QS, MEASUREMENT, DOCUMENTATION, SMM

Prepared by: Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti School of Quantity Surveying & Construction Management

Contents: 
    

General QS services Measurement process Attributes of QS Traditional preparation of BQ Modern preparation of BQ Standard Methods of Measurement

QS Services
In general;
QS offers its clients (developer/owner, consultant, contractor or sub contractor) a wide range of professional services in the areas of project/ construction management, quantity surveying, cost/ contract /claim/ planning solutions according to their requirements in a most cost effective and efficient manner. QS is managed by a group of highly qualified and experienced professionals providing Project management, Construction Cost Consultancy, Estimation, Quantity Take-off, Construction Cost Databases, Specification and Construction Material Databases etc.

The Measurement Process / Quantity Take-off    

The main purpose measurement process is to produce quantity for the measured works to prepare for Bills of Quantities. A Bill of Quantities is prepared for tendering purposes. Using BQ, contractor is able to price the work with a minimum effort. The quantification of the work is done either by the main contractor, subcontractor, or package contractor.

.Attributes of a Quantity Surveyor Ability to describe clearly. fully and precisely the requirements of the designers and arrange the Bills of Quantities. easily and accurately arrive at the estimated cost of the work. ?????? The contractor·s estimator can quickly.

The surveyor must be: ‡ careful and accurate in making calculations ‡having systematic and orderly mind ‡be able to visualize the drawings and details . fully and precisely the requirements of the designers and arrange the Bills of Quantities.Attributes of a Quantity Surveyor How to achieve this ? Ability to describe clearly.

Divisions of bill preparation  Traditionally. (billing). o This involves the calculation of volumes. The preparation of the bill. the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages: 1. o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet (abstracting) to collect similar items together and present them in recognized bill order. . o From this abstract. areas. The measurement of the dimensions and the compilation of the descriptions from the drawings and specification. dimensions). This process commonly known as taking-off . etc (squaring the dimensions). the draft bill was written (billing). taking2.

 WinQs  CatoPro  MasterBill  QS Elite  Snape Vector. and the lengthy collating and the bill preparation processes is carried out automatically.Development of bill preparation The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for direct input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use of standard libraries of descriptions. etc .

TOPIC: Measurement & Bills of Quantity Prepared by: Ms Noorhidayah Sunarti 012-6254776 daia0310@yahoo.com .

QS of main contractor or subcontractor or Estimator. contractor is able to price the work with a minimum effort. . A Bill of Quantities is prepared for tendering purposes (selection process to contract an eligible contractor for the project). The quantification of the work / measurement / taking-off is done either by the QS consultant (Client).   Using BQ.The Measurement Process / Quantity Take-off   The main purpose measurement process is to produce quantity for the measured works to prepare for Bills of Quantities.

 The measurement is based on the principles and rules of measurement set up in manual of STANDARD METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR BUILDING WORKS.The Measurement of Quantities for Building Works  Main objective:  To produce the document for the list of quantities (bills of quantity).  The quantities needed to ensure the exact amount of trade works in completing the building / project. . The quantities meaning the estimated amount of building works / trade works for specific building elements.

Contains of rules and principles of measurement.Standard Methods of Measurement (SMM) Function: To standardize the method of preparing the measurement for building works and civil engineering works. (SMM2) ² Institution of Surveyors Malaysia (ISM) (adapted from SMM by RICS(UK) Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for civil engineering works (CESMM) ² CIDB (adapted from CESMM by ICE / FCEC(UK) . Malaysian Standard Methods of Measurement for Building works.

SMM2 is a document that provides not only a uniform basis for measuring building work but also embodies the essentials of good practice. a set of rules the quality of BQ can vary widely. . Without using it.Standard Methods of Measurement for Building Works (SMM)    Set out rules for the measurement and description of building works.

building work or work which is seldom encountered in civil engineering contracts.Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for Civil Engineering Works (CESMM)  To be used in conjunction with the Conditions Of Contract for Civil Engineering Works.   . If any such work to be included in the contract. Does not deal with the preparation of BQ for mechanical & electrical engineering work. such work shall be measured in accordance with their respective SMM and shall be stated in the Preambles to the BQ.

The contractor will priced /estimate all the works associated in completing the buildings during preconstruction stage.g. etc. building works. infrastructure works. structural works. This document were itemized all the quantities for each categories of works applied in constructing the buildings.   . civil. mechanical. E. electrical works.The Bills of Quantities  The Bills of quantity prepared by Quantity Surveyor based on measurement from the construction drawings / building plans and specification prepared by the designers/ engineers.

temporary offices. storage. etc. shelter / hostel for workers    . building services works. The materials used ² standard / quality The standard workmanship /construction methods.g. water & sewerage systems.The Bills of Quantities  BQ is part of legal tender / contract document which will be used to bind the agreement between the client and the contractor in terms of:  Detailed of construction works to be done on-site ² building works. infrastructure works. The needs / requirements of the builders on-site in implementing the jobs on²site ² e.

   Avoids the need of for all of the tendering contractors to measure the quantities of work themselves before preparing an estimate. . wasteful duplication of efforts and an increase in Contractor·s overhead). (if yes.Advantages of using BQ According to Seeley (1997). BQ prepared in accordance to SMM ensure that an adequate description of work in a recognized format is given to all tendering Contractors and all tender on the same basis. The detailed breakdown of the contract sum (in BQ format) permits proper financial management of the contract.

increase risk in estimating and consequently more disputes.Disadvantages of using BQ  The absence of BQ leads to greater variability. .

water and sewerage system and install the building serviceselectrical. etc. mechanical. building-  Contractor: Contractor a person / company who has expertise & experience to build building / infrastructure works. funder. owner.The binding parties of a Contract  Client: Client has intention to build developer. .

Basic contents of typical contract documents       Conditions of contract Contract drawings Specification Preambles Bills of quantities Schedule of rates .

Construction stage Provides basis for valuation of variation work and adjustments for the final account. it provides a good basis for cost analysis which subsequently will be used in future contract especially for cost planning works.Purpose / Objectives / Roles Project stages PRECONTRACT (before official contract signed between client ² contractor) POSTCONTRACT (contract signed and the selected contractor started their works till completion stage) Tendering stage Explanation To enable the contractor to tender to a project & price the described works. To control in ordering materials and assessing the labour requirement for the contract. (cost data) Project completed . After being priced. Provides basis for valuation of monthly progress payment referring to the working progress on site.

yVirtual completion of the design proceeds the signing of the contract.Types of Bill of Quantity Types of Bill similarities differences yBoth the quantities and unit rates form part of the contract y A detail breakdown of all the quantities is shown in the BQ yThe empty bill is supplied to the contractors to tender / price the described works/ project. yThe contractors prepare their own BQ. yOnly unit rates form part of the contract. yNo empty bill is supplied to the contractors.000) Fixed price/ lump sum yThe architects and engineers prepare detail construction drawings. yQS measures the quantities in detail based on the construction drawing yThe QS prepare BQ based on the measurement. Approximate Drawings and specification . ySuitable for small project (less than RM500. yThe empty bill is supplied to the contractors to tender / price the described works/ project. yThe QS prepares BQ but subjected to later adjustment. yThe signing of the contract and beginning of the project may proceed before the whole design is complete. yThe contractors are supplied with drawings with full specifications.

Basic contents of Bills of Quantities      Preliminaries Specifications of materials and workmanship Preambles (only in Bill of Approx Qtty) Measured works bill Schedules of rates (only in Bill of Approx Qtty) .

Preliminaries It must:  Contain a definition of the scope of works and details of the proposed form of contract / project. .  Contain list of drawings and any special instructions to the contractor ² highlighting the method of pricing and presenting tenders and other site information.  Contain a detailed description of the administrative mechanism / temporary facilities to implement the contract / project.

. It must convey the architect and engineer·s requirements.Specification   A concise description of materials and workmanship. standard or quality of workmanship.

mechanical and electrical works presented in accordance with SMM.C) and Provisional sum (Prov.used for works which cannot be fully detailed or for costs which are unknown at the time bills are prepared. sum) P. . This enables the contractors· estimator / QS to price individual item of work. sum ² used for works to be carried out by nominated sub-contractors. Sum .C.Measured works    Includes detailed descriptions of building. This section also includes Prime cost sum (P. Prov. statutory authorities or for goods to be supplied by nominated suppliers.

The preambles do not define the scope of works.Preambles  Define the rules governing the method of measurement of the works and contain instruction as to what is to be included within unit rates and/or lump sum prices.  .

Schedule of Rates  Consists of unit of works that are grouped according to trade and work content and are presented in tubular form. The schedule of rates comprises a number of schedules that when combined. Each table is referred as ¶schedule·. cover all items of work likely to be encountered in the contract.   .

dimensions). . o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet (abstracting) to collect similar items together and present them in recognized bill order. (billing). etc (squaring the dimensions). This process commonly known as taking-off . the draft bill was written (billing). taking2. areas.Divisions of bill preparation  Traditionally. the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages: 1. The measurement of the dimensions and the compilation of the descriptions from the drawings and specification. o This involves the calculation of volumes. o From this abstract. The preparation of the bill.

item of the dimensions to obtain the exact quantities for each measured item in the dimension sheet. volume. Prepare query list (if necessary) Measuring from drawings and entering the dimensions on to specially ruled dimension paper Working up / squaring Calculating and totaling the area. numbers. Billing .Traditional Techniques of BQ preparation Process Description of works Measuring / taking-off QS will analyze the drawings / plan received from engineers· / architect. length. Transfer to abstract sheet Collecting the totals form dimension paper on to an abstract to produce a final total for each individual description. Reproducing the items from the abstract on to bill paper in draft form ready for typing.

0 5.00 RM23.00 RM180.00 115 M2 RM18.00 .040.00 ITEM RM1.070.0 3. Drive 125mm x 125mm timber piles to required depth 100mm thick Grade 15 lean concrete.0 4.00 amount RM32.0 Supply to site 125mm x 125mm pressure treated timber piles of 6m lengths with provisions of galvanized mild steel anti split rail at both ends.00 RM1.440.00 8 M3 RM180.Preparation of billing item description Qty 320 unit NR rate RM100.00 1.00 RM2.920 M RM12.000.800.0 1. Grade 35 concrete at brick retaining wall Bringing to and removing from site all plant required for this section of the work 2.

 WinQs  CatoPro  MasterBill  QS Elite  Snape Vector. etc .Development of bill preparation The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for direct input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use of standard libraries of descriptions. and the lengthy collating and the bill preparation processes is carried out automatically.

com .SETTING DOWN DIMENSION Prepared by: Ms Noorhidayah Sunarti 012-6254776 daia0310@yahoo.

 Column 3 = squaring column (in which are set out the calculated volumes. areas. etc)  Column 4 = description column (in which is written the description of the work to which the dimensions apply.  Column 1 = timesing / dotting on column (where multiplication and addition of the dimensions can be recorded)  Column 2 = dimension column (in which the measurements are set down as taken from drawings and normally expressed in two decimal point.  Column 5 = Waste (in which preliminary calculations / sketches are made/ shown) 1 2 3 4 5 .Dimension Paper  Dimension are taken / measure from the drawings by the taker-off.

Units of Measurement      Cubic measurement = m3 Square or superficial measurement = m2 Linear measurement = m Enumerated items ² Nr/ Nos. Items .

 It is important that the insertion of the horizontal lines which determines whether the dimension is intended as linear. superficial. or cubic measurement. .Expressions of Measurement / Rules in setting down the dimension  The dimension are normally expressed to two decimal points.

Rules in setting down the dimension: Timesing .

Rules in setting down the dimension: Dotting-on .

. ‡It is best to nil entirely and write out again the dimensions.Rules in setting down the dimension: Alterations in dimensions Reminder: ‡Deletions with correcting fluid are not encourage.

. deductions shall be in similar form of dimension.Rules in setting down the dimension: Anding-on Note: Anding-on .

Rules in setting down the dimension: Deductions   Where a deduction is to be made. the description is preceded by Deduct which is often abbreviated to Ddt. An example as follows: .

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