This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In Economics, labor force is all the nonmilitary people who are officially employed or unemployed.
Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment.
People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work.
` Low Wages is the lowest hourly. . daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers.
unreasonable work schedule.if not absence of opportunity for personal and professional growth. exposure to hazardous chemicals.limited.unjust compensation.and unstable employment status .` Poor Working Conditions-Inadequate physical facilities and occupational safety measures. inadequate leave benefits.
and other problems emanating from poor working conditions. illegal dismissals.` Inhumane Treatment.sexual harassments. .Inhumane practices of employers include failure to implement wages and compensations as prescribed by law.physical abuses.
` Absence of Job Security.First is the escalating number of unemployed workers who command cheap wages for limited and small number of employment opportunities. Second is the advent of automation that displaced and replaced many workers because employers choose speed and accuracy in production rather than the creative efforts that shall flourish once labor is relieved from the drudgeries of work. .
clerks.College degree holders performing functions that used to be reserved for janitors.Thousands of workers take fobs that neither utilize nor enhance their skills and academic training.drivers.even domestic helpers are not an uncommon sight nowadays.` Underemployment.messengers. .
The organized sector of the Philippine labor force is still a minority.` Unor ganized Labor Force.the trade union movement is still weak. with a fluctuating and unstable membership covering only a small percentage of the workforce.6 M actual labor force. As a result. Although the number of unionized workers is rising.it has not gone beyond 13%of the 22. .
` Discrimination. Age consideration is another discriminating factor.many establishments still prefer employing workers who are neither too young not too old.Some deprive women of equal opportunities for careeradvancement.the issue of racial discrimination has become a disturbing reality for Filipino overseas workers who are forced to take menial jobs as domestic helpers and laborers even if their educational attainment and experience prove that they are over-qualified for the work they take. Although the Labor Code defines the legal age brackets for employment. . Finally.
Labor Force Statistics Indications Household Population 15 Years Old and Over (000) Labor Force (000) Employed (000) Underemployed (000) Unemployed (000) Labor Force Participation Rate (%) Employment Rate (%) Underemployment Rate (as % of Employed) Unemployment Rate (%) 2009 58.2 7.3 18.7 19.7 2010 60.7 7.854 63.992 7.3 92.5 92.657 37.829 64.208 38.262 6.3 .116 34.102 2.238 2.820 35.
a jobless condition ` Underemployment .` Unemployment.a condition wherein an employed individual¶s work is insufficient to fulfill his needs .
cyclical unemployment will be low because total economic output is being maximized.` CYCLICAL. as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP).the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor to employ all those who are looking for work. . When economic output falls. the business cycle is low and cyclical unemployment will rise. The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of spending and consumption in the overall economy. When business cycles are at their peak.
Computers may have eliminated jobs. These changes simultaneously open new positions for trained workers.Unemployment resulting from changes in the basic composition of the economy. An example of structural unemployment is the technological revolution. . but they also opened up new positions for those who have the skills to operate the computers.` STRUCTURAL.
a first-time job seeker may lack the resources or efficiency for finding the company that has the job that is available and suitable for him or her. .always present in the economy.` FRICTIONAL. For example. resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employers or from workers and employers having inconsistent or incomplete information. temporarily holding out for the better-paying job. As a result this person does not take other work.
` Voluntary unemployment is unemployment caused by the worker choosing to be unemployed. no matter what the reason. such as willingly quitting a job. Involuntary unemployment. is caused by the worker being unwillingly laid off (fired). ` . on the other hand.
usually financial. received by workers in exchange for their labor.` A wage is a compensation. .
Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations.` The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. and many countries have no minimum wage. .
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES National Capital Region (NCR) a/ Per Wage Order No. . NCR-15 b/ Effective 01 July 2010 Grants a P22.00 per day basic wage increase to all minimum wage workers in the private sector in the region.
.00 COLA per day. RB-CAR-14 b/ (Effective January 1. 2011) Grants an additional P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) a/ Wage Order No.
00 or P8.00 COLA under W. . RB1-13 into the basic pay. RB 1-14 b/ Effective 20 January 2011 Grants a P5.O No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION I (Ilocos) a/ Per Wage Order No.00 per day wage increase to all private sector workers and employees receiving the minimum wage rates in the region. and integration of the existing P10.
Central Luzon a/ Per Wage Order No. . RBIII-14 into the basic pay. 2010 Grants an integration of P10.00 COLA under W.O. and a new COLA increase of P14. RBIII-15 b/ Effective November 22.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION III. No.00 per day to all minimum wage earners/workers and employees in the private sector in the region.
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-A.00 per day wage increase to all minimum wage workers and employees in the private sector across the area classification . IVA-14 b/ Effective 15 January 2011 Grants a P17. CALABARZON a/ Wage Order No.
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-B. RB IV-B-05 b/ (Effective: November 11. MIMAROPA a/ Per Wage Order No. 2010) Grants a P12. .00 wage increase to all private sector minimum wage workers in the Region.
P8.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION V. RBV-13 into the basic wage Non-Agriculture .00/day wage increase and integration of the P7.P6. 2011 Agriculture . BICOL a/ Per Wage Order No.O.00 COLA under W.P5. No.00 effective March 1.00 effective March 1. RBV-14 b/ Effective: 01 November 2010 Upon effectivity . 2011 .
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VI.00 basic wage increase to all minimum wage earners in the private sector in the region. . Western Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No. RBVI-18 b/ Effective 12 August 2010 Grants a P15.
ROVII-15 a/ Effective September 1. ` . 2010 Grants a P18.00 basic wage increase per day to all minimum wage workers in the region.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VII. Central Visayas Per Wage Order No.
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VIII. . RB VIII-15 b/ Effective 16 June 2008 Provides a P10.00 COLA per day in addition to the existing P8.O.00 COLA under W. No. Eastern Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No. RB VIII-14.
. and the integration of P15. RIX-I6 b/ Effective 09 September 2010 Grants P15.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IX.00 per day wage increase.00 COLA under W.O. Zamboanga Peninsula a/ Per Wage Order No. RIX-15 into the basic wage. No.
Effective October 1.00 wage increase per day . 2010: P13.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION X. RX-15 b/ Upon effectivity: P12. RX14 shall be integrated into the basic pay . Northern Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.O.00 COLA under W.
` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XI.00 per day wage increase in addition to the existing COLA under W. . Davao Region a/ Per Wage Order No.O. RTWPB-XI-16 b/ Effective 01 September 2010 Grants a P21. No. RB XI-15 to all private sector minimum wage earners in the region.
Nos.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XII Central Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No. RBXII-14(P5.00) into the basic pay .00).00 COLA per day effective 01 April 2011 .O.00) and RBXII-15 (P5.00/day upon effectivity and additional P5. RB XII-16 b/ Effective: 31 October 2010 .New COLA of P10. RBXII13 (P11.Integration of COLAs under W.
00 per day wage increase.00) COLA under W. The P10.00 from the Twenty Three Pesos (P23. A P10. RXIII-09 shall be integrated into the basic daily minimum wage. 2.O No. . RXIII-10 b/ Effective 25 August 2010 1.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XIII Caraga a/ Per Wage Order No.
00 wage increase in the basic wage .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No. ARMM-12 b/ Effective 20 August 2010 Provides P12.
most frequently. an employee¶s salary is paid in 26 even paychecks over the course of the year.` Salary is a fixed amount of money or compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed. In most years. Salary is paid. . in a bi-weekly paycheck to an exempt or professional employee.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.