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Romeo i Julieta este o tragedie de William Shakespeare despre soarta a doi îndr gosti i care lupt împotriva destinului. Este poate cea mai cunoscut pies a sa, una dintre succesele sale timpurii, fiind considerat cea mai tipic poveste de dragoste a Rena terii. Opera începe într-o pia public din Verona unde Sampsonsi Geson poart discu ii despre ura lor pentru familia Montague. Apoi î i face apari ia i Benvolio care încearc s -i despart , dar lupta continu o dat ce vine i Tybalt. To i ace tia au fost convin i s renun e la conflict de c tre copiii celor dou familii. Apoi Lady Montague întreab de Romeo, iar Benvolio i Montague î i fac planuri pentru a-l face s renun e la iubirea care-l mistuie. În scena a doua a actului 1, Paris îi spune lui Capulet c vrea s se însoare cu Julieta, dar acesta nu renun usor. Romeo afl de la servitorul lui Capulet c va avea loc o petrecere la palat i se hot r te s participe la aceasta. Julieta este anun at de mama sa c Paris dore te s o ia în c s torie, dar ea refuz . La petrecerea organizat de Capulet, Romeo al turi de Mercutio, Benvolio i Tybalt î i fac apari ia. Purtând îns m ti, Romeo reu e te s vorbeasc cu aleasa inimii sale i chiar s o s rute. Dup acest moment, cei trei prieteni de care era înso it Romeo, afl ca acesta s-a strecurat în gr dina Capuletilor pentru a vorbi cu Julieta. În urma acesteia, Romeo pleac la p rintele Lorenzo pentru a-l ruga s -i cunune pe cei doi îndr gosti i. Mai târziu, cei patru prieteni discut între ei, dar sunt întrerup i de doica Julietei care vrea s se asigure c planurile lui Romeo sunt cât se poate de sincere. Dup ce afl acest lucru, ea îi spune Julietei, care se duce la p rintele Lorenzo pentru a se spovedi. Aici, ea se întâlne te cu alesul inimii sale cu care se i cunun . Dupa aceasta, într-o pia public are loc o confruntare cu spada între Romeo i Tybalt, iar Mercutio, încercând s -i despart , este omorât de rivalul lui Romeo. În final, uciga ul îl provoac din nou la duel pe Romeo, dar este omorât de acesta. Despre aceast întâmplare afl prin ul i Lady Capulet, care hot r sc ca Romeo s pl teasc cu propria-i via pentru faptele sale. Apoi are loc o discu ie între doic i Julieta în care doica dezaprob atitudinea pozitiv a fetei în privin a Äuciga ului´ v rului ei Tybalt. Între timp, Romeo se ascunde în chilia p rintelui Lorenzo, dar este urm rit de doic pân acolo. Aceasta îi d un inel din partea Julietei i-i spune care îi este starea. Totodat , Capulet i Paris pun la cale c s toria acestuia din urma cu Julieta. Dup toate acestea, Julieta vorbe te cu mama sa despre planurile tat lui ei de a o c s tori cu Paris. Tat l s u afl i se ceart cu ea. Între timp, doica încearc s o conving s se marite cu nobilul, deoarece Romeo va muri sigur. Dup cearta cu p rin ii, Julieta se duce s se spovedeasc p rintelui Lorenzo, care o sf tuie te s se m rite cu Paris miercuri, iar înainte de noaptea nun ii s bea licoarea din sticlu pe care i-o va da el, care va da impresia ca este moart , dar ea se va trezi dup 24 de ore. În ziua nun ii, în timp ce preg tirile erau în toi i to i membrii familiei împreun cu servitorii sunt ocupa i, Julieta bea con inutul sticlei i este g sit de doic în pat, to i membrii familiei fiind anunta i, nunta nemaiputând avea loc. Romeo, fiind anun at de Balthazar c iubirea lui este moart , cump r de la un farmacist o sticl de otrav i pleac într-acolo. Dup înmormântarea Julietei în cavoul familiei, Romeo se bate cu Paris i-l omoar . Între timp,
iar Mercutio. deoarece Romeo va muri sigur. Tat l s u afl i se ceart cu ea. este omorât de rivalul lui Romeo. La petrecerea organizat de Capulet. În urma acesteia. dar lupta continu o dat ce vine i Tybalt. Julieta se duce s se spovedeasc p rintelui Lorenzo. Julieta bea con inutul sticlei i este g sit de doic în pat. dar ea refuz . dar este urm rit de doic pân acolo. îns stând de vorb cu Balthazar. iar înainte de noaptea nun ii s bea licoarea din sticlu pe care i-o va da el. dar este omorât de acesta. care hot r sc ca Romeo s pl teasc cu propria-i via pentru faptele sale. Aici. To i membrii ambelor familii descoper corpurile neînsufle ite i afl de la Lorenzo tot ce s-a întamplat. Romeo i Julieta este o tragedie de William Shakespeare despre soarta a doi îndr gosti i care lupt împotriva destinului. iar Benvolio i Montague î i fac planuri pentru a-l face s renun e la iubirea care-l mistuie. într-o pia public are loc o confruntare cu spada între Romeo i Tybalt. cele dou familii se împac ajungând la concluzia c ura lor a dus la moartea lui Romeo i a Julietei. care se duce la p rintele Lorenzo pentru a se spovedi. Dup toate acestea. care va da impresia ca este moart . Romeo afl de la servitorul lui Capulet c va avea loc o petrecere la palat i se hot r te s participe la aceasta. cei trei prieteni de care era înso it Romeo. Purtând îns m ti. Dup acest moment. Apoi Lady Montague întreab de Romeo. Opera începe într-o pia public din Verona unde Sampsonsi Geson poart discu ii despre ura lor pentru familia Montague. Apoi î i face apari ia i Benvolio care încearc s -i despart . ajunge prea târziu i-l g se te pe b iat întins la podea. În scena a doua a actului 1. Mai târziu. Benvolio i Tybalt î i fac apari ia. dar ea se va trezi dup 24 de ore. Dup cearta cu p rin ii. Între timp. otr vit. cei patru prieteni discut între ei. Julieta vorbe te cu mama sa despre planurile tat lui ei de a o c s tori cu Paris. Paris îi spune lui Capulet c vrea s se însoare cu Julieta. În final. se sinucide cu pumnalul iubitului ei. Apoi are loc o discu ie între doic i Julieta în care doica dezaprob atitudinea pozitiv a fetei în privin a Äuciga ului´ v rului ei Tybalt. doica încearc s o conving s se marite cu nobilul. ea se întâlne te cu alesul inimii sale cu care se i cunun . Între timp.p rintele Lorenzo încearc s ajung la timp pentru a-l vesti pe Romeo c totul este o înscenare. Despre aceast întâmplare afl prin ul i Lady Capulet. Romeo se ascunde în chilia p rintelui Lorenzo. Julieta este anun at de mama sa c Paris dore te s o ia în c s torie. Capulet i Paris pun la cale c s toria acestuia din urma cu Julieta. To i ace tia au fost convin i s renun e la conflict de c tre copiii celor dou familii. uciga ul îl provoac din nou la duel pe Romeo. fiind considerat cea mai tipic poveste de dragoste a Rena terii. în timp ce preg tirile erau în toi i to i membrii familiei împreun cu servitorii sunt ocupa i. Dupa aceasta. Julieta se treze te i v zându-l pe Romeo întins i nemi cat. una dintre succesele sale timpurii. ea îi spune Julietei. Romeo pleac la p rintele Lorenzo pentru a-l ruga s -i cunune pe cei doi îndr gosti i. Totodat . încercând s -i despart . Dup ce afl acest lucru. afl ca acesta s-a strecurat în gr dina Capuletilor pentru a vorbi cu Julieta. În ziua nun ii. Este poate cea mai cunoscut pies a sa. Aceasta îi d un inel din partea Julietei i-i spune care îi este starea. Romeo reu e te s vorbeasc cu aleasa inimii sale i chiar s o s rute. În final. Romeo al turi de Mercutio. care o sf tuie te s se m rite cu Paris miercuri. dar sunt întrerup i de doica Julietei care vrea s se asigure c planurile lui Romeo sunt cât se poate de sincere. dar acesta nu renun usor. to i membrii familiei .
Dup înmormântarea Julietei în cavoul familiei. ajunge prea târziu i-l g se te pe b iat întins la podea. it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage. to expand the plot. nunta nemaiputând avea loc. Performances in the 19th century. Characters Main article: Characters in Romeo and Juliet . and Georg Benda's operatic adaptation omitted much of the action and added a happy ending. and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. In the 20th century the play has been adapted in versions as diverse as MGM's comparatively faithful 1936 film. To i membrii ambelor familii descoper corpurile neînsufle ite i afl de la Lorenzo tot ce s-a întamplat. and focused on greater realism. teenage lovers. David Garrick's 18thcentury version also modified several scenes. and later editions corrected it. translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. îns stând de vorb cu Balthazar. otr vit.fiind anunta i. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. for example. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but. Its plot is based on an Italian tale. John Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text. Romeo. Romeo. se sinucide cu pumnalul iubitului ei. the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. particularly Mercutio and Paris. film. musical and opera. bringing it more in line with Shakespeare's original. including Charlotte Cushman's. Believed written between 1591 and 1595. has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. În final. This text was of poor quality. It was among Shakespeare's most popular archetypal stories of young. Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare about two young "star-cross'd lovers" whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension. the 1950s stage musical West Side Story. developed supporting characters. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters. restored the original text. fiind anun at de Balthazar c iubirea lui este moart . and 1996's MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet. Romeo se bate cu Paris i-l omoar . Julieta se treze te i v zându-l pe Romeo întins i nemi cat. his expansion of minor characters. cele dou familii se împac ajungând la concluzia c ura lor a dus la moartea lui Romeo i a Julietei. grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play. Între timp. and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story. Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure. removing material then considered indecent. sometimes changing the form as the character develops. During the Restoration. p rintele Lorenzo încearc s ajung la timp pentru a-l vesti pe Romeo c totul este o înscenare. cump r de la un farmacist o sticl de otrav i pleac într-acolo.
Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline. and a friend of Romeo. begins with a street brawl between Montagues and Capulets who are sworn enemies. but Capulet is wary of the request because Juliet is only thirteen. However. one of Capulet's nieces. Juliet is the daughter of the Capulets. Lady Montague is the matriarch of the house of Montague. Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar. After the ball. Juliet's cousin Tybalt. Romeo. Sampson and Gregory are servants of y the Capulet household. Tybalt is a cousin of Juliet. Lord Montague's son. Lady Capulet is the matriarch of the house Others of Capulet. Later. The Prince of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Mercutio is another kinsman of Escalus. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence. A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts. Abram and Balthasar are servants of the Montague household. Benvolio is Romeo's cousin and best friend. Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo. and the nephew y of Lady Capulet. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence. and is y the play's female protagonist. Montague is the patriarch of the house of Montague. refuses to fight. Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio. and is Romeo's confidant. Romeo is the son of Montague and Lady Montague and the play's male protagonist. set in Verona. Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball.Ruling house of Verona y y y House of Montague y y y y y Prince Escalus is the ruling Prince of Verona Count Paris is a kinsman of Escalus who wishes to marry Juliet." and accepts the duel on Romeo's . Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. An Apothecary who reluctantly sells Romeo poison. Meanwhile. about Romeo's recent depression. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris's courtship.  Synopsis The play. Peter. who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union. The Nurse is Juliet's personal attendant and y confidante. House of Capulet y y y y y y Capulet is the patriarch of the house of Capulet. incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball. now considering Tybalt his kinsman. in what is now called the "balcony scene". Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo. they are secretly married the next day. Romeo sneaks into the Capulet courtyard and overhears Juliet on her balcony vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. challenges him to a duel. as well as Romeo's "vile submission.
she is laid in the family crypt. One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe. "that hour is his last. and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for "two and forty hours. who mentions the Montecchi (Montagues) and the Cappelletti (Capulets) in canto six of Purgatorio: Come and see. Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help. exiles Romeo from Verona and declares that if Romeo returns. her mother rejects her. now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud. Monaldi and Filippeschi: One lot already grieving.behalf. instead. including the separation of the lovers. when discovered apparently dead. misinterpreting Juliet's grief." Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber. finding Romeo dead. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Still believing Juliet to be dead. Believing Romeo to be a vandal. canto VI. The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. however. from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". she takes the drug and. 106-8. Capulet. The play ends with the Prince's elegy for the lovers: "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Dante. Divine Comedy: Purgatorio. One of the earliest references to the names Montague and Capulet is from Dante's Divine Comedy. also contains several similarities to the play. which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other. Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. Montagues and Capulets. so that he can rejoin her when she awakens." When she then pleads for the marriage to be delayed. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Montague argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt. does not reach Romeo and. the other in fear. Juliet then awakens and. you who are negligent. The messenger. ll. and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead. The Ephesiaca of Xenophon of Ephesus. where they consummate their marriage. Heartbroken. and a potion that induces a deathlike sleep. written in the 3rd century."  Sources Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. stabs herself with his dagger. . in the ensuing battle. he drinks the poison. The Prince." The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan. Paris confronts him and. he learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant Balthasar. agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride. Romeo kills Paris. On the night before the wedding.
Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment. chastizes Albert of Hapsburg for neglecting his responsibilities as temporal ruler of Christendom in the continent ("you who are negligent"). thus leading to a climate of incessant bickering and warfare between rival political parties in Lombardy. the parties are grieving ("One lot already grieving") because their endless warfare has led to the destruction of both parties. Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. the potion plot. rather than a grief from the loss of their illfated offspring as the play sets forth. In 1554. through his characters. but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family. Bandello's story was translated into French by Pierre Boaistuau in 1559 in the first volume of his Histories Tragiques. which appears to be a solely poetic creation within this context.However. Salernitano sets the story in Siena and insists its events took place in his own lifetime. and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts. the colluding friar. Luigi da Porto adapted the story as Giulietta e Romeo and included it in his Historia novellamente ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti published in 1530. and the location in Verona. but adjusted it to reflect parts of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. There was a trend among writers and playwrights to publish works based on Italian novelles²Italian tales were very popular among theatre-goers²and Shakespeare may well have been familiar with William Painter's 1567 collection of Italian tales titled Palace of Pleasure. Arthur Brooke translated Boaistuau faithfully. rather than within the confines of Verona. the fray where a prominent citizen is killed. He also introduces characters corresponding to Shakespeare's Mercutio. Dante. and Paris. in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in 1476. Matteo Bandello published the second volume of his Novelle. both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole. Shakespeare took advantage of this popularity: The Merchant of Venice. but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters (in particular the Nurse and Mercutio). Much Ado About Nothing. This collection included a version in prose of the Romeo and Juliet story named "The goodly History of the true and constant love of Rhomeo and Julietta". Lombardy and the Italian Peninsula as a whole. the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti. the reference is part of a polemic against the moral decay of Florence. Da Porto presents his tale as historically true and claims it took place in the days of Bartolomeo II della Scala (a century earlier than Salernitano). Tybalt. All's Well That Ends Well. In this version. Mariotto's exile. In da Porto's version Romeo takes poison and Giulietta stabs herself with his dagger. In his 1562 narrative poem The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet. and Romeo and Juliet are all from Italian novelle. Gianozza's forced marriage. Measure for Measure. and successive Popes for their encroachment from purely spiritual affairs. . The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano. and Shakespeare follows the poem closely. which included his version of Giuletta e Romeo. Da Porto drew on Pyramus and Thisbe and Boccacio's Decameron. He gave it much of its modern form. Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation. Historicity records the name of the family Montagues as being lent to such a political party in Verona. and the crucial message that goes astray. Bandello emphasises Romeo's initial depression and the feud between the families. and introduces the Nurse and Benvolio. including the names of the lovers. His version of the story includes the secret marriage. Allied to rival political factions.
Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1. Modern versions²that take into account several of the Folios and Quartos²first appeared with Nicholas Rowe's 1709 edition. Juliet's nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago. This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. are thought to be less of a direct influence. This may refer to the Dover Straits earthquake of 1580. which would date that particular line to 1591.Christopher Marlowe's Hero and Leander and Dido. although they may have helped create an atmosphere in which tragic love stories could thrive. But the play's stylistic similarities with A Midsummer Night's Dream and other plays conventionally dated around 1594±95. suggesting that it had been pirated for publication. with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a theatrical promptbook or Q1. The First Folio text of 1623 was based primarily on Q3. Spencer described it as "a detestable text. Q2 is about 800 lines longer than Q1. In any event. printed by John Danter. augmented and amended". followed by Alexander Pope's 1723 version. both similar stories written in Shakespeare's day. its appearance in early 1597 makes 1596 the latest possible date for the play's composition. appeared in early 1597. One conjecture is that Shakespeare may have begun a draft in 1591. as are all modern editions since editors believe that any deviations from Q2 in the later editions (whether good or bad) are likely to arise from editors or compositors. probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors". B. all later Quartos and Folios of Romeo and Juliet are based on Q2. and was reprinted in 1609 (Q3). It was printed in 1599 by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. The superior Q2 called the play The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. which he completed in 1595. printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play. Its title page describes it as "Newly corrected. . Q1. J. It is a much more complete and reliable text. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft (called his foul papers). Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was published in two quarto editions prior to the publication of the First Folio of 1623. not from Shakespeare. These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. An alternative explanation for Q1's shortcomings is that the play (like many others of the time) may have been heavily edited before performance by the playing company. 1664 (F3).  Date and text It is unknown when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. and 1685 (F4). Other earthquakes²both in England and in Verona²have been proposed in support of different dates. Other Folio editions of the play were printed in 1632 (F2). Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions. 1622 (Q4) and 1637 (Q5). place its composition sometime between 1591 and 1595. Queen of Carthage. the 20th-century editor T. it is labelled a 'bad quarto'. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today. The first printed edition. In effect. since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. the danger of hasty action. thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways. over-arching theme to the play. And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. "pilgrim" and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous. Which mannerly devotion shows in this. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation. In the later balcony scene.  Love "Romeo If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine. Act I. On their first meeting. Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy." Romeo and Juliet. Usually a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere. Later in the play. but breaking this rule . Romeo and Juliet have become emblematic of young lovers and doomed love. For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch. Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. however. but instead are more or less alike. awaking out of a dream and into reality. The religious metaphors of "shrine". as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age. Shakespeare removes the more daring allusions to Christ's resurrection in the tomb he found in his source work: Brooke's Romeus and Juliet. the gentle sin is this: My lips. several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play. two blushing pilgrims. Scene V Romeo and Juliet is sometimes considered to have no unifying theme. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop. Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way. save that of young love. and he could retreat without losing honour. even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small. By using metaphors of saints and sins. Romeo and Juliet use a form of communication recommended by many etiquette authors in Shakespeare's day: metaphor. Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil. you do wrong your hand too much. ready stand To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. However. or the power of tragic fate. participates in the metaphor and expands on it. the woman could pretend she did not understand him. Juliet Good pilgrim. Juliet. This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione (whose works had been translated into English by this time). Themes and motifs Scholars have found it extremely difficult to assign one specific. None of these have widespread support. but in Brooke's version of the story her declaration is done alone.
not of character. Juliet later erotically compares Romeo and death. John W. which prevents them from losing the audience's sympathy. bright smoke. suicides were often thought to be condemned to hell. He makes the choice to kill. it is only consummated in marriage. but because of circumstance. not because of a tragic flaw. Still.serves to speed along the plot. identity and commitments. both Romeo and Juliet. when he first discovers Juliet's (faked) death. Right before her suicide she grabs Romeo's dagger. The play arguably equates love and sex with death. Still-waking sleep. O any thing of nothing first create! O heavy lightness. after Mercutio's death. and move on to plain talk about their relationship²developing into an agreement to be married after knowing each other for only one night. describes it as having deflowered his daughter. serious vanity. cold fire. The lovers are able to skip a lengthy part of wooing. sick health."  Fate and chance "O. Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences. In the final suicide scene. Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms. Tybalt as a choleric). There rust. O loving hate. Act III Scene I Scholars are divided on the role of fate in the play. but an emotional melodrama. the expected action to take. other scholars see the play as a series of unlucky chances²many to such a degree that they do not see it as a tragedy at all. Ruth Nevo believes the high degree to which chance is stressed in the narrative makes Romeo and Juliet a "lesser tragedy" of happenstance. Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms. fantasise about it as a dark being. there is a contradiction in the message²in the Catholic religion. Another point is that although their love is passionate. often equating it with a lover. Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play (for example.  Duality (light and dark) "O brawling love. Feather of lead. For example. Throughout the story. Capulet. saying "O happy dagger! This is thy sheath. Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as "star-cross'd". it is. whereas people who die to be with their loves under the "Religion of Love" are joined with their loves in paradise. No consensus exists on whether the characters are truly fated to die together or whether the events take place by a series of unlucky chances. and let me die. that is not what it is!" . In this scene. for example. This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future. Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive. I am fortune's fool!" Romeo. along with the other characters. Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view.
thanks to the love of Romeo and Juliet. also charting the course of human lives below. but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness. Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them. brighter than a torch. the lovers are designated as "star-cross'd" referring to an astrologic belief associated with time." Juliet describes Romeo as "day in night" and "Whiter than snow upon a raven's back. he defies the stars' course for him. Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play.Romeo. when Romeo swears his love to Juliet by the moon. light and dark have returned to their proper places. in contrast to Brooke's poem's spanning nine months. since light was a convenient way for Shakespeare to express the passage of time through descriptions of the sun. Act III Scene IV Time plays an important role in the language and plot of the play. Romeo and Juliet fight time . All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events. a jewel sparkling in the night. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun." This contrast of light and dark can be expanded as symbols² contrasting love and hate. For example. and when he learns of Juliet's death. Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation. For example. This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love. / Lest that thy love prove likewise variable. she protests "O swear not by the moon. Even when she lies apparently dead in the tomb. when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow. Another central theme is haste: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet spans a period of four to six days. stars would move along their course in the sky." Paris. The "light" theme in the play is also heavily connected to the theme of time. and as time passed. both Romeo and Juliet see the other as light in a surrounding darkness. moon. Act I Scene I Scholars have long noted Shakespeare's widespread use of light and dark imagery throughout the play." From the very beginning. At the end of the story. Sometimes these intertwining metaphors create dramatic irony. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them. youth and age in a metaphoric way. / That monthly changes in her circled orb. Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity. the outward darkness reflecting the true. while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight. th'inconstant moon. and stars. Scholars such as G. and a bright angel among dark clouds. and things return to the natural order. inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers. For instance. as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom". Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play. he says her "beauty makes This vault a feasting presence full of light.  Time "These times of woe afford no time to woo.
most notably the abrupt shifts from comedy to tragedy (an example is the punning exchange between Benvolio and Mercutio just before Tybalt arrives). to prevent being killed by him. All in all. adding to the illusion of its passage. Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that Rosaline had been purposely included in the play to show how reckless the hero was. considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays. In Shakespeare's day. the play suddenly becomes serious and takes on a tragic tone. In mid-century. rather than executed. writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw. the play is largely a comedy. They are in a "breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive. criticism centred on debates over the moral message of the play. In the later part of the 18th and through the 19th century. When Romeo is banished. Before Mercutio's death in Act three. which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families." Poet John Dryden wrote 10 years later in praise of the play and its comic character Mercutio: "Shakespear show'd the best of his skill in his Mercutio. With the advent of the 20th century." Criticism of the play in the 18th century was less sparse. This forced the playwright to use words to create the illusion of day and night in his plays. who wrote in 1662: "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my life. these moral arguments were disputed by critics like Richard Green Moulton. the audience can still hope that all will end well. Shakespeare employs several dramatic techniques that have garnered praise from critics. the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art. plays were often performed at noon in broad daylight.  Dramatic structure In Romeo and Juliet. that he was forc'd to kill him in the third Act. . the stars. After his accidental demise. Publisher Nicholas Rowe was the first critic to ponder the theme of the play. and Friar Laurence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo. and that this was the reason for his tragic end.to make their love last forever. and the sun to create this illusion. no fewer than 103 references to time are found in the play. and he said himself. Writer and critic Samuel Johnson. he and Juliet may yet be saved. He argued that accident. Actor and playwright David Garrick's 1748 adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless. Others argued that Friar Laurence might be Shakespeare's spokesman in his warnings against undue haste. led to the lovers' deaths.  Criticism and interpretation  Critical history The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys. however. Time is also connected to the theme of light and dark. but no less divided. and not some character flaw. Shakespeare uses references to the night and day. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story. In the end. not an accident of fate. the moon.
 Shakespeare saves his prose style most often for the common people in the play. however. show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo. This sonnet form is used by Lady Capulet to describe Count Paris to Juliet as a handsome man. he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form. serve to emphasise the tragedy when the final hope fails and both the lovers die at the end. when the play begins.  Language Shakespeare uses a variety of poetic forms throughout the play. reprieve. Other forms in the play include an epithalamium by Juliet. Beyond this. and much of it in strict iambic pentameter. Humour. partially disguised aggression". Finally. she searches for true expression. is important: scholar Molly Mahood identifies at least 175 puns and wordplays in the text. This provides a comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage. Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain. Most of Romeo and Juliet is. such as Mercutio. who has refused all of his advances. as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse. The formal language she uses around Paris. also. written in blank verse. using "pilgrims" and "saints" as metaphors. and new hope. For example. spoken by a Chorus. when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play. Norman Holland. considers Romeo's dream as a realistic "wish fulfilling fantasy both in terms of Romeo's adult . uses sermon and sententiae forms. For example. when the two meet on the balcony. Each of these forms is also moulded and matched to the emotion of the scene the character occupies. When Romeo and Juliet meet. and an elegy by Paris. the poetic form changes from the Petrarchan (which was becoming archaic in Shakespeare's day) to a then more contemporary sonnet form. Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. Friar Laurence. which leads both to Mercutio's death and to the double suicide. though at times he uses it for other characters. with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays. Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo. Shakespeare also uses sub-plots to offer a clearer view of the actions of the main characters.  Psychoanalytic criticism Early psychoanalytic critics saw the problem of Romeo and Juliet in terms of Romeo's impulsiveness. Shakespeare matches the poetry to the character who uses it. as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. a rhapsody in Mercutio's Queen Mab speech. the subplot of the Montague±Capulet feud overarches the whole play. for example. providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end.These shifts from hope to despair. especially those involving Mercutio and the Nurse. Many of these jokes are sexual in nature. and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech. Romeo and Juliet is not considered to be exceedingly psychologically complex. Juliet uses monosyllabic words with Romeo. deriving from "ill-controlled. In choosing forms. He begins with a 14-line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet. and sympathetic psychoanalytic readings of the play make the tragic male experience equivalent with sicknesses. but Juliet breaks it by saying "Dost thou love me?" By doing this. rather than a poetic exaggeration of their love. Romeo attempts to use the sonnet form to pledge his love. Romeo is in love with Rosaline. but uses formal language with Paris. writing in 1966.
In this view.  Queer theory Critics utilizing queer theory have examined the sexuality of Mercutio and Romeo. Other critics. she is challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time. speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate" and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death. emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras. for example. In this view. by any other name would smell as sweet".world and his hypothetical childhood at stages oral. Mercutio. arguing that this hatred is the cause of Romeo and Juliet's passion for each other. For Coppélia Kahn. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who. At the same time. stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of capitalism. such as Dympna Callaghan. in friendly conversation. mentions Romeo's phallus.that which we call a rose. Romeo shifts into this violent mode.  Feminist criticism Feminist critics argue that the blame for the family feud lies in Verona's patriarchal society. That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet. regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate". look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle. Critics such as Julia Kristeva focus on the hatred between the families. An example is his joking wish "To raise a spirit in his mistress' circle . for example. and more sympathetic towards lovematches: when Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for. like Romeo. as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly demonstrate. suggesting traces of homoeroticism. phallic and oedipal" ± while acknowledging that a dramatic character is not a human being with mental processes separate from those of the author.... such as the Friar. she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate. a woman who is distant and unavailable and brings no hope of offspring. Gender critics believe that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way. The feud is also linked to male virility. their masters. when Juliet says ". in particular to a consideration of Shakespeare's grief for the death of his son. she may be raising the question of whether there is any difference between the beauty of a man and the beauty of a woman. the strict. Hamnet. This leads on to speculation as to the playwright's psychology. . Juliet also submits to a female code of docility by allowing others. or in the case of the servants. comparing their friendship with sexual love." Romeo's homoeroticism can also be found in his attitude to Rosaline. is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual. masculine code of violence imposed on Romeo is the main force driving the tragedy to its end. to solve her problems for her. When Tybalt kills Mercutio.. As Benvolio argues. letting it there stand / Till she had laid it and conjured it down. the younger males "become men" by engaging in violence on behalf of their fathers.