5% HCl = 5mL of HCl = 95mL of H O weight/weight ² is the most accurate but not used very often in clinical chemistry ² both must be weighed.PERCENTAGE ´ ´ ´ ´ Parts per 100 ² percentage expression is independent of molecular weight weight/volume ² grams/100mL of solution e.g.g. 5% w/w of NaCl = 5g of NaCl = 95g of HO . 5% NaCl = 5g NaCl diluted up to 100mL of solution with H O volume/volume ² mL solute/100mL solution e. e.g.

MOLARITY Molarity (M) = Moles per Liter (mol/L) ´ Mole = molecular weight of a substance in grams (from periodic chart) ´ Formula for calculation ² MWT x M = g/L ´ If a problem states an amount other than 1000mL(1L) then you must convert using ratio proportion ´ .

NORMALITY ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Normality = Eq/L Equivalent = molecular weight/valence Valence is the total net positive charge on the element Defined as the mass of an element or compound that will combine with or replace 1 mole of H Formula for calculation = MWT x N = G/L Not used that much for clinical chemistry today .

N % Write down the formula that corresponds to the concentration stated in the formula Always make sure units are the same Recheck your answer by putting it back in the formula Practice ² Practice ² Practice !!!!!!!!!!! . M. molarity. mg. percent.e. normality« What does the problem ask for? Grams.TIPS IN SOLVING CONCENTRATION PROBLEMS ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Look for the concentration expression in the problem i.

wikipwdia.html .com/vogi/chem istry/MolarityMolalityNormality.WEBSITES ´ olarity ´ http://environmentalchemistry.

MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAS TO MEMORIZE When changing concentration or going from an existing concentration to another concentration: ´V xC =V xC ´ Think of 1 as initial and 2 as final ´ This formula can only be used when going from higher concentration to a lower concentration ´ .

You can convert from one to another ´ M = g/L ´ .OTHER FORMULAS Remember that all expressions of concentration are interchangeable.

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