# Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

U * = ∫ u dF 0 F (6. Kharagpur .6) Version 2 CE IIT.4) This is the statement of Castigliano’s second theorem. dU * =u dF (6. dU =F du (6.5) Differentiating complementary strain energy with respect to force F .3) Differentiating strain energy with respect to displacement.In the above figure the strain energy (area OACO) is not equal to complementary strain energy (area OABO) Area OACO = U = ∫ F du 0 u (6. Now the complementary energy is equal to the area enclosed by OABO.

Version 2 CE IIT.9). Δi = ei (6. then determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation Δ i = αTLi . consider the virtual load system such that only a unit load is considered at the joint either in the horizontal or in the vertical direction. 6. evaluate the j-th joint deflection u j .calculated by equation (6. Kharagpur .3 Fabrication Errors and Camber Sometimes. 4. In such instances. From this PL determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation i i . 2. using equation (6.3. there will be errors in fabricating truss members.8) is shown with the help of few problems. In some cases.4 Procedure for calculating truss deflection 1. Now.11) where.9). Here. 6. If deflection of a joint needs to be calculated due to temperature change. the truss members are fabricated slightly longer or shorter in order to provide camber to the truss. 3.10) where α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion member. Δ i = αTLi (6. Usually camber is provided in bridge truss so that its bottom chord is curved upward by an equal to its downward deflection of the chord when subjected to dead. the truss joint deflection is calculated by equation (6. The application of equation (6. Ei Ai Assume tensile forces as positive and compressive forces as negative. where the deflection is sought. also. ei is taken as positive when the member lengths are fabricated slightly more than the actual length otherwise it is taken as negative. Li is the length of member and T is the temperature change. First. the change in length of member Δ i is calculated from the relation. Now. calculate the real forces in the member of the truss either by method of joints or by method of sections due to the externally applied forces.9). ei is the fabrication error in the length of the member. In this case. Calculate virtual forces (δPv )ij in each member due to the applied unit load at the j-th joint.

6. The reactions are as shown in Fig 6. The magnitudes of internal forces are also shown in the respective figures.2c and evaluate the virtual forces δPv in each member.Example 6. apply a unit load as shown in Fig 6. At each end of the bar. Assume that. The given truss is statically determinate one.2a. Kharagpur . To evaluate horizontal deflection at ‘C’. Version 2 CE IIT. all members have the same axial rigidity.1 Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. The tensile forces are shown as +ve and compressive forces are shown as –ve.2b along with member forces which are determined by equations of static equilibrium. arrows have been drawn indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint.

2c. 1 × u cH = ∑ (δPv ) ic Pi Li Ei Ai (1) For calculating horizontal deflection at C.1. Kharagpur . The calculations are self explanatory. The whole calculations are shown in table 6. apply a unit load at the joint C as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. uc . This may be stated as.6.Horizontal deflection at joint C is calculated with the help of unit load method.

569 = AE AE (Towards right) Vertical deflection at joint C (δPvv ) ic Pi Li (3) E i Ai In this case.m 0 0 60/AE 0 0 60 AE (4) v (1)(u C ) ↓= 60 60 = AE AE Version 2 CE IIT. a unit vertical load is applied at joint C of the truss as shown in Fig. v 1× uc = ∑ 6.1 Computational details for horizontal deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 (δPv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.2d. Kharagpur .Table 6.m 0 0 60/AE 0 4 2 4 2 /AE 5 2 ∑ 2 40 2 /AE 60 + 40 2 AE (2) H (1)(u C ) →= 60 + 40 2 116. Table 6.2 Computational details for vertical deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 4 2 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4 2 /AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 5 2 (δPvv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 0 ∑ (Downwards) (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.

2 Compute the vertical deflection of joint b and horizontal displacement of joint D of the truss shown in Fig.00 × 10 5 N / mm 2 .3a due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure. Version 2 CE IIT.Example 6. 6. The cross sectional areas of the 75000 members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses. b) Increase in temperature of 250 C in the top chord BD. Assume 1 α= per °C . E = 2. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

0 2.0 kN -112.17 0.38 (10-3) kN.0 1.The complete calculations are shown in the following table.38 -0.76 0.0 1.2 0 4.13 0.750 +0.5 +67.47 0.750 -0. Kharagpur .51 0.0 1.5 +67.35 1.5 +60.187 +0.2 Mem Li Li / Ai Ei Pi (δPvv ) i (δPvH ) i Δ ti = αtLi (δPvv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai m 0 0 0 0 0.250 -0.312 -0.38 0. Table 6.500 +0.0 2.416 +0.562 -0.0 1.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 (δPvH )i Pi Li Ei Ai (δPvv ) i Δ ti (δPvH ) i Δ ti units aB ab bc Bc BD cD cd de De Bb Dd m (10-5) m/kN 5 3 3 5 6 5 3 3 5 4 4 1.16 0.68 0.m 1.05 0.5 -67.47 0 0 0.187 -0.m 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∑ Version 2 CE IIT.17 0.5 +67.0 +60.250 +0.0 1.416 +0.m -0.3 Computational details for example 6.0 1.0 1.5 -112.0 kN -0.16 -0.562 +0.13 (10-3) kN.m 0 0 0 0 -1.312 +0.937 +0.416 +0.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.416 0 0 (10-3) kN.12 0.562 +0.12 0.68 (10-3) kN.5 +67.13 0.5 +37.312 1 0 kN +0.5 +37.0 2.51 -0.

Kharagpur .00113m 1 KN t u b = 1.m = −0. ∑ δ Fj u j = ∑ j =1 i =1 1 m (δ Pv )ij PLi i Ei Ai (1) For calculating vertical deflection at b .00438 m 1 KN = 4.00438 KNm = 0.00068 KNm = 0.68 mm → Version 2 CE IIT.13 mm ↑ b) Horizontal displacement of joint ‘D’ 1) Due to externally applied loads (δPvH ) i Pi Li =∑ E i Ai 1× u H u D →= H b + 0.001125 KN . v 1× ub = ∑ (δPvv ) i Pi Li E i Ai (2) 1) Due to external loads + 0. apply a unit virtual load δ Fb = 1 .00068 m 1 KN = 0.38 mm ↓ 2) Due to change in temperature t (1)(u b ↓) = ∑ (δPvv ) i Δ ti u b ↓= t u b ↓= − 0. Then the above equation may be written as.a) Vertical deflection of joint b Applying principle of virtual work as applied to an ideal pin jointed truss.

00 mm → Summary In this chapter the Crotti-Engessor’s theorem which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem has been introduced. Version 2 CE IIT.001 KN . Kharagpur .2) Due to change in temperature Ht (1)(u D →) = ∑ (δPvH ) i Δ ti Ht u D →= 0.001m 1 KN Ht u D = 1.m = 0. The unit load method is applied statically determinate structure for calculating deflections when the truss is subjected to various types of loadings such as: mechanical loading. temperature loading and fabrication errors.