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Instructional Skills,- Through MicroNISHA RANI M.A.,M.ED LECTURER COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, D.I.M.S MEERUT.INDIA DR SURAKSHA BANSAL M.A, M.Ed., P.hd. Principle Gandhi Institute MEERUT.INDIA
RAKHI MAHESHWARI M.A.,B.ED RESEARCH SCHOLAR SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY JHUNJHUNU.INDIA
"A system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specific teaching behavior and to practice teaching under controlled condition". Allen and Eve (1968)
The technique of micro teaching is a new experiment in the field of education..It can be used in the college. The pupil teacher needs not to go to any school for the training of teaching skills The number of students as well as duration of teaching are less. Micro teaching method is useful for both pre serviced and interest teachers as there is provision of immediate and effective feedback. It facilitates continuity in the training of the teachers. by providing an opportunity of integration of theory and practice. .Specific skills can be develop as . it is a successful method of individualized training. It simplifies the study of inter action between the teacher and the pupils .The demonstrations of model lessons are possible through video lessons and short films. Its use helps in the research work related to class room teaching. Microteaching is a scaled-down, simulated teaching encounter designed to develop new skills and refine oldones”. for the training of both preservice or in-service teachers. It has been used worldwide since its invention at Stanford University in the late 1950s by Dwight W. Allen, Robert Bush, and Kim Romney. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the opportunity for the safe practice of an enlarged cluster of teaching skills while learning how to develop simple, single-concept lessons in any teaching subject. Microteaching helps teachers improve
both content and methods of teaching and develop specific teaching skills such as questioning, the use of examples and simple artifacts to make lessons more interesting, effective reinforcement techniques, and introducing and closing lessons effectively. Immediate, focused feedback and encouragement, combined with the opportunity to practice the suggested improvements in the same training session, are the foundations of the microteaching protocol. The Recent Micro-teaching Format Over the years microteaching has taken many forms. Its early configurations were very formal and complex. Real students (typically four or five) were placed in a rotation of teaching stations in a microteaching clinic. Teachers would teach an initial five to ten minute, single element lesson that was critiqued by a supervisor. The teacher would have a brief time to revise the lesson and then reteach the same lesson to a different group. In later years these sessions were videotaped. Videotaping microteaching lessons became the optimal practice because it allowed teachers to view their own performance. In the late 1980s and 1990s microteaching was reinvigorated with a completely new format developed in southern Africa and later in China. Because of the lack of available technology in developing countries, microteaching's format had to be made less technology dependent in order to be useful. Early modifications were made in Malawi, but it was in Namibia and China where microteaching was completely transformed. Twenty-first-century microteaching increases training effectiveness using an even more scaled-down teaching simulation environment. The new microteaching format was primarily shaped as a response to in-service teacher education needs in Namibia, where the vast majority of teachers were uncertified and there were few resources with which to train them. In China it became part of a national effort to modernize teaching practice. Three important new concepts were incorporated:
1. Self-study groups. Teachers rotate between the roles of teacher and student, building
on earlier versions of "peer microteaching." Self-study groups of four or five teachers have become the norm. 2. The 2 + 2 evaluation protocol. In earlier versions of microteaching, rather elaborate observation protocols had been developed to evaluate performance for each teaching skill. In the new microteaching, each new skill is introduced to trainees in varied combinations of face-to-face training sessions, multimedia presentations, and printed materials. These training materials give cued behaviors to watch for and comment on in the accompanying microteaching lesson. After a microteaching lesson is taught, each of the teachers playing a student role provides peer evaluation of the teaching
episode using the 2 + 2 protocol - two compliments and two suggestions. Compliments and suggestions are focused on the specific skill being emphasized, but may relate to other aspects of the lesson as well. 3. Peer supervision. Originally the microteaching protocol required the presence of a trained supervisor during each lesson. However, with minimal training the compliments and suggestions of peers can become powerful training forces. Trainees feel empowered by the practice of encouraging them to evaluate the compliments and suggestions they receive from their peers (and supervisors, when present), allowing them the discretion to accept or reject any or all suggestions. On average, about twothirds of the suggestions are considered worthwhile and suggestions from peers and trained supervisors are about equally valued. The new, simplified format - widely used in the early twenty-first century - also makes it easier to incorporate the full, recommended protocol of teaching and reteaching each lesson for each student. The microteaching experience goes well beyond the formal, narrow training agenda. The gestalt experience of planning and executing a brief lesson that is closely monitored and scrutinized and the offering and receipt of feedback from respected peers is an integral part of the experience. In the present format students often have three or four complete microteaching cycles in a single course. More cycles tend not to be well received by students, as the training format seems to break down after about four cycles. Some in-service training programs have received enthusiastic reception from students for periodic microteaching sessions (one session each term or semester) over an extended period of time. The flexibility of allowing each microteaching self-study group to make its own schedule, find its own location, and organize its own training and feedback procedures becomes an important part of the training experience. This leads to substantial savings of resources and allows the number of scheduled sessions to be determined by academic merit, not resource limitations.
It involves a simulated teaching session where students practice-teach in a laboratory that involves a faculty supervisor, the demonstrating teacher, peers, a video supervisor, video recorder and player, and a television monitor.
characteristics of micro-teaching
Micro-teaching, is a narrow teaching, it is a complex process of teaching broken down into a number of easy to grasp the specific single skills, and training objectives for each skill
presented in a relatively short period of time or in-service teachers training to improve the teaching skills of teacher trainees training model. Micro-teaching model has the following characteristics: (A)class size is less Organization of micro-teaching classroom classes according to the number of the original flexibility, generally a group of only 7-9 students, and students can frequently exchange, rotation plays teachers, students and evaluation of staff roles to ensure that every student has the full opportunity to obtain training and individual guidance. (B) a shorter school hours Each class time is very short, usually between 10-20 minutes to complete the scheduled teaching programs. During this period of intensive training on a single teaching skills in order to master in a short period of time the skill. (C) short teaching content In the micro-teaching model, the teaching content is broken down into a one's teaching skills, each class only train a skill or a certain aspect, and sometimes the sides are very specific, so that teaching content necessarily less. (D) the use of audio-visual equipment Microteaching An important feature is the use of modern recording equipment will record the practice of teaching skills training to enable trainees to obtain direct feedback of their teaching behavior, and use slow set-piece by means of repeated discussions in the afterschool analysis. The use of audio-visual equipment, teacher training methods to learn his craft from a master and apprentice-type experience, into a purpose of a skills training, scientific, and it is also known as micro-teaching model of video feedback training method of teaching. (E) psychological burden on small Because class time is short, less teaching content, and the class size small, even if the trial fails to teach students who do not will have to play a negative impact, but also affecting schools do not have to worry about the normal teaching. This allows trainees to reduce the tension level is relatively weak, increasing a sense of self-confidence and success
The role of micro-teaching
Microteaching in teacher training, classroom teaching skills of Health opened a new ground, but also to raise self-awareness of trainees provides a new means. (A) The intermediary Teachers in the teaching of Sharia can be some of the basic theory of modern teaching theory and his many years of knowledge and practical Experience of teaching the integration of direct teaching to students so that students in micro-teaching the course to try. Therefore, micro-teaching with the teaching theory and teaching practice intermediary between.
(B) operational Micro-teaching is to narrow the classroom, it will break down the complex process of teaching as a specific, relatively simple individual teaching skills, while identifying the operational objectives can be achieved. This targeted focus on variable factors, less easy to control, easy to practice and improve operability. (C) repeatability Via video feedback and group evaluation, being trained can easily find themselves the problems and shortcomings, learn from each other, in the original level increased to varying degrees. Especially the gap between the larger, more problematic for students, teachers and students in guiding the help, but also with its own characteristics, re-design has its own style of teaching and learning programs to quickly master the skills of a classroom teaching operation of law. (D) evaluative Micro-teaching is to use modern means of audio-visual equipment for your records and provide feedback. In this way, feedback, high accuracy and authenticity of strong, informative, and can repeat the feedback, to facilitate self-analysis evaluation and assessment of group discussion. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download Microteaching Models of Teaching Skills Microteaching can be an effective tool for the development of teacher training materials. When training protocols are being created to demonstrate new teaching skills, microteaching sessions can be developed and taped giving instances and non-instances of the skill. Asking trainees to view these tapes together is an effective way to highlight and demonstrate the essential aspects of the skill being taught. Phases of microteaching suggested by Trott. It consists of (1) the briefing phase, (2) the preparation phase, (3) the teaching stage , (4) the review by the class and the supervisor and, (5) either preparation for the next session or a reteach of the same skill.
The gains in microteaching depend on how the teacherdemonstrators reflect and improve on their skills afterformal evaluation and personal introspection. Briefing stage Initially, each class underwent an orientation anddesensitization stage. These involved exercises inovercoming their fear of standing in front of a camera,encouraging them to depend on and build each other’sconfidence and developing themselves as a functional learning group. Preparation stage The students formulated their own instructional designsand the teaching-learning scenarios they would present inclass using an identified basic skill which they woulddemonstrate. The delivery skills that were identified include: (1) arousing and sustaining motivation, (2) explainingclearly, (3) questioning effectively, and (4) managingdifficult students. The class constructed an evaluation instrument that listedcompetency in each skill according to the minimum passlevel and the relevant principles in teaching and learning. Teach/Reteach stage At this stage, the students delivered their lessons in ascaled-down teaching session which took between 5 and25minutes.Thefirstteaching sessions were the most stressful tostudents because of the fear of criticism. They felt that having their class mates as their simulated students wassuperficial to the setting as these “students” would later assume the role of peer reviewers. Viewing and Analysis of sessions Viewing and evaluation began with self-appraisal on the good and bad points observed, improvements to be made ,and whether the presentation met the minimum standard The other students and faculty supervisors then offered their own observations Five 'R's of Micro-Teaching
• • • • •
Recording Reviewing Responding
• • • •
Teaching skills and teaching strategies :
These include writing of instructional objectives. Sequencing and organizing knowledge to be presented in order to achieve specific objectives. Appropriate content. Proper organization. Selection of proper audio-visual aids. b. Instructional skills :
Skills of introducing a lesson. Skills of explaining and illustrating. Reinforcement Probing questions. Reinforcing pupil participation. Probing questions. Reinforcing pupil participation. Diagnosing pupils' difficulties c. Post-instructional skills :
Skills of writing test items Interpreting pupil's performance in a test. Planning remedial measures. d. Feedback Safe Practice ground
Practicing The Instructional Skills
Practicing Skill of Questioning
The skill of asking questions in the class room teaching is very important. By asking questions again and again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful. He enables them to understand and subject deeply. Questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the problem. The teacher can use the questions in the following situations : Prompting when a pupil expresses his enability to answer some question in the class or his answer is incomplete. The teacher can ask such questions which prompt the pupils in solving the already asked questions. Seeking further information. When the pupils answer correctly in the class but the teacher wants to seek more information. Refocusing. Sometimes, the teacher can ask probing questions to concentrate the attention of the pupils. For the very same purpose, the teacher may ask same question from other pupil. This is know as ‘Re-focussing.’ Redirection . If the teacher wants to introduce the pupils with various aspects of the problem in class room then he can ask the same question after slight changes in the language. This technique is known as ‘TRedirection’. Critical Awareness. In order to develop the reasoning power of the pupils in class, the teacher can ask questions bearing ‘Why’, by getting motivate from such questions, pupils involve themselves in the process of reasoning. This is known as ‘Critical Awareness’ technique.
Components Prompting. In some question pupils get some prompting regarding the answer. The teacher can ask such questions when the pupil expresses his inability to answer or accept frankly that “he does not know.” Seeking further Information. In class, when the pupils are unable to answer any question or answer partially, then in order to receive complete and correct answer, the teacher can ask such questions by accepting that the answer given is correct, but the pupil should reveal more. There can be alternate answer to the question asked such as elaborate your answer more or why do you consider your answer correct. In this way, the teacher can seek maximum information from the pupils. Refocusing. Sometime, the teachers are not satisfied with the pupils’ answers. They draw the attention of the pupils towards different situations where the similar problems can arise. This makes the transfer of learning possible. Redirection. In class, the teacher tries to develop the reasoning power in the pupils by asking various questions. This enables the teacher to encourage the pupils for maximum participation. Critical Awareness. In this components, the questions bearing ‘Why’ and ‘How’ are asked. By asking such questions, the teacher can develop critical awareness in the pupils. PATTERNS OF OBSERVATION SHEET FOR PROBING QUESTION SKILL Component of Probing Questions Skill Prompting questions were asked. Questions seeking further information were asked. Refocusing questions were asked. Redirection was done. Questions to create critical awareness were asked. PATTERN OF EVALUATION SHEET FOR PROBING QUESTION SKILL Components for Probing Questions Skill 7- Point Scale Min. Normal Max. 0 123 456 Prompting questions were asked. Questions seeking further information were asked. Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 (In minutes)
Refocusing question were asked. Redirection was done. Questions to crate critical awareness were asked. PRACTCING LEACTURING SKILL The teacher use lecturing skill in order to impart their ideas and knowledge to the pupils. Most of the time of the class is absorbed by teacher’s lecturing. The verbal communication of self-ideas concepts and principals is called lecturing. Components of Lecturing skill Ability to start lecturing. The simplicity of the language used in lecture. Speed of the lesson. Use of A.V. aids. Repetition of teaching points. Change in inter-action Use of interesting tactics Clarity of the voice Clarity and relationship of the statements Ability to sum up the lecture. The observation and evaluation sheets for lecturing skill can be prepared following the pattern of introduction skill. PRACTICING SKILL OF DISCUSSION The teacher has to seek the help of discussion method in the teaching process to clarify the subject matter. He invites the views of the pupils about some teaching point presented before them. The pupils express their views one by one. In teaching process, it is called discussion. Creation of an environment charged with discussion is the part of teacher’s ability. A teacher having discussion skill is a successful and impressive teacher. Discussion skill is one which also involves other skills. In the absence of involvement of other skills, it cannot function completely. These are skill of introduction skill of stimulus variation, skill of silence and non-verbal cues, skill of reinforcement. The practice of discussion skill accompanies the practice of all these skills. Components
Creation of proper environment Asking question Stimulus variation Increasing pupil participation Silence and Non-verbal cues Variation in Interaction style Increasing Critical Awareness Developing Lecturing Skills Reinforcement. PATTERN OF OBSERVATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF DISCUSSION Components of Discussion Skill Frequencies 1 2 3 4 56 (In Minutes) Proper environment was created. Various types of questions were asked. Teacher varied the stimuli. Teacher tried to increase pupil participation. Teacher changed the style of interaction with the pupils. Teacher tried to create critical awareness in the pupils. In the teaching process, the teacher delivered an impressive lecture to develop lecturing skill. Teacher exhibited properly his silent and non-verbal behavior. Teacher honored the thoughts of other pupils. Teacher applied reinforcement technique.
Practicing Skill of Demonstration The teaching process cannot be completed verbally. In order to clarify the subject matter, the teacher has to seek the help of demonstration method, specifically in science subjects. For example, if a method of preparing some gas is to be explained in the class, the teacher will demonstrate the method of preparing gas in the class. Then he will ask other pupils to do the same themselves. This is termed as demonstration. Components :
(i) Relevancy with the contents, (ii) Pupil Participation, (iii) Handling of equipments and materials, (iv) Appropriateness of the demonstration, (v) Visibility of the demonstration work, (vi) Emphasizing Cause-Effect Relationship, (vii) Capability of Drawing results. PRACTICING SKILL OF ILLUSTRATIN WITH EXAMPLES This is also known as skill of interpretation. Complex concepts, thoughts etc. are to be explained to the pupils after simplification. When a teacher seeks the help of pictures, clarification, examples etc. to simplify the clarify the subject matter, it is known as a skill of illustration with examples. PROFORMS OF OBSERVATION SCHEDULE RATING SCALE Tallies Component Behaviors Scale 1. Teacher demonstrated the relevant 7 Subject matter. 2. Teacher tried to increase pupil 7 Participation. 3. Objects and materials relating to the 7 Experiment used properly. 4. Demonstration was proper. 7 5. Demonstration was visible to 7 All the pupils 6. Teacher was successful in 7 Establishing Cause-Effect relationship 7. Teacher exhibited the ability of 7 Rating 1 23456 123456 123456 123456 123456 123456 123456
Drawing result after the Demonstration was over. Objectives of Illustrations To make the lesson interesting. To link unknown knowledge to know. To simplify and familiarize with the complex and unfamiliar knowledge. To use various senses of the pupils. Precautions while Using Illustrations : These should be related to the specific objectives. These should be related to the main concept. These should be interesting. These should be according to mental level of pupils. These should be of various types. PATTERN OF OBSERVATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF ILLUSTRATION Simplicit Relationshi Interestin y of p of g Example Examples Example s s Approaches to Illustrate : Two approaches are used to illustrate: Non-verbal : Non verbal approaches are used to illustrate: Model, map , picture, figure etc. Verbal : Verbal approach includes example, word picture, comparison, story etc. Components Selection of simple examples. Interesting examples. Selection of appropriate medium for examples. Selection of proper methods of examples.\ Appropriate number of illustration. Relationship of concepts and thoughts with the examples. Illustrations of examples given by the pupils. Appropriat e Medium of Examples Asking Pupil Example Participatio s from n Pupils Use of Inductiv e Method Use of Deductiv e Method
Understanding of concepts. Evaluation Sheet On the basis of various components of the skill the evaluation sheet of this skill is prepared as it in the case of introduction skill. Practicing Skill of Explanation A class in not homogeneous. Some pupils are intelligent some have normal intelligence, some are mature and others are immature. But the teacher has to impart knowledge to all. To present the subject matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable is called the skill of explanation. It is necessary in all the subjects. In its absence the presentation of the subject matter is not possible. In the skill of explanation, such words are used in the statements by which the statements exhibit the clarity of their meanings. Components Coordination in Statements. Coordination in the statements used during the explanation is very essential, otherwise there will be all hotch potch. Relevant Statements. While presenting the subject matter, the concerned statements should be relevant. Fluency in Language. The teacher should use fluent language so that the pupils may listen and understand his thoughts. Connecting Links. The use of words, idioms or connecting links such as ‘therefore’ as a result of etc. is essential to link the different thought or statements. Clear Beginning Statement. Before starting any explanation, the teacher should make the pupils aware of what he is to teach on that day through a clear beginning statement. Use of proper Words. The teacher should use proper words for explaining an object or an event otherwise he would be in a state of confusion. Precaution for Skill of Explaining Explanation should be in simple language. It should not be given the shape of an advice. The thought included in it should be in a sequence. Irrelevant things should not be included. It should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils. It should be complicated, lengthy and small according to the objective of the lesson. PATTERN OF OBSERVATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF EXPLAINING Components of Explanatory Skill
Frequencies 123456 (In Minutes) The words connecting the ideas/statements were used. The statement used in the explanation had coordination/continuity. Initial statements of the explanation were clear. The language of the explanations was fluent. Proper words were used in the explanation. Questions were asked during explanation. Relevant statements were used during explanation Yes/No. Explanation also included irrelevant statement Yes/No. EVALUATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF EXPLAINING Component of Explanatory skill Technology of Teaching 0 (As given in the Observation sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) (As given in the Observation Sheet) PRACTICING SKILL OF STIMULUS VARIATION The chief aim of the teacher’s teaching in the class room is to make the lesson impressive. For this, he uses various types of methods and techniques. In order to attract the pupils, he may present various type of stimuli and can function as stimulus. He presents various stimuli, he himself can function as stimulus. He presents various stimuli such as movement of the body, gesture, changes in speech, focusing of the feeling, change in the interaction style in the pupils, pause and change in the order of audio visual aids. He can attract the pupils by changing all these aspects which function as stimuli. The skillful changes in the stimuli is known as the skill of stimulus Variation. Components 123 456 7-Point Scale Min. Normal Max.
Body Movements. The physical movements of the teacher in the class carry much importance. Whicle excess of physical activities is undesirable the teacher is like a stone idol without these activities. Such teachers teach in the class without any movement. Gestures. Gestures also prove helpful is making the lesson effective in the class room. These include facial gestures (laughing, raising eyebrows, emotions etc.), signals of eyes, nodding, hand signals (signal to stop, signal to continue the task and signal to keep quiet) etc. Changes in Speech Pattern . The pupils feel boredom with the speech at the same pitch, and they get deviated from the lesson. The teacher should bring fluctuations in his voice. Focusing. It is used to concentrate the attentions of the pupils on some specific points or event. It includes verbal focusing gesture focusing and verbal or oral gesture focusing In the verbal focusing, the word are repeated again and again to concentrate the attention such as “Look here children, attend to me, don’t see outside because I am going to announce something important.” In the gesture focusing, the attention of the pupils id concentrated with the help of gestures towards some desirable direction or an object. . Change in Interaction Style. Interaction between the teacher and the pupils is very essential in the class room teaching become monotonous. Therefore the style of interaction in the class room should go on changing. . Change in Audio-Visual Sequence . A continuous change in the sequence of using audio visual aids concentrates the attention of the pupil upon the teacher. He should use sometime visual and sometimes audioaids. Pause. As and where the need arises the teacher should use pauses in his teaching process. PATTERN OF OBSERVATION OF SHEET FOR SKILL OF STIMULUS VARIATION Components of skill of stimulus Variation Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 (In minutes) Body movements were made. Teacher used gestures.
Verbal focusing occurred. Gesture focusing occurred. Verbal gesture focusing occurred. Voice was fluctuated. Interaction between teacher and the pupils occurred. Interaction amongst pupils occurred. Interaction between teacher and class occurred. Pause was used. Change in Audio-Visual sequence was made. Stimulus variation motivated the pupils. Yes/No. PATTERN OF EVALUATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF STIMULUS VARIATION Components of skill of stimulus 7 Point Scale Min. Normal Max. 0 123 456 1. Body movements were made. 2. Teacher used gestures. 3. Verbal focusing was made. 4. Gesture focusing was made. 5. Verbal gesture focusing was made. 6. Fluctuations in the voice were made. 7. Teacher and pupil interaction took place. 8. Pupil-pupil interaction took place 9. Teacher class interaction took place. 10.Pause were used. 11.changes in Audio visual sequence were made. 12.Stimulus variation motivated the pupils. PRACTINCING REINFORCEMENT SKILL Meaning. Reinforcement skill is also known as Feedback Skill. The word “Reinforcement” or “Feedback” means, that event which enhances the possibilities of recurrence of the response when a stimulus is produced in the similar situations. If the event increases the possibility of the response, it is said to be ‘Positive Reinforcement’. If the events decreases the possibility of the response, it is said to be “Negative Reinforcement.” The reinforcement means – use of such stimuli or their presentation or their removal so that the possibility of recurrence of some response may increase. For example- few words of appreciation increase the possibility or recurring the same behavour of the pupils. In such a situation, the words of appreciation function as stimuli and the resultant behaviour of the pupils is termed as the response.
Precautions in Using Reinforcement Skill 1. Its excessive use should be avoided or don’t reinforce every response. 2. It should be for all the pupils and not for those only who answer the questions or meritorious pupils. 3. Proper words should be selected and used. 4. Only a few statements should not be repeated. New sentences should be used for reinforcement. Components 1. Use of positive sentences. 2. Support to pupils suggestions. 3. Encouragements to pupils. 4. Use of gestures and other non verbal cues. 5. Writing all the responses of the pupils on the black board. 6. Use of negative verbal statements. 7. Use of negative non verbal statements. 8. Proper use of reinforcement. 9. Reinforcement for all. 10.Novelty in the statements used in reinforcement. PATTERN OF OBSERVATION SHEET FOR REINFORCEMENT SKILL Components of Reinforcement Skill Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 (In Minutes) 1. Positive statement were used. 2. The suggestions of the pupils were supported. 3. Pupils were encouraged. 4. Gestures and other non verbal cues were used. 5. Correct answer of the pupils were written on black board. 6. Negative verbal statements were used. 7. Negative non verbal statement were used. 8. Reinforcement was used properly. 9. Reinforcement was used for all the pupils. 10.There was novelty in the statements used in reinforcement.
Precautions in Micro Teaching
Clarity of objectives is a must. Micro lesson plan should be prepared for one skill only at a time. Delivering model lesson is necessary. Before matching, the pupil teacher must prepare his micro lesson plan. Substantial suggestion should also accompany criticism in order to improve the teaching skill of the pupil iMerits of Micro-Teaching • Helps student teachers to acquire hard-to-attain teaching skills by providing a real situation for practicing skills. • Since micro-teaching focuses on a particular skill at a time, student teachers can attain proficiency in teaching skills in a phased manner. • Provision of immediate feedback makes micro-teaching more interesting and reliable. • Since main role is played by the student teacher, it is regarded as a student centered method. Demerits of Micro-Teaching • Time consuming • Produces homogenized standard robots with set smiles and procedures It is said to be (wrongly) a form of play acting in unnatural surroundings and it is feared that the acquired skills may not be internalized
BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Dwight, and Ryan, Kevin. 1969. Microteaching. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Allen, Dwight, and Wang, Weiping. 1996. Microteaching. Beijing, China: Xinhua Press. Allen, Mary E., and Belzer, John A. 1997. "The Use of Microteaching to Facilitate Teaching Skills of Practitioners Who Work with Older Adults." Gerontology and Geriatrics Education 18 (2):77. Bansal S and Maheshwari Rakhi .Teaching of English.R,Lall. Publishers.Meerut .India. Borg, Walter R.; Kelley, Marjorie L.; Langer, Philip; and Gall, Meredith D. 1970. The Mini Course: A Microteaching Approach to Teacher Education. Beverly Hills, CA: Macmillan.
Brent, Rebecca; Wheatley, Elizabeth; and Thomson, W. Scott. 1996. "Videotaped Microteaching: Bridging the Gap from the University to the Classroom." The Teacher Educator 31 (3):238. Brown, George A. 1975. Microteaching: A Program of Teaching Skills. London: Methuen. Gregory, Thomas B. 1972. Encounters with Teaching: A Microteaching Manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Maheshwari v.k and Bansal S..Technology of Teaching .R.Lall Publishers, Meerut India. McGarvey, Brian, and Swallow, Derek. 1986. Microteaching in Teacher Education and Training. Dover, NH: Croom Helm. McIntyre, Donald; Macleod, Gordon; and Griffiths, Roy. 1977. Investigations of Microteaching. London: Croom Helm. Trott A. Microteaching: An Overview. London: Educational Media International, 1976 Turney, Cliff; Cairns L.; Williams, G.; and Hatton, N. 1975. Sydney Micro Skills. Sydney: Sydney University Press. Turney, Cliff; Clift, John C.; Dunkin, Michael J.; and Traill, Ronald D. 1973. Microteaching: Research, Theory and Practice. Sydney: Sydney University Press. Vare, Jonathan W. 1994. "Partnership Contrasts: Microteaching Activity as Two Apprenticeships in Thinking." Journal of Teacher Education 45 (3):209. Wahba, Essam Hanna. 1999. "Microteaching." Forum: A Journal for the Teacher of English outside the United States 37 (4):23. Wilkinson, Gayle A. 1996. "Enhancing Microteaching through Additional Feedback from Preservice Administrators." Teaching and Teacher Education 12 (2):211.
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