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MB0050-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (rev)|Views: 443|Likes: 8

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Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1

Q.1.

Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research, explaining why – a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Diagnostic research d) Evaluation research. It extends knowledge of human

Ans. There are various objectives of research.

beings, social life and environment. The search is for answers for various types of questions i.e. What, Where, When, How and Why of various phenomena, and enlighten us. the ordinary course of life. Research brings to light information during It establishes generalizations and general laws

and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations. General laws may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. Following are the some specific situations that would call for the following types of research. a) Exploratory Research Exploratory Research is also known as formulative research, purpose of which is formulating a problem for more precise investigation. Following are some examples of situations for above research. • • •

•

Reactions of strangers Reactions of marginal individuals Study of individuals who are in a transition from one stage to another. Reactions of individuals from different social strategy.

**Following are some methods in context of research design for study of above situations.
**

The survey of concerning literature:

This happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating the research problem. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed Page 1 of 21

Research Methodology (MB 0050)

Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1

and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. In this way researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis has not been formulated his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Experience Survey: It is the survey of people who have had practical experience with the survey to be studied. The object is to obtain insight into the relationship between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a survey people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure representation of different of experience. The respondents selected can be interviewed by the investigator. Thus, an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in formulation of research hypothesis. This survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. Analysis of insight stimulating examples: This is a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. It consists of the intensive study of the selected instances of the phenomenon in which on is interested. For this purpose the existing records may be examined the unstructured interviewing may take place or some other approach may be adopted. Attitude of the investigator, the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights.

Page 2 of 21

Best example of such Research is clinical research. studies concerned with specific predictions. with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual. e. It includes surveys and fact- Page 3 of 21 . Such research follows case-study methods or indepth approaches to reach the basic fundamental relations. Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. he can only report what has happened or what is happening. studies concerning whether certain variables are associated. Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items.g. including comparative and co-relational methods. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use Research the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 b) Descriptive Research Descriptive research studies are concerned with describing the characteristics of certain individuals or a group e.g. c) Diagnostic Research Diagnostic research studies determine the frequency of with which something occurs or its association with something else. finding enquiries of different kinds. group or situation. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds. Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us. using very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. Examples of such research are frequency of shopping. preferences of people.

economic or political trends that may affect a particular solution or the copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood) or the marketing research. Following are some examples of Evaluation Research - Research aimed at certain conclusions (say. Research to identify social. a) Difference between Null and Alternative hypothesis.2 In the context of hypothesis testing. Usually.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 d) Evaluation Research It is a type of applied research. Q. we call the hypothesis that you support (our prediction) the Page 4 of 21 . In the context of hypothesis testing. - It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. compare method A with method B about is superiority and if we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good. a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. briefly explain the difference between a) Null and alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 error c) Two tailed and one tailed test d) Parametric and non parametric tests. we often talk null and alternative hypothesis. The hypothesis test is to formulate two statements. and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. one that If we are to describes our prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship. Ans. Such research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization. then the only other possible outcome would be that variable A and variable B are not related. It is concerned also with change over time.

g. drug is no better. though in some studies. Then we would say that the null hypotheses are that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolical we can express as: H0: µ = µ H0 = 100. in a clinical trial of a new drug. that is. H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average. H 0 is wrongly rejected. We have to be careful here. and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis. In this case. i. you are essentially trying to find support for the null hypothesis and you are opposed to the alternative. For example. the null hypothesis might be that the new Page 5 of 21 . b) Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 error. Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesis mean (µ H0) = 100. The null hypothesis is always the simpler hypothesis and is generally believed to be true.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 alternative hypothesis. Symbolically presented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha. on average. The alternative hypothesis can be stated in terms simple inequality ("Male and female weights are different"). contains an = sign). It is stated in terms of "no difference" (e. Examples of a null hypothesis are: "There is no difference in mean weight between males and females" or "Patients' outcomes are no different with or without the surgical procedure." The alternative hypothesis represents the result that the experiment would like to show. In a hypothesis test. our prediction might very well be that there will be no difference or change. a type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true.e. or can be stated in terms of a result on one side or the other of the equals sign ("Females weigh less than males"). than the current drug.

Page 6 of 21 . Some hypotheses predict only that one value will be different from another. is not rejected when it is in fact false. A type II error would occur if it was concluded that the two drugs produced the same effect. when in fact they produced different ones. A type II error is frequently due to sample sizes being too small. i.e. than the current drug.e. in a clinical trial of a new drug. this probability is never 0. The test of such a hypothesis is two-tailed because an extreme test statistic in either tail of the distribution (positive or negative) will lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis of no difference. on average. than a type II error. without additionally predicting which will be higher. The hypothesis test procedure is therefore adjusted so that there is a guaranteed 'low' probability of rejecting the null hypothesis wrongly. and therefore more important to avoid. i. but is symbolised by and written as P (type II error) = c) Difference between Two tailed and one tailed test.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 A type I error would occur if we concluded that the two drugs produced different effects when in fact there was no difference between them. Decision Reject Ho Accept Ho Type I Error Right decision Right decision Type II Error The following table gives a summary of possible results of any hypothesis test: Ho Ho (True) (False) A type I error is often considered to be more serious. there is no difference between the two drugs on average. For example. The probability of a type II error is generally unknown. the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better. This probability of a type I error can be precisely computed as P (type I error) = significance level = The exact probability of a type II error is generally unknown. H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average. A type II error occurs when the null hypothesis H0.

In the previous example. You will reject the null hypotheses of no difference if the class sample mean is either much higher or much lower than the population mean of 74. of five percent. the rejection region must be split between both tails of the distribution—. only a sample mean much lower than the population mean would have led to the rejection of the null hypothesis. or . not a direction. you decide to use a 95 percent probability level for the test. The national mean score on the test is 74. In notation:H0: μ = 74 As in the last example. In this example. Or in notation:H a : μ ≠ 74 The null hypothesis is: • The mean score of the class on the test is 74. The research hypothesis is: • The mean score of the class on the test is not 74. then.05. Comparison of (a) a two-tailed test and (b) a one-tailed test.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Suppose that you suspect that a particular class's performance on a proficiency test is not representative of those people who have taken the test. however. Both tests have a region of rejection.025 in the lower tail—because your hypothesis specifies only a difference. Page 7 of 21 .025 in the upper tail and . at the same probability level (95%).

the test statistic must be either smaller than −1. Suppose the class sample mean in your example was 77. For example. It is not. the rejection region of .80 exceeds the critical value and falls in the region of rejection. d) Difference between Parametric and non-parametric tests. so you reject the null hypothesis and say that your suspicion that the class was better than the population was supported. In that case we speak of parametric model.80. Parametric inferential statistical methods are mathematical procedures for statistical hypothesis testing which assume that the distributions of the variables being assessed belong to known parameterized families of probability distributions. The critical z-value for a probability of .65. and its corresponding z-score was computed to be 1.or a two-tailed test is important because a test statistic that falls in the region of rejection in a one-tailed test may not do so in a two-tailed test. analysis of variance (ANOVA) assumes that the underlying distributions are normally distributed and that the variances of the distributions being compared are similar. For this test. you should use a one-tailed test only when you have good reason to expect that the difference will be in a particular direction.96 or greater than 1. In order to reject the null hypothesis. even though both tests use the same probability level. In practice. however. so you cannot reject the null hypothesis.96.05 in the upper tail is 1. Parametric statistics are statistics where the population is assumed to fit any parameterized distributions (most typically the normal distribution).05 would be entirely within the upper tail. Your computed test statistic of z = 1. Suppose.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 The decision of whether to use a one. A twotailed test is more conservative than a one-tailed test because a two-tailed test takes a more extreme test statistic to reject the null hypothesis. and you did a one-tailed test instead. The Pearson product-moment Page 8 of 21 . you had a reason to expect that the class would perform better on the proficiency test than the population.

with an example of each. Nonparametric methods are often referred to as distribution free methods as they do not rely on assumptions that the data are drawn from a given probability distribution. such as blood pressure and cholesterol level. experimental data may potentially provide qualitatively better information: only experimental data can conclusively demonstrate causal Page 9 of 21 . Q. they often retain considerable power to detect differences or similarities even when these assumptions are violated – some distributions violate the assumptions so markedly that a non-parametric alternative is more likely to detect a difference or similarity. Non-parametric statistics is a branch of statistics concerned with nonparametric statistical models and non-parametric inference. Order statistics are one example of such a statistic that plays a central role in many non-parametric approaches. While parametric techniques are robust – that is. we do not influence any variables but only measure them and look for relations between some set of variables. specifically. In experimental research. a researcher might artificially increase blood pressure and then record cholesterol level. The term non-parametric statistic can also refer to a statistic (a function on a sample) whose interpretation does not depend on the population fitting any parametrized distributions. including nonparametric statistical tests. For example. those manipulated and those affected by the manipulation. However. What are the possible reasons for a correlation between two variables? Ans. In correlation research. A relationship refers to the correspondence between two variables. we manipulate some variables and then measure the effects of this manipulation on other variables.3 Explain the difference between a causal relationship and correlation. Data analysis in experimental research also comes down to calculating "correlations" between variables.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 correlation coefficient also assumes normality.

Correlational research involves measuring such relations in the most straightforward manner. In other words. Regardless of their type. two variables are related if the values of those variables are distributed in a consistent manner. if we found that whenever we change variable A then variable B changes. For example. we could predict one based on the other. the advancement of science must always involve finding new relations between variables. Page 10 of 21 . experimental research is not any different in this respect. we could say that the magnitude of the relation between the two variables (Gender and WCC) is very high in our sample. In other words. However." Data from correlational research can only be "interpreted" in causal terms based on some theories that we have.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 relations between variables. but cannot conclusively prove causality. a. the ultimate goal of every research or scientific analysis is to find relations between variables. For example. the above mentioned experiment comparing WCC in males and females can be described as looking for a correlation between two variables: Gender and WCC. The philosophy of science teaches us that there is no other way of representing "meaning" except in terms of relations between some quantities or qualities. variables are related if their values systematically correspond to each other for these observations. The magnitude is much easier to understand and measure than the correlational data reliability. The two most elementary formal properties of every relation between variables are the relation's (a) magnitude or size and (b) its reliability or truthfulness. then we can conclude that "A influences B. Thus. For example. Generally speaking. either way involves relations between variables. if every male in our sample was found to have a higher WCC than any female in the sample.

but still extremely important. Degree of Precision 4. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. The Nature of the Population 6. Financial resources 8. Measurability 3. Information about Population 5. Page 11 of 21 . then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. Q. What are the characteristics of a good sample? Ans. There are various factors that affect the choice of the sampling technique: 1. It pertains to the "representativeness" of the result found in our specific sample for the entire population. In other words.4 Briefly explain any two factors that affect the choice of a sampling technique. The reliability of a relation is a much less intuitive concept. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population 7. Purpose of the Survey 2. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. 1. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. Economy Out of above. it says how probable it is that a similar relation would be found if the experiment was replicated with other samples drawn from the same population. we can discuss two important factors as follows.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 b. Time Limitation 9.

Precision is measured by standard error. Size: a good sample must be adequate in size in order to be reliable. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings. The search for answers to research questions is called collection of data. Probability sampling technique yield representative sample. The characteristics of a Good Sample are Representativeness. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. Q 5. Precision: the sample must yield precise estimate. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. serving as bases for study and analyses. Representativeness: a sample must be representative of the population. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. Accuracy. past and present. Precision & Size. Data are facts. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. (b) Data relating to organization and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas. and other relevant materials. An accurate sample is the one which exactly represents the population. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. Accuracy: accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from the sample.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 2. Page 12 of 21 . Ans.

social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal Page 13 of 21 . Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation. brand preference. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.. primary data have to be gathered.g. Use of primary sources for Collecting Data Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. mailing etc. Extensive research study is based of primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data o Primary data is expensive to obtain o It is time consuming o It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. They include: socio economic surveys. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources.. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. In this case. inadequate or obsolete. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate.. Advantage of Primary Data • • • • It is original source of data It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. interviewing. o It is difficult to administer. Yet.

g. Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. For example. Use of secondary sources for Collecting Data These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. accounting and financial records. personnel records.. (d) experimentation. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e. Reports of Government Departments. inventory records etc. (b) interviewing.V.g. Reports of the National sample survey Organization. farm managements studies. The important methods are (a) observation. Marketing research. annual reports and financial statements of companies. IMF. Reports of trade associations. a tool is an instruments used for the method.. opinion polls. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. register of members. etc. There are various methods of data collection. Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks. Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. (e) simulation and (f) projective technique. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations. Page 14 of 21 .Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 communities. World Bank. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports. minutes of meetings. a schedule is used for interviewing. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. readership. but also unpublished records. Statistical statement. census reports . viewing surveys. e.. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. ILO. WHO. business management studies etc. attitudinal surveys. publications of international organizations such as UNO. (c) mail survey. radio listening and T. published by the NABARD. leadership studies.

Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages. Second. e. historical studies. depend Page 15 of 21 . Financial Analysis of companies. their coverage of villages. Finally. For example.g. volume of business etc. First. Second. secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested. Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks. and so on. may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Use of Secondary Data The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher..Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Features of Secondary Sources Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials. the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered. secondary sources are not limited in time and space. the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole. they are readymade and readily available. the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country. their capital structure. First. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour. this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources.. That is. sociological studies on crimes. Clearly. and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. Finally. secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. they have certain common characteristics. and the like.

4. Page 16 of 21 . The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the scientific generalizations can be made. Thus. findings bases on primary data. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. thanks to Xeroxing facilities. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. Disadvantages of Secondary Data The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises. statistical reports of government departments. units of measure may not match.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 primarily on secondary data. 1. 2. Year books. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. Censes Reports etc. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. serve as major data sources for such research studies. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. 2. and time periods may also be different. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. 3. Advantages of Secondary Data Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. Once their source of documents and reports are located. 5. Secondary data. collection of data is just matter of desk work.

confused and ill at ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT. 4. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. and no new figures will be available for another ten years. You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. because of time lag in producing them. There are many problem situations that may give rise to research. A second source could be scientific literature. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. Page 17 of 21 . For example. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation. Develop a title for the study. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. the WHERE. Even if the location of the source is known. Finally. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. Ans: Title of the study: Choices in reading Newspaper. define the research problem and the objectives or questions to be answered by the study. the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation. This could lead to a research problem. For example.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 3. Research problem: A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. Q 6. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. Theories could be a third source.

One of the underlying concerns behind the decline in youth newspaper reading is the question of how young people view the newspaper. the news about newspapers and young readers has been mostly bad for the newspaper industry. media research scholars1 began to focus their studies on young adult readers' decreasing interest in newspaper content. defined as the percentage of occupied households in a geographic market that are served by a newspaper. or at solving existing practical problems. at correcting a faulty methodology. As early as 1960. at reconciling conflicting opinions. Page 18 of 21 . Types of questions to be asked :For more than 35 years. American newspaper publishers were worrying about declining readership among the young. Long before any competition from cable television or Nintendo.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory. at least 20 years prior to Music Television (MTV) or the Internet. The concern over a declining youth market preceded and perhaps foreshadowed today's fretting over market penetration. Even where circulation has grown or stayed stable. population growth is occurring more rapidly than newspaper readership in most communities. A number of studies explored how young readers evaluate and use newspaper content. there is rising concern over penetration. at clarifying contradictory findings. This study looks at trends in newspaper readership among the 18-to-34 age group and examines some of the choices young adults make when reading newspapers.2 Simply put. at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques.

David Atkin explored the influence of telecommunication technology on newspaper readership among students in undergraduate media courses. but that young readers would choose an electronic newspaper over a printed one. were unrelated to newspaper readership. and public affairs. obituaries. In a study of younger. non-media leisure. editorials. Brian Brooks and James Kropp found that electronic newspapers could persuade children to become news consumers. job / travel information. Gerald Stone and Timothy Boudreau found differences between readers ages 18-34 and those 35-plus. including electronic mail and computer networks. though there was a slight correlation between age and the public affairs readership index. school-age children. The study found that newspaper subscribers preferred print formats over electronic. the students' preference for reading as a leisure-time activity was related only to a public affairs focus. The study discovered that overall newspaper readership was positively related to students' focus on entertainment.17 He reported that computer-related technologies. and marriages. Leo Jeffres and Atkin assessed dimensions of interest in newspapers. or by gender.19 exploring the influence of media use. with older readers more interested in news about public affairs. and academic major on newspaper content preferences. Content preferences for newspapers and other print media were related. and food advertisements higher. magazines. and classified advertisements over the decade between 1984 and 1994.18 In an exploration of leisure reading among college students. and books.16 Younger readers showed increased interest in national news. However. sports. Page 19 of 21 .Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Comparing reader content preferences over a 10-year period. while older readers ranked weather. weather. while older readers showed less interest in reports of births. The researchers found no significant differences in readership among various academic majors. Interest in international news and letters to the editor was less among younger readers.

A basic studies course is one that is listed within the core curriculum required for all students.4 percent) Arabic. Ages ranged from 17 to 56.9 percent). 16 (6 percent). two (.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 Methodology . the researcher introduced herself to the students as a journalism professor who was conducting a study on students' use of newspapers and other media.3 percent) were male and 177 (66. In all.8 percent) Hispanic.and 200level English courses at a midwestern public university. A total of 157 participants (58. juniors.Sample Participants in this study (N=267) were students enrolled in 100. The researcher obtained permission from seven professors to distribute questionnaires in the eight classes during regularly scheduled class periods. seniors. The class rank breakdown was: freshmen.6 percent).8 percent) Asian. with a mean age of 23.6 years. 33 (12. This mean does not include the 32 respondents who declined to give their ages. Each Page 20 of 21 . 59 (22. five (1. Procedure : After two pre-tests and revisions. and one (.4 percent). and graduate students. Courses that comprise the framework for this sample were selected because they could fulfill basic studies requirements for all majors.8 percent) said they were of the Caucasian race. whereas a few (28) were part-time students. A total of 25 participants chose not to divulge their genders. two (. 133 (49. In each of the eight classes. 53 majors were represented. Most (214) of the students were enrolled full time. questionnaires were distributed and collected by the investigator. two students declined. The goal of this sampling procedure was to reach a cross-section of students representing various fields of study. The students' participation was voluntary. Of the 267 students who participated in the study. 10 (3. 65 (24. 45 (16.8 percent) Native American.9 percent) African/Native American.1 percent) African American. sophomores. 15 (5.8 percent).3 percent) were female.

Approximately six students asked to take the questionnaires home to finish. They returned the questionnaires to the researcher's mailbox within a couple of day. and phone number. Page 21 of 21 . with some individual students taking as long as an hour.Research Methodology (MB 0050) Answer sheet to Assignment Set-1 questionnaire included a cover letter with the researcher's name. The average time spent on the questionnaires was 20 minutes. The researcher provided pencils and was available to answer questions if anyone needed further assistance. address.

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