Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

the reader will be able to: 1. Version 2 CE IIT. 4. 6.2 Crotti-Engesser Theorem The Crotti-Engesser theorem states that the first partial derivative of the complementary strain energy U * expressed in terms of applied forces F j is ( ) equal to the corresponding displacement. in case of linear structures) the equation (6.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. n ∂U * = ∑ a jk Fk = u j ∂Fj k =1 (6. State and prove Crotti-Engesser theorem. 3. In this lesson. which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem. 6.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. Derive equations for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to temperature loads. few examples are solved to demonstrate the power of virtual work. we discussed the principle of virtual work and principle of virtual displacement. In the end. Initially the Engesser’s theorem. 2. Also.2) Note that Engesser’s theorem is valid for both linear and non-linear structures. is discussed.1) is nothing but the statement of Castigliano’s first theorem in terms of complementary strain energy. ∂U * =0 ∂F j (6.e.1) For the case of indeterminate structures this may be stated as. Compute deflections in trusses using unit-load method due to fabrication errors. we derived unit – load method from the principle of virtual work and unit displacement method from the principle of virtual displacement. Kharagpur . the unit load method is employed to calculate displacements of trusses due to external loading. Derive simple expressions for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to mechanical loading using unit-load method. When the complementary strain energy is equal to the strain energy (i.

U * = ∫ u dF 0 F (6. Kharagpur .6) Version 2 CE IIT.4) This is the statement of Castigliano’s second theorem. dU * =u dF (6. dU =F du (6.5) Differentiating complementary strain energy with respect to force F .3) Differentiating strain energy with respect to displacement.In the above figure the strain energy (area OACO) is not equal to complementary strain energy (area OABO) Area OACO = U = ∫ F du 0 u (6. Now the complementary energy is equal to the area enclosed by OABO.

if the cross sectional area A of truss remains constant throughout.. the truss members either expand or shrink. and all other components of virtual forces δF j = 1 δ Pv is the virtual stress resultant in the frame due to the virtual load and ∫ L δFi (i = 1. u j are the actual deflections of the truss. P ds 0 EA is the actual internal deformation of the frame due to real forces. Also. δ F j is the external virtual load.3.. This may be Version 2 CE IIT.7) wherein. 6. n) are zero. When the load displacement relationship is linear.. the above equation coincides with the Castigliano’s first theorem given in equation (3. j − 1.8) where m is the number of members.9) where. 6.8). If we represent total deformation by Δ i . uj = ∑ i =1 m (δPv ) ij Pi Li Ei Ai (6..7) may be written as. then integration may be replaced by summation and hence equation (6. ∑ δF j u j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δPv Pds EA (6.. then member i due to unit virtual load at j and ( u j = ∑ (δPv ) ij Δ i i =1 m (6. Kharagpur . the only internal forces present are axial as the external loads are applied at joints. Hence.2 Temperature Loading Due to change in the environmental temperature.3.. This in turn produces joint deflections in the truss.3 Unit Load Method as applied to Trusses 6. j + 1. E . cross-sectional area of a member and modulus of elasticity of a member. In the above equation L. (δPv ) ij is the internal virtual axial force in Pi ) Li is the total deformation of Ei Ai member i due to real loads.. A respectively represent length of the member.1 External Loading In case of a plane or a space truss.7) may be written as. equation (5.2.This gives deflection in the direction of load.. Δ i is the true change in length of member i due to real loads. In the unit load method.

Version 2 CE IIT.9). Δi = ei (6. then determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation Δ i = αTLi . consider the virtual load system such that only a unit load is considered at the joint either in the horizontal or in the vertical direction. 6. evaluate the j-th joint deflection u j .calculated by equation (6. Kharagpur .3 Fabrication Errors and Camber Sometimes. 4. In such instances. From this PL determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation i i . 2. using equation (6.3. there will be errors in fabricating truss members.8) is shown with the help of few problems. In some cases.4 Procedure for calculating truss deflection 1. Now.11) where.9). Here. 6. If deflection of a joint needs to be calculated due to temperature change. the truss members are fabricated slightly longer or shorter in order to provide camber to the truss. 3.10) where α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion member. Δ i = αTLi (6. Usually camber is provided in bridge truss so that its bottom chord is curved upward by an equal to its downward deflection of the chord when subjected to dead. the truss joint deflection is calculated by equation (6. The application of equation (6. Ei Ai Assume tensile forces as positive and compressive forces as negative. where the deflection is sought. also. ei is taken as positive when the member lengths are fabricated slightly more than the actual length otherwise it is taken as negative. Li is the length of member and T is the temperature change. First. the change in length of member Δ i is calculated from the relation. Now. calculate the real forces in the member of the truss either by method of joints or by method of sections due to the externally applied forces.9). ei is the fabrication error in the length of the member. In this case. Calculate virtual forces (δPv )ij in each member due to the applied unit load at the j-th joint.

6. The reactions are as shown in Fig 6. The magnitudes of internal forces are also shown in the respective figures.2c and evaluate the virtual forces δPv in each member.Example 6. apply a unit load as shown in Fig 6. At each end of the bar. Assume that. The given truss is statically determinate one.2a. Kharagpur . To evaluate horizontal deflection at ‘C’. Version 2 CE IIT. all members have the same axial rigidity.1 Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. The tensile forces are shown as +ve and compressive forces are shown as –ve.2b along with member forces which are determined by equations of static equilibrium. arrows have been drawn indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint.

2c. 1 × u cH = ∑ (δPv ) ic Pi Li Ei Ai (1) For calculating horizontal deflection at C.1. Kharagpur . The calculations are self explanatory. The whole calculations are shown in table 6. apply a unit load at the joint C as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. uc . This may be stated as.6.Horizontal deflection at joint C is calculated with the help of unit load method.

569 = AE AE (Towards right) Vertical deflection at joint C (δPvv ) ic Pi Li (3) E i Ai In this case.m 0 0 60/AE 0 0 60 AE (4) v (1)(u C ) ↓= 60 60 = AE AE Version 2 CE IIT. a unit vertical load is applied at joint C of the truss as shown in Fig. v 1× uc = ∑ 6.1 Computational details for horizontal deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 (δPv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.2d. Kharagpur .Table 6.m 0 0 60/AE 0 4 2 4 2 /AE 5 2 ∑ 2 40 2 /AE 60 + 40 2 AE (2) H (1)(u C ) →= 60 + 40 2 116. Table 6.2 Computational details for vertical deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 4 2 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4 2 /AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 5 2 (δPvv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 0 ∑ (Downwards) (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.

2 Compute the vertical deflection of joint b and horizontal displacement of joint D of the truss shown in Fig.00 × 10 5 N / mm 2 .3a due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure. Version 2 CE IIT.Example 6. 6. The cross sectional areas of the 75000 members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses. b) Increase in temperature of 250 C in the top chord BD. Assume 1 α= per °C . E = 2. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

0 2.0 kN -112.17 0.38 (10-3) kN.0 1.The complete calculations are shown in the following table.38 -0.76 0.0 1.2 0 4.13 0.750 +0.5 +67.47 0.750 -0. Kharagpur .51 0.0 1.5 +67.35 1.5 +60.187 +0.2 Mem Li Li / Ai Ei Pi (δPvv ) i (δPvH ) i Δ ti = αtLi (δPvv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai m 0 0 0 0 0.250 -0.312 -0.38 0. Table 6.500 +0.0 2.416 +0.562 -0.0 1.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 (δPvH )i Pi Li Ei Ai (δPvv ) i Δ ti (δPvH ) i Δ ti units aB ab bc Bc BD cD cd de De Bb Dd m (10-5) m/kN 5 3 3 5 6 5 3 3 5 4 4 1.16 0.68 0.m 1.05 0.5 -67.47 0 0 0.187 -0.m 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∑ Version 2 CE IIT.17 0.5 +67.0 +60.250 +0.0 1.416 +0.m -0.3 Computational details for example 6.0 1.0 1.5 -112.0 kN -0.16 -0.562 +0.13 (10-3) kN.m 0 0 0 0 -1.312 +0.937 +0.416 +0.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.416 0 0 (10-3) kN.12 0.562 +0.12 0.68 (10-3) kN.5 +67.13 0.5 +37.312 1 0 kN +0.5 +37.0 2.51 -0.

Kharagpur .00113m 1 KN t u b = 1.m = −0. ∑ δ Fj u j = ∑ j =1 i =1 1 m (δ Pv )ij PLi i Ei Ai (1) For calculating vertical deflection at b .00438 m 1 KN = 4.00438 KNm = 0.00068 KNm = 0.68 mm → Version 2 CE IIT.13 mm ↑ b) Horizontal displacement of joint ‘D’ 1) Due to externally applied loads (δPvH ) i Pi Li =∑ E i Ai 1× u H u D →= H b + 0.001125 KN . v 1× ub = ∑ (δPvv ) i Pi Li E i Ai (2) 1) Due to external loads + 0. apply a unit virtual load δ Fb = 1 .00068 m 1 KN = 0.38 mm ↓ 2) Due to change in temperature t (1)(u b ↓) = ∑ (δPvv ) i Δ ti u b ↓= t u b ↓= − 0. Then the above equation may be written as.a) Vertical deflection of joint b Applying principle of virtual work as applied to an ideal pin jointed truss.

00 mm → Summary In this chapter the Crotti-Engessor’s theorem which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem has been introduced. Version 2 CE IIT.001 KN . Kharagpur .2) Due to change in temperature Ht (1)(u D →) = ∑ (δPvH ) i Δ ti Ht u D →= 0.001m 1 KN Ht u D = 1.m = 0. The unit load method is applied statically determinate structure for calculating deflections when the truss is subjected to various types of loadings such as: mechanical loading. temperature loading and fabrication errors.

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