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Models and role of models
A model is an abstract conception of the real world situation. The question is why do we need an abstract conception? Real world situation is very complex, where many force work simultaneously as a result it is difficult to understand the working of the process and hence, predicting future course of action. Models are use to simplify these problem. They give the researcher a guide line to work with, clarifying the relation between the various factors and their ‘likely’ impact on the main process. For example what role market plays on consumers. If we can formalize it, appropriate marketing strategies can be formed to shape up consumer’s buying behaviour. Consumer behaviour is a multistage process, and actual buying comes at a much later stage. It becomes crucial for the marketer to understand the initial stage so that they are able to predict the buying stage, this makes the study of consumer behaviour models almost mandatory. Consumer behaviour model serve two distinct functions(a) (b) They explain the factors that affect purchase of a particular type of goods and services. They allow future prediction to be made and are able to assess the likely out comes of various marketing strategies.
In order to perform the above mention functions, the consumer behaviour model must be relevant (must be as much as possible near to the market situation). Comprehensive (they should not be vague and poorly constructed) and valid (the out come predicted by the model should be testable and verifiable). If these Qualities are maintained in the model, and then the model becomes not only useful tools but essential tools for the market. Types of Models Market researcher traditionally uses economic models to predict the consumer behaviour. The concept of price, income etc. and their relation to buying behaviour to predict the outcome, But in reality it was found socio psychological factor go to great extant in forming a buying behaviour. As a result marketer started using psychological models to predict the buying behaviour. Whether pure economic models were used or pure psychological models were used. The researcher were using monadic models, i.e. using only one discipline of study. Real buying behaviour is affected and influenced by economic, sociological, psychological, environmental and various other factors simultaneously. Thus the eclectic models or multivariable models which take into account all these influences simultaneously are much more comprehensive and relevant .although checking the validity of all these models become relatively difficult.
Monadic Models of Consumer Behaviour
stags STAGE COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR AIDA MODEL ATTENTION INTEREST DESIRE ACTION The Black Box Model Black box model is also called as stimulus response model. Diamond is therefore. as the price increases. people cannot reduce the consumption. The model says.The buying behaviour. Cognitive stage deals with creation of knowledge or awareness in the mind of the consumer. Like elasticity model. AIDA model stands for attention. The model highlight the in puts stimulus like a promotional advertisement and resulted out put. one of the most popular response hierarchy models is the AIDA model. demand will fall by a larger margin. namely cognitive. will depend on the nature of the commodity. which was purely economic this model is purely psychological. Response hierarchy model. motivation and attitude and learning process as the factors standing in between input stimulus out put behaviour . affective and behavioral. other things remain constant ( ceterisparibus ). if price of petrol increases.) Response Hierarchy Model The models attempt to predict the sequence of mental stage that the consumer passes through on the way to purchase. demand of the commodity will go down. and in general decrease in quantity is much less than the increase in price. By how much it will go down. Consumers mind and thought processing is treated like a “black box” which cannot be open to find out how it is working. Even if the price goes up slightly. later on market researcher have develop the model into complex multivariable model. interest. while a commodity like petrol will not be very cheap. As mentioned . the purchase behaviour as shown in below:Black box model although does not go to describe as how purchase behaviour is formed. For example in case of diamond which is a non essential luxury commodity. more precisely. depicting the sequence of mental stage that the consumer passes through before the action of buying. desire and action. All such commodity are call price inelastic (this sets a relation in between the change in consumer income and change in the quantity demanded.This is a pure economic. There are three mental stages. micro economic model. but mention personality. known as highly price elastic. The attitude formation finally bring us to the behaviour formation . but life comes to a stand still with out it. The next stage is concerned with developing an interest in the mind of consumer which will result in developing an attitude or change in attitude towards the specific product.
As a result demand for LPG will come down. . At other times the rational behaviour becomes prominent. THE BLACK BOX MODEL IN PUT STIMULAI PRODUCT PP PRICE PROMOTIOM PLACE THE IMPREGNABLE BLACK BOX PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR PRODUCTCHOI CE. The customer want to posses a standard charted gold card. influenced by the external environment like economic. he will seek information regarding the facility of that card. If there is a persistent increase in LPG and kerosene prices. price of certain loyalty. Consumer is taken as a problem solver. the interest charged and will also effected by the promotional ad of standard charted gold card. or has a strong preference for a particular product. Some of the well known multivariable models are:(1) THE HOWARD—SHETH MODEL The model explains the buyer decision process using six sets of variables as can be seen below:• IN-PUT VARIABLES: These include information in puts about the alternative services or products available including rational and emotional elements. BRAND CHOICE BRAND LOYALTY Many times. like solar cooker or electric ovens. which is happening in a phased manner due to liberalization process. Multivariable Models of Consumer More comprehensive and relevant models formalizing the multiple influences on the purchase decision are multivariable models. (a learning experience). consumer will find other means of cooking. Buying for a CRY(child relief and you) card as it has a social benefit (an attitude formation). cultural and psychological.earlier monadic theories fail to explain the complex multifaceted buying behaviour as a consumer is a mixture of rational (highlighted by economic price elasticity model) and emotional and cognitive (highlighted by the psychological models) buyer. social. the problem is “to buy or not to buy” the consumer receives information from various sources which is processed in the central processing unit (the mind). For ex.
not to purchase or post dated purchase. Consumer may apply some judge mental criteria to evaluate the alternatives. inhibiting the actual or potential purchaser behaviour. these bear a positive impact on his decision on owning the card. motivation and the past relevant experience (the learning process). • PROCESSING DETERMINANTS--. He will seek information actively. which consumer seeks in relation to the purchase of goods and services. Models bring out the buying process is the product of the objectives (rational) as well as subjective (emotional) element. • PERCEPTUAL REACTION: Information’s from inputs are not accepted at their face values by the consumer but are proposed in the mind of the consumer and than interpreted. While buying the standard charted gold card. family and other such factors.These are the factor effecting as to how the gathered information is evaluated. Along with this.The outcome of the process of interacting elements may result in the purchase decision. Try to assimilate as far as possible and filter all the information’s he thinks important. the model also highlights the need to clearly understand the motivational force which guides the purchase behaviour. For processing the gold card. Behavioral determinants do not play an overt role never the less play a significant role in buying decisions. RATE OF INTERESTCHARGED INCOME OF THE PERSON RELATIVE PRICE OF OTHER EQUIVALENT CREDIT CARDS ANY FORMALITIES THAT HAS TO BE FULL-FILLED FOR (Ex) ONE HAS TO SUBMIT HIS PERMANENT ACCOUNT NUMBER. He will go out of the way to get information. OUT PUT VARIABLES--.• BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS: These variable are the pre-existing element in consumers mind and existing predisposition of the consumer influenced by his culture. Howard sheath model has a number of distinct futures like – it highlights the role of consumer satisfaction. If the potential buyer consider processing the a credit card as a status symbol. A person who is serious about the possessing a gold card will compare the advantage and disadvantage with other similar credit card. This “SUBJECTIVITY” element is crucial in the whole process. As not so interested person may also receive the sensitive information and hence wont filter much of it for processing purpose. . Result of the market and the marketing research can be useful to identify and assess the subjectivity element in the consumer buying process. • IN HIBITORS: These are the external constraints. or he is a frequent buyer of expensive items. factor effecting are. the inhibitors can be . For Ex. Learning process will include experience about the product and also the post purchase service. HIS INCIME STATEMENTS ETC.
Like cost benefit analysis. which in turn. personal attitudes. as a decision process comprising of five major activities over the period of time These are:(a) (b) (c) (d) Need recognition. it is extremely difficult to understand. The influencing variables on these activities are: stimulus in puts like information for mass media. how the buyer thinks ----media selection process. etc. i. Purchase. Next variable is decision making process. culture.brand comprehension. family.e. This stage involves comparing brands. This involves search process. and purchase process. Information processing involves the active memory where information is stored and from where information can be retrieved. (3) THE ENGEL. KOLLAT AND BLACKWELL. This stimulates the next stage. lends to change in attitudes and intensions to purchase. Search for information. This variable includes all exogenous variables. each way is evaluated.e. “memory search” and “external search” the search process identifies various ways in which the problem can be solved. evaluation process. and “structural” variables i. Alternatives evaluation. given by Engel. Blackwell and Miniard the model shown below:the basis of the model takes the simple process of consumer behaviour. more so because variables are divided into “contents variables”. namely. (e) Outcomes. but has undergone several revisions. BLACKWELL AND MINIARD MODEL THE MODEL WAS ORIGANALLY DEVELOPED IN 1968 BY ENGEL. This stages lends to purchase stage. There may be a change in belief regarding the brands. in terms of greater predictability of the consumer buying decision.(2) THE HOWARD & OSTLUND MODEL Howard and Ostlund model is an improvement on the Howard Sheth model. search for information. Fourth variable influencing the five activities is the environmental influence. Although the model is more comprehensive. of the consumer The starting point of the process is the consumer perception of the want which has to be satisfied. In 1990. physical situation. which deals with what the buyers think--. social class. and at the end of the evaluation stage. the model is more complex then the Howard Sheth model as can be seen. crucial for the consumers buying process. the most recent version has come out. However. etc. personal contacts and general market sources.customer search internally. This can further divide in to two stage. perceptual bias etc. like income. purchase of the .
the buyer goes back to some earlier activity. If the purchased product result in dissatisfaction. They hold up their purchase till they get favorable information from the early adaptors. but is highly complex as it brings in the complex concept of consumers learning an attitude formation as a integral parts of model building. There is a distinction between what is actual in formation and how people passed through perception corridor. Like Howard s model. (4) THE NICOSIA MODEL FRANCESCO Nicosia gave a consumer behaviour model based on the techniques of the computer flow charting with feed back loops. As shown below. There are five categories of consumer involved in this whole process of diffusion of innovation. In fact. services or ideas ahead of rest of the masses or gentry. While the weakness of the model is in describing the role of certain influencing variables. who makes careful assessment of potential risk before trying or using the new product.They are opinion leaders with in the particular industry or social groups. (5) THE PRODUCT ADOPTION MODEL Given the fact that much of marketing communication activities are related to the launching of new product. A marketer should try to build a favorable attitude in consumer. but.They are venturesome individuals who are willing to try new ideas and consume new products. For example the role of environmental factor is not clearly mentioned as how it effect the buying process. channels of communications channels also subject to perceptual judgement.These people try the innovated products. Developing a consumer behaviour model especially for finding how consumer “adopt” the product is highly beneficial for the marketer. Andresen believed that the model will be useful “as a detailed organizing concept for marketing decision makers who must take customers decision explicitly in to account when employing either or both of these subjects” Attitude formation and change are central concept of this model. Andresen s model is comprehensive. this model is also comprehensive and the greatest strength is the flexibility of the model. (1) INNOVATORS --.most favorably evaluated brand. Sometimes. ROGER suggested that diffusion of innovated product follows a “NORMAL CURVE” while it permeates through the classes of consumer. To make the consumer accept a particular product . the models is rather vague. the product is so new that at time there are certain defects it is less then perfect. . (3) EARLY MAJORITY--. the search behaviour is bought back (negative outcomes of the purchase activity) or else the purchase behaviour is repeated as and when need arises. (2) EARLY ADOPTERS--. When dissatisfaction arises from one activity. These peoples are willing to try new ideas ahead of others. Is any new product or service that is coming to the market . ROGER defines the “DIFFUSION” as the process by which an “INNOVATION” is communicated over tine among the individuals with in society who constitute the target market.
the house wife want to buy a particular brand of washing machine. DECIDERS. she will with hold the information about other brand and emphasis the information about the favored brand . husband is getting watch of his wife’s choice. The Models of Family Decision Making Certain products and services like washing machine. These roles are as follows:1.The family members who provide information. in the other words influencing the decision. mother and children decide which curtain will better for the children bed room. BUYERS. The child must be the decider of which drinking chocolate he want to consume but mother is the person who is buying it. oil. consumer non-durables like soft-drinks etc. buying a house. 5. etc. GATE KEEPERS. The speed is much higher in case of easily understood consumer products. and guide others. like kitchenware. Role played by the different family members will be different products. 3.They are risk averse and unadventurous. bought from the market. PREPARERS. The house wife may prepare the lunch by using vegetables. the wife visited the newly opened super market and tells her husband to visit it with the family over the weekend. The speed by which the new product gains acceptance and it is adopted by all types of consumers varies from product to product. spice. 2. Husband and wife jointly decide the place to be visited during the summer vocation.The family members who have powers (single or jointly) to decide the buying of the product or services. Wife alone decide the powder which she is going to purchase. They all decider with in the family. an automobile. She is decider and buyer both but not the user. They take the new product when it is well listed in the market. For Ex. Children may come back from school and tell about lovely visiting place. 4.The family members who transform or prepare the product in to the form in which it is consumed.They buy the new product when the new product no more remains new.(4) LATE MAJORITY--. their classmates have visited. He is only a buyer while his wife is the decider . INFLUENCER. she decide to buy one. while in case of technically complex products the speed is much lower. influencing the buying process of the washing machine. These interactions are determined by the different consumption related “ROLES” played by the family.The family member or members who actually buy the product or services. After going through various brand. planning for a holiday are all family decision. Members of the family interact with each other in the process of buying decision.The family members who control the flow of information and guidance to buy . Mother goes to buy chocolate drinks for her children. (5) LAGGARDS --.
.an user. in case of product or services which is jointly used by every one . Model consumer behaviour work as a guideline in marketing problem and its importance cannot be ruled out. like a planned vocation. furniture watching a movie are all jointly family based decision. Conclusion A model represents theoretical construction of phenomenon which is thought to be interrelated and significant in influencing the outcomes of a specific problem.
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