MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.

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MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com

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UNIT 1 – VITAMIN
I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.
A. acid, B. amounts, C. called, D. catalysts, E. clotting, F. decades, G. involved, H. ingested, I. intake, J. stored What are Vitamins? Vitamins are nutrients required in very small _________(1) for essential metabolic reactions in the body. Vitamins are biomolecules that act both as _________(2) and substrates in chemical reactions. When acting as a catalyst, vitamins are bound to enzymes and are _________(3) cofactors, for example vitamin K forms part of the proteases _________(4) in blood _________(5) . Vitamins also act as coenzymes to carry chemical groups between enzymes, for example folic _________(6) carries various forms of carbon groups (methyl, formyl or methylene) in the cell. Until the 1900s, vitamins were obtained solely through food _________(7). Many food sources contain different ratios of vitamins. Therefore, if the only source of vitamins is food, changes in diet will alter the types and amounts of vitamins _________(8). However, as many vitamins can be _________(9) by the body, short-term deficiencies do not usually cause disease. Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely-available as inexpensive pills for several _________(10), allowing supplementation of the dietary intake. biomolecule catalyst clotting cofactor phân tử sinh học chất xúc tác sự đông (máu) đồng yếu tố protease ratio substrate supplementation enzym tiêu protein tỷ lệ chất nền / chất phản ứng bổ sung

1.2. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.
A. accepted B. caused C. eating D. feeding E. healing F. known G. maintaining H. plagued I. practicing J. using History of Vitamin research The value of _________(1) certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that _________(2) a patient liver would help cure night blindness, now _________(3) to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, and is characterized by poor wound _________(4), bleeding of the gums, and severe pain. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended _________(5) lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely _________(6) by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by _________(7) good hygiene, regular exercise, and by _________(8) the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food. As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be _________(9) by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic the prevailing medical theory was that scurvy was _________(10) by "tainted" canned food.
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com

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Even minor deficiencies have the potential to cause permanent damage. a human must consume them regularly to _________(8) deficiency. chanh thuỷ thủ đoàn thám hiểm lợi vệ sinh chanh morale night blindness plague (n. restrictive diets have the potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits. such as smoking. a child may develop a deficiency disease. a few vitamins are obtained _________(7) other means: for example. meaning that they dissolve easily in water. If there is serious deficiency _________(6) one or more of these nutrients. and nine water-soluble vitamins (eight B vitamins and vitamin C). among other things.3. or fat soluble. In humans there are thirteen vitamins. at the moment of conception. which may _________(7) in often painful and potentially deadly diseases. classified C. D. Human corporeal stores for different vitamins vary widely. skin. or the use of medications that _________(5) with the absorption or the body's use of the vitamin. so stores may only last a _________(10) of weeks. Vitamin B3 is not stored in the human body in significant amounts.v) prevailing scurvy tainted treatise tinh thần quáng gà dịch. hỏng chuyên luận 1. liver I. and muscle. Vitamins are essential _________(3) the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. For the most part. The developing fetus requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present _________(5) certain times. most have multiple functions. vitamins A. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce. In contrast. excessive alcohol _________(4). Fill each gap with one of your own.produce vitamin K and biotin. mainly in the _________(9). D. occurs J. divided _________(2) two groups. couple E. Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions and therefore. and B12 are stored in significant amounts in the human body. deficiency F. consumption D. interfere G. Classification of Vitamins Vitamins are classified _________(1) water soluble. and are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids. Individuals who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin _________(6). avoid B. gây dịch thịnh hành bệnh sco-bút hư. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box. However. consume interfere with avoid primary secondary tiêu thụ can thiệp tránh nguyên phát thứ phát underlying absorption varied diet deficit regularly corporeal căn nguyên hấp thu chế độ ăn thay đổi thiếu hụt đều đặn thuộc thân thể 1. A. consumption. four fat-soluble vitamins (A.adopt citrus crew expedition gum hygiene lime. Using the genetic blueprint inherited _________(4) its parents. a fetus begins to develop. from the nutrients it absorbs. vitamins are obtained through food sources. E and K). lemon chấp nhận cam. microorganisms in the intestine .4.com 4 . bone. due to a “lifestyle factor”. Because humans do not store most vitamins in their bodies. result Vitamin Deficiencies Deficiencies of vitamins are _________(1) as either primary or secondary. limits H. A primary deficiency _________(2) when you do not get enough of the vitamin in the food you eat. while one form of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. and an adult human may be deficient in vitamin A and B12 for long periods of time before developing a deficiency condition. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or _________(3) the absorption or use of the vitamin.commonly known as "gut flora" .

making it less bioavailable to people with large stores of body fat. and to help process the proteins. tiềm tàng tiền chất tia UV. Human milk generally provides 25 IU of vitamin D per liter. Aging: The elderly have reduced capacity to synthesize vitamin D in the skin when exposed to UVB radiation. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. The risk of vitamin D deficiency is particularly high in dark-skinned people who live far from the equator. dứt. Examples include vitamin A. and are more likely to stay indoors or use sunscreen. it is deposited in body fat stores. The application of sunscreen with an SPF factor of 8 reduces production of vitamin D by 95%. bioavailable sinh khả dụng institutionalized ở hoài trong nhà bowel ruột malabsorption hấp thu kém cholestatic ứ mật obesity chứng béo phì cystic fibrosis xơ nang osteomalacia nhuyễn xương deposit(v.com 5 . Institutionalized adults are at extremely high risk of vitamin D deficiency without supplementation. Covering all exposed skin or using sunscreen whenever outside: Osteomalacia has been documented in women who cover all of their skin whenever they are outside for religious or cultural reasons.n) facilitate gut flora inherit bản vẽ sự thụ thai tổn thương làm thuận lợi hệ vi khuẩn ruột thừa kế maintenance permanent potential (n. vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells. Once growth and development are completed. and organs that make up a multicellular organism.n) lắng đọng resection cắt bỏ equator xích đạo substitute (n. tử ngoại thu được.v) thay thế exclusively chỉ riêng mỗi sunscreen chất chống nắng fortify tăng cường toddler trẻ mới biết đi infant trẻ em wean cai. Fat malabsorption syndromes: Cystic fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease impair the absorption of dietary vitamin D. PASSAGE 1: Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency Exclusively breast fed infants: Infants who are exclusively breast fed and do not receive vitamin D supplementation are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn’s disease appear to be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency._________(8) the help of natural ultraviolet in sunlight. carbohydrates. 42% of African American women between 15 and 49 years of age were vitamin D deficient compared to 4% of white women. Humans can produce some vitamins _________(9) precursors they consume. from the amino acid tryptophan. they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food eaten. 2.1. and niacin. tissues. Obesity: Obesity increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. có được II.S. which can be produced from beta carotene. Once vitamin D is synthesized in the skin or ingested. which is not enough for an infant if it is the sole source of vitamin D. particularly if they have dark skin and/or receive little sun exposure. In the U. especially those who have had small bowel resections. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants that are not consuming at least 500 ml (16 ounces) of vitamin D fortified formula or milk be given a vitamin D supplement of 200 IU/day. Dark skin: People with dark skin synthesize less vitamin D on exposure to sunlight than those with light skin. Older infants and toddlers exclusively fed with milk substitutes and weaning foods that are not vitamin D fortified are also at risk of vitamin D deficiency. blueprint conception damage(v. kiêng Questions MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. adj) precursors ultraviolet obtain sự duy trì lâu dài tiềm năng.. and fats required _________(10) respiration.

has been proved C. dark D.1. D.Iron absorption -. A. Infants receiving little sun exposure are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. entirely clear B. Vitamin C may be effective for several different uses. there is much controversy about some uses. common cold D. However. . heartburn or indigestion. The vitamin has several different effects in the human body.It is important for many different crucial processes in the body. PASSAGE 2: Vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin used to treat and prevent a wide variety of conditions. At this time. 5.2. However. As an antioxidant.Immune function -. Vitamin C can strengthen the body’s defence against diseases.Antioxidant -. people use it to prevent or treat the common cold. such as: . debatable D.Vitamin C aids in the absorption of iron from the digestive tract into the body. such as for the common cold. temperate C.Various metabolic pathways and synthesis processes -. nephrolithiasis D. damaging molecules or atoms that can start a chain reaction of cellular damage. Free radicals play a role in various age-related conditions. Some people may be more likely to experience problems due to vitamin C. Vitamin C is believed to reduce the risk of heart disease B. there are other claimed uses of vitamin C as well. Older infants exclusively fed with milk substitutes are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. A. bright Which of the following is NOT true? A. sleeplessness C. 3 B. All infants should be given a vitamin D supplement of 200 IU/day. vomiting. fair B. C. Often. such as for reducing the risk of heart disease. hepatitis B. 2. it is not entirely clear how the vitamin stimulates the immune system. heart disease C. polar D. Infants cannot get enough Vitamin D from breastfeeding. As an antioxidant Vitamin C can be used to treat _______. coastal The percentage of African American women suffering from vitamin D deficiency is _________ times as high as that of American white women aged 15-49 A. 5 D. 4. Which one is NOT a side effect caused of vitamin C? A. overdressing D. Most people do not experience side effects with vitamin C (at normal doses). protein synthesis D. . A. 10 Which of the following does NOT facilitate a vitamin D deficiency? -_________. including. People with _________ skin are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.There are numerous different proposed mechanisms by which vitamin C may improve immune function. it helps prevent the formation of free radicals. D. All of these The mechanism of by which Vitamin C fight common cold is _______. B. 2. bringing up food B. Questions 1. kidney stones. its antioxidant effects Which of the following is NOT true? A. frequently staying indoors B. cartilage formation C. .Many of the effects of vitamin C can be attributed to its antioxidant effects. including forming cartilage and proteins and building or breaking down numerous other compounds or tissues in the body. A. 3. A. insomnia. 4. 4 C. High doses of Vitamin C can be safe for most people. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. using sunscreen outdoors C. Normal doses are probably safe for most people. but not limit to nausea. However.com 6 . some people may experience side effects (especially with high doses). iron absorption B. It is better for dark-skinned people to live in _________ areas to get sufficient vitamin D. malnutrition 5. C. All of these Vitamin C play an important part in the processes of _______ A. but high doses can cause problems. Antioxidant effects of Vitamin C result in its many uses in prevention and treatment of diseases . reducing obesity 2. such as cancer and heart disease. tropical B. white C. Some of these uses are more valid than others. 3.

with C. 3. known D. 4. and D. initial B. A. to B. find it very difficult to take medicines reliably every day. 1. concerned C. unsolved Antibiotics are essential tools in improving and maintaining the quality of life by helping to prevent infectious diseases A. I. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract Human _______ refers to the body's ability to regulate physiologically its inner environment to ensure its stability. 10 . normal body functions can break down and make a person susceptible _________ disease. The term _______ refers to the delicate balance of microbes and other 'germs. exchanging … for D. C. changing …into C. hyperalimentation. _______ is a relatively common clinical problem.III. digesting …to B. drinking alcohol excessively. gut flora. principle D. related B. _______ are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. 6. shorten D. irregularly D. for The combination of vitamin A and iron seems to reduce anemia more effectively than either iron or vitamin A alone. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. During the primary _______. 8. knowing B. to know C. 3. 5. G. final C. increase C. A. associated D. cause B. decrease B. 7. 6. frequently C. continuously IV. extremely necessary People with substance abuse problems. A _______ is a substance which alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. hypercalciuria. to C.com . It typically manifests as mild chronic calcium elevation _______ does not use the digestive system. 10 . All women should take steps to prevent heart disease. the fermentable sugars. catalyst. fermentation. linked In infants. B. J.' both good and bad. A. A. 9. also called a communicable disease. homeostasis F. _______ might be produced if there is a high amount of calcium in the blood. with D. is known Women of all ages should be _________ about heart disease. minimize People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy. 2. dissolved D. _______ is a disease that causes pain and loss of movement of the joints. by B. introducing… into The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient with liver would help cure night blindness. of In vitamin deficiency. immoderately B. 5. be associated with Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose _________ in water. solved B. E. rickets may result in delayed closure of the fontanels (soft spots) in the skull. contagious.g. A. mainly maltose and glucose are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide _______ disease is an infectious disease that is spread through contact with infected individuals. now _________ to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. 2. A. 8. 7. 4. Although most Americans consume a wide variety of food additives daily. H. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. soluble C. only a small number have been associated _________ reactions. A. 1. led to C. 7 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. coenzymes. A. A. D. be due to D. e. B. of D. arthritis. C. 9. hypercalcemia.

rickets B. A. blood Which is NOT mentioned as a natural source of vitamin A? A. 4. serum D. The currently available antibiotics are known to inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms  People _______ This hormone that is believed to control how the beta cells make and release insulin  They believed _______ Daily multivitamin supplements have been found to reduce HIV disease progression among men and women. sugar B. 3. egg C. 5. LISTENING 1 Listen to an article about Vitamin D and answer the following questions 1 2 3 4 Vitamin D is manufactured naturally in the _______. cell D. meat D. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences.  It has _______ The disease has been reported to be reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over 6 months.  The pain is caused _______ VI. liver B. beginning with the given initials. 2. A. All of these MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. intestine C. sodium Vitamin D was added to milk in order to prevent _______ A. beri-beri C.V.com 8 . 1. It has _______ The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. fish Vitamin D helps to increase levels of _______ in the blood. liver B. calcium C. scobut D.

com 9 . CLOZE TESTS – ALLERGY 1. Allergies are the sixth _________(7) cause of chronic disease in the United States. antibodies B. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own. or certain foods. Gell and A. A new four-class (now five) classification scheme was designed by H. these substances are known as allergens. Allergy is a very common disorder and more than 50 million Americans _________(6) from allergic diseases. A. Coombs. leading F. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. costing the health care system $18 billion annually. Type I hypersensitivity is _________(4) by excessive activation of mast cells and basophils by immunoglobulin E. He observed that the symptoms of some of his patients might have been a _________(9) to outside allergens such as dust. The term and concept of "allergy" was coined by a Viennese pediatrician _________(8) Clemens von Pirquet in 1906. life-threatening I. When a person is hypersensitised. resulting in a systemic inflammatory response that can result in symptoms as benign as a runny nose. named Allergy An allergy can _________(1) to several kinds of immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity in _________(2) the person's body is hypersensitised and develops immunoglobulin E (IgE). which E. For a long time all hypersensitivities were thought to _________(10) from the improper action of inflammatory immunoglobulin class IgE. The word allergy derives from the Greek words allos meaning "other" and ergon meaning "work". response H. Allergy has since been kept as the name for Type I Hypersensitivity. dưỡng bào trung gian vô số phấn hoa hệ thống. suffer J. pollen.2. sơ đồ sử dụng 1. activation anaphylactic shock annually basophils benign coin derive effector sự hoạt hoá sốc quá mẫn. a certain class of _________(3) to typical proteins. stem D. characterised by classical IgE mediation of effects. refer G. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. phản vệ hàng năm bạch cầu ái toan lành tính tạo nên xuất phát chất tác động hypersensitivity improper mast cells mediation myriad pollen scheme utilize sự quá mẫn không thích hợp tế bào bón. to _________(5) anaphylactic shock and death.1. characterized C. however it soon became clear that several different mechanisms utilizing different effector molecules were responsible for the myriad of disorders previously classified as "allergies".UNIT 2 I.

cào 1. testing J. etc. If the patient is _________(6) to the substance. by C. apply assessment discomfort extract full-blown intradermally bôi đánh giá khó chịu dịch chiết toàn phát trong chân bì. then a visible inflammatory reaction will usually occur _________(7) 30 minutes. edema. chọc. headaches are seen in some with environmental or chemical allergies. suy tổn ngứa ban sưng 1. Apart _________(9) ambient allergens.Signs and symptoms of Allergy Allergy is characterised _________(1) a local or systemic inflammatory response to allergens. The allergens are either _________(4) intradermally or into small scratchings made into the patient's skin. hypotension. often with a lancet.4. châm xước.large percentages of the population suffer _________(6) hay fever symptoms _________(7) response to airborne pollen. peanut extract. coma _________(5) even death. để khỏi theo dõi lạc chích. Common areas for _________(5) include the inside forearm and back. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. react E. performing F. Hay fever is one example of an exceedingly common minor allergy . Small amounts of _________(2) allergens and/or their extracts (pollen. if 10 D. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. Local symptoms are: Nose: swelling of the nasal mucosa (allergic rhinitis) Eyes: redness and itching of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis) Airways: bronchoconstriction. wheezing and dyspnoea. Systemic allergic response is also called anaphylaxis. such _________(3) eczema. sensitive H. Head: while not as common.com . ambient asthma bronchoconstriction characterise coma conjunctiva drainage dyspnoea xung quanh hen co phế quản đặc trưng hôn mê kết mạc dịch thoát ra khó thở eczema eustachian tube hay fever hive. allergic reactions can be caused _________(10) medications. A. also _________(1) as prick testing due to the series of pricks made into the patient's skin. injected C. 3. bronchoconstriction. Skin test The typical and most simple method of diagnosis and monitoring of Type I Hypersensitivity is by skin testing. possibly pain. After _________(9) the skin test and receiving results. A. sensitize MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. urticaria impaired itching rash swelling chàm vòi nhĩ sốt cỏ khô. hives (urticaria) and contact dermatitis. reduce G. additionally B. nội bì lancet lest monitor peanut prick scratching dao mỗ để không. Depending _________(4) the rate of severity. grass. known D. sometimes attacks of asthma Ears: feeling of fullness. it can cause cutaneous reactions. lest it cause an allergic response itself). the doctor may apply a steroid cream to the test area to _________(10) discomfort (such as itching and inflammation). suspected I. This response will range from slight reddening of the skin to full-blown hives in extremely _________(8) patients. Asthmatics are often allergic _________(8) dust mites. marked E. mite proteins. and impaired hearing due _________(2) the lack of eustachian tube drainage. Skin: various rashes.) are introduced to sites on the skin _________(3) with pen or dye (the ink/dye should be carefully selected. within Diagnosis of Allergy There are several methods for the diagnosis and assessment of allergies. allergic B. cảm mạo mày đay suy yếu.

3. colormetric damage(v. _________ It can be inferred that a significant rise in allergies in developed countries is related to MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.G. xác định qualify radioallergosorbent radiometric serum specific susceptible unencountered định tính hấp thu phóng rạ dị ứng đo phóng xạ huyết thanh đặc hiệu mẫn cảm chưa gặp phải F. It may be that the term 'parasite' could turn out to be inappropriate. _________ According to the text the human immune system cannot function correctly without the parasites. it is not_________(2) complications. Without them. through II.com 11 . _________(5). lí thuyết co-evolution đồng tiến hoá immunosuppressant ức chhé miễn dịch coincide with trùng với purification làm tinh khiết evidence bằng chứng significant đáng kể gut wall thành ruột slant thiên kiến hence sau đó sporadic đơn lẻ hitherto từ nay trở đi symbiosis cộng. which I. while J. This can be determined _________(9) the use of radiometric and colormetric immunoassays.1. there is only sporadic evidence to support this hypothesis — one scientist who suffered from seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) infected himself with gut worms and was immediately 'cured' of his allergy with no other ill effects. Some people may display a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction _________(3) can occur as far as 6 hours after application of the allergen and last up to 24 hours. and in fact a hitherto unsuspected symbiosis is at work. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. _________ Intestinal worms harm the human body by secreting immunosuppressant chemicals.g. hookworms). chlorination xử lý bằng clo hygiene vệ sinh clinical trial thử nghiệm lâm sàng hypothesis giả thuyết.n) determine immunoassay inception measure pinpoint đo màu thương tổn xác định xét nghiệm miễn dịch khởi đầu đo chỉ ra. Skins tests also are not always able to pinpoint a patient's specific allergies _________(7) the patient has an allergy but does not _________(8) to the skin test allergen. Gut worms and similar parasites are present in untreated drinking water in undeveloped countries. the application of previously unencountered allergens can actually _________(6) certain individuals to the allergen. This also coincides with the time period in which a significant rise in allergies has been observed. Full clinical trials have yet to be performed however. đồng sinh hookworm giun móc unsuspected không nghi ngờ TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 1. such as intestinal worms (e. PASSAGE 1: Relationship with parasites Some recent research has also begun to show that some kinds of common parasites. This can also cause serious long-lasting tissue damage _________(4) the affected area. the immune system becomes unbalanced and oversensitive. to H. and in developed countries until the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies. This gives rise to a new slant on the "hygiene hypothesis" — that co-evolution of man and parasites has in the past led to an immune system that only functions correctly in the presence of the parasites. Even the levels the amount of IgE specific to certain allergens can be measured _________(10) using of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). So far. 2. secrete immunosuppressant chemicals into the gut wall and hence the bloodstream which prevent the body from attacking the parasite. causing the inception of a new allergy in susceptible individuals. These types of serious reactions are quite rare. Total IgE count: Another method used to qualify type I hypersensitivity is measuring the amount of serum IgE contained within the patient's serum. without Problems with skin test _________(1) the skin test is probably the most preferred means of testing because of its simplicity and economics. 2.

From the last paragraph you can infer that antihistamines are _______ A. Drugs. 1. even the common ones like aspirin. People should avoid milk and eggs to prevent allergies. Which of the following statements is true. A good title for this passage is A. more dangerous C. B. Circle the letter of the best answer. There is no definite treatment for allergies. We now have better antibiotics. Treatment of Allergies B. The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. Substances that cause allergies are called allergens. D. almost anything eaten. A. C. PASSAGE 2: Read the passage and answer the questions below Medical scientists are becoming more and more interested in allergies. Some plants and flowers give out pollen to the atmosphere during spring and early summer. but this in not always possible. drugs that work against life 5. sulpha drugs C. _________ One scientist was successful in curing him of hay fever by infecting himself with gut worms. An allergy is a condition caused by an excessive reaction in some people to a substance or substances which would not normally cause a disease. _________ The presence of parasites in the human body is inappropriate. Allergic reactions can also be caused by food. Antibiotics are given to patients to reduce the symptoms. However. the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies. and they tend to make the patient sleepy. When penicillin was first manufactured on a large scale. Many people develop symptoms like those of the common cold such as watery eyes and nose. according to the passage? A. can result in distressing symptoms.com . although they can be just as troublesome. _______ Early antibiotics were quite dangerous. 5. Milk and eggs are known to be allergenic for some people. Definition and Classification of Allergies D. Some doctors think it is better to identify and avoid the allergen. less dangerous B. They are not always effective. 6. B. A. B. There is no sure remedy for allergies. The sulpha drugs were also quite dangerous. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. 12 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. drugs to suppress allergic reactions D. chemicals that work for life C. drugs B. drugs to reduce the severity of the symptoms. 5. This is commonly called the hay fever. sneezing and a slight rise in temperature. less common 3. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Allergies 2. it proved to be effective against many pathogens. inhaled or touched can cause a reaction. _______ The common cold is also known as the hay fever. more common D. 1. but they must be taken with great care. A. Dust and pollen are the rarest allergens in nature. Treatment might consist of giving drugs either to reduce the symptoms or to suppress the reaction. 1. Severe reactions can even result in death. chemicals that work with life B. C and D. although they did not kill as many people as penicillin did. In fact. Causes of Allergies C. Drugs of the second type are called antihistamines. Sometimes the body cures itself. But it had a tendency to cause reactions so strong that patients sometimes died. disease causing agents. drugs that work against allergies D. penicillin drugs D. 2. Some are dangerous. _______ Penicillin is an effective antihistamine. some researchers do not classify allergies as diseases. The word ‘antibiotics’ means _______. _______ A substance causing an allergy can easily be avoided. The word ‘they’ refers to _______ A. drunk. _______ Some scientists do not think allergies are diseases. C. The most common natural allergens are dust and pollen. 2. better antibiotics 4. Sulpha drugs were _______ than penicillin. B. 4.4. allergy causing substances. III. 3.2.

8. 4. end C. C. H. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put each term in each gap. Billions of people in developing countries suffer from _______ malnutrition. 7. A. likewise D. development or reproduction of organisms. metabolism.  Loss of ability to hold hand straight _______ It is thought that the use of purified insulin helps avoid or reduce some of the problems of people with diabetes such as allergic reactions. A. 7. commented C. obesity. 6. nausea. D. unless C. A. invented B. dissolved B. called as C. 9. told as D. 3. 10 . Long-term chemical exposure is capable of causing many systemic disturbances. 4. ascribed B. producer Consequently. metabolites E. making D. demanded B. B. J. last B. transported D. 2. irradiation. produced D. 6. 3. recognized C.  Long-term chemical exposure is _______ Thickening of the skin of the palm results in loss of ability to hold hand straight. reporting This can occur as a cold. 3. physician C. A. checking B. described D. A. seller B. recommended Waste is released in water from factories and processing plants. V. 2. 13 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. treated Most of the physiological effects attributed to vitamin A appear to result from its role in cellular differentiation. serve The symptoms of contact dermatitis need to be brought under control. happen D. consumed The manufacturer should be responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. 9. 10 . 8. 5. In fact B. remarked D. or else B. osteomalacia 1. consumers D. getting C. hyperparathyroidism." that is caused by lack of vitamins and minerals. micronutrient F. A. A. Finally A healthcare provider diagnoses sinusitis after obtaining a complete medical history and physical examination. other than Patients should take medications as prescribed by your doctor. known as B. As a result D. A. also known as "hidden hunger. PTH (pancreatropic hormone) production by the parathyroid glands is increased and calcium is mobilized from the skeleton to maintain normal serum calcium levels A. night blindness. G. Food _______ can prevent the growth of microorganisms that cause food spoilage _______ is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) Lack of vitamin A causes _______ or inability to see in dim light _______ is the sensation that there is a need to vomit _______ from food are absorbed by the body as it passes through the digestive system _______ is a condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected _______ is the general term for the softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization. beginning with the given initials. contributed C. 1. otherwise the results will be unreliable. Moreover C. mentioned A deficiency may result in changes in the conjunctiva (corner of the eye) _________ Bitot's spots. A. 5. I.2. spoken as IV. which may clear rapidly or continue with symptoms longer than a week. disposed of C. A.com . Secondary _______ are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth. nutrients. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. Our bodies get the energy they need from food through _______.

The lungs can develop large holes which blow up like balloons. CLOZE TESTS 1. UNIT 3 NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES I. It reduces the amount of oxygen that can be _______(5) in the blood by irreversibly combining with the haemoglobin in red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. 5.  The use of purified insulin _______ Patients find that it is hard to remember things  Patients find it _______ You may find it useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the symptoms are acute. which reduces the surface area for gas exchange. E. C. diabetes. This has been _______(3) by comparing the numbers of smokers and non-smokers who _______(4) cancer. The only way to clear this is by _______(9). This is one of the reasons why smokers are often short of breath.1. accounting. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.  You may find that _______ VI. Repeated coughing causes the delicate walls of the alveoli to be _______(10). estimated. this can deprive the developing foetus of oxygen resulting in a low birth mass or a _______(6) birth. developed. Because the lungs cannot be kept clean. Smokers become addicted to nicotine and so find it hard to give up smoking.4. B. This condition is called emphysema (khí phế thủng). Tar causes lung cancer and other types of cancers. smokers often develop bronchitis and chest infections. Tiny particles in the smoke get trapped in the _______(7) of the trachea and bronchial tubes and extra mucus is produced. considered. In pregnant women. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. It also damages the heart. 14 D. LISTENING 2 Listen and fill in the gaps the words you hear. Tobacco smoke contains many harmful chemicals including nicotine which is a _______(1).com . Chemicals in the smoke paralyse the tiny _______(8) which normally clear the mucus out of the air passages. A. addictive drug. blood vessels and _______(2).

Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own. most of those in need do not receive any treatment. chronic respiratory disease and major cancers. injuries do not occur at random: they are largely predictable and. _________(10). are also a major public health concern. NCDs. tạo động lực chết đuối ước tính toàn cầu hoá health resource homicide mental disorder mortality predictable preventable public health risk factor suicide urbanisation violence vulnerable to nguồn lực y tế giết người rối loạn tâm thần tỷ lệ tử vong có thể dự đoán được có thể đề phòng được y tế công cộng yếu tố nguy cơ tự sát đô thị hoá bạo hành dễ bị tổn thương 1. poisoning.2. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. J. and injuries and violence are major problems. colorectal and prostate cancer _________(2) together account _________(3) about 62. level. such as cardiovascular disease. mental health disorders.000 cases and 18. The most common killers are lung. and at rates. drowning. are at greater risk.000 deaths in men each year (12. In both men and women only about six patients _________(5) every hundred will still be alive five years after diagnosis. This represents about 23. falls. Mental disorders account for 5-10 per cent of the burden of disease in these countries. fires and burns. vulnerable Chronic.000 deaths each year. most live in developing countries which command only a fraction of global mental health resources. Injuries. _________(1) for over 40 per cent of the disease burden in high mortality developing countries. đủ sức mua già đi ngẫu nhiên gánh nặng mạn tính chiếm tỷ lệ quan tâm thúc đẩy. particularly in _________(4) areas. Mental disorders can be effectively and affordably treated at the local _________(9).000 and 10. and with rapid urbanisation and globalisation driving increases in the risk _________(6) for chronic NCDs. their burden is increasing rapidly. therefore. affluence affordable age at random burden chronic command a fraction concern drive drown estimate globalisation sự giàu có có thể. suicide. They include motor vehicle crashes.000 respectively in women). I. More than £130 million is spent by the NHS _________(6) lung cancer care each year. breast. G. Lung cancer: About one fifth of all cancer cases and one quarter of cancer deaths in men are due _________(4) lung cancer. the majority of their disease burden occurs in developing countries. such as the poor and those affected by disasters. On the whole. homicide.F.com 15 . including those caused by violence. and over 75 per cent in lower mortality developing countries. _________(2). However. are often _________(3) to be "diseases of affluence". Common non-communicable Diseases Cancers: Cancer is amongst the three leading causes _________(1) death in the UK. factors. leading to over five million deaths worldwide each year. _________(8) populations. As the populations of developing countries age. H. Of the _________(7) 400 million persons affected by mental disorders. that are often higher than in _________(5) countries. urban. preventable. non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However.

gap. target Coronary heart disease and strokes Coronary heart disease and stroke. for example . along with other diseases of the _________(1) system. vegetables. E. poor nutrition. circulatory. developing. F. women and people in disadvantaged communities. the worst off have not benefited to anything like the same extent. Excess alcohol _________(8) is an important additional risk factor for stroke. thể hiện theo thứ tự đó sống qua. factors. and oily fish. C. 3. D. cấp xấp xỉ thuộc kết-trực tràng chẩn đoán NHS prostate represent respectively survive National Health Service tiền liệt tuyến đại diện cho. tầm cải thiện thuộc nghề nghiệp đều đặn physique reduce screening society stroke substantially support target toll. About two fifths of men with prostate cancer can expect to live for at least five years after diagnosis. Prostate cancer: In men approximately one cancer case out_________(10) seven are associated _________(11) prostate cancer. chiếm tỷ lệ phân cho. large _________(10) in tobacco smoking particularly among young people. tét sàng lọc xã hội đột quỵ về thực chất. sống sót 1. However. căn bản ủng hộ. More than £150 million is allotted by the NHS _________(9) breast cancer care each year.000 deaths each year. người giàu chiến dịch tiêu thụ bất lợi.Breast cancer: Nearly one third of cancer cases and one fifth of cancer deaths in women result _________(7) breast cancer.saving up to 100. lifestyle. shared by coronary heart disease and stroke.by walking or cycling. H. nhà nghèo MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. avoiding drinking alcohol to excess. The target includes: major changes in diet. Nearly £100 million is spent by the NHS every year to cope _________(12) prostate cancer each year. J.000 lives in total. làm lợi. particularly among the worst off.v) best off campaign consumption disadvantaged effort extent improve occupational on a regular basis lơị ích.000 cases and 8. This represents about 15. benefit (n. intake. hưởng lợi nhà giàu. There are many supported actions including improved screening programs. It supports all efforts to reduce the toll cancer take on our society. giao cho.com 16 . are smoking. I. This represents about 30. The key _________(6) risk factors. death. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. people keeping much more physically active .000 deaths each year. About two thirds of women with breast cancer survive _________(8) at least five years after diagnosis.000 cases and 11. thus widening the health _________(3). the promotion of healthy diets and occupational health protection. Many of these risk factors are unevenly spread across society.000 of the half a million deaths which occur in this country each year. In England the Department of Health has set a _________(9) to reduce the death rate from cancer in people under 75 years by at least a fifth by 2010 . Several of the major risk _________(4) which increase the chances of people _________(5) coronary heart disease or having a stroke are now well established. physical inactivity and high blood _________(7). gây tử vong người nghèo. the biggest gains will be made through further controls and campaigns to reduce smoking. hỗ trợ mục tiêu tử vong. G. with poorer people often exposed to the highest risks.on a regular basis. account for allot approximately colorectal diagnosis giải thích cho. obesity. with increased consumption of such foods as fruit. yếu thế nỗ lực mức độ. account for over 200. pressure. While _________(2) rates are improving substantially for the best off in society. B. reductions. people controlling their body weight so as to keep to the right level for their physique. A. take toll on worst off cơ thể giảm khám.

and these deaths have a significant impact on overall world mortality rates. such as stroke and heart disease. This refutes the myth that non-communicable diseases. làm nổi rõ chủng ngừa tác động đã công nghiệp hoá nguyên nhân tử vong means myth overall premature probability proportion refute significant phương tiện quan niệm sai lầm toàn bộ. among the 4.6 million C. 5. A. mainly impact the affluent. Non-communicable diseases impact both the rich and the poor.4 million people that died of stroke.com . are the largest proportional killers of people in the industrialized world.II. 57% were in the non-industrialized regions. access to equality expectancy highlight immunization impact (n. Instead. of the 6. prove D. Although these diseases. 4.3 million B. A. lower than C. A. different from D. similar to The mortality from non-communicable diseases between the ages of 60 and 70 in the nonindustrialized world is _________ that of the industrialized world. toàn diện chưa tới tuổi trưởng thành xác suất tỷ lệ bác bỏ quan trọng. similar to The word refute in the last paragraph is similar in meaning to _________. The number of people dying of heart disease in the non-industrialized regions in 1990 was _________. different from D. For people between the ages of 60 and 70. This shows that unequal access to treatment and other factors causes premature mortality rates in non-industrialized countries. PASSAGE 1: Non-communicable Diseases are not disease of Affluence Non-industrialized regions often have lower life expectancies. Non-communicable diseases increase overall world mortality rates. 2. Non-communicable diseases kill a large population in industrialized countries. D. 3. Controlling these diseases.v) industrialized killer 1. 4. the industrialized and non-industrialized worlds have similar rates for non-communicable diseases. improve B. higher than B. higher than B. disprove C.7 million D. including heart disease and stroke. Non-communicable diseases are found only in aged people.3 million people that died of heart disease. 68% were in non-industrialized countries. 5.4 million The mortality from non-communicable diseases between the ages of 15 and 60 in the nonindustrialized world is _________ that of the industrialized world. some non-industrialized regions have a higher rate of death from noncommunicable diseases than the industrialized regions. 17 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. tiếp cận với bình đẳng tuổi thọ nêu bật. A. through immunization and other means. it highlights that communicable diseases kill children in non-industrialized countries most often. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. 3. discover Which of the following statements is not true? A. For example in 1990. When one looks at the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60. can be one large step toward achieving health equality. 6. C. and at a younger age. B. even for non-communicable causes of death. they often kill a large population in non-industrialized world.1. lower than C. có ý nghĩa 2.

5. PASSAGE 2: CANCER It would be much easier to detect and treat cancer if it were a single disease. treatment of cancer. D. A. it kills four out of five patients. carcinoma C. myelomas and sarcomas. It is the second biggest killer in the developed world and may soon become the number one killer. tendons and ligaments are very rare. Lymphosarcomas and lymphomas are cancers of lymph nodes and reticular cells respectively. 6. and bone tissue like the spine. B. develops in various body organs. the lining of the uterus. Most of these cancers can be treated successfully as long as the cancerous (malignant) cells remain as a separate mass— without invading the nearby tissues. ribs and femur. as in many forms of cancer. cancer remains one of the fatal diseases of modern times. Again. and demand very different types of treatment. and the third group called leukemias and lymphomas are cancerous diseases of blood tissue and lymphatic system respectively. sarcoma C. causes of cancer. Sarcomas include tumors of the kidney. Whatever the type.2. carcinoma B. Carcinomas are the most common type of cancer that people suffer from. such as bones and muscle. leukemia The word ‘two’ refers to _______ A. 18 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. all forms of cancer are fatal. Children under 12 outnumber adults of all ages in developing leukemias. 7. there is no definite treatment for cancer. The bone cancers. liver and brain. air tubes in the lungs. D. pancreas. usually cause the bone to break easily or collapse under pressure. 3. 4. explanation of cancer. nose.2. myeloma Cancer is a deadly disease because it _______ A. are sarcomas. early detection can lead to treatment by excision or destruction (using radiation) of the affected part or area of an organ. Cancers can be categorized into three major groups: those arising in epithelial (covering) tissue are called carcinomas. The topic of the second paragraph is _______ A. C. those originating in connective tissue. A&B If a patient has lung cancer. only one out of five survives—only for a period of five years. Cancers of muscle. develops in various ways and reasons. sarcoma D. After detection. B. inside a duct in the breast or any other site. Cancer of the thyroid glands is the most common example in this group. originate in various tissues. myeloma B. throat. carcinomas and sarcomas C. named separately as myelomas. B. Leukemias (usually referred to in the plural) are different forms of cancer affecting various white blood cells. it is treated very differently. Cancer of the skull would be called a _______ A. leukemias and carcinomas. pelvis. D.com . classification of cancer. 2. Circle the letter of the best answer. carcinoma D. The most frequent type of cancer in man is _______. B. There are actually some 200 different diseases that can be called cancers. C. leukemias and lymphomas. 1. leukemia D. They develop on the surface of an organ such as the skin. From the passage it can be inferred that _______ A. develop for various reasons and in different ways. They all have different causes. sarcoma C. leukemia B. The last group is very different from the previous two in that it does not produce solid tumors. he has a _______ A. The third category is that of cancers of blood tissue and the lymphatic system known as leukemias and lymphomas. as many people think. mouth. A.

Rapidly growing bones are most severely affected by rickets. stopped D. . is approximately 9 mg daily for men and 6 mg daily for women A.S. extinguish D. differentiate C. affect 6. block 5. _______ and brain tumors 3. _______ affect nose. and D. 1.C. sarcomas CANCER 1. in the same order (adv) = _______ 5. cancer is an incurable disease. _______ include thyroid cancer C. H.com 19 1. distinct MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. D. classified (v) = _______ 3. A. In B. increased C. For 3. A. Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of bleeding. myelomas. It may create a potential pathway for infection. A. C. B. _______ & lymphomas. moved 2. C. Fill in the following classification chart by using the given words. produce C. resulting in death (adj = _______ Leukemia III. which could result in meningitis. blood cells. A. the intake of this vitamin from food in the U. _______ include: 7. keep on B. prevent 4. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. attacking (v) = _______ 6. keep away from C. covering (adj) = _______ 4. G. get used to D. pancreas. _______ and breast cancer 2. prostate gland. B. _______ affect 5. _________ average. Write the synonyms of the following words from the passage. _______ include: 8. On C. D. any part of the body can develop cancer. A. leukemias. reduce B. The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid the things to which you are allergic. F. At D. delay D. differ B. carcinomas. throat and 4. begin/start (v) = _______ 2. B. changed B. lung cancer. E.

6 million have been diagnosed with diabetes A. overdose C. 4.sunscreen J. distance An estimated 14. 5.com 20 . Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. especially within the functioning of the immune and central nervous systems.  Despite _______ VI. increased hunger. special IV.rickets G. 9. tuberculosis 1. In biochemistry. scurvy H. Listen and complete the text with what you hear MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. V. habitual C. 1. 10 . _______ is the silent disease that makes bones prone to fracture and is a major public health threat for more than 28 million Americans.substrate I. discomfort D. _______ is a disease of rodents that can be spread to humans another animals by infected fleas. Chemical exposure . calcium. blurred vision. skin surrounding the lips.  Organisms that _______ Malaria is caused by Plasmodial parasites. 8. ear tips. _______ was a serious problem in the past. A. severe B. of Other symptoms include fatigue.1. 3. contribution C. and any area where pigmentation is low. osteoporosis B. which leads to softening and weakening of the bones. 7. 5. 2. parathyroid D. roughly calculated C. or phosphate. beginning with the given initials. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. and sores that do not heal. 3. excitement D.  An area near the center of the retina of the eye is involved _______ Although there are many claims of nutritional cures. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term into each gap A. predicted Nonsmokers who are exposed _________ constant smoke also have an increased risk. _______ is a disorder primarily caused by lack of vitamin D. extreme heat C.particularly long-term .  Plasmodial parasites are _______ You should take care of yourself so that a disease has less of an effect on your body. highly valued D. extreme cold B.  You should take care of yourself in _______ An area near the center of the retina of the eye is responsible for fine or reading vision. for C.is capable of causing many systemic disturbances. are more frequent causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. LISTENING 3 6. precursors F. when fresh fruitsand vegetables were not available during the winter in many parts of the world. 6. there is no reliable proof of their effectiveness. 10 . 8. required B. unusual D. Accidental drug _______ may be the result of misuse of prescription medicines or commonly used medications like pain relievers and cold tablets. _______ hormone is the most important endocrine regulator of calcium and phosphorus concentration in extracellular fluid. Persons with a history of intravenous drug abuse also are more likely to have _______ of the lungs. to D. 4. plague E.6. 9. A. _______ can be applied to the bridge of the nose. disorder B. A. 2. a _______ is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. 7. The _______ of vitamin A (retinol) are the carotenoids (most commonly beta-carotene). extreme tiredness Measles and malaria. with B. A.

hyperglycemia. 90. A.000 D. are fat If found and treated early about _______ victim of skin cancer can be cured. leading. A. developed. G. a person with this disease can become confused. 1 B. blindness. single Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by _________(1) (high glucose blood sugar). have black eyes C. Back then. incurable. 1 B. The World Health Organization recognizes three main forms of diabetes: type 1. F. 3 D. It is important to see a _______(10) doctor if you have this disease. Today. 6. E. people who have this disease can no longer take care of themselves. it was considered a _______(4) disease.com 21 . 80% How many therapies for skin cancer are mentioned here? A. Sometimes they do not remember their own _______(9).1. 9000 How many types of cancer are mentioned? A. 28% C. Although these share MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. have black hair D. Sometimes they forget where they are. I. J. 78% D. 18% B. glucose. 1900 C. Alzheimer's disease cannot be cured. interaction. B. Alzheimer's disease makes people have problems with their _______(1). They can have a hard time trying to _______(8). C. At times. 2 C. type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3. renal. CLOZE TESTS 1. A German doctor discovered the disease in _______(3). Eventually. 4 D. D. H. Listen to the story and answer the questions. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. 900 B. 1 2 3 4 5 How many people died of skin cancer this year? A. occurring during _________(2)). 2 C. pregnancy. It changes their thinking and the way they act. It slowly destroys a person's _______(7). have light-colored skin B.Diseases can cause many problems. 2. Alzheimer's disease attacks the _______(6). About 4 million American adults have this disease. 3 Your chances of skin cancer are higher if you _______. Even easy tasks are _______(2) to do. it is known to be more _______(5). A. 4 UNIT 4 DIABETES I. but it can get better with treatment. among other signs.

I. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulinproducing cells — pancreatic beta cells — while type 2 is characterized by tissue wide insulin resistance and varies widely. ailment bệnh 22 literally theo nghĩa đen MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. D. and Indians. It is derived from the Greek word διαβαίνειν. while the same term is also used for gestational diabetes in some cases. retinal damage (which can lead to _________(8) and is the most significant cause of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the _________(9) world). G. This had been noticed long before in ancient times by the Greeks. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. excessive. excessive. there is no standard. In 1776 Matthew Dobson confirmed the _________(2) taste was because of an excess of a kind of sugar in the _________(3) and blood of people with diabetes. H. G. F. in which the urine is not sweet. the _________(10) cause of non-traumatic amputation in developed world adults. phân phối suy đái dường thai nghén tương tác mất chuyển hoá mang thai thuộc thận hồi phục tổn thương võng mạc thuộc chấn thương thông thường 1. including adult-onset diabetes. but treatable chronic conditions. and non-insulin dependent diabetes. D. J. attracted. B. obesity _________(9) diabetes. These include cardiovascular disease. cuộc sinh thấm tách distribution failure gestational diabetes interaction loss metabolic pregnancy renal resolve retinal damage traumatic typically phân bố. mean. H.signs and symptoms. I. named. related. In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus from the Latin word meaning a sweet taste. related. Egyptians. sweet. dependent. kidney. bên cạnh tự miễn mù thuộc tim mạch đặc trưng mạn tính biến chứng sinh. including childhood onset diabetes. rarer. F. abnormality adult amputation aside from autoimmune blindness cardiovascular characterize chronic complication delivery dialysis bất thường người lớn cắt cụt (chi) ngoài. chronic _________(7) failure (the main cause of dialysis in developed world adults). they have different causes and population distributions. tasting. B. there are several other." a reference to one of diabetes' major symptoms . Gestational diabetes is due to a poorly understood _________(4) between fetal needs and maternal metabolic controls. Chinese. urine. sweet. A. gestational diabetes typically resolves with delivery. Chinese and Japanese words for diabetes all _________(5) "sweet urine disease". and called the ailment "sweet urine disease". "Type 2 diabetes" has also replaced several older terms. usually refers to diabetes mellitus. diabetes. tasting. While the term. C. the main risks to health are the characteristic long-term complications. They are not a _________(3) disease or condition. urine Diabetes mellitus . C. The Korean. Beyond these numbers. kidney. Type 2 sometimes progresses to loss of beta cell function as well. microvascular damage. it can be caused by either _________(8) (nephrogenic DI) or pituitary gland (central DI) damage. diabaínein that literally means "passing through. dependent. E. mean. nerve damage. A.2.Terminology The term diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης) was coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia._________(1) urine production. named. attracted. The most common of these is diabetes insipidus. conditions also _________(7) diabetes. The term "type 1diabetes" has universally replaced several former terms. juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent diabetes. so a type 2 who has become insulin _________(10) has sometimes been called type 3. Since the first use of insulin (1921) Types 1 and 2 have been _________(5). Aside from acute _________(6) levels abnormalities.com . J. The ancient Indians tested for diabetes by observing whether ants were _________(4) to a person's urine. Medieval European doctors tested for it by _________(6) the urine themselves. E.

Type I diabetes represents approximately 5-10% of diabetic patients. As of late 2006. the blood glucose level becomes elevated. there are no _________(1) measures available for that form of diabetes. quy cho participant người tham gia claim sự cáo buộc . Individuals with _________(6) levels of persistent organic pollutants (DDT. C. H. Some studies have shown delayed progression to diabetes through the use of metformin or valsartan. associated. thirst and hunger.com 23 . bền bĩ correlate tương quan pollutant chất gây ô nhiễm delay chậm. elevated. obesity was _________(8) with diabetes only in people who was tested high for these pollutants. It usually has a rapid onset and most frequently manifest in children and adolescents.Prevention As little is known on the exact mechanism by which type 1 diabetes develops. 3. although there are many claims of nutritional cures. The treatment for type I diabetes is insulin replacement. there are no studies proving any such connection. Chlordane…) in their body are 38 times more likely to have diabetes than individuals with low _________(7) of these pollutants. I. cho rằng persistent lâu dài. preventive. despite claims by some that vaccinations may cause diabetes. B.1. causing weakness. so minimizing _________(10) of animal fats may reduce the risk of diabetes. levels. G. PASSAGE 1: Types of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that is marked by elevated blood glucose (commonly referred to as blood sugar). Among study participants. 2. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. phát bệnh tuyến yên đề cập đến phổ biến 1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. The blood delivers glucose throughout the body. J. Type 2 diabetes can be _________(3) in many cases by making changes in diet and increasing physical activity. In _________(5). A. Breastfeeding might also be correlated with the prevention of type 2 of the disease in mothers. dioxins. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. prevented. but the hormone insulin is needed in order for it to be transported into most cells. accumulated. If the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin or cells are resistant to its activity of promoting glucose uptake. protective. addition. there is no _________(4) proof of their effectiveness. according to a Korean study. D. reliable Diabetes . khẳng định xuất phát từ đái tháo nhạt thừa thanh thiếu niên Medieval nephrogenic obesity observe onset pituitary gland refer to universally thuộc thời Trung cổ do thận chứng mập phì quan sát sự khởi. E. These pollutants are _________(9) in animal fats. F. Some studies have attributed a _________(2) effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes. consumption. trì hoãn reduce làm giảm elevate gia tăng reliable đáng tin vậy II.ancient times attract coin confirm derive from diabetes insipidus excessive juvenile thời cổ đại thu hút tạo ra thừa nhận. Because the body cannot use dietary glucose. Insulin comes from the pancreas. A large portion of the food that we eat is converted by the body into glucose. accumulate tích lũy minimize giảm tới mức tối thiểu attribute cho là. the level in the blood is elevated and excess glucose is lost in the urine.

D. strokes. thành sẹo cảm giác sưng khát cảm giác đau nhói loét sự hấp thu 1. The effects on blood vessels also increase the risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). tăng cường scar sensation swell thirst tingling sensation ulcer uptake sẹo. affecting 90% or greater of the people with diabetes. legs and feet are also common. nerve damage.com 24 . D. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. infection begins. 9. 6. which can cause heart attacks. A. C. increased exercise. Damage to the retina associated with diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in adults under age 65 in the US. drinking lots of water. 7. A. Burning. A. A. damage to the heart and blood vessels. increased obesity. hypertension. A. nerve cells swell and scar. Diabetics have an increased risk of eye disease. diabetes. pancreas D. both of these D. liver The treatment for type I diabetes is _________. pancreas D. C. Historically.Type II diabetes is found in some 120 million adults. drinking lots of water. B. transport glucose into cells. Glucose builds up in the blood stream (hyperglycemia) and the cells of the body are unable to function properly. C. insulin replacement. 3. 2.2. B. glucose is lost through the _______. 8. The treatment for type II diabetes is _________. The disease associated with damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord is referred to as peripheral neuropathy. The most common type of neuropathy in diabetics involves impairment of sensory nerves. D. B. D. If untreated. Some type II diabetics can be effectively treated with diet alone. break down glucose. but many require oral medications. heart When blood sugar levels are elevated. blood C. The major complication of diabetes is damage to the heart and blood vessels. increased exercise. A. damage to the kidneys. pain or tingling sensations in the hands. Insulin is made by this organ _________. A disease damaging nerves outside the brain and spinal cord ________. B. A. poor circulation develops. D. PASSAGE 2: Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is the most common of the two forms of diabetes. urine B. none of these The major complication of diabetes is _________. hypertension begins. This is thought to be due to increased obesity and decreased physical activity in this age group. infection spreads to the bone. C. change food into glucose. controlling diet. B. C. insulin replacement. infected foot and leg ulcers can spread to the bone and may require amputation. damage to the eyes. decreased physical activity. stroke. A diabetic may be forced to have an amputation if_________ A. 4. 5. Impaired nerve signals to the brain about sensations such as the detection of heat or pain may lead to burns or undetected cuts that can become infected. B. When blood glucose is high. D. who are able to produce insulin but the liver and body cells are resistant to its actions. adolescent convert detection dietary impairment peripheral neuropathy promote vị thành niên chuyển đổi theo dõi thuộc chế độ ăn suy yếu đau thần kinh ngoại vi gia tăng. and poor circulation. liver B. but there has been a dramatic increase in the number of adolescents with the disease. B. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas produces insulin but the cells of the body become resistant or the amount of insulin produced is not enough. neuropathy. 2. this has been thought of as maturity onset diabetes because it tends to occur after age 50. C. Type II diabetes is increasing in adolescents because of _________ A. Insulin is used to _________. controlling diet. brain C. make glucose. C.

incorrect view D. clear C. too tall people C. A. Retinopathy is caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina.Type 2 diabetes can affect anyone at any age but is more common in overweight populations. and may not be diagnosed until they begin school. harmless C. A. which leads to blurred vision. the hosts have gradually become resistant _________ the microorganisms. appropriate C. relieved A possible source for the misconception holds that AIDS infects only homosexual men A. harmful D. increased D. Damage to small vessels in the retina D. people with a family history of type 2 diabetes. harm D. from seeking MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. A. 6. A. These blood vessels begin to leak fluid into the retina. 8. specific D. unharmed Central air conditioning also has the benefit of lowering the humidity within the home. stopped B. The body cells are resistant to insulin. B&C 52 What populations are most likely to get type 2 diabetes? . As this neuropathy continues. ulcers D. Circulatory problems and nerve damage are cause by a hardening of the arteries.com 25 . fresh air B. A. 10 . received C. A. C. All of these 53 What causes retinopathy in diabetes patients? . Metabolic syndrome 54 What causes kidney damage in diabetes patients? . insensitive C. C. loss of sensation C. clean B. 5. 4. to B. intensified C. A. sensitive B. A. effective B. All of the III. A. risk of ulcers. bright D. Damage to the kidneys D. B. temperature D. 1. hardening of the arteries B. infection and can lead to amputation. 9. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. and people with metabolic syndrome (problems with hypertension and cholesterol issues. 51 What is the problem with insulin in type 2 diabetes? . B. light Symptoms are not localized to one particular site. The pancreas stops producing insulin.) Some life-threatening problems that can occur with uncontrolled blood glucose levels. abuse In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious. ventilation C. unspecific The misconceptions prevent many people _________ HIV testing. Damage to small vessels in the liver C. with C. the immune system becomes sensitive to normally _________ substances known as allergens. incorrect use C. Kidney damage is caused by destruction of the small vessels in the nephrons allowing protein to flow into the urine. 3. Damage to small vessels in the stomach 55 What causes the circulatory problems in diabetes patients? . harmful B. Damage to retina fluid C. 7. Damage to small vessels in the nephrons B. A. Damage to retina capillaries B. young people D. moisture This test is less convenient to administer. the function of the kidney declines and leads to kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease. resulted D. complicated Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents A. too fat people B. for In people with allergies. by D. This causes loss of sensation. in seeking D. the elderly. A. seeking C. A. Because the microbes and their hosts have co-evolved together. and D. separated B. the virus infection spreads throughout the body and results in the destruction of the body's immune system. There is not enough insulin. 2. misuse B. A. D. suffered Unless the HIV lifecycle is interrupted by treatment. to seek B.

In Chinese medicine. antihistamine G. While pollen or other environmental sources are typical allergens causing a lot of discomfort during spring.What Is It? To have _______(1) you need sugar.com 26 . which is an organ that sits behind your stomach. alternative E. 4. 2. practices. 3. ultraviolet I. 6.5 mg. V. Insulin fits into these receptors like a key opening a lock. 9. summer. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences.” The feeling that one is about to _______ is called nausea. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are regarded _______ Robert Koch is famous for his contributions to the germ theory of disease. The body’s immune system recognizes an allergen in a food as foreign and produces _______ to cope with the “invasion.up to 1 mg. and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine. vomit 1. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. adrenalin B. 7. allergic C. 8. 5. 5. When this connection is made. viscera J. beginning with the given initials. Diabetes -. believing they have _______ reactions to certain foods or food ingredients. 2. 4. People tend to diagnose themselves. antibodies F. and loss of skin tone. altered pigmentation. Despite the fact that over three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes. The level below which all sounds are inaudible to the human ear is called the _______ of hearing. In case of anaphylactic shock _______ can be injected subcutaneous or intravenously using doses of 0. the internal organs in a human body can be classified into five _______ organs (Wu Zang) and six bowel organs (Liu Fu). the field of microbiology is clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines  Although _______ Bacteria were first observed by Leeuwenhoek in 1676 using a single-lens microscope  Leeuwenhoek _______ The first microbiological observation was made by Robert Hooke. characterized in part by wrinkles.2 . allergy D. maximally . so there's a little bit of sugar in your blood at all times. 10 .  Robert hook was the _______ Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are often considered to be the founders of medical microbiology. Robert Koch is best-_______ VI.IV. LISTENING 4 Listen and complete the text with what you hear. threshold H. Long-term exposure to _______ irradiation from sunlight causes premature skin aging (photoaging). Your body uses a _______(2) called "insulin" to let this sugar into your cells. it signals special transporter MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. food _______ is one condition that knows no season. An _______ is a drug that blocks the receptor on the smooth muscle known as H1 Complementary and _______ medicine is a group of medical and health care systems. Most cells in your body have insulin receptors on their outer _______(3). 3. 1. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. and fall.0.

These problems can happen while the baby is growing inside his or her mother.1. But in people with diabetes. This is especially true for those who are African American or Hispanic. People with mental retardation also might be less able to care for themselves or unable to live _______(4) their own as adults. Special education and other services are available to help with learning and behavior. Some kids have aides that stay with them during the school day. it helps to know what intelligence is. or after the baby is born. where they allow more sugar _______(4) to enter the cell. sugar stays locked out of the cells and _______(11) in the blood. This means they need to have insulin shots on a _______(9) basis to help keep their blood sugar at the right level. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own. learn. feet and hands. Mental retardation is not a disease itself. Type 2 diabetes happens in people whose pancreas DOES make insulin.type 1 and type 2. The person may have _______(2) learning and might need longer to learn social skills. your body is able to maintain proper levels of sugar in your blood and inside your cells. Also. It occurs when something injures the brain or a problem prevents the brain _______(8) developing normally. the body's cells stay locked and sugar can't get in to provide energy. Mental retardation means that someone has _______(1) than average intelligence. People with this type of diabetes have a pancreas that doesn't produce enough insulin -. There are two main types of diabetes -. This causes too much sugar to _______(6) in the blood. But in a person with this type of diabetes. Over time. A woman also can put her baby _______(9) risk of mental retardation if she drinks alcohol or takes certain drugs _______(10) her pregnancy. such as how to be friends or how to communicate _______(3) others. More and more people with mental retardation are _______(7) to have jobs and to live independently. such as how to ride a public bus to get to work. Normally. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in young children and _______(8). What Is Mental Retardation? To understand mental retardation. They can also receive help in learning "life skills” to take _______(6) of themselves as they get older. and solve problems. This sugar fuels your body's cells.or stops producing it altogether. Since the receptors don't respond to the insulin anymore. a kid _______(5) mental retardation will probably need help. aide sự trợ giúp 27 behavior hành vi MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Intelligence is a way of describing someone's ability to think. and heart. _______(7). high levels of sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems in the eyes. the insulin receptors on the cells' surface become less _______(10). things like being overweight and _______(12) can make a person more likely to get type 2 diabetes. During school. Some medicines can cause serious problems if a woman takes them when she is going to have a baby.proteins to move up to the cell membrane. giving them the energy they need to work properly and _______(5) themselves. during the baby's birth. UNIT 5 MENTAL RETARDATION I. CLOZE TESTS 1.com . Type 2 diabetes is usually seen in older people.

not getting enough medical care. measles.com 28 . errors when genes combine. he or she may have developmental disability _________(6) to brain damage. J. As they become adults. have trouble understanding social rules. B. to crawl. or meningitis can cause mental disability. in a supportive group home. manage their finances.available independently có sẵn độc lập risk pregnancy nguy cơ sự mang thai 1. considered. there may be a problem with the way the fetus's cells divide as it grows. I. A. adults. and may not be _________(4) until they begin school. or to walk later than other children.2. Causes of mental retardation Genetic conditions: Sometimes disability is caused _________(1) abnormal genes inherited _________(2) parents. find it hard to remember things. The use of forceps during birth can lead _________(7) mental retardation in an otherwise normal child. Children with developmental disabilities may learn to sit up. It can also be caused by extreme malnutrition. D. E. In many cases they will need to _________(9) special classes in school. Iodine deficiency. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. or other reasons. or even semi-independently with significant supportive _________(10) to help them. encounter. for example. and in the community. hiển nhiên encounter gặp phải score điểm số expert assessment đánh giá chuyên môn supervision giám sát intellectual trí tuệ. trí thức supportive group nhóm hỗ trợ 1. life. F. have trouble discerning cause and effect. trườn mild nhẹ discern phân biệt obvious rõ ràng. Problems at birth: If a baby has problems during labor and birth. diagnosed. it may take expert assessment to _________(5) mild mental disability from learning disability or behavior problems. Among the nations affected _________ (9) iodine deficiency. academic thành tích học tập intensive support hỗ trợ tích cực performance behavior hành vi manage finance quản lý tài chính community cộng đồng mental disability thiểu năng tâm thần crawl bò. affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Even when poor academic performance is recognized. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. _________(5) as not getting enough oxygen. solving. only about one in eight will score below 50 on IQ tests. services. _________(3) example. or by being exposed _________(8) poisons like lead or mercury. or they may learn to talk later. Among people with intellectual disabilities. Health problems: Diseases like whooping cough. H. join. China and Vietnam have begun taking action. Examples of genetic conditions include Down syndrome. distinguish. These people will _________(8) difficulty in school. In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious. They can fracture the skull and cause brain damage. A woman who drinks alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby _________(4) mental disability. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own. Fragile X syndrome. G. and phenylketonuria (PKU). at home. many people can live independently and may be _________(6) by others in their community as "slow" rather than "retarded". an enlargement of the thyroid gland. speaking. Moderate disability (IQ 50–60) is nearly always obvious within the first years of _________(7). is the leading preventable cause of mental disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. but they can still progress to become functioning members of society. have trouble _________(3) problems and thinking logically. As adults they may live with their parents. A person with a more severe disability will need more intensive support and supervision his or her entire life. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter. C. Both _________(1) and children with intellectual disabilities may also have trouble _________(2). Problems during pregnancy: Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop inside the mother properly.3.

Memory gradually fades and recent events are no longer remembered. sai sót mercury thuỷ ngân exposed to tiếp xúc với otherwise nếu khác đi extreme malnutrition suy dưỡng trầm trọng phenylketonuria Axit phenylpyruvic-niệu fetus thai poison chất độc forceps phuốc-xép prolonged isolation cách ly lâu ngày fracture làm gãy restriction hạn chế fragile dễ vỡ. old age MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. and cerebral arteriosclerosis (clogging of small arteries in the brain). or severe atypical parent-child interactions. unfortunately. 2. PASSAGE 1: DEMENTIA Dementia is a medical term for mental deterioration (worsening). READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. injury. However. This process. Circle the letter of the best answer. Presenile dementia can be caused by _______ A. especially in thought and memory processes. the dementia is the result of some brain infection or exposure to toxins from alcohol or any other drug. poor health practices. completely helpless and dependent on others until he dies. The patient may move around aimlessly and get lost in his own house. However. cerebral tumors . use of language not common in that community. and therefore. for example. the patient loses his command over language and is unable to express himself clearly. the mental deterioration C. poor diet. presenile dementia C. Commonly. trầm trọng labor sinh đẻ whooping cough ho gà II. reacts inappropriately. Psycho-social disadvantage: Contributing factors are lacks of reading material.1. The word ‘it’ refers to _______ A. mental deterioration B. mong manh rubella bệnh sởi ru-be-on goiter bướu severe nặng. He can no longer fully understand a situation at hand. toxins from alcoholism and tumors. Whether it is caused by the degenerative processes of the brain or cerebral arteriosclerosis is not clear yet. continues weakening the patient’s muscular system to the extent that he is finally confined to bed. There is no specific cure for any of the degenerative diseases of the brain. prolonged isolation. events that occurred early in life can easily be recalled.Institutionalisation at a young age can cause mental retardation in normal children.com 29 B. the first symptom is the patient becomes unusually unreasonable in his actions and judgements. atypical không điển hình lead chì deprive. Such worsening of mental condition can be caused by infection. So can sensory deprivation _________(10) the form of severe environmental restrictions (such as being locked in a basement). There is a progressive deterioration of personal care and cleanliness. The mental deterioration in aged patients (above 60) is known as senile dementia. senile dementia 2. Eventually. it does appear that senile dementia is probably secondary to a degenerative process similar to that of Alzheimer’s disease but occurring late in life. brain D. If. and poor housing. The presenile dementias (Alzheimer’s disease) represent a group of degenerative diseases of the brain in which the mental deterioration becomes obvious in the middle age (around 45). memory loss D. killing the infectious agent or removing the toxins may be very useful in arresting it. A. 1. Whether or not dementia can be halted depends very much on its cause. deprivation tước bỏ measles sởi endemic bệnh dịch meningitis viêm màng não error sai lạc.

CAUSE EFFECT 2. inability to remember recent events 6. tumors etc. lead paint in older homes 2. durations B. hấp thu thời gian chú ý sơn bong quan tâm dột nát distractibility flake ingest microscopic particle plaster mất khả năng tập trung mảnh.2. distractibility. blindness. As used in paragraph 1. poor academic performance. is secondary to cerebral arteriosclerosis. cause mental deterioration C. plaster. The word spans is closest in meaning to which of the following? A. Treatment of Dementia C. this source of lead poisoning is still the most common and most dangerous. ____ infection. occur late in life D. short attention spans. and even death. Causes of Dementia B. the patient reacts unreasonably to a situation C. toxins. D.3. educational C. E. Senile Dementia Senile dementia is similar to Alzheimer’s disease in that it _______. visions D. lengths MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 4. Children exposed to high doses of lead often suffer permanent nerve damage. and behavioural problems. absorb attention span chipped paint concern dilapidated 1. ____ inability to think clearly D. Both low and high doses of paint can have serious effects. problems with household paint B. scientific 3. the patient’s inability to talk properly Both presenile and senile dementias are alike in that they _______. Microscopic lead particles from paint are absorbed into the bloodstream when children ingest flakes of chipped paint. Children living in older. A. experience B. may be secondary to a degenerative process One of the latest symptoms of dementia is _______ A. nuốt vào hạt vi thể. 5. Match the following causes to their effects. Lead can also enter the body through household dust. deterioration of thought and memory process 4. ____ physical weakness C. major health concerns for children C. result in brain injury B. cực nhỏ vữa What is the main topic of the passage? A. thumb sucking. Although American paint companies today must comply with strict regulations regarding the amount of lead used in their paint. scholarship D. This is not a new concern. A. 6. occurs late in life C. injury. 1. the patient forgets recent events D. dilapidated houses are particularly at risk. is secondary to brain infection B. nail biting. PASSAGE 2: Lead poisoning Lead poisoning in children is a major health concern. mẩu ăn vào. lead to cerebral arteriosclerosis B. which of the following is closest in meaning to the word academic? A. Low doses of lead can lead to mild mental retardation. mental retardation. or paint dust from sanding. The topic of the last paragraph is _______ A. arrest of dementia due to poisoning 2. ____ removal of toxins from the patient A. lead poisoning in children D.com 30 . As early as 1904. or chewing on toys and other objects painted with lead-based paint. Presenile Dementia D. Put the letter in the blanks. the patient’s inability to understand a given situation B. confinement to bed and complete helplessness 3. making wrong judgements 5. lead poisoning in children was linked to leadbased paint. distances C. ____ memory loss B.

This results in the previously described symptoms of dyspnea. A _______ tumor is basically a tumor that doesn't come back and doesn't spread to other parts of the body. demand C. B. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. 31 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 10 . expresses When the pancreases of dogs were removed. A. maintains D. conjunctiva J. stroke. basophils G. early B. to D. asthma F. before D. for D. antiseptics B. 9. Old homes were painted with lead-based paints. autoimmune E. increases B. 3. with C. are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world. 2. for C. 5. prior Some studies have attributed a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes. and D. A. insufficiencies C. A. treated B. with In some cases (particularly in children). 6. Lead-based paint chips off more easily than newer paints. the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes A. According to the passage. bronchoconstriction H. cancer. 2. 1. anaerobic IV.com . D. inconvenience D. bacteria-free D.4. bacteria-infected B. people may outgrow an allergy as the immune system becomes less sensitive _________ the allergen. _______ diseases. A. Old homes need to be rebuilt in order to be safe for children. taken away D. on B. III. C. or it can result from head trauma. what is the most common source of lead poisoning in children? A. 7. A. coma I. of D. _______ can be caused by an underlying illness. household dust B. transplanted Accidents are responsible _________ 10. _______ and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. dilapidated houses What does the author imply in the final sentence of the passage? A. such as heart disease. with Vitamin supplements are part of the solution to prevent nutrition deficiencies. allow Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever. antiserum C. B. A. C. The _______ also secretes oils and mucous that moisten and lubricate the eye. antiserum D. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. A. fertile C. offensive C. defensive B. selective It is an inappropriate antibody reaction _________ normal proteins found on beta cells A. to B. earlier C. 4. 4. painted toys D. 6. 5. A. lead-based paint C. at C. suggest D. respiratory diseases and diabetes. 8. 3. of B. _______ is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases.000 deaths a year across England. lessens C. chronic 1. relative D. unavailability B. 5. Poor people did not comply with the regulations. decalcification This occurs when the normally sterile lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) is infected by bacteria. operated on C. command B. to Some physicians recommend a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C.

Listen and complete the text with what you hear. Listen and answer the questions.  Koch was one of the first scientists _______ Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are too large to remain airborne and pose no risk. Body scans allow doctors to look into a person’s body. 2.  IgG is present in the body and _______ Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system.1. coins What kind of food is mentioned as a cause of choking? A. 9. V.2. Some people have body scans because it makes them feel more secure. Some illnesses can be found and _______(2) very early by having a body scan. By looking into a person’s body like this doctors can sometimes see how _______(4) a person is. When this happens it can cause a lot of unnecessary worry. They are often not necessary. 10 .  It is important that new or properly sterilized needles _______ IgG is present in the body. jewelry C. fourth D. They can see bones. LISTENING 6 6.com . Sometimes body scans can be _______(8). If diseases are found early they can be treated more _______(10). It would be a good idea to talk to a doctor before spending money on one.  Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are so _______ It is important that people use new or properly sterilized needles for each injection. Many doctors do not think everyone should have body scans. you are two to three times more likely to be allergic to a pet than someone who doesn't have it. _______(3). it leads to symptoms such as coughing. Now there is a way to look for them before someone is feeling sick. cakes 32 D. carrots C. Koch was one of the first scientists who focused on the isolation of bacteria.  Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system and _______ VI. leading to a misdirected immune response. beginning with the given initials. second C. chalk D. and blood vessels. 3. LÍSTENING LISTENING 5 6.7. wheezing… If you have an _______ disease. They can help find diseases at early stages. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. third Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of choking? A. your immune system attacks itself by mistake. toys B. Body scans are _______(7). 1 2 3 Choking is the _______ leading cause of death in young children. If you have _______. Others that are young and healthy would _______(6) not need one. bread B. and you can get sick. 4. 8. 5. banana MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. People that have a family _______(5) of illness might want to have a body scan. known to respond to foods. 1. A. his narrowing of the airways is known as _______ . Body scans can be very _______(9) to doctors and patients. Along with inflammation of the airways. first B. Body Scan Sometimes it takes many _______(1) for diseases to be found. Mast cells and _______ play a central role in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions.

hereditary. a disease of the heart itself _________(2) by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that _________(3) the myocardium Ischaemic heart disease. J. Cardiovascular disease. hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. D. All of these unit 6 heart diseases I. . especially localised high blood pressure . a sub-umbrella term for a number of diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system. . E. D. B. caused. CLOZE TESTS 1. F. heart disease caused by high blood pressure. not let him/her run with anything in his or her mouth. characterized by reduced blood supply to the organ. A. I.com . known.Pulmonary heart disease._________(6) causes of cardiovascular disease _________(7) diabetes mellitus. not let your child lie down while eating C. another disease of the heart itself. especially the veins and arteries _________(4) to and from the heart.4 To ensure safety for your child you should _______. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. The most common heart diseases are: Coronary heart disease. . leading. A. not leave him/her alone with a propped up bottle.Inflammatory heart disease. include. C. hypertensive. Research on disease dimorphism _________(5) that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. a failure of the right side of the heart._________(9) heart disease.1. G.Valvular heart disease. H. accumulation atheromatous plaque coronary heart disease tích luỹ mảng vữa mạch bệnh mạch vành 33 ischaemia localise myocardium thiếu máu cục bộ khu trú cơ tim MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. B. Well. heart disease that involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue _________(10) it. supply. heart disease caused by unavoidable genetic factors . heart disease that affects the valves of the heart. surrounding Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which _________(1) the heart._________(8) heart disease. affect. suggests.

period. gradual process. H. often a "sudden" heart attack. These streaks represent the early stage of atherosclerotic heart disease and do not obstruct the flow of blood. myocardium. At one end of the spectrum is the asymptomatic individual with atheromatous streaks within the walls of the coronary arteries (the arteries of the heart). and is also the most common _________(7) for death of men and women over 65 years of age. is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the _________(2) (the muscle of the heart). showing the lumen (yellow). B. asymptomatic atheromatous streak atherosclerotic blood clotting system burden complement evidence expand không triệu chứng dải vữa mạch vữa xơ động mạch hệ đông máu gánh nặng bổ sung bằng chứng mở rộng gradual heart attack initially lumen of the vessel progress rupture spectrum thrombus material dần dần cơn đau tim đột ngột lúc đầu lòng mạch tiến triển rách. finally arise. some recent evidence suggests that the gradual _________(10) of plaque may be complemented by small plaque ruptures which cause the sudden increase in the plaque burden due to accumulation of thrombus material. Atherosclerotic heart disease can be thought of as a wide spectrum of disease of the heart. buildup.evidence. decades. The disease is the most common cause of sudden _________(6). most individuals with coronary heart disease show no evidence of disease for _________(4) as the disease progresses before the first onset of symptoms. also called coronary _________(1) disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease. artery. cục máu đông Intravascular ultrasound image of a coronary artery (left). flow. death. eventually they will expand into the lumen of the vessel. While it was originally believed that the growth of atheromatous plaques was a slow. đứt. gãy. J. A. I. some of these atheromatous plaques may rupture and (along with the activation of the blood clotting system) start limiting blood _________(5) to the heart muscle. A coronary angiogram performed during this stage of disease may not show any _________(8) of coronary artery disease. While the _________(3) and signs of coronary heart disease are noted in the advanced state of disease. chung không tránh được 1.com 34 . with color coding on the right. phạm vi huyết khối. reason. E.dimorphism hereditary hypercholesterolemia hypertensive tính lưỡng hình di truyền tăng cholesterol máu cao huyết áp pulmonary heart disease umbrella term unavoidable bệnh tâm phế thuật ngữ bao trùm. 2. these streaks increase in thickness. D. F. G. thoát vị phổ. C. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. affecting the flow of blood through the arteries. symptoms Coronary heart disease and atherosclerotic heart disease Coronary heart disease (CHD). After decades of progression. While the atheromatous plaques initially expand into the walls of the arteries. external elastic membrane MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Over a _________(9) of many years. because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in calibre.

There is evidence that angina and CHD present _________(4) in women and men. character or frequency is termed unstable.3. As the plaque burden increases. long-acting. considerably. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. B. F. urgent Angina The pain associated with very advanced CHD is known as angina.com 35 . activity angina angioplasty awaken character CHD chronical heart disease discomfort frequency high grade narrowing intensity intervention hoạt động đau thắt ngực tạo hình mạch máu thức giấc đặc tính bệnh tim mạn khó chịu tần số hẹp mức độ cao cường độ can thiệp myocardial infarction perceive precede predictable preparation procedures stable sublingually transdermally urgent nhồi máu cơ tim cảm nhận xảy ra trước có thể đoán được chế phẩm thủ thuật ổn định dưới lưỡi qua da khẩn cấp MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. and aspirin. Angina that occurs _________(5) with activity. A. and _________(1) presents as a sensation of pressure in the chest. differently. regularly. E. and may be administered transdermally. I. orally. Interventional procedures such as angioplasty may be done. oxygen. especially. D. Angina that changes in intensity. unless it is _________(3). the lumen size will decrease. severe. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. sublingually or _________(8). It is treated with morphine. intravenous nitroglycerin. and requires _________(10) medical attention. or at other predictable times is termed _________(6) angina and is associated with high grade narrowings of the heart arteries. arm pain. The word discomfort is preferred over the word pain for describing the sensation of angina.(blue) and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green). 1. usually. Many other more effective treatments. stable. C. and other forms of discomfort. because it varies _________(2) among individuals in character and intensity and most people do not perceive angina as painful. _________(9) of the underlying atheromatous disease. which come in shortacting and _________(7) forms. have been developed. G. H. jaw pain. upon awakening. The symptoms of angina are often treated with nitrate preparations such as nitroglycerin. J.

An earlymorning rise in blood pressure. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. Increased blood pressure C. primary D. the list of risk factors may be significantly longer and quite surprising.m. High-fat diets and "life in the fast lane" have long been known to contribute to the high incidence of heart failure. Though stress is thought to be linked in some way to all of the aforementioned risk factors. 5. unknown C. In other studies. which of the following is not possible cause of many heart attacks? A. Risk factors in heart attacks B.1. Seasonal and temporal patterns of heart attacks C. and more people experience heart failure on Monday than on any other day of the week. and have since discovered a number of possible causes. But according to new studies. occurrence D. heart rate. cause C. for example. In addition. both birthdays and bachelorhood have been implicated as risk factors.com 36 . affect D. PASSAGE 2: Arthritis MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Lower heart rate D. involve B. Heart failure. people are more susceptible to heart attacks in the first few hours after waking. may all contribute to the higher incidence of heart attacks between the hours of 8:00 a. A higher percentage of heart attacks occur in cold weather. plus a reduction of blood flow to the heart. appears to have seasonal and temporal patterns. 2. illness C. Decreased blood flow of the heart B. and 10:00 a. possible The word trigger in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following? A. 2. Cardiology in the 1980s D. Statistics reveal that heart attack rates increase significantly for both females and males in the few days immediately preceding and following their birthdays. And unmarried men are more at risk for heart attacks than their married counterparts. Cardiologists first observed this morning phenomenon in the mid-1980.II. and concentration of heart stimulating hormones. activity 2. Questions 1.2. 3. 4. intense research continues in the hope of further comprehending why and how heart failure is triggered. habit B. harmful B. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. encounter According to the passage. Diet and stress as factors in heart attacks The word potential in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following? A. Increase in hormones The word phenomenon in paragraph 2 refers to which of the following? A. researchers have become increasingly interested in identifying the potential risk factors that trigger heart attacks.m. PASSAGE 1: Heart disease and life style As heart disease continues to be the number-one killer in the United States.

5. Acute disease D. 7 53 What happens when the cartilage is worn down? . Rheumatoid arthritis (RA.) In rheumatoid arthritis the body’s immune system begins to attack the joints of the body causing the joint lining to swell. I. Diagnosing _______ can be difficult because it may be confused with other skin conditions such as contact dermatitis. H. Skin and soft tissue infections such as abscesses and _______ should be treated for 5–7 days Topical steroids may relieve itching. C. An accurate _______ must be made in order to obtain important medical information necessary to treat COPD. either an activator or inhibitor is a(n) _______. is one of the earliest and most common symptoms of heart disease. dermatologist. All of these 52 How many common signs of arthritis are mentioned? . the bones may be thinner D. 10 . 3. 5 55 Which type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease? . conditions. G. All of these III. pain. 6. When the cartilage is worn down. B. it can permanently damage the bone. Gout. effector 1. eczema. the cartilage covering the bone slowly wears away with age and the bones rub together. 8. All of these 54 How many common types of arthritis are mentioned? . 4. tenderness. A. but their use should be prescribed by a(n) _______ to assure safe and effective use. 2. D. 4 B. pain and stiffness. dermatitis. 2 B. In osteoarthritis. This is the most prevalent. stiffness. The most common types of arthritis are: Osteoarthritis. This joint inflammation causes swelling. If the joint lining continues to grow. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. Inflammation disease B. Muscle disease C. swelling and distress for the patient. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint that is warm to the touch. 3 C. causing swelling and severe pain. 9. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. E. A. Questions 51 What type of disease is arthritis? . diagnosis F. A. _______. Osteoarthritis B. the bones may contact each other C. the bones may be drier B. dyspnoea. the bones may rub together. In the joint. 7. Arthritis is not always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs. A dermatologist’s examination must _______ this type of dermatitis from other skin from atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis… A molecule that binds to an enzyme with an effect on its catalytic activity. J. i. Gout D. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and produce fluid in the joint lining. 4 D. desensitize. or shortness of breath. inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining. Rheumatoid C. All of this causes pain. edema. redness and loss of function. 6 D. This adds to the swelling.com 37 . Itching is a common symptom of eczema and other skin _______. 5 C.e. A. A. Your allergist can help you choose the right plan for you.Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints like needles. differentiate. _______ means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues Immunotherapy comprises a series of shots given over time that can help _______ you to allergens.

lot C. and D.  the treatment is aimed ……………. 1. slight C. Which word is used to describe something not being done to the extreme? A. Listen and complete the text with what you hear. light D. transplanted Waste is released in water from factories and processing plants. call for D.IV. C.com 38 . The goal of the treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. resuscitation Which word means not absorbing food properly? A. spread C. This occurs because of similarities in the proteins of the pollen and the food. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 7. unconscious B... 5. 3... high B. 3. urge B. embarrassment D. treated Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin. discomfort B. embarrassed D. 5.  The blood test may help ……………………. 4. after D. hands and foots D.  The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms which …………………. wild This results in the previously described symptoms of dyspnea.  Someone who …………. waste Which word is used in place of life-threatening? A. part D. natural C. operated on C. 2. 1. dissolved B. hand B. transported D. beginning with the given initials. A. foot C. treated B. The blood test may be helpful in determining specific allergen sensitivity. Someone allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an allergic reaction to the skin of apples or potatoes. 1. B. warning B. 4. prior The disease also causes decreased blood circulation in the limbs. disposed of C. taken away D.  This occurs because there …………………. A. 2. moderate Which word is used in place of advise or insist? A. great deal Tuberculosis sometimes causes mild fever in the afternoon. the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes A. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. A. shortage B. LISTENING LISTENING 7 6. A. short of breath C. 9. early B. earlier C. 8. legs and arms V. fatal D. A. The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. 10 . STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. VI. sweating When the pancreases of dogs were removed. 6. indigestion C.

More women die from lung cancer than breast cancer. If an artery becomes narrowed or _______(2). D. 6.com 39 . Coronary heart disease is when the arteries that carry blood to the heart become blocked with cells. This improves the blood _______(10) to the heart and in turn.2. The most common diseases in both smoking men and women is _______. called plaque. These can include lifestyle changes such as _______(7) exercise. When they go to college. During coronary artery bypass graft surgery a blood vessel is taken from somewhere else in the body and is used to bypass a _______(9) or blocked vessel in the heart. C. If coronary heart disease is diagnosed there are many ways to _______(6) it.Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. pneumonia 4 5 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. LÍSTENING 8 6.000 1 out of _______ deaths is caused by smoking tobacco. 7 Which of the following is true? A. heart tissue can die. When they go to primary school.000 B. _______(1). heart attack D. 930.000 D. This surgery is called coronary artery bypass graft. If heart tissue goes too long without oxygen or nutrients. medication can only help treat the symptoms of blocked coronary arteries. However. Or you may need medication. In more _______(8) cases of heart disease. Breast cancer and lung cancer cause the same deaths of women. A. breast cancer B. lung cancer C. 90. and fatty deposits. This is called a heart _______(4). improves the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. 5. This can cause temporary changes to these areas. Before they go to high school. The choice of which and how many tests to perform depends on your history of heart problems and current _______(5). changes in diet. The purpose of the blood inside these vessels is to bring oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. going around a narrowed or blocked vessel. and quitting smoking. There are many tests available to look for coronary heart disease. Children usually begin smoking _______. Listen and answer the questions. B. B. 300. A. C. 4 B. it cannot fix them. surgery is needed to make a new path for blood. A. 390. C.000 C. A. oxygen and nutrients cannot be _______(3) to areas of the heart tissue. 1 2 3 The number of American people dying from smoking every year is _______. More women die from breast cancer than lung cancer.

occur. and _________(2) from the presence and activity of one or more pathogenic microbial _________(3). protozoa. while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. truyền nhiễm làm nhiễm rõ rệt gây suy yếu infectivity pathway species survive vector-borne spread khả năng gây nhiễm khuẩn con đường. survive and multiply in the host. are therefore classified as either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses. agents. fluids. C. multicellular parasites. _________(4). including viruses. J. or with objects that the infected individual has contaminated. 1. C. Transmission of an infectious disease may _________(5) through several pathways. and their intrinsic virulence (the severity of the disease they cause) is. as an infection may not cause clinical symptoms or impair host function. scrapie (bệnh thần kinh của dê cừu). bacteria. B. tract Bacterial pathogens Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms. A. occur. synonymous Infectious disease and contagious disease An infectious disease is a clinically evident disease of humans or animals that _________(1) or injures the host so as to impair host function. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to _________(2) the pathogen. or microbes. aberrant protein clinically contagious = communicable contaminate evident impair bất thường. H. D. exposure. airborne inhalation. sống sót lây truyền qua véc-tơ prion /’pri:ən/ a protein particle that is believed to be the cause of brain diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalophathy (bệnh bò điên). sai lạc trên lâm sàng lây. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box. healthy host. however many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or which infect non-human hosts. E. H. a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. F. CLOZE TESTS 1. D. G. cause.com 40 . J. disease. in part. and are highly resistant to destruction. describes. relatively few cause disease in healthy individuals. G. infect. or through vector-borne spread. contact. and aberrant proteins known as prions. is not _________(10) with an infectious disease. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box. An infection however. Contagious diseases are often spread through direct contact with an individual. Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the _________(1) of the hosts they infect. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.2. damages. fungi.1. defenses. Primary pathogens _________(4) disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal. I. The term infectivity _________(9) the ability of an organism to enter. Prions are not visible microscopically.UNIT 7 INFECTIOUS DISEASES I. contact with the bodily _________(8) of infected individuals. Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only _________(5) humans. results. quá trình loài sống qua. A contagious disease (also called a communicable disease) is an infectious disease that is _________(7) of being transmitted from one person or species to another. food. capable. F. E. A. Infectious _________(3). resist. by water. including through _________(6) with infected individuals. B. contain no nucleic acid. I. contact. microorganisms.

The vector does not have to be biological. is around to _________(2) the parasite into the human bloodstream. antibody-initiated do kháng thể khởi đầu inoculum chất tiêm truyền. J. or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles.Organisms which cause an infectious _________(6) in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. the Anopheles mosquito. disease. E. encounters. chiefly Plasmodium falciparum but does not affect humans unless the _________(1). C. An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses. mechanisms. B. introduce. transmitted. which is caused by Plasmodial parasites. Specific acquired immunity against infectious diseases may be mediated by antibodies and/or T lymphocytes. _________(10) to ionizing radiation. such as antibody-initiated complement-dependent bacteriolysis. common cold and tuberculosis). phagocytosis and killing. B.a direct effect upon a pathogen. G. pathogens. E. D.com 41 . F. and has the potential to be more devastating than direct damage caused by a microbe. contact. trạng thái độc lực 1. Some individuals develop natural serum antibodies to the surface polysaccharides of some agents although they have had little or no contact with the agent. Infection with most _________(4) does not result in death of the host and the offending organism is ultimately cleared after the symptoms of the disease have waned. by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen. Immunity mediated by these two factors may be _________(6) by: . infect. tập nhiễm hoá trị liệu phòng thủ. J. such as bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory _________(8). A good example is malaria.or by T lymphocytes which will kill a cell _________(7) by a microorganism. which may _________(9) as a result of genetic defects. Immune resistance to an infectious disease requires a critical level of either antigen-specific antibodies and/or T cells when the host _________(10) the pathogen. microorganisms. H. defenses. chống lại tình trạng. . exposure. chán nản đủ khả năng miễn dịch ức chế miễn dịch suy yếu gây nhiễm trùng interplay intrinsic opportunistic pathogen radiation resist. as occurs for some bacteria. parasitized. cause. or by _________(9). Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease. Knowledge of the protective antigens and specific acquired host immune factors is more complete for primary pathogens than for opportunistic pathogens. I. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in _________(7) with the host. . occur. symptoms. cấy MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. by harboring an organism with a similar structure (crossreacting). manifested. Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host. malaria or HIV disease).3. resist. D. tract acquire chemotherapy defense depressed immunosufficient immunosuppressive impairment infect mắc phải. resistance status virulence tác động lẫn nhau nội tại cơ hội tác nhân gây bệnh bức xạ đề kháng. these natural antibodies confer specific protection to adults and are passively transmitted to newborns. F. and they may also result from microbes acquired from other hosts or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections).g. A. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box. vaccination. vector Agents and vectors Infectious disease requires an agent and a mode of transmission (or vector). exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancer chemotherapy). H. G. The immune response to a microorganism often causes _________(8) such as a high fever and inflammation. This process requires immune _________(5) to kill or inactivate the inoculum of the pathogen.neutralization of viruses so that these organisms cannot enter cells. Many infectious diseases are _________(3) by droplets which enter the airway (e. bảo vệ suy nhược. I. C. A.

however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes. proving. and that patients who _________(3) the agent also develop the disease. For infectious diseases it helps to _________(8) if a disease outbreak is sporadic (occasional occurrence). epidemic (an unusually high _________(10) of cases in a region). These postulates were tried and tested in the _________(4) of Mycobacteria as the cause for tuberculosis. contract. cannot be _________(6) in vitro . H. I. trung gian trung hoà gây hại sự thực bào lao cuối cùng trung gian truyền bệnh lui. determine.com 42 . J. number. thuyên giảm 1.1. occurring. D. discovery. E. Often. A. endemic (regular cases often _________(9) in a region). agent demand endemic epidemic epidemiology in vitro outbreak tác nhân yêu cầu. Treponema pallidum. the causative spirochete of syphilis. tiêu huỷ giọt nhỏ cư trú miễn dịch manifest mediate neutralization offending phagocytosis tuberculosis ultimately vector wane biểu hiện gián tiếp. tiên đề tinh hoàn thỏ đơn phát giang mai công cụ II. F. or pandemic (a global epidemic). PASSAGE 1: Treating Infectious diseases MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. criteria. is to satisfy Koch's postulates (Robert Koch). 2. even in diseases that are quite clearly infectious. it is not possible to meet some of the _________(5). For example. which demand that the infectious agent is _________(2) in patients and not in controls. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box. G. bớt. đòi hỏi dịch địa phương dịch dịch tễ học trong ống nghiệm bùng phát dịch pandemic population postulates rabbit testes sporadic syphilis tool đại dịch quần xã nguyên lý. B. cultured. Epidemiology is another important tool _________(7) to study disease in a population. The classification of infectious disease One way of _________(1) that a given disease is "infectious". C. used.4.antigen-specific bacteriolysis complementdependent critical level crossreact devastating droplet harbor immunity đặc hiệukháng nguyên tiêu vi khuẩn phụ thuộc bổ sung mức độ tới hạn phản ứng chéo tàn phá. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. identified.

The disease has not responded to first line antibiotics. primary care In which case of the following are the services of the infectious disease team NOT sent for? A. D. infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians or internal medicine specialists. . in AIDS or after chemotherapy).When a culture has proven to be positive. A. first isolated by Robert Koch in 1884. an optimal therapy C. conversely. This can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and lead to a decrease in antibiotic resistance. kháng sinh đồ phổ rộng cấy. A. resulting in millions of deaths. caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . B. malaria C. 5. PASSAGE 2: Cholera Cholera has been observed for centuries among human populations and has been responsible for many epidemics. The organism enters the body through the digestive tract during the ingestion of contaminated food and water. The antibiogram can then be used to determine optimal therapy for the patient. an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated by the internist or the pulmonologist (lung physician). cách ly bản chất. the antibiotic resistance) of an agent can be determined by exposing it to test doses of antibiotic. pneumonia B. It is an infectious disease. Which of the following is NOT an example of an infectious disease? A. the microbiologist determines how sensitive the target bacterium is to a certain antibiotic. determine the exposure to the target bacterium D.The disease might be dangerous to other patients. Intermediate or Resistant. dysentery D. find the agent of the infection B. The cause of the disease is strange.The disease has not been definitively diagnosed after an initial workup . antibiogram broad-spectrum culture diagnose entail first line antibiotics immunocompromised immunologist Questions 1. ricket 2.com 43 .g. This way. and the patient might have to be isolated. after a positive culture B. determine a positive culture The sensitiveness of the bacterium to an antibiotic is defined by using _________. 3.2. an antibiogram D. . tropical diseases). The services of the infectious disease team are called for when: . 4. C. after a negative culture D. A. For example. The cause of the disease is impossible to identify. before a positive culture C. The disease is life-threatening. . The disease has responded to antibiotics. Generally. tự nhiên tối ưu bác sỹ tim phổi chuyên sâu về nhiệt đới 2. Doctors who specialise in the medical treatment of infectious disease are called infectiologists or infectious disease specialists. nuôi cấy chẩn đoán kéo theo kháng sinh hàng đầu thoả hiệp miễn dịch nhà miễn dịch học initial workup intermediate isolate nature optimal pulmonologist specialise in tropical thăm khám sơ bộ trung gian phân lập. before a negative culture An antibiogram is used so as to _________.The patient is immunocompromised (for example. broad-spectrum antibiotics B. This is usually reported as being: Sensitive. An antibiogram is done when _________. A common source in many countries is eating raw or poorly cooked seafood taken from contaminated water.The infectious agent is of an uncommon nature (e. The disease is especially prevalent after a natural disaster or other destruction MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics C. The work of the infectiologist therefore entails working with patients and doctors on one hand and laboratory scientists and immunologists on the other hand. the sensitivity (or.

excrement B. 6. Chronic B. Cancer C. Breast C. Since many populations establish along waterways. The Cause and Effects of Cholera 55. drug But when too much histamine is released from the cells. dehydration _______ diseases spread easily from one person to another directly or indirectly. immunoglobulin J. tablet C. a virus B. Pneumonia D. 8.com 44 . B. A. 1. Eating undercooked seafood C. susceptibility MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. viruses 52. exposure C. extract D. kidney failure D. Chest D. Cow B. taken D. Tense Before you buy any medicine. 10 . A. vaccination B. become smaller D. Hypotension D. 3. A. C. Rehydration C. 4. A. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. It can be inferred from the reading that _______. A. eye B. Dysentery and Its Effects B. A. A. taking C. fatigue I. water mixed with other substances will not pass the disease C. hypotension H. A. Cholera is caused by _______. bacteria D. A. took IV. Hypertension C. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. box B. surgery D. A. 5. plagues 53. radiology C. Robert Kock developed the disease in a laboratory III. Hydration D. become odorless C. viruses. people are likely to get this disease when their intestines are not infected D. Results of War and Natural Disaster on Disease D. When sewer systems fail so that waste travels into the rivers or streams and piped water is not available so that people must take their drinking and cooking water from the rivers or streams. and D. Meningitis _______ is when the blood pressure is above 120/80. hive E. A. and Glaucoma. the disease can be spread along waterways from one community to the next community downstream. A. _______ milk alone is the only food and drink an infant needs until the age of six months A. Bottle _______ can protect children against six common infectious diseases during childhood. Water Purification Systems and Their Importance C. sugar D. become larger in size B. Serious D. the disease will frequently strike. blood Do not stop _______ the medicines just because you feel better.that results in a lack of fresh water. vaccines C. dusts and allergy. Eating overcooked pork D. label D. Contagious _______ is a condition in which the body loses more liquid than it takes in. Malaria _______ is the inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria. Eating raw vegetables 54. hygiene G. become transparent Diabetes may cause _______ problems such as Diabetic Retinopathy. a bacterium C. Acute C. 9. 51. read the _______ to see what's in it. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for this passage? A. Eating food cooked with contaminated water B. good cooking and hygiene practice can reduce the chance of getting disease B. it affects the blood vessels and causes the tissues around them to swell. Which of the following is not a probable cause of infection? A. 7. Hepatitis B. 2. homeopathy F. Cataracts. studies B. The word epidemics is closest in meaning to _______. Dehydration B. heart C. to take B. Tension B.

1. 660 C. 1. 8. 5.1. milk D. 4. 1 2 3 4 The epidemic in September 2006 in the United States was caused by _______. which may include itching and redness at the site of the prick. according to researchers from the University of Kentucky. 3 D. 10 . All pet _______ must be cleaned and disinfected immediately. LISTENING LISTENING 9 6. 6. meat _______ people in 25 states got sick from the bacteria in fresh spinach. 3. frozen D. 9. An _______ from grape seeds forces laboratory leukemia cells to commit cell suicide. 5. A test is positive when a small _______ occurs. and hair roots  The proteins which _______ A company called Allerca has recently announced to be able to produce a so called hypoallergenic cat  A company called Allerca has recently announced that _______ A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins produced by cats  A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins which _______ VI. Physical _______ or muscle weakness is a direct term for the inability to exert force with one's muscles to the degree that would be expected. beginning with the given initials.  Specific illnesses that are _______ The best thing to do is to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place. Coli C. A. 2. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. urine. 3.com . canned C. A. 2 C. E. symptoms similar to those of the illness. A central thesis of _______ is that an ill person can be treated using a substance that can produce. _______ refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness _______ A is an antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity. 1 B. Health workers in the country are at serious risk of contracting the hepatitis B virus due to _______ to blood and body fluids. Specific illnesses caused by allergies may require other treatments.  It is best _______ The proteins causing allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva. Listen and answer the questions. 4 What kinds of spinach were safe to eat? A. More IgA is produced in mucosal linings than all other types of antibody combined. 166 D. 7. mucous. 160 How many patients died? A. Postural _______ can occur in persons of all ages but is much more common among the elderly. Impaired immunity increases _______ to pathogens and can increase the likelihood of sickness or death. 600 B. 4. bagged B. B&C 45 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. stomach flu B. especially in those on medications for high blood pressure V. in a healthy person. 2.

1. Any break in the skin can let bacteria enter the body. Studies have shown that these medicated products can aid in healing. C. 22 LISTENING 10 6. B. experts suggest using a clean cloth and _______(6) .com E. Listen and complete the text with what you hear. They say there is no need to use products like hydrogen peroxide or _______(7) . Medical experts say the first step in treating a wound is to use clean water.5 Since 1995 there have been _______ cases of spinach or lettuce contaminated with E. develop. An increasing number of bacterial skin infections are resistant to _______(3) medicines. cover the cut with a clean bandage while it heals. D. 20 C. It is important to _______(8) all dirt and other material from the wound. 12 B. A. Change the bandage _______(10) and keep the wound clean. These infections can spread throughout the body. artificially. But taking good care of any _______(4) that breaks the skin can help prevent an infection. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. use a small amount of antibiotic _______(9) or cream. 46 . Wound handling Even _______(1) cuts can become infected if they are left _______(2) . MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. CLOZE TESTS 1. Lake or _______(5) water should not be used. consequence. To clean the area around the wound. After the wound is clean. Finally.2. A. generation. 30 D. They also help to keep the surface of the wound from becoming dry. coli. UNIT 8 ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE I. exposed.

distinct. pathogenic. withstand Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to _________(1) the effects of an antibiotic. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. H. traditional. In many cases. possible. unnecessary prescriptions. Other factors contributing towards resistance include incorrect diagnosis. The antibiotic action is an environmental pressure. _________(7) healers have long used plants to prevent or cure _________(8) conditions. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. greatly. insects. such as second. J. J. bioactive. It is a specific type of drug resistance. resistant. pass. qua liều về thực chất đơn thuốc đột biến ngẫu nhiên chọn lọc đặc tính cách thức biến đổi chịu đựng 1. these substances serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms. G. and herbivores.F. estimated. A. Antibiotic resistance can _________(2) naturally via natural selection through random mutation. limitless. Antibiotic resistance is a _________(4) of evolution via natural selection or programmed evolution. F. G. useful Development of newer antibiotics The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria _________(1) to current antibiotics. most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced _________(3) into a microorganism through transformation protocols. selective trait transformation protocol withstand con cháu sử dụng quá mức. I. Several studies have demonstrated that patterns of antibiotic usage _________(8) affect the number of resistant organisms which develop. They will then _________(6) this trait to their offspring. even in organisms that have never been _________(9) to the selective pressure of methicillin per se (thus the resistance was already present). B. I. E. This can be a useful way of implanting artificial genes into the microorganism.and third-generation cephalosporins.com 47 . improper use of antibiotics by _________(10). which will be a fully resistant _________(7). artificially consequence demonstrate evolution food additives generation growth promotion hasten implant livestock nhân tạo hậu quả biểu thị. thể hiện tiến hoá phụ gia thực phẩm thế hệ kích thích tăng trưởng thúc đẩy cấy ghép gia súc offspring overuse per se prescription random mutation selection. 2. those bacteria which have a mutation allowing them to _________(5) will live on to reproduce.000 have been isolated. D. patients. and the use of antibiotics as livestock food additives for growth promotion. survive. a number _________(5) to be less than 10% of the total. Most are secondary metabolites. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. of which at least 12. One of the _________(2) strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of _________(3) phytochemicals. greatly hastens the development of methicillin resistance. Plants have an almost _________(4) ability to synthesize aromatic substances. H. C. infectious. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield _________(6) medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity.

raw eggs. Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses. Interviews with victims and surviving relatives led them to suspect that something in the diet was causing the cancer. they began to investigate a fivefold increase in the rate of cancer of the esophagus among the Bantu of Africa from 1943 to 1953 Soon after.com 48 . 2. Nevertheless. anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown _________(8) efficacy. The botanists theorized that a drought had been indirectly responsible for the cancer MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. kích thích tuy nhiên hoạt động trị liệu bằng thể thực khuẩn properly raw food separate staphylococcus strain theoretical thoroughly under way undercook đúng cách. D. washing Alternatives to antibiotics _________(1) hands properly reduces the chance of getting infected or _________(2) infection. I. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below. because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species. avoiding. testing. undercooked. cope with duration enhance escape evolve immunological variation induce nevertheless operate phage therapy đối phó với thời gian tăng cường thoát khỏi tiến hoá biến thể miễn dịch gây ra. áp dụng nấu không chín II. Though the plants were not related botanically. 3. induced. and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies _________(9). while an antibiotic operates _________(5) from the body's normal defenses. serve plants as defenses against insects and other predators. giòng về lý thuyết thận trọng. separately. Three of the dietary plants that they had collected produced tumours in 100 percent of their experimental animals. the one thing they had in common was condensed tannin. new strains may evolve that escape immunity _________(6) by vaccines. 1. produced. In 1962. Tannins. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. A. A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are _________(10) from those of the antibiotics in current use. G. compounds of plant origin that are found in tea and red wine.plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of _________(9) bacteria.1. Thoroughly washing or _________(3) of raw foods such as fruits. like caffeine and nicotine. cẩn thận được tiến hành. and _________(4) meat can also reduce the chance of an infection. Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can cope with the problem of resistance. theoretically. thích đáng thực phẩm tươi sống tách ra tụ cầu chủng. Tannins were found in the sorghum that serves both the Bantu and the people of Curacao as a dietary staple. The suspect plants were all native teas with medicinal application. H. J. suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal. can cause cancer of the esophagus. they began to search for causes of the disease among the inhabitants of Curacao and other Caribbean islands. PASSAGE 1: Tannins and Cancer Botanists and biomedical scientists have been collecting evidence for decades that tannins. B. spreading. E. While _________(7) promising. vegetables. C. Development and _________(10) of more effective vaccines is under way. F. limited. which is almost always fatal.

shortly after 1962 B.epidemic among the Bantu. in animal tumours and liver cancers C. such as smoking and drinking ethanol (beverage alcohol) also contribute to esophageal cancer in humans. What did scientists observe about the native teas they collected in the Carribean? A. It is principally a benign disease of childhood. They began smoking and drinking alcohol. endemic in all but isolated populations. They drank too much tea and red wine C. but may afflict with equal frequency persons of any age not previously attacked by the virus. in caffeine and nicotine D. febrile disease of high morbidity characterized by rash and catarrhal inflammation of the eyes and respiratory tract. 4. Sorghum became a larger part of their diet D. with a peak at the end of April. According to the passage. in some plants like tea and sorghum B. in human studies and field observation According to the passage. because it forced them to rely more on tannin-rich sorghum. A. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. bia rượu y sinh nhà thực vật học hợp chất ta-nanh cô đặc chống hạn quan sát thực địa 5 lần native predator sorghum staple suspect theorize tumour bản địa côn trùng ăn mồi sống cây lúa miến thức ăn chính nghi ngờ đưa ra giả thuyết khối u 2. It may occur at any time of the year. beverage biomedical botanist compound condensed tannin drought resistant field observation fivefold 1. shortly after 1953 C.2. They protected people from insects B. give native teas medicinal applications B. It is a disease of cosmopolitan distribution. While studies have shown that tannins produce liver cancer in lab animals. between 1953 and 1962 2. 5. under controlled conditions. after their other staple crops died out. PASSAGE 2: Measles Measles is an extremely contagious. which is extremely drought resistant. They were also found among the Bantu When did the scientists begin to look for causes of esophageal cancer in Curacao and the Caribbean? A. They used too much caffeine and nicotine B. human studies involving tannins so far have been only field observations. between 1943 and 1953 D. are very drought resistant D. They were related botanically to sorghum D. protect plants against insects What do scientists think was the reason for the increase in esophageal cancer among the Bantu? A.com 49 . where are tannins found? A. They caused tumours to grow in lab animals C. but most outbreaks are in late winter and early spring. Some scientists believe other factors. in what way are tannins beneficial? They _________. 3. serve as a dietary staple C.

Beyond the age of ten more than 90% of the population have specific antibody. intradermally E. Fatalities caused by measles may vary in incidence A. Case fatality rates are highest in children less than five years of age. Rash. wheezing 1. B. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. D. never have measles. 5. (2) poor environmental conditions. monoclonal H. C.Throughout most of the world measles is a disease of children. Congenital infection has occurred. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. immunosuppressants B. C. IV. do not possess acquired immunity. immunotherapy C. are the usual symptoms of measles. according to the time of the year when measles occurs. pediatrics I. Measles is endemic in all populations except isolated ones. B. D. Measles is principally a benign disease of childhood. There is no evidence that the virus may vary in virulence in nature. isolated or crowded populations may be explained by (1) more prevalent (thịnh hành. have specific antibody. according to every country. According to the text. Measles rarely causes fever. C. Measles never occurs in summer. B. 3. According to the text. 1. measles is a disease of children because: A. D. BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin). Measles occurs in only a few countries. Adults do not usually have measles. phổ biến) infection of feeble and aged adults. C. C. they often die from measles. has been used all aroud the world for more than 40 years. wheeze J. according to sex or race. D. 10% of the population over ten years of age A. B. D. most adults possess acquired immunity. die from measles. etc. they aren’t brought up well. and are also relatively high in the aged. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. inflammation D.com . 4. Measles is not a contagious disease. Because measles rarely induces fatal disease. The oft-cited and notorious (được biết đến nhiều) virulence of the disease in primitive. 2. the _______ used tuberculosis vaccine. according to the ability of the population to develop acquired immunity. inflammation of the eyes. 50 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 2. it is evident that fatalities attributable to measles may vary in incidence according to the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and the resistance of the population to their presence. and (4) secondary bacterial infections. intravenous F. B. _______ is moist tissue that lines some organs and body cavities throughout the body. Morbidity and mortality rates do not appear to be influenced by sex or race. mucosa G. most adults possess acquired immunity. they often play together. (3) inadequate medical care.

UNIT 9 HIV INFECTION This is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. 5. In order to have a healthy baby.3. get plenty of sleep. any liquid she drinks. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. _______ is an asthma symptom that results from narrowing of the airways.  It is _______ Between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases are said to have caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million. she should stop smoking or using drugs and alcohol immediately. mouth. such as rheumatoid arthritis… _______ are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. _______ antibodies are widely used as diagnostic and research reagents. 1. 9. it is important for the mother to not take drugs or alcohol if she is _______(9) feeding her child. _______ therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. If a woman _______(7) she is pregnant. _______ refers to types of treatment that stimulate. The best advice it is to not use any alcohol or drugs while pregnant. it is _______(1) not to do certain things while pregnant. _______ is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. The most common _______(2) that babies have problems when they are born is because the mother took _______(3) or drank alcohol while pregnant. 4. It is used to treat certain types of cancer and inflammatory diseases. 5. _______ is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and chemicals protect us from infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. and any drug she takes passes through the mother's body and into the _______(4) baby. 8. the better _______(8) the baby has to be born healthy. The sooner the woman stops taking them. enhance or suppress the body's own defence system. Any food she eats. for example Treponema pallidum and most viruses.  Opportunistic disease may _______ Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host. There is no safe time to take any drugs or alcohol during pregnancy.  It is _______ VI. V. It is best if you eat healthy foods. 6. 2. beginning with the given initials. LÍSTENING 11 Listen and complete the text with what you hear. A _______ sounds like a high-pitched whistle as you breathe through your mouth or nose. 4. There is nothing that stops the baby from getting whatever the mother has in her body. 7. 3. including your nose.  Infection with most pathogens does not cause _______ The immune response to a microorganism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and inflammation  The immune response to a microorganism often lead _______ Certain agents cannot be cultured. and digestive tract. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. After the baby is born. Doctors do not know how any baby will _______(6) to the alcohol or drugs in the mother's body.com 51 . Any drug or alcohol can be _______(10) on to the baby through the mother's milk. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host. There is no _______(5) amount of alcohol or drugs a pregnant woman can take. and see a doctor regularly if you are pregnant. lungs.

maintain D. D. transfusion Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and resulting from the specific damage to the immune _________(1) system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. childbirth. access. infections. there is no known _________(3). prone to record semen transfusion vaginal fluid có khuynh hướng bị ghi nhận.3 million lives. exchange between mother and baby during _________(6). contaminated hypodermic needles. it is now a _________(7). A third of these _________(8) are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. blood _________(5). CLOZE TESTS 1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. H. A. pneumonia and candidiasis. or breastfeeding.4– 3. A. progression G. C. claim extend beyond hypodermic opportunistic infections originate cho rằng vượt ra ngoài dưới da nhiễm trùng cơ hội xuất phát Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century. retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Even in the best-resourced areas. and breast milk. Providing prevention and treatment for these infections not only helps the sufferer. but also _______(2) the further spread of disease. As of January 2006. G. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the _________(9) of HIV infection. In 2005 alone. remains I. I. vaginal or oral sex. weakened Prevention and treatment for opportunistic infections Opportunistic infections occur when HIV has _______(1) the body’s defence against disease. Common examples are tuberculosis. vulnerable J. semen. prevents F. especially for those who have yet to start. with an estimated 38. making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history.I. pregnancy. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus's progression. of which more than 570. cure. E.000 were children. stage. Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ghi chép tinh trùng truyền máu dịch âm đạo 1.2.1. but routine _________(10) to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. AIDS claimed an estimated 2. malabsorption E. This transmission can come in the form of anal. deaths.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. or have only recently started. HIV is transmitted through direct _________(4) of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV. benefit B. pandemic.com 52 . morbidity. the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5. contact. F. recommended H. 1981. or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. The late _________(2) of the condition leaves individuals prone to opportunistic infections and tumors. treatment for opportunistic infections _______(3) essential. intake C. vaginal fluid. such as blood. B. antiretroviral therapy. J. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

1. nạn nhân đề nghị.Metabolic alterations caused by HIV or other infections. leading to increased energy expenditure. but are nonetheless routinely used _________(10) developed countries. . including the HIV enzyme immunoassay. .Nutrient _______(7) due to HIV itself. HIV-RNA. As already mentioned. but sometimes he would make mistakes. and HIV-DNA _________(7) order to detect HIV infection prior _________(8) the development of detectable antibodies are available. Therefore. people living with HIV become more _______(5) to weight loss and malnutrition.young children and people with weak immune systems.3. perhaps due to painful sores in the mouth. people are less likely to _______(9) from antiretroviral treatment if they are malnourished. only 0. Managing nutritional effects As the immune system weakens. gut infections or diarrhoea. Again. detect HIV antibodies in serum. this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities. donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened _________(4) HIV. fatigue. opportunistic infection sufferer recommend vulnerable overlapping nhiễm trùng cơ hội bệnh nhân. Less _________(2) 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the questions below.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled. For the diagnosis _________(9) HIV infection these assays are not specifically approved. tested or receive their test results. 2. Quite often he would be right. psychological factors or loss of income. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own HIV test Many people are unaware that they are infected _________(1) HIV. weight loss and malnutrition can worsen disease _______(8). Furthermore. Commercially available tests to detect other HIV antigens. drugs such as cotrimoxazole may be _______(4) to prevent opportunistic infections. and this proportion is even lower _________(3) rural populations. for a patient.com 53 . This is why it can take 3-6 months to seroconvert and test positive. A doctor’s mistake can be dangerous. However. There are likely to be three overlapping causes: . the window period (the time _________(5) initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies _________(6) the infection) can vary. dried blood spot or urine of patients. Typical HIV tests.Reductions in food _______(6). MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. plasma. even fatal. oral fluid. khuyến cáo dễ bị chồng chéo reduction alteration malnourished maintain malnutrition giảm thay đổi suy dinh dưỡng duy trì suy dinh dưỡng 1. In addition. It is therefore important that people who receive the help _______(10) a healthy diet. PASSAGE 1: DIAGNOSIS A hundred years ago a doctor had to recall all his experience and use his judgment to diagnose what was wrong with a patient. approve commercially available counsel detectable health facility chấp nhận có trên thị trường tư vấn có thể phát hiện cơ sở y tế immunoassay nonetheless screen seroconvert unaware xét nghiệm miễn dịch tuy nhiển test sàng lọc biến đổi huyết thanh thiếu ý thức II.

2. 4. Asthma attacks are the periods when symptoms suddenly become worse. B. D. three D. instrument to examine the inside of the body. Luckily. Stages of Diagnosis The letter ‘C’ in CAT probably stands for A. We also have new kinds of endoscopes (which enable us to look inside the body) and electronic sensors. Some MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Then he asks the patient to describe his own problems. cold air and nervousness. D. and can even suggest suitable lines of treatment. Modern doctors are less likely to make mistakes in diagnosis than old-time physicians. Diagnosis D. Modern doctors do not need to use their judgement because of many good machines. checking how the patient breathes. Computers have made a big difference in diagnosis. many From the passage you can infer that an endoscope is a/an _______ A. PASSAGE 2: ASTHMA Asthma is a disease of the lungs that causes wheezing. Many laboratory machines depend on them—without them machines like CAT. 6. He’ll then suggest suitable line of treatment and prescribe medicines. chemical. Which of the following statements is true. he then sends the patient to the lab for some tests like blood or urine test or for x-ray pictures of certain parts of the body. tool to examine the exterior of the body. Medical Machines B. For example. therefore. new methods.Nowadays. This will confirm his prognosis. can store a lot of information about the patient. examining the eyes and the tongue. Computers and Diagnosis C. according to the passage? A. five C. Old-time doctors were less likely to make mistakes in diagnosis because of their experience. The doctor can usually make a good guess at this stage. what kind and where it is. lines of treatment. if there is any pain. 3. C. dust. measuring the temperature and the blood pressure etc. checking. instrument in use for a long time. chest tightness and difficulty breathing. B. coughing. 1. It can be very scary for the patient. Some common triggers for these attacks are exercise. fingernails or eye discoloration. A good title for this passage is _______ A. MRI or Ultrasound could not have developed at all. From the second paragraph you can infer that there are _________ stages of diagnosis. They. or to observe his posture or the way he moves. C. now. tool to suggest suitable lines of treatment. Diagnosis is becoming better all the time because of new methods and machines.2. asthma and its effects are reversible with medication. tobacco smoke. for further confirmation he might physically examine the patient. D. C. and wait 10 to 15 minutes if symptoms worsen or don’t improve immediate medical attention may be necessary. Modern doctors do not make mistakes in diagnosis. When an asthma attack occurs. If the physician is still not quite sure of the patient’s problem. many laboratory machines. getting rid of a lot of guesswork. B. allergens. D. 2. four B. 5. computers. Limiting exposure to these triggers may help improve quality of life. a doctor usually follows certain procedures when he diagnoses a patient. A. confirmation. First.com 54 . infections. he looks at the patient for any visible symptoms such as skin. This includes checking the pulse. the skin (to see if it is dry). B. take your medication according to your asthma action plan. computerized The pronoun ‘them’ refers to _______ A. However. C.

help D. trouble speaking C. A. high temperature C. A. 2. cause B. 8. What are some danger signs associated with asthma attacks? A. A. Proper management of asthma is very important. It has typical attacks 4. 10 . parasites B. bright In vitro fertilization (test-tube babies) is a widely used technique to aid infertile couples. saliva E. Asthma is a lifelong disease. 3. Asthma is a respiratory disease B. C. 9. protect B. antidiabetic D. 7. The largest pair are called the parotid glands. 4. sublingual G. define C. heart disease. Too thin B. do not believe C. _______ drugs are administered by placing the medication under the tongue. rehabilitating I. 6. and blue lips or fingernails. 3. antidiuretic B. 5. If any of these danger signs occur go to the emergency room or call 911. 4 B. trouble walking. 5 C. It is a scary disease C. Too fat C. 4.danger signs are severe wheezing or coughing. diarrhea Overweight people have an increased risk of high blood pressure. serum K. evaluate D. treat D. receptor H. The effects of asthma attacks on the lungs can cause serious problems later in life. There are three major pairs of _______ glands in the mouth. antibiotic C. blue skin D. It cannot be treated D. A. B. intensively C. Too short IV. This medication is an excellent and wonderful _______ to get rid of acne scars. symptom It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs. are firmly persuaded B. Questions 1. sign D. How many triggers for asthma attacks are mentioned? A. are separated Mumps also usually causes fever and headache. A. protest C. interfere with B. certainly It is important for patients to consult their doctor to know the severity of their illness A. wheezing B. A. 7 2. 55 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. pneumonitis C. high pressure B. the patient should stay in a _______ room. Wait 10 to 15 minutes B. susceptible 1.com . antidiarrheal It is comparatively easy to avoid a particular kind of vegetable or fish. severe wheezing B. C. She stressed the hospital's main goal is _______ patients and moving them back into the community. 6 D. All of these 3. difficulty breathing. A. allow Insulin is the natural ______ hormone. sugar levels D. and D. In order not to spread the disease. make C. chest tightness D. 2. small C. Which of the following is NOT true? A. prevent Most people are convinced that it is a good practice. A. constantly D. Take medication C. salivary F. and other illnesses. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. Too tall D. A. _______ is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and most other animals. big D. All of these 5. remedy D. Send for a doctor III. relatively B. treat B. rhinitis J. suspect D. 5. separate B. What can be seen in an asthma patient during his/her asthma attack? A. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Put one term in each gap A. What should a patient do if any danger signs occur? A. Go to the hospital D. seriousness C. 1. attack Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to _______ disease.

its residents might be getting more _______ to asthma attacks. a _______ is a protein molecule. The fluids from the body can pass from one person to the other. A lot of young people are _______(7) to have this infection. Edward Jenner. Many of these people are young women. They will also tell them how to _______(10) getting it. Listen to a UNICEF’s report and answer the questions. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin succeeded _______ They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio. They will do it so no one else finds out. They will tell people how to get _______(9) of the disease. is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of some internal areas of the nose.  Normally non-pathogenic _______ VI. Diseases caused by sex When people have sex together. As Chennai gets cleaner and as cattle are shifted out of the city. worms. water cause constipation. reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were successful in developing vaccines for Smallpox and polio.  Edward Jenner. These germs can turn into an _______(4).6. Human intestinal _______. A government person says that a certain kind of germ is being _______(5) very quickly. Listen and complete the text with what you hear. Some germs can cause disease and make people _______(3). stomach bloating.2. People infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear. food. 6. 11 . _______.  They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio. 2. 10 . _______ is a general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue. The government will _______(8) people for this disease. These fluids can _______(2) different things. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. LÍSTENING 6.com 56 . to which a mobile signaling molecule may attach. 9. 8. The government wants to warn people about it. reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases. The government wants to tell these women about the disease. V. It is an infection that can _______(6) a person to have health problems later in their life. commonly known as a runny nose. beginning with the given initials.1. In biochemistry. embedded in either the plasma membrane or cytoplasm of a cell. Some things that can be shared are germs. 7. 5. and has important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen. and _______ Organisms which are normally non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right conditions.  People who _______ The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex. 1. they can _______(1) things. 4. and other health problems. Blood _______ is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors. infection. They can cause a lot of problems for men and women for a long time. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 3.  The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex.

F. urine A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a _________(1) infection that effects any part of the urinary tract. 26%-39% D. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. 24%-30% D. 9% D.1 2 3 4 What is the main topic of the report? A. 42%-50% C. since. and waste products. although. 34%-40% B. and is much more serious. A. Although they cause discomfort. E. D. promptly. it usually does not have bacteria in it. _________(5) as pyelonephritis. J. known. G. accompanied.com 57 . 7% C. B. 29%-36% Between 2004 and 2005 there was an increase from _______ to _______ of women receiving antiretroviral drugs in South Africa. A. 6%-29% C.1. 42%-60% Only _______ of women infected with HIV in poor countries were getting the medicines in two thousand five. CLOZE TESTS 1. urinary track infections are usually quickly and easily treated by seeing a doctor _________(6). multiply. When bacteria gets into the bladder or kidney and _________(3) in the urine. C. Man-to-woman HIV transmission Between 2004 and 2005 there was an increase from _______ to _______ of women receiving antiretroviral drugs in Namibia. it causes a UTI. salts. 5% B. bacterial. Although _________(2) urine contains a variety of fluids. 16%-20% B. lasting. A. Man-to-woman STD transmission D. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection. called. 12% UNIT 10 URINARY TRACT INFECTION I. Mother-to-child HIV transmission C. H. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often _________(4) cystitis. Mother-to-child STD transmission B. Symptoms and signs MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. A. I.

G. fever. H. emergency. B. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.2. they prompt the body to produce _________(8) that can later fight against live organisms. High temperature _________(8) for more than 3 days should be a trigger to get the urine culture done to ascertain whether the fever is due to UTI or not. G. likely. A. period. treated MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Children and women who do not get UTIs are more likely to have normal _________(5) of immunoglobulins in their genital and urinary tracts. 1. tend. blood. build. Early tests _________(6) that a vaccine helps patients _________(7) up their own natural infectionfighting powers.3. B. instead.com 58 . _________(10) by high fever may indicate a more complicated UTI in which the kidney is infected. Some urinary tract infections are asymptomatic. D. J. based. scientists may develop a vaccine that can prevent UTIs _________(1) coming back. E. Researchers _________(2) different studies have found that children and women who _________(3) to get UTIs repeatedly are _________(4) to lack proteins called immunoglobulins. 1. I. oral. in. C. levels. inflammation. Nausea and vomiting. F. A. F. The dead bacteria in the vaccine do not spread like an infection. which fight infection. D. diagnose.Symptoms of urethritis include discomfort or pain at the urethral meatus or a burning sensation throughout the urethra with dysuria. discharge. chills. vagina Is there a vaccine to prevent recurrent UTIs? In the future. C. which may be cloudy and foul-smelling. E. Another method being considered for women is to apply the vaccine directly as a suppository in the _________(10). from. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box. Researchers are testing injected and _________(9) vaccines to see which works best. J. I. indicate. UTI is very harmful especially in infants _________(9) it can cause permanent renal damage. For cystitis there may be pain in the midline suprapubic region and/or frequent urination and hematuria with pus or blood in _________(7). antibodies. H.

Coli. Klebsiella.com 59 . stool softeners. _____ Lister was made baron by the Queen. who had been his patient for some years. _____ In 1861. fever. Lister's discoveries in antisepsis met initial resistance. Born in Upton. A full blood count reveals increased white blood cells. High _________(7) and malaise generally prompt blood cultures. and an infection of the urinary tract. but by the 1880s they had become widely accepted. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary in a new surgery unit designed to reduce gangrene and other infections. Pseudomonas… This can be a medical _________(6) in some patients and hospitalization with intravenous antibiotics may be required. and hydration. it is a condition only found in men. A. Lister sprayed the air with carbolic acid. Signs and symptoms Men with this disease often have _________(2). Severely ill patients may need hospitalization. such as Ciprofloxacin. urinary frequency and urgency often at night. Proteus. whose experiments revealed that fermentation and putrefaction were caused by micro-organisms brought in contact with organic material. Number the following events in the correct time order. Common bacteria are E. which are often positive in sepsis. who had been his patient for sometime. Write numbers from 1 to 8 in the blanks. In 1865 he came upon the germ theory of the French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur. Antibiotics usually resolve acute prostatitis infections in a very short _________(8) of time. Joseph Lister Joseph Lister (1827-1912). as evidenced by white _________(3) cells and bacteria in the urine. Some antibiotics have very poor penetration of the prostatic capsule. the death rate remained close to 50 percent. Lister was made the surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. body aches. There may be _________(4) from the penis. analgesics. pain in the lower back and genital area.Prostatitis is any form of _________(1) of the prostate gland. Lister reduced surgical mortality to 15 percent by 1869. then thought to be caused by bad air. Essex. penetrate well. Believing infections to be caused by airborne dust particles. British surgeon. Because women do not have a prostate gland. _____ Lister came to know about Louis Pasteur’s theory of micro-organisms. Treatment Antibiotics are the first line of treatment in acute prostatitis. _________(9) on the microbe causing the infection. burning or painful urination. _____ By the 1880’s Lister’s discoveries in antisepsis had become widely accepted. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. and educated at the universities of London and Edinburgh. _____ The death rate was reduced to about 15 percent with the use of carbolic acid. By applying carbolic acid to instruments and directly to wounds and dressings. others. Appropriate antibiotics should be used. while nontoxic patients can be _________(10) at home with bed rest. II. Diagnosis Acute prostatitis is relatively easy to _________(5) due to its symptoms that suggest infection. Lister began to study the coagulation of blood and the inflammation that resulted from injuries and surgical wounds. In 1897 he was made baron by Queen Victoria. whose discovery of antiseptics in 1865 greatly reduced the number of deaths due to operating-room infections. READING PASSAGE Read the passage and answer the questions below. a chemical that was then being used to treat foul-smelling sewers. Despite his efforts to keep surgical instruments and rooms clean.

_______ Lister studied Pasteur after he was made baron by Queen Victoria. _____ Lister began to study the coagulation of blood and the infections in the operating room. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences. free from germs B. low C. C. While) Lister was appointed surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Keep the same part of speech. effective C. C. Before. increase D. _______ Carbolic acid was the first antiseptic used by Lister to kill micro-organisms. fat C. 10 . thirsty D. thin The amounts of vitamins made in the human body are too small to meet its needs. 2. (After. during) Lister’s discoveries of antiseptics in 1865. fruit D. eaten D. She should do more exercise. 2. extraction She has elevated cholesterol. to eat C. B. 4. too weak B. 1. speed up C. A. (While. rejected (v) _______ 2. gets The doctor gives the patient injections of a sterile solution of the substance in small doses. maintaining C. Write the opposites of the following words from the passage. overweight C. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. makes B. narrowly (adv) _______ 5. colorless IV. before. A. 4. _______ By 1869. eat B. 3. quick D. 3. 9. the surgical mortality was brought down to around 15%. A. satisfy D. 2. slow down B. 5. secretion B. B. slow She is obese. 8. high B. salt Progress has been made in eradication or control of many infectious diseases. spends C. Carbolic acid was the first antiseptic used to kill micro-organisms (during. raised The digesting food _______ hours to pass through the intestine. Say whether the following statements are true or false. A. birth rate (n) _______ 4. rose B. define The death rate from breast cancer in women fell during the 90s.com 60 . Prior to. A. transparent D. final (adj) _______ 3. gangrene and other infections were thought to be caused by bad air. after. 3. 1. replicating D. Lister believed that infections were caused by airborne dust particles. 1. 7. Before) Lister was the surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. The number of deaths due to operating-room infections were greatly reduced (before. stimulation D. eating People can get anemia for not eating foods that are rich in _______. at the age of 85. 5. and D. A. 1. _______ Lister discovered antiseptics in the year 1861. during) he was made baron by Queen Victoria. later) Lister’s time III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. 5. 6. Overweight people should avoid _______ fatty food. _______ Initially. Lister studied Pasteur (after. he began to study the coagulation of blood and the inflammation. increased (v) _______ D. A. _____ Lister died in the year 1912. dropped C. takes D. absorption C. A. after. beginning with the given initials. A. A. suggesting Scientists think that antibodies also play a part in the release of histamine. Essex in the year 1827. iron B._____ Lister was born in Upton. Choose the word or phrase in the brackets by underling it. eliminating B. 4.

Doing without drugs will lower your risk of getting AIDS. air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for the chemically-sensitive people. They sent the man to another hospital Where was the foreign object when it was examined 35 years later? A. sneezing. hugging. AIDS AIDS is a disease that kills people. AIDS is not spread by everyday contact. Sex is safest if you and your partner are AIDS-_______(6) and only have sex with each other. 5. They did not see it. air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for the people _______ Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein. Talk to them about it and ask them _______(5) questions about themselves. You do not get AIDS from food. Another _______(8) to avoid AIDS is to never share needles. 4. A person with AIDS can get sick in different ways.1. In the liver D. It is caused by a germ. All people are at _______(2) . using the definitions given below it and given letters as prompts. but you can protect yourself from getting the disease. swimming pools or giving _______(10) . If you must share. a snail C. 2. Half of the people who have gotten AIDS have died. LÍSTENING Listen and complete the text with what you hear. You can _______(4) AIDS by knowing your sex partner well. TERMINOLOGY CROSSWORD 1: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword. telephones. in 1970 C. In the lung C. a knife B. They saw it but left it there C. 6.  Researchers do not _______ Enclosed. social kissing. Always use _______(7) protection during sex. Listen to the story and answer the questions. In the heart What did the doctor do with the foreign object in 2005? A. B. a pin When did the man have the incident? A. It is spread by sharing drug _______(1) or having sex. a nail D. always clean the needle and the _______(9) to kill the AIDS virus. There is no _______(3). They operated and remove it B. In 1987 What did the doctor do with the foreign object? A.  Many individuals _______ Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways  An infectious disease may be _______ V. THE VERTICAL WORD: The name of a famous Dutch scientist MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. In the stomach B. In 1980 D. In 1967 B. They operated but could not take it out D.  Enclosed. 3. Cat allergy will usually result in sneezing.2. They operated to take it away D. toilets. They did nothing V.  Sneezing will _______ These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions. They got it out without an operation C. 1 2 3 4 5 What did the man had in his ribcage? A. Do not have sex with a person who has had the virus or used needles for drugs.com 61 .

11 a disease of children caused by vitamin D deficiency 1 2 3 CROSSWORD 2: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword. 62 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. especially a particular food. injected to treat or protect against specific diseases 4 any of the major air passages of the lungs which arise from the windpipe 5 a parasitic animal which inhabits the intestines of humans and other animals. 1 2 4 5 A 8 9 3 T Y E E A M S R S 7 6 A C HORIZONTAL WORDS 1 2 3 4 5 a disease causing painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints a damaging immune response by the body to a substance. or dust. constructive metabolism 10 any tube by which blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body. to which it has become hypersensitive. fur. using the definitions given below it and given letters as prompts.1 2 3 4 U S A R 5 E C R S 9 H 6 7 8 A 1 0 1 1 M A X A B L R T S A X R HORIZONTAL WORDS each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles. any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange. THE VERTICAL WORD The name of the German neurologist who first identified a progressive mental deterioration caused by degeneration of the brain. 6 a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine 7 the long thread-like part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells 8 a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs 9 the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy.com . pollen. substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing micro-organisms a blood serum containing antibodies against specific antigens. a fertilized ovum an instrument through which the interior of a joint may be inspected or operated on.

6 7 8 9 a condition in which there is a deficiency of red blood cells or of haemoglobin in the blood. the joint between the thigh and the lower leg in humans not harmful in effect. birth rate B. Choose one word or phrase that best defines the underlined words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HORIZONTAL WORDS German bacteriologist who identified the organisms causing anthrax. number of cases D. any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules. THE VERTICAL WORD A disease in young children with an unknown cause. tuberculosis. not malignant PAST PAPERS FOR REVIEW TEST 1: TIME 60 minutes SECTION I: VOCABULARY A. resulting in pallor and weariness. glandular swelling and sometimes damage to the heart. supplying oxygenated blood to the circulatory system. A. using the definitions given below it and given letters as prompts. involuntary urination during the night a white blood cell readily stained with basic dyes the science of the application of the laws of physics to biological phenomena. obesity MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 63 1. disease caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced against substances naturally present in the body a substance that induces insensitivity to pain the main artery of the body. a rod-shaped bacterium. and cholera. mortality C. CROSSWORD 3: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword. giving rise to a rash. A smoker with high blood pressure can increase her incidence of heart disease. .

A. poisons B. 26. 9. enough Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself. behind C. A. belonging and connected with a particular disease. low C. A. 14. 25. protected The outcome of any infection depends on the number and virulence of infectious agents. don't believe 64 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. A. A. not contagious D. define C. impaired D. contagious C. 5. A. happening very often B. increase He should avoid such allergens when possible. increase D. 23. infectious B. administer D. chronic disease D. suggest D. important D. beneficial effects D. substances that can cause allergy. prevention An individual will often have different forms of allergy at different stages in his life. continue B. interfere with B. D. 10. slow The best way to obtain vitamins is to eat fruit. 27. A. A. intestine Most babies are born with their brains and bodies intact. invade Good anti-microbial stewardship is required to limit the impact of drug resistance. 21. a set of disease conditions C. 4. 6. lasting for a long time C. fish D. A. risk B. 16. killed Vitamin A also helps the eyes to function normally in light that varies in intensity. result C. 17. normal D. worry B. 12. 11. B. chronic D. discover C. weight control Diabetes also causes its own unique complications. discovered B. malnutrition C. stomach B. clean with water B. 22. complete and not damaged B. receive The infected person will become more susceptible to infections. A. beneath D. A. being rich Diabetes insipidus results from injury of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. not enough C. kidney D. advised She has elevated cholesterol. make up D. vulnerable C. 8. developed D. A. A. 3. main Different viruses are attracted to different types of cells A. hindered C. 7. most noticeable C. show C. express B. A. came from B. was responsible for C. manifest Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria from the bowel that invade the urinary tract. led to D. 15. A. germs B. fight against C. types Any side effects on the patients must be noticed. A. ability to harm or to kill The practice of infection control has been inadequate.com . causes B. managing D. evaluate D. quick D. sites C. raise It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs. infect D. high B. A. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A. most noticeable A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect antibodies that indicate what type of infection you have. a number of tests B. A. equired Hormone replacement therapy is sometimes given to combat the effects of menopause. weakness D. 28. 19. assists C. A. serious B. lateral effects Desensitization should be recommended in this case. esophagus C. 24. 20. A. dangerous B. believe C. troubles C. altered C. caused to come near B. making less sensitive to an allergen. periods of time D. multiplication D. attack Mortality for some non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in many developing countries are particularly high. A. enough B. enlarge C. A. aided in D. malnourished C. ingestion B. differentiates D. 13. immune D. free from germs Scientists have uncovered several causes of mental retardation. A. 18. A. desirable effects B.2. differs We are convinced that chemotherapy will help in this case. preventable This drug interfered with the development of the embryo. substances that can combat allergy C. achieved They are now considered predominant health problems in several countries in Asia. increased B. altered C. His illness resulted from an improper diet. contagious B. avoid B. A. undesirable effects C.

It is very important to stop the spread of the disease immediately. 40 . resistant 41. The development of antibiotics has played an important role in the _________ against infectious disease. 37 . 42. fight / I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words. d . CLOZE TEST Fill each gap with ONE word from those given in the box condition / tuberculosis / bent / suspect / serious / signs / possible / upward / complication / too Meningitis is a very (51)_________ infection of the brain which is more common in children than in adults. Many ___________ diseases can now be prevented through aggressive immunization programs. consequence D. f. 44. Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to __________ disease. 49. outcome The new findings help explain why HIV – infected people with active TB have a poorer prognosis than HIV – infected people without TB. It is very important to ________ the spread of infectious disease. prescribe / J. thoracic bacilli D.com 65 . tuberculosis B. 47. B. One common way in which infectious agents enter the body is through ___________ of contaminated food or water. Many of pathogenic microorganisms may be ____________ to available antibiotics. outbreak C. h . transmission B. A. Modern physicians should __________ antibiotics carefully. Children of mothers who have (53)_________sometimes get tubercular meningitis in the first few months of life. i. prevent / F. control / H. 33 . severe headaches and stiff neck are MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.29. A. whooping cough or an ear infection. devastating / G. 34 . 39 . __________use of antimicrobials will slow the development of drug resistance. Fever. e . ANTISERUM DYSURIA ENCEPHALOPATHY HYPERCALCEMIA HYPOALIMENTATION MALFORMATION MENOSTASIS MULTIFORM POSTMORTEM URETHRAL SPHINCTER a . promote / B. c . painful urination an abnormal structure in the body an inflammation of the brain examination after death it contains antibodies against a certain disease nourishment insufficiency objects that may appear in more than one shape products of menstruation cannot escape the muscle at the neck of the bladder too much calcium in the blood SECTION II: READING COMPREHENSION A. 36 . antibodies / D. 35 . 46. A. thoracic bleeding C. A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect ___________ that indicate what type of infection you have. 30. 45. 48. It may begin as a (52)_________ of another illness such as measles. g . 50. It is important to _____________ strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance. b . treated bronchitis B. 32 . 43. j. 38 . ingestion / C. mumps. appropriate/ E. TERMINOLOGY – Match each medical term on the left with its meaning listed on the right 31 .

The rate of major complications such as perforation. take the person to hospital. Hysteroscopy: soi tử cung Uterus: tư cung Perforation: thủng. bulges (57)___________. and bowel or urinary tract injury was less than 1%. Hysteroscopy has recently been performed either for diagnostic or operative purposes. get medical help fast. . Complications of operative hysteroscopy cannot be completely avoided. and D. C. B. His face turned blue _______ cold. one of the major complications of operative hysteroscopy. In babies under one year old. Hysteroscopy is always done to diagnose. When the AAGL surveyed its members in 1993. One of the most common complications of operative hysteroscopy is uterine perforation. We can reduce the risk of complications if attention is paid to contradictions. and may occur even when a procedure is done correctly by experienced doctors. There are several ways to reduce the risks of hysteroscopic surgery. B. / birth. hemorrhage. equipment is thoroughly checked and the surgeon goes through a mental checklist and plans each procedures. Writing with prompts 66 Most people /be / familiar / Down’s Syndrome /which / occur / more often / babies / mothers / . It could have been avoided if the obstetrician had stopped the procedure when bleeding first occurred. This is just one of the strategies that can reduce the risks of hysteroscopic surgery.G. 68 Antimicrobials /should / use / appropriately. TRUE – FALSE TEST. 2. Usually. If it is (60) ____________. C. If you (59)_________that a child has meningitis . SECTION III WRITING & TRANSLATION A. we must be aware of potential complications and do our best to minimize the risk for our patients. results in the development of opportunistic infections. 3. It is possible to avoid uterine perforation.com . The child is very sleepy and his (58)__________ gets worse and worse until he loses consciousness.(54)_________ of meningitis. which is the normal number. which is illustrated by this case. 1. over / 35 years old. 4. TEST 2: TIME 60 minutes PART 1: STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. the fontanel. khoan thủng 1. Operative hysteroscopy is not always safe and effective as many reports confirm. 66 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. not for any other purposes of treatment. the back is (56)_________ stiff to put the head between the knees. It is essential for surgeons to be aware of the possibility of complications and try to reduce the risk. They are far more likely if techniques or equipment are used improperly. 5. . but as more gynecologists perform an increasing number of procedures. The child is very sick and lies with his head (55)_________ back.Vietnamese Translation 69 AIDS is a disease characterized by progressive damage to the body’s immune system which . Many reports confirm that operative hysteroscopy is safe and effective. English. 67 Newborn babies / mothers/ tuberculosis / should / vaccinate / B. 70 Babies born with Down’s syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of 46. the soft spot on the head. removed the instrument and allowed the uterus to contract. . it found a complication rate of 2% for operative hysteroscopy. Read the passage and answer the True/False questions below.C.

should The talented surgeon _______ the open heart operation successfully. eating D. 7. A. can _______ in shock. weather D. which B. whom D. Cancer C. A. 19. cover him with a _______ A. too D. eat B. provide Bacteria are _______ small to be seen without a microscope. So C. as to C. 21. Anemia B. inflamed gums. with C. blanket C. he Continue with other questions _______ learn the details of the illness. He must be _______ to hospital. 18. 5. so B. of B. A. taking D. out of Symptoms include things the sick person feels or _______ . in order to D. A. very _______ the patient slowly move his eyes up and down. that D. lies D. deformed The baby is having difficulty _______ . Such B. A. A. Tell In children anemia can come from not_______ food rich in iron. high C.Is Dr. thinks C. providing D. shivers C. A. He _______ be in his office. to The pupil of the bad eye is bigger than _______ of the good eye. 16. took C. A.com . 3. by C. Smith in his office now? – I’m not sure. performed B. blank D. A. 15. A. reports D. this The examiner should notice _______ both sides of the chest move equally when the patient breathes. who B. _______ can the monthly bleeding of women if they do not eat the foods the body needs. from D. breathe C. Ask D. provides C. dull C. doubles D. 27. 29. helps B. A. higher B. off D. 10. Glaucoma In malaria the patient _______ for 15 minutes to an hour at each attack. 25. A. on C. about D. Have C. Also _______ the patient to cover one eye and with the other to look at an object straight ahead of him. to eat C. Too D.2. in Blood loss from large wounds. gap Tilt the patient’s head back and to one side so that he does not breathe the vomit into his _______ . 28. breathing The victim is badly injured and has lost much blood. with Cough can keep us _______ sleeping. 23. at B. now and again B. dehydration. such C. breath B. 22. A. 6. taken B. A. Let C. from C. A. vegetable and other foods rich _______ iron can cause anemia. severe illness. A. large burn. always D. must C. A. much higher The person _______ care should wash his hands well each time he goes to the sick person. from D. to take Those people _______ are overweight should be on a diet under the supervision of the doctor. ears C. 9. stomach Diseases can be transmitted by giving injections with needles that are _______ . 14. in to B. make D. well-boiled _______ is a condition in which loss of vision occurs because of abnormally high pressure in the eye. faints The patient’s temperature is not _______ as it was last night. A. sore tongue. A. A. 17. cause B. provided B. informed D. unless C. result C. if B. 11. A. whose C. rarely . etc. Get B. bandage B. that if A diet lacking meat. will B. to breathe D. sleeps B. Ask B. 20. 24. hands Great pain. Hepatitis D. heart B. bleeding ulcer or dysentery can cause anemia. Make D. lungs D. for B. eaten A baby _______ cries a lot or pulls at his ears may have infection. A. formed C. be caused If a person with shock feels cold. troubles C. may D. 4. for B. 13. not sterilized D. rubs I see her off and on about three times a week A. sends B. as high D. Have Also examine the mouth _______ sores. 12. sharp B. 8. so to He bothers me too much and I cannot do my work properly. what C. all the time C. 67 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 26. A. A. A. A.

seek medical help. Different heart diseases may require different _______ (33) medicines. X-raying D. If you think a person has heart trouble.If …………………………………………………………… 47 New equipment enables us to detect more diseases. which include both heart and blood vessel disorders. whose C. 46 They didn’t take the boy to hospital and his life was not saved. and the eyes and ears. Typhus can cause only local infection. People with heart diseases should not work so hard that they get _______(35) pain or have trouble breathing. 44. The outcome of an infection depends on the toxins of the infectious agents. beginning with the given words so that the meaning keeps unchanged. chest. The heart is never affected by local infections. If an old person begins having attacks or difficult breathing or _______(37) of the feet. such as measles. swelling Heart _______ (31) is a commonly used term for any disease that affects the heart. which must be used with great _______(34). who B. he should _______(39) quietly in a cool place until the pain goes away. the lungs. care. the reproductive and urinary tracts.New equipment makes it …………………………………………………………… 48 You need to have your blood pressure checked regularly. affect the entire body. 41 . . typhus and yellow fever. PART 3: Read the passage and answer the TRUE/FALSE questions below Some infections. A compromised immune system helps fight against such diseases as AIDS or cancer PART 4: Rewrite the following sentences. the heart has probably been damaged. contains. . For the rest of his life he should eat little or no salt. It is important that he has the right medicine when he needs it. . 42. However. disease. Local infections occur the most often in the upper respiratory tract. whom You should have your lungs _______ if your cough lasts for over a month. has just received a lot of modern .St Louis Hospital. X-rayed B. A. and the response of the immune system. If the chest pain is very strong and does not show _______(40) of shock. which ………………………………… 50 The child will die if nobody sends for a doctor. . They also can spread through the blood stream to cause widespread symptoms. If a person has angina pectoris or a heart attack. 45. the biggest hospital in the City. A more appropriate term is _______ (32) disease. he should not use salt or eat food that _______(38) salt. which D. cardiovascular. Local infections can cause serious illnesses if they affect vital organs such as the heart.com 68 . X-ray C. affect only one organ or system of the body. malaria.It is …………………………………………………………… 49 St Louis Hospital. The most frequent local infections. rest. occur in the upper respiratory tract. . equipment. A compromised (thỏa hiệp) immune system. . 43. specific.30. to X-ray PART 2: Fill the gaps with appropriate words given in the box attack. .Unless …………………………………………………………………… MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. Other infections. . including the common cold. regular exercise helps prevent a heart _______(36). The outcome (kết thúc bệnh) of any infection depends on the number and virulence of infectious agents. . which can result from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer. however. signs. brain or liver. may allow organisms that are ordinarily harmless to proliferate (sinh sản) and cause life-threatening illness. Other common sites of infection include the digestive tract. A.

A. 6. A. maintaining C. believes D. eats. suggesting She is obese. enlarge 69 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. become weak This disorder relates to what she ingests. 1. A. become harmless D. multiply B. A. 4. replicating D. modern Progress has been made in eradication or control of many infectious diseases. 2. die C. says Only sterile needles are used for injection. small in size C. dirty B. B. overweight C. C and D. too weak B. go through C. drinks or swallows C. 5. free from germs D. 3. These organisms may proliferate and cause life-threatening illness. inhibit D. A.com . eliminating B. thin Microscopic organisms can penetrate the body’s natural barriers.TEST 3: TIME 60 minutes I. thirsty D. breaths in B. destroy B. GRAMMAR & GENERAL VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. A. She should do more exercise.

_______ average. Nonsmokers who are exposed _______ constant smoke also have an increased risk. suitable B. extensive C. clean with water B. A. for C. distinct 19. Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself. A. All women should take steps to prevent heart disease. At D. normal body functions can break down and make a person susceptible _______ disease. invasive 11. mortality C. resistant to B. Antimicrobials must be used responsibly to preserve their utility and value. For 30. spoken as 27. A. called as C.His improper diet has resulted in his illness at present. Desensitization should be recommended in this case. Vitamin supplements are part of the solution to prevent nutrition deficiencies. transplanted 26. selective 20. with B. to D. A. known as B. weight control 15. remarked D. decalcification 24. undesirable effects C. maintain D.com 70 7. fertile C. beneficial effects D. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. differ B. prevent 18. commented C. resulted from C. Other symptoms include fatigue. unusual D. A. malnutrition C. A. number of cases D. A. In B. multiplication D. A. get used to D. invade 16. free from 9. Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever. treated B. operated on C. of 29. A. Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of bleeding. insufficiencies C. habitual C. and sores that do not heal. lateral effects 14. Patients should take medications as prescribed by your doctor. reduce C. This occurs when the normally sterile lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) is infected by bacteria. A. inconvenience D. expresses 21. related B. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. taken away D. differentiate C. extreme heat C. A smoker with high blood pressure can increase her incidence of heart disease. the intake of this vitamin from food in the U. bacteria-infected B. anaerobic 25. extinguish D. offensive C. expensive D. destroy B. Humankind remains vulnerable to many new and resurgent diseases. defensive B. A. keep on B. A. linked 28. blurred vision. are more frequent causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. a number of tests B. increased hunger. When the pancreases of dogs were removed. liable to be damaged or harmed by D. led to B. investigated D. chronic disease D. Any side effects on the patients must be noticed. The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid the things to which you are allergic. excitement D. A. told as D. On C. increases B. is approximately 9 mg daily for men and 6 mg daily for women A. prepared 8. A. eliminate 10. bacteria-free D. Appropriate use of antimicrobial agents will slow the resistance. recommended 22. In vitamin deficiency. A. Some studies have attributed a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes. A deficiency may result in changes in the conjunctiva (corner of the eye) _______ Bitot's spots. relative D. infect D. making less sensitive to an allergen B. obesity 12. lessens C. keep away from C. the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes A. Women of all ages should be _______ about heart disease. special 23. allergic to C. associated D. desirable effects B. extreme cold B. enlarge C. .S. birth rate B. unavailability B. prevention 13. extreme tiredness 17. A. A. desceribed B. concerned C. A. A. A. severe B. Measles and malaria. maintains D. a set of disease conditions C. A.

describes B. damages B. 31. do B. obesity g abnormally low blood pressure 38. of D. rhinitis a a disease causing painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints. it can be brought (41)______. under control D. contagious h the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells 39. High blood pressure cannot be cured. arthritis j inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose III. However. 44 A. For severe cases of high blood pressure a doctor usually (47)______ antihypertensile drugs. micronutrient f persisting for a long time or constantly recurring. 50 A. will C. they (48)______ know that overweight people and cigarette smokers have a tendency to high blood pressure.(46)______ foods. chronic i existing or taking place within the skin 40. free B. for II. respiration C. The usual treatment for cases of high blood pressure is a change of diet to reduce the amount of sodium (45)______ into the body. contraction . MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. especially by metabolic reaction 36. freed . 47 A. infection D. Although doctors do not know all the cause of high blood pressure. The most prevalent cause of heart diseases is high blood pressure. Otherwise C. intradermally e a substance from which another is formed. prescribes C. Therefore .1. 43 A. hypotension c substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms 34. precursor b spread from one person or organism to another by direct or indirect contact 33. Moreover B. 3. 42 A. regular (49)______ and adequate sleep and rest are desirable for (50)______ persons. Because table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food. disastrous . CLOZE TEST 1: Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap.2. injection . out of control B. take C. provides D. would . each . (43)______ the person who has high blood pressure often must continue treatment for the disease for the (44)______ of his life. 48 A. 46 A. READING COMPREHENSION 3. freely D. all B. whole C. 49 A. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Match a term on the right with its corresponding definition on the left. However D. rest D. all of D. relaxation D. also called hypertension. every C. the diet usually calls for eating salt. damage C. not acute 37. freedom C. Since emotions and worry also can cause blood pressure to rise. to B. 41 A.com 71 . 32. taken B. CLOZE TEST 2 Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap. must D. all B. immunity d being grossly fat or overweight 35. taking D.A. so that it may not cause (42)______ to the heart and other body system. digestion B. supplies . off control C. from control . with C. some . 45 A.

About two-thirds live at or below the official poverty level. except B. external . efficiency D. For example. nevertheless B. they occur prior to the individual's twenty-second birthday. the disability rights movement has been organized to fight against these infringements of civil rights. 55 A. Congress responded by passing laws recognizing people with disabilities as a protected class under civil rights statutes. Many people. 53 A.3. takes B. shelter. (60)______. and a majority of those who do work are underemployed. mostly B. It is estimated that over 35 million Americans have physical. Selling D. Advancements in medicine and social services have created a climate in which people with disabilities can expect to have such basic needs as food. in that B. while no longer prohibited by law from marrying. etc. only a small percentage of people with disabilities survived for long. 60 A. Prior to the 20th century. 57 A. something . therefore C. About half of these disabilities are "developmental". so C. such as mobility. Supplying B. out of C. and medical treatment. Buying C.e.com 72 . mental. Medical treatment for these disabilities was unavailable. Scientists say the body has no nutritional use for (59)______ vitamins. moreover D. makes C. They are needed for transforming foods (52)______ energy and body maintenance. They do not provide energy.. exceed C. (51)______ do they construct or build any part of the body. 52 A. anything D. Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements .e. either B. no . It is estimated that more than half of Americans with disabilities are unemployed. such that D. i. (58)______ enough vitamins is essential to life. Most other disabilities are considered "adventitious". 51 A. never D. employment. In recent decades. 56 A. Significant barriers. Civil liberties such as the right to vote. hydrogen. get an education. from B. Still today. deficiency B. excess D. especially in transportation and public awareness. They are different (56)______ their elements are arranged differently. performs . and (55)______ nitrogen. or other disabilities. some C. 54 A. However. READING WITH MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Read the passage and answer the question given below it. Unfortunately.Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals. often from genetic conditions. believe in being on the "safe side" and thus take extra vitamins. There’s . nor D. and if (53)______ is missing a (54)______ disease becomes apparent. communication. people with disabilities must fight to live their lives independently. informs D. and each vitamin (57)______ one or more specific functions in the body.. prevent disabled people from taking part in society. and are severe enough to affect three or more areas of development. rarely . these basics are often not available. from . 58 A. oxygen. 3. and gain employment have been denied on the basis of disability. defective . any B. so that C. There are thirteen or more of them. although . i. People with disabilities comprise a large part of the population. sufficiency C. of D. a person with no access to transportation is excluded from community and social activities which might lead MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. into . accidental or caused by outside forces. rare C.usually carbon. 59 A. marry. a well-balanced diet will usually meet all the body's vitamin needs. including man.

abuse 5. Over 50% C. B. TEST 4: TIME 60 minutes I. decrease C. extreme cold B. extreme tiredness 3. These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions. blurred vision. A.. C and D. excitement D. A. incorrect view D. A. Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens.to the development of long-term relationships. eliminate 6. Rewrite the following question so that the new sentence is similar in meaning to the original one. and sores that do not heal. more public facilities should be set up _______ Americans with disabilities are unemployed. A. public attitudes should be changed C. express B. Although there are many claims of nutritional cures. A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect antibodies that indicate what type of infection you have. medical techniques were not available D.com 73 . government should provide more aids D. they were too poor to get proper treatment In the author's opinion. GRAMMAR & GENERAL VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A. About 2/3 The word significant is closest in meaning to _______. A. increases B. A. A diet low in fat will reduce your chances of getting certain diseases and help you maintain a healthy weight. more laws should be passed B. maintains D. extreme heat C. A. expresses MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. disabilities destroyed major bodily functions B. administer D. preventable 62. vary 4. reduce C. Antimicrobials must be used responsibly to preserve their utility and value.  Organisms that ………………. increased hunger. is caused by outside forces C. there is no reliable proof of their effectiveness. infringements (vi phạm). A. About 1/3 D. It will only be when public attitudes advance as far as laws have that disabled people will be fully able to take their rightful place in society. IV. end up D.  The pain is caused …………….  Researchers do not …………………… 70. 63. A "developmental" disability _____. considerable B. increase B. lessens C. A. discover B. 67. Other symptoms include fatigue. manifest 2. they were not very well looked after C. occurs in youth and affects development D. 1. A. maintain D. The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. disable D. 64. statutes (quy chế). is getting more and more severe Most disabled people used to die early because _____. contract 7. misuse B. develops very slowly over time B. WRITING. destroy C. A possible source for the misconception holds that AIDS infects only homosexual men A. destroy B. Blood test can detect this defect at birth. rise D.  Despite …………………… 69. show C. Congress (Quốc hội). Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein. Over a quarter of B. A. 65. attitude (thái độ) 61. 68. Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever. to enable the disabled people to take their rightful place in society _____. favourable C. 66.  Many individuals ………………. incorrect use C.

A. enlarge Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria from the bowel that invade the urinary tract. serious B. A. eased Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin. making less sensitive to an allergen B. called C. to X-ray Women of all ages should be _______ about heart disease. malnutrition C. severe D. 23. antibodies C. A. infected C. A. multiplication D. attack Malaria begins suddenly with rising temperature and chills. antibiotics B. accommodates C. A. 18. light It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs. easily C. esophagus C. All women should take steps to prevent heart disease. interfere with B. part D. 12. related B. a headache that typically affects one side of the head and is often accompanied by nausea and disturbed vision . sweating D. A. X-ray C. 13. A. 31 antiseptics A. antigens D. fever C. appears D. 28. A. increase He is suffering from chronic dysentery. 26. swallowed C. intestine NCDS are often referred to as diseases of affluence. lasting C. A. A. 27. general C. 32 anus B. 9. 16. 21. mild D. presents B. define C. . 17. bright D. inhibit D. specific Urinary tract infection is an _______ treated disease. cooked When a person is _______ with HIV. clean B. sudden onset D. X-raying D. A. X-rayed B. 33 gastritis C. great deal This layer is _______ as the subcutaneous. destroy B. A. 30. associated D. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 25. concerned C. risk B. the opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body . allergic D. A. acute C. 20. easy D. there is an initial period when the virus multiplies rapidly. dangerous B. inflammation of the lining of the stomach . result C. knew D. shortage B. Desensitization should be recommended in this case. a group of symptoms which consistently occur together or a condition characterized by a set of associated symptoms. A.com 74 . beneath D. go through C. known B. 19. feeling hot D. 14. main Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself. acute B.8. feeling cold In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious. feeling easy C. feeling uneasy B. pains Microscopic organisms can penetrate the body’s natural barriers. lot C. 34 hyperalimentation D. being rich You should have your lungs _______ if your cough lasts for over a month. 10. clean with water B. severe Headache is the most frequent human discomfort. invade Excess sugar accumulates in the blood. A. infect D. being poor B. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Match a term on the right with its corresponding definition on the left. clear C. A. and may not be diagnosed until they begin school. produced B. 29. A. A. kidney D. behind C. chronic B. preventable Vitamins have such _______uses that one cannot replace or act for the other. malnutrition C. 24. management D. enlarge C. antihistamine II. A. coldness B. contaminated B. linked When food is _______ it passes down the esophagus. ease B. 22. 15. 11. calling These bacteria may be associated with symptoms and thus require treatment with _______. A. stomach B. digested D. A. A. reproduced D. builds up Good anti-microbial stewardship is required to limit the impact of drug resistance. weight control Diabetes insipidus results from injury of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. replicated We say a disease is ________ when it does not last for a long time. evaluate D. A.

numbness. relating to the period after childbirth artificial supply of nutrients. G. A high fibre intake may _______(48) control sugar levels as well as reduce oral anti-diabetic medication. Lately she has been experiencing numbness and occasional tingling in the feet. 37 . Follow a diet that is low in animal fats. injury. vegetables Diabetes and numb feet Question: MY mother has been suffering from diabetes for more than five years. sexual contact and other exposure to bodily fluids. which protects microcirculation to nerves. Prolonged _______(41) to high glucose levels can _______(42) nerve damage due to glucose oxidation. I. 40 . The key prevention is to _______(44) her blood sugar levels at near normal levels. These are followed by the characteristic jaundice or yellowing of the eyes and skin due to a build-up of bile in the blood. being exceptionally rich in a compound called phosphatidylcholine. This is because untreated injuries may _______(50) to amputation. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver due to five hepatitis viruses .A. fatigue. Her diet should be high in fibre and complex carbohydrates but low in simple sugars and fats. amputation: cắt cụt chi 3. saliva and other body fluids. cause B. A. Hepatitis C is mostly transmitted through blood transfusion. You may check with your doctor before taking any medications. lead G. remedy I. B-vitamins are necessary for normal nerve function and supplementing is a good _______(47) measure.35 . Physical activity can enhance insulin sensitivity and improve glucose tolerance in those with diabetes. sharing of needles. the disease may be mistaken for flu. Hepatitis A is transmitted through contaminated food. You should check on her feet everyday for cuts and break of the skin. help D. C. kim châm. She may consider taking alpha lipoic acid. All water should be boiled before drinking. being grossly fat or overweight a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue a disease of children caused by vitamin D deficiency substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms III. symptoms J. tingling: cảm giác kiến bò. intake E. making it especially effective for diabetic neuropathy. 36 . It is spread by blood transfusion. F. Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood.2. is MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. READING COMPREHENSION 3. Alcohol and medications that are potentially toxic to the liver must be avoided. In its early stages. Hepatitis D & E occur only in people who already have infection with hepatitis B virus and it makes the hepatitis B infection more severe. typically intravenously. numbness: tê. and if you are traveling use bottled water. The common _______(43) of diabetic neuropathy include pain. Lecithin. exposure C. preventive H. where you can be assured of hygiene. It is a recognised _______(45) for diabetic neuropathy. B. diarrhoea. loss of appetite. J. people with alcoholic liver disease often have hepatitis C as well. fresh fruits and _______(49) are highly recommended. 39 . oily fried foods and carbohydrates but high in dietary fibre like fruits and vegetables. H. keep F. Excessive bile can also cause severe itchiness and a darkening of urine. with fever. Increasing her _______(46) of B-vitamins may also be beneficial. alternative: thay thế. 38 . Start off with gentle exercises such as walking and cycling three times a week.1. tingling and burning sensation. Is there any alternative treatment? Will her condition lead to amputation? Answer: She may be suffering from diabetic neuropathy. For unknown reasons.com 75 . and toenail infection. Eat home-cooked food. migraine obesity osteoporosis post-natal rickets syndrome E. Grains. READING WITH MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Read the passage and answer the question given below it. muscle and joint aches. semen. CLOZE TEST 1: Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap. nausea. D or E.

and minerals zinc are essential in protecting the liver from free radical damage. optimum: tối ưu. itchiness: ngứa. a wide variety of (det) aberrant protein abnormal (adj) abnormality abruptly (adv) abundance (n) abundant (adj) 76 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. fatigue B. Regular intake of high phosphatidylcholine has been shown to accelerate liver regeneration. it increases liver regeneration C. free radical: gốc tự do 51. accelerate: gia tăng. Blood transfusion may be a risk of hepatitis C.  Infection with most pathogens does not cause _______ 58. Vitamin D 54. D. 2. loss of appetite Hepatitis A is transmitted through _______. it prevents liver drug poisoning D. Nutritional anti-free radicals such as beta-carotene.  Her feet _______ 60. Vitamins C C. IV. Jaundice: vàng da.  They _______ GOOD SUCCESS IN YOUR ENGLISH STUDY! GLOSSARY 1. You should check on her feet everyday for cuts and break of the skin. 7. 55. Vitamin A B. Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host. bodily fluids D. 56. vitamins C and E. blisters and toenail infection. drug poisoning or excessive alcohol consumption. semen C. Certain agents cannot be cultured. There are five type of hepatitis viruses B. 6. digestive tract B.  It is _______ 57. Rewrite the following question so that the new sentence is similar in meaning to the original one. Drinking people are vulnerable to hepatitis C C.excellent for optimum liver function. blood Which of the following statement is NOT true? A. WRITING. nausea C. 3. jaundice D. 53. 5. 52. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways  An infectious disease may be _______ 59. injury. Regular intake of high phosphatidylcholine (35 per cent) has been shown to accelerate liver regeneration in the treatment of chronic liver disease resulting from viral infection. Vitamins E D. Which of the following is the characteristic symptom of hepatitis? A. Hepatitis D & E are never seen in people with hepatitis B Lecithin is good for the liver because _______. 4. A. It contains beta-carotene Which of the following cannot protect the liver from the damage of free radicals? A.com . for example Treponema palladium and most viruses. A. it prevents liver viral infection B.

42. 10. 47. 23. (n) 77 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 51. 65. 44. 55.8. 12. 40. 21. 59.com . 38. 62. 14. 30. 33. 32. 56. (adj) antibiogram antibiotic-resistant (adj) antibody (n) antibody-initiated antidiuretic (adj). 16. 41. 27. 19. (vt) ambient amount (n) amputation anaemic (adj) anaphylactic shock ancient times anesthesia (n) angina angioplasty annually antibacterial (n). 22. 48. 53. 26. 45. 13. 9. 61. 15. academic performance access (vt). 24. 60. 11. 54. 63. 20. 57. (n) accessory accompanied by accompany (vt) account for accumulate (vt) accumulation achieve (vt) acquire Acquired Immune eficiency Syndrome (AIDS) activation (n) active TB (n) activity (n) acute (adj) additional (adj) address (vt) adolescent adopt (vt) adult (n) advanced (adj) adversely (adv) affect (vt) affluence (n) affordable age (vi) agent (n) age-specific (adj) aggressive (adj) aid (vi). 52. 25. 28. 43. 36. 39. 50. 64. 18. 49. 29. 46. 35. 34. 17. 58. (n) ailment (n) aim to do st (v) airborne (adj) alcohol (n) alert for (v) allergen (n) allergic (adj) allergist (n) allergy (n) allot (vt) allow (vt) alter (vi). 37. 31.

10 8. 74. 11 1. 82. 68. 10 6. 10 4. 89. 84. antifungal (n). 98. (vt) attention to (n) attract (vt) attribute (vt) atypical (adj) autoimmune (adj) available (adj) 78 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 72. (adj) anxiety (n) apart from prep appear (v) appetite (n) application (n) apply (v) approach to (n) appropriate(adj) approve (v) approximately (adv) aquarium (n) array (n) arthritis (n) artificially (adv) as a result of (prep) as long as (conj) ascertain (vt) aside from (prep) aspect (n) assess = value (vt) assessment (n) assist (vt) associated with (adj) assure (vt) asthma (n) asymptomatic (adj) at birth at present at random atheromatous plaque atheromatous streak atherosclerosis (n) atherosclerotic attack (n). 97. (adj) antigen-specific antihistamine (n) antimicrobial (n). 77. 10 2. 85. 83. (adj) antineoplastic (adj) antiparasitic (n). 76. 81. 67. 91. 95. 79. 96. 99. 80. 10 1. 11 0. 69.66. 88. 73. 11 3. 93. 11 5. 10 5. 109 . 78.com . 90. 94. 11 4. 70. 71. 10 3. 10 0. 86. 75. 10 7. (adj) antiretroviral drugs antiseptic (n). 11 2. 87. 92. (adj) antiserum (n) antivirals (n).

12 0. 13 1. 12 9. 12 8. 12 4. 13 0. (adj) avoid (vt) avoidance (n) awaken (v) award (n) aware of (adj) awareness (n) bacteriolysis balance (n) barrier (n) basis (n) basophils bear a child (vt) behavior (n) benefit (n). 14 0. 13 3. 12 3. 12 6. 14 4. 11 8. 14 8.com . 14 2. 14 7. 11 7. 15 1. 13 8. 14 9.11 6. 13 4. 12 5. 14 5. 14 1. 13 7. 12 1. 13 6. 11 9. (v) benign (adj) best off (adj) beverage biliary tract (n) bioactivity (n) bioavailable (adj) biomedical (adj) biomolecule (n) blindness block (vt) blockage (n) blood clotting system blood serum analysis blood work (n) blueprint (n) boil (n) boost (vt) botanist (n) bowel (n) break sth down (vt) breast (n) breathlessness (n) broader array of 79 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 15 2. 12 7. 13 5. 13 9. 15 3. average (n). 13 2. 14 3. 12 2. 15 0. 14 6.

17 0. 18 8. 16 5. 15 5. 16 8. 17 6. 18 5. 19 0. 15 8. 15 9. 15 7. 18 1. 161 . 17 8. broad-spectrum bronchoconstriction bubble bath(n) bulge (vi) burden burning on urination burst of (n) calcitonin (n) campaign canal (n) cancel (vt) cancer (n) capacity (n) carbuncle (n) cardiologist (n) cardiovascular (adj) carrot (n) carry out (vt) catalyst (n) catch (vt) catheter (n) catheterization (n) caution (n) cautious (adj) cervix (n) challenge (n) character characterize characterized by CHD chronical heart disease chemotherapy chickenpox(n) chief (n) chill (n) chlorination cholera (n) cholestatic chromosome (n) 80 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 16 4. 19 1.15 4.com . 15 6. 18 4. 16 2. 18 9. 16 7. 16 9. 16 3. 17 1. 18 2. 17 4. 17 2. 16 6. 17 9. 16 0. 18 3. 17 7. 18 0. 18 6. 17 5. 17 3. 18 7.

19 6. (adj) clinic trial (n) clinically clotting (n) co-evolution coexisting cofactor (n) coin coincide with co-infected with colleague (n) colon (n) colorectal colormetric coma combat (n). 21 7. 21 2. 20 9. 20 6. 19 5. 20 2. (v) clean water supplies (n) cleanliness (n) climacteric (n). 21 0. 21 3. 19 9.com . 19 8. 20 1. 22 4. 22 2. 21 5. 20 3. 21 4. 22 6. 20 0. chronic (adj) chronic immune activation citrus (n) claim (n). 21 1. 22 3. 19 3. 22 7. 20 4. 22 8. (vt) combination (n) command a fraction commercially available commission (n) communicable (adj) community companionship (n) comparatively (adv) complaint (n) complement complementdependent complication (n) component (n) compound compromised (adj) 81 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 21 9. 22 1. 19 4. 19 7. 20 8. 22 5. 22 0. 21 8.19 2. 20 5. 21 6. 20 7.

23 8. 26 concentration (n) conception concern concerned with (adj) condensed tannin condition (n) confirm (v) conjunctiva (n) conjunctivitis (n) conscious (adj) consequence (n) consistent (adj) constituent (n) consumption (n) contagious = communicable (adj) contaminate (vt) context contract (vt) contrast (n). 25 5. 24 8. 23 3. 256 . 23 1. 24 3. 25 7. 24 4. 25 2. 25 9. 26 0. 24 6. 26 2. 24 5. 24 0. 25 8. 25 0. 23 5. 24 2. 23 0.22 9. 23 6. (vi) counterpart (n) couple (n) crawl create (vt) crew (n) critical bacterial species critical level crossreact 82 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 25 1. 25 3. 26 3. 24 9. 24 1. 26 1. 26 5. 26 4. 23 7. 23 4.com . (vt) contribute to (vt) contributor (n) convert (vt) convince (vt) cooperate with (vi) coordinate a plan (vt) cope with coronary heart disease correct (vt) correlate with (vi) counsel (vt). 232 . 24 7. 25 4. 23 9.

28 9. culture (vt). 30 4. 282 . 29 1.n) dander (n) data. 27 2. 26 9. 29 7. (n) delivery (n) demand (n). 28 4. 28 7. 27 8. 29 6. (vt) demographic (adj) demonstrate (vt) dendritic cell deposit (n. datum (n) deal with (v) death rate (n) deemphasize defect (n) defend (vt) defense deficiency (n) define (vt) degenerative joint disease (n) delay (v). 30 2. 30 3. 27 6. 30 1. 28 6. 26 8.26 7. 27 7. 28 0. 29 8. (n) cure for (n) current (adj) currently (adv) cystic fibrosis cystitis (n) cystoscopy (n) damage (n). 300 . 27 3. v) depressed deprive. 27 9. 29 4. (n) 83 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. (n) destruction (n) detect (vt) detectable (adj) detection (n) determinant (adj). 29 2. 28 1. 27 4. 28 8. 29 5. (vt) damage (v. 28 5. 29 3. 27 5. 27 0. 29 9.com . 29 0. deprivation derive from descriptive (adj) desensitization (n) design (vt). 27 1. 28 3.

30 5. 30 6. 30 7. 30 8. 30 9. 31 0. 31 1. 31 2. 31 3. 31 4. 31 5. 31 6. 31 7. 31 8. 31 9. 32 0. 32 1. 32 2. 32 3. 32 4. 32 5. 32 6. 32 7. 328 . 32 9. 33 0. 33 1. 33 2. 33 3. 33 4. 33 5. 33 6. 33 7. 33 8. 33 9. 34 0. 34 1. 34

determine (vt) devastate (vt) devastating development (n) diabetes (n) diabetes insipidus (n) diabetes mellitus (n) diabetic (n), (adj) diagnose (vt) diagnosis (n) diagnostic tools (n) dialysis (n) diet (n) dietary (adj) dimension (n) dimorphism (n) diphtheria (n) disability (n) disadvantaged (adj) discern (v) discharge (n), (vt) discomfort (n, v) disease-fighting drugs (n) disorder (n) dispose (vt) dissolve (vi), (vt) distention (n) distinguish (vt) distribution (n) disturbance (n) diverse (adj) do harm to st (v) dosage (n) drainage dribble (vi) drive droplet drought resistant 84

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34 3. 34 4. 34 5. 34 6. 34 7. 34 8. 34 9. 35 0. 35 1. 35 2. 35 3. 35 4. 35 5. 35 6. 35 7. 35 8. 35 9. 36 0. 36 1. 36 2. 36 3. 36 4. 36 5. 36 6. 36 7. 36 8. 36 9. 37 0. 37 1. 37 2. 37 3. 37 4. 37 5. 37 6. 37 7. 37 8. 37 9. 38

drown due to (prep) duration duration of therapy dust (n) dyspnea (n) dyspnoea dystonia (n) dysuria (n) eczema effectiveness (n) effector effort (n) egg yolk (n) elevate elevated (adj) elicit (vt) eliminate (vt) elsewhere elsewhere (adv) embryo (n) emerge (vi) emergence (n) emotionally powerful enable (vt) encephalocele (n) encephalomyocarditis (n) encephalopathy(n) encounter (v) encourage (vt) end up with (v) endemic enhance (vt) entail (v) entry (n) environment (n) epidemic (n) epidemiology 85

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38 1. 38 2. 38 3. 38 4. 38 5. 38 6. 38 7. 38 8. 38 9. 39 0. 39 1. 39 2. 39 3. 39 4. 39 5. 39 6. 39 7. 39 8. 39 9. 40 0. 40 1. 40 2. 40 3. 40 4. 40 5. 40 6. 40 7. 40 8. 40 9. 41 0. 41 1. 41 2. 41 3. 41 4. 41 5. 41 6. 41 7.

equator eradication (n) error escape (vt), (n) essential (adj) establish (vt) estimate (vt) eustachian tube evaluate (vt) evaluation (n) evidence (n) evident (adj) evolution (n) evolve (v) examine (vt) excessive (adj) exclusively (adv) excrement (n) excretory and intravenous urography exemplify (vt) exist (vi) existence (n) existing (adj) expand (v) expectation (n) expedition (n) expert assessment exposed to exposure (n) extend beyond extent (n) extract (n), (vt) extraordinary (adj) extreme malnutrition face with (v) facial expression (n) facilitate

(v)
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43 4. 43 1. 43 5. 42 3. 43 0. 44 2. 42 0. factor (n) fail to do st (vi) failure (n) fall behind (v) familiar with (adj) fatal (adj) fatigue (n) fat-soluble (adj) fault (n) FDA = Food and drug administration fecal matter (n) fermentation (n) fetus field observation finding (n) firmly (adv) first line antibiotics fit (adj) fivefold flour (n) fluid (n) flush (vt) foetus. 44 1. 42 8. (n) 87 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 45 3. 42 5. 41 9. 42 9. 44 6. 45 4. 42 1. fetus (n) food additives forceps fortify fortunately (adv) foul-smelling (adj) foundation (n) fracture fragile free from (adj) frequency (n) frequent (adj) frontal lobe (n) fuel (n) full-blown function (vi). 45 5. 45 2. 44 4. 43 6.41 8.com . 43 2. 44 7. 44 0. 43 8. 44 5. 44 3. 43 7. 43 3. 44 8. 43 9. 42 2. 42 7. 44 9. 42 6. 42 4. 45 1. 45 0.

47 0. 48 2. 48 6. 49 3. 46 5. 49 2.45 6. 46 6. 47 1. 48 9. 46 1. 47 4. 49 1. 46 0. 46 7. fungus (n) fur (n) gallstones (n) gangrene (n) gather (vi). 45 9. 48 0. 47 2. 48 4. 46 8.com . 46 3. 48 3. 48 7. (vt) general public (n) generation (n) genetic inheritance genetic makeup (n) germ (n) gestational (adj) gestational diabetes gestures (n) give sth off (vt) give sth up (vt) global extent globalisation (n) goiter gradual (adj) gradually (adv) growth (n) growth promotion guideline (n) gum (n) gut flora gut wall habit (n) Haemophilus influenzae (n) harbor harm (vt) harmful food additives harmless (adj) hasten hay fever (n) health facility health officials (n) health resource healthcare (n) 88 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 47 7. 48 5. 47 5. 48 1. 48 8. 49 0. fungi. 46 9. 47 3. 47 8. 47 6. 45 8. 47 9. 46 4. 45 7. 46 2.

(n) hinder (vt) hip (n) history (n) hitherto hive. 50 1. 508 . 49 5. 52 7. 51 2. 52 2. 53 0. heart attack (n) hence hepatitis (n) hereditary hernia (n) high grade narrowing highlight (vt). 50 6.49 4. 50 5. 50 3. 51 7. 49 6. 51 3. 49 8. 52 0. 50 9. 50 4. 51 9. 50 7. 52 3. 52 6.com . 51 0. 49 9. 52 5. 51 1. 51 5. 50 0. 51 6. urticaria hives (n) hold sth back (vt) homeostasis (n) homicide hookworm Hormone replacement therapy household (n) human being (n) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) humidity (n) hygiene hygiene (n) hygiene (n) hyperalimentation (n) hypercalcemia (n) hypercalciuria (n) hypercholesterolemia hyperlipidemia (n) hyperparathyroidism (n) hypersensitivity hypertension (n) hypertensive hypoalimentation (n) hypocalcemia (n) hypochromic (n) 89 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 50 2. 51 4. 51 8. 52 1. 52 8. 52 4. 52 9. 49 7.

55 9. 55 8. 54 5. 53 8. 55 3. 546 . 54 8.com . 53 4. 55 2. hypodermic hypodermic (adj) hypoparathyroidism (n) hypothesis immune system (n) immunity (n) immunization (n) immunoassay immunocompromised immunological variation immunologist immunosufficient immunosuppressa nt immunosuppressive impact (n). (vt) impair. 56 7. 56 2. 54 1. 53 7. 55 0. 53 2. 53 6. 54 7. 54 3. 53 3. 55 7. 55 5. 56 6. 56 0. 56 1. 54 0. 56 3. 54 9. 55 4. 53 5. 55 6. 56 5. 53 9. 56 4. impaired (vt). 54 2. 55 1. 54 4. (adj) impairment(n) imperative (adj) implant implementation (n) imply improper improve in a rational manner in addition in proportion to in the belief that in the normal range in vitro inactivity (n) inadequate (adj) inception incidence (n) include (vt) income(n) incomplete voiding (n) incontinence (n) 90 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.53 1.

57 8. 57 0. 57 2. 58 7. 57 7. 59 7. 59 2. 60 2. 60 0. 58 3. 59 1. 58 5. 57 6. 58 2. 58 1. 56 9. 60 4. 58 8.com . 59 4. 58 6. 60 5. 57 4. 58 0. 60 1. 57 1. (adj) induce (v) industrial wastes (n) infant (n) infect (v) infected with infectious (adj) infectious agent (n) infectivity inflammation (n) ingest (vt) ingestion (n) ingredient (n) inhalation (n) inherit (v) inherit (vt) initial period (n) initial workup (n) initially (adv) inject (vt) injection(n) inoculum (n) insect bite (n) insert (vt) institutionalized intact (adj) intake (n) intellectual (adj) intelligence quotient (IQ) intend (vt) intensity (n) intensive support interaction (n) interfere with (vi) 91 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 57 9. 59 6. 59 8. 57 5.56 8. 57 3. 59 0. 59 5. inconvenient (adj) indefinitely (adv) indicate (vt) indication (n) individual (n). 58 9. 58 4. 59 3. 59 9. 60 3.

63 1. keep up with (v) key words kidney transplant (n) labor (n) Laboratory of Immunoregulation lack (n). 63 6. 63 4. (vi) jelly (n) Journal of Immunology juvenile keen to do sth (adj) keep a record of keep pace with. 62 4. 623 . 64 1. 60 7.60 6. 63 2. 61 4.com 92 . 60 9. 63 8. 62 7. 63 0. 61 6. 62 9. 62 1. 61 7. 61 0. 62 2. 64 0. 64 2. 60 8. 62 8. 63 5. (vt) lag (behind) (v) lancet (n) latent (adj) lead (n) MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 62 0. 63 7. 61 1. 61 5. 61 9.n) interplay (n) interupt (vt) intervention (n) interviewee (n) interviewer (n) intestinal tract (n) intestine (n) intracellular (adj) intradermally intrinsic (adj) invade (vt) invader (n) invasive medical technology investigate (vi). intermediate (adj. 63 9. 61 2. 613 . (adj) ischaemia isolate itch (n). 63 3. 62 6. 62 5. 61 8. (vt) investigator (n) involve (vt) irradiation (n) irritant (n).

66 0. 64 8. (n) linked to (adj) literally (adv) livestock (n) lobe (n) localise (v) long-term (adj) look forward to (v) loss (n) lumen of the vessel macrophage (n) maintain (vt) maintenance (n) major (adj) malabsorption (n) mal-absorption (n) malaria (n) malnourished (adj) manage finance manageable(n) mandatory (adj) manifest manifestation (n) manner (n) manufacture (n). 66 6. 672 . 65 7. 65 3. 66 4. 64 7. 67 3. 67 5. 65 0. 67 7. 64 5. 66 7. 67 4. 66 2. 67 1. 65 8. 665 . 661 .com . 68 0. 67 0. 67 6. leading cause lest (conj) level(n) liable to do (adj) life – threatening (adj) likely to (adj) lime. 65 2. 65 1. lemon (n) limit (vt). 65 5. 64 4. 64 9. 65 6. 66 3. 66 8. 67 9. 65 9. 64 6.64 3. 67 8. 66 9. 65 4. (vt) mast cells measles (n) measure (n) measurement (n) median time mediate 93 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.

71 0. 71 5. 70 1. 68 5. 697 . 69 0. 696 . 69 5. 704 . 69 9. 69 3. 70 2. 69 4. 70 9.com 94 . mediation medication (n) Medieval member countries meningitis (n) menopause (n) menorrhagia (n) menostasis (n) menstruation (n) mental disability mental disorder mental illness (n) mental retardation (n) mercury (n) metabolic metabolism (n) metabolite (n) micronutrient mild (adj) minimize(vt) misconception (n) misuse (n) (v) mite (n) mobilize (vt) mode (n) mold (n) molecular biology monitor morale (n) morbidity (n) mortality rate (n) mosquito (n) multinational (adj) multiplication (n) multiply(vi) mumps (n) muscle tone (n) muscle wasting (n) MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 70 6. 68 8. 68 2. 71 7. 68 6. 71 2. 68 4. 70 3. 69 8. 71 8. 70 8. 71 1.68 1. 68 9. 68 7. 70 5. 71 6. 69 1. 71 3. 68 3. 70 7. 69 2. 70 0. 71 4.

75 5. 72 1. 72 4. 74 6. 72 0. (adj) NHS night blindness (n) no longer nocturia (n) non-communicable (adj) nonetheless (adv) nonverbal clues (n) notable (adj) notice (vt) nourishment (n) nutrient (n) nutrition (n) obese (adj) obesity (n) objective (n) observe (v) obstetric (adj) obtain (vt) obvious (adj) occupational occur (vi) occurrence (n) offend (vt) offending (adj) MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 73 8. 75 4. 74 0. 75 1.71 9. 74 1. 74 2. 73 6. 74 9. 73 9. 74 7. 75 0. 73 0. 72 9. mutation (vi). 72 8. 72 3. 73 5. 72 5. 73 7. 74 5. 73 3. 74 3. 72 2. 75 2. 74 8. (n) myocardial infarction myocardium (n) myriad (n) native (ad) nature (n) nausea (n) neck of the bladder (n) need (n) nephrogenic (adj) neutralization (n) nevertheless (adv) newborn (n). 73 4.com 95 . 72 6. 73 1. mutate. 74 4. 73 2. 72 7. 75 3.

76 7.75 6. 79 1. 79 3. 76 0. 77 7. 76 6. 76 9. 76 5. 75 8. 75 7. 79 0. (adj) owner (n) painful subject pancreas (n) pandemic (n. 77 5. 77 9. v) overweight (n). 78 1. 77 0. 78 2. 77 6. 783 .com . 77 8. 78 6. 78 0. 78 9. 76 4. offspring (n) on a regular basis onset (n) operate (v) operation (n) opportunistic (adj) optimal (adj) optimistic (adj) oral contraceptive order laboratory tests originate (v) osteoporosis (n) otherwise (adv) outbreak (n) outcome (n) ovary (n) overall problem (n) overfeed (vt) overstretching (n) overuse (n. 75 9. 77 2. 78 5. 77 4. 76 3. adj) paralysis (n) parasite (n) parathyroid (adj) participant particular (adj) pathogen (n) pathway (n) patient (n) pattern (n) peanut (n) pellagra (n) pelvic region (n) penetrate (vt) 96 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 76 2. 78 8. 77 3. 77 1. 79 2. 78 7. 76 1. 76 8. 78 4.

81 2. 81 8. 83 0. 80 7. 82 5. 81 1. 82 0. 82 8. 80 9. 80 4. 81 3. 80 1. 82 3. 82 6. 79 7. 82 7. 81 4. (vi) perfumed feminine hygiene products periodic (adj) peripheral neuropathy permanent (adj) persistent (adj) persistently (adv) pertussis (n) pet (n) phage therapy phagocytosis (n) phenylketonuria (n) phrase (n) physical exam (n) physique (n) pinpoint (v) pituitary gland (n) placenta (n) plague (n) pneumonia (n) pneumonitis (n) poison (n. 82 4. 79 9. 80 0. 80 2. 82 2. 80 3. 80 5. 79 5. 82 1. 81 7. 79 8. 81 0. 82 9.com 97 .79 4. 80 6. 81 9. per se perceive (v) perform (vt). vt) policy (n) poliovirus (n) pollen (n) pollutant (n) polycystic kidney disease poor prognosis (n) population (n) pose (vt) posterior (adj) postmenopausal (adj) postoperative (adj) postpartum (adj) postulate MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 79 6. 81 6. 80 8. 81 5.

84 7. 86 6. 85 8. 84 9. 83 3. 84 8. 83 6. 85 7. 84 3. (adj) profound (adj) prognosis (n) progress (v) progression (n) 98 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 86 0. 86 7. 86 1. 84 1. 84 2. 85 5.com . 83 4. 86 5. 86 2. 85 4. 85 3. postulates potent (adj) potential ( (n). 85 6. 83 8. 85 9. 85 2. 86 3. 85 0. (adj)) powerful practice good hygiene practitioner (n) precede precursors predator predictable predictable predispose smb to predominant (adj) prefer pregnancy (n) pregnancy-related (adj) pregnant (adj) preparation (n) prescribe (vt) prescription preserve (vt) prevailing (adj) prevalent (adj) prevent (vt) preventable (adj) preventive measures previously (adv) prick (v) principal (adj) principle (n) priority (n) procedure (n) professional (n). 84 4. 84 6. 83 2. 83 5.83 1. 84 5. 83 7. 83 9. 86 4. 84 0. 85 1.

90 3. 88 6. 87 7. 90 1. (vi) rapid (adj) rash (n) ratio (n) 99 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 89 3. 89 9. 89 1. 89 0. 89 8. 87 5. 88 7. 88 5. 88 0. 87 9. 89 5. 86 9. 89 7. 88 4. 88 9. 87 4. 90 2.com . 89 6. (vi) prolong (v) prolonged isolation promote (vt) prone to (adj) properly (adv) propose (v) prostate (n) prostatectomy (n) protease (n) protect (vt) protective (adj) proteinuria (n) provitamin (n) psychiatric assessment (n) psychiatrict patient (n) psychosocial (adj) puberty (n) public health (n) pulmonary heart disease pulmonologist pure (adj) purification (n) pyelonephritis (n) qualify (v) rabbit testes radiation (n) radioallergosorben t radiometric (n) raise (vt) random mutation range from … to (v) rank (n). 87 3. 88 8. 87 6. 87 2. 87 0. 87 1. progressive (adj) proliferate (vt). 90 4. 90 0. 87 8. 88 3. 88 2. 89 4. 89 2.86 8. 88 1.

92 3. 92 8. 90 9. 90 7. 93 0. 91 2. 93 8. 94 0. 92 6. 91 9. 93 4. 92 4. 91 5. 94 1. 92 9. 91 1. (n) relevant to (adj) reliable (adj) relieve (vt) remove (vt) renal angiography (n) renal surgery (n) replace (vt) replicate (v) represent (v) reproductive phase research resection (n) resist. 92 2. 93 7. 91 3.90 5. 93 3. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com . 93 1. 93 5.n) resolve (v) respectively (adv) responsibility (n) responsively (adv) responsiveness (n) 100 92 0. 91 4. 91 0. rational = reasonable (adj) raw food reabsorb (vt) reaction (n) realistic (adj) recessive-gene (n) recommend (vt) record (n). 93 6. resistance (v. 90 6. 92 5. 93 2. 90 8. 91 8. 92 1. 91 6. (vt) rectum (n) reduce (vt) refer smb to (vt) refer to (v) reference (n) reflect (vt) reflux esophagitis regional (adj) regular (adj) reject (v) related to (adj) release (v). 93 9. 942 . 91 7. 92 7.

96 1. 97 6. 96 6. 94 5. restriction (n) result (vi). selective (n. 95 2. 94 7.com 101 . 95 8. 97 2. 97 4. 97 7. 94 9. 94 6. adj) semen (n) MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 96 2. 97 0. 97 1. 97 3. 95 4. 96 4. 96 9. 94 4. 97 5. 96 3. 95 5. 97 8. 95 1. 95 6. 95 9. 96 5. 95 3.94 3. 96 8. 97 9. (n) result from (vi) result in (vi) resurgent (adj) retardation (n) retinal damage reverse (vt) rickets (n) rid sth of (vt) rigorous (adj) risk factor (n) RNA = ribonucleic acid rubella run rupture saliva (n) sample of blood (n) sandlike (adj) sanitary handling of food sanitary napkins (n) sarcoid (adj) SARS saturated (adj) scar (n) scheme (n) science-based (adj) score (n) scratching (n) screen (v) screening (n) scurvy (n) security (n) sedentary (adj) sediment (n) selection. 95 0. 94 8. 95 7. 96 0. 96 7.

10 00. (v)) separate (v) seroconversion (n) seroconvert (v) seropositive (adj) serum (n) serum creatinine (n) setting (n) severe (adj) severity (n) sewage treatment (n) sexual contact (n) shed (v) shift (v). 10 15. 99 2. 10 14. 98 1. 10 03.com . 10 05. 98 4. 10 16. 10 09. 10 06. 10 07. (n) shy away from (v) side effect (n) sigmoid flexure (n) sign (n) significant significant (adj) similar (adj) single (adj) skin flakes (n) skin scales (n) skull (n) slant slow down (v) sneeze (vi) so far (adv) soap (n) society (n) sodium (n) soluble (adj) solution (n) 102 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 983 . 99 8. 10 17. 99 9.98 0. 99 1. 10 11. 99 6. 10 10. 10 02. 988 . 10 12. sensation (n) sense of comfort sensitive (adj) sensitivity (n) separate ( (adj). 98 7. 10 13. 10 04. 98 9. 98 6. 99 3. 98 5. 99 7. 99 4. 10 01. 99 0. 98 2. 10 08. 99 5.

10 32. 10 24. 10 47.10 18. 10 33. 10 20. 10 39. 10 28. 10 44. 10 35.com . 10 49. 10 43. 102 3. 10 40. (vi) stable (adj) stage (n) stand for (v) stand in the way of standard (n) staphylococcus (n) staple food status (n) steadily (adv) stenosis (n) step (n) sterile (adj) stewardship (n) store (vt) strains of microorganisms strategy (n) strengthen (vt) strenuous exercise (n) stroke (n) sublingually substance (n) substantially (adv) substrate (n) succeed (vi) suffer from (v) sufficient (adj) suggestive of (adj) suicide (n) suitable (adj) 103 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 10 51. 10 25. 10 26. 10 22. 10 46. 10 30. sorghum (n) spasm (n) specialise in (v) species (n) specific to (adj) spectrum (n) spermicidal foams sporadic (adj) spread (n). 10 38. 10 34. 10 52. 10 55. 10 42. 10 41. 10 45. 10 36. 10 19. 10 48. 10 54. 10 27. 10 53. 10 37. 10 29. 10 50. 10 31. 10 21.

10 65. (n) thrombus material thus (adv) tingling sensation 104 10 62 . sunscreen (n) supervision (n) supplementation (n) support (n). 10 91. 10 73. 10 77. 108 3. 108 4. synthesis (vt). 10 76. 10 58. 10 69. 10 61. 10 66. 107 0. 10 79. 10 57. 10 60. 10 88. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. (vt) supportive group surgical procedure surveillance (n) survival time survive (vt) susceptible (adj) suspect (v) sweet potato (n) swell (vi) symbiosis (n) synthesize. 10 92. -lism (adj). 10 64. 10 86. 10 85.10 56. 10 72. 10 90. 10 74. 10 63. 10 67. 10 87. 107 5. 10 82. 10 68. 10 71. 10 80. 10 89.com . 10 81. 10 59. 10 78. (n) syphilis (n) tainted (adj) take by mouth (vt) take care of (v) take hold of (vt) target (n) TB (tuberculosis) (n) tend (v) tendency (n) theme (n) theoretical (adj) theorize (v) therapeutic (adj) there is no need to do thigh (n) thirst (n) thirsty (adj) thoroughly (adv) thromboembolic.

11 15. 11 10. 10 96. 11 28. 11 02. 11 06. 11 17. 11 21. 11 22. 10 99.com . 11 30. 11 24.10 93. 11 03. 11 29. 11 05. 11 23. 11 09. to a certain extent tobacco (n) toddler toll. 10 97. 11 11. 11 26. 11 16. 10 95. 11 20. 10 98. 11 00. 11 08. 11 12. 10 94. (n) trauma (n) traumatic treatise (n) treatment (n) tropical (adj) tuberculosis (n) tumor (n) typhoid fever (n) typhus (n) typical (adj) typically (adv) ubiquitous (adj) ulcer (n) ultimately (adv) ultraviolet (n) umbrella term unavoidable (adj) unaware (adj) unborn (adj) unconscious (adj) uncovere (vt) undamaged (adj) under way 105 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 11 19. 11 14. 11 04. 11 25. 11 01. 11 13. take toll on tones of voice (n) tool (n) toxic (adj) trait (n) transdermally (adv) transfer (vt) transformation protocol transfusion (n) transmission (n) transmittal (n) transport (vt). 11 27. 11 18. 110 7.

11 45. (vt) variable varicella (n) variety (n) 106 MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. 11 61.11 31. 11 50. 11 52. 11 46. 11 41. 11 47. 11 57. 11 62. 11 35. 11 33. 11 43. 11 58. 11 59. 11 54. 11 56. 11 51. 11 32. 11 66. urinary (n). urethral drainage value (n). 11 53. 11 55.com . 11 42. 11 60. 11 65. 11 44. 11 48. 11 38. 11 64. 11 63. 11 67. 113 6. 11 39. (adj) uterus (n) utility (n) utilize vaccination (n) vaccine (n) vagina vaginal fluid vaginal. 11 40. undercook (v) underscore(vt) understanding of (n) undesirable = unwanted (adj) unencountered uniform (adj) unique (adj) universally (adv) unpolished rice (n) unsuspected uptake urbanisation ureter (n) ureterosigmoidostom y (n) urethra (n) urethral opening (n) urethral sphincter (n) urethroplasty (n) urgent need (n) urinary tract infection (n) urinate urination (n) urine bladder (n) urine retention (n) urine. 11 37. 11 49. 113 4.

11 87. 11 96. 11 85. 11 90. 11 70. 11 86. 11 78. 11 69. 11 83.11 68. 11 93. 11 84. 11 97. 11 79. 11 73. 11 75. 117 6. 11 74. vary (vi) vector (n) vector-borne spread venereal disease (n) via (prep) viewpoint (n) violence (n) virulence (n) viscera (n) vital signs (n) void (vi) vulnerable to vulnerable to (adj) wane ward (n) water . 11 80. 11 89. 11 77.com 107 . 11 81. 11 88. 11 71. 11 92. 11 94. 11 95. 11 72. 11 91. 11 82. (adv) worst off wound (n) yellow fever (n) MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.soluble (adj) wealthy (adj) wean (v) wheat (n) wheeze (vi) whereas (conj) whooping cough wipe (vt) wipe sth out (vt) withstand work on (v) worldwide (adj).

gut flora 6. UNIT 1: I. A 8.com 108 . homeostasis 5. Hypercalcemia 3. Hypercalciuria 2.ENGLISH FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS 2 SUGGESTED KEYS TO EXERCISES (WORKBOOK) Second Edition 2009 The following answers are suggested by the author in order to make the teaching somewhat uniform.This hormone that is believed to control how the beta cells make and release insulin MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. C 2. A 4. in many cases they are not considered to be the unique ones. ts ysts ed ng e d d des 2 eating feedi kno healing using accept practi maintai plag cause . fermentation 7. C 9. C 6. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1.CDADC 2. Arthritis V REWRITING 1.The currently available antibiotics are known to inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms  People know that the currently available antibiotics inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms. READING PASSAGES 1. D 10. ed 4 as into for from at in by with from for . Contagious 8. B 5. Hyperalimentation 4. The teachers who use the book are expected to add any possible answers that they think appropriate to certain questions. BDCCD III. However. A 3. ng wn ed cing ning ued d 3 classifi occur limit consumpt interfe deficie result avoid liver coupl s s ion re ncy e . Coenzymes 9. TERMINOLOGY 1. CLOZE TESTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 amoun catal call involved clotti acid intak ingeste store deca . catalyst 10. 2. A IV. B 7. II.

A 7. T 3. T 3. F 2. C 6. B 9. That serious bone disease was the reason vitamin D was added to milk. B 4. carried. Hyperparathyroidism 4. damaged UNIT 3: I. 9. CLOZE TEST 1 2 1. Rickets can cause bone pain and weakness. VI. teeth problems and muscle loss. lining. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 accou diabet consid urban develo factors estima vulner level preven MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. B: 1. But it is still a common childhood disease in developing countries. night blindness 5. F 2.  The pain is caused by a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. while withou which sensiti if react throug by t ze h II. Nausea 6. 8. You may find it useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the symptoms are acute. by known 3 antibo dies to as from in to from by suspe marke allergi within sensiti perfor reduce cted d c ve ming 4. 3. Patients find that it is hard to remember things  Patients find it hard to remember things 10. It helps build strong bones and teeth. F 2. cilia. research has suggested more health value from vitamin D than had once been thought. irradiation 3. A 3. Vitamin D is produced naturally in the blood. D 5. It is also found in some foods. These include eggs. 5.  Long-term chemical exposure can cause many systemic disturbances. T 4. It also appears to do more than just protect against rickets. D 3. They believed this hormone controls how the beta cells make and release insulin 3. B 2. 7.  It has been reported that the disease is reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over 6 months. The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. A: 1.  Loss of ability to hold hand straight results from thickening of the skin of the palm. TERMINOLOGY 1. LISTENING 1: CDBA SCRIPT1:In recent years. VI. Vitamin D helps to increase levels of calcium in the blood. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. Osteomalacia 9. metabolism 10. REWRITING 6. A IV. 1. Thickening of the skin of the palm results in loss of ability to hold hand straight. It also helps in muscle development. UNIT 2: I. Daily multivitamin supplements have been found to reduce HIV disease progression among men and women. 4. T 4. C 4. A 10. T III. micronutrient. B 2. proved. premature. D 8. B 5. T 5. Sunlight is a major source. READING PASSAGES 1. It is thought that the use of purified insulin helps avoid or reduce some of the problems of people with diabetes such as allergic reactions. Long-term chemical exposure is capable of causing many systemic disturbances. Nutrients 7. nerves.  It has been found that daily multivitamin supplements reduce HIV disease progression among men and women. C 6.The disease has been reported to be reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over 6 months. LISTENING 2: Poisonous.com 4 charac terize d on injecte d to 5 lifethreat ening or/and testin g additi onally 6 suffer 7 leadin g 8 name d 9 respo nse 10 stem 109 .  You may find that it is useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the symptoms are acute. refer which 2. Vitamin D is also found in pills. coughing. metabolites V. develop. 2. Rickets is now rare in the western world. liver and some fish. D 2. Obesity 8. F 5.  The use of purified insulin is though to help avoid or reduce some of the problems of people with diabetes such as allergic reactions.

epithelial 4. VI. there is no reliable proof of their effectiveness. or are in the sun a lot. C 9. chemotherapy. READING PASSAGE 1 1. Plague7. You should take care of yourself so that a disease has less of an effect on your body. They are surgery. respectively 5. The second type of skin cancer happens when the skin cells are turned into cancer cells. REWRITING 1.. A 4. invading 6. C MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. TERMINOLOGY 1 overdose 2. Your risk for getting skin cancer depends on a number of things. C 5. C 2. 3. B 2. Scurvy 9. A 4. Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. Parathyroid 5. One type is caused by the sun. B 5. D 3.A. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 1. 2.originate 2. 1. there is no reliable proof of their effectiveness. LISTENING 3&4 6.1. D 8 blindne ss kidney associ ated 9 develo ped related accum ulated 10 leading depend ent consu mption 7.  You should take care of yourself in order that a disease has less of an effect on your body. nting of es which ered for to ped in on ted from able for to 3 circula death gap factors develo lifestyl pressu intake target . B 3. B 2. 1) thinking 2) 3) 1907. 6) brain. tuberculosis 6.B. B 6. 5.  An area near the center of the retina of the eye is involved in fine or reading vision. B 4. prevent protecti prevent ive ve ed II. B 7. Using sun block with a protective factor of at least 15 will also help. prostate gland 5. D 2. have blue eyes. fatal III. UNIT 4: I.  Plasmodial parasites are the cause of malaria. B 2. A 3. The survival rate for skin cancer is 80% when found and treated early. It is also good to look at your skin each month to find any skin cancers early.  Organisms that cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. 1. 7) memory. leukemias 4.2. B 3. pancreas 6. 2. 1. Although there are many claims of nutritional cures. 10) special 6.  Despite the fact that there are many claims of nutritional cures. Your chances are higher if you have light-colored skin. C 6 glucos e tasting elevate d 8. Skin cancer can be prevented by staying out of the sun during the hottest part of the day. D 10. 9) family. D 7 renal named levels 9. 1. C 2. A table 10. Other ways of protecting yourself would be to wear hats and long-sleeve shirts. There are two types of skin cancer. A 4. blood cells 7. myelomas 2. CBACC. 1. A 7. 4. 3. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. Malaria is caused by Plasmodial parasites. 2 . hypergl pregna single ycemia ncy 2. with 12 with reducti ons 4 interact ion attracte d reliable 5. B 5. A 5.carcinomas. substrate 3. A 4. READING PASSAGE 1. A 2.Script In California about 9. D 6.C. Sunscreen10 precursors V. An area near the center of the retina of the eye is responsible for fine or reading vision. B IV. A 5 incurab le mean additio n 6. different therapies can be tried. 8) talk. 4) rare 5) common. are getting older. Osteoporosis 4. lung cancer 8. C 3. D 2. sarcomas. and radiation. Watching for any changes in your skin and staying out of the sun during peak hours are the two best ways to prevent skin cancer. excessi sweet urine ve 3.com 110 . categorized 3. of 11. tory ping e re II. Rickets8.000 people will die this year because of skin cancer. B 8. Depending on how deep the skin tumors are.

D IV. READING PASSAGE 1. 4) molecules 5) repair 6) build up 7) kidneys. C 8. D 5. tacks. er ulty ng e g 2 adult speaking solvi diagnos distinguis consider life encount joi servic .  Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system and lead to a misdirected immune response.  Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are so large that they cannot to remain airborne to pose any risk. threshold 9. allergy 10 adrenalin V. 3. Robert Koch is famous for his contributions to the germ theory of disease. DDBD script Choking is the fourth leading cause of death in young children. B 10. B 4. 3. TERMINOLOGY 1. Koch was one of the first scientists who focused on the isolation of bacteria. Despite the fact that over three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes. the field of microbiology is clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines  Although over three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes. II.A 1. D 4. C IV. REWRITING 1. allergic 6. A 4. B 5.III. Robert Koch is bestknow for his contributions to the germ theory of disease. D 3. D 4. LISTENING 5 1) energy 2) chemical 3) surface. 2.  IgG is present in the body and is known to respond to foods. viscera 4. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are regarded as the founders of medical microbiology.com 111 .  Leeuwenhoek first observed bacteria in 1676.  Koch was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria. VI. ultraviolet 5. The first microbiological observation was made by Robert Hooke.  It is important that new or properly sterilized needles be used. jewelry.  Robert hook was the first person to observe microbes / bacteria. 4. antihistamine 2. IgG is present in the body. 1E 2D 3A 4C 5B 2. Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system. 1) years 2) treated 3) tissue 4) healthy 5) history 6) probably 7) expensive. C 10. known to respond to foods. 1. B 5. B9. 5. Children will put anything in their mouths. B 3. B 8. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 low trouble/diffic with on with/havi care abl from at durin . the field of microbiology is clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines 2. antibodies 7. VI. 9) useful 10) easily.2. A III. A 7. and coins are just a few. using a single-lens microscope. 10. conjun benign Antise Antiser Chroni Coma bronch autoim asthma basoph ctiva ptics um c oconst mune ils riction V. C 2. C 9. Bacteria were first observed by Leeuwenhoek in 1676 using a single-lens microscope. B 6. 4. 8. LISTENING 6&7 6. B 2. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. TERMINOLOGY 1. It is important that people use new or properly sterilized needles for each injection. 6. s ng ed h ed er n es 3 by from for with such due to to by in . B 3. Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are too large to remain airborne and pose no risk. C 2. A 3. 3. leading to a misdirected immune response.1. 8) teenagers 9) regular 10) sensitive 11) remains 12) smoking UNIT 5: I. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are often considered to be the founders of medical microbiology. Small toys. vomit 8.A 2. 9. D 6.B. B 6. 5. C 7. alternative 3. B 1. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. 5. 8) wrong. 7. 2. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. C 5. 4. REWRITING 1. 6.

affect caused 2. Someone allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an allergic reaction to the skin of apples or potatoes. nuts. Differe effector diagno eczema Dyspno Edema desensi ntiate sis ea tize 5 sugges ts flow 6 known 7 include 8 heredi tary eviden ce orally 9 hypert ensive period especi ally 10 surrou nding buildup urgent 5.com 112 . drug abuse. Did you know that 390.  The treatment is aimed to reduce / at reducing allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. This occurs because of similarities in the proteins of the pollen and the food. 4. Being aware of what your child puts in his or her mouth may save his or her life. 4.  The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms which are caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. If a pregnant woman smokes. C 6. she has a greater chance of medical problems with her baby. Many children start smoking before they reach high school. Some people become addicted to smoking. 2. B 10. Ask your doctor if your child is old enough to have foods like hot dogs.Protect them by keeping small items out of their reach. Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of cancer death in men. Smoking can also cause some very serious diseases. CLOZE TEST 1 2 1. carrots. hard foods are especially dangerous to young children. They could die of smoking-related diseases. A 2. B 4. They run the risk of smoking most of their lives.1. 3. D 2. B 4.TERMINOLOGY 1. 1. B 5. 5. A 8.6) treat 7) daily 8) severe 9) damaged 10) supply 6. B III. A 3. UNIT 6: I. There are other safety tips you should keep in mind. Some foods can cause young children to choke. D 3. 2. VI.  Someone who are allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an allergic reaction to the skin of apples or potatoes. C 5. Do not let your child run with anything in his or her mouth. Male smokers over the age of 35 are more likely to die from smoking-related diseases like lung cancer. C 4. These foods can lodge in a child's throat and be very hard to get out.  This occurs because there are similarities in the proteins of the pollen and the food. B 8. usually consid severe differe regular stable longerably ntly ly acting II. CLOZE TEST MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. dermati tis 10. LISTENING 8&( 6. UNIT 7: I. Round. conditi ons 9.000 Americans die each year from cigarette smoking? Smoking tobacco causes 1 out of 6 deaths. 2) blocked 3) delivered 4) attack. Do not let your child lie down while eating. artery 3 supply 4 leading death reason myocar sympto decade dium ms s 3. The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. DCABB script Smoking kills more Americans than AIDS. 7. READING PASSAGE 1. dermat ologist IV. 5) symptoms. 1) cholesterol. car accidents and crime. D V. B 9. and grapes. 3. 2. The goal of the treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected tissues. Never leave your baby alone with a propped up bottle. 5. C 3. REWRITING 1.  The blood test may help to determine specific allergen sensitivity. D 2. 6. The blood test may be helpful in determining specific allergen sensitivity. B 7. 1. Lung cancer has caused more deaths in women than breast cancer. C 2.

People were told not to eat fresh or bagged spinach while the FDA was investigating. D 4. The doctors thought that the people had all gotten stomach flu. C 6. and hair roots. They found that there was probably a problem with the way growers handled the food. Knowing where the spinach came from helps investigators figure out how it became contaminated. BCADB. A 3. REWRITING 1. One person did not recover and died. When someone gets E. The bacteria can not live if it is frozen or cooked at a very high heat in a can. nisms 4 provin identif contract discov criteria culture ied ery d . A 2. 5. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. It is not known where exactly the outbreak started. susce ptibilit y 9. Frozen and canned spinach were safe. D 5. D 7. They wanted to make sure that no one was tampering with food and making people sick on purpose. A 8. coli can get on or into fruits and vegetables.1. urine. Doctors were very puzzled. 4. The best thing to do is to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place. ses 3 vector introd transmitte pathog mecha manife uce d ens sted . A 9. fatigue 10. A company called Allerca has recently announced to be able to produce a so called hypoallergenic cat. The spinach that was eaten was not good. B 3. A 10 synony mous exposur e encount ers number 4. The E. D 3. Other outbreaks were caused by water that was contaminated by cow waste and other things. homeo excre extract expos Hygien pathy ment ure e 7 capabl e contac t parasit ized used 8 fluids tract sympt oms deter mine 9 describ es occur vaccin ation occurri ng 5.  A company called Allerca has recently announced that they are able to produce a so called hypoallergenic cat.1 2 3 4 5 6 1 dama result agents fungi occur contact s . Many of them had to go to the hospital because they were so sick. Many companies who process spinach had to throw what they had away so that no more people would get sick. C III. The state of California is trying to figure out where the problem started. 4. B 2. B IV. The proteins causing allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva. Immun oglobu lin 8. C 2. Scrip In September 2006 many people became sick all around the United States. mucous. Specific illnesses caused by allergies may require other treatments. A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins produced by cats. If a plant is near contaminated water it can become infected with E.  It is best to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place. 1. 2. Then they discovered it was something worse. It had bacteria on it or in it called "E. coli. 6. There are other ways E.  The proteins which cause allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva. They did not think there was any tampering. They told grocery stores to throw the spinach away and not sell it. Washing the produce will not solve the problem. A 5. C 7. The Food and Drug Administration investigated the problem.com 113 . and hair roots. 3. Most healthy adults can recover from it. B 10. TERMINOLOGY 1. 1. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo. D 4. hive 3. coli their symptoms are very similar to the flu. coli". The doctors and health officials discovered that all of the people ate fresh spinach around the same time. g II. LISTENING 10&11 6. mucous. B 2. ges 2 defen resist microorga cause infect diseas nisms e . hypote nsion V. urine. 5.  A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins which are produced by cats. coli bacteria cause lots of health problems.  Specific illnesses that are caused by allergies may require other treatments. About 166 people in 25 states got sick from the bacteria that was in fresh spinach. VI. Some people can get very sick and die from it. READING PASSAGE 1. 2.

The Food and Drug Administration said that it warned California farmers to do more to make _______(18) sure their spinach and lettuce was safe to eat. Since 1995 there have been 20 cases of spinach or lettuce contaminated with E. coli. Food growers in California and other states wanted to _______(19) prevent this from happening again. They put together new guidelines for produce growers. The guidelines are like rules that produce growers should follow when planting, _______(20) picking, and packaging food. The plan is designed to protect food from E. coli so that people do not get sick again. 6.2. 1minor 2 untreated. 3 antibiotic 4injury 5 ocean 6 soap. 7 iodine.8 remove 9ointment 10 daily UNIT 8: I. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 withsta develo artifici conseque survive pass generati greatly expose patie p ally nce on d nts . nd 2 resista possibl bioacti limitless estimat usefu tradition infecti pathoge distin e ve ed l al ous nic ct . nt 3 washi spread avoidi undercoo separat induc theoretic limited produce testin ing ng ked ely ed ally d g . ng II. READING PASSAGE 1. 1. A 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. A 2. 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. A 5. A III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. A 10. C IV. TERMINOLOGY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. intrade Mucos Monoc Intrave Inflam Immun Immun Pediatr Wheezi wheez rmally a lonal nous mation othera osuppr ics ng e py essant s V. REWRITING 6. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host.  Opportunistic disease may result from microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host. 7. Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host.  Infection with most pathogens does not cause death to the host. 8. The immune response to a microorganism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and inflammation.  The immune response to a microorganism often lead to symptoms such as a high fever and inflammation. 9. Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example Treponema pallidum and most viruses.  It is impossible to culture certain agents, for example Treponema pallidum and most viruses. 10 Between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases are said to have caused the population of . Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million.  It is said that between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million. VI. LISTENING 12 1)best 2) reason 3) drugs 4) unborn 5) safe 6) react 7) discovers 8) chance 9) breast 10) passed UNIT 9: I. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 4 1 immu stage cure contact . ne 2 weake preve rema recomme . ned nts ins nded 3 with than in for . II. READING PASSAGES 1. CDCAD 2. DDCDC

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III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. A 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. B IV. TERMINOLOGY Remedy salivary Sublingual rehabilitating Saliva Rhinitis Pneumonitis receptor parasites serum susceptible V. REWRITING 1. People infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear.  People who are infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear. 2. The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex, and has important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen.  The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex, having important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen. 3. Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were successful in developing vaccines for Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.  Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin succeeded in developing vaccines for Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases. 4. They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.  They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, and reduced the threat of these debilitating diseases. 5. Organisms which are normally non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right conditions.  Normally non-pathogenic organisms can become pathogenic under the right conditions. VI. LISTENING 13&14 6.1. 1) share 2) contain 3) sick. 4) infection. 5) spread 6) cause 7) found 8) test 9) rid 10) avoid. 6.2. 1. B 2. B 3. C 4.C Script The United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, has just released a report on a campaign launched in October of two thousand five. UNICEF, the U.N. AIDS program and other groups wanted to bring greater attention to the needs of children affected by AIDS. The report on the "Unite for Children, Unite Against AIDS" campaign says there are signs of progress. One of the biggest problems is the spread of HIV from mothers to children. Mother-to-child transmission was the main cause of the estimated half-million new infections last year in children under the age of fifteen. UNICEF reports that several countries in eastern and southern Africa have made what it calls breakthroughs. It says they greatly increased the number of mothers who receive antiretroviral drugs. These medicines can prevent mother-to-child transmission. For example, the report says Namibia increased coverage from six percent of mothers to twentynine percent. That was between two thousand four and two thousand five. And in South Africa, it says, the number rose during that same period from twenty-two percent of mothers to thirty percent. However, the report says there are still far too many pregnant women infected with HIV who do not get antiretroviral treatment. Only nine percent of them in poor countries were getting the medicines in two thousand five. UNIT 10: I. CLOZE TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. bacteri althou multip called known promptly urin lasting sinc accompan al gh ly e e ied 2. from in tend likely levels indicate buil antibodi oral vagina d es 3. inflamm chills blood dischar diagno emerge fev period bas treated ation ge se ncy er ed II. READING PASSAGE A. 56374182 B. 1T 2F 3T 4T 5F C. 1 accepted 2 Initial 3 mortality 4 widely 5 reduced D. 1 after 2 Before 3. While 4. before 5. During III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. A IV. REWRITING 1. Cat allergy will usually result in sneezing.  Sneezing will usually result from cat allergy. 2. These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions.  Researchers do not
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recognize that these chemicals cause allergic reactions. Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for the chemically-sensitive people.  Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for the people who are chemically-sensitive / sensitive to chemicals 4. Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein.  Many individuals who are allergic to soy are sensitive to soy protein. 5. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways.  An infectious disease may be transmitted through several pathways. V. LISTENING 15&16 3. 1) needles 2) risk. 3) cure4) avoid 5) personal 6) free 7) proper 8) way 9) syringe 10) blood.

6.2. CBBBD Script In 1970, a man was mowing his lawn. He felt a pain in his throat. He saw a
little bit of blood. The man said that he was not too worried, but a few hours later it really started to hurt. The next day, the man said that it felt like he had a hot knife cutting him when he coughed. He also had a high fever. His family rushed him to the hospital. The doctors found a small nail that had embedded itself in the man’s rib cage. Doctors gave the man some medicine to help fight an infection. They said that he should be okay. They thought that the nail would seal itself off in his body. They did not think that he needed surgery to remove the nail. More than 35 years after the incident, doctors saw the nail again in the man’s body. The nail was no longer in his rib cage. It was now in his lung. Doctors decided that the nail needed to be removed. They made the 84- year old man an appointment to have it taken out. Before the day of the appointment, the man was brushing his teeth in the bathroom. He said that he felt a tickle in his throat. He started coughing. The nail popped right out. Doctors said that the man is doing fine. They do not think that the nail caused any damage to his health. VI. TERMINOLOGY 1. KEYS 1 2 3 4 B A A A R 5 U N N O H 6 7 8 9 A 1 0 1 1 R T T N O A A A N A I I I C O P X S A R C S S H K P O T B T L E E U W E N H O E E P R S O N 2. KEYS 1 2 A L 3 A R T A L V N E M T O I 8 A N 9 A O A L Z H E I M E R R E Y R O A M S T T R G O L H G O S U R I T I S Y T E C O P E S

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