unravel mystery

murderat

importance to the fact that "Hhe Akbarnama was written by Abul Fazal in obedience to an imperial order and partly revised
reign they attach great

clever forgeries

crimes them*

seeds or the truth.
initial

Investigation

sum

doubt and

suspictom

-\kbar himself (Ain Vol.

iii,

p.

414)".
arc carefully

checked tfuri
iheii

* »»
*
,

»P« W
»

We

wisSi

to

strongly emphasize,

however,

that the very fact that

Akbarnama was subject to Akbar's revision renders all the more worthless and dangerous with regard to any claims made in
it

As the flimsy clues first make
investigation

inve^W

P^^
f

7

-d

perseverance

^
I

ipP*ȣ

*
ill

Akbar'v favour

What

is

the worth nf a

document authored by
and then censored
ibid

iging flatterer to start with

Mian

historical

P

4,

Aktar

the (iitai

Mogul, by V Smith,

theic centuries, and h« conclusion* With
illogical

r^ **** Wg*

d

378

olubrious

unfold
inv

*T

I .

^,ication
1

shunned*
te

^ ''

of criminal adjudication have been d legal academ ic naivete or help. d w|lh books have been fashioned

methods

379

need noi disheartened and

One

tfo

£
T
ni
ficiai

I'JaW Uevendreamptthatmcdiaval
the very

writings. No d questionable seems to have been jejons attempt motatio,ls u wa« ' ll lhdr <™

^

f

^-nic.er.Foun^^; "^^
1

hebw

bc
*J

**rtd

Badayun, dubs every dead to hell we are not

I

\

bound

assert

issure ourselves that Bad™. tethered at the gates of h,

V

*V

"* r««"
!,t|1

*c

Juld mean
import.

opposite of ihcir super,

the Hindus But when w..<. Hut tt M fed* ., h chromclerhke

L

:

*.

Abut

It 15

such awareness that the absence of

makes

we can
and
all

Faa.au M.n,,
ti

safely assume

io be

HE
inmH
,

%Z
sup-

tl,.-

themselves in first cautionmost writer* contradict the unreliability of reader against believing
ing the

ported by our own appraisal ofhis life and
bolstered by the unanimous judgmc historians The misleading objection

.imon
that
«f

Muslim chroniclers' words, lo write authoritative history
ulent chronicles.

and then proceeding on the basis of fraud-

we

doubt Muslim chroniclers' wn rely on any part of (hem, therefore,
be untenable.

must not
uirn* out

m

On

the contrarj

human

intelligence
I

Same
charge at
ilkustratc

readers might inadvertently lay the

same

demands
from

that

m

separate rhc chair of

our door. Therefore our position.
suicide
that

we would
victim

like to

careful the grain of troth with the sieve of

When
on
his

a murderer plants

investigation.

a

forged

note

we make
valuable

We

fully

agr«

with iiU

washers of Indian

use

of

forged
implicate

note

as

very
his

evidence

to

him both for investigating
of
crimeagainst
Bui
the
his

onlywuree^U^J^iwIfi.
sifting neaps
<-"

mode
mcrch

and

motive

because

we use
get

forgery

he doesn't

the right

to insist that w«

intents .o be true.

"
relm
i

mm
rch
'

Contrarily the

very
resea-

shou,d caution Hie history
in

piles of
l' M

M'
i

_
.Iihil'UH!

.

,

irn

we useu
k.

hary

*Uih/r'

"+£?J1 2 /

drawing any conclusions' wond ucted along such guidelines rmg aCCL,rat °m r r from the very dross-heap of

aue« u * M * %

****

court*

9ft

cm

mer;

,

,

381
IflO

«* to

pushing be avidly

their

ffiMh

P
iu

.ffrded
...thai
li

nothing worthwhile,
10 us were

Statements about Akw Jiziya or banned ,hc a " panegyric humbug.

'JS* 1 *
(>llcm <"*•«
,

«
,

pion,

m *mMm J«« own

i« come down
lcisllrc

ii

from
.her

tlieir

£K
ESS
altered

•""fn^.

by thesoverign «orcdici»icd 10 them
leisure

Thcyure;.IUTittenby lheKfjherri)mh ) fancy, or first conceded by bin, and
,„„

a. confidan, conrtien ^> hi.

ed

improved U p 0n VBi approwd presumptuous courtier or mona

altered,

^
^

*

«nd pleasure

That IS to say that many a time Akbar then Abul Faial tells us supplemented, approved or examined, corrected, In Tact believe him. his writings we fully
of his

K 7S t^W
we conclude

the

emperor,

fancy

fe2| chronicler.

Badayuni has unwillingly let 04 mio ifc secret of Muslim chronicle-wririnp by revelling lhat when ihc AktanumM was being Kritlen courtier came and ordered him it» retard iba* Akbar had founded a magnificcni IwMhfo called carried out Nagarchain. Poor Badayuni
v«,«r, i»« hit o»n reser imperial order but added d*rt ncro» even the he had "ever come

^

mm

it

that all

Muslim scribes had to
by their court-patrons.

»•

get their writings

censored

That
writing a

is

why we

find scribes like

Kamgar Khan
to oblige an
is

whole fake Jehangirnama

rightly regarded

aggrieved Shahjahan.

For the same reason
drunkards and

we

also find
like

confirmed

dope-addicts
Hibtil)

Akbar

ranting

in

Jehangir and sanctimonious horror

consummate skill i» » 'ha, won bim Muslim chronicler,
his grand

•£**£» *»* «»»'* *"*"

^ «£ H*

potion

mi

ded

mm
b;
f

«*»J
; :

«<f^'\

t

against the consquences of those vices.

every truthseeking historian against be he ving even a word of
tike to alert

We

would therefore,

sanctimonious sayings of a Jehangir or Akbar, Ferozsbah or Slur Shah, Tamerlain or a Tughlak.

The

roads, buildings,

tothtm B reaUp,

bridges, serais, gardens, towers and tombs attributed
canals,

agiariscdHmduproperty

Sid W**

upon

P' <

•*
1

m cd

381

382
\\-y below a tew

illustrative cxiracis

-

*
Hi
'

,

,Uv
tv in
t

h

a great friend

*

business
,K-

The

Gulal-bar

f

good order and
is

"'y* Majesty dr ei wt drmkniuchkutp^ pwl attention to this (Abdar Ktaui
(What made him pay special auburn
he didn't drink much?},

JJ

ot

a

grand

to drmi

;:-_
••Hi*

invention of His Majesty.

""His
one
one
that

Majesty has invented a

candlestick

Majesty's clothes becomingly fit pvtn> whether he be tall or ihort, (That Implfi
possessed miraculous power*
his ro bes
t

yard high.
••His
l

Akbar
rt

jo

m

io

Majesty has

composed more than 200

i

m pa

to

he magic quality of shrinking

lines,

of 24 hours His Majesty cats before he is fully satisfied.' but once and leaven off abstemious when (\\c wonder what made him so of torturous extortion (' in lifetime
•*i*li»

or expanding to fit anybody. Thank God wr mules not told that His Majesty'! robes also fitted

the course

^

and

asses or panthers and
"« 6 His

fcyenasj.

Majesty pavs much

Aifenliun to both

(painting

nd

mttlUl

he spent

a

morse It of food from the mouths of millions).

torn and
it

though,

(The,,

* »""HflT* M «*»«
» who
<h.
,

"His
(This
is

Majesty cares very

little

for

meat,

a typically

inane

sentence

which doesn't

the bon par. S . some of

the

mean

a thing),

H
nee
possess

hooks and
has such a
as trained

is

Majesty

knowledge of the
musicians

prjvllcy of
,

^ £ *{£>* l*ff»* * «**££, «t
harem,
I

b£ *J
"'

l(|alf0 „ of

»eli»,« wl , hiB tte

of music
'

ho was his

tutor and

did not when did

abducted

c<"> 40 "

„ ,„«,«»«

Akbar find time to study music in the din of war drum* and the horrid shrieks of the millions who
were tortured. And if he was after all such an acomplished musician did he conduct any concerts or open anj imperial music schools?.)

Am
I.

1

5.

4i&j Akhari, Vol.

ill,

ibid

Aintt,
9
H,
II

\m Am
Ait,

IS. 19.

21
2*

If

,.

UN
,

Am

II

3M

;--

~*H«
sk)

Ma«e>t>

*>»*

inwnied guns which can

Akbar

was

Balis (of a particular i match te frcd vftnout esq wo«W dare to fire. no or* bui H

He
so

Majesty
in

wheel, which rootie©, enables cleaning 16 barrels ai
a

to

invented

•« through plunder camp: ai ovw therefore had enough of ihat metal lodiipUy an quantity anytime to anybody. Thus goes Abol Fuzal on and on merrily m an useadiag
al

certainly

an adep
,

lootiwE

^

__..

aid

unflas

•His

of unabashed panegyric chantinf Majesty M .H 1 r.aaseara tad
-

strain

-»Hs Majesty mounts every kind of elephant. has wonderful knowledge of Hs V
**h
describe in ade-:ms His Majesty's devotions/'
is

projecting His Majesty
elephant-tarn<

a- a saint, a catiie-hree

ranle-inves! Matter alchemist, miracleman and everything else m the

beyond

my po*er

to

drunkard, womanizer, nnssacrer, world cxcefH was. Hindu-hater and plunderer- *nica be really
nailery a p.tv ihat this fabric of a throng par «**«*• bv sei eta! histonans as

U

aregmfed

is

-^Thc good habits of His Majesty are so thai | cannot adequately describe them "
=sty

gives satisfactory

answers to

of Thev seem to be «na«f* bulging Packed ai* those

the

three

«^ »*!£ volume, ftbc
in

VKb„rnanu
the fullered* thai in <** s
,
X

^needed
rnedu-

aD 6u«em

adttse

had cm

*di

the tares

w*rl!!? \F*°*"

ihis ion«ue and throwd the palace wished 'm> tongue would be
:

™£&m***"»
*

9

"t

in

c

:^Sw a**"^

~!^*^>ome .f the gold made by "him:

_

J

a*
N

s

*

;«,.-

.«&»-

d
3*7

«
h
aroUnd
fact

M
frankness he and murderous
S,l

villagers

eagerly flock

dese

ibes

how

t

hrough-

fu

|

ignorance of thc

,w

Akb

«

Loci*

reign

that august

Muslim
Ifany hotel
what amcnit.es
is
it

with 'butchering* Hindus, monarch busied nimself

sough

mire of these fraudulent vv chronicles we have pointed oul how *kbar turns be a man of every conceivable vice and
rtdtng Ihrougfc the

Uobenani

widejirable trait

of character.

From thisil may be realized how dangerous institutions after A It bar. to name air
!f<

a??** He S ays -His Majesty (Akbar) hat' . ti hui *' win e shop near the palace. The ma«ui! hc mfm who had collected could
chronicler

KVtf* °* n Mlf^yW

will have to

££?***

large

wa

i?°^
lathe

'

-

their

number.

If

fndj\ idual
projects
.ire

names when associated with

courtiers

wanted
Majesty

to have a
s

Ijfig
,

public
inspire

virgin they w&l) | d

intended to be

memory-aids

to

have His boys

permission,

um

*x

fly.

prostituted

themselves,

and

druntai.
Hi* Mijnij

what respect will posterity he inspired knowing the facts about Akbar?
In

and ignorance soon
after

led to bloodshed.

himself called
asked

some of thc

principal prostitutes and

them who deprived them
of a monarch who

of

their virgin

Akbar's sordid career had remained not carefully shrouded but was

only

The calibre
taste

has the

time

even

presented

m

to keep a count of his realm's

myriad r
i>

10 m,c lo'ml a

mW
it
.

hcCllUSC his
Part

^ndants

continued

litutes

and

their virgin daughters, and

anviola-

of India for 253 years.

to inquire
ti«

from each one of them, about the imagined. n of their virginity may well be

htimvet* wttnvened

p usa * e

and

repetition

Any way, we wonder
any hotel

whether the

mm&( *

with the aura
,ndKl
M>
,

of truth.
of

would

like or

»-'^rir
"wfcaia
Afch, fa
f

to "*»»
I> ;'
r;
'

commufttriae

and preside over
Initiated

the

be expected kind of impend

**
» «il
all

d

H_r ^^«leaatath!J!
1
.

avc T C ,c,Kktl

tJmi?

,n

thc
,he the

* ?
,hc
,

noM hoi,t

of name of
king

and patronized

by Akbar

lu,IBfl1,

^ ^l*ve
k

a

M


hlk
'

Wheete Smith quotes ^pt a poisoner in pay". » n0 «

Vincent

Hindu

poison

unwanted
are

persons.

Shou

^

L

W*

p ,0

named
"' «hut role.

such an afier Akbar, have

^

***'

Wc

hjiv

Z°V m °

a » n ^«ed after

^
o
lt
>

Such
f

the

onerous re.
of Akbar.
01

romlherame

their logical conclusion P"

J

h|

Chapter
nubijc
tcistjtution

XXV

has

to

be

named
Im4*

I,

Is

tJmTc«*na
on finnariw
It

essential that ihcrefWc very "«' to

historical

** wd
thai

* I""**
commu-

AMARTOMBISAHWDUPALAO
Em

a secular garb, and passing wUsffl parading under expcdienc) ire not allowfarced needs erf political mishandle history. ed u> manhandle or
It is

^

also essential

accentuated

That Akhar was

hated by

that they regarded hi. reflected even in the manner of

^EjKJt!
his burial

ail „r,„„i.i

w

Vincent Smith

says

'"the obsequies or the

^f

in this

context that

we thought

it

essential

dead

lion were hurried and perfunctory.
in the
fort

A

gap

to put the record of

A knar's

history straight.

was made

according td custom (Cmoltc,
Religion and
Folklore
i

Introduction to Popular

>\

R

India. 1894,

p.

219, Popular Religion

&C.

I

Third Vol. ii, p 56, Dubois Hindu Manner*, etc. Jataka rjiaBtatioa ed. (Beauchamp), «fi, p. 499 the Rouse and Cowell 1895, Vol. ii.
I

1

body was
would
bUnal
"

interred in the sepulchre

at

pftj* &bad«-

Hid * KOdr Had Akbar

&'««
.

lo«d and ropecid
icd numc wd

I..

perfiioetoD

not have had

>

rniporanother very . u that we have thai collt c n ».on But besides

wm
p

ai

tut
that

point

m thia'"g^' m* *****

P^nly

.^;
the

orAk(

,

toe*.*

even regarding

dicd

m

ihc

I

Fo.i...A^;.

s*

"rtrr—

S3

.,,-~^

;.mi

391

hi Imtmpom
tiny detail

quoted by Vincent Smith nc utv authorises "™ *ii liter Furopean writers Thai shows died fa, the Red For, not based on « u, mere rumour and myth lErth

the very there

SSSKS
thai

ASr

authentic source. In fact the Akbar* body was not brought out

was no fiiMfti * b «rted body was removed by tffi" can be accepted only " »f.t, «2 bis father Huma,, of
'

pa| acc whcrc „,

4
,

1

*****
'

S& u
'
"

ilnr

rnilu

«1

I','

nf
a

Akbar 'i Akbar's burial add from Smith's observation hat Such secrecy, hurry and perwas also secret functoriness a possible only if Akbar is buried in Our conthe very mansion in which he lay ill. clusion! therefore, that Akbar died in the very sixi

clandestinely removed through anv gutebui was bears out Smith "s observation thai hole in the wall perfunctory. Wc burial was hurried and

also removed by breaking b mansions where ,h,v,,",

ok^' T
fl

B:

f,c

*""

,-cedenUhecla^,^^^:;
taken out through i reason, is untenable
holt hi the will fc

1^

Even conceding

ihal

it

WW taken
to thiong to Sikni
.<

out thr
rami
i I

a hole people were hound Ihc bodv were lo beamed

i\

w
amid

miles

storeyed
he
lies

Hindu usurped palace at Sikandra wheie buried is thus based on sound logic.
fact that his burial

away,

It

would have

ihcn nude

lomg

mid lengROl

thy procession.

In thai case the burial

be called

""hurried und perfunctory."
is

The
functory

makes n clear i cry spot where he lay dying. Since he h buried in Sikandra it is our contention that he died in
Sikandra.

was hurried and perthat he was buried at the

There
at
all

vet another decpci rayslerj
is

u

fancied grave

empty.

M

« Vincent Smith ^ot n

This conclusion
lies

is

reinforced by the fa ci

tZ'Z
-

In
,;
(

WW in*
thi.

Akbar
palace.
there.

buried

in

a six-storeved

He happened

to die

when he

Hindu was camping

,h€Mar

cr report that *.«»«

1w
">

lS^^ ^ ^f
Dc.

*« IIP-" U*WP*
wrcd

iJw

«^*"""!l VcrwtoMitiiu^
rcwrvai
Jl

he died in the Red Fori in Agra there was no reason why his body should have been removed t* breaking upen a wall instead of being
out through the forts main ca i e

Had

brcakmg
the
.tnd

on**""

'1*^ J 'u4 '" s
'

,l

h «toi

^ !««'"" "

W

,uld

,'

carried

destroy
.....I;

the iw nL

.ndWi""
dead
,

1

"' "
1

The
through -

c^ri

that

Akbar s

mnoved from

the

fort,

unkm, WfI

.pecmllv

madc scqm

'"

^LZ uW
tlK

bock

ihrew.lK,,!

«M
,

was
c>

P

pUff not know
j:0)
"'

'

u

"^
I '

,,

lb


M

*
NW.ll.

2

p

v>y

991
It

was

he

Thu<cven AUW*
people.

ghost continues to mislead

who

n amcd

.

Akbar's tomb has rm.nv The hoax about
namely ;—
6
fe

palacs after himicfl After Akb^i
(7)

UIUrN

ramifications
(li

i^^*^.
Ik,.!
fact
ili.il

Hin hi

i

H

Mi

IW His fan, remains.
Jehangir
kill

empty and doesn't contain

To

cover up

the

ih»

u.
,,*

who

hated
rn

Akbar

Akbar and who wanted poison or in open combat

lcumwasbu.it for htm. a, bus been planted in \m\
his

own
own

life

ma> himself have caused Akbar "s remain* to be burnt in the "hurried and perfunctory"
obsequies
1

lime Akl
in'-

ai

^.
am
n„.
.| !:

jndia
his

site foi

burial

Jin|
*,

palatial lurnb
if

T^

ses that

Akbar
didn't he
Jul' u
:

tia

own
ju ^

3

»

Ak bar's
buiii

to-called

tomb was obviously
because
ii

not
a six

tomb why
on as he

jump
Willi

into

over his dead body,

is

MpoKi

Hindu palace consisting of hundreds rooim, a basement, and huge grounds enclosed by a baiilemented wall. The massive wall has lowering gates on all the four sides as was common with Hindu build int:
storeyed
(4)

even mi

re

and

MujIji bull stor> afever>

grave and

buildn

anticipation of

htf^«'

mere tomb which is haunted by fakirs, mendicants and other riff-raff would never have embellishments of gold, silver and gems. Tie wealth referred to forms part of the tradir

A

built

his

yddinTu^*;
within fi>

>""

u

thai building

because

before

Muslim
all

;:;:

as
,

usurpation that
thai wealth
<

Hindu palace did contain

5>

over on thewalfa of the palace

arc

w2b and

i^*

ted

***

ln *^ked-Lnang.es, <

^^Wncrth^chcenSikandm

had

it

^^smecatious before Akbar.

,

(

»l£r

And
Htilii

yet

of his arrival,

but

within

thai

in
|,

peace.

even that C1 Up comes ],\v
built

Persian

uneducated Humaytm was an fK ,her an he must have learnt B it told that the desert-wastes of architecture in

J

lm

^

was he who

L.

Insfe^
''•OnTueuW*

^f

»\noi

f

ai^ p

,

ft*

somebod,

'J*

Jehangir claims

on foot to see
father.
If
1

M

the rcs fc P nd could, I

J*££* •*"* mm "*** rf„
M
a

upon my
foot

SindJndPcrsia.it a lime
in

when he wandered

eye-lashes oj my head
respecting m

y *

he made a vow
shrine of the

his

without any shelter over taiicred clothes head or a morsel of food in his stomach.

y

i

from Fathpur

to Ajmer'on

pta^*
ih

One wonders whether the Persians had set up any school ofaidaiectute m the desert for an uncouth, wandering Humayun to study at.
The canard
is

space of

great Khwaja Mu.nmldin 120 kos. and it would tta
this
t

K

very great tf I were to go my head or eyes When

ihori

di.tawe^

had obi
luii
it
I

that

Akbar

built his

therefore part of a set
trick

formula

own mausoleum of Muslim chro ni-

fortune of visiting the tomb and

^ outiM
did
it

building which was
to

erected over

m

nnd h

FT)

ck- writing
In a

my

liking.

My

intention was. that
travellers of the
like

should be

so exquisitelhat the

w

Government of India publication the author contradicting Emperor Jehangir confidently
tells

not say they had seen one
inhabited earth.
in

H

in

While

us that*
at

Akbar

construction or his own tomb by Sikandra near Agra had been going on for

The

consequence of the

wwkwia »<** rcbcllli
the
fell

m

jean when death overtook him. Jehangir CSign andcha "Sed it. He completed fh? k.mb m i *« 1613, ,„ foe seventh year of his

LZteKhusruJwasob.i^^
Lahore.
at their

T

^

The

builders had h.* «

«^,
Mfid
,

r®W

discretion.

Tn«

"

wtiaj fibricatioiL

fishy slips

which always

been expended, and ordered or four year,
I

tl^vo^a
il
(

*

in

concert

^h^^^lF** ^
*A

fis^^wSiL ? * Wn *****
1
1

*ud Ua, mausoleum
•*

i,,


lr

down
Wh,ch
chronicler's

the

objection^

since nowhere has J«» "^ugnt of building his own

was

raised, with

313. f arl

"

i

L

IT,

Ichangir

was knowiuo
tir

,

k|

made of white
large

sliahtcsl slip

defiance
r

S|h
;

building

tionhavmgpumshed„ 1Cerr
claim
is

^

**. i*
i

»*
| ,.,

ii>

STwporitti
Irak

ro
toes
I

me

and
In

4.<

nmoutrt to 50.000 of!Ch«»M Of Turan."
ro

annua

of

a hoax and a

Ulkt

nud
is
4

Another

fishy deUil

j,a_
whk]
,

,

order

claim* nJ

accomodate the contradictory Akbai and Jefumgir having built one and
maasoleuiti anothei disannini
iv is

eertain 'objectionable

nam
|

th'c*imc Sifcandi
naive canard

foisted

on

history

It

says

thai

lehansif

completed the mausoleum begun by his n father Akbai
It is

"hkm nulled cls nl „ pu tie OBjcctionabk compktc.y. ThcobjtdkiMte^ were obviously those of a Hindu ml!! ofhts having chiselled awa; awa> f his
h,,,

down,

*

i

*
In

*f)

,

me n

and motifs Akbar second-hand
replete with

conveniently

forgotten

tlitM

Jehangir

Hindu

wheel

symbol^
Nu

__ - j n>hnn mauiokunHa m
IBtefkN
.1

ty* ^

"M
•<*"*>*

esn'i s&y that

he completed a

half- built

lomb.
his

triangles(Shakti-chakras)
to the
set
it

rcfctcnce
to

On

closer examination

of Jehahgir*s assertion

man who
changes

altered Hie design or

m

mu
<^a
Wl\

claim too turns out to be bogus.

right.
J

His statement that he had entrusted the
10 architects becai

work
his

vague
in

reference to the

toiildtttf

who

altered the design

is

patently false

being

"completed*

three ot
in Indian
(

I

those days

when anybody's eyes could be

quoting the

cost not
all

ainwqil
concedta

uged ft r even the slighte-a slip or disobedience who dared trifle with urn approved plan or Akbar's

two foreign currencies
claim.
Sir

'IwhW
is

The
H,

figure of expenditure

a

mausoleum
L\cn if there were any dare-devil architect idiotic enough to flout a cruel Jchangir's chosen building design what interest would he have in substituting thai design with one of his own fancy ?
After
all

M.

Elliot

m

his

Jehangtr's chronicle ha, Ikj page how it is a ussue of

^^Z .«*«g
*«^

.l'.ii,.il

has also cauuom Jehangir's unctuous and
end.

He

the architect

ct

uldn't be anotJiu

son

of
his

feigning the deepesi

/Vkbar

who could be adamant about having
in pi
ctf

Jehangtr's hatted
te^nse

own

design

the

J eh angir's

approved

h» f** aiKmr that he had made
for

*-«"J ifW^ ^

design lor bis father's
If at all

tomb
obstinately

somebody did
<

construe!

a

lausofcum which ttogpred 1 u what punishtt did mete tie ut to the erring men, since

upto his very graveH*» second-hand usurped mnus^ um
specially built

^

fe

p

1 H indu ,ownshiP The n*» of the WM*"" °f fonned the focal point, may still ,,,„« p,b« he seen around Mtbirt chapter in Our object h rewriting has been to rebut In all such detail,
,

CM
tllHtu

B

!

» L

I

G R A p

ii

y
lint

Indian

hit

a majoi Wsification.

Our aim has been
life,

to present

tl)

'Akbar\byJ

Jnd ihetruih. ine * J,oic tr,lth Truth about Akbar's character,
and
burial

nolnin £

bul

lnc
(2)

^HHhavun
Annals and volumes by
*

M Shetat. \W A D

bw
In

reign, death

rhtwpatty. Bambay.7
two

Antiquities orRajaat&arf

Lt-Col

James Tod,

RouM, >dc

We
extract

are afraid

we may

not have been

able

to

& Kcgan

Paul Ltd. London

^

and present ihe whole
flattery

under the piles of
chroniclers.

Truth from heaped by fawning

homd

m
(4)

'Alcbai the
.

Gnat Mogul

1

ty

Vincent
>

Smith,
S,

2nd Iiiiotu revised Indian S C hand & Co Delhi.

reprint,

95

Vti

we have tried to piece together and expose the falsity of Akbar't usual image, and bring out a coherent and logical accew ir*s diabolical role from his cradle to
But so tar as possible

'Memoirs of

Jehirudtftn

Mohammad
8t

Buhur".
I

translated by John Uydeit

William Erskii

annotated and rcvM bj Sir Lucas King, to Humphrey Milford, Oxford

two
-

volumes,

gravr

University Press
far
v

l«l
bv °i

VD

'

How

c

have succeeded

it

is

for

the

(5)

t Crescent

^

t« tn

liulii uu" •'

readers to judge.

KftabLtd

Bombay-1.

S * K Sharing 1^ A D
*

Hirnl

eal

l«^ A D
"

r V..I V .Akharlh"! Gl*»'

-

I
,

H' ,,ta1
,

hia '"'

'

ljS im

£t;/'
.

'

SCW^r

rS?3S£:

^

T
,0.

.CftHOartuiy*

After', a

monthly review

Volume VIII. artie 1c Ut, ^signers/ by E.B.Haveil
owlcs of
the

•The

m

Tn
ol
c ,

cdom

Analogical
and

SodeiJ
tti

k

',,,

1878. Aj-'^ Januar> to June Handbook for Visitor to Agra

ERRATA
Page
25
30

idmc

U»e

Incorrect

Hindustan,
\
I

.shbomhood.tThacker's Handbook of rewritten and brought up-to-date
Duncan)

ouahed
Tanscii
tin-

•ihulithcd

(hUSttTiiU
sen Ibe fanmut

«TJic
i

Bad.shahnamn', by Mulkt

Abdul Hamid

a lion (Elliot
r

&

D.
Rise
till

n> of the
the year

musician wi

th«

Pov^-r
red

in

India,

Mohammedan 1612 V D trans-

1

cndcred)

30
3!

16

Rlwrmol

Blurmul

npnal Persian of Mohammad knnm Ferishta, by John Brings, Vol. II, published by S Dey, 52-A Shambazar Street.
from the
lcutta-4 -Reprinted
1

2

Muslim

rule
1

Muslim

rule)

126
153
163

Heading

SO:CAL

1

D 504 ALLfcD

rn

1%6

A. D.)

Heading
15

PLUNDR
becasuc

PLINDER
bcciiuw

14.

'Ain*f-Akbari\ by
lated

Abul Faznl Allami. transBlochBibliothcca

from the original Persian, by H.
iccond edition,

lndica

170
178

IS

the paid

he

published by the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Sen-.-

20
30

that

ii.:jI

197

abh
^

ommentanus of Father Monsermte, S. J on his journey to the court Akbar. translated fr< m Ik original Latin by J s Hoyland annoiaicd bv S, Banerjee, :,Humphrev Miiford, Oxfurd University
t
I

Die Commentary

225

24
8

.c

fan

228

ptcienvion*

pretentions

229
231

29
will'
I'

which
he he
Jizi

29 9

Press, (16)

London

•Saivadeshik'

WW. puwwwd

Hin.li weekly, dated

238
April
14
:!

rijziyo

12

by Suvadefcfl, Arya Pntti
:so

aroog"
28
dt

U
i

28
ilw

he

8
251

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••

to
404
403

aa

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309.

320.331.

m247,29L 3W
''

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6.,2«. lT|

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Hindu

*• Alt'

Aifi«r Sin^li

*°«

Uhairaich
I

1

84,
1

AlUHtall

Mi
ia OR
1!

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Bhakkar

34, 89, «m,

57. 203. 25J L
etc)

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,

"-*riTw I'm* »*««*"*»* Khan
Aiafi.v.,1!

Bhartnal (Baton. Mull I78. 272. 27JW,
BliaUia [Rcwg)
in.

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386.

Bidln Chiind

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1W
23,73,173,307.
i91
'

Bijagadli (Beejagnrh

73, 86

AtphKlum
Auianpeb
A-rtJliya

BijapuT

135-6.
Mnfoegrultf)
40,

B*«V*.W.1S«b

Birbar (Bubal,
339. 364
6.

4

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41. I0S. 197.271. 276, 357,

U&i

32,35,46,258.274,280,3^362,

Bir Singh

50,270.274.
344, 228, 255, 317, 328. 340.
35ft,

BLochmann

BsbaDmi
BabuMBabar) 53.6,58-9.80,115,120,139,197,
236. 284-7,
269-90, 300, 302-3, 305-6, 320, 391

Boetho

246
191
73,

Bourbons
Burhanpur

»-7\

136, 217.

Baibytmi

H, $9.73, 85.89. 91.
180,

101. 103. 105. 124, 133,
182,

137,

r

jl

150-1. 156*7,162-3. I7x

188,

194,

200-1.

203,
chagli1 KJvud
j

213. 216. 22fr8, 235, 237-8, 245-6, 252-4, 258,
JOO,

261-22. 293,
356.

53,13'
59

304. 313-4

325,

328,

334,

343-5.

358-9.

Cbampancr

36S.4. 36S. 373, 379. 381

ChnndBih

<8>3«
|jg

Kah*dui (Khan)
B*i«ur iBa,

22. 29. 49,

M,

163, 266, 271. 277.

;2. S5, 105
f

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29,34,66.75, 163*4,
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311, SM),
B»ribLi

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293 42. 197,
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juniy"!

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406

Hakim Humam

47,49,3a

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H«Wi|lm

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35,180,2^295^/
,

HamMaBanon
Hamzaban

y.

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Kn,d B

33. 77
ItttfSg

Hangu
OMibtnlHu)

55
65

Havel! E.B

47.66.2
72. 74, 83. 9*.

,.,.,^41. 54.% 58.
130.

101,1*3.203.

Herou
HtiKJal

19, 71-2,

19.

60

i

Hirvijuya Suri

38 r

194-5.

Dgp»

:

4«3

24$
i*.

D«m
Du-irtc
I

21,73

W
dc Laccrda
215.

Humayun
'.S3.

16-8, 27, 31. 38, 50 56«6l ( 68. 83, n_\
312.,

205. 290. 304-5,
1

350. 55J

Husaln Humyn)

26, 84. 87. 90. 103, 255,

Dur^*
Fife!

4.

26-8.

HIM.

Ml-:, 144-5. 164, ISO. 225,

Ibrahim

Chilti

204.

Ibrahim Haji
228,339.311. 344.353*6

88,91

opr}

Ibrahim Husain
36-9, 49, 54. 85. 87, 91, 107,

H Wi
M

l72f3

h -rhru*
134,

Sibl
1*2

7,

194), :*.

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Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim
lkhuy.it

157.

307. 313. 317,

193,2034, 215-7, 278, 261, 268, 275. 282, 319. 327-8, 330 334. 340. 395.
291

Mfc»

H

2 '*''

85,267-8.273,295,

Fwiihfc

:m

27, 61, 83. 124. 135. 183. 243,

Iskandar
FaenliBli
Ftrnzatod
153 5
197

Kb" ».»'
tariud

225

J 19.

3*0

81
261

Ralph
'

.1

-

Ghijttuddin

393

Gibbon

570,

GukundaiGojHndaj
n

&
Jam"1 "

102

«"»*I» R 30.215.241
Gui

w

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rw> d » uo

|5

Maghfur D1
41-2.

$<,

«-5. 47-51. 61-5. «?. 123.
280. 339, 141.4.

x233.269.-0.

eHiai.

Mali Ghck
Jluvef
1

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311

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Mahmn4(SiltMiarCh|nd Makbdmnul M„lk
Ma!
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J«yk*Klu>

Manbat

Jrtmbr

tSliah

Begun

jm

.

Mandavgadli (Mtadu, Mandated*
*

:<*

-:

45. 145. 149. 266. 270, 277,

361

319-20, 393

Mankut
(pi

19. 43. 127.

255,279

43

Mansingh

22. 32. 41-2. SS, 123. 137

m-1

339. 357. 360-2
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391

Kunnji

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Kandahir tQinddun
K.:in Kkas
I

3S,

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744 MaqsudAh Mariatn Makam 51

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101

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30, 51,

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24,

156.275

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Mir Uak*h

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31, 118.9,
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156, 203

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123,

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119. ITS
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Sultunntat Begum 41 Sural

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Sb

Tambol 55
194-5
»31, |44, 178. 225,

Tansen
272- J, 275

30, 41., 45, 339.3M-T,

Timur (Tamcrlaml
Terry

Sharfuddin

SH

61. 6S. 139. 135.

2M.

226. 380,

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Stobil.M

54.120
Sthaneahwiiri 23. J7, T4, 241,

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53, 59-61. 68, 84,

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16, 153-55.

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258, 290, 312, 350, 380, 393,

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239-40.

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414

v^s

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Hindi*

Other UooUs

b v (ht S;

^
puM,^
,

Building

Mory
ZiicKhiin
4.\

64.105

Mew DelM*.
1.

or other

Mahal ms A Rajput Pahi:i , R (author s own publication now oui of pri
The Taj Mahal
India Book
t

Taj

n

2.

Hindu Palace, Ri U5, House 245 Dr. Dadnbhai IS
is

a

Road Bomba\

1

^
4.

Sme
price

Blunders of Imiian
Rs,
lfl-

HftMfM fe»«
own
puhl.cjiion).

(Author's
-or

institutes a blueprioi

**m

««*"
iconc.il

and world

history.

6.

a..thort

•«

ft'h

both he

is

an

W"" 11 ""
,

;

m^

7.

5»*

,

j

c

koc

Hindu
,

rini

.

if

oi

the

Indian

National

,.V,

f;

i

and iti

freedom, led by Nctaji Subhas Base; Its haeKdrop and aftermath,
r

REVIEWS AND REACTION
[his aiithnf* two books Taj Mahal Was A Rajput Palace fa The success, volume of which has been brought nui under

dug

(Now

oui tt print)

The

extent to which

y
r

sr^nVr^ i!?«n*TH, price Rs.

.V-Mimohur GranlhI

ma

i;i

Wa rig mai Shobh a
Tins

K;t rye ay a, Tlla k

Ro ad

na-2

received literary

book is m Marat hi ll has awards (Nov, out of print),

the

title

:

The Taj Mahal
1

is

a

Hindu

Palace,

by the
jl

L.dia

Book House, 249 Dr. Dadabhai Road, Bombay- and 'Some Blunders of
Historical
Research*,

Indian

have

unsettled

current

by the historical concepts the world over, may be judged following reviews and reactions >
T)
1. Dr.K. Vaidyanathan M.A. Ph.D. Madras;It is not so much '.he Taj Mahal but it is your book on be Taj Mahal which is the eighth wonder
l

4 *

of the world."
2.

Barat Jyoti (Sunday edition of the English
ical

Dalai Street, Bombay daily, the Free Press Journal, 1967 ; -P. N. Oak is emerging -I) dated August 27. aspects el Indian as a popular writer on different to hh fe* but Ill addition history and culture. Oak * article, h quite sensational publications.

found
lies in

iheir

way

into

weeklies

both Enghsb and

are (people) who look the glory Ol Hindu rcoorn VvVsa reborn to reinstate , vyasa „ n u us v misrepresented callously mi heritage so grossly and

regional languages^ Th upon him as a veritable
i

™f ^J"
i

[

d

*^

w

,

by wicked right «*e«fePP ci pl«...Oaki* absolutely s understood ... .u. . A«i has been mMintftrstoot that lu term Arya lias
fl

f^tie^an^^
i*

to

be

a racial term

.

——*..»»
41*
419

Mr

j

Roil d.

Monthly edited by Molhir India .1 Sir Pherozsbah Mehta lf J. M P December 966\ pa^c IS; Bombay-t), ro books ii missing the most excitsft
,

Mahal. Your scholarly Cb,i cred our o wn ll 1C o ritk 8'«onM,.v f l ended for the clarity ?°' U lfi l?"«" 10 £ his new and

Cily

lT

-

^fc^JmWl?*
7 ^C4m «W
'
<
'

«fo

Hind,,

ing

m
ic
il»e

of the stupendous fraud two
*•

cd

MoghuJs and
after

the British
for

per-

petra;

helpless

Indian people
Indfji

ovei

r wnh ,h„ Problem \v] J n India. On „„ c n r m , "

J
tt -

H.tioncd l„

Un

t^dvc
the

centuries

Only

got
in

freedom,
the

Upon
ii

seeing

I

iwrsftfcmsJ

disclcsure>

contained

two

hie lovely

i

ruclu
i

books could be made.
b« inicliictiii people.

These books must be read

magnificent grandeur

w

lJ"
1

* 0Wn ^

Tm* <*

-^^

nd

ftjth

The books provoke thought, new thought old history begins to assume

i different complexion."'

was NOT a Moghu] building. For m « tourminaren reminded me of p«turei

Hindu
(Indian

architecture

m

what was

JZZ
known
as
i

then

Sundnj

Standard

Express,)

februar
,nd

i

"Or Oak's
is

Indian \}m. neij Research"
5
,

a

'Some Blunders of book of a baffling

Rajpu tana. Also the octagonal design is definitely of Hindu origin. Our library recently acquired your wonderful little book, and some of these
things which had been puzzling me were
tely cleared up."
7,
irame-.

tirr)

S^V***Mr
Ptad!;
,i,

mudjoriniegrits and comiche ujkcI rather my

r?

The

Astrological

Magazine

(Editor,

Mr
a

I

ni,,,a,h
;

as
«"<>

ll

u

D *s
"I

"

Governor,

uuar

'

^"r
.n
1

daW »**

welcome toe poblica-

B.V. Raman, Sri Rajcswart, Bangalore 20) Mahal Was "Here is a publication (Taj 1966 RajP „t Pate) which tnay
*

January

r

rt.-r-.il

* a Ra P

1

thc
(

;

!

;

Ta>

* having

been

From a slumber hy with close attention both man.' history and the lay
June
4.

«^g££%2m* «™
it*
'

-WJ-.

»-•

lore).
J
i

1967

Jhfc

^^
K* 0-

w>

,„,„.

s a

"
'

;JmJ
,cl '
1

Eail

«n
d

tblu ' d

««

MS
.V'

»«dlei December
,he Taj

cstiiig

*"

ShahJehan

contempt the
built

subject,

U^onthe^ and ™ £ cxpw %
history,
k

book

which

prop*"

ggw
fodi

[chtoihe

From

the e

n utiu.i>

f
\

:

't^r

**'Hih,

ih.

^jaajn

30

421

mm
*
1

^"T. ihm
kcr

of the medlaevall

more ImpOflMl and monuments one
is

in «'ie

book 'Some Bu
of

RescarcbMiassetcaedZ?

**

»Gty

H

Ufo*

sound ration

r
0j;
.

.

Saws?
las
*pen1 considerable

and aUhouah one ™, "r l w<*toiif. e one can deny that lev " Hi £
<|

^

THE IUTIONaITo?^**
s

^

,.

**£
(4IIWV

leboiir to delve deep time ,*, cfiiri end evolved, of the theory he ha*

^Jhe
Mr
anther)-

and ichellengtn«boolc
irnw
, ..

will

repay close

r j.
.

i,,

one

Interest* d

m

P.N. Oak. price to. Y >• a l chanting guide to Indian nwrawgy it alio "t" aMroUl^Tcunialai h rt «u *.*r«u how aerology is a com y comunttc science baitd squarely on phytic Miaemaiiei
^ataemaiicsaaaaiiioflotirt
i i

W^b C2S5°

\

K

I

and by even rtudenl
In an> event
it

of research

certain!)

impiv
into

dearly
the
iht

th

id Tor furtlter re sen re h

Achapterinitduadateshowuj uciduics bow the KuTub Kuitib Miliar was raised by Kins Vikramaditw i» ™. King Vikramadltya to cant., morale the beginning of the Vikrnrn En. farmed
It

^

rr,

adumbrated and explained so elaborachange in the approach of tely by linn, and f imton is id n teerch workers."
i
i i

the central tower of a

pre-eminettl anew

il

iimdu
(4

observatory of times when

Indians ruled u large

TO)

pan

of the world,

Tiic

book has been unanimoufly
contribution to sclentl

firr)

OiiianUir
inp
I

i

jIi

i

weekly, Marina

BuiJd-

acclaimed as a unique
astrology.

ght
t.
I

Circus,
rch
al
..

w

Delhi*!),

Wry
I

bonk (Some
requires

dated Blunders
of

Some

typical

comment*

arc

'Indian 11
loi

Research)

a lot

The Hindu (English dailyfrotn in this 1968; The argument used

madras). June

book arc

n«>%

ODurajp and

til*

scholarship."

and
has

Ihoitght-provokhtg.
j

SearchHshi (English daily, Paina), dalcd
inn)

rules which enable

with

bee

launched °Jcclol n vriting Indian history tow* claimina thai ih. .,, Mahal had not ^U by the, ideoipcroi Shahial.an"
:

•Mi

Oak

of the

subject

Ail lovers of

ast

J^'^, ^
Printing and

»^*JflJ ft** **" »* JS

-IlilflTlClJ

Th .
dmple

Mail

(English

JM
d

11

Dl

N|

Wegmdernj
u r on upon
i .

sax

emulated ed
f5[«qu«

*^^rf
hll „,tc

SLA.):

Youi

-W

clear

masterpiece

or

au-liiundcr.of Indian Hi

^^M December .\|%7;

.«' explaining the

'

» M|.

q^

calclaling

llw <f as

1

1

«}
sizeable fund
,

could be

cmp^^jWcb
" • ! 1

(

.ilia

Ba
1

*
of
hi

Hvn4 u

AN APPEAL TO THE READER
,.

v

.,,1

conv „c«lv.w»f the extern lconscquen.lv world history
(

should tave of the foregoing pages to which fndtan h story
in

The —"

en

aiiauim e Institute
lhat f

mediately so

nc

,

Mory. 17.
,,
narj

Z

~c portions)
_..».,
ol
,

may employ
aevai
towns,

at least

%££ ^ ,„>
L
L

^'

mt

R

been distorted. of our earlier books

DM

:

The Taj Mahal

»

Hindu

Palace,

and Some Blunders
bighUght

Man
dis-

H ,"'r,c,l
flaws in

Reseat*, Indian and world history.
of rebutting our

some other senon.

proving that they a tactions fraudul n

\H^&*+f~m .^^f
f
"
rt
a
3,

Muslim
several

invade,

by in fact, be undertaken torted historv should, research orgamzannivereitio and historical was coming forward to

Thi* task

maimed and

books proving Indo-Saracemc theory of architecture
translated

^^ ^ 2^ ^J
,.,^1^
editions of at
Publish

Z
to

and annotated

tan

a

qi)

thousand mediaeval Muslim
so far suppressed or
jahan's
ignored.

and European chro-

,ions.

rectify

Indian History the Institute for Rewriting 1964) as a public body was founded (on June 14, onerous but noble, national
it.

But since no one

nicies to bring to the surface very valuable evidence
For
instance Sim
1

own
in

•'Badshahnama"

>md

Tavcmler'i

undertake thai

"Travels

India" contain emphatic aneitioM

task.

that the Taj

Mahal

existed

prior to

Mumtoz'i

Us

9,000/- in The Institute has only about Rs. Baroda, Connaught account with the Bank of

death
light

4

Write hundreds of books
such

ihiwins

itarial

tots on some unknown

u^

under-

Circus.
I„ h
,
i

Delhi (as
tier

Oil

July

I,

1968).

dated August 2, 1939 Dr. Einstein President Franklin Delano informed the American know-how lo make the Roosevelt that he had the United Slates Government if 'he atom V All that he needed make Hie of il

world pomuu country of the J*
ble

traces of

wanted ro ukctesting facility. then was manufacturing and know-how lo rebut maimed wise «e have now the some extent, world and distorted Indian, and,

lh e

m

.

6.

that most

*^»Z!K langu^ *« ^
A*
,

o*«•!*

^
w
Sam

rcadc

*
lflJ

W

Publish a

nvagazmc^,;

»«J* re****

(|

hjM,
able
tc

li

ii

now up
the

to the public to
facility

make

avail-

fmdmgs of with the
to

cjvilltf

»,*u.

III

necessary

by

raising a

world history

424

We
their

that a ledge so icl . and tf» feet*. red with

send non-Indian m* * * * *« Uerity may be saved from
,

lb {c and
di3 n'or

small, rich

and poor.
to
in

}

?'

lm

;tf
,l

tuiorcd

in

fanciful.

A

t

ot ftc

f™d a™ Govern**"
least
'

^'
,n

^powiWity

;"

means ordinary

o to bccome
_

diversities realize their 00 k to folk of |d by paying '0

w

,

members

or cnroi rupees a year

|ifc ,

memb ers

by contrij

^

um

5?fi£5f»
earnest Iv
I

incite

«»»»

»

<•»

jHdtcd.

on entitled to a discount Maobeis/donon are or published by Institute members Plications may be ordered £lhe

Sm

Ste
which

perVPP.
The
publish,
Institute
will

has

thousands

of books to
m,
1-.

of Indian history

change the entire orientation and to a considerable extern of
financial

world history
importance
in

Your
this

support

is

of

vital

great task of rebutting history

S

rltuS
r>

The

palnling

is

apparent!, of a pe.,od

sat present being grossly misrepresented to
1

ludcnts, visitors to historical build-

ing*

and

to the

world at targe.
'

when Akbar was : Humavun' S ex^(lHOw hJ j ul 1555 and died
y
Elliot

Humflyur returned
,

monthtJ

Pflfle

^

to

^

Delhi In
|V

as a

member, send

a

-nation

pur

A Dawson, ciea«y On poQ» \ Sikrr.
referring
'

you can. and order r.ur publicationspenuade your friend* imilaf to render
«r

quoted

& r*
r

own

help

v 5lt * L. time hBr s ol J i"™ l * and students hb0lil the or igin of Falehpur SIM, w* before Akba*. lead themselves fou nd*d centuries ejir Hindu 0n||ro|y of lh(| Hlndw dti It was an

^^ ^mi hut ^
$

^ rMFampi|l
Ba(fayi ni
,

roaaJls pater*

SQ &,«,„ as Falhpur dur.no AhtMf'a

hB5

fl |

18 township, rt.choeofOQy on"":'* lUMPf* must not herealtermii-

Thar

whv

It*

^^ in0i

d

^

This painting depicting (Akbar's father) Humayun with his nobles at Fathpur should explode the myth that Akbar founded Falehpur Sikti. The painting is apparently of a period when Akbar was not even born, Akbar was born during

Humayun's exile (1540—55), Humayun returned to Delhi in July 1555 and died within sin months. Page 62, Vol. IV, Elliot & Dowson, clearly mentions thai Fathpur means Fatehpur Sikri, On page 157 of our book Badayuni has also been
quoted referring to Falehpur Sikri as Fathpur during Akbar's own tlms. Visitors to that township, archaeology officials and students and teachers of history must not hereafter mislead themselves Bnd others about the origin of Fatehpur Sikri.
It

was an Hindu

capital
1

founded centuries before Akbar,
._.'..!

Ji _

Some

othe r works by the Author

1.

Fatehpur Sikri
Delhi's

is

a Hindu City
is

2. 3.

Red

Fort

Hindu Lalkol

Lucknow's Imambaras arc Hindu
Palaces

4.
5.

Agra Red Fort

is

a Hindu Building

Fowler's Howlers
Islamic
*rf <TOT

6.
7.

Havoc

in Indian

History

tWMMK

10.

fl

fH ^

(fH

* Ht^ranO
(iw)
(2 *ft)

12.
13.

ft^^nf

W(
uror

aft?

tt^t

15. 16.

3 5^nr f*iH
I
Hf^T *OT t

*? mtu
dl«IH&d

^^ *^
*
ftspr

OT?

17.
18.

m$w

ffi$™

* ^^ ^

19.

fts*r sfasrer

^^

20.

Some Blunders of
Research

Indian Historical

Who

Savs Akfaar was Greai?
historians consider

The Present day

Akbar as

a great Moghul emperor.

The author of this book questions this view. He quotes innumerable incidents and deeds of the so called great

emperor and proves that Akbar was the
est rogue.

great-

A

well decumentcd

work worth

reading...

HINDI SAH1TYA SADAN
30/90,

Connaught Circus.

New

Delhi

-

1100O1,

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