“Design of 400/220kV Sub-station”

General Manager (sub-station Engineering) Jyoti Structures Ltd.,

27th April 2005 Mumbai


Overview of 400kV sub-station Design Process Design considerations Question / Answer

Imp. considerations in substation design
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Safety of personnel and equipment Reliability and Security Adherence to  Statutory obligations – I.E. rules, Environmental aspects  Electrical design considerations  Structural design considerations Ease of maintenance Possibility to Expand

Description Nominal system voltage Max.System parameters Sr. 400kV 400kV 420kV 50Hz 3 320kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (320kV) 220kV 220kV 245kV 50Hz 3 156kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (156kV) Effectively earthed 10. operating voltage Rated frequency Number of phases System neutral earthing Corona Extinction voltage Min. 1. 6. creepage distance Rated short ckt. 7. 3. 2. Radio interference voltage at 1MHZ (for phase to earth voltage) . 4. Current for 1 sec. 8. 5.

for other equipments ii) Switching impulse withstand voltage (dry/wet) iii) One min. Description Rated insulation levels i) Full wave impulse withstand voltage -.for reactor/ X’mer -.for lines -. withstand voltage (dry/wet) -.for other equipments 400kV 220kV Remarks 1550kVp 1300kVp 1425kVp 1050kVp 1050kVp 950kVp 1050kVp 680kV 520kV 610kV 630kV 460kV 460kV 530kV 460kV (Line-ground) (open terminals) .System parameters Contd.for CB / Isolator -.for lines -. power freq. 11. Sr..

Substation Bird’s view .

400kV Circuit Breaker .

400kV Isolator .

400kV Current Transformer .

400kV CVT .

400kV Surge Arrester .

Shunt Reactor & NGR .

400/220 kV Auto Transformer .

400kV Bus Post Insulator .

Wave Trap .


Circuit Breaker 3. Current Transformer 6. Connected to bus-bar Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions Disconnection under no-load condition for safety. To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth To step-down currents for measurement. Isolators 4. Earthing switch 5. Lightning Arrester Function Incoming & outgoing ckts. control & protection To step-down voltages for measurement. Voltage Transformer 7. control & protection To discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to earth . Bus-Bar 2. isolation and maintenance.Functions of substation equipments Equipment 1.

Shunt reactor 9. Series Capacitor . 14. Line –Trap 12. Coupling capacitor 11.Functions of substation equipments Contd… 8.c. Power Transformer To control over voltages by providing reactive power compensation To limit earth fault current To provide connection between high voltage line & PLCC equipment To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones. voltage another a. Shunt capacitors 13. To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from one a. Neutral-Grounding resistor 10. voltage at the same frequency.c. Compensation of long lines.

Surge Arresters. To provide the path for discharging the earth currents from neutrals. support structures to earth.buildings -. Substation Earthing system -. overheads shielding wires etc. faults. equipment body. 2. Overhead earth wire shielding or Lightning masts.Earthmat -.roads etc. To protect the outdoor substation equipment from lightning strokes.Earthing risers Function To provide an earthmat for connecting neural points. Illumination system (lighting) -. with safe step-potential and touch potential.Earthing spikes -.Functions of Associated system in substation System 1.for switchyard -. . 3. For safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection.

protection relay panels -. VTs etc. For communication. .PLCC panels To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimize damage to faulty equipment and associated system. communication circuits To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines.circuit breakers -. PLCC system power line carries communication system -. telecontrol. metering circuits. For Protective circuits.. Control cable 6. 4. power line carrier protection etc.CTs.coupling capacitor -.control cables -. control circuits. 5. telemetry.Contd. Power cable 7. Protection system -.line trap -.

switchgear -.watertank and spray system 9. detection system -.diesel generator sets -.fire prot.Contd… 8. telex. For supplying starting power.distribution system 10. Telephone. Fire Fighting system -.Sensors. alarm system -. panels. microwave. Auxiliary standby power system -. OPF To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to initiate water spray. standby power for auxiliaries For internal and external communication . to disconnect power supply to affected region to pin-point location of fire by indication in control room.water spray system -.

Basic drawings for design/construction

Single Line Diagram General Arrangement Drawing Electrical Plan and Section Control Room Architectural layout

Supporting drawings

Structural layout Earthmat layout Civil layout Erection Key Diagram Lighting Layout

Single Line Diagram – 220kV

General arrangement layout .

Electrical layout .

Electrical Section .

Control room layout .

Control room layout .

Structural layout .

Earthmat Layout @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ .

Civil layout .

Erection Key Diagram 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA 4LA 4IC2 N1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W1 4I R1 R1 R1 4W1 4P1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I 4I 4IC1 4DTTM-1 4P3 4LA 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4I 4I R2 4DTTM1 4P1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4SSTM-D 4W1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC2 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W 4P1 4I1 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA N1 4I R1 R1 R1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC1 4W1 4W1 4DTTM1 4P1 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I R2 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4DTTM1 4DTQB-2 4DTQB2 4DTQB2 EW1 EW2 4SSTM-D 4DTTM1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4S1 4P 4S1 4V 4W 4W 4I 4I R1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4P 3 4S1 4I 4S1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4TM 4S2 EW2 EW2 EW1 EW2 EW2 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I 4I 4I 4I 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4DTQB-1 4DTQB1 4DTQB1 4W1 4W EW1 EW2 4DTTM1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4S1 4SSTMD 4SSTM-T 4S1 4S1 4S1 4TBSM 4S1 4I 4S1 4S1 4P 1 4P 1 4IC1 4IC2 4TBSM 4S1 4I2 4I 4I1 4B 4B 4TBSM 4S1 4S1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4S1 4C1 4C2 4I1 4I2 4IC2 .

100 Lux  Other indoor area .50 Lux (main equipment) .20 Lux (balance Area / road @ ground level)  .Lighting Design  Adequate lighting is necessary for safety of working personnel and O&M activities Recommended value of Illumination level  Control & Relay panel area .300 Lux  Battery room .350 Lux (at floor level)  Test laboratory .150 Lux  Switchyard .

Single Bus arrangement .

Low cost Demerits 1. Sectionalizing increases flexibility 2. Difficult to do any maintenance 3. Simple to Operate 3. Remarks 1. Used for distribution substations upto 33kV 2. 3. Simple Protection . Fault of bus or any circuit breaker results in shut-down of entire substation 2. Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. Not used for large substations. Bus cannot be extended without completely deenergizing substations 4.Single Bus System Merits 1.

Main & Transfer Bus .

Switching is somewhat complex when maintaining a breaker 3. Used for 110kV substations where cost of duplicate bus bar system is not justified . Potential devices may 3. 2. Fault of bus or any be used on the main bus circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation.Main & transfer busbar system Merits 1. Low initial & ultimate cost Demerits 1. 2. . Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. Requires one extra breaker coupler Remarks 1.

Double Busbar arrangement .

High flexibility Demerits 1. Line breaker failure takes all circuits connected to the bus out of service. Bus protection scheme connected to each bus may cause loss of substation when it operates.Double Bus Bar Single Breaker system Merits 1. 5. Extra bus-coupler circuit breaker necessary. 3. 220kV and important 11kv. Remarks 1. 132kv.6kV. 3. 2. . Most widely used for 66kV. 4. Half of the feeders 2. 6.3kV substations. High exposure to bus fault. Bus couplers failure takes entire substation out of service.

Double Busbar with Double breaker .

Not used for usual EHV substations due to high cost. Would lose half of the circuits for breaker fault if circuits are not connected to both the buses. 2.Double Bus Bar Double Breaker system Merits 1. Each has two associated breakers 2. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. High reliability Demerits 1. 2. . Used only for very important. high power. 4. EHV substations. Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to any bus 3. Most expensive Remarks 1.

Double main & transfer .

Highly reliable 3. From service 4. no isolator switching required 6. Most flexible in operation 2. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. . 7. Preferred by some utilities for 400kV and 220kV important substations. Simple operation. High cost due to three buses Remarks 1. All switching done with breakers 5. Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service Demerits 1.Double main bus & transfer bus system Merits 1. Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes only one ckt.

One & half breaker scheme .

Preferred. All switching by breaker. Used for 400kV & 220kV substations. 3. Protection and 2. 6. Selective tripping 2.One & half breaker scheme Merits Demerits Remarks 1. hence higher cost 2. . Any breaker can be removed from maintenance without interruption of load. 4. auto-reclosing more complex since middle breaker must be responsive to both associated circuits. Flexible operation for breaker 1. Each circuit fed by two breakers. 1. 5. Requires 1 1/2 breaker per feeder. One and half maintenance breakers per circuit.

Ring Bus .

If fault occurs during bus maintenance. Most widely used for very large power stations having large no. These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronizing live line or voltage indication 4. .Auto-reclosing and protection complex.Mesh (Ring) busbar system Merits 1. Requires VT’s on all circuits because there is no definite voltage reference point. Remarks 1. of incoming and outgoing lines and high power transfer. 2. 3. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. ring gets separated into two sections. Busbars gave some operational flexibility Demerits 1.

Phase to Earth 3500 mm 220kV 2100 mm 2.Minimum Clearances 400kV 1. Sectional clearance 4300 mm . Phase to phase 4200 mm (Rod-conductor configuration) 4000 mm (Conductor-conductor configuration) 6400 mm 2100 mm 3.



Clearance Diagram .

Bus Bar Design        Continuous current rating.) IEC-865 Stresses in Tubular Busbar Natural frequency of Tubular Busbar Deflection of Tube Cantilever strength of Post Insulator Aeolian Vibrations . Ampacity caculation as per IEEE:738 Short time current rating (40kA for 1 Sec.

Every Day Every Day Max. 1. 4. Min. 2. Temp Min. 3. (ACSR 750C/ AAAC 850C) Wind Pressure No wind 36% No wind 100% No wind T <= 22% of UTS T <= 70% of UTS Clearances Limits . 5.Gantry Structure Design  Sag / Tension calculation : as per IS: 802 1995 Sr.

.0 under normal condition and 1.  Short Circuit Forces calculation As per IEC : 865 Short circuit forces during short circuit Short circuit forces after short circuit Short circuit forces due to “Pinch” effect for Bundled conductor Spacer span calculation  Factor of safety of 2.5 under short circuit condition .Contd.

spacers .

00 8000. 10000.00 CONDUCTOR TENSION PER PHASE IN KG.Spacer span Vs Short Ckt.00 6000.00 4000. forces GRAPH OF SPACER SPAN Vs CONDUCTOR TENSION FOR 400 KV TWIN MOOSE ACSR CONDUCTOR 12000. .00 2000.00 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 SPACER SPAN IN MTRS.

 400kV & 220kV system are designed for 40kA.  Basic Objectives:  Step potential within tolerable  Touch Potential limit  Ground Resistance  Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion)  . CBIP-223. IS:3043.Earthing Design Guiding standards – IEEE 80.

Touch and step potential .

Lightning Protection – Ground Wire FIG-4a FIG-4b .

Lightning Protection – Lightning Mast .

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