ARA GRAPH WRITING

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PARAGRAPH WRITING
PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION What is a paragraph?
1. A paragraph is a group of related sentences that develop one main idea. 2. It is made up of three kinds of sentences that develop the writer’s main idea, opinion, or feeling
about a subject. These sentences are: a. Topic sentence b. Supporting sentences c. Concluding sentence Topic Sentence ...................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... Supporting sentences.........................................................................................................................

Supporting sentences......................................................................................................................... Supporting sentences.........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... Concluding sentences........................................................................................................................

3. The number of sentences is unimportant in a paragraph; however, the paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly. 4. A paragraph may also be one part of a longer piece of writing such as a chapter of a book or an essay. A.. TOPIC SENTENCE

main idea

e sent

nce ence

e sent

nce

ence sent A topic sentence has several important functions:

sent

A.

A topic sentence should always be a complete sentence. The following are not complete sentences.

Driving on freeways. The importance of money. How to register for college classes.

B. C.

A topic sentence supports the idea of the paragraph subject.

There are several advantages to growing up in a small town. Idea of the paragraph subject
It directs the order of the sentences and it briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss

Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons. the paragraph is going to discuss

D.

It is a complete sentence and has three parts:

1. a subject

2

2. a verb 3. a controlling idea

1-2: Subject - Verb
Samples: a. Telephones / intrude into / the privacy of our daily lives. Subject / verb / controlling idea b. Most adults / find / learning a foreign language difficult. Subject / verb / controlling idea c. My roommate, John, / helps / me to speak English correctly. Subject / verb / controlling idea NOTE: The topic sentence is to the paragraph what the thesis statement is to the essay.

3. Controlling Idea:
The controlling idea of a topic sentence is a word or phrase that controls the information in the rest of the paragraph. Usually, the topic comes first and the controlling idea comes second in the topic sentence. However, the controlling idea may come first. a. Violence in Turkey society has several causes. Topic controlling idea b. There are several causes of violence in Turkish society. controlling idea Topic c. A good architect is both an artist and a mathematician. Topic Controlling idea d. Artistic talent and mathematical ability are two qualities of a good architect. Controlling idea Topic

A sample Paragraph:
Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. Children usually enjoy playing games Topic Controlling idea

instead of studying. Therefore, parents should take the responsibility to monitor their studying. They should also remind their children to do their homework at home after school. Moreover, parents can encourage them to study by buying story books with pictures, or they can buy text books or tapes that help children learn to spell or read. The best way to encourage children to study efficiently is to reward them when they get an “A”. As a child, I experienced this. My parents gave me a gift when I got ‘A’ in my math lesson. I was very excited. As result, if parents really want their children to succeed in school, they need to pay attention to their children’s studies and encourage them.

In the paragraph above, the topic sentence is the following: Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. The topic of the sentence is how parents can help children succeed in school; the controlling idea is encouraging. The reader might ask the following questions and expect the paragraph to answer them: How can parents encourage their children? What specific things should parents do to encourage their children? How will this encouragement lead to success? The topic sentence gives the writer’s attitude, opinion or idea about the topic. In the topic sentence, the writer makes a judgment. PRACTICE: Choose the best topic sentence. a. Too general: My neighborhood is a nice place to live. A good topic sentence: My neighborhood is fascinating because people from many countries live in it. b. Too general: Sports are exciting. Still too general: Watching a soccer game keeps me involved. Much better: Watching 2002 the Istanbul derby between Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray kept me on the edge of the chair. 1. Topic: “My room” a. ……… My room is a perfect place for one person to live.

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Murat Samples: 1. but most American children do not. You may narrow down the subject of college to the more specific subject of her roommate. mathematics. My family's situation is not unique. and the majority of elementary school teachers are women.? How………. elementary school classes look the same everywhere: There are about twenty to twenty-two pupils per class. For example. there are many specific things about university. It should not be too general. 2. The doctors now say that he only has a few weeks to live. teenagers. and art. Topic: a. students.my roommates . music. such as classes. In addition. Contract: hastalık kapmak terminal: fatal. At least one out of every three nuclear families will have a member who will die of cancer before the age of fifty. Murat. that you can discuss..) 1. ……… psychology.? What………? Which…….. The topic sentence can come at the beginning or at the end of a paragraph. The topic sentence is most general statement and the main idea of the paragraph." Notice that this sentence clearly identifies that the key topic of the paragraph is violence in television cartoons. 4 . Topic Sentence: "Many television cartoons contain an unhealthy amount of violence. you must narrow down it down to a limited topic that can be discussed in one paragraph. vacations. Millions of Americans are going through a similar experience. From these statistics and from personal experience it is obvious that no one is unaffected by cancer. sports. (As a beginning writer.? F.. such as university. b. To begin with. and how/why this violence is unhealthy for viewers. you should write your topic sentence as the first sentence of your paragraph: It will tell the reader what you are going to say and you can look back at the topic sentence often as you write the supporting sentences. the subjects which are taught at the elementary level are basically the same everywhere: reading and writing. or nuclear power. Also. and the classes are coeducational *. and children. It also indicates that the remainder of the paragraph will discuss how much violence cartoons typically contain. ……… “Watching a Movie” The most important influence of watching a movie is that it destroys human’s Watching movie influence adults. NOTE: Ask yourself questions as you narrow down/restrict the ideas: Why……….b. and the campus. The subject is "Cancer affects everybody": CANCER AFFECTS EVERYBODY My grandfather contracted* lung cancer a few months ago. UNIVERSITY-F. introductions to the sciences. Here is an example of a paragraph with a topic sentence stated at the beginning. Coeducational: attended by members of both sexes. The subject is " The educational systems of Europe and the United States ": THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES The educational systems of Europe and the United States are similar in a number of ways. The only major difference in the elementary curriculum* is that most Europeans study a foreign language in elementary school. teachers.? When………? Where……. ………. too vague or too specific. 2. At least three members of every extended family will contract terminal* disease before the age of sixty. Here is an example of a paragraph with the topic sentence found at the end. there is one teacher for all subjects for each grade (except in Scandinavia).. You should narrow down your subject.Many people live in single rooms.. When you start to write about a very general topic.University-dormitory living-roommates. ölümcül G.

my best/worst class …… ……………. Example: Teenagers and drugs Topic sentence: Drug addiction has caused a huge increase in crimes of violence which is committed/done by teenagers.. Try to add at least three or four ideas to each group..……………………………………..rock singer – superstar . FRIENDS ..…………………………………. Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. COMPUTERS Computers are unnecessary and make our life complicated. Television advertising is far more effective than advertising in magazines or newspapers. Computers are a necessary part of modern life.…………….…………… 6." This topic sentence indicates that the remainder of the paragraph will cover the trend in the world toward eating organic foods.my best friend……………………………………………………………. Topic Sentence: "An increasing number of people in the world are enjoying the benefits of organically grown fruits and vegetables.individual sports ……………………………………………………………………. MUSIC Playing a musical instrument helps children to develop in discipline and self confidence...” or “This paragraph is about. The reader can also expect learning more in this paragraph about the specific benefits of organic foods..……………………… 2. ENTERTAINMENT-singers . Topic Topic Topic Controlling idea Controlling idea Controlling idea Computers save us time and make our lives easier.Madonna 1.2.………… 3. Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.…………………………………………. MUSIC………………………………. Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE b: Write specific topic sentences for possible paragraphs on the following topics.….……………….…………………………………….... Don’t begin paragraphs with “ I’m going to write about. Television has enormous influence on politics.……………………………………. CLASSES .” PRACTICE a.. 4. Music can teach children to understand their own culture as well as other culture. VACATIONS………………………………. 5... Read the following topic sentences and then write your own topic sentence. G. DIVORCE – children ………………………………. 1. TELEVISION Television gives free and interesting entertainment to people of all ages. SPORTS . PRACTICE: Narrowing Subjects from General to Specific Fill in the space in each funnel until you arrive at a specific subject. 5 . Be sure to provide both the subject and the key word(s).…………….

Topic: A. throughout the rest of my childhood. Benefits of watching TV Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 16. Being a famous person Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 12. Using Internet ____________________________________________________________________________________________.1. Getting married Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Credit cards Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 14. there are many women working outside their homes and are independent. Finally. Using mobile phones Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. all of the latest information is available to you. 2. e-mail is popular because it is faster than sending a letter and cheaper than a telephone conversation. women think that life is always difficult unless they have their own economics independence. Topic: My Father’s Death ____________________________________________________________________________________________. In addition. at any hour of the day or night. on-line shopping makes it possible to search through catalogues to find exactly what you want at the best price. For the firs few months. By joining a newsgroup or chat group. think about stand: resist. Learning a foreign language Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 10. I was afraid of losing someone else whom I loved. people are more aggressive towards each other. Owning a car Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE 1: 1. the loss of my father caused me to develop a greater sense of responsibility. I felt great sadness and loneliness. A favorite teacher Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. This leads some conflicts in family life. They want to earn money and spend it as they wish. Firstly. some regard divorce as the best way to get this independence. First of all. so you can save both time and money. argument regard: consider. Shopping by TV. I was nervous until she returned. Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Nowadays. Conflict: struggle. Attending summer courses. you can share your hobbies and special interests. Writing Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. They hope to be free and stand without one’s help. my loneliness was so great that I often dreamed that my father would miraculously return. benefits of being young Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 15. Write a topic sentence for the following paragraphs. and perhaps make friends all over the world. Movie Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. In addition. Due to difficult life conditions. For example. Being wealthy Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 11. As a result. Television Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Topic: Divorce ____________________________________________________________________________________________. position 3. Being economically independent is the desire of many women. Whenever my mother was away from home. Finally. technology Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 13. I believed 6 . Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Couples do not tolerate a few mistakes. in your home. Also.

In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow. (3) Coherence in writing means that all the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence. Major connectors help organize the main parts of your paragraph. Scientists are working to develop space technology to use in different areas. We can call these words major connectors. consider the words. therefore. Tourism employs twenty times as many people as the car industry. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. Teenagers tent to be curious about new things. the third. once they started to smoke their first cigarette. They smoke for the sake of knowing how it feels. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. We need tourists’ money in fact they provide more jobs for all of us. so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away. Using such major connectors is an important way of providing coherence in a paragraph. UNITY and COHERENCE in WRITING: A good paragraph and essay has the elements of unity and coherence COHERENCE Coherence means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because (1) your supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and (2) your ideas are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals. sake: cause) 5. Meteorological satellites also provide advance information. Another way of saying this is that this paragraph has three main points which are indicated by the major connectors. which is 175 feet wide. Topic: Space Technology ____________________________________________________________________________________________. which is unusual because it is very steep. (2) a part about Wheaton Hill. Second. (mere: only. 7 . On either side of this river. This paragraph has three main parts: (1) a part about the Wheaton River. Nearly three million people depend. Do you see how they help guide the reader? For example. and (3) a part about the Big Old Tree. Topic: Teenagers Smoking ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Furthermore. left me lonely. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. upon tourism for their jobs. Firstly. First. and then become accustomed to it eventually! Just like the addiction of taking drugs. and responsible – a young child with adult feelings.that with my father gone I was responsible for helping my mother with her chores. Even though it is steep. Willow: söğüt ağacı gracefully: charmingly. First. Consider the following paragraph: My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. büyülüyeci Analyzing the paragraph: Major Connectors Look at the words in bold font. 7. telecommunication satellites have greatly improved global communications. Unfortunately. directly or indirectly. Topic: Tourism ____________________________________________________________________________________________. With coherence. My father’s death. frightened. it is noted for the Wheaton River. they would have the second. 4. are many willow* trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind. some special satellites register the earth’s resources and military information. on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill. the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express. and The third amazing feature. and earns four as much money as agriculture. Second. climbing this hill is not dangerous. There are no trees around this hill. because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs. which is very wide and beautiful.

Several weeks later. the detail sentences. For example." That is. but the sentence. so we can say that the paragraph somewhat lacks unity. had goals of testing spacecraft and space flight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit. on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill. all the sentences -." Look at the following paragraph. Finally. First. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. onions. You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse. Does it have perfect unity? Try to find the sentence that is off-topic: Each of the Russian carried out space exploration projects had specific major goals. the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. If your paragraph contains a sentence or some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic." or that the sentence is "off-topic. Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. The top bun. then we say that the paragraph "lacks unity. in a way. the topic sentence and concluding sentence "hold" the supporting sentences in the paragraph.are all telling the reader about ONE main topic. Consider a hamburger that you can buy at a fast-food restaurant. The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. Both buns "hold" the meat.the topic.S. which is very wide and beautiful. Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. and (sometimes) the concluding sentence -. with three cosmonauts. is like a TOPIC SENTENCE. we should omit this sentence. This paragraph is generally good. meat. cheese. the Soyuz project. does not have anything to do with the major goals of the various Russian space projects. lettuce. it is noted for the Wheaton River. even though it is historically accurate. Several weeks later. which is unusual because it is very steep. it is an "off-topic" sentence. and other elements in the middle of the hamburger. This is the concluding sentence. That is. and the bottom bun is like the CONCLUDING SENTENCE. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk. Similarly. A hamburger has a top bun (a kind of bread). THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. Let's see how a concluding sentence (in bold font) might look in our sample paragraph about Wheaton: My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. You can understand concluding sentences with this example. For another example. connected to it by a tether. In order to improve the paragraph. which is similar to the paragraph that we have studied above. That is. 8 .UNITY Unity is a very important characteristic of good paragraph writing. he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft. astronaut Ed White. supporting sentences. and a bottom bun. Unity means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. and so on.S. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. Note how the top bun and the bottom bun are very similar. astronaut Ed White. the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. Also.

9 . Six Prewriting Steps: 1. 4. Think carefully about what you are going to write. especially if the paragraph is very short. it is a good idea to use a concluding sentence. Open your notebook. Giving your practice paragraphs titles. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use. summarizes the information in the paragraph. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay. ask yourself which order to put them in the paragraph. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. may help you to organize and limit your thoughts. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your paragraph or essay. you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts you have written. if your paragraph is very long. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. 6. Choose the most important point you are going to present. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Write down your own ideas. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. 3. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make a topic sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic? 2. however. Write out your answers to the above questions. just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. For longer essays or reports. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. Notice also how the concluding sentence is similar to. the use of titles will become more necessary TIPS FOR WRITING A PARAGRAPH What is the prewriting stage? The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing. the topic sentence.Notice how the concluding sentence. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. though. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? 5. Not all academic paragraphs contain concluding sentences. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your paragraph. However. If you cannot decide which point is the most important. but not exactly the same as. PARAGRAPH TITLE Single paragraphs do not usually have titles.

Write the topic sentence. Show your work to your teacher. 2. Optional concluding sentence. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea. Check your grammar. EDITING PARAGRAPHS What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them. 2. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph. Check your spelling. and senses give details for and further explain the supporting ideas. See if your paragraph is interesting. 3. 5. 4. logically ordered and easy to follow. Five Writing Steps: 1. which leaves the reading with something to think about and may summarize the supporting ideas if the paragraph is long. 3. 5. 10 . CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PARAGRAPH • • • • Topic sentence. Compose your topic sentence. 3. which includes the topic and a controlling idea.6 supporting ideas that do a good job supporting your topic sentence. Think of a topic and a controlling idea that will narrow the topic enough to support it well in one paragraph. Three Publishing Steps: 1. which support the topic sentence Reasons. Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas. Make sure you have a closing sentence. 2. 7.6). Don't actually write sentences in the outline. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. Choose 2 . Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning. Supporting ideas (usually 3 . See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other. 4. Publishing Paragraphs What is the publishing stage? The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your paragraph to hand in. • Unity. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing. numbers. Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea. 4. Process of Writing a Paragraph: 1. Open your notebook and word processor. 3. Grammar and Spelling 1. Supporting idea 1. Topic sentence: A. o Coherenence. Make sure each sentence has a subject. Style and Organization 1. 5. supporting sentences. which means that all sentences in the paragraph directly support the topic sentence. tutor. 6. Read your essay again. except for the topic sentence. Write your paragraph in topic outline form as follows. or parents. 3. and closing sentence. names. Make a paper copy of your paragraph. which means that all the information of the paragraph is well-organized. 2. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence. examples.WRITING PARAGRAPHS What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. 2. Brainstorm supporting ideas.

In addition. Possibilities of part-time job in your major Concluding sentence: You should consider these points carefully so you can choose the most appropriate college or university for you. examples. 2. In order to get a good job. Moreover. 3. be able to pay tuition and living expenses 2. we wrote the paragraph using sentences and trying to make the paragraph coherent using different coherence strategies. each supporting idea should have about the same amount of reasons. Concluding sentence: 4. 3. Some institutions might be able to offer you scholarships if you cannot afford the fees. numbers. Think of a concluding sentence. Here is an example: We came up with a good topic sentence and supporting ideas: Topic sentence: Choosing a college or university can be difficult. 5. Supporting idea 2. and senses that further explain the idea. For each supporting idea. Qualified professors B. Good Location 1. Good Location. and senses. Put your supporting ideas in a logical order. and senses for each supporting idea. Use the coherence strategies to make your paragraph easy to follow. numbers. Good preparation for major We decided to order these supporting ideas according to importance as shown in the outline below. C. 6. The environment should be safe and quiet to facilitate studying. Possibility of scholarships C. the curriculum that is taught must be thorough and up-to-date. For balance. names. names. examples. B. Hard curriculum 2. You should consider all of these points carefully so you can choose the most appropriate college or university for you. CHOOSING A COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY Choosing a college or university can be difficult. names. Write your paragraph using sentences. 3. Affordable. there should be possibilities near the school for part-time or summer jobs in your major. Supporting idea 3. The most difficult part is finding a university that prepares you well for your future career. examples. Another difficulty in choosing a university or college is affordability. Topic sentence: Choosing a college or university can be difficult. Supporting ideas: 1. 3. Good preparation for your major 1. Affordable 1. think of reasons. 11 . You need to be able to pay the tuition fees and living expenses. so you can get some practical work experience. A good location is also very important when choosing a school. A. Finally.1. 1. 7. numbers. the professors must be highly qualified and respected in their fields. Study environment 2. 1. Now we put this information into outline form and added some reasons.

please write a well-organized paragraph. It will be something you can pass on to your children. and indoor gyms. 3. 3. 8. 5. It will give you more prestigious employment and greater job satisfaction 8.PRACTICE 2: By using information. It will give you the power to change the world. It will give you a better quality of life. 4. and unpredictable Basketball team has few members. Note: You don’t need to use all notes A. 2. 6. It makes you a major contributor to the greatest nation on earth. It provides you greater economic strength and security 7. It will give you more self-confidence 10. It will give you greater knowledge of the world events 9. 6. 2. It will give you more money and greater quality of lifer. 12 . Topic: The Value of a University Education Questioning whether you should go to university? Here are five ways that a college education will make you a better person: 1. Basketball is an excellent conditioning sport that can be enjoyed by both boys and girls alike. improves physical fitness. 7. Basketball is attractive. TOPIC: BASKETBALL 1. Basketball games can be played on school playgrounds. Basketball is a fast moving game that can be played on both indoor and outdoor courts. home driveways. Participation in athletic sports like basketball. 4. 5. It will likely make you more successful. exciting. Basketball is fast. coordination and self-discipline Basketball gives children valuable opportunities to learn about teamwork. you can become familiar with each player's personality. The Value of a University Education ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ B.

PARAGRAPH TOPICS 1. 10. 8. Being wealthy 12. Using mobile phones 4. Being a famous person 15. Tourism 11. Owning a car 1___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 . Jumping rope at home is another great way to prepare to play basketball. Custom union 3. Getting married 6. One major advantage about basketball is that the skills needed for the game can be practiced individually. 2. Learning a foreign language 9. Credit cards 17. Many families purchase portable basketball nets for home use. Attending summer courses. Benefits of watching TV 19. Using nuclear energy. Computers in the workplace 14. 10. 13. Technology 16. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE 3: Choose three of the following topics and write well organized paragraphs. Having a job while attending college 7.9. Boys and girls should attend separate schools. Shopping by TV. Being single 5. Benefits of being young 18.

where employees can do their work far faster that they could in the past. As a result. Endless hours in front of a screen can cause eyestrain and headaches. Advantages of Living in a Village 14 . many jobs have been lost because computers can do a lot to tasks more efficiently than humans. computers can actually cause health problems. In addition to this. ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES 1. To sum up. Advantages Advantages of Using Computers There are several advantages of using a computer . children can gain basic computer skills by the help of programs which help them to learn. What is more. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. draw. From a very young age. These are serious side effects. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. it is especially beneficial in the workplace. in today’s technological world. computers are useful for our fast-fast moving world of high technology. As a result. Disadvantages Disadvantages of Using Computers There are various negative aspects to using computers. This has led to high unemployment in many countries. paint. computers should be used carefully and they should not replace people. computers can be educational and fun. this knowledge can only help them in the future. and play. Primarily.____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ MORE PARAGRAPH SAMPLES Copy and write… Read and copy the following paragraphs exactly… A. Advantages 7. First of all.

one has a smaller number of friends. entertainment. is difficult to find. Disadvantages Disadvantages of Watching Television w Watching movie can destroy human’s psychology and imagination in some ways. and so on. In addition. the fact that there are fewer shops and services often means that there are fewer employment opportunities. Mostly. In conclusion. how much they cost. As we know. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. one may have to travel long distances to work elsewhere. In addition. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. they think about all this information about the Camry. you may want to be a monster or a murder. science fiction movies have full of imagination. They may say that the Camry runs as well as the Mercedes but the Camry’s price is much cheaper. a Toyota dealer wants to sell the Toyota Camry. A further advantage is that there is much less traffic. The dealer’s ads will show the new Camry over and over again and tell the consumer that the Camry has power windows. because of its some bad effects people should choose movies carefully and they should never forget that they are not just watching a movie ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 .There are many advantages to living in a village. They let consumers know what products look like. Firstly. and this can be extremely expensive. because there are fewer people. and as a result it is much safer place to bring up young children. As a result. particularly in the evening. For example. when you watch a horror movie your psychology is affected by this movie badly. Disadvantages 3. For example. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. and where they are available. Furthermore. six cylinders. Therefore. they think whatever they watched it could be in real life. First of all. When consumers see these ads. Then they can decide if it is the car they want. Disadvantages of Living in a Village There are certain drawbacks (disadvantage) to life outside the city. As a result. life in the country is much slower and people tend to be more open and friendly. When people watch this kind of movies. one is much closer to nature and can enjoy more peace and quiet. Another example would be science fiction movies. the ads may compare the Camry with the Mercedes. Advantages Advantages of TV Commercials Ads on television give consumers a lot of information. it can be seen that village life is suitable for retired and those who want to have more peace and less stress. The ads may also tell where to buy the Camry.

Moreover. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. tourism brings a lot of money into a country and it also creates a lot of employment for people of the area. most American movies. Also. Disadvantages Disadvantages of Watching Television w Watching movies especially American movies cause to change people’s life views and life styles for number of reasons. Almost in every American movie you can easily see a beautiful house which has a garden or it is constructed seashore. Advantages Advantages of Tourism There are several advantages to tourism.____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.. As a result. sometimes people’s language can suffer. if tourism is not controlled properly. people use movies in order to change history. like foreign language and math education programs. Also. Moreover. In addition. tourism often brings more air. As a result. how to fix things around the house and so on. it causes people’s eating habits. in many cases the natural beauty of a place can be spoilt. There are several programs for preschool children. Apart from this. Therefore. it can be bad for a country. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 . we should give enough importance to tourism. you see that people eat simple food. To begin with. In conclusion nowadays. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. if there are a lot of tourists in the area. When I was a high school student. They easily change an event which occurred in the past in the direction of their ideas. how to make delicious dishes. tourism helps people to learn about other cultures and ways of life. These are well-organized programs that teaches children to count and to say the alphabet. Lastly. Furthermore. Disadvantages Disadvantages of tourism There are some disadvantages to tourism. there were many kinds of learning programs. water and noise pollution. Firstly. thedre are some programs for adults about how to garden. television has programs for students. Advantages Advantages of Watching Television w TV is a good teacher for everyone for several reasons. What is more. They also have interesting characters that they tell stories and sing songs. television teaches us all kinds of things. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. They do not have any eating culture. it makes the locals stay rather than leave to get jobs elsewhere. These programs help students with their studies. for example Sesame Street and Tarchın and his friends. For that reason most countries life style can be changed by movies. places sometimes lose their character and traditions.

sad. social and cultural factors play important roles in development of alcoholism. others can feel proud that they are his/her classmates. Furthermore. They can fee[ a sense of identity and pride that they wouldn't be able to feel as well if they didn't wear uniforms. Therefore. Some of them also want to reduce strong negative feelings. student may want to wear designer clothes which some can afford but others can't. Overall. if a student is a good musician. you don't have to cook for yourself. students can "advertise" their school just by wearing their uniforms and be proud of the school they attend. They may also feel more anxious. the cause of alcoholism can be biological. identity and pride. Therefore. All students do not have the same financial resources and can't afford expensive clothes. I prefer to live at a dormitory because I do not need to cook and wash my clothes for myself and there will be a lot of people around me. uniforms give identity. Alcoholics may become angry and argumentive. uniforms give students equality. Students feel a sense of belonging when everyone has the same uniform.____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. and confused. but also their family. Advantages Advantages of Wearing the Same Uniform Wearing uniforms give all students equality. First of all. we should help the number of alcoholics in Turkey and all over the world. and co-workers strangers. Primarily. Students can tell who is from their school and who is not according to the uniform. It not only affects the alcoholic. Effect 1. The second reason is alcoholism has psychological reasons. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ B. If a sports team does well. 17 . In addition to this. Secondly. the effects alcoholism can have on the different aspects of a person's life. students can feel proud together of that accomplishment. Overall. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. the dormitory is usually very safe since almost all dormitories have security guards. It is often associated with a family history of manic-depressive illness. children may take alcohol later on. or quiet and withdrawn or depressed. alcoholics often drink hoping to drown their depressed feelings. For example. friends. If parents are alcoholics. First of all. Moreover. others will know which school that person is from. uniforms make it more equal among the rich and poor students. Advantages Advantages to Living at a Dorm I would prefer to live in an apartment for a number of reasons. Moreover. there is usually a laundry room in the basement so you don’t have to go anywhere else to do laundry. For example. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. It can be related to emotional changeability. The most important one is that there are always a lot of people around so you won't feel lonely. Cause Alcoholism There are some reasons of using alcohol. tense. I think wearing uniforms is a good thing. Others can tell which students are from which schools and if someone is not behaving well. CAUSE and EFFECT PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. Hence. Moreover. Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that affects many people in the world today. Students can feel equal to one an other. uniforms give pride. As a result.

First of all. As a result. Also. and then I was very excited. Parents should also encourage their children to study by buying story books with pictures. When children see terrible things on TV and sometimes act them out. Causes Studying Outside There are many reasons students choose to do this why students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. 5. they need to pay attention to their children’s studies and encourage them. or they can buy text books or tapes that help children learn to spell or read. To get a college degree from a university outside their home country may be 18 . there is conflict between refusing and accepting the use of alcohol to be a social person. Effects Negative Effects of Televisions Television negatively influences people's behavior in a number of ways. television influences everybody’s behavior in negative ways. so parents have to take the responsibility to monitor their studying and to remind them to do their homework at home after school. In conclusion. advertisements force people to buy things they may not need. For example. Effects Effects of Parents on Children Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. So. The best way to encourage children to study efficiently is to reward them when they get an “A”. Therefore. if parents really want their children to succeed in school. Children usually enjoy playing games instead of studying their boring lessons. The most important negative effect is that television may lead to violence. Someone who buys a new car but can't really afford it. those who buy camping equipment. I experienced this. but they never go camping. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. As a child. people should consider those effects before they start to watch television programs. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. it is extremely important that whatever the reasons are we should avoid drinking alcohol.In some cultures. someone who buys a new computer even though his or her old computer works fine. My parents gave me a gift if I had studied well. They may not be able to understand right from wrong and think that violence is ok. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

Moreover. movies provide entertainment. Next. nature is a home for animals. animals depend on it for survival. Similarity and Differences 19 . Finally. watching movie is one of the important activities of people. they are fun to watch andlet you imagine what other people's lives are like. students may get more money in their job if they have a degree from outside the country. all over the world. Many people think that students may get a better education outside their home country. Causes Watching Movies There are many reasons why people all over the world enjoy watching movies. such as forests. For that reason. hike in the forest. There are thousands of species that live in forests and when the forests die. animals. they offer an escape. First of all. Moreover. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. you can take exciting photographs. forests are natural resources that must be saved because they provide so much good for so many people and animals. As a result. they may pay less to study abroad and the programs can be better abroad. Causes World is in Danger Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. Explain why movies are so popular. walk through. Most students get a good education wherever they go if they are strong-minded to achieve something in their studies. it is a way to escape that life for a few hours. . movies are available everywhere. COMPARE and CONTRAST PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. forests are beautiful to look at. such as forests. there is usually a video store with movies. Furthermore. some people go to the movies to see how others live. or clean water. some students may get scholarships to study abroad. In short. If there is no theater. and look at all the flowers. they die too. students study abroad for a number of reasons. To begin with. 7. or dean water. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Movies are popular all over the world. 6. Movie theaters can be found in almost every town. Therefore. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. animals.prestigious for students. birds. Furthermore. rain forests also are habitat of many insects. In short. Because. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ C. Finally. If you are poor. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved.

my old teacher would go to the parents because my school is small and everybody would know each other in the city. students respect teachers. Both my English teachers control the class well. my present teacher sends the troublesome student to a counselor. First. they can only ask questions at the end of the class. without friend) and nobody wants to be unpopular. the way my two teachers teaching method of English is different. Although my teachers have these similarities. When a student is always troublesome in class. My teacher back home would teach us a rule of grammar and then give examples. Then the counselor sends the students to the assistant principal and so on. however. the subjects which are taught at the elementary level are basically the same everywhere: reading and writing. music. and the classes are coeducational. Turkey. Similarly. In addition. my present if we need a rule we work it out from the examples. As a result. Both my teachers know their subject well. American and European educational systems differ in some ways ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 20 . Compare Two Different Educational Systems The educational systems of Europe and the United States are similar in a number of ways. This makes the student unpopular (alone. they also have differences on these same points. we are all responsible and had extra work. Also. For example. there are both similarities and differences in the way students behave toward their teachers in the classroom. in my country.Classroom Behavior Rules There are some similarities and differences in the classroom behavior rules between North America and my country. students respect their teachers. There are about twenty to twenty-two pupils per class. introductions to the sciences. Compare and Contrast Two English Teachers There are both some similarities and differences between my old English teacher in high school and my present English teacher. Also. In contrast. If a student makes trouble in the classroom. In conclusion. students can ask the teacher questions. and art. To begin with. Next. but most American children do not. Turkey. They both make sure we know the rules of the language very well. In conclusion. when a teacher asks us to speak we look down to show respect. there is one teacher for all subjects for each grade (except in Scandinavia). In North America. sports. We do not look into their eyes. there is the student’s right to speak. They can even ask questions when the teacher is giving a lesson. and the majority of elementary school teachers are women. elementary school classes look the same everywhere. However. both my English teachers with their similarities and differences are excellent teachers. in my country students have the right to ask questions. teacher gives us examples first. Likewise. The only major difference in the elementary curriculum is that most Europeans study a foreign language in elementary school. when the teacher asks them to speak they must look into the teacher’s eyes to show respect. In contrast. mathematics. In North America students look up to teachers and respect them. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

some attend for personal achievement. 2. when you write a letter or email. If one has specialized skills. People spend less time with family and friends and more time with TV this is destructive. People do not communicate in the same way as they did before television was invented. more effective and more honest. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication. ARGUMENTATIVE PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. one can make more money in the job market. but forget that communication is important. Therefore. it is more personal. Most people have more personal. personal fulfillment and financial rewards. employers want employees who have very specific knowledge. they do not talk with one another. Because. In short. Adults may attend university just for the joy of learning. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Argumentative Importance of University Education People attend university to prepare for a career. 3. In conclusion. face-to-face communication is better than other forms of communication. but you can see that he is in a bad mood or he is distracted. or telephone calls. Television is such a passive activity that family and friends often forget what meaningful communication is. That means you can change your conversation to fit the situation.C. Television often causes arguments. They learn about a particular subject in depth there. Seventy percent of communication is through gestures. people attend college for many reasons some of which include desire to prepare for a career. Students also may feel a sense of success by learning new things. children argue with their parents to buy them toys they see advertised on TV. Moreover. Finally. Although many people watch television in order to relax. It is more personal. such as letters. In addition to this. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. some attend in order to make more money in the job market. Besides. face-to-face communication is usually more effective because you can easily see the other people’s expression and feelings about a topic. and honest conversations when they meet face-to-face. Argumentative Face to Face Communication I believe that face-to-face communication is better than other forms of communication. Moreover. Secondly.. For example. First of all.. you want to ask your boss or a raise. and their feelings. to attend for personal fulfillment and to make more money in the job market. body language is more effective than spoken language.then you would wait for another time. some attend university in order to prepare for a career. In short. their actions. television has destroyed communication between family and friends. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Argumentative Enemy of Communication Communication between friends and family has been destroyed due to television. you do not get this same kind of experience. they give less time to family and friends. People also enjoy the relaxation of watching television. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 21 . effective. You see them. Furthermore. You can't get this with email. When you talk to a person face-to-face. letters and telephone conversations. e-mail. Not only family members argue about what to watch on TV but also friends do. television makes passive. When people watch television. In addition to this.

Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by welltrained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about.____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ SUMMARY PARAGRAPH WRITING QUESTION and ANSWER Topic Sentence What is the topic sentence? The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph. As a result. making up the body of a paragraph. Canada has an excellent health care system. What does it do? It introduces the main idea of the paragraph. What do they do? They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. and examples. Supporting Details What are supporting sentences? They come after the topic sentence. Canada has a high standard of education. Canada is a desirable place to live. Finally. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. How do I write them? You should give supporting facts. Second. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Canada has an excellent health care system. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. First. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. 22 . details. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Canada is a desirable place to live. First. How do I write one? Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Second. As a result. Finally.

also Example: Samsun also has a rainy spring season. How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words. As a result. Finally. The following words can help you to write a good compare and contrast paragraph: Helper Words: SIMILARITIES is similar to both also too as well DIFFERENCES On the other hand however but in contrast differs from while unlike SIMILARITIES is similar to Example: Spring weather in Trabzon is similar to spring weather in Rize. you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people. as well Example: As well. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. First. too Example: Artvin has a rainy spring season. Canada has an excellent health care system. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. places. too. What does it do? It restates the main idea of your paragraph. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. things. Canada has a high standard of education. Second. Example: Write a paragraph comparing the weather in some cities in Turkey. or ideas. DIFFERENCES 23 . HELPER WORDS COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPH In a compare and contrast paragraph. both Example: Both Trabzon and Rize have rain in the spring.Conclusion Sentence What is the closing sentence? The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Canada is a desirable place to live. Sinop has rainy spring season. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university.

Erzurum has a cold winter. is a part of Coal is a part of the category of non-renewable resources. but Example: Ankara has a mild winter. 24 . winter is much colder in Van. winter is much colder in Erzurum. but Erzurum has a cold one. in contrast to Example: In contrast to Ankara. belongs to Coal belongs to the category of non-renewable resources. Example: Write a paragraph discussing two types of energy resources. falls under Coal falls under the category of non-renewable resources. differs from Example: Erzurum differs from Van by having a cold winter. The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph: Helper Words: is a kind of can be divided into is a type of falls under belongs to is a part of fits into is grouped with is related to is associated with is a kind of Coal is a kind of non-renewable resource. however Example: However. Erzurum has a cold winter. can be divided into Energy resources can be divided into two types. while Example: While Ankara has a mild winter. you group things or ideas into specific categories.on the other hand Example: On the other hand. fits into Coal fits into the category of non-renewable resources. is a type of Coal is a type of non-renewable resource. CLASSIFICATION PARAGRAPH When writing a classification paragraph.

I consider I consider basketball to be more exciting than football. understanding My understanding is that basketball is more fun than football. I think that I think that I would prefer to play basketball and not football. I believe I believe basketball is more exciting than lacrosse. 25 . Often. The following words can help you to write a good choice paragraph: Helper Words: Point of View Personal Opinion in my opinion like/dislike belief hope idea feel understanding I think that I consider I believe it seems to me I prefer POINT OF VIEW in my opinion In my opinion. idea. CHOICE / OPINION PARAGRAPH In a paragraph where you have to make a choice. belief My belief is that basketball is more fun than football. is associated with Coal is associated with other non-renewable resources. is related to Coal is related to other non-renewable resources. or action that you prefer. Example: Write a paragraph stating whether you would prefer to play basketball or football. idea My idea is that basketball is more fun than football.is grouped with Coal is grouped with non-renewable resources. basketball is more fun than football. it seems to me It seems to me that basketball is more exciting than football. you will need to give your opinion on a choice of actions or events. you need to choose which object.

26 . second. third. Example: Write a paragraph outlining how a person becomes the prime minister. after all these steps. Usually. in the beginning In the beginning. SEQUENCE PARAGRAPH In a sequencing paragraph. you must make sure you have a majority of seats. feel I feel that basketball is my favorite sport. First. recently in the beginning previously before afterwards then when after after finally at last subsequently ORDER first. Third. your party must have a majority of seats. etc. you must make sure you have a majority of seats in the House of Commons. you need to become a leader of a political party. you must win a seat in the House of Commons. subsequently Subsequently. finally Finally. third. second. you need to become a leader of a political party. etc. at last Example: At last. after After winning a seat in the House of Commons. you need to win a seat in the House of Commons. Helper Words: ORDER TIME first. Second. The following words can help you to write a good sequence paragraph. then Then. you need to become the leader of a political party. you can call yourself the prime minister. before Before becoming the prime minister.I prefer I prefer basketball over football. hope I hope that I can play basketball in the future. you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. PERSONAL OPINIONS like/dislike I like the sport of basketball because it is fast and exciting. you can call yourself the prime minister. this order is based on time.

many people moved to Canada for a better life. she won the election. . thus Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. 27 . then CAUSE because Example: People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe. Therefore. Very often in social studies class. you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events. previously She is the new prime minister. you must make sure you have a majority of seats. since Example: Since living conditions in Europe were terrible. you need to explain how or why something happens. many people moved to Canada.TIME recently She was recently elected prime minister. as a result of People moved to Canada from Europe as a result of poor living conditions in Europe. she was still working as a lawyer. when Example: When she won the party leadership. she worked as a lawyer in Toronto. The following words can help you to write a good explanation paragraph: Helper Words: Cause because since as a result of is due to Effect therefore thus consequently hence it follows that if . Thus. many people moved to Canada for a better life. . EFFECT therefore Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Afterwards. after Example: After winning a seat in the House of Commons. Example: Write a paragraph explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century. Previously. EXPLANATION PARAGRAPH In an explanation paragraph. is due to / was due to Example: The large influx of people to Canada was due to economic pressures in Europe. afterwards Example: She won the party leadership last year.

Polar bears are usually white in colour. many people moved to Canada. Hence. width Example: The width of a polar bear's head is about 50 cm. MEASUREMENT length Example: The length of a polar bear's claws is 20 cm.. then fewer people would have moved to Canada DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH In a description paragraph. place. then Example: If living conditions were better in Europe. it follows that Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. ANALOGY 28 . Sometimes. many people moved to Canada. Polar bears have a special shape. hence Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. speed Example: Polar bears can swim at a speed of 40 km per hour. if . Examples: Write a paragraph describing what a polar bear looks like. mass / weight Example: Polar bears weigh up to 650 kg.consequently Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Describe where Canada's industry is located. or thing is like.. The purpose of the polar bear's fur is to keep it warm. you are writing about what a person. It follows that many people moved to Canada. you may describe where a place is located. Consequently. The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph: Helper Words: PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT ANALOGY LOCATION size colour shape purpose length width mass/weight speed is like resembles in above below beside near north/east/south/west PROPERTIES size Example: colour Example: shape Example: purpose Example: Polar bears are big in size.

above Example: The ceiling is above us. you will state your evaluation or recommendation and then support it by referring to your criteria.is like Example: A polar bear is like other bears in shape. correct / incorrect Example: The belief that pesticides must be used is incorrect. The following words can help you to write a good evaluation paragraph: Helper Words Criteria for Evaluation Recommendation good / bad correct / incorrect moral / immoral right / wrong important / trivial suggest recommend advise argue CRITERIA good / bad Example: The use of pesticides such as DDT is bad for the environment. below Example: Most of Ontario is below Hudson Bay. important / trivial Example: The issue of pesticides is an important one because it affects the environment. beside Example: Quebec is located beside Ontario. recommend Example: I recommend that pesticides should not be used because they are harmful to the environment. resembles Example: A polar bear resembles other bears in shape. In the paragraph. Example: Write a paragraph evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms. ideas. and possible actions. EVALUATION PARAGRAPH In an evaluation paragraph. RECOMMENDATION suggest Example: I suggest that pesticides should not be used to control pests. LOCATION in Example: Most of Canada's manufacturing is located in Ontario and Quebec. You need to make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. 29 . you make judgments about people. moral / immoral Example: The use of pesticides to control pests is immoral because it harms the environment. north / east / south / west Example: Ontario is west of Quebec. near Example: Many companies are located near Toronto. right / wrong Example: It is wrong to use pesticides because they harm the environment.

argument regard: consider. Meteorological satellites also provide advance information. Write a topic sentence for the following paragraphs. TEENAGERS Smoking Dozens of teenagers smoke because of mere curiosity. Teenagers tent to be curious about new things. Divorce Cost of living plays an important role on high divorce rate. I was nervous until she returned. MY FATHER’S DEATH My father’s death. First of all. at any hour of the day or night. 4. on-line shopping makes it possible to search through catalogues to find exactly what you want at the best price. they would have the second. I felt great sadness and loneliness. and earns four as much money as agriculture.advise Example: I would advise farmers not to use pesticides if possible. and then become accustomed to it eventually! Just like the addiction of taking drugs. My father’s death. and perhaps make friends all over the world. 2. In addition. e-mail is popular because it is faster than sending a letter and cheaper than a telephone conversation. Scientists are working to develop space technology to use in different areas. women think that life is always difficult unless they have their own economics independence. some special satellites register the earth’s resources and military information. therefore. Couples do not tolerate a few mistakes. I was afraid of losing someone else whom I loved. you can share your hobbies and special interests. people are more aggressive towards each other. In addition. Tourism employs twenty times as many people as the car industry. They smoke for the sake of knowing how it feels. Using Internet Using internet offers you a world of information. had several important effects on me. position 3. For the firs few months. They hope to be free and stand without one’s help. on-line shopping and e-mail services. throughout the rest of my childhood. Firstly. the loss of my father caused me to develop a greater sense of responsibility.html 30 . Finally. (mere: only. frightened. Furthermore. This leads some conflicts in family life. and responsible – a young child with adult feelings. in your home. the number of tourists coming to Turkey has created a large number of jobs.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/partopic. Firstly. entertainment. the third. http://www. directly or indirectly. ANSWER KEY: PRACTICE 1: A. there are many women working outside their homes and are independent. all of the latest information is available to you.uottawa. Conflict: struggle. 7. Nearly three million people depend. Nowadays. my loneliness was so great that I often dreamed that my father would miraculously return. They want to earn money and spend it as they wish. Due to difficult life conditions. think about stand: resist. As a result. We need tourists’ money in fact they provide more jobs for all of us. once they started to smoke their first cigarette. telecommunication satellites have greatly improved global communications. Finally. TOURISM During the last two years. Being economically independent is the desire of many women. Whenever my mother was away from home. SPACE TECHNOLOGY Space technology has resulted in numerous applications. For example. I believed that with my father gone I was responsible for helping my mother with her chores. left me lonely. sake: cause) 5. Unfortunately. which occurred when I was nine years old. By joining a newsgroup or chat group. upon tourism for their jobs. Also. 1. SOURCE: 1. argue Example: I would argue that pesticides should not be used because they harm the environment. some regard divorce as the best way to get this independence. so you can save both time and money.

Longman.ru/eng/1999/eng35-2. 5.2.htm 4. 1980. 1995. http://www.1september. 31 . Ann Hogue. Longman. Alice Oshima. First Steps in Academic Writing. http://archive. Ann Hogue.htm 3.com/inner/about_us. Writing Academic English.paragraphorganizer.

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