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  • 1. Author’s Background
  • 2. His Lineage
  • 3. His Birth and Upbringing
  • 4. His Mentors
  • 5. The Status of his Scholarship
  • 6. His Style
  • 7. His First Book
  • 8. Maqtal al-Husain, the Book
  • 9. His Legacy
  • A. His Published Books:
  • B. Introductions and Prefaces for Legacy Books:
  • C. His Manuscripts:
  • 10. His Loyalty to Ahl al-Bayt (–)
  • 11. His Poetry
  • 12. How His Life was Concluded
  • Summary
  • View of `Omer al-Atraf
  • View of Ibn al-Hanafiyya
  • Umm Salamah's View
  • AL-TAN`¦M
  • AL-SIF}H
  • AL-H}JIR
  • ZARâD
  • ZUB}LA
  • SHAR}F
  • KERBAL}’
  • `}SHâRA
  • AL-HUSAIN (–) ON `}SHâRA
  • JOHN
  • SUW}R
  • SUW¦D
  • Ali al-Akbar
  • `Abdull~h ibn Muslim
  • Campaign of the Family of Abu T~lib
  • Al-Q~sim and His Brother
  • Brothers of al-`Abb~s (–)
  • Martyrdom of al-`Abb~s (–)
  • OF AL-HUSAIN (–)
  • KâFA
  • IBN `AF¦F

`Abd al-Razz~ q al-Muqarram

Martyrdom Epic of Im ~m al-Husain (–) .

Translated from the Arabic and Edited By Yasin T. al-Jibouri



AUTHOR'S BIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. AUTHOR’S BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. HIS LINEAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. HIS BIRTH AND UPBRINGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. HIS MENTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. THE STATUS OF HIS SCHOLARSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. HIS STYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. HIS FIRST BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. MAQTAL AL-HUSAIN, THE BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. HIS LEGACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A. HIS PUBLISHED BOOKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 B. INTRODUCTIONS AND PREFACES FOR LEGACY BOOKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 C. HIS MANUSCRIPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. HIS LOYALTY TO AHL AL-BAYT (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. HIS POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12. HOW HIS LIFE WAS CONCLUDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 PART I AL-HUSAIN'S UPRISING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 THE PROPHETS ARE ON AL-HUSAIN'S SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 THE INTENTION TO KILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 THE VERSE OF PERDITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 AL-HUSAIN'S PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF HIS MARTYRDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 AL-HUSAIN: A CONQUEROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 AL-HUSAIN AMONG HIS COMPANIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 AL-HUSAIN (– ) ON THE TAFF DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 DESERTION PERMITTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 THE SHAR¦ `A SURVIVED THROUGH AL-HUSAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2

MOURNING AL-HUSAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 FEIGN WEEPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 PROSTRATING ON THE TURBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 LEGISLATING THE ZIY} RAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 PREFERRING THEM (– ) OVER ALL OTHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 COMPOSING POETRY IN THEIR MEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 THE QUESTION OF MARCHING WITH THE FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 `ALAWIDES’ REVOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 THE KERBAL} ’ EPIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 MUHARRAM HAS COME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 YAZ¦D SON OF MU`} WIYAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 MEN EXPRESSING FEAR FOR AL-HUSAIN (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 VIEW OF `OMER AL-ATRAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 VIEW OF IBN AL-HANAFIYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 UMM SALAMAH'S VIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 VIEW OF THE H} SHIMITE LADIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 VIEW OF `ABDULL} H IBN `OMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 THE WILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 DEPARTURE FROM MED¦NA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 IN MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 THE Kâ FIANS’ LETTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 AL-HUSAIN (– ) RESPONDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


MUSLIM STARTS HIS TRIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ENTERING Kâ FA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUSLIM'S STAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 H} NI'S STAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 MUSLIM’S UPRISING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 AL-MUKHT} R IS JAILED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MUSLIM AT THE HOUSE OF TAW`A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 MUSLIM MEETS IBN ZIY} D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 THE JOURNEY TO IRAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 MECCA: AL-HUSAIN (– ) DELIVERS A SERMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 ATTEMPTS TO DISSUADE HIM FROM DEPARTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 WHY DID THE IM} M (– ) LEAVE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 AL-TAN`¦M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 AL-SIF} . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 THAT `IRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 AL-H} JIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 SOME INFORMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 AL-KHUZAYMIYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ZARâ D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 AL-THA`LABIYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 AL-SHUQâ Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 ZUB} LA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 IN THE HEARTLAND OF AL-`AQABA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 SHAR} F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 AL-BAYDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 AL-RUHAYMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 AL-Q} DISIYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 AL-`UTHAYB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 QASR BANI MUQ} TIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 THE TAFF VILLAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4

KERBAL} ’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 IBN ZIY} D MEETS AL-HUSAIN (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 IBN ZIY} D DELIVERS A SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 AL-HUSAIN (– ) MEETS THE Kâ FIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 THE HOSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 THE WATERING PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 THE SEVENTH DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 CONCEIT OF IBN SA`D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 CALUMNY OF IBN SA`D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 AL-SHIMR'S OPPRESSIVENESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 BANâ ASAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 DAY NINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 THOSE WHOSE CONSCIENCE IS FREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 THE NIGHT PRECEDING `} SHâ RA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 `} SHâ RA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 AL-HUSAIN (– ) ON `} SHâ RA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 AL-HUSAIN (– ) SUPPLICATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 THE FIRST SERMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 A MIRACLE AND GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 ZUHAYR IBN AL-QAYN DELIVERS A SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 BURAYR'S SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 AL-HUSAIN'S SECOND SERMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 IBN SA`D’S MISGUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 AL-HURR REPENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 AL-HURR ADMONISHES THE Kâ FIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 THE FIRST CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 DUELS BETWEEN TWO OR FOUR WARRIORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 AN APPEAL FOR HELP, AND GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 5

THE RIGHT WING REMAINS FIRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 MUSLIM IBN `AWSAJAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 THE LEFT WING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 `IZRAH REQUESTS REINFORCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 ABU AL-SHA`TH} ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 AT THE TIME OF ZAW} L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 AB¦B IBN MU} HIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 AL-HURR AL-RIY} HI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 PRAYERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 THE HORSES HAMSTRUNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 ABU THUM} MAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 ZUHAYR AND IBN MU} DRIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 `AMR IBN QARZAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 N} FI` AL-JAMALI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 W} DI AND ASLAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 BURAYR IBN KHAYR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 HANALAH AL-SHAB} MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 `} BIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ANAS AL-K} HILI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 `AMR IBN JUN} DAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 AL-HAJJ} J AL-JU`FI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 SUW} R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 SUW¦D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 MARTYRDOM OF AHL AL-BAYT (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 ALI AL-AKBAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 `ABDULL} H IBN MUSLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 CAMPAIGN OF THE FAMILY OF ABU T} LIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

AL-Q} SIM AND HIS BROTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 BROTHERS OF AL-`ABB} S (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 MARTYRDOM OF AL-`ABB} S (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 THE MASTER OF MARTYRS (– ) ON THE BATTLEFIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 THE INFANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 THE SECOND FAREWELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 MUHAMMED IBN ABU SA`¦D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 `ABDULL} H SON OF AL-HASAN (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 THE SUPPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 THE HORSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 AL-HUSAIN (– ) MAURAUDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 PART II


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Kâ FA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 `ABDULL} H IBN JA`FER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 `ABDULL} H IBN `ABB} S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 THE ARBA`EEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 THE ELEVENTH NIGHT IN THE COMPANY OF AL-HUSAIN (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 YAZ¦D MEETS AL-SAJJ} D (– ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 IN SYRIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 THE SEVERED HEADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 ZAINAB'S SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .POST-MARTYRDOM EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 UMM KULTHâ M SPEAKS OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 THE ELEVENTH NIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 UMM AL-BANEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 F} TIMA DAUGHTER OF AL-HUSAIN (– ) DELIVERS A SPEECH . 275 OPPRESSION OF AL-ASHDAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 ZAINAB'S SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 THE BURIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 THE MOST SACRED HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 BACK TO MED¦NA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 THE CAPTIVES TAKEN TO SYRIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 THE SACRED HEAD SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 THE LOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 AL-MUKHT} R AL-THAQAFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 THE STEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 IBN `AF¦F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 AT THE GOVERNOR'S MANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 AL-SAJJ} D (– ) DELIVERS A SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 THE HOUSE OF RUINS . . . . . . . 300 THE SEVERED HEAD REJOINS THE BODY . . 251 DEPARTING FROM KERBAL} ’ . . . . . . 294 A SYRIAN ENCOUNTERS F} IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 PART IV EULOGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 IN MED¦NA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A SUMMARY OF THE MARKS OF A MU'MIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 CONCLUSION .

They never ceased their march. researching. We. comparing. braving numerous trials and tribulations. Their foes envied them while those who despised and hated them harboured a great deal of grudge against them. Author’s Background he author is a defender of the Im~ ms of Guidance who carried on the Shar§`a of the Master of Messengers (‰ ). and examining. The libraries of the Western world. clarifying. Their pens delved into each and every field and wrote about every branch of knowledge and scholarship. The intestines of some of them were cut open while the livers of others were chopped.D. major Islamic cities have been filled with many a genius and a scholar. therefore. peace be upon him. Opportunity was seized by every publishing establishment that loves knowledge or seeks wealth. The said Im~ ms (– ) disseminated the Islamic teachings whenever they had the opportunity to do so. nor did they abandon the pulpit. 1. They took upon themselves to study and clarify its obscurities and comprehend its pith. indeed. for people are bent on ambitiously seeking knowledge. the light of the truth did. Truth always subdues falsehood. overwhelm the Islamic world. Sacred mosques are full of glorious mentors and brilliant and inspiring intellectuals: thinkers whose fountainheads are pure. raised the saline features of the creed. persevering in every hostile environment. therefore. [The hawza at] al-Najaf al-Ashraf is a pioneer in . It is the ultimate desire of those who seek and appreciate knowledge. desiring to quench their thirst of the fountain of various branches of knowledge. are filled with large numbers of such great works. in the fifth Hijri century . the Commander of the Faithful. The knowledge of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) has received a great deal of attention and awarded a great deal of concern. Do you think that its teaching staff and their status at “al-Fitiyya” would ever abandon it while the rays of the Master of the Learned. The halls of their institutes are crowded with thousands of books which their pillars have recorded. verifying what is written and bringing out what is treasured. the most Merciful AUTHOR'S BIOGRAPHY By Sayyid Muhammed Husain al-Muqarram . the most Gracious. al-Tã si. whose biography is here T 9 .). dispel the darkness of misguidance. (the 11th century A. They kept explaining and critiquing. Its study circles are crowded with exemplary scholars who shone like stars in the depth of the darkness and with dazzling suns during the period that followed our Im~ ms' time. the Im~ m of the pious. at major cities. not to mention what is available at Islamic cities in the East of great books and magnificent literary works. . teaching and writing since it was founded by the sect's mentor. Critics' pens dived into the depths in order to take out the jewels and the treasures therein. In the deluge of the waves of these scholarly floods did our master. Publishing houses and scientific institutes came to their universities and scientific institutes and took to serious work. Swords severed their joints. Generations have been obliterated and new ones have come as the scholars of the Infallible Household remain vigilant as guardians of the Shar§`a. I find myself at this juncture reluctant to discuss the branches of knowledge about which they wrote or the arts they categorized according to queries. These set up the rules and established the branches. the final stop of those who pursue honours. nor did they ever put down the pens that they unsheathed to remove the doubts. Despite all of this. find al-Najaf upholding its role of leadership. and they were hurled into dark dungeons. explained the Sunnah and promoted righteousness. or the precious treasures for whose safeguarding they dedicated themselves. and the torches of his wisdom and teachings live in and fill the hearts? These are only some of the precious boons of the Master of the Wise.In the Name of Allah.

then. . to dedicate his efforts and energy to research and study what these Im~ ms had taught. Before that incident. “al-Muqarram. during their time. Is it not. logic. felt jealous of them and schemed against them? False charges and deception were the outcome as those who flattered the rulers spread far and wide. He felt distressed at finding the legacy of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) obscured in many respects.” This is how he starts it: “It is. known as “al-kalim . therefore.” is the family name. the Zubayris. Are we not being unfair to them. having studied the basics of our beliefs. This is what he himself had written in the Introduction to his explanation of a poem by Shaikh Hasan son of Shaikh K~ zim Sabti. and the tools of research at our disposal? Should we be too lazy to do so or feel reluctant to unveil the facts behind whatever dubiosity was cast on what actually befell them? The Umayyads. and so that we may emulate them and follow their recommendations on the other. to look into their [Im~ ms’] virtues. the family name used to be “al-Sa`§di. may All~ h have mercy on his soul. leaving nothing at all for anyone else to say or to discuss or . nor were they befriended? Horrible wars were waged against them and lies and fabrications invented in order to distort the facts relevant to them. having the knowledge. We must refute the charges levelled against them and the skepticism. . one mandated on him by the Im~ ms. al-tayyib. causing him to be very thin. Due to his extensive knowledge of these narrators and liars and his familiarity with the names of fabricated personalities. son of Sabra son of Mã sa son of Ali son of Ja`fer son of Im~ m Abul. He. His Lineage He is `Abdul-Razz~ q son of Muhammed son of `Abb~ s son of the scholar Hasan son of the scholar Q~ sim . We should write about them and study their revivals and shed a light on their statements. Is not the Islamic library satisfied with these thousands of books and literary works that deal with Fiqh and Usã l while the “struggle” of the masters of the world remains obscured and . son of Hassã n son of Sa`§d son of Hasan son of Kam~ l ad-D§n son of Husain son of Sa`§d son of Th~ bit son . How could such pens be otherwise especially since the oppressive authority and those in charge.” after his grandfather Sa`§d son of Th~ bit. . so that we may carry out our responsibility towards them on one hand. jailed. and philosophy for many centuries. obligatory on us. were not given any respite at all. and it hurt him to see pens unconcerned about researching their ways of life and extracting what is hidden of their feats and merits. He did all of this by applying the principles of comparison and deduction in order to deduce complex injunctions. utilizing those who followed and supported them. and so that we may show the glowing facts obscured by frivolous lies? Did not our scholars delve enough into the questions of Fiqh. merits. so that we may thus support and assist their struggle. scholarship. His nickname. live and grow up. . Usã l.Mã sa al-K~ zim (– ) son of Im~ m Ja`fer . our master whose biography we are discussing regarded it as his obligation. al-S~ diq (– ). of Yahya son of Duways son of `} sim son of Hasan son of Muhammed son of Ali son of S~ lim son of Ali . . should we not write books lauding them. and to clarify the reasons behind the confusion about and the historical context of those events. and the `Abb~ sides waged unrelenting wars against them in order to obscure their light and obliterate their legacy. But he came to conclude that authorship should be restricted to explaining the biographies of these Im~ ms and the details of the circumstances wherein they lived. rendering him to house confinement. 10 . misrepresentation and distortion wrought by bygone antagonistic pens during periods when Ahl al-Bayt. being able to write. may All~ h have mercy on his soul. was of the view that an author should not exert his effort and exhaust himself in dealing with the branches of modern or ancient knowledge without allotting a portion of such effort or exertion to study their personalities and those of their offspring and followers who were hanged. to debate?! We have a moral obligation towards them. The storey behind this family name is that one of his grandfathers was sick in his feet on account of an ailment which exhausted him.” 2. obligatory on us to direct our energy to continue what they had started? In other words.discussed. and lifestyles. peace be upon them. . . shadowed by misinformation. the knowledge which is now with us. peace be upon them. or exiled to distant lands and who died while remaining firm in adhering to the lofty principles and to the true faith.

D.D. He. His mother./1916 A. or his characteristics whereby he was supposedly known.H.H./1726 A. But his grandfather on the mother's side. His uncle. of the people of knowledge and distinction are raised. His Birth and Upbringing He. a descendant of the progeny of Im~ m Ali (– ). feeling too embarrassed to deal with their affairs. Hindiyya and elsewhere.H. one whose fiqh was quite broad. Sayyid Mehdi son of Sayyid `Abb~ s. . He used to quite often mention his father Sayyid Muhammed (who died in 1351 . used to be a bitter opponent and a critic of the `Uthm~ nis (Ottomans). Sayyid Ahmed son of Sayyid Husain./1916 A. We must not forget the fact that his grandfather on his mother's side..D. His departure took place in the second Hijri century (8th century A.D. and hanged him. agonized him a great deal. who died in 1358 A.H. looked after him with affectionate care and raised him Islamically just as the offspring . Another commentary he wrote was for `Umdat al-T~ lib of Ibn `Anbah al-D~ wã di al-Husaini who died in 828 A. may All~ h have mercy on him. Many of those who acquired a lofty degree of scholarship were among his students. The ancestor of al-Muqarram's family is Sayyid Q~ sim who had moved from al-Hasaka. This uncle. His father. Sayyid Husain.3.1899 A.D.) well. Sayyid Muhammed son of Sayyid `Abb~ s. and he used to frequently criticize them for the harm and oppression they were inflicting on the public till they arrested him in Kuwait which he visited in 1334 A. late part of 1334 A. did not discuss issues relevant to late genealogies. Sayyid Husain. He studied Arabic in its tools./1951 A. to al-Najaf al-Ashraf in order to be near the master of wasis. Among his wrotings was a commentary on AlAns~ b by Abul-Hasan al-Fatã ni al-`} mili who died in 1138 A. was a . and he used to stay at Kã fa quite often. had to withstand extreme hardships and face the cruelty of circumstances.. His house became the place where distinguished scholars met. But he was quite familiar with and fully knowledgeable of biographers and narrators of had§th and those who branched out of the “origins.D. and the `aq~ 'id (Islamic beliefs) and the queries relevant thereto./1939 A. His grandfather's death in 1334 A. a far-sighted man.D. He was . he became very much involved in seeking knowledge till he became one of Najaf's most renown personalities and dignitaries. came to be distinguished for his scholarship and virtues. was very kind to him.D./1425 A. overburdening his general life and his efforts to make a living.” therefore.D. His uncle. may All~ h have mercy on his soul. significance of a particularhad§th or narration once he knew the false name of its narrator. who also died in 1334 A. was born in 1316 A. grand mosque. therefore.H. Another reason .H. used to travel frequently between various cities and visit his relatives who scattered throughout Nu`m~ niyya. editing manager of (Iranian) Khud magazine which he wrote for the Tehran newspaper Nida-e-Haqq of the 29th of the month of Ramadan. He used to quite often hold commemorative ceremonies for Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and maj~ lis in their honour. A.H. had some real estate properties./1916 A. one who fabricated it. Since he settled in the family's present house. used to quite often observe i`tik~ f at Kã fa's . where he . may All~ h be merciful to him. She was a righteous women who used to recite the Holy Qur’~ n. . the fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) in its branches. was the fact that some of his family members were already residing at al-Najaf as he recorded in some of his papers.H.H. and he fathered four sons among whom Sayyid Ibr~ h§m son of Sayyid Ahmed.D.). that is to say./1932 A. Yet all of that did not distract him from seeking knowledge and attending research sessions with his mentors./July 4. This commentary goes beyond .H. .H. and he was kind to her. may All~ h have mercy on him. she died in 1370 A. D§w~ niyya./1916 A. 1951 A. 11 . an im~ m of jama`a. A. learned from him as indicated in an article by `Im~ d Z~ dah. `all~ ma Shaikh Ali Asghar Ahmadi . He was a recognized genealogist. Our biographee. was also an im~ m of jam~ `a and one of those whose profession was teaching. and an author. . the scholar. it was not hard for him to appreciate the . 1370 . and he studied for a lengthy period of time at the school of Im~ m Shaikh Muhammed Husain Al Shaikh Ali K~ shif al-Ghit~ ’. who died in the .D. . the .D. man of scholarship and distinction. tracing the names of fathers and grandfathers or stating one's family tree..

9. 2.D. and that the faq§h Shaikh `Abdul-Rasã l used to endorse 12 . taxes any poem. upon him. .D. As regarding the forgiven authority in fat~ wa Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ ni al-Najafi.. was a role model of piety and integrity and on the highest plains of purity of the soul and righteousness.. 6.H. leaving it anything but poetry. 5. and in the chapter containing eulogies.H. He answered me by saying that the forgiven al-Muqarram used to introduce arguments known as ishtib~ h~ t (confusing issues) to the great Shaikh relevant to the latter's book Al-Jaw~ hir. . We know that philosophy. 3.H. As regarding the great muj~ hid Shaikh Muhammed Jaw~ d al-Bal~ ghi.4. . quite often recognizing his status. 1365 A. and .D. such as the biographee's editing of a copy of Al-Rihla al-Madrasiyya and his procurement of Ahmed's Musnad. Our master al-Muqarram maintained a close tie with him especially when major questions and intricate researches were discussed. 4. may All~ h fill his grave with noor. .D.D. The biographee kept him company./1933 A. kh~ rij al-usã l./1942 A./1916 A. In response to Sayyid al-Muqarram's desire. . His Mentors 1.H. . The forgiven biographee participated with the authority al-Balaghi in publishing AlRihla al-Madrasiyya and in co-writing Al-Huda li D§n al-Mustafa.H. who died in 1334 A. . pure in themes and meanings. the bonds between them were quite strong. . The mujtahid authority Shaikh Agha Diy~ ’ al-Iraqi who died in 1361 A. A./1970 A. 8./1946 A. titled Al-Anw~ r alQudsiyya. may All~ h expand his shade. The religious leader and the authority on fat~ wa Sayyid Abul-Hasan al-Isfah~ ni al-Najafi who died in . .H. . . died in 1361 A. the biographee cherished his company and learned from him lessons in philosophy and `ilm al-kal~ m. The scholar/authority and faqih Shaikh Husain al-Hilli al-Najafi. who took care of raising and educating him. he indexed and marked with a statement indicative of his admiration for al-Balaghi's personality. . . he used to hold the biographee in high esteem. due its complex terminology. .. who died in 1389 A. wrote his monumental poem in honour of the Infallible Ones. and who taught him . peace be . may All~ h expand his shade./1942 A. You can notice this from reviewing what he recorded by way of comment on al-Balaghi's poem in the appendix to this book and on many other books which he had bought from him..D. the forgiven Shaikh al-Isfah~ ni . . who . who taught . .H. I once asked my virtuous friend professor al-H~ jj Yahya al-Jaw~ hiri. who used to attend their meetings. This book. and who taught him kh~ rij al-fiqh and usã l and recorded his [progress] reports. him sutã h in their respective fiqh and usã l./1947 A. who taught him kh~ rij al-fiqh. . peace be upon him. . Ayatull~ h and the greatest mentor and today's authority Abul-Q~ sim al-Khoei al-Najafi. Sayyid Husain. yet the forgiven al-Muqarram used to quite often recite some of it during many maj~ lis which he used to hold in memory of the Infallible Ones (– ). and the Shaikh was one of those who were known for their ijtih~ d and lofty scholarly status. it came easy in its structure. Al-Bal~ ghi's personality filled his soul ./1969 A. who died in 1352 A. about the nature of the . and who taught him kh~ rij al-fiqh and recorded his [progress] reports. The forgiven supreme religious authority Sayyid Muhsin al-Hak§m who died in 1390 A. you will find some of it in praise of Im~ m al-Husain.H. . which . the pious and God-fearing scholar. . The scholar/authority Shaikh Muhammed Rida Al Shaikh H~ di Al K~ shif al-Ghit~ ’ who died in 1366 . and . Maqtal al-Husain. who taught him fiqh and usã l. poem. with admiration and respect with regard to many situations wherein loyalty to Ahl al-Bayt (– ) openly manifested itself. does not overlook this . Due to the similarity between both men's method of work and defense of the Shar§`a of the Chosen One (‰ ). The authority in fat~ wa Mirza Muhammed Husain al-N~ eeni al-Najafi. . researches discussed by the Shaikh [al-Jaw~ hiri] and the Sayyid [al-Muqarram]. 7.D. Despite the fact that the poet was a professor of philosophy who had filled this poem with rational philosophical terms.D. and who taught him usã l. The authority Shaikh `Abdul-Rasã l son of Shaikh Shar§f al-Jaw~ hiri.D.H./1936 A. sweet to the ear in its musical tone. His grandfather. who died in 1355 A.

son of the forgiven authority al-Am§ni. This requires him to read the texts in their various connotations together with what critics and narrators have commented about them as well as a review of the personalities of their authors. he never let pride take control of him. elucidation. intellectual caliber and the brilliance the biographee used to enjoy. Sayyid al-Muqarram. he will be able to do so from examining the list of books he had written. 1 This excerpt was published in issue No. Let me provide you here with what Shaikh Muhammed H~ di al-Am§ni. as well as in published works. was a flowing ocean not only of fiqh and its basics. and he was frank in everything he said and did. The authority. 1971. Despite all his wealth of knowledge and exhaustion of research. and the charging of the structure with whatever symbols. you always find him most humble. add to that his diligence as he turned the pages of numerous references.. His Style Researchers' methods depend on clarity. if you examine his books in their various topics. but you also find him delving into had§th. . He. or the Introductions he wrote for great scholars. in addition to another of his books titled Al-Muhadar~ t . providing you with what he has as though he is taking from you. He was the ultimate end of the seeker and the refuge of the one in need. Yet his style is free of all of these things. decorative diction. how will his writing style appear to us? Most likely. In his manuscripts. and also his great book Sayyida Sukayna. 1391/October 5. signs. there is a wealth for the researcher and a hamlet for the seeker. has said. Having done all of this. As regarding the Introductions which he wrote for many published books. 13 . philosophy. The writing style of his time depended on the use of rhymed prose. education and divine wisdom.. argumentation.. . the text may either stand on solid grounds. nor did he permit conceit to entertain his mind. But the Sayyid never bragged about them. and he may have provided them with entire chapters for their books. literature. but if the reader wishes to discern such a status. all of which are avoided by modern Arabic style. his knowledge abundant. He did all of that as a service to knowledge and to those who seek it. in addition to the researches and commentaries embedded in Al-Dir~ sat by Sayyid Ali al-Shahroodi. and other things which over-burden the statement. We do not forget that the research whereby his books are characterized is indicative of a study. His education was broad. are based. .them and attract his attention to his observations with regard to some of the questions discussed in AlJaw~ hir. or it may collapse. and I am not sure what their effect on his psyche was.. all these indicate the .1 6. which are edicts issued by our master al-Khoei. in addition to his manuscript Naqd al-T~ r§kh fi Mas~ 'il Sitt. 5. It is upon such a premise that his book Tanz§h al-Mukht~ r alThaqafi. and the comments which he had written for others. fi al-Fiqh al-Ja`feri (lectures in the jurisprudence of Imam Ja`fer al-S~ diq[– ]). The Status of his Scholarship I do not find this topic permitting me to discuss the Sayyid's scholarly status because he is my father. may All~ h have mercy on him. an examination and an in-depth comparison. For this reason. 17 of Al-`Adl Najafi magazine of Sha`b~n 14. and glaring evidence. I am inclined to think that he assisted many contemporary researchers in Najaf who wrote famous books. let alone the scholarly “licenses” awarded to him by the greatest of scholars and which are preserved besides his manuscripts. If we study the author's books. you will no doubt find the mark of clarity and the stamp of glow as basic ingredients of their structure. One single book of his suffices to provide you with a clear idea about his living education wherein his genius is manifested.

followed. Other works. .” Often. he was not concerned about it. undermining his status and prestige. may All~ h have mercy on him. the Book . Thus did the men of distinction and prestige .” At its conclusion. conclude from a fiqh standpoint that. he said. peace be upon him. the oppressive government of the Umayyads came to an end. Shaikh `Abdul-Husain al-Hilli. Maqtal al-Husain. stops researching. His action would be regarded as self-demeaning. on the onset. the detail in narrating the facts. then he incorporates such bits and pieces into a dissertation which we can describe as “incomplete” and which researchers describe as “research's raw material. when he reads a book. did not consider it as one of his books because the explanation was not based on his own basic effort. 8. relied upon deduction and good comprehension. Zayd al-Shah§d is a book that details the biography of Im~ m al-Sajj~ d. the publishers. came to publish his great encyclopedia titled Al-Thar§`a. and the readers welcome such books with a great deal of pleasure.” 7. the first volume of which was printed by Najaf's presses. They were preceded in doing so by the forgiven trusted authority Shaikh `Abb~ s al-Qummi who published his precious book Al-Kuna wal Alq~ b. He once came to know that the orator and poet. The Publishers' Club critiqued Sayyid al-Radi's book Haq~ ’iq al-Ta’w§l. the forgiven Shaikh Hasan Sabti. and comparing. Amazement intensified at the hawza to see a . so. al-Tayyib or Anfa` al-Z~ d li Yawm al-Ma`~ d..rather. “We. This book. You find him leading you to accept the serious issue which he raises. but he. studying. But . . writings after which I wrote about Zayd the martyr. Then he says. analyzing. 14 . For this reason. and at the time.. thereupon.. It was then that public and private libraries came to acquire it.. We are not concerned about this issue as much as we are about pointing out the following: The book was published in the 1930s. and it was then decided that the dust accumulated by forgetfulness and negligence should no longer cover the author's books especially since the presses. the authority scholar and poet. etc. “I wished to summarize it but was unable to do so because of my very busy schedule. Agha Buzurg. book by Shaikh `Abdul-Husain al-Am§ni titled Shuhad~ ’ al-Fad§la (“Martyrs of Virtue”). it was regarded a shame that a scholar should busy himself with issues unrelated to fiqh and usã l. had composed a lengthy poem about the Infallible Ones (– ) which he called Al-Kalim . and those who benefit from scholars' researches abounded. his books are based on the originality of thought. those at the scholarly hawza felt uneasy upon seeing one of their most notable scholars seeking . . so the . peace be upon them. Maqtal al-Husain. therefore. “This is the first of my . to pick from it the tales and traditions which point out to something relevant to them or to their opponents. he presents such collected material to one who finds it to be of interest to his own research. and also due to the abundant similarity between its stand and that of the revolution of the Father of Martyrs (– ). and on portraying the thoughts. The book is full of many issues which hired pens have fabricated in order to support the government of the Umayyads. or say studies. stimulates him. the biographee broke the iron locks that prohibited a learned scholar from researching and actively seeking to publish and comment or critique a book written by our prominent scholars of the past generations. and I think his genuine love for the revolution of Im~ m Husain (– ) motivated him to write it and to discuss how . Sayyid Husain never . His First Book The intensity of his love for Ahl al-Bayt. so he explained it saying. His first published book was Zayd al-Shah§d (“Zayd the Martyr”) to which he appended his dissertation titled Tanz§h al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.” He dedicated himself to explaining and commenting on it.. to research issues which had no relevance to fiqh or to usã l. He did not indicate in the Introduction his reasons for writing it. investigative researcher. is full of such issues. A poet has said. become accustomed to this type of writing and study. the valuable Introduction for which was written by . clarifying any part which needed to be expounded.

at the same time. The glorious Im~ ms (– ) used to always urge their followers not to forget it and to do everything they could to keep it alive in their memory saying. peace be upon him. al-Tabari quotes most of his narration from al-Suddi and . The author removed such confusion. therefore. This comes from our own party. one that excites what the souls hide and the minds conceal. peace be upon them! In his famous T~ r§kh. The reader will find in it an overflow of references upon which the biographee relies to verify and research the Kerbal~ ’ epic. This book refers to and exposes a large number of quotations which do not stand on any foundation. peace be upon them. The series of disasters that accompanied the march undertaken by force by the members of the House of Revelation from Med§na to Iraq. language. for it certainly is the greatest of all tragedies. This poet is simply referring to the Kerbal~ ’ tragedy. Does not amazement stir you to accept the narration of Hameed ibn Muslim who appears as a soft. had narrated. as it was being displayed in Kã fa and Syria and. and literature in addition to numerous researches of many expressions related to narrations which contradict even those who narrated them. he nullifies the narrations transmitted by many narrators for many. Yet he is quoted narrating the events at Kerbal~ '! It is for all of these reasons that the forgiven biographee stood to write his book. .Your calamity has made us forget ours that were And is sure to make the ones to come easy to bear. As regarding the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (– ). hearted man on the battlefield while he was one of those who accompanied the severed head of Abu `Abdull~ h. for example. this one: 15 . set aside Kerbal~ 's events and not learn them from the ones to whom they took place and upon whom its calamities were piled up? And who is “Abul-Faraj” anyway?! He is a supporter of the Umayyads and one of their kinsfolk who depends in his narration on those who follow al-Zubayr or on Umayyads who all are the enemies of Ahl alBayt. nor do they agree with the truth. The hearts of the Sh§`as are sorely distressed and are filled with profoundly sad thoughts filled with frightening images. could cause anyone's heart to swell and bleed. centuries passed by while it is still standing and will continue to be so till the Day of Judgment. Prominent historians wrote down what they heard and recorded what came to their knowledge. As a result. then to Syria. Maqtal al-Husain. Yet we have to remove the curtain from what was hidden and veiled. The hearts are filled with outrage at everyone who committed that heinous crime. We have to narrate authentic events and undermine everything which does not agree with the foundation upon which the uprising of the Master of Martyrs was based in his bloody struggle to depose those who killed the Sunnah while keeping the bid`a alive. women. many years. stamping it with a very somber and emotionally exciting stamp. Through comparison and examination. This book contains in its footnotes researches relevant to the fiqh. many things found their ways (to print) which good taste rejects and which do not agree with what the Im~ ms themselves. We (Sh§`as) have added a great deal to the Kerbal~ ’ events and to the events that followed. the most momentous of all catastrophes that befell the Progeny of the Chosen One (‰ ). Muj~ hid and others while learned people know exactly who al-Suddi is. these took to falsifying and distorting the facts! Thus has the calamity passed. and children in which there is a great deal of confusion with regard to both the names and the ones to whom they were attached. “Keep our cause alive! May All~ h have mercy on whoever keeps our cause alive!” It was. The Kerbal~ ' epic contains numerous names of men. Do you know that those who refer to Umm Kulthã m are actually talking about Zainab. the wise lady?! And can you imagine that “Umm al-Baneen” was not living during the time of the tragedy and that the poetry recited by the th~ kirs has no share of the truth?! Read. accompanied by chapters in which the narration played an important role.

Maqtal al-Husain (– ) (history book and research) . . and to sift the contents of this book just as we proudly introduced its precious topics to you. Ithb~ t al-Wasiyya (by al-Mas`ã di) . 3. . 6. and you find many other causes which I myself am reluctant to . Al-Kashkã l (by Sayyid Hayder ibn Ali al-`Ubaydi al-Husaini al-`} mili) . . about his lineage and nature. 5. You only remind me of the lions in their den. `} shã ra fil Islam . unwittingly presenting him as a softhearted man with tearful eyes! And what do you know about the one who slaughtered al-Husain (– ). Im~ m al-Jaw~ d (– ) (biography) 9. Al-Munqith al-Akbar . . Yawm al-Arba`een `indal-Husain (dissertation) (altruism and expressions of compliance) .a research . Al-Mukht~ r ibn `Ubayd al-Thaqafi (critique and study) 3. Im~ m Zayn al-`} bid§n (– ) (biography) 7. . present to you. Al-Muhadar~ t fil Fiqh al-Ja`feri (commentary and research of a book by Sayyid Ali al-Shahrã di) . namely . . Al-Mal~ him (by Sayyid Ahmed ibn T~ wãs) . 8. 20. You find all of this in Maqtal al-Husain. Qamar Ban§ H~ shim: al-`Abb~ s (– ) (biography) 10. Al-Shah§d Muslim ibn `Aq§l (biography) 12. Zayd al-Shah§d (biography) 2. Al-Hasan ibn Ali (– ) . . the wazigh2. Al-Jamal (by Shaikh al-Muf§d) (commentaries) C. O Umm al-Baneen. __ Tr. Im~ m al-Rida (– ) (biography) . 18. . Shimr. 22. to be familiar with them.a research 2. His Published Books: 1. Ali al-Akbar (– ) (biography) 11. 23. Sirr al-Im~ n fil Shahada al-Th~ litha (events and study) 13. 17. but your soul pushes you.. Introductions and Prefaces for Legacy Books: 15. 16 . and about governor `Ubaydull~ h (ibn Ziy~ d)? The Sayyid derives legislative injunctions from the conduct of Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) and from his statements in his sermons. O reader. 9. B. Al-Sidd§qa F~ tima (– ) (biography) . His Manuscripts: 1. 14. Sayyida Sukayna (research) 4.a critique and a history book 2 He was called so by the Messenger of All~h (‰). Al-} m~ li (by Shaikh al-Muf§d Muhammed ibn Muhammed ibn al-Nu`m~ n al-`Ukbari) .Do not call upon me. Bish~ rat al-Mustafa (by `Im~ d ad-D§n al-Tabari al-`} mili) (commentaries and remarks) . Farhat al-Ghari (by Sayyid `Abdul-Kar§m ibn T~ wã s) . Dal~ 'il al-Im~ ma (by Ibn Jar§r al-Tabari al-Im~ mi) . 21. His Legacy A. So we narrate the event and thus side with Marw~ n. Al-Khas~ ’is (by al-Sayyid al-Radi) . 16. 19. .

nor is there anything more precious. `Amm~ r ibn Y~ sir (dissertation) . his books listed above. 18. and so on. whereas someone else insists on nothing less than holding such maj~ lis for them. 17.. Our master. His manuscript. and the research is repeated one night after another. . Naqd al-T~ r§kh fi Mas~ ’il Sitt . Sayyid Husain. but the degree of such an attribute varies among them. (‰ ). whereas another is active in urging people to do so.a research and an analysis of traditions 14. One may be contented with attending their maj~ lis.a critique . Naw~ dir al-} th~ r . Al-A`y~ d fil Islam . He grew up and was raised to find himself in a house where many occasions were held in honour of Ahl al-Bayt (– ). one month of Ramadan after another. Yawm al-Ghad§r or Hijjat al-Wad~ ` . Zainab al-Aq§la (peace be upon her) . Another . doing: meeting with people to discuss or produce a great deal of . 10. their literary production. Al-Kuna wal Alq~ b .e.fiqh . ultimately. H~ shiya `alal Kif~ ya by Shaikh Muhammed K~ zim al-Khuras~ ni -usã l . . is Naqd al-T~ r§kh fil Mas~ ’il al-Sitt. and also Al-Im~ m al-Hasan (– ).4. Another person may accept to be present at their shrines or to travel to visit such shrines. when all material possessions are lost. Maytham al-Tamm~ r (dissertation) . than acquiring their love and the security of their intercession and. Rab~ 'ib al-Rasã l . . i.a biography 8. . and he may even spend of his own wealth on facilitating the pilgrims to visit their mausoleums. Thikr~ al-Ma`soomeen (some of its volumes are in print) . Naw~ dir al-} th~ r. which he left behind him. Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ ri (dissertation) .sundry causes 19. was adorned by all of these activities combined. The greatest of his manuscripts is Al-Munqith al-Akbar (the greatest saviour). People may all grow up loving them and being loyal to them. . and there are many such persons.a history book . Khad§ja’s daughters by her previous marriages) 15. active efforts to disseminate their views and to explain their ways of life and conduct did. H~ shiya `alal Mak~ sib by Shaikh Murtada al-Ans~ ri .a biography 7.a biography 10. . nor even death in loving Ahl al-Bayt (– ). As regarding his pen and how he utilized his time. Thus did I see the house full of them.a research 11. Naql al-Amw~ t fil Fiqh al-Islami .a biography 9. Holding a majlis to bring their legacy to memory did not suffice him.a history book 6. full of loyalty to them. His Loyalty to Ahl al-Bayt (– ) There is no treasure greater than one's life. So did he observe his grandfather. contains poems delivered by poets who attended their merry occasions. We plead to the most Exalted One to assist the efforts to circulate them among people. nor more than nearness to them.biographies 16. He did so through the lectures which he delivered at meetings which he held in the company of his brethren and friends during the month of Ramadan. so he added his zeal to that of his own.a history book and a research (detailing the Prophet’s step-daughters. Dir~ sat fil Fiqh wal T~ r§kh . He found his grandfather. It has been more than thirty years since he wrote both of them. peace be upon them. a book which he used to mention quite often. Halq al-Lihya . 13. may All~ h have mercy on him. 17 . the reward in the life hereafter of being a resident in their neighborhood.a history book 5. provide sufficient testimony. He waited for the opportunity to hold majlis even for those who expressed their loyalty for Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and who followed in their footsteps and were executed or died in exile after having persevered. meaning Muhammed ..a research and an analysis 12. the biographee.

the most Exalted One. in praise of Abul-Fadl al-`Abb~ s. His main concern was to acquire more and more knowledge and satisfy himself with its treasures of minute legacies. . appreciated it very much especially if it was in honour of Ahl al-Bayt. in order to bring such poetry to life. . The path of guidance. peace be upon them. and he was satisfied from this life with attaining wisdom. had allotted for him. Who guide whoever strays from the right way To the path of righteousness and wil~ ya. among them are the following: We praise You. ailment: O father of al-Fadl! O eyesight of al-Husain! . His Poetry The biographee neither composed good quality poetry. nor did he memorize nor critique poetry. O caretaker of the caravan on its march! Do you shun me. the gracious that you are. Ayatull~ h Abul-Hasan al-Isfah~ ni. peace be upon him. 18 . but such an offer did not rest well with him! Such a role did not appeal to him. . And the refuge for whoever seeks protection?! Among his poetry are lines which he composed in praise of the Prophet (‰ ) and his pure Progeny the composition of which he did finish. he acquired a respectable status among people of distinction. for example.11. He took his stride in life with pride and dignity. 12. may All~ h have mercy on him. suffered a great deal from harsh living conditions and the agonies of life. Lord. He retained a sufficient measure of selfrespect not to lower himself and do what was not becoming of him or what would jeopardize his studies or his performance as a teacher. Who honoured This whole existence with the Chosen one: Muhammed and his good Progeny. very much desired that he should visit him and be his representative at one of the major cities of Iraq so that he would be able to earn means of a comfortable life. As far as he is concerned. Yet he. we are not aware of him composing poetry except very little such as a few lines. peace be upon them. So I liked to rhyme what the scholars Of authentic traditions did record Of merits of the Prophet's Purified Progeny Those put in charge by the Lord. Whoever praises us in a verse of poetry All~ h will assist him through His Holy Spirit And all doubt from him will He remove. I`tik~ f preoccupied him a great deal. who suffice the seeker. accepting whatever means of livelihood at his disposal. where he pleads to All~ h through him to remove his . . may All~ h have mercy on him. Ahl al-Bayt said: . and also: In theirhad§th. the leading theologian. and he deep down felt satisfied with what All~ h. He used quite often to cite the poetry of those who lauded Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and incorporate it in his works which discuss them. may All~ h have mercy on him. Having worked very hard and with persistence. How His Life was Concluded The author.

It very much pleased him to hold majlis on various occasions for the pure Im~ ms (– ) and for their faithful followers. for even one of the ailments that befell him was sufficient to put an end to him. His belief in them and in their special status with All~ h often prompted him to seek their intercession to remove his affliction. His ridw~ n and generous rewards. 1971. H~ shim al-Ja`feri to ask someone to pray for him at the grave-site of the Master of Martyrs? He. And see the over-brimming Pool and the Waiter! These shall intercede for you for sure. yet he would become agitated upon seeing something which he did not like or hear. Why would he not do so? Did not Im~ m Abul-Hasan Ali al-H~ di (– ) order Abu . so. sweet in their shine And spread like the field of the Taff . used to talk about such wishes desired for him by religious authorities.D./1971 A. One of the most interesting eulogies written about him is a poem . And for his family and the companions Pages of depth and scrutiny that revile The souls of those who aspire To acquire every precious thing. composed by Shaikh Ahmed al-W~ ’ili in which he recorded his year of death as follows: . He had a firm conviction that All~ h. `Abdul-Razz~ q. one would not be able to control his worldly desires. So when you are brought back to life. the most Exalted One. About Husain you wrote. he was thin and straight. so he would seek intercession with All~ h. Hopeful of your Lord's rewards. For which you recorded for Husain . maintained quiet nerves. and he might find himself involved in other things.) 19 . As regarding his physique. may All~ h have mercy on him. he used to struggle to stand straight with his head upright. may All~ h have mercy on him. He was emotional and tearful whenever he heard the tragedy that befell the progeny of the Messenger of All~ h. record: O servant of al-Razz~ q you went away. and him you shall meet . And what the Lord has for you is even more.He.H. Such justifications and other matters which he did not express were behind his refusal. and he preferred to remain silent rather than discuss them. through their status with Him to remove his hardship and repel the harm from him. Thus did he remain till death overtook him on Muharram 17. and he used to justify his having rejected their offers by saying that once the means of ease and luxury were available. During his last days. Oh. O to al-Razz~ q did you go! (1391 A. peace be upon him and them. Your good deeds shall surround you: White. The spirit of Im~ n and of conduct! A grave in which you reside Is a garden where you will lodge Till the Day of Meeting. when various types of ailments assaulted him from all directions. the brilliant mind. the most Exalted One. 1391/March 15. may All~ h grant him . did not extend his lifespan except through them.

the most Gracious. receiving sustenance from their Lord. have not yet joined them. nor shall they grieve. in the pledge which you have made. then. 3:169-170) Surely All~ h has traded the believers’ persons and property for the Garden: they fight in All~ h’s way. in the Bible. and All~ h is most surely with the doers of good. rejoicing in what All~ h has given them of His grace. nay! They are alive. 9:111) 20 . and that is the mighty achievement. a promise which is binding upon Him in the Torah. (being left) behind them. that they shall have no fear. so they slay and are slain. (Qur’~ n. and they rejoice for the sake of those who. (Qur’~ n. (Qur’~ n. 29:69) And do not reckon those who are killed in All~ h’s way as dead. We will most certainly guide them in Our ways. and who is more faithful to his covenant than All~ h? Rejoice. and in the Qur’~ n.In the Name of All~ h. the most Merciful And (as for) those who strive hard for Our sake.

or the pre-Islamic debauchery with Islam's inspiration. When did his foe ever find himself qualified to compete with Husain (– ) so that he would be apt to challenge him? He (– ) felt too dignified to . condemned or condoned. nor shall they grieve. Could you imagine al-Husain (– ) comparing Abu Sufy~ n with the Great Prophet (‰ ). nay! They are alive. so much so that hostility towards them intensified. Of course. meet even those who had preceded Yaz§d in his post. grudge against them mounted. as you march along history and investigate the facts with analyzing eyes except that the honourable person of the Father of the Oppressed becomes manifest to you. Husain the victor (– ) thus achieved his objective. indeed. and so is the case with his sacred goal. noble aims. Khad§ja. assaulted or halted. ruining their government which was founded on the ashes of the Islamic caliphate without any wisdom or merits. Glory and Exaltation to Him. kept remembering him. or the humiliating greed with his own sacred and dignified self. (being left) behind them. or its overwhelming ignorance with his own overflowing knowledge. and people's zeal for the faith ebbed. insisting on maintaining their Page 6 . or Maysã n with the Head of the Ladies of the World.. People came to identify Yaz§d and all those who surrounded him from among the evil leaders and the germs of dissension as the embodiment of everything shameful. He was the Master of the Youths of Paradise. was to undo the Umayyads’ innovations and remove the viciously false allegations attributed to the Islamic Shar§`a. (Qur’~ n. that evident truth was on his side and was beyond the reach of any other man of his time.PART I AL-HUSAIN'S UPRISING . The Master of Martyrs achieved his glorious uprising's objective. and what deeds he did. with the Commander of the Faithful (– ). and to attract the attention to its clearance and that of its adherents from the shame and the demeaning innovations which the Umayyads attached to it as well as the obvious debauchery and the merciless politics of the time. have not yet joined them. you know before anything the nature of his opposing stand and the shame that caused him to grow gray hair. or the liver-chewing woman with the mother of the faithful. al-Husain son of the . up to the end of such comparisons the recording of which will exhaust the pen and make one run out of words?! Between All~ h. that they shall have no fear. His fame spread far and wide.. and His sincere friends were mysterious secrets the knowledge of which is beyond the reach of others and the comprehension of minors. we will still not find it fair at all that the tyrant of his land should have thus waged a war against him or competed with him for any of his merits. receiving sustenance from their Lord. rejoicing in what All~ h has given them of His grace. and their life of ease and luxury was turned into one of bloody wars which put an end to them. exposing all the blatant impudence to all those who were concerned about the faith. It reached the point where arguments turned into physical violence. as he travelled or landed. dear reader. Even if we set aside our firm conviction that righteous Husain (– ) was. 3:169-170) I cannot imagine you. and they rejoice for the sake of those who. so they dared to cast doubts about the sanctity of the Greatest Saviour. Ears felt too offended to listen to them. he only objective anticipated by the creed's Martyr and Islam's defender. T And do not reckon those who are killed in All~ h’s way as dead. and people have . Fanaticism blinded them. the nation's Im~ m and .. and there was hardly any Muslim who did not look at them with contempt. Commander of the Faithful (– ). and so did his prestige and glory. good intentions. or Mu`~ wiyah . Nor do I think that you need to be acquainted with the details of those statements after having come to know who the great martyr is.

Umayyah called Yaz§d. stated on p. Vol. 57. on p. . 1. on p. so he said. Vol. of his book Al-`Aw~sim. . 5 4 3 22 . 1. interpretation of this had§th.” This tradition is recorded on p. 129. “He [Abu Hurayra] was referring to Yaz§d's caliphate which took place in 60 A. on p. of Al-J~mi` al-Sagh§r.” It is. Dard~' quoting the Messenger of All~h (‰) saying. . . 241. 357. . “I have heard the Messenger of All~h (‰) saying.D. . He suckled the breast of the woman from Kil~ b that was mixed with lustful desires. Vol. although he did not criticize him [Yaz§d]. through the bazaars repeating these words: `Lord! Do not permit me to live till the year 60 [A. . Vol. Vol.” The following statement is recorded on p. “Al-Husain was killed by the sword of his grandfather because . of Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’ where the biography of Mu`~wiyah is discussed. on p. Vol. of his book saying about him the following: . 181. . 1. are . He grew up in the lap of one who was cursed by the holiest Messenger (‰ )4 who had ordered the nation to kill him upon seeing him ascending his pulpit. 428. Vol. 11. 3. 110. 13. of his book Fath al-B~ri saying. 132 of Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa from al-Ruy~ni who quotes Abul.” In the Book of Dissensions (Kit~b al-Fitan) of al-Bukh~ri's Sah§h. and on p. Vol. It is there that the .H.' None disagreed with him [with Im~m Husain] except according to the .” This tradition is reported on p. on p. and on p. 268.”3 This speaker has overlooked the fact that Maysã n's son (Yaz§d) never lived in righteousness even for one single day so that he would see the shame of what he did./1951 A. 232 . Vol. . Vol. in fact. in al-Mann~wi's book Al-Daq~'iq commenting on the contents of p. Vol.Husain in Chapter 9. Vol. 381. of Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha by Ibn Abul-Had§d.H. nor was there for his shameful actions and sins any “before” or “after”. 5.” W hat is truly strange is Ibn al-`Arabi's conviction that Yaz§d's government was legitimate despite his knowledge of one had§th of the Prophet (‰) in which he has said. “M uslim has mentioned this tradition in his Sah§h in the Book of Im~ra. of the same reference where `Abdul-Razz~q ibn Hum~m's biography is discussed. 176. of Abul-Fid~'s T~r§kh where the events of the year 238 A. Muhibb ad-D§n said. 543 A. . of al-Thahbi's book Miz~n al-I`tid~l (Egyptian edition) where the biography of al-Hakam ibn Zah§r is discussed. following statement is recorded: “The Messenger of All~h (‰) said.). reference. “My nation's . `May the curse of All~h be upon the rider. 1. the leader. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh where the events of the year 284 A. therefore. “Nobody praised nor condemned him. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh.5 Had the nation carried out this binding order. 1.'” Ibn Hajar goes on to say. 99. Vol. 185. The author mentions `Arfajah on p. “The first person to change my Sunnah will be a man from Banã Umayyah named Yaz§d. of the same . `There will be dissensions. is known to have been misguided in his views and one who deviated from the path of Ahl al-Bayt (–) according to the testimony recorded on p. on p. Commenting on this tradition. said. 320. of Mujma` al-Zaw~'id wa Manba` al-Faw~’id by Ibn Hajar who . annihilation will take place at the hands of minors in my nation. anyone who wants to disunite this nation after its unity. 2./852 A. 57. Vol. a book critiqued by Muhibb ad-D§n al-Khat§b and published in 1371 A. you should kill him. Ibn `Alaqah.” Ibn Hajar has explained the meaning of this tradition on p. the Prophet (‰) is quoted as saying.H. . .D. Vol. “If you ever see Mu`~wiyah on my pulpit. . 243 and also on p.].” . . 247 of Nasr's book Siff§n (Egyptian edition). of T~r§kh Baghdad.H. . of Ibn Hajar's book Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. .H. on p. 2. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al. Abu Hurayra is quoted [in the same reference] as having said. it would have achieved security against the imminent torment threatening it from the window of the This statement was made by Abu Bakr M uhammed ibn `Abdull~h. 2. and the driver. Vol. and it is also recorded on p. on p.D. known as Ibn al-`Arabi (d. . Vol. . This man.D. of the Book (chapter) of Im~ra following the one dealing with the Prophet's military campaigns. Vol.H.” Also. 348.shameful fanaticism.'” The Messenger of All~h (‰) had said. “Justice shall dominate my nation till it will first be violated by a man from Banã . 115 of Ibn al-Jawzi's book Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss by the grandson .] are discussed. he revolted against the im~ m of his time (meaning Yaz§d) after the latter had secured the oath of allegiance for himself and the conditions of the caliphate were met through the consensus of those who did and undid. 12. for he is among those who do not enjoy any recognition and whose traditions are completely ignored. so. “Abu Hurayra used to walk ./1148 A. discussed and also on p. traces its isn~d to Abu Ya`li and al-Bazz~z. 2. and do not let me live to see children becoming rulers. .. 5. 7. 3. of Tahth§b al-Tahth§b (of Ibn Hajar). `The annihilation of my nation will be at the hands of youths belonging to Quraish. 248 of the book titled Siff§n [see above footnote]. on p. of Abul-Fid~'s T~r§kh where the events dominating the year 283 [A. It is quoted from Ziy~d ibn `Alaqah who cites `Arfajah who cites the Prophet (‰).H. you must kill him. . It is also stated on p. . and on p. Vol. of al-Sayyãti's book Al-La'~li' al-Masnã`a in Kit~b al-Man~qib./680 A. 3. 18. 357./897 A. whoever he may be. and there was nothing in his conduct that would shame him [Yaz§d] or stain his reputation. are discussed. 121. of Ibn al-Jawzi (Iranian edition): “The Messenger of All~h (‰) once saw Abu Sufy~n riding a camel led by his grandson Yaz§d and driven by his son Mu`~wiyah. on p. 2. 11. nor did anyone fight him except on account of what they had heard his grandfather (‰) say.D. They.

assist and follow them and all those who incline towards them. everyone. It is quite obvious that he never repented. so long as there are eyes that shed tears for the tragedy inflicted upon Abu `Abdull~ h. Ibn Sa`d. in his book Al-Ish~ `a. who said the following after having been asked . then. But it denied All~ h's bounties. al-Husain (– ). gleefully expressing how he had the field all open for him. curse whoever consented to have al-Husain (– ) killed and whoever unjustly harmed the Progeny of the Prophet (‰ ) and . More than I curse Yaz§d should you curse him after: So heal upon him the worst of cursing now and forever! Anyone who fears lest he should be criticized for thus openly cursing him should nevertheless curse this deviator from the Right Path by saying: “May All~ h. Anyone who says that Yaz§d did not commit any transgression. . subdued. “All~ h says. the Almighty. and their company. and that his violations of All~ h's sanctities and of the sanctities of His Prophet (‰ ) are no less indicative of such disbelief than throwing a page of the Holy Qur’~ n in a pile of filth. These folks. do not permit the cursing of those who agreed to have al-Husain (– ) killed. Yaz§d openly expressed all the ill intentions which he had harbored against Islam and all those who adhered to it. All~ h's curse be upon them and upon those who support. ever. have both recorded that Im~ m Ahmed [ibn Hanbal] was asked once by his son .” He will. so it started relishing the fountainhead plagued with thorny death. . in his book Al. `But if you held command. by my life. be cursing Yaz§d in such general terms since the latter is included in such condemnation. Were this malignant man thought to have been a Muslim. and so are those who agree with him. Let me say that this malignant man never believed in the Prophet's Message. Whatever filled the hated Umayyad bastian provided nourishment for Yaz§d. Saw~ `iq al-Muhriqa. The renown scholar al-‘} lã si has said. therefore. I do not think that dignified Muslims were at that time ignorant of his malicious nature. which may even surpass that of Yaz§d himself. . a curse that lasts till the Day of Resurrection. I go as far as permitting cursing him by name even when nobody can ever compare him with any licentious man. is going too far in being misguided. the one whose distinction is quite evident to . leaving it moaning under the yoke of persecution. clothed it with the outfit of fear. the Almighty.innovations of this tyrant and due to his exterminating cruelty in dealing with it. the man of sundry desires. about cursing Yaz§d. and the possibility of his having repented is less than that of his having believed (in Islam) in the first place. All~ h. the most Exalted. it is the misguidance .” Im~ m Ahmed said. 23 . Nobody disagrees about the permissibility of condemning this cursed man using such words except Ibn al-`Arabi to whom reference is made above. I like what our contemporary poet. the Exalted One. Al-Barzinji. namely `Abdul-B~ qi Afandi al-`Umari al-Mã silli. and this. Said he. according to what is narrated about them. “I have read the Book of All~ h. ought to line up in the chain of command among Yaz§d's supporters. as he grew up among such blatant manifestations of promiscuity. “Why should anyone not curse one whom All~ h has cursed in His Book?!” `Abdull~ h said. so. unable to do anything other than persevering. then he was a Muslim whose deeds incorporated the sins which no articulate tongue can ever describe. and that cursing him is not permissible. In his category fall (`Ubaydull~ h) Ibn Ziy~ d. shackled in the chains of humiliation and slavery just as it witnessed the insolence of debauchees and the violations of those who were immersed in their lust. nor were they overcome. and [Ibn Hajar] al-Haythami [al-`Asqal~ ni]. `Abdull~ h about cursing Yaz§d. you were sure to . and I did not find in it any cursing of Yaz§d. whoever confiscated their rights.

too. says. because they did not justify the spilling of blood.” . It was because of what he was that Husain (– ) saw it mandatory to fight him . In Al-W~ fi bil Wafiyy~ t. martyr. etc. do you wish. When the sun upon Jayrã n's hills shone bright. by His angels and prophets.'”1 Add to the above a list of more sins and transgressions. despite the reluctance of the sah~ bah and the t~ bi`§n to support him not because his action was not right. . for example.. Scholarly critics did not stop at confirming his (Yaz§d’s) lack of conviction and apostasy. openly declared the permissibility of cursing him. “Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi. . 254.” both authors comment adding. says. he refers to the consensus view with regard to Yaz§d being corrupted and to the corruption of those who rallied behind him. when you turned away. spears. the M~ liki judge. the judge. Nobody hesitates to do so except one who is deprived of the fragrance of conviction. where the verse “. Ibn Khaldã n.. having killed those whom he killed [of the Prophet's family]. and in Ibn al-Wardi's T~ r§kh. A raven croaked. His statement is nothing but obvious blasphemy. .. For now I have had my way And made even the Prophet pay! “What he meant. 73. 2 1 Tafs§r Rãh al-Ma`~ni. . nor does he find an exit out of his tunnel. The raven croaked so I did say: Say or do not say. . and by all those who follow the latter till the Day of Judgment. deserved to be cursed by All~ h. Refer to p. but .” is explained. 47:22). not knowing the right path. the killing of Husain (– ) was one of Yaz§d's indications of apostasy. `Atbah's son. so if you turn away. 36. Al-Taftaz~ ni has said.' thus . so jubilant Yaz§d said the following verses of poetry: When those loads did come in sight. Yaz§d will then have committed apostasy. of the exegesis Rãh al-Ma`~ni where the verse saying “So did you desire. Rather. . etc. If the narration is authentic. a Hanbalite.”2 Ibn Muflih. A similar incident is Yaz§d's adaptation of the poetic verses composed during the pre-Islamic period by `Abdull~ h ibn al-Zub`ari starting with `I wish my ancestors. and that he was not fit to be the leader of the nation. [Yaz§d's] conduct but go as far as doubting his conviction. What corruption and severing of the ties worse that what Yaz§d had done?” A group of scholars.make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship!’ (Qur’~ n. Vol. `Atbah. It was not proper to support Yaz§d by fighting Husain. . 26.. and his uncle. . [referred to above] is explained. including Abu Ya`li. etc. he got even with the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) who caused on the Battle of Badr the killing of men such as Yaz§d's grandfather.. and al-Husain (– ) was truly a . . for who could be more just than Husain? Who could be a better Im~m than him? Who could be . the permissibility of cursing Yaz§d. and other men. “We do not stop at raising doubts about his .” Jal~ l ad-D§n al-Sayyã ti. p... more fair in fighting those of diverse personal views?” On p. rather.. 73. blinded by his own fanaticism from embarking upon the right tracks so his steps are shaky. and al-h~ fiz Ibn al-Jawzi. overlooking the conditions required of a just im~ m who is qualified enough to take charge of the Islamic caliphate. hence. emphatically declared . erred when he said in his book Al`Aw~ sim wal-Qaw~ sim: `Husain was killed by the sword of the same Shar§`a which he followed. . 24 . and he is confused. . it is stated that Yaz§d was approaching Jayrã n's highway when al-Husain's women and children were brought and the severed heads were hoisted atop the . the curse of All~ h be upon him and upon his supporters and followers. “is that he [Yaz§d]. Vol. He.

and his excitement thereat.D. the details of Yaz§d's endorsement of the murder of Husain (– ) . “The abominations committed by Yaz§d./1895 A. 25 . oppression. Moreover. 147. I would have recorded a great deal of this man's shameful deeds. rod. p. . 11. . we question his im~ n. 548. in the biography of Ali ibn Muhammed ibn Ali al-Kayaharasi. . ./1110 A. his killing of al-Husain (– ) and his family members. . it is pure oppression. are consecutively reported even when their details vary. Vol.D.. Al-Taftaz~ ni has said. Nayl al-Awt~r. 11 with regard to Banã Umayyah. following in ./1926 A. altogether renunciation of im~ n: every apostate is cursed. Al-Muhalla. in the chapter dealing with fighting oppressors (Al-Man~r Press: 1345 A.. namely Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. 3 4 5 Ras~’il al-J~hiz (al-J~hiz's Letters).”6 Abul-Husain Ali ibn Muhammed al-Kayaharashi. used to curse Yaz§d and say. and he answered by saying that the man 1 2 Al-Furã`. and hypocrisy. to his . . may All~ h curse both of them. his bombardment of the Ka`ba with the catapult. has cursed him saying. they will see how the oath of allegiance was taken for him by force.D. p.H. “The action undertaken by Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah was for the sake of this . Husain's mouth with a rod. animosity. May All~ h curse him and curse his supporters and helpers. . are discussed.. If these folks look into [Yaz§d's] biography. . . where the events that took place during 504 A. wrong in fighting him. How amazing to come across statements that make the skin shiver and that stun even the hardest rock upon hearing them!”4 Al-J~ hiz has said. I unleashed my pen. . grandson of the Prophet (‰ ). 3. 7. may All~ h be pleased with him and may He please him. as well as his insulting the family of the Prophet (‰ ). his terrorizing the people of Med§na.1 . to his grudge.. such conduct palatable is an ignorant Sunni who thinks that by doing so he is only enraging the R~ fidis. and it has no justification whatsoever. Al-S§ra al-Halabiyya. Vol. p. . Yaz§d still did many things each one of which rendered his caliphate nil and void such as his plundering of the people of Med§na. transporting the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) as captives. all point out to his cruelty. . . and his being a N~ sibi. 298.H. “Some scholars transgressed beyond all limits when they decided that al-Husain (– ). . that's all. majority of Sunni Muslims barring a group that said that Yaz§d was right and Husain (– ) was . p. how people were forced to swear the oath of allegiance to him. 179. was unfair to a drunkard.”2 Ibn Hazm has said.). Sharh al-`Aq~’id al-Nasfiyya (Istanbul: 1313 A. his . .. world. . Letter No. his demolition of al-Ka`ba.H. Anyone who finds . Ibn al-Jawzi has . p. too. by al-Y~fi`i. his carrying Husain's head on top of a lance.). Vol. 6 7 Wafiyy~t al-A`y~n by Ibn Khallik~n. his hitting . his father's footsteps. Vol.”5 Al-Burhan al-Halabi (of Aleppo) narrates saying that the mentor Muhammed al-Bakri. 98.”7 Ibn al-`Im~ d quotes him saying that he was once asked about Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. and also in Mir’~t al-Jin~n .”3 Al-Shawk~ ni says. included this concept in his book Al-Sirr al-Masã n among the common beliefs upheld by the . 3. “Had . and everyone who prohibits anyone from cursing an already condemned person is himself worthy of being cursed. even if we say that his caliphate was valid. 181. such as his killing of al-Husain (– ). We do not only question his actions. `May All~ h increase his shame and place him in the lowest rung of Sijjeen.Both Ibn `Aq§l and Ibn al-Jawzi have permitted the fighting of an unjust leader using the example of Husain (– ) fighting Yaz§d in order to uphold righteousness. and how he dealt with people in the ugliest manner. his hitting al-Husain's lips with his . “In all truth. p. to his error of judgment. to one who violated the purified Shar§`a.

our Prophet's daughter (– ). . where the events that took place during the year 590 A. may All~ h forsake him and forsake any N~ sibi or Kar~ mi who defends him. Shathar~t al-Thahab.H. 2 3 4 1 Ali Ibr~h§m Hasan.”5 He . in a chapter detailing the events that took place during the Hijri year 579 . . held him in . Imam of the ./1194 A. (edited by Dr. 3. . 367..' He was.H. “It is based on this principle that Im~m al-Husain. “Scholars have issued fat~ wa strongly denouncing `Omer ibn `Abdul-`Az§z al-Qazw§ni for calling Yaz§d `Commander of the Faithful. He started his reign by killing . “Yaz§d used to be proverbial in his wine drinking. and in . and concluded it with the Harra Battle. fought the leader of oppression and corruption whose government was forced on the Muslims by oppression and trickery. two views in this regard one of which is implicit and the other explicit. 163. Ahmed offers . Baghdad once and delivered a sermon at al-Niz~ miyya (school). crude. grandson of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). p. 496.. in Siyar A`l~ m al-Nubal~ '. “Yaz§d ibn ./1110 A. .”7 Sibt ibn al-Jawzi was asked once about cursing Yaz§d. 5 6 7 Al-Nujãm al-Z~hira.).H. 1. and also on Vol. and heavy handed N~ sibi.).D. implements the Shar§`a and another violating it. for these reasons.' whereupon someone assaulted him and almost killed him. we will have to refer to the basic cause: cursing Yaz§d is permissible. and we say that we do not like Yaz§d because of his mistreatment of the son of .D. People.. otherwise./1194 A.”4 Ibn Taghrbardi. 2. namely Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. Ali Ibr~ h§m Hasan says. 26 . . Why . On the Day of `} shã ra.”6 Abu Sh~ ma has said. 134. al-Husain. 179. a Hanafi. .D.D. p. peace of All~ h and blessings be upon him and his progeny. are discussed. p. . Ibid. says. . the martyr. “Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah was a very rude./1201 A. contempt. should there be any other way especially since Yaz§d was well known for being an expert in playing dominoes. Hanbalites] has permitted it. 120 of Midm~r al-Haq~'iq by Taqi ad-D§n `Omer ibn Shahinshah al-Ayyãbi. 6. He collapsed from the pulpit. he was asked to . and so is the case with (Imam) Abu Han§fah. has said.”3 Shaikh Muhammed `Abdoh has said. Vol. Al-W az§r al-Yam~ni thus quotes him in his own book Al-Rawd al-B~sim. p. who relies on the authority of `Omer ibn al-Dahh~ k. . who . Vol. 134. . It is also recorded on p. p. a habitual drunkard. p. we have only one explicit view about him and none implicit. He consumed intoxicants and committed abominations. Vol. Hasan Habashi). every Muslim is obligated to support the first. . we say that we do not like him.H. 183 and 185 of the same reference. Tafs§r al-Man~r. let it be so. entertainment escapades. p. upon saying so. Vol. 8 Mir~’t al-Zam~n (Hayderabad: 597 A. died in 617 A. T~r§kh al-Islam al-`}mm (third edition). `But he was a mujtahid im~ m. 1. kicked out of Baghdad and sent back to Qazw§n [in the Caspian region]./1220 A. as captives to Syria on camels without saddles. 270. adds saying. “Ahmed [ibn Hanbal. and he was not blessed in his life-span. 12. .was not among the sah~ bah because he was born when `Omer ibn al-Khatt~ b was the caliph.D. where verse 37 of Sãrat al-M~'ida is explained. condemn Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. where the events that took place during the year 504 A.H. 8. pp. Vol. but he said. As far as we are concerned. then he was taken and sent back to Qazw§n where he died in 590 A.D. how he transported the family of the Messenger of All~ h. hunting.”2 Al-Thahbi. “Ahmed ibn Ism~ `§l ibn Yousuf al-Qazw§ni went to . If you accept our reconciled stand. are discussed. has said. Vol. He said. “Had there been in this world a just government that . p. 36. in writing famous poems in praise of wine drinking?1 Dr. (1184 A. Vol.”8 Abul-Q~ sim al-Zajj~ ji. Ibn al-`Im~d. and how he dared to insult the family of the Messenger of All~ h. Ibid. 6. “Yaz§d was an adulterer.” Then he goes on to say. in being a habitual drunkard.

Vol./922 A. a student of al-Majlisi. al-Khat§b al-Baghdadi records Abu Ya`li's biography without quoting this unbecoming statement falsely . 184.2 Even if one supposes that he had said so. Had he made it. Vol. 27 . are discussed. expressing his pleasure . Just as was done to a shaikh before: Ziy~ d. p. __ Tr. T~r§kh Baghdad./684 A. “I do not call Yaz§d k~ fir because the Prophet (‰ ) had said. crushed by the commander of the faithful. Vol. in Vol. let us put `Abdul-Mugh§th ibn Zuhayr ibn `Alawi al-Harbi on trial and ask him about the “authentic” . 328. On p. Ibn al-Ath§r rebuts him. about which “merit” he found in him to record in his book. 493. In Vol. for . on p. 213. p. of Ibn Kath§r's book titled Al-Bid~ ya. a zebra. 2. Vol. Al-K~mil. 11.'” Ibn al-Ath§r claims that Abu Ya`li. . Hamzah ibn Ahmed ibn Ja`fer ibn Muhammed ibn Zayd ibn Ali ibn al.'”1 This claim does not deserve anyone's attention because Abu Ya`li was too dignified and too trustworthy to make such a crude statement even when al-R~ fi`i had preceded him in making it. . went to extremes in refuting it. [This al-Hak§m is the late Ayatull~h al-Uzma Sayyid M uhsin al-Hak§m. Yaz§d ibn Mu`~ wiyah thereupon said. . All those who recorded Abu Ya`li's biography praised and complimented him a great deal without ever mentioning at all that he had made such a statement. of his book Al-K~ mil. Then he tied the zebra and set his horses loose to chase it till the horses crushed the zebra to death. 275. Despite his fanaticism. a photocopy of which is deposited at Al-Hak§m's Library [Najaf. .D. Having thus taken note of the nation's most famous scholars who express their contempt towards Yaz§d. 1. . while detailing the events of the year 583 A. . quoting Y~ sir. So we don't guarantee that it won't perish. he was. pleaded to All~ h not to let my offspring be persecuted by outsiders.D. 3 4 2 Al-Khat§b al-Baghdadi. Shaikh al-Sadã q invokes All~ h's mercy on Abu Ya`li's soul. . . p.Mu`~ wiyah used to play with a monkey. Vol. . he is quoted detailing some of the events that took place during the year 339 A. one of his mentors. This is the reason why the scholars paid no attention to his book. Chapter 39. Al-Tadw§n fi `Ulem~ ’ Qazw§n. In his books. of Tabaq~ t al-Han~ bilah. 8. of `Uyã n Akhb~ r al-Rida (– ). . p.H. Iraq]. . and in Murã j al-Thahab. Mirza `Abdull~ h Afandi.] . Ibn al-`Im~ d rebuts him topic by topic./951 A. 184 (first edition)../1187 A. . the servant [of Im~ m al-Rida (– )] who quotes Im~ m al-Rida (– ). 1 Ibn al-Ath§r. of Shathar~ t alThahab.” What is really strange is the verdict of `Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi who was once asked about Yaz§d. Husain ibn Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). 356. 2. Vol. `Abul-Qays relied on its reins. Al-R~fi`i. One day he carried it and put it on a zebra. `I . 356. it must have been said in observance of taqiyya. he said.D. with him. and also in Murãj al-Thahab. attributed to him. Ibn Rajab. “His caliphate was authentic because sixty sah~ bis swore the oath of allegiance to him including . on p. .H. p.3 This imprudent statement is something which al-R~ fi`i and Ibn Ath§r had added of their own without relying on any authority whatsoever. .H. 1. 2. he is rebutted in the most amazing way. he is accurately and excellently rebutted by Ibn alJawzi. according to his correspondence with Ali ibn Ibr~ h§m ibn H~ shim who details the events of 309 A. indeed. said. a life full of shame and assaults on the Shar§`a. and about Yaz§d's entire life. references from which he derived the text material for his book in praise of Yaz§d4. p. 4. recording it in his discussion of the scholars of Qazw§n. calls his rebuttal “a response to the stubborn fanatic who forbids the cursing of Yaz§d. where the events of the year 64 A. Tabaq~t al-Han~bilah. example.D. 51. Ibn al-Jawzi rebuts him and . they would have despised him solely on its account.H.

knowledge was gushing forth. Vol. rebuked him by saying. the Master of the Youths of Paradise. who had renounced the laws enacted by the person who carried out the Divine Call. After the corpses of those who fell at Badr have been torn. p. T~r§kh. 3. [such “scholars”] kept the lid over his abominable deeds just as they had done to the oppression of his father.”7 Maysã n's son is the sap of all these abominations. . the peer of the Glorious Book of All~ h . Ahmed ibn al-Husain al-Bayhaqi says. Ibn Abul-Had§d.. 93. an atheist who did not believe in Prophethood. 2 3 al-Tabari. T~r§kh. p.?!5 Ibn Abul-Had§d says. 1. . And do not turn people from al-L~ t and al-`Uzza if they accept them. al-Khaw~rizmi. the son of the Head of all the women of mankind. Al-Fat~wa al-Had§tha. he should not be held . . killed. Al-Ta`ajjub. p. in the Appendix to Kanz al-Faw~'id. . 139. 117 (first edition). p. whose sides emitted the fragrance of Prophethood. Is he not the one who said the following to his father Sakhr who pretended to have accepted Islam for fear of the . then he regretted it.6 His grandfather Sakhr is the one who. the son of the man upon whose struggle the creed was established. we will reject what you accept. . While the dancers at al-Nu`m~ n suffer from heavy hearts. p. where Yaz§d is discussed. Ibn Jar§r and al-Sayyã ti have both said that when al-Husain (– ) was . according to had§th al-thaqalayn (tradition of the two weighty things)? He was the one from whose sides . 2. 193. Vol. . “This is a . “Many of our fellows have cast doubt about Mu`~ wiyah's creed and said that he was . especially since among the nation there was then present the fragrant flower of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). upon the conquest of Mecca. . Mu`~ wiyah. Muslims' swords: O Sakhr! Do not accept Islam and thus scandalize us . “Woe unto you! This is Prophethood!” About Mu`~ wiyah. 1. So if you refuse. 2. and during the time of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and thereafter.”4 They . 34. accountable because he was not among the sah~ bah. the fifth among those covered with the Prophet's mantle (ash~ b al-kis~ ’). from whose great conduct ethics and morals were gloriously manifested wherever he went. Vol. whose countenance shone with the 1 Ibid. 39. cursing him should be banned for fear of . Yaz§d was very happy. thereupon. despite this fact being transmitted consecutively: Yaz§d was quite pleased with it. Death is easier than our youths saying to us That Ibn Hind's cavalry turned away from protecting al-`Uzza. When was he ever fit to rule. They quote his own statements testifying to this fact”. 2. Vol. Vol. touching his father and in order to close the door before dissension. 19 (first edition).[`Abdull~ h] Ibn `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~ b]. kingdom. Vol. much less to be looked upon as the divinely supported caliph. “Praise to All~ h Who killed al-Husain.3 AlKhaw~ rizmi says that Yaz§d said to al-Nu`m~ n ibn Bash§r.” Al-`Abb~ s. 28 . “Mu`~ wiyah exited disbelief and entered into hypocrisy.. this fact is denied only by those who deny the sun having rays. Vol. 7. 463 (first Egyptian edition). 6 7 Ibn al-Ath§r as quoted in Murãj al-Thahab.Husain. . p. . p. said to al-`Abb~ s. Sharh Nahjul Bal~gha. .”1 More strange than this is the denial by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami that Yaz§d accepted the killing of al-Husain (– ) at all or that he ever ordered it2 . . Maqtal al. Rather. and also T~r§kh al-Khulaf~'. al-Tabari. 59. p. 4 5 al-Karajki. p. and Ibn Ziy~ d's status with him was enhanced. .. Do not submit to something to hand over to us. But if someone does not like him.. he went back to his original disbelief.

. So. are discussed. a drunkard. inform Mu`~ wiyah about me and acquaint him with how negligent Yaz§d is with regard to the religious injunctions. “Mu`~ wiyah wrote me with regard to swearing the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d. By All~ h! They did not surrender to All~ h. Tahth§b al-Asm~'. denounced Mu`~ wiyah. the ones visited by the angels. he. and tell him about his abominable deeds. “I know him better than you. p. Vol.H. p. . 310 (offset edition). a murderer of the soul the killing of which All~h has prohibited.” Nobody knew who Ziy~d's father was. who urged him to swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d. 6. or was it when he swiftly dispatched funds to the masters of evil who cowered as they licked their lips?2 Or was it when Yaz§d's appointees offered it to people. “Marw~ n is ordering me to swear the oath of allegiance to people whom I have struck with my sword till they submitted to All~ h. my mother is better than his mother. but he sent the money back saying. Tahth§b T~r§kh Ibn `As~kir. “My father [the third caliph] is better than Yaz§d's father. 29 . 1. . dissented after the oath of allegiance had (unanimously) been secured for Yaz§d: “When was such a swearing under duress secured. T~r§kh.. a man who is openly promiscuous. al-Tabari. thereupon. al-Kindi. “Ibn Abeeh” means: “the son of his father. said. 6. A man like me shall never swear the oath of allegiance to a man like him. 519 of Tha`lab's Maj~lis. Vol. the substance of the Message. . Al-K~mil. To such merits does al-Husain (– ) point out when al-Wal§d asked him to swear the oath of . where the events of the year 56 A. . together with Banã H~ shim. p. Al-Qud~t. 6. and securing the cause of Islam is quite a great cause. and al-Zubayr fled from it and hid in Mecca. allegiance taken Heraclius-style: whenever one Heraclius fell. 203 (Egyptian edition). p. Ibn al-Ath§r. Vol. 6.D. 5 6 al-Nawawi. __ 7 8 9 Tr. 170.glow of Im~ mate.”7 Ziy~ d ibn Abeeh8 said to `Ubayd ibn Ka`b al-Numayri. too.”9 Sa`§d son of `Uthm~ n ibn `Aff~ n.”6 Sa`§d ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Naf§l al-`Adawi said the following to a Syrian man sent by Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam to him to secure his oath of allegiance to Yaz§d: . p. while Ibn `Omer confined himself to his house?3“ `Abdul-Rahm~ n son of [first caliph] Abu Bakr used to publicly say that it was an . where al-Bayhaqi's biography is detailed. Sa`§d. p.4 So Mu`~ wiyah dispatched one hundred thousand dirhams to appease him. p. turned away from it.1 Having stated all the above. 135. Refer also to Murãj al-Thahab. He was quite negligent about the creed due to a passion for hunting. let us ask this man of pedantry about his claim that al-Husain (– ) . 111. 199. Vol. Yaz§d followed his own whims and desires. it is through us that All~ h initiates and concludes. and when was there any consensus in its regard given by those who tied and untied? Was it when his father [Mu`~ wiyah] secured it through terrorism. p. “I shall not sell my religion in exchange for this life. 3. al-Tabari./676 A. 169. another Heraclius would succeed him. . so the descendant of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). and to al-Zamakhshari's book Al-F~'iq. He once wrote Mu`~ wiyah saying. where the biography of `Abdul-Rahm~n son of Abu Bakr is detailed.”5 `Abdull~ h son of `Amr ibn al-`} s said to `} bis ibn . to p. p. Vol. Vol. Ameer! We are the household of the Prophet. allegiance to Yaz§d. and I am 1 2 3 4 Hadiyyat al-Ahb~b. Ibid. 128. Vol. Yaz§d is a man of sin. they only surrendered to the sword. 294. 2. It is also recorded by Ibn Khallik~n when he discusses the biography of al-Ahnaf. T~r§kh. and you have surely sold your religion in exchange for this world.

He wrote Mu`~ wiyah once trying to . 141. By All~ h! You never cease to seek falsehood with oppression and earn an outrage coupled with injustice. said to him. the people of Iraq never hated him nor his brother al-Husain (– ) ever since they loved them both. .H. so. Once he said to him. He reminded him of the terms which he had . 165 . Al-Mathal al-S~’ir (1358 A. his entertainment parties. Im~ m al-Husain (– ). . there is no doubt about it. Vol. p. including one saying that he would not put anyone ahead of him. they both sought the judgment of All~ h.H. 30 . and to his superiority in all virtues. or identify an absentee. Yet Mu`~ wiyah refrained from saying that Yaz§d's father was better than Husain's because he knew that that .” On another occasion. and my father is better than his father. “As regarding your mother. and that he was better than him in every respect.2 The oppressed Im~m and the Master of Martyrs (– ) spared no means to provide Mu`~ wiyah with advice. promised al-Hasan (– ) to fulfill. As regarding my love for Yaz§d. and that . and to acquaint him with Yaz§d's abominable conduct. she is the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). of course. it will not help you when you meet All~ h to carry. Abu `Abdull~ h (– ). Be admonished that All~ h. “Yaz§d son of Mu`~wiyah used to . 1. p. 154. “I understood what you mentioned about Yaz§d's accomplishments and the policy of Muhammed's nation. and that . Vol. Im~m Husain (– ) wrote Mu`~wiyah saying. . people into thinking that you are describing someone with whom they are not familiar.” Mu`~ wiyah then said to him. the most Exalted One. to guide him to the right path. small or big.D. in a chapter dealing with the art of persuasion./1939 A. would have been something quite unheard of due to Ali (– ) being the foremost in accepting Islam and to his having all merits. Vol. too. 1. show him where he had erred by appointing his son as his successor and by preferring him over both Im~ ms al-Hasan and al-Husain (– ) despite their merits and lineage. You want to mislead . p. Yet Yaz§d has personally revealed what his mentality is. the most Great. Ibn al-Ath§r. so All~ h judged in favour of his father over yours. 38. Egypt).better than him. I would not be satisfied. without recording it. a Day that is sure to come. So proceed to do something which will testify against you on a Day witnessed by everyone. In the first chapter of Ibn al-Taqtaqi's book Al-}d~b al-Sult~niyya. “My mother is better than his mother. besides your own burden of sins. better than any woman from [the tribe of] Kil~ b. does not forget how you annihilate people for mere suspicion. became convinced that the son of the liver-chewing mother would never be convinced about the truth. and this is what the scholars of rhetoric call “persuasion. . the author says. All~ h. refrained from commenting because he . or acquaint them with some specific knowledge. has a Book which leaves nothing.D.: Al-Umma Press. . It was for that reason that Mu`~ wiyah refrained from alluding to the existence of disliking and of a dispute of sort./1910 A.”1 Al-Ahnaf ibn Qays denounced his caliphate. were I to be awarded what fills a fertile oasis [with gold]. . the hearts that hate Mu`~ wiyah were still beating within them. As regarding your father and his. decorate his hunting dogs with gold bracelets and woven outfits. the Master of Martyrs.”3 It was then that Abu `Abdull~ h. how you kill His friends only on account of your 1 2 3 Muhammed ibn Hab§b. Stop what you are trying to do.”5 On a third occasion. she is. the most Sublime. . female singers with their musical instruments. Al-Im~ma wal Siy~sa. p.: Egyptian edition). draw your own conclusion about Yaz§d from noticing his interest in exploring decorated hunting dogs. and you will then find all of that helpful [to form an idea about him].” 5 4 Ibn Qutaybah. 1. p. 71. the sins of all this multitude. Al-Im~ma wal Siy~sa (1328 A. . so much so that you have filled all containers though the distance between you and death is only that you close your eyes. and he used to assign for each dog a slave to tend to it.4 race pigeons. Naw~dir al-Makhtãt~t (the Sixth Letter deals with assassinated personalities).

compromised your creed. and their crucifixion for many days in Kã fa on their houses' doors only because they were supporters (Sh§`as) of the Commander of the Faithful Ali (– ). These kept . the righteous servant of All~ h whose body was worn out by adoration and whose complexion turned yellow on account of fearing All~ h even after having granted him security and given him of the sacred promises that which. and violated your trust.' notwithstanding the fact that Ali followed the creed of his cousin (‰ ) who smote your father. He knew that the most . whereby He smote you and your father and whereby you now seat yourself where you are? Add to all this your forcing people to swear the oath of allegiance to your son Yaz§d although he is a child who drinks wine and plays with dogs. as if you do not belong to this nation. 434 (Najaf edition) of Sayyid . . and how you exile them from their homes to foreign lands. Rij~l al-Kashshi (Indian edition). Yet despite his very well known shrewdness. the same creed because of which your father smote those who adhered to it and because of which you yourself now seat yourself where you are? Had it been otherwise. the most Sublime. Refer to p. so you thus defy your Lord and take such promises lightly? Did you not claim the son of Sumayya (as your son). Surely you have lost your soul. Yaz§d did not feel comfortable regarding any harm touching al-Husain (– ) for fear of its dire consequences and repercussions. had we only removed it from your shoulders and shouldered it ourselves. would have been honoured by bearing the brunt of its responsibility in this life and in the life to come. so you wrote him saying. gauge their eyes. Al-Mahbar (Hayderabad. India). the one who was born to a slave from Thaq§f.charges. whereas whoever commits adultery should be stoned. p. from Hadramaut regarding whom the son of Sumayya wrote you telling you that they followed the religion of Ali (– ) and followed his views. and crucify them on palm-tree trunks. the Im~ m (– ) wrote him to enumerate his sins following the killing by Ziy~ d ibn Abeeh of Muslim ibn Zaymar and `Abdull~ h ibn N~ ji. Kindi and the worshippers who always upheld their prayers and who resented oppression and regarded bid`as as most abhorred and did not accept the blame of anyone when it came to upholding All~ h's Commandments? Did you not kill `Amr ibn al-Hamq. and that his Sh§`as then were different from the time they used to be when his brother Im~ m al-Hasan (– ) was alive. . both of Hadramaut.2 but all these pieces of advice from the grandson of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) did not avail to put an end to Mu`~ wiyah's falsehood after the latter's acts of terrorism and greed had already blocked the way before justice and equity. 479. the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). so he killed them and mutilated their corpses . following your orders while Ali's creed is the creed of All~ h. the most Great. Ali Khan's book titled Al-Daraj~t al-Raf§`a.1 On a fourth occasion. 31 . Did you not kill Hajar al. the companion of . and as if they do not belong to you? Are you not the one who wrote Ziy~ d ordering him to kill anyone who followed the creed of Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). had you given them a bird. rather than you. “The newborn belongs to the bed upon which he was born.” thus forsaking the Sunnah of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) deliberately? Did you not follow your own inclinations without any guidance from All~ h. the most Exalted One. then you granted him authority over the Iraqis so that he would cut the hands of the Muslims. we. in the test detailing the biography of `Amr ibn al-Hamq.” The Im~ m (– ) rebuked him in a lengthy letter for adopting Ziy~ d and appointing him as ruler of Iraq. oppressed Im~ m (– ) would never accept humiliation till the last breath. claiming he was begotten by your father although the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) had said. it would have descended upon you from the peak of the mountain. 2 1 Ibn Hab§b. `Kill everyone who follows the religion of Ali (– ). Among what he said was: “Are you not responsible for the execution of Hajar and both men .

complaining about the horrible persecution meted to them at the hands of Mu`~ wiyah's governors, so much so that any of them preferred to be called an atheist rather than a “Tur~ bi.” Quite often, they used to confront Im~ m al-Hasan (– ) very bitterly despite their recognition of his . Im~ mate and their surrendering to the fact that whatever he did was due to divine righteousness and will. They went as far as urging al-Husain (– ) several times to rise against oppression, but he declined to do so . out of deference for the obligations of the Im~ mate, preferring to postpone doing so till the right time, the time of which he was informed by both his grandfather (‰ ) and by his wasi, his own father (– ). . Mu`~ wiyah knew very well that in the event al-Husain (– ) was in any way harmed, the Sh§`as would . rally behind him, and this would lead to worsening an already bad relationship between both of them. It was for this very reason that he advised his son Yaz§d to seek peace with al-Husain (– ) if the issue . was aggravated no matter how “harsh” the Im~ m (– ) might be to him. Said he to Yaz§d, “The people of Iraq will not let Husain till they get him out [of Med§na]; so, if he rebels against you, and if you capture him, . forgive him, for his lineage is great, and so is his right.”1 Due to his deadly conceit, ignorant Yaz§d did not pay any attention to that advice; so, his evil overcame him, bringing out the worst in him. If Yaz§d, the man who personified all abominations, was pleased with a swift victory, his victory was soon followed by failure, and people faced him with condemnation. Even those who did not claim adherence to Islam blamed him a great deal. The incident of the messenger sent by a [Byzantine] Roman emperor to Yaz§d at the latter's court is a case in point. The messenger saw how Yaz§d was beating the sacred severed head of the Im~ m (– ), so he responded in a way that shook the whole place. Yaz§d then realized that his falsely justifying what he had committed was of no avail any longer. How could his justifications be of any avail after each and everyone who attended that meeting had heard a loud voice coming out of that sacred head saying, “L~ hawla wal~ quwwata ill~ bill~ h” (there is no might nor strength except in All~ h), just when Yaz§d ordered to have that messenger killed?2 Before the tragedy of Kerbal~ ’, who had ever heard a head, which had been severed from its body, speak so articulately? Was Maysã n's son capable of frustrating All~ h's mysteries or putting out His most sacred Light? Of course not. The denunciation of what Yaz§d had done came even from his wives and those closest to him, so much so that when his wife Hind3 saw


Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 179. .

2 The traditionist `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni, Maqtal al-`Aw~lim, p. 150, as appears in his biography on p. 370 of Rawdat al. . Jann~t at the conclusion of the biography of Shaikh `Abdull~h ibn al-Hajj S~lih al-Samaheeji who had compiled Al-Sah§fa al. . . . . `Alawiyya.

The story of how Hind, wife of `Abdull~h ibn `}mir ibn Kar§z, was married to Yaz§d after her husband was forced to divorce her is one of the fables whose author desired to demean the M asters of the Youth of Paradise, namely al-Hasan and al- Husain, peace be . . upon them. It is narrated in many different ways: 1) Al-Khaw~rizmi's Maqtal states on p. 151, Vol. 1, Chapter 7 (Najaf's edition) through the isn~d of Yahya ibn `Abdull~h ibn . Bash§r al-B~hili saying, “Hind daughter of Suhayl ibn `Amr was with `Abdull~h ibn `}mir ibn Kar§z, and Basra's governor . had then been appointed by Mu`~wiyah. The said governor offered her husband to exchange his wife, according to Yaz§d's desire to have her, with Basra’s entire tax revenue. At the end of the waiting period, Mu`~wiyah sent Abu Hurayra with a . thousand dinars as her dower. At Med§na, Abu Hurayra narranted the incident to Im~m al-Husain ibn Ali (–) who said to him, . `Say a good word about me to Hind.' Abu Hurayra did; therefore, she chose al-Husain (–) who married her. W hen the Im~m . (–) came to know that `Abdull~h ibn `}mir had desired her, he divorced her saying, `A good person have I been to legitimize her for you.'” The author traces the chain of narrators of this incident back to Yahya ibn `Abdull~h ibn Bash§r al-B~hili who . quotes Ibn al-Mub~rak who is not known at all to the scholars specialized in the science of verifying the narrators of had§th. .



the severed head crucified on her house door as `Alawite radiance emanated from it to the depth of the sky and witnessed it bleeding, and the blood was emanating a very sweet fragrance, she was very distressed and could not help entering Yaz§d's court without her veil. She screamed: “The head of the daughter of the


Al-Khaw~rizmi's Maqtal traces, on p. 150, Vol. 1, its isn~d to al-Hathli who quotes Ibn S§r§n saying, “`Abdul-Rahm~n ibn . `Innab ibn As§d was the one who had deflowered her then divorced her. `Abdull~h ibn `}mir ibn Kar§z then married her, as stated above, except that he substituted the name of al-Husain (–) with that of al-Hasan (–), claiming that he said to `Abdull~h . . ibn `}mir after the latter had divorced her, `You will not find anyone better than me to legitimize her for you.' Hind used to say, `Their master is Hasan; the most generous among them is `Abdull~h, and the one I love most is `Abdul-Rahm~n.' On . . p. 45, Vol. 2, of Ibn Hajar's book Tahth§b al-Tahth§b, it is stated that al-Hathli is Abu Bakr who is regarded by Ibn Ma`§n . as a liar and by Abu Zar`ah as “weak” and by al-Nass~’i as one whose traditions should not be taken seriously at all. On p. 146, Vol. 3, of al-Safadi's book Al-W~fi bil Wafiyy~t, the author says, “Muhammed ibn S§r§n admitted to hearing had§th then . . . curtailing it, and that he was among those brought as captives from Jirjaya.” On p. 103, Vol. 2, of Tarh al-Tathr§b, it is stated that, “Ibn S§r§n was taken captive after `Ayn al-Tamr was overrun.” On p. 180, Vol. 6, of al-Nuwayri's Nih~yat al-Arab, it is stated that, “Zainab was with `Abdull~h ibn Sal~m w ho was appointed as ruler of Iraq by Mu`~wiyah. Mu`~wiyah asked him to divorce his wife because Yaz§d desired her as his own wife provided he would give him his own daughter to marry. W hen he did divorce her, Mu`~wiyah's daughter refused to marry him, so Mu`~wiyah dispatched Abu Hurayra and Abul-Dard~' to Iraq to ask for the hand of Zainab daughter of Ish~q . for Yaz§d. They came to Kãfa, and al-H usain ibn Ali (–) was there, so they told him their story. He (–) said to them, . “Mention my name to her.” She, therefore, chose al-Husain (–) who did actually marry her. W hen al-Husain (– ) came to . . know that `Abdull~h ibn Sal~m wanted her for himself, he divorced her in order to legitimize her marriage to her first husband.


This lengthy incident, which al-Nuwayri narrates and which he takes for granted in his book Nih~yat al-Arab without even tracing the chain of its narrators, is taken for granted by Ibn Badrãn who explains one of his poems on p. 172 (1330 A.H./1912 A.D. edition) titled “Uraynab.” Al-Husain (–) never visited Kãfa after their departure therefrom. . 4) On p. 274, Vol. 1, of al-Mayd~ni's book Al-Amth~l, the following incident is narrated under a heading reading: “There may be someone who diligently helps someone else sitting idly by”: “Mu`~wiyah asked Yaz§d once about his desires, so he informed him of his desire to marry Selma, mother of Kh~lid and wife of `Abdull~h ibn `}mir ibn Kar§z. Mu`~wiyah called upon the latter to meet with him. W hen they met, he asked him to divorce his wife, the mother of Kh~lid, in exchange for all the taxes levied from Persia for full five years. He, therefore, divorced her. Mu`~wiyah then wrote his governor over Med§na, al-W al§d ibn `Utbah, to inform Kh~lid's offer of her divorce. After the expiration of the waiting period, Mu`~wiyah dispatched Abu Hurayra with sixty thousand dirhams and twenty thousand dinars for her dower in addition to twenty thousand dinars to appease her and yet twenty thousand more as an additional gift. At Med§na, he narrated the incident to the father of Muhammed, nam ely al-Hasan son of the Commander . . of the Faithful (–), who said to Abu Hurayra, “Mention my name to her.” Al-Husain (–), too, said to him, “Mention my name . to her.” `Ubaydull~h ibn al-`Abb~s ibn `Abdul-Muttalib said likewise and so did `Abdull~h son of Ja`fer al-Tayy~r, as well .. . as `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr and `Abdull~h ibn Mut§` ibT al-Aswad. Abu Hurayra met her and narrated to her what Mu`~wiyah . wanted, then he informed her of the desire of each of these men to marry her. She said to him, `You choose one of them for me.' He, therefore, chose al-Hasan ibn Ali (–) and married her off to him, then he took the money back to Mu`~wiyah who . reprimanded him (Abu Hurayra) for what had happened. The latter answered him by saying, “One who is consulted is one who is trusted.”

This is all what “trustworthy historians” had recorded of the facts as they had taken place. It is regrettable to see how they did not demonstrate any concern about safeguarding the M uslims' dignity. Just consider this myth the ultimate objective of which is to defame both grandsons of the Messenger of All~h, peace and blessings of All~h be upon him and his progeny, the Im~ms of the nation whenever they stood up or sat down. One who sees things as they are without discerning them would be duped into accepting such a lie and, hence, would charge Abu Muhammed, Im~m al-Hasan (–), with a charge because of which the mountains are removed . . from their places on account of the many wives al-Hasan (–) had married, and that to divorce a wife thrice was quite common. They . could not find any truthful person to legitimize marrying a woman a permanent marriage then divorcing her other than al-Hasan (–)! . I do not know what excuse he will find for himself on the Day when the father of Muhammed [ibn al-Hanafiyya] asks him, “Upon . . what basis did you thus violate my sanctity and did not see the evil of what you did?”


Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) is crucified on our house!” Yaz§d stood and covered her up and said, “Mourn alHusain, for he is the [cause of] anguish of Banã H~ shim. Ibn Ziy~ d was swift in killing him.”1 He intended . to mislead her and, by shifting the blame for the crime to his governor, attempted to avoid condemnation. But what is already fixed cannot be removed. This is why he wrote his short missive which historians describe as “the rat's ear” and which he dispatched together with his more detailed one to the man whom he appointed as governor of Med§na, namely al-Wal§d ibn `Utbah, ordering him to secure the oath of allegiance for him from the entire population. In his shorter missive, he instructed him to secure it specifically from alHusain (– ),2 and to kill him and send him his head to him if he refused. . This was due to Yaz§d's knowledge that the righteous men of his time and the dignitaries among them would not endorse his government, nor had they accepted to do so during the lifetime of his father, Mu`~ wiyah, except after being coerced and harassed. He wanted to “officially” alienate himself from the order to kill al-Husain (– ) so that if his appointee . did it then held him accountable, he would seek his excuse by attributing the act of killing to his appointee. In his letter ordering him to secure the oath of allegiance for him from all the people of Med§na, he did not dare to refer to such an order. This would provide him with the opportunity to shift the blame to his appointee. It was then that he came up with that excuse, and some historians were thus duped. But will it avail him at all? Of course not. They clothed themselves for what they did With the attire of shame: Black in color tailored by infamy. THE PROPHETS ARE ON AL-HUSAIN'S SIDE . he discussion of al-Husain's martyrdom has been one of the mysteries of creation, one of the legacies . of the prophets, and one of the subjects quite often discussed by the wasis and the bearers of the . secrets, so that the Master, Praise to Him, would acquaint them with this great revolutionary and with his superiority over everyone else: he was the one who safeguarded the conclusive Shar§`a. All those prophets came to pave the way for such Shar§`a and train the souls to accept it. All~ h will surely reward them for grieving over him, for denouncing such a painful tragedy. Adam wept over him, and so did Abraham, the Friend of All~h. Moses (– ) and Jesus (– ) condemned his killer and ordered the Israelites to curse him saying, “Whoever lives to see him should fight on his side for he would be rewarded as though he was martyred fighting on the side of a prophet, whether charging or retreating. It is as though I can see his spot; each and every prophet visits it.” He also addressed it saying, “You are a spot of plenty of goodness; in you shall be buried the magnificent moon.”3 Prophet Ishmael (– ), the one who was truthful to his promise, opted to follow his example after being informed of his martyrdom so that the Awaited Im~ m, may All~ h hasten his reappearance, may avenge his murder.4


1 2

al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 267. . Ibid., Vol. 6, p. 188.

Shaikh Abul-Q~sim Ja`fer ibn Muham m ed ibn Ja`fer ibn Mãsa ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi (d. 367 A.H./978 A.D.), K~mil al. Ziy~r~t, p. 67.


Ibid., p. 65.


Yahya chose his head to be conveyed and displayed, . Finding his solace in the example of Husain. . The news of Husain's impending martyrdom caused the holiest Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) to weep, and . he eulogized him though he was still alive1, so what if he had seen him slain at Kerbal~ ’ among a group of his kinsfolk who all were like lanterns that shatter the darkness after depriving him and all those with him from drinking the same water they had permitted the animals to drink? Yes, the Prophet of Mercy (‰ ) witnessed a piece of his heart in such a condition for which the heavens are rent asunder, and he saw that a huge multitude immersed in falsehood was bent on eradicating his Progeny anew from the world. Some of those who were with him saw him looking once at them and once at the sky, submitting to destiny.2 When the Commander of the Faithful (– ) passed by Kerbal~ ’ on his march to Siff§n, he alighted . there, pointed to a particular spot and said, “There shall they alight,” then he pointed to another spot and said, “There shall their blood be spilled. The offspring of Muhammed (‰ ) shall alight there.” After a while . he said, “Alas! O soil from which some people shall enter Paradise without judgment!”3 Then he released his tears, and all those who were with him shed their tears, too, for seeing him thus weeping. He informed his closest followers that his son al-Husain (– ) would be martyred on that spot together with many youths . who descend from Muhammed (‰ ) together with his companions who are the masters of martyrs. Nobody . ever reached their lofty status, nor will any..., ever.4 In another statement which he (– ) made when word was circulated that a group of young people belonging to Muhammed's family would be killed at Kerbal~ ’, he said, “The heavens and the earth shall . weep for them, too.5 May my father be sacrificed for one whose only supporter was All~ h.”6 Then he added saying, “Banã Umayyah shall not cease immersing themselves in their misguidance till they unjustly spill the forbidden blood during the forbidden month. It is as though I look at a handsome young man swimming in his blood. So once they do so, they will have none to seek excuses on their behalf, nor will they be able to maintain their government.”7 Selm~n the Persian once passed by Kerbal~ ’ on his way to Mad~ 'in and said, “These are the places where my brethren will be killed, and this is the place where they will camp and their blood spilled! Here will the son of the best of the first generations and of the last will be killed.”8 Jesus son of Mary (– ) passed once by the land of Kerbal~ ’ and saw gazelle grazing. The gazelle told him that they were grazing there only because of their love for the soil of the blessed offspring of Ahmed the Prophet (‰ ), . and that they felt secure in that land. Jesus (– ) took some of their dung, sniffed it then supplicated saying, “O All~ h! Preserve it so that his [Husain's] father may sniff it, too, and find in it means of condolence and .
al-Sayyãti, Al-Khas~'is, Vol. 2, p. 125, quoting Umm al-Fadl and Anas. It is also narrated by al-M~rãdi on p. 83 of his book A`l~m . . . . al-Nubuwwa quoting `}yisha. W hen such news came to the Messenger of All~h (‰), he was in the company of Ali (–), Abu Bakr, `Omer, Huthayfah, `Amm~r, and Abu Tharr. Ibn H ajar al-Haythami narrated it on p. 188, Vol. 9, of his book Mujma` al-Zaw~'id . . quoting `}yisha. It is also narrated by Zakariyya al-Ans~ri in his book Fath al-B~qi edited by the faq§h al-Iraqi where it is mentioned . . at the end of p. 25, Vol. 1.
2 3 1

Ibn Qawlawayh, K~mil al-Ziy~r~t, p. 65. Nasr ibn Muz~him, Siff§n, pp. 157-159. . . Ibn Qawlawayh, K~mil al-Ziy~r~t, p. 27. Abu Na`§m, Dal~'il al-Nubuwwa, Vol. 2, p. 211. Usd al-Gh~ba, Vol. 4, p. 169. Ibn Abul-Had§d, Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha (first Egyptian edition), Vol. 4, p. 363. . .

4 5


7 8

al-Kashshi (Indian edition), Rij~l, p. 13.


solace.” The dung remained there till the Commander of the Faithful (– ) came to Kerbal~ ’. By that time, it had turned yellow due to the passage of time. He took it, sniffed it then wept. He passed it on to Ibn `Abb~ s saying, “Keep it; if you one day see it boiling in blood, you should then know that al-Husain is killed.” He . did. On `} shã ra Day in the afternoon, he saw it boiling in blood.1

THE INTENTION TO KILL Introductory Note: y necessity, the human society needs a reformer to bridge the gaps among its sectors, to correct its error, to complete its deficiency, and to enable it to stand on its own. The reason for all of this is the fact that the elements of corruption are present in it. Had there been none to curb the nation's evil intentions, their whims and desires would have played havoc with them and divided them, so much so that even a relative would not be able to trust his relative, and all individuals would be the victims of their own ambition. Such a reformer is chosen by the Master, Glory to Him, from among His servants because He, and only He, is the One Who best knows the purity and integrity of the souls, of their renunciation of what displeases the Lord of the Worlds. He will have to be protected against the immoralities the servants of All~ h have and against all abominable inclinations so that he may not partake of them and thus worsen the situation and abandon informing others and guiding them to the paths of guidance and warning them against the pitfalls of perdition. All~ h had created the greatest Prophet (‰ ) from the light of His sanctity and bestowed upon him the most perfect of good ethics to the extent that he surpassed in his good conduct everyone else and excelled over every being in existence. He, therefore, started explaining what is divinely permissible and what is not, supported by divine inspiration. One's pen is surely incapable of defining such a brilliant personality about which the Prophet (‰ ) said to the Commander of the Faithful, “Nobody knows All~ h except I and you; nobody knows me except All~ h and you, and nobody knows you except All~ h and I.”2


Since the Prophet (‰ ) was not to live forever, being a mortal like any other human being whose end is predetermined, and since a number of his injunctions were quite general the time for whose specifics had not come yet, it was mandatory on the legislator that called for reforming the nation to appoint a successor to continue the march in his footsteps, in his determination, sincerity and infallibility. Nobody knows what someone hides within himself except his Creator. Had the nation been entrusted to select such a person, it would have been impossible for it to distinguish one person from another because of its inability to determine the characteristics which had to be present in the Im~ m. Chaos, corruption, disputes and dissension would then result. This is contrary to the Munificence of the Master, Glory to Him. “Your Lord creates whatever He pleases and chooses: they have no choice to make in the affair” (Al-Qasas, verse 68). . . “No believing man nor woman has any choice with regard to their affairs if All~ h and His Messenger make a decree, and whoever disobeys All~ h and His Messenger strays a manifest straying” (Al-Ahz~ b, 36). . Succession [to the Prophet] is a divine post for which All~ h, the most Exalted One, enables someone to carry the burdens of prophethood, so he conveys the message and calls for the details of the Shar§`a brought by the Supreme Saviour. He will guide the ignorant, alert the heedless, discipline the transgressor and explain in detail what the Prophet, peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his Progeny, had

1 2

al-Sadãq, Ikm~l ad-D§n, p. 295. .

al-Hasan ibn Sulaym~n al-Hilli (one of the students of the First Martyr who was alive in 802 A.H./1400 A.D.), Al-Muhtadir, p. . . . . 165, and also on p. 125 of his book Al-Bas~’ir. .


summed up either to secure the common good of people, or he neglected to explain it because it was not opportune to do so yet. After the Message had been conveyed by the Commander of the Faithful (– ), he was succeeded by his son al-Hasan then by al-Hasan's brother al-Husain, the Master of Martyrs, then by his (Husain’s) son Ali . . . . Zayn al-`} bid§n, then by his son Muhammed al-B~ qir followed by his son Ja`fer al-S~ diq followed by his . . son Mã sa al-K~ zim followed by his son Ali al-Rida, then by his son Muhammed al-Jaw~ d then by his son . . . Ali al-H~ di, then by his son Hasan al-`Askari, then by his son the Awaited One, Abul-Q~ sim, Muhammed . . al-Mehdi, may All~ h hasten his reappearance. Consecutively narrated traditions have told us that All~ h, the Great, deposits with the Im~ m, whom He appointed for the nation as the proof and the guiding light whereby those who stray are guided, a divine power and a light whereby he can inquire about the beings and what happens in existence of events and epics. An authentic had§th says, “When one of us is born, a pole of light will be raised for him whereby he . sees the deeds of All~ h's servants and whatever takes place in the lands.”1 Such a statement refers to the divine power poured by the Truth, Glory to Him, for the purpose of discovering all facts as they are, be they statements or actions or anything else relevant to the material or spiritual world. It is through such a divine power that the curtains of ignorance are lifted and the barriers of heedlessness are removed; so, nothing remains except that it is present before them in its essence and before their holy selves. Such a light dispels the darkness, so the one seeing will find what the deep darkness had veiled from him standing before his very eyes. Abu `Abdull~ h, Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ), has already informed us . of how the Lord, Great is He, bestowed upon Ahl al-Bayt the ability to be acquainted with what happened to the early generations and what will happen to the last ones, what is in the heavens and in the earth, and what was and is, so much so that all things are present before their very eyes.2 Then he records explaining thus, “Whatever belonged to the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ), the same belongs to us except his prophethood and wives.”3 There is no exaggeration in this statement which comes from those whom All~ h had purified according to the text of the Holy Qur’~ n that says, “All~ h desires to remove from you, O Ahl al-Bayt, all abomination and purifies you with a perfect purification” (Qur’~ n, 33:33) in order to be able to carry the most divine superabundance. There is no miserliness in the Supreme Lord, numerous are His Signs. To exaggerate about someone is to point out one of his characteristics which may either be comprehended or not, due to the limitation of one's own comprehension. Reason does not negate the divine generosity. How could it, since the most Great One pours His bounties upon those who go to extremes in their oppression and who rebel against the sanctity of His Greatness, as if they were the ones who were doing Him a favour?! Yet all of this did not stop Him from showing mercy and benevolence to them and granting them His favours. It is as though they had been the ones who did Him a favour! Yet all this did not stop Him from showing mercy to them and benevolence to them and granting them of His favours that whose treasures are not exhausted, nor can it fail anyone who seeks it. This is one of the self-explanatory causes. If the condition of the Overwhelming Lord, Praise to Him, is as we have just described with regard to those tyrants, how would He, the Omnipotent and the Great that He is, fare with the truth relevant to Ahmed (‰ ) whom He created . from the most sacred light, great is He, indeed?! So a meeting took place between an ever-flowing fountainhead and souls which are always ready to give. It is no bid`a at all in what is narrated about them, peace and blessings of All~ h be upon them, bearers of the knowledge of the unknown, with what All~ h's

1 2 3

al-Saff~r, Bas~’ir al-Daraj~t, Vol. 9, p. 128. . . Mukhtasar al-Bas~’ir, p. 101. . .

al-Hasan ibn Sulaym~n al-Hilli, Al-Muhtadir, p. 20. . . . .


The Messenger who stood the distance of two bows or closer was none other than the Seal of all the Prophets. when she unexpectedly found herself menstruating. knowledge that the scholar of exegesis al-‘} lã si attracted our attention when he explained the following verse: “Say: None in the heavens and in the earth knows the unknown except All~ h. Rather. so that it would be inaccessible to them. in as far as they. daughter of caliph al-Ma`mã n. Vol. It is blessed by the descending of Divine Munificence from the beginning of the evening till its end. (– ). p. unlike other nights. such knowledge is bestowed upon them by All~ h. the knowledge of the unknown. . what is with us would have depleted. 2) As regarding the knowledge with certain individuals. acquaints me with it. and it is to such type of . . Vol. this is acquired when He somehow bestows it upon them. Mukhtasar al-Bas~’ir. U sãl al-K~fi. It is through His grants and Munificence that they could know the nature of things and of events. so it is then that we do not know. 13. and it is withheld from us. It depends on Divine boons.” Said the Im~m (– ).” . of Mir’~t al-`Uqãl. . it is then that we know. Vol. 74. . the most High. Vol.”3 The Im~ m (– ) by saying so meant to tell us that the Im~ ms' knowledge is directly from the Creator. She said to him. “Had it not been for the continuity of their link with Him and the consecutive boons which He bestows upon me. of his book Al-Fath al. is not relevant only to the Creator.”5 Nobody who reads this verse should doubt (the gist of) what is stated above. “And I know it because All~ h. Bih~r al-Anw~r. is that which is specifically relevant to one person without means whereby he acquires it. and that they are in continuous need for His knowledge and for the continuation of His mercy. Praise to Him. .servants do or do not. are concerned. His specifying Friday evening is due to its being a blessed one. 12. for one who says so will certainly be committing apostasy. 11. is excluded. 15.” said Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h. so He does not acquaint anyone with His knowledge of the unknown except a messenger with whom He is pleased. “I would have exhausted what I have with me. 284. we read the following verse: “The One Who knows the unknown. so.” He has also said. quoting al-Tibrisi's Mash~riq al-Anw~r. Bih~r al-Anw~r. from which everyone other than Him. “Nobody knows the unknown except All~ h. Umm al-Fadl . refers when he says. 20. as a matter of fact. the most Exalted One. p. Vol. 3 4 5 al-M ajlisi. al-Majlisi. is of two types: 1) one which has to exist and which comes only from the Creator of the heavens and the earth. Glory to Him. 63. 38 . it should be said that they were distinguished from others when they were acquainted with the knowledge of the unknown. . . The knowledge of the unknown. It is to such meaning that Im~ m al-Rida (– ) . “It may be said that. and with what happened in the lands or what will. then. p. . 1. “Had it not been for an increase every Friday evening in what we have.” Al-‘} lã si said. al-S~ diq . the Messenger with whom 1 2 Rãh al-Ma`~ni.”2 The Im~ ms (– ) are at all times in need of Divine favours. . it cannot be said that they were familiar with the unknown through the first avenue.”4 In Sã rat al-Jinn. p. as quoted in a footnote on p. the most Exalted One. It is what the prophets and their wasis had had. The knowledge of the unknown. peace be upon them.”1 A testimony to this fact is what Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-Jaw~ d (– ) said once to his wife. 185. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni discusses this verse on p. 29 (Kampani edition). B~ri in “the Book of Tawh§d. “Knowledge is made [by All~ h] accessible to us. As far as the Im~ ms are concerned. Such knowledge is characteristic of the Almighty Himself. the most Exalted One. al-Sadãq.

. 22. . pleased. the Great. he never visited him except after seeking and being granted his permission to do so. follows in his footsteps. Muhammed was the one with whom All~ h is quite . in a chapter dealing with the Im~m's visit to Basra.5 al-Suhayli. the one over whom All~ h never preferred anyone else from among all His creation. 154. It is also cited on p. Im~ m Abu Ja`fer. for the greatest Messenger (‰ ). 6 7 `Uyãn al-Athar.. used to say. 221 (first edition). al. 216. so. in a chapter dealing with al-S~diq's companions. As for Gabriel (– ). Vol. which tell us about the status reserved by the Master. . .. Vol. . al-Sayyãti. deriving his argument from the above quoted verse.”2 Why would not the Messenger with whom All~ h was pleased be the same one whom All~ h loved especially since the Creator. . 90. Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ). and it is also discussed on p. al-Sadãq. 11. Tawh§d. Shaikh al-Sadã q recorded his belief in the wahi and in the swoon . he sat before the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) just like a slave sitting before his master. Based on these traditions. and one wherein he hears through the angels. . p. who is well known as Aqa Najafi. 294. p.All~ h is pleased. of All~ h (‰ ) used to be overcome with a swoon whenever he received revelation. 193. peace be upon them. Vol. 14. Vol. . “No. “Wahi is of two . . p. whether the Messenger . In this scholar's Appendix to Chapter 11 of his book I`tiq~d~t. honoured him by addressing him directly without an intervening angel? Zur~ rah reports saying that he once asked Abu `Abdull~ h. 74.”1 All~ h never distances the successors of the Prophet (‰ ) from such a status after having derived their light from that of Prophet Muhammed (‰ ).8 and al-Zarq~ ni. Shaikh Muhammed Taqi al-Isfah~ ni. 1. . p. had with them the knowledge of the unknown. p. Glory to Him. Another testimony is the answer provided by Im~ m al-Rida . . whenever he entered. Says he. we thus came to know what was and what will be till the Day of Judgment. Sayyã ti. “By All~ h. of khir~j taxes is discussed. 102. 1. . [referred to above].10 The view held by Shaikh al-Muf§d is not different from his. in the chapter denying the possibility of All~h being seen by anyone. Sharh al-I`tiq~d~t. 2. Vol. . the Omnipotent. al-Suhayli. Chapter 7. p. al-Halabi. 1. .”3 When the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) was in no condition to grant permission for Gabriel to enter. where the subject . sublime are His Signs. al-B~ qir (– ). 1. without anyone intervening between them. 8 9 al-Zarq~ni's explanations of Al-Maw~hib al-Laduniyya. types: one the Prophet (‰ ) hears directly without anyone interferring. p. al-Sadãq.9 . directly. . “it was not. S§ra. and on p. 12. The Im~ m (– ) responded to his rejection by saying. The latter rejected the notion that the Im~ ms. of `Ilal al-Shar~i` and on p. So. 15. p. 14. 102. Vol. p. Al-Rawd al-}nif. Bih~r al-Anw~r. and we are the heirs of that Messenger who came to know All~ h's knowledge of the unknown. without any angel intervening as proven by Burh~ n ad-D§n al-Halabi. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra.” answered the Im~ m (– ). Chapter 7. Vol. in a chapter discussing the inception of the wahi. p. Vol. of `Ilal alShar~i`. in a chapter denying the possibility of All~h being seen by anyone. 4 5 2 1 al-Majlisi. He swooned whenever he communicated with All~ h. 10 11 39 . It is also discussed on p. “The Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) is the one who was familiarized by All~ h with His knowledge of the unknown. . (– ) to `Amr ibn Hadd~ b.6 Ibn Sayyid al-N~ s7. .4 And he received the wahi . 3 Ibid. Add to this the Prophet's knowledge of the Qur’~ n and whatever knowledge and Ibid.”11 The great authority. 86 of al-Fayd's book `Ilm al-Yaq§n. 86 of al-Fayd's book `Ilm al-Yaq§n. 211 (Tehran edition). the latter remained outside by the drain pipe till he was granted permission to enter.

So has al-Majlisi on p. It is the fact that the greatest Messenger (‰ ) was familiar with reading and writing all languages regardless of their variations and methods of writing before and after his Prophethood due to his attainment of the highest degrees of [human] perfection. Vol. “al sar~’ir” in the said verse connotes inclusion of everything. . of his book Al-Man~qib. Vol. and there is no connection between such recording and his ability to write. p. . it is the view to which renown verifiers have submitted. had told him not to make such knowledge public before receiving its revelation.” Prof. . Vol. 51. He. Great is He. Had he not been thus endowed with such knowledge. This is not only our view. of his book Sharh al-Shif~. “Q~ sim al-Saff~ r caused a . he includes a section dealing with his miracles. Glory to Him. 1. He. which these geniuses had. . is surely to find such an issue tremendous. 147. do not write it down with your own right hand” in the verse referred to the above by saying. it only negates his own writing it down. the Almighty and the Great. . bestowed upon the Im~ ms from among the offspring of the Prophet (‰ ) all the merits and virtues which their most holy grandfather had had with the exception of his prophethood and his wives. 249. on p. . records what negates that he learned how to write but that he already knew how to. . and by Shaikh al-Tãsi on p. 423. 4. in Gh~yat al-Mur~d by the First Martyr. in Al-Tahr§r wal Qaw~`id. .. and he is supported in his views by Ahmed ibn Muhammed al-Lakhmi and Ja`fer ibn `Abdul-Jabb~r in addition to others. and he would then have been in need of someone's favour: he is the embodiment of all favours and virtues. by Sayyid Muj~hid in his book . Vol. said. was permitted to marry more than four women. Vol. “A group of scholars once discussed this phrase and were of the view that he [the Messenger of All~h] knew how to write. . The word . . He. . on p. in Riy~d al-Ahz~n (of Muhammed Hasan al-Sha`b~n Kurdi al-Qazw§ni). “Do not hasten with the Qur’~ n before its revelation is mandated to you. of Rãh al-Ma`~ni. . indicates the same in a chapter dealing with his names. and that such knowledge was not totally dependent on Gabriel (– ). but he did not actually write anything down. 260 (first edition) . descending upon him. Ibn Shahr-}shãb has declared so on p. . by al-Miqd~d in his book Al-Tanq§h. so he rejects it. 161. At this juncture.. of his book Man~hil al-`Irf~n.secrets of natures and characteristics of things it contains even prior to its revelation to him. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. One who does not know the fiqh of the Shar§`a unknowingly admits the error of his belief. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny.2 The verse saying. “You do not write it with your own right hand” does not negate his knowledge of writing. in his book Kashf al-Lith~m. Vol. 398. such a prohibition from making it public would have had no meaning. 1. Shaikh al-Muf§d has indicated the same on p. 21.” Then he quoted al-Bukh~ri saying in his Sah§h. 2. On p. was familiar with writing. Shaikh Z~ dah al-Hanafi says. 123 of Al-Maq~l~t. Al-Man~hil. We can conclude from all the above that All~h. . “He (‰) wrote down the covenant of the peace treaty [of al-Hudaybiya]. 40 . 514. Al-Shih~b al-Khaf~ji. On p. of his book Al-Tiby~n. . and the reason for that is the doubt those who disbelieved in him would have then cast as the Holy Qur’~ n states. he would have sought help from others whenever he needed to read or to write anything. `Abdul-`Az§m al-Zarq~ni. and by al-H~jj Mulla Ali al-Kanni in his book Al-Qad~’. one which was not realized by those who could not realize the degrees of greatness and beauty such a magnanimous personality enjoyed.”1 Had the Prophet (‰ ) not been fully acquainted with what the Glorious Qur’~ n contains of secrets and knowledge. 2. What is most important is that the Master. of Tahth§b T~r§kh Ibn `}s~kir. the author states that Abul-W al§d al-B~ji wrote a dissertation about the Prophet (‰) being able to write. verdict labelling as “illegal” any marriage based on one merely testifying to the unity of All~ h and to the Prophethood of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). The sacred boon which he had received from the Almighty had already acquainted him with all facts even before Gabriel was created. being the Seal of the Prophets of All~ h that he was. It is also indicated in Al-Mabsãt. of his book Mir’~t al-`Uqãl. The same is stated by al-Fadil al-Hindi . Anyone who does not know the implication of the knowledge of the unknown. 6. claiming that such person had also to believe in the Prophet's 1 2 Al-`Inayat al-Radawiyya. On p. another phenomenon becomes evident. al-‘}lãsi comments on the phrase “you . thus have these scholars all agreed upon when they discussed the judge recording something in their discussion of legislation. This quite clearly proves that the Prophet (‰ ) knew what events took place and what events will take place. Such a quality was not to be withheld from him.

When Mubashshir knocked at the door of Abu Ja`fer. . I was about to hit my bondmaid when she ran away from me and hid: I have no idea in which room she hid!. It is also quoted on p. p. so they said whatever they were able to comprehend and no more. But the head of the Tatar-Khans rejected the notion that he should be called an apostate because certain things are demonstrated before the purified soul of the Prophet (‰ ). These . Im~ m al-B~ qir. to acquire knowledge. The reason why the Im~ m (– ) denied knowing his bondmaid's whereabouts may have been to deny having seen her in her hiding place rather than having known where that place actually was. Yes. 1. `He is the One Who knows the unknown.” this statement is interpreted as being said by way of taqiyya due to the presence at the time of men like D~ wã d al-Raqi. he caught her hand.’1 Neither of these men understood the meaning of “the knowledge of the unknown” discussed here. so he thus comes to acquire some of the knowledge of the unknown whereas All~ h has said. al-Majlisi. p. nor did either of them realize the truth about the Seal of the Prophet. men could not comprehend the mystery of how Ahl al-Bayt (– ) knew what they knew. quoting Al-Khar~’ij.” otherwise. There is no doubt about that.”2 He also said once to Muhammed ibn Muslim. we and you would have been on par. “Enter. including the time of the Hour. The Im~ m comforted him by saying that he knew what was even more than that: the Book of All~ h in its entirety and all the knowledge and secrets it contains.” then he mentioned the incident at the Rabatha involving him and his fellow with regard to the subject of Im~ mate. His phrase “I have no idea” means: “I did not actually see in which room she entered. Praise is due to Him. . 2. Having explained its connotation. who states so in his book Mir'~ t al-`Uqã l. 274. The Im~ m (– ) said to him. 320 which discusses the Hanafi fiqh. Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) wanted to deny having any knowledge of the unknown in order to demonstrate his support for those men's beliefs.3 The Prophet's had§th: “Had I known the unknown. whereupon Abu Ja`fer (– ) called upon him from inside the house. Man~qib. Vol. and Abu Busayr. I would have acquired plenty of goodness” does . the knowledge which He did not share with anyone else at all. Vol. what you all do or not do. al-S~ diq (– ). What supports this theory is Sad§r. Yahya al-Bazz~ z. and that he did not know the unknown on his own. . 72. is the One Who bestowed upon the Prophet (‰ ) and upon his offspring. the most Exalted. . 2 3 41 . and the maid went out to open it. the narrator of this incident. Vol. “Had we been ignorant of . 11. so none except a Messenger with whom He is pleased will be acquainted with His knowledge of the known. Vol. we would not have been preferred over the rest of the people. not carry any meaning other than the Prophet (‰ ) being in need of All~ h. and so is that which has not come to pass” cannot be ignorant of his bondmaid's whereabouts. unknown! None knows the unknown except All~ h. Yet this incident is brushed aside by al-Majlisi. 70. peace be upon them. “Had the walls obstructed our vision as they obstruct yours. visiting the Im~ m (– ) thereafter and expressing to him his amazement at how he denied his knowledge of the unknown. and only He. due to the ignorance of those who have narrated it. the divine faculty whereby they were able to acquire the knowledge of the 1 Mu`jam al-Anhur.knowledge of the unknown. As regarding Ahl al-Bayt (– ) denying having any knowledge of the unknown. the discreet reader has no excuse for hesitating. may you lose your father!” He entered and apologized by saying that he did not entertain any ill thought but only wanted to increase (his conviction that the Im~ m knew who was at the door). . Ibn Shahr }shãb. Bih~r al-Anw~r. of Bih~r al-Anw~r from Abul-Sab~h al-Kin~ni. has with Him knowledge with which He. for everyone believes that All~ h. nobody can deny that the Creator. 11. the most Exalted. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. one who has said about himself “The knowledge of what had passed before me is with me. is familiar. p. “Strange how some people claim that we know the . or for entertaining any doubt. such as the following statement of Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h.

Rather. in addition to whatever good or evil takes place in the universe. Vol. the nature of things. Sharh al-Shif~’. unknown without means [enabling him to know]. 190. thereupon. have declared the same. furthermore. followers about the presence of those who were spying on them. or due to their concern about some of their companions on account of being under surveillance.. p. otherwise. p. U sãl al-K~fi. peace be upon them. killed]. they had to act upon whatever met the principle of taqiyya. They were. the Im~ m (– ) realized its tremendous effect on his audience. “I know what is in the heavens and in the earth.4 it does not prove the limitation of their knowledge at a particular time.1 Another testimonial is when Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ). so he (– ). 189. “W hat is denied in these verses is his [Prophet's] knowledge of the . the most Sublime. nobody accuses Ibr~ h§m ibn Ish~ q al-Ahmar of any weakness in what he . went on to say. p. and since the Lord.world. They told him that they had no knowledge of such spies. it is done by All~h. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his Progeny. the secrets of everything. Such a statement proves that putting the divine power with which they are endowed at birth to work depends on their will which is determined by the presence of an interest necessitating the revelation of a veiled fact and producing what they had had with them of treasured knowledge. I know what was and what will be. This is not al-Khaf~ji. 42 . . knowledge of what was.. has bestowed upon His purified vicegerents a divine faculty whereby they could comprehend events. and what is in Paradise and in hell. Yet this explanation occurs in no more than three narrations all of which are refuted by al-Majlisi in his book Mir'~ t al-`Uqã l.”3 The Im~ m (– ) took into consideration his companions' condition. As regarding his knowledge of the unknown. . “He does not acquaint anyone with His knowledge of the unknown except a M essenger with whom He is pleased. and so were the other Im~ ms (– ) in as far as their knowledge of temporal circumstances and personal conditions were concerned. he was concerned about those who were in his company then and there. Ibid. is never miser in what He grants those upon whom He bestows of His knowledge. Ibid. and we [Ahl al-Bayt] have inherited all such knowledge from the Messenger of All~ h. Vol. 187. This is a recognized fact. the most Exalted One. I would have told them that I am more knowledgeable than [both of] them.”2 This narration is authentic. as quoted on p. There is no exaggeration in all of this especially since the nature of these Im~ ms is capable of absorbing such divine overflow. saying that they always are in need of His subsequent blessings. peace be upon them. informing him. I would have informed them of the knowledge with which they were not familiar. granted the knowledge of what had already passed and what is to pass till the time of the Hour. who was with his followers in jail. so he brought them an argument to convince them. Great is He. that they were granted the . . “Thrice do I swear by the Lord of this building that had I been present with Moses and al-Khidr (– ). does not contradict al-Khidr's knowledge of the future of the young boy [whom he . their storehouse of knowledge may deplete. As regarding the Im~ ms.” 2 3 4 1 al-Sadãq. It is ascertained by the verse saying. The Im~ ms. What can be concluded from the above is that All~ h. “I came to know all of it from the Book of All~ h: The most Exalted One says that His Book contains the explanation of everything. proving the weakness of some of them and the ignorance of those who reported the others. stating that when one of them wants to know something. 150. indeed. We. asked his . His statement about Moses and al-Khidr (– ). said. say that it does not contradict his vast knowledge due to the fact that the Ahl alBayt (– ) are not obligated to reveal all what they knew. 3. His statement is similar to another wherein he said. and . narrates.” Having said so. where he says. of Mir'~t al-`Uqãl. 1. All~ h informs him of it. for it is one of the causes with which All~ h informed him for a temporal reason. Glory to Him. He.

to do so. has recorded it as . has followed in their footsteps as stated on p. 222. the critic. follows: “If the walis are not granted such a faculty. `No soul knows what it shall earn in the morrow' and the advance knowledge of the Prophet (‰ ) of the conquest of Mecca and of the imminent wars against the renegades. unknown. glorified. None can be acquainted with such knowledge even if he reaches the degree beyond the zenith of perfection. says. 85. Vol. and whose substance is integrity. This is also the view held by Ibn Hajar. Al-} shtiy~ ni. peace be upon them. `Abdul-Q~dir al-`Aidarãsi. and is known since eternity.1 This clearly proves that Ibn Hajar was not too far from accepting the notion that the walis knew the . or because the believer simply is not worthy of it. of Mir'~ t al-`Uqã l. and either one is far from the other. it is either because All~ h is entitled not to grant a believer what he wants. 60. . p. He believes that such ability is characteristic of the Great Creator. The exception to this. The Almighty informing His prophets and friends of some of the knowledge of the unknown is possible. 2. It goes without saying that such granted knowledge does not in the end lead to the recipients sharing with All~ h the knowledge which He has reserved for Himself and whereby He is praised. it surely is the very greatest of all of what He grants a servant of His.”2 He further says. of his commentary on Shaikh al-Ans~ ri's Letters. p. If the criterion of All~ h Almighty empowering others to know the unknown becomes the particular divine faculty of certain individuals who are the offspring of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ).unexpected with regard to those whose ultimate objective is to obey All~ h Almighty. Al-Naishapuri. keeps the Sh§`a beliefs in check. Such empowering. are capable of knowing the events which took place as well as those which will take place till the Day of Judgment. Vol. 43 . He is the One Who informs them of some of the knowledge of the unknown. As far as other types of knowledge are concerned. Al-Nãr al-S~fir fi A`y~n al-Qarn al-`}shir. 1. He likewise is generous enough not to give what is the least. so much so that one of such individuals may see things as if they are before his very eyes as Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) . it is not impossible at all. 77 of Al-Maq~ l~ t. The verses stating: “Say: None knows the unknown in the heavens and in the earth save All~ h” and “The One Who knows the unknown. If a believer is empowered to attain it. Such are All~ h's friends and the truthful ones in addition to those whom the Creator appointed as the custodians of His Shar§`a. The criterion he has set for the walis to know some of the knowledge of the unknown is their being empowered by their Master. and the 1 2 Al-Fat~wa al-Had§tha. If the One Who is most generous does not withhold the very best. In both of these verses. This view is endorsed by renown critics and is stated by Shaikh al-Muf§d on p. 187. so He does not acquaint anyone with His knowledge” do not contradict the prophets' and the walis' knowledge of portions of the unknown. They know of such knowledge because All~ h Almighty informs them of it. This is the same view upheld by alNawawi in his verdicts. then it is quite possible that such faculty reaches its utmost limit to the extent that it will not be confined to some but rather to all such knowledge. of course. and by al-Majlisi on p. author of the Tafs§r. but he did not agree with the Sh§`as with regard to their belief that their Im~ ms from among Ahl al-Bayt. He informs whomsoever He pleases of some of the knowledge of the unknown. is the knowledge which All~h Almighty has confined only to Himself. Anyone who denies it is stubborn. “There is no contradiction between the verse saying. Glory to Him. those who deviated from the right path. he believes. This is not the same knowledge like that relevant to Him whereby He is praised and glorified. . He is simply saying that none shares His knowledge of the latter. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami states the following: .

said. spoke with Moses (–) in this regard. p. and Moses (–) asked his Lord. . and be careful (of your duty) to All~ h and keep in mind that All~ h is with those who guard (themselves against evil)” (Qur’~ n. then the case is not so. or when it does not serve a higher purpose. The prohibition of putting someone’s life in jeopardy becomes [in such a context] dependent on the polytheists attacking the Muslims during the sacred months. no injunction interferes to prohibit it. the Great and the Almighty. It succeeded a verse dealing with transgression during the months regarded by the Muslims as sacred. They were informed of it by All~ h Who bestowed upon them of the types of knowledge whereby they comprehended the events. wear their shrouds then stand in two rows to be attacked by Aaron and a number of men with him. The sign of God being pleased with them would be that the darkness would be unveiled and the swords would work on them. death will claim the lives of a number of Muj~ hids.apostates. A group from among the Israelites sought to worship their Lord by putting an end to their lives. but if this is done by All~ h informing someone of it. Scholars of exegesis have stated that the Israelites who worshipped the calf then repented having forsaken All~h's worship were told by Moses (–). to bathe. All~ h ordered His prophets and messengers who approached it determined to be martyred. All~ h Almighty says. to kill them. such as in the case of defending Islam. who had not worshipped the calf. and when the Muslims did not have enough force to fight them back. 427. therefore. The most Praised and Exalted One praises the believers who march to their death and struggle to promote the divine cause saying. All what the verse says is its negation of the knowledge of the future. who had been informed by his Lord that He did not cease to accept their repentance. “So repent to your Creator and kill your own selves. father. 44 . what he should do. “All~ h has bartered with the believers: their lives and wealth for Paradise. the Supreme Saviour (‰ ).”1 THE VERSE OF PERDITION rom what we have already established. Those who had worshipped the calf were ordered to sit at home with their heads down between their knees without trying to defend themselves either by hand or by leg. W hen each man looked and saw his son. is something which the Holy Qur’~ n prohibits. in addition to the heavenly tablet which descended upon their grandfather. brother. Safeguarding one's life and taking precautions against falling into perdition is obligatory so long as it is destined. 427 (first Egyptian edition). p. Vol. he did not have the guts to do it. or relative in front of him [slated to be killed by him]. F 1 2 Ibn Abul-Had§d. how and when. The most Exalted Creator told him that He would send upon them darkness wherein one would not be able to see the person sitting next to him.”2 To read this verse as is [rather than in its context] will only take it out of our discussion of the topic of revelation: to warn against an imminent danger. killing as many as seventy thousand of them. it has become clear to us that the Im~ ms (– ) were never ignorant of the martyrdom of each one of them: who would commit it. they never flinched nor relented till their holy souls departed from their bodies. A number of prophets were killed in the line of their duty. He. 2:194). and not to raise their heads nor to change their position. . Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha. But in the presence of a purpose which is served by one exposing his life to peril. and which they read. or hurled them into perdition. Glory to Him. They. 1. It is quite possible that All~ h informs His Prophet (‰ ) of what will be. Their welcoming martyrdom in a way that assisted the demise of their holy selves. inflict injury on him according to the injury that he has inflicted on you. Taking the stand of a general prohibition of any life-threatening situation becomes a rationalizing cause which cannot be subjected to a particular situation but a specific injunction relevant to the case of the lack of a cause stronger than that of simply facing a danger. When the necessary cause is present. “The sacred month for the sacred month and all sacred things are (under the law of) retaliation. as is the case with performing jih~ d or in self-defense. and many of them were quite happy to do so. whoever then acts aggressively against you. It would only be then that God would forgive those who would be killed from among them and accept the repentance of those who would survive. Aaron and his men did so.

`And among men is he who barters his life for the pleasure of All~ h. or is hurt. This continued till they met their death. Vol. the most Exalted One. and surrendering to the divine judgment in their regard. What savoured all of this for them was their being informed beforehand by their greatest grandfather (‰ ). The mystery in such variation of obligation was due to what He.they fight in the cause of All~ h. saw of the interests according to their relevant time. 1. 45 . (First Edition: 1331 A.” He also says. that necessitated it. Ibid. in his explanation of the verse of perdition. Ibn al-`Arabi. influence.” His reasoning is that such an assault is better than any harm inflicted because it serves the interest of the Muslims. in so doing. 2:207). .H. according to the verse saying. despite the various degrees of sacrifice they had to offer. so they kill and get killed. Nay! They are alive with their Lord receiving their sustenance. Ahk~m al-Qur’~n. Rather. .”3 All~ h.” obedience to Him ought to be 1 2 3 al-Jass~s. and to spend all wealth. the creed would have been terribly distorted and misguidance would have crept therein. 1.”1 Muhammed ibn al-Hasan al-Shaub~ ni is not far off from following such instructions when he sees no . They are. “Do not reckon those who are killed in the cause of All~ h as dead. of the merits and the interests whereby the Islamic nation is served. p. Al-Ahk~m. Reason determines that a slave must obey his master and not do anything forbidden without inquiring about the interest. So you find them once in the depth of dungeons. They knew of their killer and his method of killing. . the most Exalted and Praised One that He is. Their bracing their death and taking poison was never due to their ignorance of what an oppressive ruler was doing to them.. Had they not been thus determined to offer such sacrifices. Glory to Him. The Almighty ordered some of them to withhold and not to fight or to be involved in jih~ d while ordering others to accept to be killed and yet others to accept to be poisoned. they were quite sure about it. “He is not asked about what He does while they are. Vol. and All~ h is Affectionate to the servants’ (Qur’~ n.2 Ibn al-`Arabi. seeking submission to the Command of their Lord. especially if the motive behind the assault enhances the morale of the Muslims upon seeing one of them facing thousands. 309. They found themselves submitting to that with which All~ h had acquainted them of His secrets. “Among the people is one who sells his life seeking the Pleasure of All~ h. or the lack thereof. “There is no harm in one losing his life. . and such an action is not regarded by them as jeopardizing one's life and exposing it to perdition because All~ h. p. Glory to Him. . the M~ likite scholar. 309. or exiled. has specifically allotted certain injunctions to those who are the custodians of his legislation and His vicegerents over the nation.” Thus did the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) declare to the members of his nation when he provided them with his valuable instructions saying. But if the Master is wise in everything He does.. “Some scholars permit a man assault a huge army seeking martyrdom. only carrying out all the orders they had received from the Master. the most Exalted One. remaining against their wish silent as they are being verbally abused. Among them is enjoining them to sacrifice themselves for the sake of achieving His Pleasure.” He also says. Glorified and Exalted is He. 49. or deported. He acquainted them with the great significance with Him. Praise to Him. and even of the day and time. word of truth to an oppressive ruler because of which he [the ruler] killed him. in his discussion of the verse of perdition. nor can they be comprehended by their reason. be they obligations or recommendations. says. 1. all the time suffering from apprehension and hardship. Vol. “The best of martyrs is Hamzah ibn Abu T~ lib and a man who spoke a . Most of such injunctions cannot be realized by people's aspirations. harm in a man assaulting a thousand of his foes and who either comes out safely or is killed in the process. and possessions in the process. if his assault at a thousand foes strikes fear in the latter or causes them to be in disarray. who was told by divine inspiration. p.). . Then he says. says.

p. . Ibid. he ate the poisoned dates which al-Rash§d had given him knowing that they were. Who releases milk from between blood and secretion. Muhaj al-Da`aw~t. al-B~ qir (– ). hugged and kissed him. respect and honour the .” Al-Mansã r had no choice except to forgive. . 299. . Who releases the fetus from the womb and the embryo. (– ). Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. and All~ h called upon him to return to Him. . 327. setting his mind to kill him. says. When al-Mansã r became angry with Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h.2 When the confinement of Im~ m Mã sa son of Im~ m Ja`fer al-S~ diq. Traditions regarding Ahl al-Bayt (– ) indicate that when they knew that their enemies were determined to put an end to them. looking very angry as he shielded the Im~ m (– ) from him. Having eaten them. But when it was time for the Im~ m (– ) to die. H~rãn is “al-Rash§d. and the Im~ m was fed-up with the mistreatment meted to him. Im~ m Abu Ja`fer. He said that the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) . “If you harm the father of `Abdull~ h . “Lord! You know that had I eaten such dates before today.4 He had no intention to cause the dog's death except to let the tyrant al-Rash§d know that he was fully aware of his intention to kill him at a time when his demise was not yet opportune. appeared to him in a vision standing before him stretching his open hands. . . poisoned. Who releases the soul from between the bowels and the intestines. indeed. he pleaded to All~ h Almighty to put an end to his suffering saying. he was. sanctity of the Im~ mate. }m~li. the Im~ m (– ) selected those which were not poisoned and ate them then gave the poisoned ones to al-Rash§d's dog which died. . al-S~ diq (– ). we. including supplications which could not be rejected. would say. . 57. incident. 46 . 188. p. demonstrating his pleasure at seeing him. uncovering his arms. p. `O King of everything! Bless Muhammed and his Household and do unto me such-and-such. he raised his hands and supplicated saying. p. As soon as al-Mansã r looked at . Vol. . requesting him to keep harm and calamities away from them. without questioning the reasons behind His orders. After that . or when the pain of their chains intensified. . the Im~ m (– ) supplicated to his Lord. I would have put an end to my life!” So he ate of them and his fate had its way. Muhammed ibn Ahmed ibn Ali al-Naishapuri.5 1 2 3 Sayyid Radi ad-D§n ibn T~wãs. p. al-Sadãq. . 4 5 Mir'~t al-`Uqãl. 365 (Bombay edition). By the grace of his supplication. or complaining to their grandfather the Prophet (‰ ). they resorted to all possible means. he gladly stood up. the most Exalted One. When H~ rã n al-Rash§d offered him poisoned dates to eat. I will certainly annihilate you. became quite prolonged. released from the darkness of the dungeon and from the pain of the chains. Who releases fire from between iron and stone. do release me from H~ rã n's grip. `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Rida. al-Mansã r narrated the reason why he changed his mind. they will keep going right and left without actually coming out with what satisfies anyone simply because such researchers produced nothing but assumptions which do not agree with the basics or with what is most exemplary. Ahl al-Bayt. “If something distresses us and we were apprehensive of the authorities' mischief. It is this suggested view that the critics from among renown scholars have endorsed. . and it became obvious to them that their fate was delayed.'”1 . 185. the dark ominous clouds of an ill fate dissipated. majlis 60. If researchers keep themselves busy investigating the reasons why Ahl al-Bayt (– ) did what put an end to their sacred lives.” the `Abb~side ruler.”3 By the grace of this supplication.unconditional. indeed. he said to al-Mansã r. Then he dispatched the Im~ m (– ) back to [his and] his grandfather's home town [Med§na] surrounded with royal grandeur. “O One Who releases the trees from the sand and the water. peace be upon both of them. 1. al-S~ diq (– ). p. pleading to Him to ease his hardship.. al-Sadãq.

K~mil al-Ziy~r~t.” But when he ordered him to meet with him again. he did not hesitate to use it. . Master of Martyrs. Bih~r al-Anw~r. learned by heart the . but I will return from this trip. said to Ism~`§l ibn Mahr~ n. and sometimes he would follow the instructions of his physician. annihilate him. his son. and also I`l~m al-Wara bi A`l~m al-Hud~ (by al-Tibrisi). “In this meeting will I have to face my death.1 His objective was to point out that nothing happens in the system of the universe except what naturally flows. Al-Irsh~d. al-Muqarram [author of this book]. Vol. Ali al-H~ di (– ).” She was instantly afflicted with an ailment in the most delicate of her five senses. all Praise is due to Him. the . the woman shook like a palm leaf braving a storm. with my uncle Ja`fer who flies in Paradise. p.8 So when Umm al-Fadl [daughter of al-Ma`mã n. thus submitting to destiny and obeying the order of his Master. K~mil al-Bah~’i (Persian text). and to Him is our return. the Master of all Messengers. gave him a poisoned handkerchief.Upon such a basis. al-Muf§d. 223./13th century A. in his sect).4 He raised his hands . who also was the Im~ m’s wife] . said to Ism~ `§l ibn Mahr~ n. . and except natural laws. and it is also recorded in Al-Khar~'ij. when he saw that the latter was upset upon al-Ma`mã n ordering the Im~ m (– ) to meet with him. . in a chapter dealing with his miracles. with my . Im~ m Abul-Hasan. . with my father the master of all wasis.H. 133. instead of carrying out his evil intention against him. mother the Head of all women of the world. supplication composed by Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) when he met with al-Mansã r who had angrily decided to . 10. Yes. p. Al-Irsh~d. Im~ m al-Hasan son of the Commander of the Faithful . “We belong to All~ h. All~ h will expose both you and him to shame.” ordering him to take orders from his successor Im~ m al-H~ di (– ). al-Muf§d. al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Muhammed al-Tabari al-Mazandarani (a recognized 7th century A. used to sometimes seek healing from his grandfather's soil. scholar of distinction . with al-Hamzah. 22 (Indian edition). citing `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Mu`jiz~t.2 It is upon the same basis that the chosen one. “He [Mu`~ wiyah. he drank the sour milk then said to her. “He [al-Ma`mã n] was never my friend. to the sky and supplicated saying. pp. invoked there. p. Or he may have intended to attract our attention to the benefits of supplicating to All~ h when calamities overtake one of His servants and when catastrophes surround him. and . . saying that All~ h Almighty loved to be . he only said the following words to her then: “All~ h has afflicted you with infertility without a cure and with an affliction which you will never be able to hide. and yet some other times he would follow the advice of those who had undergone a similar experience3 despite his knowledge that his sickness was not fatal and that he knew when such fate would come to pass.”6 As the Im~ m spoke those words. the Im~ m (– ). But he wanted to let people know that combatting ailments is done through ordinary indispensable means so that such means may be implemented. who became the nation's Im~ m following the assassination of his father. (– ). .”5 Having said so.7 Im~ m Abu Ja`fer. Im~m al-Rida. Muhaj al-Da`aw~t. p. 7 8 47 . slave of al-Mansã r al-Daw~ n§qi. his assassin] fooled you and made fun of you. Praise to All~ h for the meeting with Muhammed. 4 5 6 al-R~wandi Al-Khar~'ij. But when it was time for him to depart. al-Jaw~ d (– ). 453-456. Al-Rab§` saw with his own eyes how al-Mansã r met the Im~ m (– ) with utmost respect . It was very hot. 45. p. This happened when Ja`da daughter of alAsh`ath offered him poisoned sour milk. al-Majlisi. ordered Abu H~ shim al-Ja`feri to send a man . 205. and al-Hasan (– ) was fasting. that they had to be patient till then. What supports this view is that al-Rab§`. Im~ m al-Rida (– ) had informed his companions that he would be assassinated by al-Ma`mã n. he did not do any of that out of his submission to destiny. 1 2 3 Ibn Qawlawayh. to a most sacred spot of al-H~ 'ir to supplicate to All~ h to heal him. .D.

upon them) persisted in their supplication to All~ h to annihilate all the tyrants in the world. Praise to Him. What testifies to this fact is the following statement by Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-B~ qir (– ): T I am amazed at people who accept us as their masters. U sãl al-K~fi. in a chapter under the heading “The Im~ms know when they are to die. and that his being killed by Ibn Muljim was an irreversible divine decision. Have 1 al-Saff~r. but we do not want anything except what All~ h wants. therefore. This is so due to the fact that the Great Master. be they good or bad. “Anyone who wishes to see the face of my killer should look at this one. and second from the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) who also acquainted them with it.” “Why do you not kill him?. and third due to their being informed by the revealed divine tablet sent down upon their grandfather (‰ ). making us their Im~ ms. .” and also in Al-Khar~'ij (of al. and that nothing small or big hid from their knowledge. was due to an order which they had received from All~ h. and also Ris~lat Ibn Badrãn. whenever He bids or forbids. where a poem by Ibn `Abdãn is explained. refers when he once said to Uqbah al-Asadi: “Had the Im~ ms (peace be . . nor were they ignorant of anything of it. “How strange. yet they are unfamiliar with the light of many traditions which clearly state that whatever those Im~ ms said or did not say. the knowledge of fate and the calamities. the veil wrapping the truth is uncovered. rather. I am amazed at those who listen to the authentic traditions and willingly submit to the fact that the Im~ ms from among the Progeny of Muhammed (‰ ) knew what was and what will be. When Ibn Muljim came to swear the oath of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful (– ) then went away. We do not have to know the advantages or disadvantages in all the legislative obligations. conveyed through His trustworthy Messenger of divine revelation. Glory to Him. facts appear most gloriously and place themselves before the brilliant researcher surrounded with a halo of truth and conviction. So they belittle our rights and fault those whom All~ h had given the proof of the uprightness of recognizing us and submitting to our commands. how could he contradict the divine will and undo what is destined to happen? It is to this meaning that Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ).The Commander of the Faithful (– ) had already provided the name of “Ibn Muljim” as that of his assassin.” the Commander of the Faithful (– ). Bas~’ir al-Daraj~t. the Im~ m (– ) said. p. therefore. al-SSdãq. 34. then the caliph.”2 SUMMARY hrough these straightforward proofs.” he (– ) answered. and with them was . not even the moment of their death. yet they violate their argument and indict themselves with a weakness in their conviction. Great are His signs. 143 (Indian edition). was asked. All~ h Almighty surely granted them a lofty status and an immortal honour which they could not have achieved except through martyrdom and the annihilation of their sacred souls. and describing obeying us as mandatory as obeying the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). 2 48 . stood or sat. He would have responded favourably to their pleas. welcomed their pleas and acquainted them with secrets and mysteries. R~wandi). “that you should suggest I must kill the one who shall kill me!”1 He meant that that man killing him was an already determined destiny and an unavoidable fate. 156. He. . Such abundant knowledge never parted from them but was granted to them first from the One Who initiated existence in the first place. this is a fact regarding which no two persons dispute with one another. becomes convinced that the Im~ ms of guidance were familiar with how fate fared and what imminent destiny was. Exalted is His Status. and it would have been easier for Him than a string of beads which someone cuts through. It is for this reason that they sacrificed their precious lives in submission to the Commands of All~ h Almighty and to serve the realistic interests which no humans could realize and whose particulars are not known except to the One Who knows the unknown. p. the one which could not be avoided and whereby it afflicted them with catastrophes. p. reason obligates us to obey the Great Master. so. I wonder why they should not adopt a contrary stand.

U sãl al-K~fi. nor to any transgression whereby they disobeyed All~ h. earnestly pleading to Him to remove the authority of the tyrants. said. of what helps their creed stand on firm grounds? Hamr~ n said to him. but he chose that night to let fate have its way. p. d. . Im~ m al-Rida (– ). some of us remained silent. al-Saff~r. c. 1. and their doing that which cause putting an end to their sacred lives in obedience to the commands of their Lord relevant to them. 33. .. willed that all of that should happen to them. had to suffer at the hands of the tyrants who subdued them. . their witnessing how the nation goes to extremes in its oppression. as well as their silence towards what the leaders of misguidance commit. all demonstrate their willingness to submit to His will without any hesitation at all. Due to being already informed by the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Due to the same knowledge. Among such distinctions are the following: a. 2 1 al-Sadãq. . the most Exalted One. Their waging wars. thus granting them distinctions over all other . al-R~wandi. asked him about the reason why the Commander of the Faithful (– ) exposed himself to being killed while knowing the exact hour of his death and the name of his killer. Their knowledge of everything. b. Al-Khar~'ij. do not permit yourself to be misled. then He let it happen. “O son of the Messenger of All~ h! What is your view of the consequences of the stands . He . Bas~’ir al-Daraj~t. answered those who . What afflicted them was not due to any sin which they had committed. “All of that did. 143 (Indian edition).. al-Hasan. depriving them of having access to the knowledge of what they should endure. how al-Hasan and al-Husain (– ) revolted and how much they . they willingly do so. He (– ). taken by the Commander of the Faithful (– ). U sãl al-K~fi. Had they wished All~ h Almighty. decreed and predestined it out of His own will. 190. “O Hamr~ n! All~ h. it was for the achievement of a certain status and favour with All~ h which He wanted them to achieve. p. Ali. . acquired a prior knowledge. It is through providing the same explanation that Abul-Hasan. Succumbing to destiny and sure death and reluctance to plead to the Exalted Creator to remove their causes was done so that they might win martyrdom which is the most honourable form of death in order to reach a lofty status and a high station which cannot be achieved except through this type of death. and al-Husain (– ) took their stands. p. 1. rather. human beings. the knowledge that contained all subjects barring none. Praised and Exalted is He. of Mir'~t al-`Uqãl. indeed. killed and vanquished them?” Abu Ja`fer (– ) said to him. in a chapter indicating that they had . just as willingly as others carry out their obligations. p. The perils to which they were exposed. and their martyrdom while defending the divine Message. . it would have been faster than a string of beads which someone cuts through. commenting on Vol. and the oppression to which the leaders of oppression exposed them. were due to reasons not known except by the Omnipotent Almighty.”2 This and similar statements lead us to conclude that the reason why members of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) walked to their death willingly is that they did so in obedience to their Lord in order to carry out the al-Sadãq. . take place. 188.you seen how All~ h. 49 . mandated His servants to obey His friends without acquainting the latter with what happens in the heavens.. their struggle. It is through the rays of this sacred tradition that we clarify obscure mysteries and divine wisdom which All~ h bestowed upon certain custodians of His wahi. where the author comments on Mir’~t al-`Uqãl. and the fact that the knowledge from the heavens never ceased reaching them. Vol. so. . O Hamr~ n!”1 . .

in so doing. This. But they may endure something before their predestined end. and he was required to do what we are not. Shaikh al-Muf§d. it is not of the type that causes one to harm himself with his own hands and which is prohibited by the verses of the Holy Qur’~ n. thus reaching a degree so high that nobody can reach in any other way. putting off the time when his followers would surrender to Mu`~ wiyah. was fully aware of what he did. Vol. so. That was something prohibited by the One Who brought the Shar§`a. He. coped with fate and destiny according to the extent of their knowledge of both and of what the Vanquisher had chosen for them to do. He (– ). and that it was as close to him as the distance of one yard. He said that it was quite possible that he had been informed of his being killed in a particular night and place. of Bih~r al-Anw~r. Mu`~ wiyah: He had already known about it. . even when such a muj~ hid knew that it would in the end cause him to be killed. despite their knowledge of it and ability to avoid it. In short. others. al-Hilli. 663. His reluctance to dig cannot be interpreted as assisting fate against his own life by abandoning seeking water where it is inaccessible to him. and their acceptance of the affliction to which they are exposed at the hands of their oppressive foes. Nor should such an action be understood by those who objected to his doing so. and it was good for the survival of many of his Sh§`as and family members. al-Karki. is done with the knowledge of His being pleased with it and His having decreed it. “We have no problem accepting the fact that an Im~ m may be informed in detail of what takes place and of distinguishing one thing from another. p. just as mandatory as a person waging jih~ d. he would have found water. All~h Almighty had ordered him to seek obedience to Him in so doing. by the sword or by poison.”2 Such is the view also of al-Majlisi. We also do not have any objection to al-Husain (– ) being fully aware of the place where water . 189.”1 The great mentor.obligations relevant specifically to them. . by doing so. and such knowledge is conveyed by All~ h Almighty. It is the opposite of the first. is quoted in al-Ku`bari's Mas~ 'il saying. Vol. exposed himself to being murdered. 1 2 He is quoted by al-Majlisi on p. is due to their knowledge that it would cause the most Praised and Exalted One to be pleased with them. demonstrates his obedience to his Lord in a way none else could have. So is the case with al-Hasan (– ) being fully informed of the outcome of seeking reconciliation with . of Mir’~t al-`Uqãl and also on p. the great scholar. was asked once about the reason why the Commander of the Faithful (– ) .” The great scholar. It is also the view upheld by the most renown Sh§`a scholars. and al-Hasan ibn Sulaym~ n al-Hilli. the critic. their being killed . for example. so. peace be upon them. to finish them. Shaikh Yousuf al-Bahr~ ni. one of the students of the First Martyr. nor does it supercede their fate. 50 . “Their acceptance of tragedy. An avoidance of a greater harm to the creed from it could have actually otherwise taken place. or they may do so privately. Such is a danger against which they may not openly take precautions. could be found. and that it was chosen for them by Him and was mandated upon them so that they would be closer to His holy Self. had he dug. nor was it to bring about their fate. or they may plead to All~ h to remove it from them since they knew that it was not intended by All~ h. so. 9. contrariwise. Likewise. nor as being ugly. it was quite possible that his acceptance of death for the sake of All~ h was mandatory. we do not have any problem seeing how the Commander of the Faithful persevered till reaching martyrdom and surrendering to be killed. Al-Durra al-Najafiyya. Reason does not see that as being far-fetched. as well as of many . a clear prohibition. says. But he. 85. so. so it does not put an end to their lives. nor can what caused their death be seen as bringing perdition to themselves or be rejected by reason. there is no shortcoming in their knowledge. they. That was a good reason for his survival till it was time for him to go. postponed his being murdered. 1. the Praised One. and it was quite obvious. Nor can the Commander of the Faithful be described as having brought perdition upon himself or assisted others to his own detriment in a way which reason does not condone.

that they should welcome death with open arms. Such an individual has surely missed the mark. that they should sacrifice their all in order to support the call propagated by Muhammed (‰ ) and . Hanafiyya he said. it is true. “My father had informed me that my resting place will . and to sacrifice everything precious in order to liberate themselves from the claws of oppression. thus reciting to . `Omer al-Atraf. caused the death of his holy self as well as that of pure ones from among his family and followers. and what will be. therefore. yet he inscribed upon the face of time with words of noor the truth about his uprising and the falsehood of all the allegations propagated by his foe that had deviated from the canons of truth and became immersed in oppression. I will tomorrow. W 1 al-Jass~s. . He. OF HIS MARTYRDOM hat we have stated clarifies that reason. “All~ h has decreed to see me murdered and the women taken captive. accompanied by his kinsfolk and followers and would all face a sure death? Is he not the one who informed Umm Salamah of his own martyrdom when she expressed to him apprehension of his trip? The reason for it is that the truthful and the trustworthy one. He is. They learned how to persist in defending their principles. attack a thousand men knowing that he has no chance of survival or of defeating the enemy by so doing. Among what al-Husain (– ) had said to her was: “I know the day on which I will be killed and the . time when I will be killed. and whoever challenged him drowned in the sea of misguidance and was one who violated the Islamic laws drawn by the one who conveyed the Divine Message (‰ ). or to bring to life a certain fact. had already informed him of his being killed in the land of Kerbal~ ’ after being prohibited from drinking water. . how could he have not been informed by his grandfather (‰ ) and his wasi. be killed in the land of Kerbal~ ’ after being denied access to water. Through his holy uprising. his own father. learn from it lofty lessons. p.” . have a general knowledge of what was. Muhammed ibn al-Hasan al-Shayb~ ni rejects the notion that it is despondency that causes one to . Do you think that you know what I do not? Do you think that I can escape death? If I do not die today. Do you think that you know what I do not?” To his brother Muhammed ibn al. neighbour that of his own. Vol. al-Husain (– ). . Im~ m Husain (– ) acquainted present and future nations with what the . the multitude a white tablet which generations and epochs have been reciting ever since. who never said anything out of his own inclination (‰ ). the true victor. Umayyads did and with who discarded and violated the sacred laws of the Shar§`a. 1. . And I know who among my Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and followers will be killed.AL-HUSAIN'S PRIOR KNOWLEDGE . 51 . what is. an objective which cannot be realized in any other way. of the events that would happen to him. Even if we surrender and say that al-Husain (– ) did not . He exposed the offspring of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) to plundering and captivity. the Shar§`a condones one's walking to his death when doing so serves a common interest greater than that of his own life.1 Abu Abdull~ h.. I truly wonder about one who says that al-Husain (– ) was counting on the support of the people of . and that he would . surpasses everyone else in doing so when he defied . Ahk~m al-Qur’~n. such as the case with regard to al-Husain (– ) taking such an amazing stand. 309. Nations have learned lessons from the courage demonstrated by the most oppressed one (– ). by the same token. saying that such an action is not suicide because there is a benefit in it for the Muslims: it strengthens their determination and provides them with a shot in the arm that rejuvenates their energy and determination to defend their principles and to die in dignity. the large multitude that had sunk in falsehood. such as the continuity of the creed or of the Shar§`a.” He said to his brother. Kã fa.

and their goals vary. he said to his companions. This is the same meaning we can derive from reviewing a statement made by Im~ m Zayn al-`} bid§n (– ) to Ibr~ h§m ibn Talhah ibn `Ubaydull~ h who had asked the Im~ m (– ) upon his return to Med§na. would provide for the religion of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and to the death of the innovations introduced therein. Shaikh al-Tãsi. It made the nation realize that Ahl al-Bayt (– ). so they will fill with my body empty stomachs and starved pouches. “I am not ignorant of their views. His martyrdom exposed the ugliness of the deeds committed by his foes. 75. . for I saw in a vision dogs mauling me. “I can see my limbs being cut to pieces by wild beasts in an area between al-Nawawees1 and Kerbal~ ’. Al-Saff~r. “Whoever among you decides to join us will be martyred. he is referring to achieving the objective for which the Master of Martyrs had sacrificed his A 1 2 A well-known area where there was a Christian cemetery. can anyone doubt this fact if he reads his sermon in Mecca when he wanted to travel from there to Iraq? In that sermon. It is to this principle that his letter to Banã H~ shim refers.” He made many such explicit and implicit statements in Med§na. they will take out the blood clot in me. Master of Martyrs was knowledgeable of what was going to happen to him. “When it is time for the prayers. and to what his knowledge and mentality could bear. The knowledge of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) is laborious and inaccessible. more than anyone else. would be an argument against that unlucky multitude . and that the nation was obligated to resist abominations. and so that his cries for help and support on the Day of Taff. “I see myself being killed. It is for this reason that the Im~ m (– ) responded to each person according to his level of absorption. and that he knew the intentions of the people of Kã fa. and the most wild among them was spotted. Yet he did not inform each and every person who objected to his march to Kã fa of all what he knew due to his knowledge that the facts were not to be revealed just to anyone. 10. but the will of All~ h is never over-ruled.” When they were at a mountain pass.To Ibn al-Zubayr he said. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t.” To `Abdull~ h ibn Ja`fer he said. . .”3 Here. Vol. }m~li. and on the way to Kã fa. an angel near to All~ h. Ibn Qawlawayh. was fully aware of his being killed on the day with which he was familiar and in the land of Kerbal~ ’. he said. Bas~'ir al-Daraj~t. p.”2 The victory he referred to in this letter was the outcome of his uprising and sacrifices: these would undermine the foundations of misguidance and remove the thorns of falsehood from the path of the purified Shar§`a and the establishment of justice and Tawh§d. statements which you will read in this book in their entirety. and whoever lags behind will miss victory. . or a believer whose heart All~ h tested with conviction. there is no way to avert an event already decreed. call the ath~ n and the iq~ ma. . People vary in their capacity to absorb. too. 3 52 . in Mecca. he (– ) said. AL-HUSAIN: A CONQUEROR . 66. 141. “I saw the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in a vision ordering me to do something which I am going to do. won?” Said the Im~ m (– ). to his conditions. So. But it is a divine mystery which concerned only him. In it. As soon as they invite me. p. “Who . l-Husain (– ) was convinced that he was a divinely supported conqueror due to the life his martyrdom . before and after the war. and it is then that you will know who the winner is. of people. they would have hunted me out and killed me.” All these answers to those who asked al-Husain (– ) to wait or to go somewhere else prove that the . p. he said. it cannot be tolerated except by a messenger prophet. “Had I hidden in a hole in these ravines. deserved to be the caliphs.” When `Amr ibn Lawth~ n suggested to him to stay away from Kã fa becoming fully informed of its people's intentions. They all testify that he (– ).

All what those pure souls were concerned about was fighting Banã Umayyah. 1. Any blessing short of blessing his progeny is curtailed. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. and the agony . too. 1 53 . daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ). for by All~ h you shall never be able to wipe our name out. One poet belonging to Ahl al-Bayt (– ) did well when he said: Had not all sublime merits been grouped in us. Women and children were terrified on account of the imminent peril. Yet they faced mountains of steel with open arms and relentless determination. greater than those offered during the Battle of Badr even though the latter was the first military victory achieved in Islam. the wise lady. pointed out to this victory when she said to Yaz§d. “Plot your plots.1 Zainab. Kashf al-Ghumma. was greater. the war uncovered its fangs. will you ever be able to wash away the shame and infamy of what you have committed. . and perfect your schemes. When we rose like lions while our foes Like beasts of burden came to throng. . . urging them to assault their enemy. 371 of the . Yet the band that sided with the truth did not lose heart. It likewise became mandatory on the nation to bless the Prophet (‰ ) and his pure Ahl al-Bayt (– ) whenever the believers make the tashahhud. Children's cries due to thirst filled everyone's ears. They came in seventy thousand strong. They spilled their pure blood only in defense of their honour. so the surface of the earth was in the end cleansed of their shame. Even water. As regarding the Taff event. nor will you ever attain our status. The government of the descendants of Harb became like a dog licking its nose. while the Prophet (‰ ) kept filling their ears with his calls for victory. exert your effort. 87. the suffering undergone during it was much more painful. and which was free for all. Throngs that filled the earth. and Banã Umayyah surrounded the grandson of the Prophet (‰ ) [and his tiny band] from all sides. hence. a testimony for the Prophet of Islam. Al-Sha`r~ni. The Muslims.sacred life and the failure of Yaz§d in his attempts to put out the noor of All~ h Almighty and the efforts of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) which his father [Mu`~ wiyah] had aimed to foil by killing the shah~ da after it had become mandatory on the nation during the five known times [of prayers]. The tides of death clamoured. The reason is that the Muslims had then braved death under the protection of the flag of the Prophet (‰ ) and were supported by angels numbering three thousand strong. Refer also to p. Oppression spurred it to action. The birds did not leave their nests. nor . Overwhelming every ravine and highway. Vol. meeting those dangers without counting on any support or expecting any help. All essential supplies were cut off from them. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. 194.” Anyone who contemplates upon the Taff event will clearly realize that the sacrifices offered in it are . faced the tyrants from Quraish feeling confident of subduing them. The Battle of Taff would have sufficed. nor will you ever kill our wahi. He trampled upon the beasts when He found no route to escape. p. So it came mounting its tyranny. book titled Zayn al-}bid§n by the author of this book [al-Muqarram]. the most plentiful of anything. The Islamic faith undermined the foundations of shirk and put an end to idol worship. p. something which was abandoned by others. was denied them.

whose face shone like a full moon. is an Islamic victory over the j~ hiliyya which was revived through the actions . those circumstances stunned you. 313. . . He would not have informed those who were with him from among the natives of Mecca and Med§na that he and those with him would be killed. Vol. in fact. p. and he even excused them from their oath of allegiance to him and released them. so you do not know what you are saying. Neither cowardice subdued them nor discouragement surfaced among them. 387. and he was the most knowledgeable man of such means. Al-Majlisi. or recognition. for such is the doing of one who has lost hope from attaining his objective. Yes. while the select few insisted on helping and supporting him. as a result. . goal. p. of the Umayyads and their fellows who did not seek the shining light of Tawh§d and Prophethood. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. Al-`Iqd al-Far§d f§ Ma`rifat al-Qir~’a . “Those people were shaken and their complexion kept changing colour whenever fighting intensified with the exception of al-Husain (– ) . or time separated 1 2 Shu`ar~’ al-Ghari. wal Tajw§d (henceforth referred to only as Al-`Iqd al-Far§d). 3. His army. He recited a line from their white tablet when he said. but any discreet critic can easily assess the nature and the schemes of such people. Bih~r al-Anw~r. we would still have preferred to rise with you rather than remain therein.1 The Taff battle. Vol. abandoned him. Vol. the people of Kã fa to talk about nothing in their meetings except their courage. p. Finding no way to belittle him. .”3 They said so after finding themselves unable to find fault with the honourable and dignified martyr. “Praise is due to All~ h Who honours us with being killed on your side! Had this world remained forever.) (Henceforth referred to only as Sayyid Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli). by so doing. and had we. Some of them said. He even tested them by granting them permission to leave him. Yet his holy soul. Sayyid Muhammed Rida ibn Abul-Q~sim ibn Fathallah ibn Nejm ad-D§n al-Husaini al-Kam~li al-Asterb~di al-Hilli (d. and that his family would surrender to captivity. . Ibn al-Ath§r. Those folks were convinced that they would win what they hoped to win as testified by their statements whereby they responded to al-Husain (– ) telling them on the eve of `} shã ra that the situation had reached a critical point. 1. Vol. chapter about death swoons. . 1346 .. . 134. p. Had this been his . 4.D. leave him. 2.So ask those among them who did survive: If they met us though we brought only seventy. insisted on telling the truth rather than misleading anyone. . where Yaz§d's reign is discussed. “I find my companions to be the most loyal. Nafs al-Mahmãm. Vol. More strange than such talk is Zajr ibn Qays al-Ju`fi’s following statement to Yaz§d: “We surrounded them as they sought refuge with thickets and holes just as pigeons seek to hide from an eagle./1927 A.H. 167.”2 I am surprised at the narrators and historians who transmitted a great deal and who charged those pure souls with what the face of humanity resents and is rejected by a truthful conscience. Al-Husain (– ) did not aim by his march to attain authority. A. p. then. citing Ma`~ni al-Akhb~r.” He (– ). Ibid. power. Al-M ajlisi. been immortalized. They said. 10. They. found them ready to sacrifice their lives waging jih~ d with him and defending the sanctity of the Shar§`a. attributed to B~qir al-Hindi. and my Ahl al-Bayt (– ) to be the most kind and the best in staying together. p. citing Ma`~ni al-Akhb~r. 135. he would have sought the means that would lead him to it. Those whose concern was accumulation did. they charged his companions and his Ahl al-Bayt (– ). 24. distorted history. may All~h fill his grave with noor. 4 3 54 . This is only because of the hidden disease residing in the body of those who mixed poison with oil and passed it on to simpletons who regarded it as a fact. and his might diminished.”4 May gravel fill your mouth! As if you never witnessed that terrifying situation when they demonstrated courage and determination to defend the creed. too. so much so that their stand on that day surpassed the Battle of Siff§n wherein they fought on the side of the chosen one (– ) as well as in other bloody wars which caused . in a . as is the case with all free men.

Their avowed enemy. Even as they were defenseless. you would have done what we had done. “Do you know who you are fighting? You are fighting the land's knights. 1. the product of wines. “Did you really assist in killing F~ tima's son? Did you kill the master of q~ ris? You have done . 247. crushing the cavalry right and left. anyway. Vol. the most Exalted One. “Woe unto . had they only had their way. p. in their time.” He then composed the following lines in his answer to her statement: Never did my eyes see their likes. his men saying. Vol. something monstrous.. “May I be stoned to death! Had you seen what we saw. so.? Or was it Ibn `Awsajah who advised Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir to support al-Husain (– ) even as he was drawing his . By All~ h! If you throw stones at them. the people of vision. as if he was not satisfied with sacrificing his life and with all the trials and tribulations he underwent? Or was it Abu Thum~ ma al-S~ `idi who. . nothing stopping them except either death or taking control of the government. seeking to please his Lord. too.you from them. or anything except the prayers whose time was approaching? Or was it Ibn Shib§b al-Sh~ kiri who laid down all his protective gear to entice someone to kill him so 1 Tabari. last breath. . since my youth. testified for them.”1 A man who had participated in the Taff Battle on the side of Ibn Sa`d was asked once.. `Amr ibn al-H~ jjaj. you will be able to kill all of them. We were assaulted by a group of men holding their swords and charging like fierce lions. desiring no wealth. they would have annihilated our entire army. Having killed Burayr. the wailing of the widows of Kã fian families everywhere throughout Kã fa on account of what those elite men had done with their swords to the enemies of All~ h and of His Messenger (‰ )? Your excuse is that you came out unscathed. Had we given them a chance. you! Did you really kill the Progeny of the Messenger of All~ h?!” He answered by saying. 307. 2 55 . what do you expect us to do. urging . . first Egyptian edition. throwing themselves in the jaws of death. those who welcome death with open arms. . Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha. Come forth. he was reprimanded by his wife who said to him. pain. . among the people. None strikes with the sword in the battle Better than one defending honour. so you forgot what actually happened. may you be guided! For you are the guide who is rightly guided: Today shall I meet your grandfather the Prophet. By All~ h! I shall never speak one word to you. was not concerned about calamities. They sought duels. accepting no security. Nor before. seeking to please Yaz§d. so you took to distorting their stand. T~r§kh. for which they will forever be appreciated. Ibn Abul-Had§d. None of you dares to come out to fight them except that they will kill him despite their very small number. p. But did you also forget the cries of the orphans. Which one of them. may you lose your mother?”2 Ka`b ibn J~ bir. 6. was upset to the extent that he shook in fear?! Was it Zuhayr ibn alQayn who put his hand on Husain's shoulder and said the following lines seeking his permission to fight: . Steadfast were they when swords and lances worked. protecting it. had described the truthfulness of their intentions.

. A number of famous men carry this last name and are mentioned by al-Sam`~ni. . p. The same is recorded by al-Sam`~ni. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-Lub~b. that. 6. Ibn al-Dayb~`. Tays§r al-Wu sãl. Al-Khar~'ij. Kanz al-`Umm~l. “al-Hajari. 223 of his book Al-Ansab al-Muttafiqa. and my descent will be honourable. he is said as having narrated had§th from his father from `Abdull~h. 3. 277 of his book Lubb al-Alb~b. He watched her as she entered an alley as he chased her. 1. so he went to the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and narrated to him what had happened to him. Part Two. Vol. Indian edition. Marw~n's offspring. that is purer for them. (Qur’~ n. When he could not see that woman any longer. 6 5 4 3 al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. discusses it on p. 138. 3. it is stated . al-Mirzab~ni. p. is discussed by Abu `Obaydah. and my smell will be good”? If we think about the statement of Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-B~ qir (– ) wherein he said. On p. surely All~ h is Aware of what they do. One of them is another Rushayd from Kãfa who narrates had§th from his father. commenting on Mir'~t al-`Uqãl. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. “The companions of my grandfather al-Husain (– ) did not feel the pain of iron.3 Narrators say that a young man from the Ans~ r came face to face with a woman. He is from Hajar.that he would win the honour of martyrdom even as courageous heroes well known for their bravery take pains in covering their bodies with all protective coverings so that death may not reach them? Or was it John who was excused [because of his age] by al-Husain (– ) from having to fight. Historians tell us that “Kath§r `Azza. a town near Med§na. p. chapter 160 which deals with what is lawful to see of a . “I make fun of them. 731. p. p.” He said to him. 305. . and according to Abu Dawãd. The moment he saw her. my descent is lowly. “You claim that you are one of our Sh§`as. 144. “Rushayd al-Hajari is named after a well known region in Yemen. Vol. he noticed that blood was running over his clothes and chest. .”1 the steadfastness of those righteous men will . become evident to us. Vol. turning them into snakes and scorpions. where Kath§r. so his face was wounded but he did not feel the pain at all. Al-Muwashshah. the poet. Ibn al-Qaysar~ni . 1. Nobody finds this statement unusual except one who does not know how someone in love feels. U sãl al-K~fi. On p. where the merits of According to `all~ma al-Hilli's book Al-Khul~sa. down to kiss the Im~ m's feet. and that they were not mindful of the pain and of the wounds which they received due to their attachment to their goal and to their eagerness to meet the Chosen One (‰ ). who is also quoted on p. his Last name is pronounced . so he fell . Vol. 285. Vol. he was in such awe that he kept peeling his fingers and kept bleeding without feeling any pain. 3. yet you praise . 129. citing Im~m al-B~qir (–). 511. his name is Rushayd. of Bukh~ri's T~r§kh. martyrdom are discussed. 2. Muhammed [ibn al-Hanafiyya] . of Tafs§r al-Burh~n explaining this same verse. Vol. . . . ibn Ali (–) [Im~m Husain's brother from his father's side] said to Kath§r once. so breathe upon me with the breath of Paradise so that my colour will be whitened. 24:30) The Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) is quoted as saying that a martyr killed for the Divine Cause does not feel the pain of killing except as a pinch5. p. Rushayd al-Hajari6 was called to Yaz§d's court where the latter asked him about what he had been 1 2 al-R~wandi. was once in his tent peeling arrows when `Azza entered. he does not feel any fatigue or exhaustion.” and so is the view of al-Sayyãti which is stated on p. “My colour is black. in the distant regions of Yemen. . . He did not see a piece of glass etched in a wall. It was then that the following verse was revealed:4 Tell the believing men that they should cast down their looks and guard their private parts. It is also mentioned in Lis~n al-`Arab 56 . tearfully begging and pleading to him saying. Vol. and I take their money!” al-Sadãq. woman. liked her. Al-Ag~ni. when such a lover's feelings are directed towards the person he loves. It is also discussed in T~j al-`Arãs. 37. 278. As regarding Hajar.”2 the poet. and how. my smell is bad. and he very much .

dissociate myself from you. Qanwa. Rij~l al-Kashshi. He . ordered Rushayd's tongue to be cut off. 339. Vol. Ibn Hajar. al-Saff~r. He said. The list of others who discuss it includes al-Mas`ãdi who does so . p. 73. p. in the discussion of “hajar. and he will not feel the pain of his wounds. 2. `You are with me in the life of this world as well as in the life hereafter. and it is mentioned on p. so the Commander of the Faithful (– ) named him “Rash§d. 6.” Ibn Ziy~ d said. they deemed him great and cut their hands and said: Far it is from All~ h! This is not a human. says. “O people! Ask me! These folks [meaning Ibn Ziy~ d's people] have one requirement in my regard which they have not yet carried out. 51. so he called him in and asked him about what the Commander of the Faithful (– ) had informed him. Then he said. he sees what eternal bliss awaits him as a reward for promoting the creed.'”3 Rushayd al-Hajari benefitted from keeping company with the Commander of the Faithful (– ) who taught him the knowledge of fatal events and of imminent calamities. by All~ h. He said to me. Praise to Him. `Are these dates good. “In this case. and once the Divine Attributes are manifested to him. 2.Tãsi. Bas~'ir al-Daraj~t. she is .” rightly guided. 11. p. `Will my ultimate destination be Paradise?' He (– ) said. 103 of al-Tibrisi's }m~li. 6. 461. He kept telling them what he had learned from the Commander of the Faithful (– ) of the knowledge of what fate has in store for men and the trials and tribulations they would have to endure as well as the distinction Ahl al-Bayt (– ) enjoyed over all other humans. legs and tongue.2 .” He ordered to have his hands and legs cut off and to spare his tongue. 246.4 He used to narrate what he was going through. “What have you done?! You cut off his hands and legs yet he tells people many serious matters!” Ibn Ziy~ d. referred to as “Amatull~h. first edition. and on p. of Bih~r al-Anw~r.'” Rushayd used to go to that date-tree quite often during daytime and water it. and many of his companions were present. He said. is quoted on p. his corpse was crucified1 on the door of `Amr ibn Hareeth's house. Vol. 280 of }th~r al-Bil~d by Zakariyya ibn Mahmãd al-Qazw§ni. `Daughter! I do not have any pain except like one feeling the pressure of people in a stampede.” and in Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-Nih~ya. . 51. yet I would not do so. M§z~n al-I`tidal. 12:31). On p. . 5 4 3 Shaikh al. 386. then he would crucify me on the trunk of this same date tree. . informed me that the adopted bastard (da`iyy). I came to visit him one day. majlis No.informed by the Commander of the Faithful Im~ m Ali (– ). Then Rushayd was taken back to his family where people surrounded him. p. Vol. 57 .5 Such condition enlightens anyone who carefully discerns it with the conviction that anyone who directs all his feelings towards the Lord. Vol. He used to say the following to it as he watered it: “For you have I been nourished. 1 2 Rij~l al-Kashshi. He (– ). `Then I shall never. }m~li. “Yes. therefore.” bondmaid of All~h. al-Thahbi. It also underscores what we have stated about a lover becoming unmindful of his pain once he sees the loved one just as the women [referred to in Sã rat Yousuf] did not feel the pain of cutting their fingers off at merely seeing the beauty of the truthful one. “My friend told me that you would require me to dissociate myself from him. Vol. I asked him. his daughter. legs and tongue. and for me have you been grown!” It was not long before [`Ubaydull~ h] ibn Ziy~ d became the w~ li of Kã fa. would force me to dissociate myself from him (from Ali) or cut off my hands. The man died the same night. first edition. and that you would then cut off my hands. of his book Waf~' al-Waf~'. this is a glorious angel” (Qur’~ n. I shall prove him a liar.' I asked him. 2. 6. 113 of Bish~rat al-Mustafa. p. Majlis No. on p.' I said. in a chapter about the Im~ms being acquainted with the conditions of their Sh§`as. and by others. Lis~n al-M§z~n.” A man hurried to Ibn Ziy~ d and said. He was in an orchard. as the Almighty tells us: “So when they saw him. p. `Ubaydull~ h [ibn Ziy~ d]. On the next day. He ordered dates to be brought to him from a date tree. “I asked my father about the pain he was suffering. . Yousuf (– ). 104. where Im~m Mãsa ibn Ja`fer (–) is discussed. O Commander of the Faithful?.

214. My father do I sacrifice for countenances that In Kerbal~ ’ shook hands with shields. so they. did not feel the pain of iron as a result of their love for the manifestations of divine beauty. Who says the following in verse 9 of Sã rat al-Hujurat: . They regarded their lives as cheap in defending The son of the Prophet's daughter. and to refer to the Greatest Legislator. T If two groups among the believers fight. 58 . and due to the eagerness of their souls to reach the ultimate end of sanctity after being electrified by their loyalty for the Master of Martyrs (– ). 3. . Lives that eagerly anticipate with All~ h a union. . reconcile them. Countenances that light up with hope Whenever the world frowns and drips of liberality. instead of the fabric Of the earth did they weave shrouds of wind. Introductory Note: he sacred Shar§`a requires people to rise in order to close the door of abomination and safeguard everyone against corruption. 49:9) The Commander of the Faithful (– ) rose during his caliphate to defend the sanctity of the Shar§`a and to attract the nation's attention to wake up from its slumber of ignorance. p. . who were the world’s cream of the crop. No water did they taste except From the heart's blood the wounds choked in pain Of their blood they would have drunk Only if it could their thirst quench. They glow under the darkness of clamour Like lanterns bright. (Qur’~ n. but if one of them transgresses over the other.Sah~ bah.2 AL-HUSAIN AMONG HIS COMPANIONS . excerpted from a poem eulogizing al-Husain (–) by Sayyid `Abdul-Muttalib al-Hilli.. then kill the one that oppresses till it returns to [accepting] All~ h's Commandment. Vol. it is stated that the number of women who had cut off their . Stripped were they. So they were spent while from Their sides dignity forever emits fragrance. in a footnote on decorating markets. . companions. 2 1 Shu`ar~' al-Hilla. 39 of D§w~n al. obliging the nation to do what all nations do: repel the oppression of oppressors who rebel against an Im~ m chosen to lead the nation after his having invited them to renounce their resistance to what is right. Praise and Exaltation to Him.Since those women1 did not feel the pain of their wounds. stealing the sight. nine of whom did so due to their love and passion [for Prophet Yousuf {Joseph} (–)]. . hands reached forty. It was mandatory on people to obey On p. it is not strange to find al-Husain's .

so it became a Sunnah to fight the people who promote oppression. . 2. moreover. Vol. the most learned man among the Muslims that he was. “Ali was . as well as by those who appreciated their . It is then that he directed his attention towards the court of justice to effect equity without discriminating between anyone in the nation and the other. He was accompanied by many senior sah~ bis. says. There is no disagreement among the nation that a leader is justified in postponing effecting retribution if doing the opposite may cause dissension and disunity. Ahk~m al-Qur’~n. So he waited till law and order were established and the general public had sworn the oath of allegiance to him. p. Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). Had Ali (– ) not fought them. “Ali was the Im~ m because they all regarded him as such. Hilyat al-Awliy~’. after the latter had sworn the oath of allegiance then reneged therefrom. . “Had not Ali (– ) fought Mu`~ wiyah because of his oppression. 26. . In the latter scenario. Adab al-Sh~fi`i wa Man~qibuh.him because he was the rightful Im~ m obedience to whom was mandatory.. “Whenever [Imam] Ali fought anyone.” The people of Syria asked him to seek revenge on those responsible for `Uthm~ n's murder. their tribes would have rallied behind them. Vol.”4 Abu Bakr. al-Jass~s.” Ali (– ) was the most wise among them in his view and speech.. Ali (– ) dealt with them with equity. p. 314. 2.D. 83-84 (Hayderabad edition). Man~qib Abu Han§fah. nobody among the Muslims would have learned how to deal with them! There is no doubt. 3. 492. a call supported by reason and documented facts. for example. 7.D. It was the obligation of 1 al-Khaw~rizmi. pp. . that Ali (– ) fought Talhah [ibn `Abdull~ h] and al-Zubayr [ibn al-`Aww~ m] .”1 His student. And during the Battle of the Camel. He accepted such an oath out of his concern lest some in the nation should be killed due to chaos and disorder and even the distortion of the creed and the demise of Islam as a religion. p. Nobody maintains a contrary view./981 A. has said. . footsteps. . right was on his . statements which serve as testimonials to their call. and he could not have abandoned people because he was the most worthy among them of receiving the oath of allegiance. . 31.H. 2 3 4 5 Abu Na`§m. . They decided that fighting those who rebelled against him was the right thing to do as testified by their statements which are recorded in their books. right in fighting the oppressive gang. as well as his having fought those who reneged from such an oath in the Battles of the Camel and al-Nahraw~ n. so that justice will be served and reconciliation is achieved. anyone who disobeyed Ali (– ) would be regarded as an oppressor killing whom is mandatory. Had he pursued those killers. Said he. . has said.H. although Ali (– ) was more right than anyone whom he fought. who died in 546 A. p. those who participated in the Battle of Badr./803 A.”2 Sufy~ n al-Thawri has said. followed in his . His waging a war against the Syrians who refused to swear the oath of allegiance to him. Al-Jaw~hir al-Mud§'a: Tabaq~t al-Hanafiyyah. so he (– ) said to them. . Vol. commendable. it is only then that you will achieve justice. [Imam] Abu Han§fah. . “Whenever Ali (– ) fought anyone. “First of all. Muhammed ibn al-Hasan al-Shayb~ ni (who died in 187 A. . 59 . we would not have been guided to fighting those who oppress. thus igniting a third tribal war.D.). was justified. Ahmed ibn Ali al-R~ zi al-Jassas (who died in 370 A. . he was on the right track versus the other.).H. . . . The majority of the Muslims recognized and swore the oath of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful. status.”5 Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi. side. you should swear the oath of allegiance as others have. “Silence with regard to those who were killed during the Battle of Siff§n is . then you can ask for justice. the judge./1152 A. Vol.”3 Im~ m al-Sh~ fi`i has said.

Ka`b ibn M~lik.”3 however. . .” 60 . and after the offspring of the murdered person present themselves at his court to 1 W hile discussing the oath of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful (–) on p. Obedience to him. they would have fallen in sin.” In his biography in Al-Ist§`~b. . 3.). . may you be sacrificed for the man. and having found themselves . Muhammed ibn Maslamah. it is stated that Mu`~wiyah wrote him a poem seeking to appease him and soliciting his support. 3. pp. in fact. Qud~mah ibn Maz`ãn. Vol. who died in 403 A.D. that excuse was.H. . assassination.” These men are discussed by Abu Mansãr. Mu`~ wiyah scolded Sa`d ibn Abu Waqq~ s1 for not participating in fighting Ali (– ).everyone to rally behind him and carry out his orders then make any demands.2 Abu Bakr. enumerating some of Ali's merits: “Ali (– ) is qualified for the caliphate by only some of these merits and by less than these virtues. by Abu Ja`fer al-Tabari on p. book A`l~m al-Nubal~'. is mandatory due to his having received the oath of allegiance from the most respected dignitaries among the Muh~ jirun and the Ans~ r on the third day following `Uthm~ n's . p. Maslamah ibn Mukhlid. Their asking him to kill `Uthm~ n's murderers prior to swearing the oath of allegiance to him was a mistake because electing a man simply so that he would kill a group of men for killing one man is not right even if his ijtih~ d determined that that should be the case: he may later. al-Nu`m~n ibn Bash§r. Salamah ibn Salamah ibn W aqsh. 2 3 Ahk~m al-Qur’~n. of his book Al-Fat~wa al-Misriyya. and al-Mugh§rah ibn Shu`bah.then kill the one that oppresses till it returns to [accepting] All~ h's Commandment” (Qur’~ n. Al-Mustadrak. . He is right in his views and in whatever he took charge of. Hass~n ibn Th~bit. whereupon the Im~m (–) said. Having seen everyone else swearing to him. Vol./1913 A. . 79-83. The author says that the first to swear it was Talhah. the execution of all those who participated in killing `Uthm~ n is not valid except after proving them guilty. for short). . Vol. obligated. . They are also discussed on p. leave his discussion. .. swore the oath of allegiance to him before al-Zubayr and Talhah had arrived. had only regretted his reluctance to fight al-fi'a al-b~ ghiya (the oppressive gang). But since they all did not do so. 74.. does not harm the Im~ mate of Ali (– ). simply because the inauguration had already been completed. meaning Mu`~ wiyah and his followers. the most . wal Umam (T~r§kh. As for `Uthm~n. said the following after . . Vol. of his renown history book T~r§kh Akhb~r al-Mulãk . swore the oath of allegiance to him. 2. 3. 224-225 (Egypt: 1331 A.. 49:9). “. They. “We swore the oath of allegiance to you against our wish. `Abdull~h ibn `Omer. Had they preferred not to do so./1013 A. they became oppressors like the ones referred to in the verse saying. Vol. of al-Thahbi's . on p. Muhammed al-Baqill~ ni. Ibn alAth§r says. These insisted that only he was the most knowledgeable among the sah~ bah. al-H~kim. Even if it is proven that Ali (– ) permitted the killing of a number of men for having killed only one single person. . him by saying that he. Abu Sa`§d al-Khudri. “Among those who did not swear it are: Sa`d ibn Abu W aqq~s. `Abdull~h ibn Sal~m. according to the same ijtih~ d. therefore. . . `Abdul-Q~hir al-Baghdadi. “This . Us~mah ibn Zayd. al-Zubayr and Talhah. by Ibn Taymiyyah on p. Ka`b ibn Ajrah. 290 of his book U sãl ad-D§n. 226. decide to do the opposite. Their saying to him. . qualified. Sa`d responded to . 114. They pleaded to him in the Name of All~h Almighty to safeguard the rest of the nation and to protect D~ r al-Hijra. commenting that his excuse was not acceptable neither by All~h nor by His Messenger. 4. Suhayb ibn Sin~n. Zayd ibn Th~bit. In his answer.D. and he deserves to be the Im~ m. For such a view is worn out by affliction. Fad~lah ibn `Ubayd. The reluctance of Sa`d ibn Abu W aqq~s to swear it is discussed on pp. therefore. . . oath shall be violated. 153. he responded with these verses: Do you really covet what Ali is granted?! Bid farewell to such hopes! One day of his life is better than you living Or dead. 1. and the one most worthy of it. . too. 233 of al-Baqill~ni's book Al-Tamh§d. Vol. R~fi` ibn Hudayj. of his book book Al-K~mil.H. “I will not follow anyone unless he gives me a sword with a tongue that speaks and eyes that see in order to distinguish a believer from an apostate.

. Abu Mansã r `Abdul-Q~ hir al-Baghdadi (d. 229-232. and it avoids any worsening of the situation. Sayyid al-Murtada. “We testify that all those who disputed with the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ) with regard to his caliphate were oppressors. . Vol.1 Abu `Abdull~ h. Muhammed ibn Ish~ q ibn Khuzaymah. p. and that he was right and accurate in judgment when he fought the Battle of the Camel 1 2 Al-Tamh§d. pp. H~ kim goes on to cite `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~ b] saying. ‘. except that I did not fight the oppressive gang as All~ h Almighty had ordered me. . 405 . better known as al-H~ kim al-Naishapuri (d. Quraish do not match his word and deed. The first among all men to pray. verse saying. “The narratives relevant to the Commander of the Faithful (– ) receiving the oath of allegiance are all authentic according to the general consensus. He is ready to sacrifice in every fight.H./1038 A. . .”3 Al-H~ kim al-Naishapuri quotes Abu Bakr. W hen even valiant warriors are in fright: He is the one named for giving the beggar His ring even as he stood for the prayer.” and so does Ibn Idr§s. “Nothing distresses me. and if the killing does not lead to as much chaos and disorder as that which followed `Uthm~ n's murder. added these lines . saying that he is . Postponing effecting retribution to its right time is better for the nation. p. p. 429 A. 4 Ma`rifat `Ulãm al-Had§th. Al-Mustadrak..”2 Then al.. 61 . Muhammed ibn `Abdull~ h. Vol. has said.D.then kill the one that oppresses till it returns to [accepting] All~ h's Commandment’ (Qur’~ n. Al-Mustadrak.D.4 . Al-Thahbi collected such narratives in his book Talkh§s al-Mustadrak without rebutting them.H. or even more so. 3. Hasan's father suffices us . Besides the best of women [Khad§ja]: All~h is the One W ho bestows every bliss. A.demand retribution for their father's murder. 115.). righteousness were unanimous in recognizing Ali's Im~ mate when he was singled out for it following `Uthm~ n's murder.) has said. 84. 2. The most knowledgeable among Quraish Of the Book and the Sunnah is he. The one and only from among his family. 49:9). 463. to the poem cited above: Of the Messenger of All~h he is the wasi ./1015 A. Vol. 67. . . None can surpass him among Quraish When he does ride and charge.. His knight for a long time in every way. Against the dissensions we fear: The best of people we found him to be. al-H~kim. used to hear his mentors say. and it is in reference to them that Khuzaymah ibn Th~ bit delivered these poetic lines as he stood before the pulpit: If fealty to Ali we swear. . of his book Al-Fu sãl al-Mukht~ra. “All the people of . And all good is in him indeed. 2. on p. in as far as the . 3 al-H~kim.

' which is the right thing to do. Vol.. Sharh Sah§h Muslim. .”1 . our master Ali was also right in fighting for its implementation. . 286-292. 1 U sãl ad-D§n./1191 A. fulfillment of the prediction of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) to him wherein he said.H. . 234 (Egypt: 1343 A. he was the leader (the Im~ m) the oath of allegiance to whom was a must. 433. let alone obedience. he would not have been right in killing those folks because the call had included them due to their being in “dar al-salam” and to being Muslims. Ali. the Hanafi (d.) has said. “Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (a) was the rightful . ..but if one of them transgresses over the other. which results in no disobedience to All~ h. 10. . in those wars. fought the Battle of the Camel and when he fought Mu`~ wiyah at Siff§n. Siff§n and the Kh~ rijites at al-Nahraw~ n. killed by Mu`~ wiyah's followers.. ‘./1283 A. during the time of dissension. `Amm~ r. . fought the people of Harã ra at Nahraw~ n in the presence of the sah~ bah in . a Sh~ fi`i. 2.D. or likewise stopped a due payment. 336 and p.H. Vol. 476 A. Such a view is relevant to a particular time which is: When his religious leader does not call upon him to bear arms. support and assistance must be rendered to the right party against the oppressors according to the verse saying.”3 Al~ ’ ad-D§n al-Kasani al-Hanafi (d. The Prophet (‰ ) had said to .) says. no matter for what reason. p. in a footnote about giving advice to one going on a military campaign.). p.' an he was. pp. Our master. p.” His fight for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’~ n was his fighting the Kh~ rijites. . “O Ali! You will be fought for implementing the Qur’~ n just as we fight in defense of its revelation. `The oppressive party shall kill you. Anyone whom he called to fight them was obligated to respond positively and not to lag behind so long as he was able to do so because obedience to the Im~m. he is of the view that a man should take to staying at home.”2 The gist is that Ali (– ) was right in fighting those parties because .”5 Ibn Hum~ m. . 681 A. Al-Irsh~d fi U sãl al-I`tiq~d. Their rebellion against him. 140. Im~ m when he took charge. What is narrated about Abu Han§fah with regard to the . did not justify their actions.and Mu`awiyh's followers in the Battle of Siff§n. Most of the sah~ bah and t~ bi`§n. Al-Muhaththab fil Fiqh al-Sh~fi`i. the Im~ m ought to fight it in accordance with the verse saying. Abu Bakr fought those who refused to pay the zak~ t. Vol. But if he does. “If a group .). 338./1084 A.D.D.4 Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (d. . “Ali was on the right track .).H. p. subject of when dissension happens among the Muslims. 677 A.. 7. 478 A./1086 A.D. so fight the one that oppresses. then obedience to him is obligatory as we have stated earlier. This had§th .) has said. The Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) was right in defending its revelation.D. advocating his deposition according to its own way of thinking. Im~ m al-Haramain al-Juwaini (d.D. indeed. supported by all Muslim scholars. has said. proves that Ali is our Im~ m and master because the Prophet (‰ ) compared the fighting undertaken by Ali in defense of implementing the Qur’~ n with that of his own fighting in defense of its revelation. in a chapter dealing with the injunctions relevant to those who renege. 62 . has said./1279 A. 49:9). 2 3 4 5 Bad~i` al-San~i`. of Muslims dissents from the leading Im~ m. Had he not been a rightful Im~ m. then kill the one that oppresses till it returns to [accepting] All~ h's Commandment’ (Qur’~ n. is an obligation. `. were of the view that . Abu Ish~ q Ibr~ h§m ibn Ali al-Sh§r~ zi al-Fayrooz~ b~ di (d. whereas those who fought him were oppressors. . “Ali (– ) was on the right track when he .H./1925 A. therefore.H. while Ali (– ) fought the people of Basra during the Battle of the Camel and fought Mu`~ wiyah at . . 587 A.H. thus becoming rebellious. .

diverse and the fire of . namely Mu`~ wiyah and his army. p. 2.). Vol.' Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ) and those with him were the ones who fought them. al-Zubayr. The proof is in the statement of the Prophet (‰ ) to `Amm~ r: `The transgressing party shall kill you. p. Mu`~ wiyah was in Syria. none remained except Ali. courage. meaning when . from marching?' He said. `} yisha.” Al-`Iqd al-Far§d. (‰ ). “When Ali (– ) became the caliph. . Vol. 2. p. She then said. 728 A. the views were. “No. Based on the statement of the Prophet ..D. Al-Tabari. T~r§kh./1362 A. was the caliph. p. Then they were unanimous in regarding Ali as being on the right track when he fought the fellows of the Camel.”5 Abu `Abdull~ h ibn Muhammed ibn Muflih. who was then the most worthy of . so. dissension was lit.something which proves that they. Ali and his followers are closer to the truth than Mu`~ wiyah and his party. 763 A.H. “During his time. Vol. Ibn Qutaybah. Bad~i` al-Faw~'id. p. being the caliph and the best of the remaining sah~ bah. 63 . . 59. 4 5 Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. Vol. The Prophet (‰ ) had said. 208. realize all their plans for the goodness of the nation till the Harã ri renegades [the people of ./1328 A.”3 Al-Zayla`i (d. Vol. while . Ali was the foremost of the nation and the very best. 762 A. 5. piety. where those who participated in the Battle of the Camel are discussed. and he could not be a caliph while Ali (– ). and all his virtues were quite obvious and well known to everyone. 251. Vol.H. were the oppressive party. the Command of All~ h Almighty and that of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). while enumerating the guidance traditions in the volume dealing with a judge's ethics.H. 69. nor those who were the best among the nation. Nasb al-R~ya. nevertheless. There were those who sided with Ali and those who refrained.” He goes on to say. the latter said. ./1361 A. “Kit~b al-Qad~’” (the book of judicial decisions).” meaning Ibn al-Zubayr. `I saw a man who did so even before you. and `Uthm~ n had already died. he killed them. has said. too. `I shall not offer him anything. 1. She said once to `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer. 5. nor could the caliph. and those who supported them. In obedience to . p./1351 A. . “Shall we bury you near the Messenger of All~h?” She answered by saying. 3. 461.) has said. in fact. 221.D. None among the ahl al-shã ra [those named by Abu Bakr as members of the advisory committee] remained except he and Sa`d. 224.”1 Ibn Taymiyyah (d. Ibid.D. 4.'”4 Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d. p. “When `Uthm~ n was killed and people swore the oath of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). “Right was in the hand of Ali (– ) when his turn came [to lead the Muslims]. p. “Had you admonished me not to march. 751 A.D. .) has said. “Ali (– ) was the closest to righteousness than Mu`~ wiyah and the most fair in fighting those who transgressed. `} ’isha expressed her regret [at having fought Ali during the Battle of the Camel] according to Abu `Amr as he so records in his book Al-Ist§`~ b. Al-Ma`~rif. where `}yisha . Ali's feats. 288. is quoted as saying. . nor shall I swear the oath of allegiance to him nor visit him. There was no complete unity. namely Talhah. The latter had already abandoned such a subject.” Ibn Hubayrah depends on Ubayy's had§th to advocate that people should renounce taking to arms during dissension.' There is no contention that he [`Amm~ r] was on Ali's side when Mu`~ wiyah's followers killed him. `O father of `Abdul-Rahm~ n! What stopped you for prohibiting me . Harã ra] rose to fight the Commander of the Faithful Ali (– ) and those who supported him. his being the foremost to accept Islam.” 2 3 1 Majmã` Fat~wa Ibn Taymiyyah. his knowledge. Fath al-Qad§r. where it is indicated that `}yisha was asked.”2 He has also said. `The renegade group must be killed [even] by the closest of both parties to righteousness. .H.) has said. “I wish I had died twenty years before the Battle of the Camel. “Any Sh§`a group admits that Mu`~ wiyah could never be compared with Ali (– ) in as far as the caliphate is concerned. the Hanbali scholar (d. I would not have gone out. and there was none when he took charge better than him. Vol. as well as the fellows of Siff§n.

60 of Nasras's book Siff§n. .”2 . “Never did I ever come to know of . pp. and . he killed a large number. “Had Banã Umayyah agreed that we require fifty persons from Banã H~shim to . that he never killed `Uthm~n nor condoned his killing. Nor did he prohibit anyone. `Utbah. Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–) is quoted as saying. “A religious authority is bound to fight those who transgress because the sah~ bah have all conceded that this should be the case. This is the reason why he [Mu`~wiyah] attributed `Uthm~n's murder to Ali (–) and publicized it among the people. that he never killed `Uthm~n nor wanted anyone to kill him. 4. p. the righteous and the truthful person who never had to swear that he was.” On p. On p. 170 of Ibn al-Sikk§t's book Isl~h al-Mantiq. `Urwah ibn al-Zubayr is quoted as saying. and trustworthy person to advise them and to inquire about their reasons for disobeying him in accordance with the incident when Ali (– ) sent Ibn `Abb~ s to the Kh~ rijites at al-Nahraw~ n. In fact. and others. by being murdered. Shaybah. not fight them before sending them a discreet.D. Vol. On p. 2. I am ready to challenge them to swear at the Ka`ba fifty times that I did not start anything against `Uthm~n. 141. 4. Ibn `Omer. Vol.” . of Ibn Taymiyyah's book Majmã` al-Fat~wa al-Misriyya./1449 A. He said. the truthful that he was.e. “Al-Mugh§rah ibn al-Akhnas was killed the same day with `Uthm~n . Murderers rallied behind him. 8. Vol.” meaning producing fifty witnesses to his innocence. . thus causing some of them to return to his obedience.”4 1 2 Al-Furã`. in a chapter dealing with Ali being innocent of `Uthm~n's murder. Us~ mah. and He will cause me. Tuhfat al-Muht~j./1567 A. 112. Fath al-B~ri: Sharh al-Bukh~ri. on the right track when he fought those who waged against him the wars of the Camel. “Ali (–) used to say the following when he was in Basra: . Among what he said was this: As for Ali.) has said. .” On p. .'” On p. of Al-`Iqd al-Far§d. swore. Vol. `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer. to die [in a like manner. and that he should . 235 of al-B~qill~ni's book Al-Tamh§d. we would have done so. 110 and p. avoid it. forsaking fighting the Kh~rijites.H. 64 . . too. nor do we know who killed him. 974 A. From among the dignitaries belonging to `Abd Shams whom he killed. Mahmã d ibn Hajar al-Haythami (d.” On p. in the discussion of the subject of insinuating. he sought refuge at home. 240. Siff§n charged Ali (– ) of collaborating with those who murdered `Uthm~ n while he was innocent of it.) has said. in a chapter dealing with requiring the renegades to repent. the author states the following: “Ali (–) used to say the following when he was in Kãfa: `If Banã Umayyah wish. 2. His son composed poetic verses in which he commended Ali (–) for not participating in what those folks [the assailants] had done. 1. but All~h killed him. . it is stated that. deep understanding of the events. the author says. Vol. Siff§n. Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–) is quoted as saying. `By All~h! I did not kill `Uthm~n. Ali being accused of killing `Uthm~n till people swore the oath of allegiance to him [to Ali as the new caliph]. as it came to happen]. none among the Muslims supported the notion that anybody was excused for lagging behind without supporting Ali (– ). or his uncle. and he took part in killing his . and I am with him. equitable.” since he swore. . nor did I condone his killing. it is stated that. Vol. Muhammed ibn Maslamah. 852 A. of T~j al-`Arãs: Sharh al-Q~mãs. it is only then that he was accused. So he neither issued an order in its regard. i. p. would be killed. and that people should . far he was from doing something like that. Masrã q. Ibn Abul-Had§d records a statement which testifies to his . “By All~h! I never killed `Uthm~n nor insinuated that anyone should kill him. “Mu`~wiyah very much deviated from Ali's line because he [Ali] had killed his [Mu`~wiyah’s] brother Hanzalah during the Battle of Badr.H. grandfather. . in addition to his uncle al-W al§d. 244. . “All~h caused him to die. Vol. As regarding what happened thereafter. Egyptian edition. 240. “I am leaving this world and there is no bigger sigh in my heart than having been reluctant to support Ali (– ). Vol. and al-Ahnaf did so. and their likes.D. On p. And when Sa`d. for example. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. 3. Muhammed ibn S§r§n is quoted as saying. . too. On his death bed. 274. in a chapter dealing with insinuation and how people ought to .” whereupon some people thought that his statement “and I am with him” meant that he was predicting that he. “Ali (–) . On p.”3 He goes on to say. On p. swear that we never killed `Uthm~n. they all regretted it. “Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib was . of his book Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha (Egyptian edition). .” 4 3 al-Nawawi. said. 224. 112.” The same has been reported about Masrã q and others because of such reluctance. “The people of the Camel and of . he meant something like.`Uthm~ n was killed. 12. . when `Uthm~n's mansion was attacked. forsake it.1 Ibn Hajar al-`} sqalani (d. 2. a chapter dealing with . Vol. “Ali (–) was too fearful of angering All~h to assist anyone in killing `Uthm~n. 542-543.

Vol. he was supporting Ali (– ). . t~ bi`§n. `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer ibn al-`} s used to say. `If people dispute. necessity for killing those who transgress because Ali (– ) was too distracted. Muhammed Kurd Ali.” He used to narrate what the Prophet (‰ ) used to say.” and that the oppressive party was that of Mu`~ wiyah and his gang. 2 3 Rãh al-Ma`~ni. al-`Ayni. The incident took place against his wish. Those who participated in killing him belonged to most of the tribes.H. the scholar of exegesis. . was right and justified in not arresting those who participated in killing `Uthm~ n. “The Prophet's statement to `Amm~ r: `The transgressing party shall kill you. edition). 2. `Umdat al-Q~ri. never used a sword or a lance.' and the son of Sumayya is `Amm~ r who sided with Ali (– ). with fighting the transgressors to be involved with jih~ d.) has said. Nayl al-Awt~r. 151 (Egyptian edition). to side with Ali in fighting the transgressing party. 1100 A.3 Muhammed Kurd Ali has said. It was impossible for him to arrest them.”2 Abul-Than~ ’ al-‘} lã si. during his caliphate. This means that fighting transgressors is better than participating in jih~ d. p. Said he.The discussion between Ibn `Abb~ s and the Kh~ rijites is detailed on p.' and the fact that the supporters of Mu`~ wiyah killed him at Siff§n because . and they were very large in number. he produced an excuse which will not avail him on the Day of Judgment. A transgressor is one who unfairly declares his mutiny against his leading Im~ m.) quotes a tradition of the Prophet. 48 of Khas~ ’is Am§r al. 380.”4 The above are texts excerpted from Sunni scholars' books testifying to the fact that Ali (– ) was more worthy of being the caliph than anyone else. Al-‘} lã si did not rebut it. he would have obliged. and that whoever rebelled against him deserved to be fought till he returned to the right course. p.D. . “This proves that Ali (– ) and his supporters were right. “I . and that Mu`~ wiyah was wrong in following his own personal views. those who killed `Uthm~ n. the son of Sumayya . Then he documents how `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~ b] regretted his reluctance .D. that is. Such was the choice made by the best from among the sah~ bah and the . even if he had known who they were. 7. 26. and it was not in his interest to enrage numerous tribes that supported him then. Vol. has cited a number of Hanbali scholars advocating the . Mu’min§n by al-Nass~ 'i. p.. . “Sumayya's son will be killed by the oppressive party. transgressing party as All~ h Almighty had commanded me to.”6 1 Sharh al-Shif~’./1840 A. 166 (the 1326 A. . Vol. 138. Al-Shih~ b al-Khaf~ ji (d. 4 5 6 65 . All~ h glorified his countenance. 11. This is what we owe All~ h to say: Ali. Ali (– ) used to swear by All~ h that had the Umayyads required him to produce fifty truthful men from Banã H~ shim to swear by All~ h that he did not murder `Uthm~ n. Ali could not have faced them all by himself. “Ali did not violate the Sunnah when he dissociated himself from ./1909 A. narrated by Abu Sa`§d [al-Khudri] wherein he says. Vol. p. but the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) required me to obey my father. says./1689 A. nor condoned his murder. Among the latter was Uways al-Qarni who was a foot soldier during the Battle of Siff§n. . “I regretted nothing more than not fighting the . is a clear indication that the righteous caliph was Ali (– ). since they supported him. “My nation shall split into two parties between whom renegades will come out who should be killed by the closest party to righteousness. 2. 346. will always be right.H. Ibid.D.5 . 1255 A. Another had§th by him (– ) and his progeny.H. Al-Islam wal Had~ra al-`Arabiyya.”1 Al-Shawk~ ni (d. whereas Mu`~ wiyah and his followers were wrong. or even to arrest some of them.” He says. Vol. and I did. When he was asked about why he did not participate in the Battle of Siff§n on Ali's side. p. . . peace of All~ h be upon him and his progeny.

and al-Nahraw~ n a great deal so that nobody would have any excuse when the books of deeds are . peace of All~ h be upon him and his infallible offspring. hese are the guidelines that the father of `Abdull~ h. and the umma then had no choice except to obey him and carry out his orders. followed on the Taff Day. 179. Then he informs them that this vanishing life does not bring anyone who is immersed in his love for it except loss. The Commander of the Faithful (– ) followed this plan of action which Islam canonized during the first three days after his calling upon his companions not to transgress the commandments of the Shar§`a and not to rush to fight so that the other party might be the transgressing one that fought the believers. He may do so by admonition and by citing Qur’~ nic verses in order to enlighten those whose desires blinded them.This is nothing but falsehood and deception. therefore. “And if they intimidate you so that you may associate with me that of which you have no knowledge. He . Obedience to the Im~ m who has received the oath of allegiance was mandatory on all Muslims.1 The sacred Shar§`a has required the Im~ m of the nation to win his argument against anyone who rebelled against him and abandoned obedience to him by reminding him of All~ h's incessant favours on His servants despite their rebellion and oppression. do not obey them” (Qur’~ n. went as far as prohibiting him. 3. p. al-Husain (– ).2 He. He did . AL-HUSAIN (– ) ON THE TAFF DAY . his family and companions from drinking the water regarding which the one who brought the divine Shar§`a. stood to address that multitude that had been immersed in misguidance in order to explain his argument. in fact. The verse saying. enjoining obedience to one's father if such obedience requires forsaking the obligations or committing what is prohibited? Of course not. in a chapter dealing with a traveller's prayers in a section about one who passes . hence the argument against it would be established as the one that started the aggression. through a country and marries someone there. The prohibited association referred to in this verse. the prayers. used to perform her prayers in full when she marched to Basra to fight Ali (– ) because to shorten . in her view. by doing so. spread wide open and every argument of those called upon by him and who insist on disputing with him and in being stubborn is refuted. `} yisha. Those who were guided by All~ h to conviction were enlightened by the light of his guidance. Nayl al-Awt~r. He first acquainted them with the loss of this vanishing world by anyone who threw himself in its lap. admonished the fellows of the Camel. How could he find it palatable to oppose the truth by thus misinterpreting a statement made by the Prophet (‰ )? Does the Shar§`a permit interpreting the had§th as . 66 . . peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. Then he resorted to reminding them of his status with the T 1 al-Shawk~ni. whereas those who strayed from the path of righteousness did not. 2 Nahjul Bal~gha. They.” Im~ m Husain (– ). Vol. Glory to Him. and no obedience to one's father can take precedence over obedience to the Im~ m (– ). . Siff§n. said. was done when one travels in obedience to All~ h's Commandments. 3. Vol. “All people have an equal right to water and (their animals to) pasture. it would not bring him anything but disappointment. so that they may see the path of guidance and realize the shining truth. wanted to establish his argument against his foes. 29:8) may be inclusive. not order his men to start the war despite the persistence of his foes in adhering to misguidance and in fighting him with all their might and means. 304. It implies prohibiting forsaking obedience to the Prophet (‰ ) and to the Im~ m who has received the oath of allegiance from the Muslims. thereupon. p. may connote prohibiting forsaking obedience to All~ h.

he unveiled the curtain from the `Alawide pride according to which he grew up. It is then that he. who then conveyed to the one who was loved and chosen by All~ h. It is such disdain that he and other offspring descending from Ali (– ) used to study day and night and round which their meetings revolved. said. and when it became quite clear to him that they insisted on their misguidance and stubbornness. bestowed upon His wali and hujjah. . or the faithful should ever submit to humiliation. Before lances thirsty for blood. men of dignity and souls too proud to prefer obedience to a mean and lowly person over death in honour and in dignity. may All~h have mercy on his soul. To sacrifice and personify such struggle for eternity. All the unusual events that took place during that bloody encounter. . he would have given it back to them. the elderly. who conveyed the divine message and who in turn entrusted it to his grandson the Master of Martyrs (– ). or we accept humiliation and submission to his authority. To him will every h~ fiz refer at will. All~ h rejects that we. peace of All~ h be upon him. It is far from us to accept humiliation. How could he to a lowly one his submission wield? Only to All~ h did he ever submit and yield: Mightier than the shield is his will. youths of Paradise. He removed the curtain from the feeling of disdain to anyone who refused to abide by the commandments of All~ h and His Messenger (‰ ). and the adults who did not obtain the permission of their parents to participate in jih~ d. and by his own father. the women. . These are [the fruit of] good and pure chambers. informed by his grandfather. one limited to a particular circumstance and to a specific place. . the blind. Let it be known that I shall fight with this family although our number is small. he raised a copy of the Holy Qur’~ n over his head and invited them to accept its arbitration. the invalid. 1 Excerpted from a poem in praise of al-Husain (–) by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. and to rise to close the door against falsehood. testifying to himself and to his brother al-Hasan (– ) that they were the masters of the . the one . The da`iyy and the son of the da`iyy required us to choose one of two: either to let his men draw their swords against us. 67 . eager to kill. One who insisted to live only in dignity. it likewise exempted from such jih~ d the children. it was no more than a divine lesson fixed by the most sacred tablet in the world of perfection. the supreme saviour (‰ ). His Messenger. namely Muhammed (‰ ). one received by Gabriel. To one big as the world and greater still. . When all these precious pieces of advice fell on deaf ears. and despite the betrayal of those who promised to support us. But the show of force at the Taff violated its greatest canon. not previously permitted in order to serve the interests and the mysteries which are beyond the reach of men's comprehension. permitting even what was . wrong. the trusted archangel (– ). whose essence cannot be comprehended by men were things whereby the Master. rather. Such was the most oppressed martyr (– ). Then he reminded them of the fact that had they had anything with him which belonged to them. Finally. the wasi (– ). and such are its injunctions regarding inviting people to righteousness. Al-Husain (– ) did not bring about a new Sunnah in jih~ d. Praise to Him. let alone the testimony to this fact given by the one who does not speak out of his own desires but was guided by the divine wahi: such a testimony is the criterion for distinguishing right from . . .1 Such are the commandments of the purified Shar§`a. opting to act against the commandments of All~ h Almighty and His Messenger (‰ ). Just as it mandated jih~ d against those who promote misguidance as well as the polytheists. .Prophet of Islam (‰ ).

except out of fear of Islam's sword. to imply that Muslim ibn `Aq§l was the deputy of al-Hujjah. adhered. the hujjah. Just as Muslim did not taste water till he died of thirst. infallibility. nor can the minds comprehend its deep meaning. rose with that small group of the elderly and the children. al-Husain (– ). who shook the ranks of the enemy till he finally had access to the . deeds. the calls that confused and upset the minds that became the subject of all meetings. Taking his water straight to the tent. Prophet's words. 159. in contrast with those who were not apprehensive in regard to conscience or kinship. . water. He derives his deed from the Shar§`a And due to his unshaken conviction. he did not see in the Shar§`a. The reader must not misread this statement . p. the wasi. of what those tyrants and their ancestors had committed of shame and infamy. Knowing the extent of thirst of the Master of Martyrs and that of the Prophet's ladies and of the children who descended from F~ tima (– ). required. so was the case with the father of al-Fadl. . any provision for him to drink out of concern for the thirst of the hujjah of his time even . was permitted to drink even what was najis. 2 1 al-Irb§li. his zeal fiery. Just to be told that his tents were being looted. Im~ m Husain's brother] drank the same milk and graduated from the same school of Im~ mate and . with a little thereof. So al-`Abb~ s followed his example as he Breathed his last in honour. al. of his time. He found no provision in the creed to quench His thirst while his brother was burning with thirst. al-Mehdi. therefore. the one whose extent cannot be realized. and women. which he had learned from his father. . Kashf al-Ghumma. Muslim ibn `Aq§l. with the deeds committed by those tyrants whose fathers did not accept Islam. and from both of his brothers who were Im~ ms whether they stood or sat2. when they pretended to have done so. Such testimony qualified them to serve as role models in their good deeds. distinguished from all others by his knowledge. . He did not taste of the Euphrates following his example. He was.1 He suffered from acute thirst to the extent that he . acquainted the succeeding generations that came across this epic. according to the . may All~h hasten his reappearance. It is to these same traditions that the martyr of Kã fa. who was the hujjah. being determined to eradicate the Prophet's family and relatives. Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) achieved the objective when the clouds of doubt were dispelled by the light of his shining revolution and the calls of his ladies. . Both Ibn `Aq§l and the moon of the H~ shemites [Abul-Fadl. indeed. But alas! Destiny stood between him and the achievement of his desire. Abu `Abdull~ h. al-Husain (– ).Abu `Abdull~ h. earned a testimony from the Infallible Im~ ms (– ) in the sincerity of intention through their readiness to sacrifice their lives for the sake of the creed. enthused with zeal. They. Like al-Husain who controlled the water source . with infants . So he threw water away. where al-Husain (–) is discussed. sensing the gravity Of the situation. Muslim ibn `Aq§l was deputy of Im~m Husain (–). . `Abb~ s. __ Tr. al-`Abb~ s. 68 . an abundance of wisdom and divine faculties which his position as deputy of the Im~ m. But the line followed by the martyr of the Taff. the like of which history has never witnessed.

Testing is done by a wise person who knows what was and what will be. Vol. and of the firmness of His prophet. Vol. p. . p. 323. I think tomorrow will be our last day in facing these folks. 238. Had it not been for that permission to desert issued by the custodian of the Shar§`a and for those words which their pure souls permitted. 24. This is something to which we pointed out when we wanted to acquaint the reader with the gifts adorning al-Husain’s followers and those of Ahl al. It is also narrated by Shaikh al-Muf§d in his book Al-Irsh~d. O Master of Martyrs! How wise your statement and deeds. there are sublime lessons for all those who wish to follow in the footsteps of those honourable men to rise above loving this life and to die under the banner of dignity and not to submit to the oppressive authority. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. you do not owe me anything. And such a test should not surprise anyone especially since the Creator of all beings. and that denying His blessings will lead to loss. 6. Vol. . from Whose knowledge nothing small nor big escapes. . in his precious. the leprous. the Almighty. The text the historians narrate in this regard is his statement (– ). of his book Maqtal al-Husain. May All~ h reward all of you with the best of His rewards. disperse under the cover of darkness and go back to your towns. Bayt (– ). 4. I am of the view that you should all set out for safety. and variation of their faculties and ambition to the highest goals and firmness in upholding their principles with sincerity and insight. Al-Fadl ibn . “I know no companions better than mine nor family more righteous or kind or united than . Vol. T~r§kh. O Father of the Oppressed. for these people seek me. the Friend of All~ h. . to his family and companions on the eve of the ninth of Muharram saying. 246. and if they get hold of me. . wise and far-sighted satement. Sah§h. 2 3 1 Ibn Qawlawayh. al-Bukh~ri. In all of these. “Kit~b al-Anbiy~’” (book of the prophets). were the cream of the crop of all mankind and the elite of the cosmos. and how noble your objective. p. so. that those righteous elite men. mine. O soul of Prophethood! Yes. Sh~th~n al-Naishapuri has mentioned it in his book Ithb~t al-Raj`a. to either achieve the goal or attain martyrdom and eternal happiness. 1. so. permission to his family and companions to part with him for safety. Vol. Khaw~rizmi who discusses al-Husain’s martyrdom on p. p. al-B~qir (–).DESERTION PERMITTED t is on such a straight path that the Master of Martyrs declared. . and by al.” Fath al-B~ri. mentions the Im~m's permission to others to desert and his companions' insistence to sacrifice themselves for his sake. Abraham. Ishamel. ordered His friend Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael. 8. The incident of the bald. by al-Tibrisi in his books I`l~m al-Wara and Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. conviction. and that none ever reached their heights nor ever will2. . 178. . they will not seek anyone else. Ibn al-Ath§r. he did not require it except for a benefit known to the Lord of the Worlds though it is obscure from the comprehension of humans. who were described by the Commander of the Fatihful (– ) as the masters of martyrs. this golden statement was etched in letters of noor on the forehead of time. and each one of you should take the hand of one of my family members. relying on the authority of Im~m Abu Ja`fer. 969-970. no succeeding generation could have realized the extent of their knowledge.3 al-Tabari. and the blind also testifies that All~ h Almighty wanted by granting them His blessings to make their story a lesson of wisdom for those who come across it and who find themselves bound to thank Him for His blessings. and it does not demean his knowledge and his being familiar with what is hidden since the goal is precious and the status is sublime. Ibn Kath§r. Al-K~mil. Al-Bid~ya. pp. I The Master of Martyrs wanted by so doing to test their intentions. We have been enlightened by such rays to realize their intention to be determined in their firmness and sincerity to offer the holy sacrifice. may All~ h reward all of you. Ride it as you would a camel. while the night is covering you with its covering. in the chapter titled “The bald and the leprous. 69 . where the author .”1 What a pithy statement. Being knowledgeable of the extent of obedience to Him rendered by His messenger. 1.

Why should I not do so? It is only one death followed by a bliss that Such a level of readiness to sacrifice for the son of the Prophet's daughter (–) reminds me of the excuse produced by Sa`d ibn Abu W aqq~s when the Commander of the Faithful (–) asked him for his support. As stated on p. purity and submission to whatever pleases All~ h and His Messenger. Muslim ibn `Awsajah al-Asadi. the status attained by his Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and companions. Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) for having fallen short of carrying out his responsibility even when he was drawing his last breath. to support al-Husain (– ).” Such a statement informs us of the firmness of this man in upholding his principles at the last stage of life. What can the reader know from this statement other than the extent of his sure loyalty to the Prophet's caliphs and his not having changed as time and circumstances changed? But his statement to al-Husain (– ) in which he said..1 He was followed in sincerity of loyalty and readiness to sacrifice by Sa`§d ibn `Abdull~ h al-Hanafi . Nor does history record any deeds undertaken by those elite ones. he was not satisfied with all of this till he commended Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir. Moreover. wanted through this test to acquaint the next generations with . namely the martyrs of Kerbal~ ’. and of his . better than that bloody scene. the status of honour. we would not have come to know the differences in their levels of awareness and variations in their far-sighted views. By All~ h! Had I known that I will be killed then brought back to life.Abu `Abdull~ h. for example. his answer was. the Almighty. 59 (second edition) of the book titled AlJamal by Shaikh al-Muf§d. then burnt alive. shall we produce before All~ h Almighty for having thus fallen short of serving you? By All~ h! I shall never leave you till I break my lance in their chests and strike them with my sword as long as I can hold its handle. he is not concerned about any pain or bleeding.. the sincerity of their intentions. His soul thus parted from his body as he maintained his creed and submission. I would still not abandon you till I meet death defending you. Im~ m al-Husain (– ). and this is done to me seventy times.” 1 70 . the purity of their souls. “I hate to participate in this war and accidentally kill a believer unless you give me a sword that distinguishes a believer from an unbeliever. Commander of the Faithful (– ). does not become possible except by his statements supported by good deeds or by a testimony for him from someone familiar with his every movement. “By All~ h! We shall never abandon you till All~ h knows that we safeguarded the absence of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in your person. indicative of the holiness of their conscience. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. who said. family. then my ashes strewn. the man who benefitted from the science of fates and epics from the . Had it not been for those statements made by the companions of al-Husain (– ). nor their virtues which no human being can attain. and even if I have no weapon to fight them with. “Are we the type of men who would abandon you? What excuse . I shall throw stones at them till I die with you. Knowledge is a light which All~ h Almighty casts in the heart of whomsoever He chooses from among His servants in various degrees of intensity. . and that he would not otherwise be excused by the .. does not have anything on the pages of history to testify to his immortal deeds and good merits in anything more or less than a statement made by Shabth ibn Rab`i that he invaded Azerbaijan on the side of the Muslims and killed six polytheists before Muslim cavalry troops came to his rescue. Nobody is ignorant of the defects in the history books in our hands regarding many deeds of righteous men who exhaust all influence and possession in order to support the authentic Shar§`a. and to uphold the principle of obedience to the most pious person who most pleases the Master. dignity. This statement is accompanied by actions when he faced the swords and the lances with his chest and neck. and that if one is not concerned except about pleasing All~ h Almighty and His Messenger (‰ ). when he gave them permission to leave him for safety and to desert so that he would alone face those who surrounded him. To know the extent of any man of purity in the world.

1. al-Bukh~ri in his book Al-Adab al-Mufrad. . . Just as the Prophet (‰ ) was the first person to rise to disseminate the divine call. Vol. 107. Rather. he aimed by performing this rite to protect the person who was charged with safeguarding the Message. al-Safãri on p. who was then performing the noon prayers on the battlefield. from among the Sunnis: al-Tirmithi in his book Al-J~mi` fi Man~qib al-Husain. Rather. upon the Master of Martyrs in cementing Islam’s foundations. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his Progeny. . so he died feeling elated for having pleased the Almighty God.” There is no doubt in All~ h accepting obedience from any of His servants if such obedience earns him victory on the Day of Eternity. for a thousand times. and so on. Vol. But there is something even beyond that of a more lofty objective: it is the obedience of the people of conviction who are not concerned. of his book Kanz al-`Umm~l. Who is the only One worthy of being worshipped. Vol. Ibn al-Qayn is a bastian of conviction and pure faith. of his book Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. therefore. 478 of his book Nuzhat al-Maj~lis. as long as my being killed protects you and protects these youths of Ahl al-Bayt (– ). from the Father of the Oppressed that he had discharged his responsibility towards the Message and proven his faithfulness to what All~ h had mandated on him. al-H~kim on p. The creed did moan. 7. From among Im~mite Sh§`as. 1 71 . this had§th is narrated by Ibn Qawlawayh on p. through performing jih~ d against His enemies. except to be closer to the Lord. a member of his family). there is no distinction for alHusain (– ) here. Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) comforted him of attaining happiness through martyrdom and of the meeting with the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) before him. when they perform what they are obligated to perform. The one who brought us . Hajar al-`Asqal~ni on p. To al-Husain (– ) he said. All~ h! I wish I had been killed then brought back to life then killed. the Shar§`a did not make this statement simply to inform the nation that the Taff Martyr was part of him (i. 181. Ibn . Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn al-Bijli stood up to recite for all future generations lofty teachings in promoting the creed which immortalized him.” He. groan and complain About him. and al-Sayyid al-Murtada . and his noble goals: protecting the man who was appointed by All~ h Almighty as the Im~ m and protecting the lives which were held dear by the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) without aiming by worshipping All~ h.”1 says the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). The Prophet's grandson saw that to cure the creed. majlis 15. al-Muttaqi . He was not satisfied with all the bleeding wounds which he received when he assaulted the enemies of All~ h Almighty in defense of al-Husain (– ). till he understood . 157. 314. time. Ibn Hajar on p. so. he (‰ ) intended for this golden statement to point out to the responsibility vested . of his book Al-Mustadrak. defended Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) and admonished others to do likewise. Anything besides this is a shortcoming and a loss.lasts forever. of his }m~li. on p. Vol. . 115 of his book Al-Saw~’iq al-Muhriqa in tradition 23.e. citing the Prophet. Of course every offspring is part of his father and grandfather. his true beliefs. . “Husain is of me. Praise to Him. and by the following . At Kerbal~ ’ to death he had to defend it and bleed. al-Husain was the last to rise to cement its foundations: . 53 of his book K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. al-Hindi on p. 4 of his book Tahth§b T~r§kh al-Sh~m. 177. and alerting the nation against the crimes committed by those who played havoc with the sanctity of the creed. 9. and I am of Husain. it did complain to none but Husain. for such an interpretation is quite shallow and is not expected of the master of orators. a man who recited for us in such a situation his farsighted view. 3. “By . removing the thorns of falsehood from the path of the just Shar§`a. . Ibn `As~kir on p. except to earn the rewards of the hereafter for his endeavour on the Day when wages shall be granted for good deeds. the hujjah of his . As soon as he had finished his speech. Vol.

“I do not wish to inform you about these people. “Suffices you [the calamity that you have suffered because of] Muslim's murder. I have permitted you to leave. so he did not know where to go. our mentor and master. chose as the Infallible and as the beacons of guidance for His servants and the custodians of His Shar§`a. Had it not been for the open statements made by the son of the singers. hypocrisy and the following of their own whims. he [`} bis] said to him. Islam's fragrance does intensify. mine or a stranger. when the oath of allegiance was sworn to Muslim ibn `Aq§l at Kã fa. nor do I know what they hide in their hearts and what attracts you to them. and I shall fight your enemy. by All~ h! We shall 1 2 al-Tabari. nor have we stabbed anyone with our lances nor struck anyone with our swords? No.”1 With these brief words did he interpret those people's intentions and the feebleness of their wills. “If we do so. They regard the world as a vanishing thing and hope to attain immortality through supporting the Im~ m. without having shot one arrow with them. p. not even one. 6. while our cousins are the best of cousins. saying. the orbit of existence itself. O son of Abul-Shib§n! Men who are sincere to All~ h Almighty are endowed with self-denial. Muslim ibn `Aq§l could not get even one of those thousands of men to lead him to any highway to exit the city when the clouds of doom overshadowed him. Praise to Him. . is more dear to my heart than you. 6. and I shall defend you with my sword till I meet All~ h desiring nothing for doing so except what All~ h has in store for me. As for the stand of `} bis ibn Abu Shib§b al-Sh~ kiri. and that they did not wish to openly declare their inclination to betray him else it should weaken their already weak allegiance and become the cause of animosity. 254. we would not have been able to realize his attitude vis-a-vis loyalty [or the lack thereof] for those whom the Omnipotent. “By All~ h! We are not too afraid to submit to All~ h's destiny. “Shall we do so in order to survive you? May All~ h never permit us to see that happen. When Husein is remembered. Then N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l stood and said. Vol. peace be upon them.. and on the Taff Day. “Nobody on the face of earth. . When he (– ). Islam's guidance standard rose high. Had I been able to defend you with anything more precious than my life. Ibn Abul-Shib§n said to al-Husain (– ). nor are we averse to the meeting with our Lord. and that they were molded on betrayal. 72 . granted permission to his family members to leave.. 199. When Husain was martyred.. the hujjah. history has not recorded for the singers' son any loyalty except to `Uthm~ n ibn `Aff~ n versus his animosity towards the grandson of the most pure Messenger of All~ h (‰ ).” They immediately expressed their unrelenting determination to support the creed and to defend the Im~ m. So they said what was beautiful as they waited for the outcome. p. his firm . On the Taff Day.” The rest of his companions made similar statements. I would have most certainly done so. conviction and love for Ahl al-Bayt. We are with our minds and intentions supporting whoever supports you and are the enemy of whoever antagonizes you. shall we then say to the people that we abandoned . Other than this fact. they all said in one voice. . but by All~ h I shall tell you about what I have decided to do: By All~ h! I shall respond to you when you call.” Then he turned to `Aq§l's offspring and said. Having witnessed the betraying throngs assembled to swear the oath of allegiance to Muslim ibn `Aq§l. and that nothing at all mattered to him in his bid to protect the Im~ m (– ) even at the cost of sacrificing his own life and everything precious in his possession. be he a kin of . it reveals his superiority over many others. T~r§kh.”2 Yes.Never did we hear that a patient could be cured Only with the death of the one who cured and endured. Ibid. the essence of beings. Vol.

my descent will become honourable. we shall sacrifice ourselves. he now was fired with holy zeal for the creed and was prompted by his sincere loyalty to demonstrate his firm conviction in sacrificing everything he had to defend the Im~ m. . he would have seized the opportunity of the permission which he had received from the Im~ m (– ) to leave as his excuse before the Master. as well as the succeeding generations. excused John form his covenant. which the Lord of the Worlds.never do that. John feared he would not succeed in earning eternal happiness. abominable. wherein all avenues of help and rescue were blocked. acquainting them with success for those who persevere during the time of trials and tribulations. It reveals their renunciation of this vanishing life. the heart of Islam. so. and before people. “O Abu `Abdull~ h! May the wild beasts feed on me should I ever part with you!” Firm conviction and obedience to All~ h Almighty and to His Messenger (‰ ) raise those who are thereby enabled to attain the zenith of greatness to a level superior even to virtue itself. news reached Muhammed ibn Bash§r al-Hadrami that his son was captured in the outskirts of . with his character. “O John! You have accompanied us for your health's sake. so do breathe upon me of the breath of Paradise so that my smell will turn good. he was fired with holy zeal for the creed and excused . did not desire to stay alive except to uphold what is right or to put an end to what is false. rather.. 73 . Said he. But these souls. do not be afflicted by our own way of life. and even water. Praise to Him. and my colour will be 1 Ibn Nama. But the Master of Martyrs. “Should I during the time of ease eat your food then betray you during the time of hardship? My smell is bad. saying.. and my colour is black. He wanted to highlight the extent of John’s stand to defend the Shar§`a with which those who betrayed it played havoc no matter how serious the danger was and how many the woes. Having heard the Master of Martyrs say so. they would have taken his permission to leave them as an excuse they would produce on the Day of Judgment. indeed. having come to know his persistence and firmness in the face of calamities. How could they find life meaningful while knowing that the man who was so much loved by the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Or are killing those whom none will avenge. Just as their feet were used to the pulpits. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Had they had in their heart the least desire to stay. our wealth. . Had ibn Bash§r's conviction been shaky. so he said.” Such readiness to sacrifice in that precarious situation.” When al-Husain (– ) heard him say so. wanted by testing him to acquaint those who had surrounded him. created of a holy mold and blended with the noor of conviction. . and our families for your sake and fight with you till we meet the same fate as yours. He. him from his oath of allegiance to him so that he could manage to have his son released. He blended his tears with a statement which has been reverberating to all succeeding generations ever since. belonged to Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ ri so that his modesty might not keep him from fleeing.1 Meanwhile. Al-Husain's martyrdom did not leave its hero any choice except to release the black slave John who . or to love this world. Ray. reveals their attainment of the most sublime attributes of perfection.” He also said. therefore. my descent is lowly. is to survive you. “To All~ h do I entrust him. was denied them. Praise to Him. I do not wish that he should be taken as a captive while I survive him. Their souls were used to the battlefield.” It was then that John’s tears ran down. “Only rest follows fatigue. was suffering of bleeding wounds and of a painful agony? Souls that wanted nothing but the legacy of their father Are either killed without being avenged. which was made available to the animals. permitting him to to seek his own safety saying.

He. is not required to obligate others to defend him. and do not witness our tragedy. then.white! No. he surely is excused. nobody would have come to know . any human who is unfamiliar with divine decrees is not exempted from being required to defend the person of the Im~ m. If one does not see the Im~ m seeking his help and support. he will not be going beyond the actual facts at all. repeatedly asking for help. The Im~ m (– ) was also required to call others to support and to defend him with the knowledge that whoever responded would be jeopardizing his life. Contrariwise. and he is granted permission to leave. the purity of the conscience of that slave nor of his good intentions. Do so. neither reason nor the Shar§`a requires him to stay and to defend him. 74 . therefore. “I advise you that. none who hears us mourning our dead without supporting us except that All~ h will hurl him headlong into the fire of hell. the hujjah. and he saw him greatly outnumbered. nor will his parting be regarded as a violation of what the Shar§`a has decreed. by All~ h! I shall never leave you till my blood is mixed with yours. will have no excuse on the Day of Judgment because he heard al-Husain (– ) pleading for help. demonstrates a very firm conviction. Al-Dahh~ k ibn `Abdull~ h al-Mashriqi. if he sees the Im~ m in such a precarious situation. . and that there was no choice except to avoid the fatal danger. the Sublime. Al-Husain (– ) was familiar with what he was going to endure. how they cut off all supply routes from him and even prohibited him from having access to water.” This statement supports our rebuttal of the claims of those who heard the Im~ m pleading for help without helping him. the Im~ m will be in a very dire need for his help. p. a . the Knowing. then the day after. Do you think that there is anyone who can avoid death? Do you think that you know what I do not?” He. it does not befit him to be too reluctant to support him. so. Nobody is . In such a case. you should avoid hearing us crying and mourning our dead. decree which cannot be reversed. Al-Luhãf. In such a case. All~ h Almighty does not accept the excuse of one who sees such a situation and is reluctant to support him even when it is quite precarious except when the hujjah of his time grants him permission to part with him and to leave him to . Summary afeguarding the Im~ m (– ) is like safeguarding the Prophet (‰ ). He will then have an excuse when the books of deeds are spread: he was granted permission by the Im~ m (– ) not to support him. face his enemy. What is obligatory is to sacrifice one's own life for his [Im~ m’s] sake in order to thus remove the aggression against the life of the Im~ m who is the life of existence and the existence of the cosmos itself. saying. 61 (Saida edition).” said he to Umm Salamah adding. As for one who does not hear such mourning. Yes. His insistence to be killed. no excuse shall ever be accepted from him on the Day of Judgment. I will tomorrow. since he is fully familiar with the best course. in such case. and if not tomorrow. he does not carry any obligation or responsibility.”1 Had it not been for such frank statements made by al-Husain (– ). He was . “If I do not die today. The Im~ m himself will not then be jeopardizing his life upon permitting others to abandon him to face his foes alone and to excuse them from having sworn the oath of allegiance to him. “A destiny which cannot be altered. without rising to remove such an oppression or to protect his sacred life. obligated to support him to the last breath. something which nobody should abandon or hesitate to safeguard against those who wish to eradicate it. something which reason and the Shar§`a mandate. for it would then be in vain. Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) met `Ubaydull~ h ibn al-Hurr al-Ju`fi at Qasr Muq~ til and solicited his support . was obligated not to require anyone to defend him. if you could. even after receiving permission to be released and to part with the group. S 1 Ibn T~wãs. excused upon seeing how those people besieged a man whom All~ h chose as His viceregent in dealing with His servants. he is informed by the Wise One. for by All~ h.

and Qays ibn `Abdull~ h al-S~ 'idi recognized him and said to their brethren. p. thus firming the foundations of peace and harmony. then fifteen men pursued him. the battlefield. It . therefore. . and that his opponent had no legitimate claim to . nor did anyone who followed his line. from the beginning. 255. if . The listener will naturally investigate the calamities and get to know the status of this oppressed Im~ m (– ) and the reasons why he was mistreated. They. and cause the heart to dissolve. you are free. and to familiarize the nation with what took place during those bloody scenes of oppression meted to al-Husain (– ) and to his family members and relatives. Praise to Him. Kath§r ibn `Abdull~ h al-Sha`bi. . The man hid his horse in a deserted place upon seeing . took his horse out of its hiding place. peace of All~ h be upon them. so much so that it has been said that Islam started by Muhammed (‰ ) and its continuation is through al-Husain (– ). They. The usurping Umayyad and `Abb~ side authorities forced Ahl al-Bayt.” The man. so they A 1 al-Tabari. nor did he pay attention to those who promoted falsehood. . found . They made way for him. The Ahl al-Bayt suffered at the Umayyad and the `Abb~ side hands from all types of harm and annihilation. because Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) could not have asked him to stay till he could meet his death. except by attracting the attention to this glorious revolution due to what it contains of the calamities that split the solid rocks. that al-Husain and the Im~ ms who succeeded . cause children to grow gray hair. you can. rode it and assaulted the foes forcing his way through their ranks. “I would like to fight on your side as . T~r§kh. Of course he will come to know that the Prophet's grandson was a just Im~ m who did not court this world. and that his Im~ mate was inherited from his grandfather (‰ ) and from his own father the wasi. knew that demonstrating the oppression from which he suffered would bring sympathy and soften the hearts. him (– ) were all on the right track. he will have no choice except to follow their lead and to embrace their exemplary method. THE SHAR¦ `A SURVIVED THROUGH AL-HUSAIN . and whoever hears the Im~ m thus pleading and does not support him will be hurled by All~ h into the fire headlong. and to get their word to resurrect the Shar§`a of their most sacred grandfather (‰ ). 75 . It drew a line between this party and that. al-Dahh~ k asked him. When al-Husain (– ) stood alone on . to keep to their homes. closing all doors before them. The Im~ ms of guidance (– ). on leaving safely. Ayyã b ibn Mashrah al-Khaywani. . how al-Husain's horses were being hamstrung and kept fighting on foot. The Creator. “This is our cousin! We plead to you in the Name of All~ h to spare his life. peace be upon them. l-Husain's revolution was the concluding part of the cause of firming the creed’s foundations. caliphate at all. He came to an old dried-up well near the bank of the Euphrates. to flee for safety. prohibiting them from meeting with their followers. but if I do not see anyone fighting with you. Vol. “Is my term still honoured?” The Im~ m (– ) said. therefore. “Yes.A man came to al-Husain (– ) before the battle started and said.” He was spared. shall I then be permitted to leave you?” Al-Husain (– ) answered him in the affirmative. long as I see others doing so. 6. knowing that the man had set his mind. clearly distinguished between those who called for righteousness and those who advocated falsehood.1 His being told by al-Husain (– ) that he was excused will not avail him on the Day of Judgment . The chasing party caught up with him. peace be upon them. will not excuse him on the Day of Gathering because he had heard the Father of the Oppressed (– ) pleading for help. no means to promote their cause to reform the nation. kept urging the nation to support it and to bring to memory the cruelty and persecution meted to the martyr/reformer. . Once the listener comes to know all this to be the truth.

All of these are implied in his following statement: “W hoever reminds others of our tragedy.” 4 On p. .3 beating the cheeks4 at homes and in the streets. if they do so.preferred isolation to taking to arms and fighting the promoters of falsehood despite their seeing them going to extremes in their oppression and in being unfair to the followers of the Commander of the Faithful and to his offspring (– ). “May All~ h have mercy on one who meets with another to discuss our cause. for such an understanding contradicts the spirit of the narration. .Husain's tragedy. Glory to Him. “One who is reminded of our . such as holding commemorative maj~lis. In his }m~li (or Maj~lis).. . help promote the sect.1 Yet all of this did not distract them from urging the upholding of the supreme struggle by admonishing their Sh§`as to hold maj~ lis2 to commemorate the Taff incident. peace be upon them. where M~lik al-Juhni quotes Im~m al-B~qir. tragedy and who consequently weeps. Im~ m (– ) in the affirmative.. his eyes shall not weep on the Day when eyes will be blinded [with tears of remorse]. weep. all out of injustice and oppression. mournings. Vol. or re-enacting the tragedy before people in all its aspects. “On `}shãra. that All~h will grant them the rewards of two million pilgrimages and `umra and cam paigns w ith the Messenger of All~h and the guided Im~ms.. in their various methods.” 3 Ibn Qawlawayh. They went to extremes in explaining the merits of doing so because they were convinced that that was the strong factor for maintaining the religious link for which the Commander of the Faithful (– ) suffered what he suffered. 26 of Qurb al-Isn~d. . had it not been for those who usurped this divine post. p. p.” Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) once asked al-Mufaddal ibn Yas~ r. They expressed it once in general terms and once in specific references.” The Im~ ms. let everyone mourn al-Husain. All~h will forgive his sins. .” On p. Im~ m alB~ qir (– ). There are many such statements which urge the employment of any means whereby al-Husain's tragedy or the tragedies that befell Ahl al-Bayt (–) are brought to memory. 100 of K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. peace be upon .. at the end of a chapter dealing with atonements . K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. 2. tragedies which shook . pursuing them under every rock and in every city so that they would remove the `Alawides from the face of earth. and let them pay condolences to one another on the anniversary of al. for the third of them will be an angel seeking forgiveness for them.. 76 . will be rewarded by All~h W ho will . account of the calamities and catastrophes. and so did his son al-Hasan (– ) as well as al-Husain (– ). Holding commemorative gatherings (maj~lis) to bring that tragedy to memory is not confined to homes. her. aimed by so explaining to urge the nation to believe in their Im~ mate and in what the Master. so he sheds a tear as small as a fly's wing. al-Sadãq cites Im~m al-Rida (–) saying. so. for your meetings and discussions keep our cause alive. whereupon the Im~ m (– ) said. 283. so. keep such memory alive. The role of the 1 2 al-Sadãq. peace be upon him saying. his heart will not die when hearts die. spending money on them. 174. . They saw how al-Mansã r and al-Rash§d placed the offspring of F~ tima. has said. . composing poetry or writing about such tragedies. “Anyone who mentions us or to whom we are mentioned and who sheds a tear as small as the wing of a fly. . They should meet one another at their homes weeping over . “I surely love such maj~ lis. not accept anything for him less than Paradise. and the best of people after us are those who discuss our cause and invite others to remember us. has mandated of their Infallibility and what He bestowed upon them of the virtues and merits. the firm mountains.Tãsi quotes Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq (–). and demonstrate his grief for him. keep our memory alive. “Do you meet and discuss?” He answered the . him. of Al-Tahth§b. inside building columns in order to suffer a slow death. The Ahl al-Bayt (– ) used to explore various avenues to explain the spiritual importance of remembering al-Husain (– ) because of the perfect link between such remembering and the safeguarding of . the citation of already composed poems in their honour. `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Rida. . the creed from extinction. . peace be upon them. for I guarantee for them. 62.. such as commemorative . Abu H~rãn quotes Abu `Abdull~h (–) saying that one to whom al-Husain (–) is mentioned. Shaikh al. and that directing people to them cannot be separated from belief in their being the caliphs. etc. Abu `Abdull~h (–) is quoted as saying. Disgruntling persisted on . whoever sits at a majlis in our memory.” On p. and floods of tears were shed because of the abundance of their painful tragedies. for example. The things that remind people of al-Husain (– ). maj~ lis.

Dr. They used to seek all means to attain their objectives. . Probably a host of the benefits of doing so are not appreciated by the nation. Attracting attention to such reminders and promoting them is needed primarily to keep the memory of the Infallible Ones alive with those who love them. finds himself moved and his heart distressed with regard to any harm or peril the Im~ m (– ) had to undergo. to its emotional effects.1 . best demonstrates the cruelty which the Umayyahds and their followers inflicted upon al-Husain (– ).” The same is indicated by al-Shah§d in his book Al-Thikra in a chapter dealing with ahk~m (injunctions) relevant to the dead. we see such a person moved by something else which is: enmity and contempt for all the injustice and suffering inflicted. and it plays a major role in firming the creed. by saying. loyalty and support. and it is on such . The Im~ ms are the most knowledgeable of all people on account of their conditions and circumstances which testify to their mission. no mu'min . One of those means. In an article published in issue No. the Master of Martyrs did not mean. This is the implication of the statement made by al-Husain (– ). To sum up. and to the renunciation of whatever does not agree with their line. of the particulars of the incident. mong such benefits is the intensive urge (which reaches the limit of consecutive reporting) to weep over what happened to the Master of Martyrs. . of the Persian newspaper Al-Habl al-Mat§n. It thus . tragedy that the cheeks should be beaten and the pockets rent. 1 77 . “The daughters of F~tima (–) rent their pockets and beat their cheeks as they mourned al.” that his being killed was solely for the purpose of people weeping over him and receiving their rewards in the hereafter. or in poetry. and such a feeling intensifies when calamities reach their peak. Other people. 28 (17th year). wherein he said. which obligate one to abandon the enemies of All~ h and His Messenger (‰ ). is quoted as saying that such a re-enactment has been employed by Sh§`as since the time of the Safawides (Safavids) who acquired their authority through the power of their creed assisted by their theologians and scholars. . It is the most effective means in influencing people and in strengthening their determination to safeguard the religious links between us and the Im~ ms (– ) and those who paid tribute to them. so much so that it has been reported that one who sheds a tear as little as the wing of a fly. “ am the one killed and for whose killing tears are shed. Undoubtedly.Husain ibn Ali. The most they get out of them is that their doing so brings them rewards in the hereafter.re-enactment of the tragedy. MOURNING AL-HUSAIN . in addition to other Islamic sects. “I am the one killed and for whose killing tears are shed. The reason behind that is: One cannot shed a tear except when he is emotionally moved and is deeply distressed because of what he or someone to whom he/she is attached had to endure. remembers me without shedding his tears. those who love to discuss them and to remember them. This is more prevalent in India than in any other Islamic heartland. But one who is acquainted with the mysteries of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and who digs deep in order to digest the implications of their statements and actions will clearly see what they have referred to with regard to such meetings and with their urging their Sh§`as to do due to their munificence and vast knowledge. is their order to weep over the tragedy that befell alHusain (– ) because it requires the bringing to memory of the heart-rending cruelty. a French intellectual. clearly reaches the minds of children and the commoners who do not comprehend what is contained in the books. without mentioning any other effect resulting from his being killed other than people weeping over him. his tear will put out the fire of hell. How can this be so especially in the presence of other effects the most important of which is to keep the pristine Shar§`a alive and to correct what went wrong of the knowledge of A saying. .” A believer. Joseph. such as the Indians. have emulated the Sh§`as in the re-enactment of the Taff tragedy. accompanied by the recitation of poetry and the narration of the epic. that is all. who is bonded to al-Husain (– ) with the bond of .

that one cries without shedding any tears. who disbelieved were driven to hell in hordes” (Qur’~ n. that he asked the Prophet (‰ ). Whenever they see a very strong link between somebody and one of his conditions. Add to this the love for him in the hearts of those who love him: if . .” . are common knowledge among people.” “children of the fire. other than burning the houses of the `Abb~sides in Basra. “I am the one killed and for whose killing tears are shed. `Utbah ibn Abu Mu`§t. use expressions such as “Mudar al-Hamr~ ’. and the pain of disappointment can never subside due to the multitude of tragedies that befell him and to his being receptive to them with patience which drew the admiration of the angels in the heavens. 39:71). `Abb~ sides was associated with Zayd's name.” “Rab§`ah al-Khayl.” “Zayd al-N~ r. }m~li. characteristics. to identify them except their being the children of the fire [of hell] which the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) added to their name when he ordered their father. whenever he remembers al-Husain (– ). FEIGN WEEPING he Im~ ms of guidance (– ) liked to keep such memories alive forever so that successive generations might discuss them.” answered .” and so on.. an unbeliever. to be killed. One who grieves for him shall never find a redress from his grief.husband poisoning. . that is.. it will better underscore the relationship between remembering him and mourning him. they add his name to it. They did not only condone what has to be done. They. Al-Husain (– ) is quoted as saying. they went as far as recommending feign crying over it. the fire that burned the . is that he weeps over them.. between al-Husain (– ) and the tears shed in his memory. hence his statement. 86. Nor was Ju`da daughter of al-Ash`ath known by any vice more than the poison which she administered to Abu Muhammed. Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) says. that is. This falls in the same category when the link is so strong . . so. for example. They all wept with the exception of one T 1 al-Sadãq. p. It is from this juncture that killing is associated with him. Many do so. it was then . be it good or bad. The first reaction to the listener. 78 . . Nor did the children of Abu Mu`§t earn any human attribute . majlis 29.”1 It is a known fact that one who finds it hard to shed tears while being moved by a tragic event is not unaffected by it. “Whoever cries [over our tragedies] even without shedding tears will be in . and Ju`da came to be associated with husband poisoning. They knew that the creed would stay fresh as long as the nation remembered this great tragedy. etc. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. Paradise. the Messenger of All~ h. . whereas the war horses are added to Rab§`ah. you add this to that loyalty.guidance and the dissemination of reform among the nation and acquainting people of the oppression of the oppressive rulers who pursue their ambition? But the reason for such an addition is underscoring the relationship between what reference he made to his being killed and mourning him. The Prophet (‰ ) once recited the last verses of Sã rat al-Zumar to a group of the Ans~ r: “So those . But since these results . weeping upon remembering the tragedy. “. Zayd son of Im~ m Mã sa ibn Ja`fer (– ) was not known as having done anything outstanding. the name of the tribe of Mudar came to be associated with “alhamr~ ’. grandson of the Prophet (‰ ). his tears flow. Im~ m al-Hasan (– ). who is moved by such tragedies.” the blood-red battle. “I am the one killed and for whose killing tears are shed” (as he is . Rab§`ah and Mudar did not leave out any good attribute with which they could adorn themselves except bearing the standard of war and providing horses for the battle. Being psychologically moved by imagining what pain and agony a loved one suffers necessitates repugnance towards the person responsible for inflicting them.” This has been the custom of the Arabs in their speech. “O Muhammed! Who will take care of my children?” “The fire. referred to as such by Im~ m al-S~ diq [as]).

Among that is what Im~ m al-B~ qir. p. Its origin goes back to a statement made by the Messenger of All~ h. Pilgrims from various countries of the world. peace be upon him. One who does not comprehend the implication of the speech of the Infallible ones (– ) will rush to make a judgment on those who weep tearlessly. except women. Al-Thahth§b. not those who are indifferent. 147. Vol. p. The First Martyr. Both are equal in their repulsion from those who usurped the status reserved for Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and their aversion thereto. Majmu`at Shaikh War~m. and from different sects. 148. p.Tãsi. 2. and harmed them. and whoever weeps feignly will also be in Paradise.”2 Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ ri has quoted the Prophet (‰ ) saying. When it comes to remembering the tragedies inflicted upon the offspring of the Prophet (‰ ). Numerous are the mysteries that involve Ahl al-Bayt (– ) which cannot be comprehended except by one who carefully examines their speech and studies their circumstances. Al-Thikra. Vol. not out of pretense. distances himself from any such thing and does whatever brings him closer to the Almighty. Al-Lulu’ wal Marj~n. . Vol. wished to be done by way of his will which was the giving of eight hundred dirhams to women to mourn him at Mina during the hajj season. p.”1 Jar§r quotes the Prophet (‰ ) saying. he does so because his heart is grieved. but if he cannot. Kanz al-`Umm~l.. What we have pointed out may be the same that Shaikh Muhammed `Abdoh refers to.” `all~ma al-Hilli. for a hard heart is distant from All~ h. Whoever weeps tearfully will be in Paradise. 79 . assemble at Mina during the hajj. the fourth topic of the injunctions relevant to the dead. you will come to realize their wisdom and eloquence. 1 2 3 al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. grief and sadness are the outcome of imagining what consequences await those who disobey the Master. Al-Ta`r§fat. yet after our explanation of the mystery. 47.” The Prophet (‰ ) then said. .”3 These traditions tell us that even if one weeps without shedding tears. 8. 48. These are days of festivities and merry making.5 Both one who weeps tearfully and one who does so tearlessly share one common denominator: both are deeply distressed and saddened by imagining what injustice was inflicted on Ahl al-Bayt (– ). “To . “I am going to recite to you Sã rat al-Tak~ thur. and his soul cries. 1. Vol. hence.”4 Al-Shar§f al-Jurj~ ni says that some people dislike it because of the affectation in it. then let his heart sense the grief. 112. are distracted. then pretend to do so. It is then that they can enjoy anything previously made prohibitive to them (during the earlier ten days) . “Kit~b al-Mak~sib. Ibid. “My eyes did not shed a tear. people in groups visit one another. He. Tafs§r al-Man~r.” meaning those who wish to weep. Al-Muntaha. Praise to Him.6 .young man among them who said. “If one of you is able to weep. 272. for they never ceased to explore minute ways to attract the souls to them and to acquaint them with their usurped right. Says he. 4 5 6 al. cry feignly is to weep with affectation. p. p. al-Nawari. it is a must to hate those who opposed. 301. anyone who is unable to weep tearfully should do so feignly. peace of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. “If you do not weep tearfully. let him do so. so. what shame they will receive in the hereafter. p. schemed against. 108. p. 2. But out of awe for the Almighty. yet I wept feignly. whereas others permit it for those who aim to express the same feeling [of grief]. and let him weep feignly. “One who weeps feignly [over such matters] will be in Paradise.

congratulation parties are held, and places are set up to congratulate one another. If you consider the Im~ m's choice of this particular time and place, you will realize the precise observation the Im~ m (– ) took notice of when he preferred those days at Mina over those at `Araf~ t or at the mash`ar where people will usually be busy with the rituals and the supplications to the Creator, Praise to Him, in addition to the short period they have to spend there. Yes, those three days at Mina, the days of Eid, of merry-making and of felicity, not of grief or weeping, were the choice of the Im~ m (– ). Of course, one who hears someone crying during those happy days will be strongly motivated by curiousity to find out the reasons that caused him to cry, and to ask who is being mourned, what his cause is, and what he had done. He would ask about those who antagonized him and usurped his right. Through such questioning will the truth become clear and so will the best way, for the light of All~ h can never be extinguished, and the call to Him is clear in argument. Such news will be transmitted by people to those who are distant from its stage once they go home. Those who were not there to witness it would thus come to know about it, and the argument would be completed, so nobody can say that he did not go to Med§na, home town of All~ h's hujjah, or that nobody . told him anything, nor did he know the Im~ m's call and of his opponents being misguided. Nobody would thus remain ignorant of it. Thus do we come to understand the reason why the Im~ m (– ) refrained from requiring those mourners to mourn him at Mecca or Med§na during the hajj days: in both cities, mourning is done at home, . so how can men get to know about these mourners, and how can such mourning convey the desired message? The claim that a woman's voice is one of her means of attraction which strangers are prohibited from hearing is rebutted by a narration recorded by al-Kulayni in his book titled Al-K~ fi: Umm Kh~ lid came once to visit Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ), and she was a lady of wisdom and . knowledge. Abu Busayr was then present among his companions. He, peace be upon him, . asked Abu Busayr, “Would you like to hear her speak?” Then he (– ) seated her with him on a . couch. Umm Kh~ lid spoke, and she was a wise and eloquent woman.1 Had a woman's voice been prohibited from reaching strangers’ ears, the Im~ m (– ) would not have permitted Abu Busayr to hear her. . In his will, Im~ m al-B~ qir (– ) appropriated money for female mourners to mourn him at Mina. This implies the permission of men to hear their voices; otherwise, he would have required them to mourn him at their homes in Med§na and Mecca. But the Im~ m's reasoning is quite clear, and his objective cannot be achieved unless men heard these women's voices and came to know who they were mourning. In an incident narrated by Hamm~ d al-Kã fi, Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) said to him, “It has come to my knowledge that some . . people from Kã fa visit the grave of Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) on the fifteenth of Sha`ban, and that some of them recite the Qur’~ n while others narrate stories about him, and that some women mourn him.” Hamm~ d said, . “I have witnessed some of what you have just described.” The Im~ m (– ) then said to him, “Praise is due to All~ h Who has let from among our Sh§`as those who visit our grave sites, who praise and mourn us.”2 Nobody can deny that when women mourn their dead at any cemetery, they will be heard by strangers. Had it been prohibitive, the Im~ m and hujjah (– ) would not have commended it and invoked All~ h to have mercy .

al-Hurr al-`}mili, Al-Was~’il, Vol. 3, p. 25, chapter 106, in the verdict with regard to one who hears a female stranger. It is also . recorded as tradition 319 in al-K~fi's Rawda.


Ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi, K~mil al-Ziy~r~t, p. 325, chapter 108, at the beginning of discussing rare incidents.


on their dead. A woman's voice being `awra is not supported by any narration. What is reported about men being prohibited from talking to or sleeping at the house of a female stranger is not on account of her voice being `awra but because of the possibility that omenous things may happen. As he starts discussing nik~ h in the 9th query, `all~ ma al-Hilli, in his book Al-Tahr§r, says that a blind man is not permitted to hear the voice of . . a female stranger. He probably is saying so only on account of her being a stranger, without implying that it is so because of its being an `awra. Yes, he indicates in his book Al-Tathkira, at the beginning of his discussion of nik~ h, that her voice is an `awra, and that it is not permissible to be heard by strangers due to the allurement potential, not without. The Sh~ fi`is have two viewpoints regarding its being an `awra. The author of Al-Jaw~ hir responded to the critics by saying that along the passage of many centuries, women have been addressing leading religious authorities (im~ ms); the speeches of F~ tima al-Zahr~ ’, peace be upon . her [before Abu Bakr and in the presence of the Ans~ r and the Muhajirã n], and that of her daughters [such as . Zainab's speeches in Kã fa and at Yaz§d's court in Damascus], are very well known facts. Sunni fiqh does not prohibit it. For example, on p. 167, Vol. 1, of Al-Fiqh ala al-Math~ hib alArba`a, it is indicated that, “A woman's voice is not an `awra because the wives of the Prophet (‰ ) used to speak to the sah~ bah who used to listen to their [wives'] religious ahk~ m.” On p. 127, Vol. 2, of his book . . Nayl al-Arab, al-Shayb~ ni, a Hanbali Sunni, says, “Woman's voice is not an `awra, but to derive illicit . pleasure out of hearing it is har~ m.” This is the same view expressed by Ibn Hajar on p. 27, Vol. 1, of his . commentary on restraints in his book Kaff al-Ru`~ `. Yes, some scholars from among Ahl al-Sunnah went as far as considering it an `awra, a view which is not endorsed by Ibn Hajar. Ibn Naj§m, a Hanafi Sunni, says . . the following on p. 270, Vol. 1, of his book Al-Bahr al-R~ 'iq: “The author of Al-K~ fi says that woman must . not utter the talbiya audibly because her voice is `awar. The same view is expressed by the author of AlMuh§t as he discusses the call to the prayers (ath~ n).” Commenting on this subject, the author of Fath al. . . Qad§r says, “Had this been applied to her raising her voice during the prayers, and that it voids them, it would make more sense.” The author of Sharh al-Maniyya says that a woman's voice is not an `awra but it . may lead to infatuation. This is the same reasoning adopted by the author of Al-Hid~ ya and by others with regard to the issue of making talbiya. In Al-Naw~ zil, the author states that a woman's tone of voice is an `awra. He bases it on his claim that a woman prefers to learn the Holy Qur’~ n from another woman rather than from a blind man. In his book Al-Ashb~ h wa al-Naz~ 'ir, Ibn Naj§m, on p. 200, where he discusses the injunctions . relevant to hermaphrodites, says that the latter’s voice is an `awra. On p. 12, Vol. 3, of Al-Furã ` by Ibn Muflih, the Hanbali scholar, it is stated that it is more accurate to say that hearing a stranger's voice is not a . sin because it is not an `awra. On p. 12, Vol. 4, of al-`Ayni's book Sharh al-Bukh~ ri, at the end of a chapter . discussing walking behind borne coffins, the author states that a woman has to reciprocate the greeting of a man and not to raise her voice because it is an `awra. On p. 250, Vol. 1, of Zayn ad-D§n al-Iraqi's book Tarh . . al-Tathr§b, the author cites Ibn `Abd al-Birr's view in his book Al-Istithk~ r that a woman's voice is not an `awra adding, “... which is the accurate view according to the Sh~ fi`is.” On p. 45, Vol. 7, of the same reference, where nik~ h is discussed, the author says, “Her voice is not an `awra.” The following is stated on . p. 249, Vol. 7, of al-Nawawi's book Sharh al-Majmã ` (second edition): “Both al-D~ rmi and Abu al-Tayyib, . . . the judge, have said that it is not prohibitive for a woman to raise her voice during the talbiya.” As he discusses the subject of talbiya, on p. 274, Vol. 4, of Nayl al-Awt~ r, al-Shawk~ ni says, “According to al. Rã y~ ni and Ibn al-Rif`~ h, her voice is not prohibitive when raised during the talbiya because it is not an `awra.” PROSTRATING ON THE TURBA


ne of the methods adopted by the Im~ ms from among the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them, in order to acquaint people with the oppression to which al-Husain (– ) was subjected, and to distance them . from those who robbed him of what rightfully belonged to him, that his uprising perfected the Prophet's call and paved its path, is their requirement to prostrate on the turba.1 One of the reasons behind such a requirement is that five times a day, the person performing the prayers recalls, whenever he prostrates, the sacrifice of the soul of the Prophet (‰ ) and that of his Ahl al-Bayt (– ), as well as that of his companions, for the sake of firming the foundations of the right principle. He will also recall the calamities the Master of Martyrs endured and from which even solid rocks would split, meeting them with perseverence which drew the admiration of the angels in the heavens, as the wording in his ziy~ rat indicates. Then he recalls the fact that this soil was drenched with the blood of the oppressed one and that of the pure ones from among his Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and companions, those who were described by the Commander of the Faithful (– ) as the masters of martyrs, none before them reached their status, nor those who follow them ever will, as stated on p. 270, chapter 88, of K~ mil al-Ziy~ r~ t of Ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi. The heart of the one who is faithful to them would be filled with emotion; tears would trickle down his eyes, and he distances himself from anyone who antagonized them and all those who did likewise as well as those who shed their blood or facilitated such a most foul deed. It would become quite clear for him that this great revolution smashed the altars of oppression. Succeeding generations came to know how a most precious person found death easy in defense of the creed. So is their order to make rosary beads of the said soil and to use them to praise the Almighty in order to achieve the same precious objective. All these objectives are explained by Ahl al-Bayt (– ) although the nation did not comprehend their minute mysteries. Others, due to their ignorance, charged us with starting a bid`a by doing so. The misguidance of such critics is the outcome of their ignorance of these wise mysteries and their own inability to comprehend the had§th stated by the one who conveyed the wahi of the heavens: “The earth has been made a mosque for me . . and a means of purification.” This small piece of earth, prepared for the purpose of prostrating, is made of dust mixed with water, so it is a testimony to the authenticity of this agreed upon had§th. .


LEGISLATING THE ZIY} RAT uring certain times, hordes of pilgrims regard the ziy~ rat [visiting the Im~ ms' shrines], a highly commendable deed. They visit one of the foundations of the creed and the lighthouse of its guidance, and from it are the injunctions derived and where the branches of knowledge are researched. Visitors go to his grave from various parts of the world. People get to know each other; they witness such an amazing crowd. There is an incessant stampede. Everyone desires to get to the holy shrine, for the one being visited is the same who promoted a divine call and is a caller to the path of his Lord with wisdom and good exhortation... The pilgrim realizes, even more so, the greatness of the person he is visiting. He will better appreciate him and his cause, and he will be very impressed by such an elating sight. His heart will be more kind, and his conviction grows stronger. It is only natural that he would then be attracted to following his teachings, studying his biography, researching his legacy, and getting to know the injustice inflicted upon him. And the least of such innumerable benefits does not end here. There is another advantage: such ziy~ rat cements the bonds of fraternity among brethren, the fraternity called for by the Book of All~ h in the verse saying, “Believers are brethren of one another” (Qur’~ n, 49:10). When the visitors meet at the grave-site or on their way to it, they discuss deeds of righteousness and the rewards related thereto; they admonish one another with regard to the right faith, so the error in the beliefs of other sects becomes unveiled. So is the latter’s straying from the right course, and the bond between the faithful becomes based on wisdom.



A turba is a small piece of dry clay preferably from the place where Im~m

Husain (–) was martyred. __ Tr. .


This is the truth with regard to visiting the shrines of all the Im~ ms of guidance. They are the awesome path, the avenue that leads to every guidance, the conscience of reform, the cultivated rite, the true guidance, the complete knowledge. Also, belief in them must be established after realizing their apparent distinction, tremendous knowledge, legendary piety, and innumerable miracles. There is no doubt that to visit their holy shrines with the intention to seek nearness to the Master, Praise to Him, strengthens such a creed and firmly establishes it. This is the only reason for legislating the ziy~ rat. As regarding specifying a particular ziy~ rat for the Master of Martyrs, in addition to urging others to visit his shrine at any time, rather than that of any other Im~ m, or even that of the Master of Messengers (‰ ), there are many reasons behind that: The most important reason is that the Umayyad mentality is still alive, and it increases or decreases in intensity from time to time. Those who have certain vested interests periodically howl about it. Although the Umayyads have turned into dust rags and nothing is attached to their name except shame and are cursed whenever they are mentioned, yet since such a propensity is atheistic in nature and is promoted by their gang and by those who join them from the generations, Ahl al-Bayt (– ) paid a special attention to putting its fire out and to attracting the attention to its deviation from the right path, the path brought by the Greatest Saviour who suffered so much in order to disseminate his call and keep it alive. One of the means that lead the souls to such a path, acquainting them with the injustice meted to Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and directing them towards the divine right clarified for them by the great legislator (‰ ), is the cause of the Master of Martyrs: It is full of tragedies to which the heart of the most bitter enemy softens, let alone that of his follower who recognizes the Im~ m' usurped authority. The Im~ ms (– ) desired that their Sh§`as should remain all year round, as days come and go, fully alert with regard to those who usurped such an authority, the ones that are so distant from the right path. They, therefore, required them to be present around the shrine of the masters of the youths of Paradise on specific occasions, and during other times as well. It is only natural that such assemblies bring to memory the cruelty employed by the Umayyads who slaughtered the children and banished the daughters of the Prophet (‰ ) from one country to another.

They were forced to ride Hands to the necks tied On bare hump she-camels they did ride. No veil did their faces find: Behind forearms and hands did they hide.1 Fervour and manliness insist that nobody should surrender and accept to be ruled by anyone who inflicts such horrible deeds on anyone else at all, let alone on the family of the most holy Prophet (‰ ). It is then that the souls become filled with emotion, feelings reach their ebb, and judgment is issued against those filthy folks who reneged from the Islamic faith. Of course, such a cause with regard to the Master of Martyrs is more binding than any other Im~ m because his cause contains that which softens the hearts. It is from this juncture that the Infallible Ones (– ) used him as their argument whereby they assault their foes. They, therefore, required their followers to weep, to commemorate in any way, to visit his shrine..., and so on and so forth, causing the umma to become full of the memory of Husain: Husaini in principle, and to the last . . breath Husaini... .


From a poem by Shaikh H~di K~shif al-Ghit~’, may All~h sanctify him. .


Im~ m Ja`fer al-S~ diq (– ) recites a special supplication during his prostration which has been . transmitted to us by Mu`~ wiyah ibn Wahab. It casts a divine light in the depths of the hearts; it reaffirms the creed; it brings ease to the soul, and it acquaints us with obscure mysteries. The Im~ m (– ) used to say the following whenever he prostrated: Lord! You are the One Who chose us to receive Your bliss, promised us to intercede, granted us the knowledge of what passed and of what remains, made the hearts of some people lean towards us: I invoke You to forgive me and my brethren and those who visit the grave-site of my grandfather al-Husain, those who spend their wealth and exhaust themselves out of their . desire to express their devotion to us, hoping to earn the rewards which You have for all those who maintain their link with us, and because of the pleasure they bring to Your Prophet, and out of their response to our own order to do so. Reward them for having vexed our enemy as they sought Your Pleasure. Do reward them, O Lord, on our behalf, and grant them sustenance during the night and the day, and be generous to their families and offspring, those who succeed them in doing such good deeds. Be their Friend; ward off from them the evil of all stubborn tyrants, all those from among Your creatures. Protect their weak from the evil of the mighty ones, be they demons, humans, or jinns. And grant them the best of what they aspire as they estrange themselves from their home-lands, and for preferring us over their sons, families, and kinsfolk. Lord! Our enemies find fault with their going out to visit our shrines, yet it does not stop them from doing so, unlike those who oppose us. Lord! Have mercy on the faces transformed by the heat of the sun. Have mercy on the cheeks that touch the grave of Abu `Abdull~ h, al-Husain. Have mercy on the eyes that weep out of kindness to . us. Have mercy on the hearts that are grieved on our account and are fired with passion for us. And have mercy on those who mourn us. Lord! I implore You to be the Custodian of these souls and bodies till You bring them to the Pool [of Kawthar] on the Day of the great thirst. When Mu`~ wiyah ibn Wahab regarded this supplication as giving “too much” for those who visit the gravesite of Im~ m al-Husain (– ), Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) said to him, “Those in the heavens who supplicate for those . . who visit al-Husain's grave-site are more numerous than those who do so on earth.”1 . This supplication by the Im~ m of the nation contains great injunctions and attributes which only those who seek their light and uphold the rope of their guidance appreciate. The mourning to which the Im~ m (– ) refers near the end of his supplication is the result of one who is terrified and afflicted with a calamity.2 Since there is no specifying whether such mourning takes place at home or simply everywhere, it is commendable no matter where it may be, be it in the streets, or upon seeing a re-enactment, or at any other situation encountered by men or women. Among the other means which Ahl al-Bayt (– ) enjoined their Sh§`as to do is rubbing their cheeks on the most pure grave. There is no need to specify the grave of al-Husain (– ) because there is one narration . relevant to saluting the graves recorded by Shaikh al-Tã si on p. 200, Vol. 1, of his book Al-Tahth§b has . transmitted by Muhammed ibn `Abdull~ h al-Himyari who says, “I wrote the faq§h asking him about one . . who visits grave-sites. He wrote me back stating near his signature that prostrating on graves is not

Narrated by al-Kulayni in his book Al-K~fi, by Ibn Qawlawayh on p. 116 of K~mil al-Ziy~r~t by Ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi, and by al-Sadãq on p. 54 of his book titled Thaw~ al-A`m~l. .


T~j al-`Arãs, Vol. 3, p. 66, in a chapter dealing with screaming.


permissible in any obligatory or optional prayer, but one may place his right cheek on the grave, and this is general due to the recommendation that one places his cheek on any of the graves of the Infallible ones, peace be upon them.” PREFERRING THEM (– ) OVER ALL OTHERS mong what this supplication leads us to is the extent to which the Sh§`as go in expressing their love for Ahl al-Bayt (– ), spending their money with generosity to keep the memory of their Im~ ms (– ) alive whenever they hold somber commemorations, birth anniversaries, etc., and by preferring them over their offspring, families and kinsfolk. The implication of putting some people ahead of all others through self-denial is not far from your mind. It is holding others as more important than one's own self. This can be done either by satisfying all the requirements demanded by friendship, or by assisting one to achieve his objective, or by expressing utmost regards for him. It is one of the commendable traits which spring out of one's own goodness of nature, loftiness of moral code, and excellence of substance. All~ h, the Praised and the Exalted One, has praised those who adorn themselves thereby saying, “They prefer others over themselves even when poverty is their lot” (Qur’~ n, 59:9), that is, even when they themselves are in need, being poor, destitute.1 There is no confusion about the fact that one who is preferred over all others, once he combines in him the requirements that earn him such a preference, will be further recognized as being worthy of such a preference. If you keenly observe those adorned with virtues, you will find none more worthy of being preferred than the inspired Progeny (– ) due to the excellent status and the unsurpassed eminence awarded them by the Creator, Praise to Him. Their favours upon the nation obligate the latter to reward them, and to pay them their due rights, the payment which nobody can avoid. Whoever regards them as his masters, preferring them over himself, his family, and kinsfolk, submits to the fact that the Im~ ms (– ) are the reason behind the divine bounties, the ones who were taught the Shar§`a by Him, and the means of bringing happiness to man and his earning high plains. Such bounties include their moral excellences, an upright way of dealing with others, social graces and moral codes that guarantee one's success. Add to the above the Im~ ms' great efforts to rescue the nation and bring it to the haven of safety and security, saving it from the deluge of annihilation, so much so that they, peace be upon them, preferred doing so over living a happy life. Thus, they sacrificed themselves so that the nation might remain on the right track, or so that they may keep the torment away from the members of the nation. According to one tradition by Im~ m Mã sa ibn Ja`fer (– ), he preferred to suffer rather than let his Sh§`as suffer. The Im~ ms (– ), moreover, never ceased loving their Sh§`as. Every morning and every evening, they used to plead to All~ h to have mercy on them. They were happy whenever their Sh§`as were happy, and they were grieved whenever their Sh§`as were grieved. This is so because the Sh§`as are the remnant of the Im~ ms' own mold; they are the leaves of that good tree whose roots are firmly planted and whose branches are high in the sky. For example, al-Hujjah, may All~ h hasten his reappearance, has offered the following supplication . for them:


O All~ h! Our Sh§`as were created of the rays of our own noors and of the remnant of our own mold. They have committed many sins, relying on their love for us. If their sins are relevant


Refer to p. 387, Vol. 4, of T~ j al-`Arã s.

and do not include them in Your wrath with our enemies. for it pleases us that You do so. yet it did not weaken the Muslims' determination in the least. Since preference awarded to visiting the shrine of the Oppressed Im~ m (– ) is inclusive. therefore. A far-sighted discreet person cannot overlook the implication in the statement cited above in Abu `Abdull~ h's supplication: “O All~ h! Our enemies found fault with them (with our Sh§`as) for visiting our shrines.” He. The Jews had made fun of the ath~ n. whoever stands before the pure shrines sees himself as though he stands between both ranks: the rank of sanctity. . O Lord. peace be upon him. otherwise. He. are not harmed by the mockery of the ignorant about whom al-S~ diq (– ) says. and it pleases His Purified Friends. or in the norms of faithfulness. O Lord. There is no doubt that Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) would like us to adorn ourselves with self-denial in order to .to their duties toward You. site) of Abu `Abdull~ h [al-Husain] (– ). Permit them. 86 1 . Any calamity suffered by them while following such a path is surely witnessed by All~ h. since the case is as such. and by the requirements of the Shar§`a on the other. The mockery of those who mock does not harm them in the least so long as they are on the right path. do. mend their affairs and distance such sins from reaching the khums due to us. and the rank of the product of the Thursday of Infamy. so they continued their march on the straight path heedless of the pitfalls of others. We come to such a conclusion when we discern the reference used by the Im~ m (– ) in his supplication: Having supplicated for those who visit the shrine of Im~ m Husain (– ). forgive them. of guidance to everything good.” His using the plural “themselves” connotes his loving them for having preferred the Im~ ms (– ) over their own selves. When Thurayh al-Muh~ ribi said to him once. observing the stand taken by the first party with regard to what is right and to integrity. Their luck missed the mark! From achieving All~ h's rewards did they swerve! And from nearness to Muhammed (‰ ) did they distance themselves!” . do. desired to urge the Sh§`as to always keep consoling Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and respecting their rites. just as the polytheists had made fun of the sujã d. will plunge in the deepest pit of meanness. or in the requirements of manliness. This supplication appears on p. “.1 I cannot imagine. And if such sins are relevant to their obligations towards us. to enter Paradise.” the Im~ m (– ) responded .. and his band. “Whenever I detail the merits of visiting (the grave. . al-Husain (– ).. and . 12 of Bih ~ r al-Anw~ r. yet this did not stop them from doing so. move them away from hell. he (– ) said. Husaini rites. keep the memory of all members of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) alive. the most Exalted One. my offspring and kinsfolk make fun of me. will have then kindled the fires of two attributes: loyalty to one party and dissociation from the other. reward them for that whereby they preferred us over themselves. keeping their heritage alive and disseminating their legacy. You will permit yourself to be the target of blame by reason on one hand. any justification for laxing in solacing the bearers of the Message by preferring them over your own self and your family in everything precious or not so precious. invoked All~ h to grant them the fulfillment of their best wishes. 281 of al-Nawari's Supplement to Vol. thus distinguishing themselves from those who opposed our ways. something which brings goodness to each and every one of them. Those who visit the grave-site of Abu `Abdull~ h. “By All~ h! . . namely Yaz§d and his followers. due to its bringing to memory his sacred stand. that you can find in the code of rights and obligations. and the [evil] end sought by those who opted to follow falsehood and uncleanness. You. O Lord. assaulted by manliness. and who crowd to uphold the .

keeping his name alive. And utter something with an effect to last. yet I Am quoted: one whose verse shall never die. and I do not vilify.” The Im~ m . tongues articulate it. to mourn us. “It has come to my knowledge that some people from Kã fa. during the period of j~ hiliyya and since the dawn of Islam. Chapter 51. People disseminate it. and that the women mourn him. he said to the Commander of the Faithful (– ). Poetry is faster to steal people's attention and appreciation. “A scum . May All~ h never permit them to earn my intercession on the Day of Judgment. and that some of them recite the Qur’~ n while others narrate the story (of his martyrdom). “O Thurayh! Let people go where they want to go while you stay with us. These are the evil ones of my nation. does not undermine the goodness of the legacy which endears to us the keeping of the memory of the Im~ ms alive. hearts memorize it and pass it on from one generation to another. I was told about men who did fear That I vilify them. Chapter 108. will eventually be overlooked and its great significance forgotten. In one had§th by the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). while still others laud us. 3 2 Refer to this had§th as stated on p.”2 The ridicule of those who distance themselves from Ahl al-Bayt (– ). of K~mil al-Ziy~r~t of Ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi. from one nation to another. `Urwah ibn Uthaynah has said.”3 COMPOSING POETRY IN THEIR MEMORY hat is obvious beyond the shadow of doubt is that composing poetry about anyone means introducing him to others. “Praise to All~ h Who let some people come to us to laud us. But if they are in esteem less than that. visit on the middle of Sha`b~ n the grave of Abu `Abdull~ h (– ). my poetry shall not come near Them. nor shall they be censured thereby. and publicizing for him. of the first edition of K~mil al-Ziy~rat by Ibn . while letting our enemies fault them and describe what they do as abominable.by saying. and it has benefitted the nation in the life of this world and will benefit it in the life hereafter. It will mean to these men 1 This quotation is stated on p. 325. Among what Du`bal al-Khuz~ `i has said about poetry's perpetuation across the centuries are these lines: W If I compose a line. therefore. may lose its glow as time goes by. 87 . 124 of Maz~r al-Bih~r. 143. .” Hamm~ d said. those who shy away from upholding these rites. He (– ) said once to Hamm~ d. If they are innocent. and on p. its composer will die. no matter how highly esteemed by others and how great. as well as . Arabic literature has preserved a great deal of this nations' history. biographies and wars. others in its outskirts. Such legacy. . . Men's legacy. [of the earth] from among the people reproach those who visit your graves just as an adulteress is reproached about having committed adultery. Qawlawayh al-Qummi. This dialogue is stated on p. (– ) then said. 31 of Farhat al-Ghari by Ibn T~wãs.”1 . “I have personally seen some of what you have described.

Publicizing the tragedies that befell them and the agonies they had to withstand will keep their cause alive. whereupon al-Kumait recited his poem. and the ones he will commit. . and their suffering as they tried to keep the creed alive. 118.4 This is one good method of disseminating awareness (of the tragedy of Kerbal~ ’) among the public.” the father of `Abdull~ h (– ) became quite relaxed because doing so is obligatory due to its resulting in keeping the traditions of Ahl alBayt (– ) alive. The Im~ m (– ) said to him. . the Im~ m (– ) thought it was quite a serious offence to recite poetry during such great days. Then he called upon some of his family members to join them both. . poem to him. Shooters hit thereby the mark the others are missing: O last one led to misguidance by the first: Do listen! It was then that Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) raised his hands and supplicated saying. and I do not know which one of them the .”3 Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h. sins. O Lord. and p. of Your favours till he is pleased!”2 Abu Ja`fer Im~ m al-Jaw~ d (– ) permitted `Abdull~ h ibn al-Salt to eulogize him and mourn his father . Ja`fer son of `Aff~ n5 came once to see Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ). 7. Was it `Abdull~ h. Vol. May All~ h have mercy on all those who keep their memory alive and who invite others to remember them. his own children to be brought near them. (– ) who was killed with an arrow while in al-Husain's lap? Or was it Muhammed son of Abu Sa`§d son of .”1 When al-Kumait once sought permission of Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) during the days of tashr§q to recite his . Im~ m al-Rida (– ). Since remembering Ahl al-Bayt (– ) is the pillar of the creed and the spirit of reform.” It was then that Umm Farwa cried loudly. of Al-Agh~ni and also on p. 5 88 . he belonged to the tribe of Tay. . . 27. 1 2 3 4 This statement is quoted on p. “Compose for me poetry about al-Husain (– ). This is recorded on p. and so did the other women with her. then he wrote him saying. According to p. But when al-Kumait said to him. There was a great deal of weeping when he recited the verse saying. Indeed. and may All~ h reward you with goodness. Once they all gathered. . 5 of `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Rida (–) by al-Sadãq. 350 of Rij~l al-Kashshi. Sufy~ n started his poem by saying. 45. and through it are their teachings taught and footsteps followed. Vol. . and the ones he revealed! And grant him. “O All~ h! Forgive al-Kumait's . 9. Vol. `Aq§l son of Abu T~ lib? . of Ma`~hid al-Tans§s. or was it `Abdull~ h Junior son of Im~ m al-Hasan . This is stated on p. Vol. . the infant. . the ones he hid. their children did faint during the Battle of al-Taff. This is had§th number 263 on the list of ah~d§th recorded in Rawdat al-K~fi. 8. 15. so he cut the parchment in which the poem was written and kept it with him. . “It is composed about you (Ahl al-Bayt [as]). “You compose . of Al-Agh~ni. . Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-B~ qir (– ) said the following to al-Kumait when the latter recited for him his poem which starts with “Who shall solace a heart suffering from overflowing passion?”: “May you always be supported by the Holy Spirit. “O Farwa! Be generous with your over-pouring tears. Im~ m (– ) had then in mind. said to Sufy~ n ibn Mis`ab. 2. . . so Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) sent them a child who fainted (having become overwhelmed by emotion).” then he ordered Umm Farwa and . al-S~ diq (– ). the calamities they underwent. whereupon Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) shouted: “The door! (Close) the door!” The people of Med§na assembled. . Abu T~ lib once wrote the Im~ m (– ) seeking his permission to eulogize his father Im~ m al-Rida (– ). “An excellent job you have done.Many a book and many a pen. the Infallible Im~ ms (– ) kept urging their followers to publicize their abundant merits. the ones he committed.

poetry about al-Husain (– ). 9. Vol. He said to them. and you do a good job. forgiven by All~ h. It was . . So the judges issued about him and decreed. Accept what the Lord has decreed for you. Why should a taleeq about inheritance say a word? . “All~ h's angels who are near to Him have all witnessed what you have said about al-Husain. The Qur’~ n has already informed you of his worth. then that someone took hold of the door as he said. Granddaughters inherit no grandfathers. For the girls have his wealth. Only out of his fear of the sword. They . of Al-Agh~ni. 17. . That a daughters' son should inherit his uncle?2 Ja`fer ibn `Aff~ n responded by syaing. The taleeq prayed only out of his fear of the sword.3 A group of men came to see Im~ m al-Rida (– ) once and found him looking out of the ordinary. How can it be. “I later fell asleep. whereupon . He is the one who responded to Marw~ n ibn Abu Hafsa when the latter said. and it never will. Vol. 45. Why should a taleeq . How can it be? And it shall not: Pillars of Islam do not belong to polytheists. of his book Al-Maqtal. “Anyone who composes poetry in memory of al-Husain (– ) and he cries and causes others to cry will be . while the uncle Is left without a share. The Im~ m (– ) went on to say. “I have spent my entire night awake thinking about what Marw~ n ibn Abu Hafsa said. . the Im~ m (– ) asked him to recite some of it for him. All~ h has ordered .”1 This Ja`fer is a sincere Sh§`a who has earned a great deal of praise and is regarded as a reliable authority by biographers. 144. F~ tima's son to whom reference is made .” then he quoted the lines cited above. This is quoted on p. Talk about inheritance at all? The taleeq prayed . asked him why. al-Khaw~rizmi quotes two of his poems eulogizing Im~m al. 2 3 1 These verses are recorded on p. On p. Chapter 13. of Al-Agh~ni. Ja`fer did. you to be lodged in Paradise. . The Im~ m (– ) cried so much that his tears ran profusely on his cheeks and beard. the Im~ m (– ) turned to those present there and then to say. Clear the way for people whose customs are The crushing of flanks whenever throngs jostle. Then he said to him. 187 of Rij~l al-Kashshi. 89 .” After a while. and he will be worthy of entering Paradise. and they have all cried just as we here cry. While the uncle is deprived of his share. . don't you?” He answered in the affirmative. 2. 12. Vol. See p. And let alone inheriting every protecting knight.Husain (–). Why not?! And it surely is: Sons of daughters shall inherit their uncles.

46. Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam. . Since when do the offspring of the Prophet Behave like an heir who earns. p.”1 Marw~ n stole the theme from verses composed by a slave of Tamm~ m ibn Ma`bid ibn al-`Abb~ s ibn `Abd al-Muttalib who stood to attack with his poetry `Ubaydull~ h ibn Abu R~ fi`. Al-`Abb~ s's offspring denied their father's right So you in your claim seek no good end. Ibid.. He was able to bring him to a safe haven inside the tent of a woman who belonged to the tribe of `Anzah and treated him till he healed. none among his family suspected anything at all. Once . Ibn Abu Hafsah. bought him and gave him to Marw~ n as a slave. .” so he kept company with him for some time serving him till he and his family felt comfortable about him.. says that the latter Im~m heard that voice. on his shoulders. . . while discussing the biography of Im~m . but . . 90 . 15 of Tabaq~t al-Shu`ar~’ by Ibn al-Mu`tazz. . . al-Tibrisi. Why? He knew beforehand that his murder would be in vain if no eloquent tongues and determined persons acquainted the nation with the misguidance of Maysã n's son and with the oppression of Marj~ na's son who attacked the pure progeny of the Prophet (‰ ). Tamm~ m's slave then said: . 305 of `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Rida by al-Sadãq. . . etc. servant of the Messenger of . When Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam was wounded (in that incident).Earned his inheritance from his cousins. He was also informed of the imprisonment of A 1 2 3 4 Refer to p. Mãsa al-K~zim (–). Vol. . He dragged him as he (Marw~ n) moaned. . those around the sick man had left with the exception of S~ lih. He had come to Im~ m al-Hasan ibn Ali (– ) and said: “I am your servant.” and he used to write . All~ h (‰ ). company would be killed. S~ lih acted as his nurse. then he. verse “How can it be. .4 THE QUESTION OF MARCHING WITH THE FAMILY l-Husain (– ) transported his family [from Med§na] to Iraq knowing that he and all those in his . Marw~ n freed him and let him participate with him in the Battle of the Camel and of Marj R~ hit. . and without the refutation of the bid`as which they had introduced in the sacred Shar§`a. On p. . 9. Some say that he was taken captive from Istakhar. When opportune. He participated in the incident of the D~ r on Marw~ n's side. weeping. .3 S~ lih ibn Atiyyah al-Adjam was angry with Marw~ n's . and that `Uthm~ n ibn `Aff~ n . and it shall not. He kept telling him to remain silent else he should be heard and killed. of Al-Agh~ni. down quotations from (the Im~ m's father) Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). These verses are recorded on p. claims linkage to the father?2 Marw~ n ibn Sulaym~ n ibn Yahya ibn Abu Hafsa was a Jew who embraced Islam at the hands of . The Father of the Oppressed realized that the theologians were apprehensive of pretending to denounce the oppressive authority to which they surrendered. 214 of Al-Ihtij~j. While the son of the wide shield stands Hesitant. he was carried by his slave. only by his kin pleased. 34. . the latter suffocated him and killed him. When Ibn Abu Hafsah fell ill.. Refer to p.

“These are people whom All~ h decreed to be killed. O daughter of the pure ones. calm [the child that she was]. or even by her enemy rejoicing at her misfortune. All~ h will gather you and them. the moaning of the sick. . Zainab described the horror which those misled people had committed. for you have certainly burnt our hearts and slit our throats!” She hardly finished when Umm Kulthã m. Even a single one of such calamities would overpower and shatter the mind of anyone. hurling words like thunderbolts at their assembly. the wise ladies belonging to the family of the Prophet (‰ ) were largely prepared for revenge and for defending the sanctity of the creed. and even when calamities plunged them into the deepest depression. They said to her. the defenseless lady that she was. had they only known. not knowing what to do. She baffled the minds and amazed everyone when she delivered another speech at Kã fa's cemetery where people were confused. She. People could not help raising their voice as they wept. weeping. rendering the son of Marj~ na speechless as she said. she was succeeded by [her younger niece] F~ tima daughter of al-Husain . and they came to realize the extent of the tragedy and the pain it inflicted. stood before Marj~ na's son. (– ) who spoke eloquently while remaining unruffled. back to life. for example.many of them. peace of All~ h be upon her. They rose with their Im~ m who sacrificed himself for the sake of the right creed only to bring the Shar§`a of his grandfather. whereupon everyone present wailed and cried. while the severed head of the Im~ m (– ) and those of his supporters and kinsfolk were all in front of her as the limbs were left in the desert for the sun to incinerate. a speech which was more forceful than the fiercest arrow. She often spoke out her mind to those ruffians even when she was between their claws and fangs. and may they be exposed to shame in the hereafter! Surely All~ h's retribution is greater. the substance of the Message. Among them is [Zainab] the wise lady and daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ). and arguments will be lodged against you. weeping. without stuttering a bit. the cries of the children. with hearts more firm than the mountains. who was not deterred by captivity or by the humiliation of exile. “Suffices you what you have said. the ill-begotten tyrant. What happened to Ibn `Af§f al-Azdi underscores this reality which any clear conscience supports. delivered her speech as though she had been her father. and nobody had ever witnessed more crying and weeping. and difficulties. or by the wailing of the widows. and the Master of the Youths of Paradise. O son of Marj~ na. Zainab daughter of Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). “How can the shame and infamy of their killing the son of the Prophet. . in addition to women seeking refuge in her shadow. may your mother lose you. The Father of the Oppressed also knew that the ladies who were born in the Message were used to persevere during the time of calamity and when facing hardships. Yet the daughter of Hayder (– ) maintained a great deal of self-restraint and self-composure. the Prophet (‰ ). Her speech acted like spears that pierced the hearts. He concluded that even the greatest among them would not be able to expose the horror of what such authority was committing. They did not neglect. 91 .1 1 Read the text of these three speeches in a later part of this book where the subject of martyrdom is discussed. Even while their hearts were on fire on account of the tragedy. Said she. having none with her to protect her nor any of her family's men except the Im~ m's wali [Zain al-`} bid§n] who was exhausted by sickness. ever be washed away from them? May their endeavour be rendered futile! May their hands perish! May their bargain be a loss.” She made it clear for those who were unaware of his malice and meanness that he would never be able to wash away the shame and infamy of what he had committed. and you will be disputed. even under the most adverse of situations. complaining. spoke [again]. and children filled with the pain of thirst. so they came out welcoming their destiny. so she . see whose lot will be the crack of the fire. to expose to the public the lies and falsehood resulting from what those misleading rulers were promoting as well as their ultimate goal of undermining the creed. and young ladies severely beset.” Having finished her speech. so. or by losing dear ones.

One wonders whether anyone can deliver a speech under such a most grave situation, when one is surrounded by the swords of the oppressors, no matter how strong his tribe may be. Yet who else besides the daughters of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) could publicly expose the sins committed by the son of Hind and the son of Marj~ na? Heavy burdens were placed on the tongues, and fear filled everyone's heart. Yet all of this is looked upon as abominable had its benefits only been worldly and its motives the doing of one's insinuating self. But if it benefits the religion, such as clearing the faith introduced by the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) from any falsehood which those adversaries had attached to it, there will be no ugliness in it according to reason and custom, and it is supported by the Shar§`a. All~ h has exempted women from waging jih~ d and confronting the enemies, and All~ h Almighty has required them to stay at home. Yet such is the case when a confrontation like this is undertaken by the men. But when such an obligation is removed from them in a confrontational way from which they should refrain, the foundations of the Shar§`a will be undermined, and the sacrifice of those elite ones will be cleared from any falsehood, women will then be required to do just that. It is for this reason that the Head of the Women of the World, F~ tima al-Zahr~ ’, peace be upon her, . stood to defend All~ h's supreme caliphate after the oath of allegiance had been sworn to someone else other than to the master of wasis [her husband, Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~lib (– ), who was thus forcibly distanced from . . the political process], so she delivered a speech at the Mosque of the Prophet (‰ ) which was very eloquent and which was witnessed by a large crowd of the Muh~ jirã n and the Ans~ r. . But al-Husain (– ) had already been informed by his grandfather, al-Am§n (‰ ), that those folks, . although they would have attained their goal, and although they would go to extremes in their villainy, they would not harm the women. This is clear from a statement made by al-Husain (– ) in which he said to those . women at the final farewell hour, “Put on your outer mantles and get ready for the test, and be informed that All~ h will protect and safeguard you, and that He will save you from the evil of your adversaries and render the outcome of your cause righteousness. He will torment your adversaries with all norms of torture, and He will compensate you for going through such a calamity with numerous types of blessings and graces. So, do not complain, and do not utter that which may demean your status.” We can say all of this even if the master of the martyrs (– ) had not been the Im~ m. But in the case of submitting to the encompassing knowledge of the Im~ m, the knowledge of what was and of what will be, and his marching as directed by the best realistic interests, and his being infallible in everything he says and does, and it is the truth which cannot be refuted that we are bound to submit that all the divine wisdom he undertook and the divine interests are beyond any doubt..., we have to do nothing but to believe in all his actions without being bound by reason to know the interests served thereby. The same can be said about anything with which adults are obligated. The servants of All~ h are not required except to submit and surrender to their Lord without knowing the underlying motives behind what He orders them to do. The same case is applicable to the slaves with their masters. Reason does not require a slave to do anything more than obeying his master whenever the latter bids or forbids him.

`ALAWIDES’ REVOLUTIONS ne of the products of that sacred uprising and clear victory was a transformation in the outlook of the `Alawides, in their lineage and creed, and in that of those who developed some norm of attachment to Muhammed's Progeny, even when one concealed the opposite of what he revealed. . All of these were relentless in propagating the rightful cause, in weakening the government of falsehood, and in reminding the nation that there was a right that belonged to Muhammed's Progeny and which was .



usurped, and that they were obligated to sever the hand that usurped it, hence those successive revolutions that brought a fresh hope to the hearts and to the desire to research the true guidance in order to find out where the truth lies. The nation used to think that it was not possible to rise in the face of those who controlled its fate, and who ruled the Muslims, because of their might, and that to challenge the cruel authority would be futile; rather, the Shar§`a prohibits anyone from tragically throwing himself in the pitfalls of perdition without gaining anything. But the master of dignity and self-esteem, the Master of the Youths of Paradise, inspired the people who cared about the religion at the Taff incident with a loud scream to reject such an attitude, a scream the . echo of which can still be heard by generations after generations. He called for the Shar§`a mandating a revolution against every oppressor in the absence of any other means to subdue him. Such is the level of conviction of those who make the attainment of restitution the motto of their revolution. So they will either score a victory, or their successors will, till the hopes are transformed into a glorious victory. This is what we witness from the succession of revolutions that were the outcome of the Umayyads playing havoc with the pure Shar§`a, hence al-Mukht~ r's call for revenge for the wronged and the persecuted progeny of Muhammed (‰ ). . Zayd ibn Ali ibn al-Husain (– ) and his son Yahya stood to earn the pleasure of the progeny of . . Muhammed (‰ ), and the remnant of the H~ shemites demonstrated their denunciation of the oppressive . rulers, leaping like lions to put an end to the sweeping torrent of misguidance. If you contemplate on the biography of the Infallible descendants of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and what the Master, Praise to Him, has bestowed upon them by making them the means to remove the thorns of abomination, and by their being the means to guide His servants to what is exemplary, you will clearly see their desire, peace be upon them, for waging such bloody brawls, aiming thereby to remind the nation of their being the most worthy of the post of successors of the holiest Messenger (‰ ). Anyone who foils their attempts to attain what belongs to them, that which the Creator, Praised is His Name, had allotted to them, deviates from the right path. Such an understanding is conceived and discussed because of such revolutions in various lands so that the argument against the nation will be completed. Nobody will then seek an excuse of being ignorant about the Im~ ms appointed by the greatest Prophet (‰ ). If we come across statements made by some of the Im~ ms of guidance denouncing or dissociating themselves from the `Alawides or others who revolted against oppressive rulers, it is only on account of the taqiyya, a safeguard against the schemes of the oppressive authority, so that such revolutions will not be attributed to them, for they would then face a dreadful fate. Yes; there have been among the revolutionaries those who used the persecution meted to Ahl al-Bayt (– ) as a trap to hunt simpletons. [`Abdull~ h] Ibn al-Zubayr, for example, used to extol the name of al-Husain . (– ) and denounce the injustice done to him. But when he took charge, he abandoned such a line, becoming the most bitter enemy of Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them, revealing what he had hidden in his chest. He, therefore, suspended [the custom of] blessing the Prophet (‰ ) for full forty Jum`as. He was asked about his reason for doing so, whereupon he answered by saying, “His Ahl al-Bayt are evil; whenever I mention his name, they become excited, and they become elated; therefore, I hated to bring happiness to their hearts by mentioning his name.”1 He was in reality encouraged to do so by Mu`~ wiyah. The latter heard the caller to the prayers reciting the kalima (which, of course, contains the name of Muhammed [‰ ] as the Messenger of All~ h), . whereupon he commented by saying, “This brother of Banã H~ shim yells his name five times a day saying,


Abul-Faraj al-I sfah~ni, Al-Muq~til, p. 165 (Tehran edition). .


`} shhadu anna Muhammedan rasool-All~ h.' What deed can survive with something like this, may you lose . your mother? By All~ h, only burying it will, only burying it will.”1 When al-Ma'mã n heard about this incident, he issued his orders to all regions to curse the Prophet (‰ ) from the pulpits, but people thought that that was monstrous, indeed, and there was a great deal of uproar among the people, so much so that he was advised to withdraw his orders, which he did.2 The `Abb~ sides pretended to express their love for al-Husain (– ), filling the air with their shouts . denouncing the atrocities committed against the family of Muhammed (‰ ) during the Taff Battle. Having . . attained their goal, however, they turned against Muhammed's family, wiping them from the face of earth. . Mã sa ibn `Eisa, the `Abb~ side (general) who commanded the assault at Fakhkh, said, “Had the Prophet opposed us, we would have struck his nose with the sword.”3 These and their likes are the ones from whom one's conscience is detached. They will never be protected against the Almighty's wrath although the nation benefitted from their eradication of its enemies who belonged to the offspring of Harb and Umayyah. . Harb's sons coveted to see . In him submission to force and oppression, They tried to hunt his valiant heroes Like birds they shook off humiliation and flew. They wished to forcibly drag him into disgrace, Though to dignity he was accustomed and to grace. How could he swear and submit To filth only for fear of death? He refused, hence the event that Shook the world in awe and in fright. So he came in an army and marched Against hosts that filled the plains, He and lions from `Amr, exalted ones Wearing for the brawl steadfastness. They dealt blows in a desert where Death became in the morrow their mark So they exalted justice and were spent Pure in honour, clean of filth they went. They sacrificed souls great and precious Too dignified to please the lowly ones.4


1 2

Ibn Abul-Had§d, Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha, p. 165 (Tehran edition). . .

al-Mas`ãdi, Murãj al-Thahab, Vol. 1, p. 343, where al-Ma’mãn is discussed. Abul-Faraj al-I sfah~ni, Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n, p. 158 (Tehran edition). . .

3 4

Excerpted from a poem by Sayyid `Abd al-Muttalib al-Hilli published in its entirety in al-Kh~q~ni's book Shu`ar~’ al-Hilla. .. . .


he Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) has said, “The killing of al-Husain (– ) has left in the heart of the faithful a . fire that will never die down.” This tradition is recorded on p. 217, Vol. 2, of Mustadrak al-Was~ 'il. Numerous poems have been and will be composed eulogizing the greatest epic of heroism in the history of mankind; here are some of them:



Muharram has come, so welcome it with takb§r, . And scatter your tears on the earth. See in it the crescent as it manifests itself, See how it is forlorn, contemplating, mourning. Take off the mantle of patience and place it: A yellow robe on one who with grief clothed you, For with the robes of grief do I meet it, Taking off what cheerful red robes decorated me. It is a month destiny in it decreed That the vilest of black dogs would deal With the Lion of the valiant ones. All~ h! What a calamity he had to behold! The heavens for it wept crimson blood. A great misfortune, indeed, afflicted the creed, For it did the Mother Town drape in black: Can't you see how the sacred Haram sighs? . How his sighs would light the timber? From its depths does Abu Qubays yearn A yearning that reaches Hir~ ’. . Al-Hat§m knew of it, so it is grief-crushed, . Al-Safa knew of it, so it is serene no more, . And its mash`ars sensed the calamity, And passion struck its Muhassir, so it sighed, . For Husain is killed: what a tragedy! . On its account Islam became defenseless.1



Excerpted from a poem in Shih~b al-Mãsawi's d§w~n (Egypt: 1330 A.H./1912 A.D.).


Muharram is when joy is taboo, . When grief is a must, weeping is unavoidable. A month wherein the seat of faith is in ruin. Its crescent is a bow That shot the heart of guidance, the creed, With the arrow of death and destiny. Infidels and Muslims considered Fighting in it a great sin. Yet Harb's family in it fought the Lord of the heavens, Permitting the spilling of the inviolable blood. They violated the sanctity of the Haram's masters, . Committing that which caused the sky to rain blood. O family of Harb! May you never see peace, . May none spare you from his censuring tongue! On earth and in the heavens are you cursed, By the mass of the living. Be forewarned with woes and destruction, And with torture on the Day the trumpet is blown. How many free women of the Chosen Prophet Did you rip apart? How much blood of his offspring did you spill? O nation of betrayal and disbelief! O gang of misguidance, O fiends! How will you look his grandfather in the eye Having done what you did after him? Like butchers you slaughtered his progeny, Like slaves you herded his family. You forgot the kindness bestowed upon you On Mecca's Victory Day, when you were forgiven. Had it not been for the moon-faced sons of H~ shim, A secret lost in the chest you would have been. Through them did you ascend the pulpit, And rose to the heights of eminence.1 YAZ¦D SON OF MU`} WIYAH hen Mu`~ wiyah died in Damascus on Rajab 15, 60 A.H./April 24, 680 A.D., his son Yaz§d was in Hawr~ n [Auranitis in Latin]. His shrouds were taken by al-Dahh~ k ibn Qays who ascended the . . . . pulpit. Having praised and glorified All~ h, he said, “Mu`~ wiyah used to be the Arab's bulwark, their supporter and great one. Through him did All~ h end dissensions, granting him authority over His servants, conquering the lands through him. He has died, and these are his shrouds. In them shall we wrap him, and in his grave shall we place him, then shall we leave him and his deeds, and so shall the barzakh be


Excerpted from a poem by Ayatullah Shaikh H~di K~shif al-Ghit~’ published on p. 9 of Al-Maqbãla al-Husayniyya. . .


till the Day of Judgment. Whoever among you wishes to view it, he may proceed.” He offered the funeral prayers for him then buried him at the cemetery of B~ b al-Sagheer (the Small Gate). He sent a letter to Yaz§d consoling him on the death of his father and advising him to go there as fast as he could in order to secure the renewal of the oath of allegiance to him1. He added a note at the bottom of the letter containing the following verses of poetry: Alone did Abu Sufy~ n go, Leaving you behind, so Consider what you will after him do. Follow the right order with us for you Are our resort whenever we fret. Having read it, Yaz§d said the following lines of poetry in response:2 A carrier with a letter came trotting, Casting fear in the heart, frightening, So we said: Woe unto you! What is the news? Said he: The caliph became heavy, in pain: The earth swayed, almost shaken, As if uprooted were its every foundation. One whose soul remains in apprehension Almost brings about that which he does fear. I found the mansion gate closed when I came near, Ramla's voice wrecked my heart, She did, indeed, rend it apart. He set out to Damascus, reaching it three days after Mu`~ wiyah had already been buried.3 Flanked by a group of prominent personalities, al-Dahh~ k went out to welcome him. When Yaz§d reached them, al. . . Dahh~ k took him first to the site of Mu`~ wiyah's grave. Yaz§d prayed there then entered the city. Having . . . ascended the pulpit, he said, O people! Mu`~ wiyah was one of All~ h's servants. All~ h bestowed His favours upon him then took his soul away. He is higher in status than those who succeeded him and lower than those who preceded him. I do not augment him for All~ h, since He knows him better than me. If He forgives him, it is only due to His mercy, and if He punishes him, it is on account of his own sins. I have been granted authority after him, and I do not feel sorry for anything which I sought, nor do I apologize for anything which I have forfeited. When All~ h decrees something, it comes to pass. Mu`~ wiyah used to transport you in the sea to invade, but I am not transporting any Muslim in the sea. And he used to let you spend your winter in the land of the Romans, but I am letting none of you spend his winter in any Roman land. He used to
1 2 3

Ibn Kath§r, Al-Bid~ya wal Nih~ya, Vol. 8, p. 143. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni, Al-Agh~ni, Vol. 16, p. 34 (de Sassi edition). .

al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal, Vol. 1, p. 178. In the biography of Mu`~wiyah on the margins of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni) with . . reference to Al-Ist§`~b, al-Sh~fi`i is quoted as saying, “W hen Mu`~wiyah felt the weight of his last days, he wrote Yaz§d, who had been away, telling him about his condition. Yaz§d then composed four lines of the ones to follow.”


So look after them as All~ h looks after you. and All~ h's mercy and blessings! You have been grieved by the loss of the best of fathers.” People came to him to congratulate him and to offer their condolences. 98 . O commander of the faithful. for you have lost the viceregent of All~ h and given the caliphate of All~ h. and praise All~ h for granting you such a beautiful gift. 109 (second edition). No calamity has befallen the people. O people of Syria. “Peace on you. with which the people of Iraq are familiar since the Battle of Siff§n. they know.” He thanked them and distributed to them a lot of . are on your side. Ibn al-Rash§q. Mu`~ wiyah has died and you have become our leader and the reigns of government have been placed in your hands.” Then he composed the following lines of poetry: Be patient. and I tried hard to cross it. for none has been given as you have. 148. and you have been given all things. 2. He dispatched to Iraq `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d according to the advice of Serjun [Sargon]. You have dawned the custodian of all those Who do uphold the creed. May All~ h bring him to the sources of happiness. O Yaz§d. in a chapter dealing with eulogizing. may He bless you for what you have given us. 143. for our swords. Yaz§d said. money. governor of Med§na: 1 2 Ibn Kath§r. Vol. He then wrote the governors of various countries informing them of the death of his father and keeping them in their jobs.give you a third of what you collect. There is a minor difference in the narrations stated in these references. Al-Bid~yah. . Al-`Umda. And thank the One Who put you in charge. Vol. Qir~’a wal Tajw§d. Vol. and there will be a tragic epic between myself and the people of Iraq! I have seen in my vision three nights ago that a river stood between me and the people of Iraq tumultuously flowing with blood. but I could not till `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d crossed it before me as I looked at him!” The Syrians shouted. no issue is better than you. but I shall let you keep it all. in a chapter dealing with Mu`~wiyah soliciting fealty for Yaz§d. al-J~hiz. you have parted with a great man. This opened the avenue for other speakers to speak. 3. Rejoice. Al-`Iqd al-Far§d f§ Ma`rifat al. in a chapter dealing with Mu`~wiyah’s will. p. “Take us wherever you wish. 2. 300. You have surely suffered a great calamity and have been granted something great. Vol. you should thank All~ h for what you have been granted and be patient about that wherein you have been tested. 309. nor has anyone been grieved as you have. K~mil al-Mibrad. p. p. p. for goodness has always been with you. . Your calamity is theirs. Ibn `Abd Rabbih (namely Sayyid Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli). Vol. so. “O commander of the faithful! May All~ h compensate you for your loss. 8. He wrote the following letter to al-Wal§d ibn `Utbah. 2. You have bidden farewell to a great man and given something great indeed. The surviving Mu`~ wiyah did to us succeed As you are consoled. and may He enable you to do what is best. and may He assist you in ruling your subjects. p. be patient with regard to your tragedy. slave of his father Mu`~ wiyah.1 Nobody approached him to offer condolences before `Abdull~ h ibn Hum~ m al-Salã li came forward and said.2 A man from Thaq§f said to him. Al-Bay~n wal Tiby~n. while none is mourning you. so. “We are the supporters of righteousness and the promoters of the creed.

Played havoc with All~ h's religion his every evil deed. . Ka`ba which was attacked with catapults by Yaz§d’s soldiers]. with his saber's blood. Then He took him to the world of the souls and to fragrance. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. later on ruler of Hij~ z] when you require . W e have already referred to this brief letter in our Introduction . So. i. Surrounded he was once he tested the folks A group whose virtues aspired to reach the peaks..”1 The governor carried his instructions out. His messenger. Vol. I have come to know. He called for al-Husain (– ) and [`Abdull~ h] . take the oath of allegiance from the people of Med§na. p. al-Tabari. O Wal§d. . one before which no barrier stands. Maqtal al-Husain. and he died according to a term. vision was a true observation of the then status quo and it is a proof of the Im~mate's insight. Then he attached a small piece of scroll wherein he wrote: “Be tough with al-Husain. p. realizing what happens in the cosmos. It is quite clear that the Im~m's . 327. them to swear the oath of allegiance [to me]. Glorified and Exalted is He. and . the . telling him that Mu`~wiyah had died. to His mercy and punishment. Maqtal al-Husain. caused its very foundations to stand. 99 . the whole world. and the like. He lived according to destiny. will seek revenge for `Uthm~ n through the descendants of Abu Sufy~ n because they are the supporters of justice and the seekers of equity. . the incident of the Taff. Vol. Vol. Ibn al-Zubayr in the hope that he would secure their oath of allegiance before everyone else. Vol. 1. All~ h bestowed upon him generously and preferred him and granted him authority over others. and he had enjoined me to beware of the descendants of Abu Tur~ b due to their courage in killing. . kill him and send his severed head to me. `Abdull~ h ibn al-Zubayr [a cousin of `} yesha. when you receive this letter. that All~ h. al-Husain (– ) of reform. p. so. p. son of the second caliph]. Who is more brave than one brought up by Hayder And brought in the birds' towns by his grandfather? A group for the religion is always ready to sacrifice Though few in number. . `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn Abu Bakr [son of the first caliph]. and that they were being sought to swear the oath of allegiance for and to support Yaz§d due to a vision which he had seen wherein he saw Mu`~ wiyah's house burning and his pulpit turned upside down. above. 1. [ibn al-Khatt~ b. He (–) saw in the turning of Mu`~wiyah's pulpit upside down that the power had slipped away from his hands by virtue of his [Mu`~wiyah's] death which put an end to his desires. . Whoever refuses. Burning fire connoted the intensification of dissensions such as the tragedy of the Taff. the cub of the clement and the grand Who. chapter 8. the demolishing of [one of the corners of] the Inviolable House [of All~h. 2 3 4 1 Ibn `}s~kir.e. Mosque. Till they all fell in defense of the Shar§`a al-Khaw~rizmi. 327. At mid-night. 4. you may refer to it. Ibn al-Zubayr became apprehensive of such an invitation which came not at the time when the governor used to hold his open public meetings. 178 (Najaf edition). wife of the Prophet. 10. There is no innovation in that coming from one chosen by All~h Almighty as the hujjah over . 182. `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn `Amr ibn [son of the third caliph] `Uthm~ n ibn Aff~ n2 located them at the Prophet's .4 The son of Maysã n desired to steer the creed. yet in will unflinching. `Abdull~ h ibn `Umer . p. T~r§kh.Mu`~ wiyah was one of All~ h's servants.3 but the hujjah of his time. So to succor the Shar§`a. Ibn Nama. Al-Khaw~rizmi. 6. acquainted him with a piece of news from the unknown.

5. p. but she gave birth to a brass the like of which no other woman gave birth to.” Al-Husain (– ) said. in a dialogue between him and Marw~n. 229 (Iranian edition). . because she was a prostitute and because she used to have a [red] flag over her house [to indicate that there was a prostitute in that house as was the custom of the time throughout Arabia and elsewhere __ Tr. or you kill him. but he did fail To see Husain's will with oppression bent. 5 100 . p. Vol. Im~ m al-Husain (– ).2 Thirty of al-Husain's slaves. p.” Ibn `}s~kir. . “People used to taunt the descendants of `Abd al-Malik ibn Marw~n of the “blue woman” [prostitute]. son of the blue woman!” Marw~n said. 75. 6. or will he?! You . Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (the grandson). T~r§kh. al-Wal§d informed him of Mu`~ wiyah's death and asked him to swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d. 129. `Abdull~h said to Marw~n. Both . Al-}d~b al-Sult~niyya. Vol. On p. this historian [al-Tabari] says that Marw~n ibn Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath used to . . suggested to him not to do so for fear of being assassinated. p. but confine the man till he either swears the oath of allegiance. they stood at the door and to rush to his rescue should they hear him raising his voice. but Marw~ n immediately interfered saying. . 7. 8. Vol. followers and family members3 were instructed to raise their arms as . 4. “You . Al-Husain (– ) explained to him his ability to . 88. “Are you still here. In their necks did he let his polished sword Issue without an appeal its judgment and word. 407. “A man like me does not swear fealty away from people's eyes. Till he brought the faith anew With the blood of the Prophet's issue. Vol. `Amr ibn al-`}s.” On p. “Should he part with you now without swearing it. Vol. . he himself was armed with the Prophet's staff. invite us. 189. p. O son of the blue woman?!” On p.1 Husain's decision with regard to meeting the governor at that time became clear to Ibn al-Zubayr. 6.]. author of Al-Jaw~hir. Al-Luhãf f§ Qatl~ al-Tufãf. where a dialogue between Marw~n and `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr is quoted. who was daughter of Maw~hib. “You son of the blue woman [prostitute]!5 Will you kill me.”4 Al-Wal§d was convinced. avoid it. While the sword in his hand did stand? So he charged like an angry lion At them as he was sought by his foe Who with his sword wanted to deal a blow.As lions defend their den.. so he . of al-Bal~thiri's book Ans~b al-Ashr~f. 16. Sayyid Radi ad-D§n ibn T~wãs (henceforth referred to only as Ibn T~wãs). al-Tabari. 1 2 3 4 Excerpted from a poem by `all~ma Shaikh Muhammed Taqi. you will never be able to secure it from him again till many of your people are killed. Vol. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. T~r§kh. Ibn al-Ath§r. Hind's son wanted. His grandson was needed by his creed To water its thirsty and drying field. In it. references indicate that Marw~n's grandmother was a prostitute. “She was a blue woman. said to the latter. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. How could he bend to the evil band To the sons of Sumayya and Maysã n. it is stated that. too. This way it will be one single matter. . al-Fakhri. When you invite people to swear it. He (– ) said. 4. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book K~mil. . . But the father of deeply rooted honour Refused to wear the robe of humiliation So long as the sword was his companion. When the meeting started with the presence of Abu `Abdull~ h.

. Marw~ n said to al-Wal§d. whereupon nineteen men with unsheathed daggers assaulted and forcibly snatched al-Husain (– ) out and brought him home. Vol. 93. 1. with such a shame. Saforiyya woman [the woman who followed the creed of one `Abdull~h ibn al-Saff~r. . 156. who was awaiting a chance to harm them. of Kanz al-`Umm~l by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. Although the Shar§`a admonishes us not to call others bad names and not to attack their descent. we are bound to surrender to the judgment of the Infallible Im~m (–) with regard to anything he did or said especially when it is in agreement with the Holy Qur’~n. a man who commits sins in the open. charges someone and calls him by such a bad name. . reprimanded her . All~ h! I do not think that the scales of anyone who will be tried on the Day of Judgment for spilling alHusain's blood will be anything but light. head of a group among the Kh~rijites. 30th majlis. beam of light emanated from the grave for him. Man~qib. thereupon. and he will . if the Holy Qur’~n. that is. 3 4 5 6 101 . that time. “Would you taunt him and his father if he taunts you?” she asked him.”2 It was then that al-Wal§d started using rough language with the Im~ m (– ). “I shall never do that. husband for the way he treated al-Husain (– ). A man like me does not swear the oath of allegiance to a man like him. . Linguistically. al-Wal§d's wife.”5 In the same night. son of your daughter and your grandson whom you appointed to take charge of your nation! say. a killer of the prohibitive soul. Peace be upon you. and so does he conclude. your son and the . and the ones visited by the angels. claimed him eighteen years after his birth. A . “O Marw~ n! You chose for me the doing of that which would cause my creed to perish. 29. the source of all ahk~m. . 28. 1 2 al-Tabari. “The offspring of Marw~n were always taunted of descending from the blue woman. so he sought an excuse by saying that it was al-Husain (– ) who . Vol. 2. al-Husain (– ) visited the grave of his grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). zaneem is one who is born outside wedlock. . the substance of the [Divine] Message. p. followers are also known as the Mahlabites {al-Mah~libah}. . the Prophet (‰) is quoted as saying. illegitimately. nor will All~ h look upon him.” al-Wal§d said. T~r§kh. “O ameer! We are members of the household of the Prophet. Am~li. and also Ibn al-Ath§r. 4.” said he. Should I kill Husain just for refusing to swear the oath of allegiance? By . p. “No.”1 Then he directed his attention to al-Wal§d as he said. the fountain-head of moral excellences and mysteries. the author says. All~ h initiates by us. Vol. have a painful torment!”4 Asm~ ’ daughter of `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn al-H~ rith ibn Hish~ m. and I`l~m al-Wara of al-Tibrisi. we shall see and so will you as to who among us is more worthy of the caliphate. nor will He purify him.]. said. 208. whose . 328. al-Sadãq. O Messenger of All~ h! I am al-Husain son of F~ tima. we should not be surprised to see the son of the Prophet charging Marw~n. p. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Al-Luhãf. the Im~m of the nation and the hujjah over creation knew all complex matters and never went beyond what is divinely decreed. while the offspring of al-`}s were from the . Ibn Nama al-Hilli (a sixth century pillar of scholarship). but we will see the morning. . started taunting him. “His father.” On p. Ibn T~wãs. . al-Mugh§rah. Since we are so far away from . Yaz§d is a wine drinker. Vol. “The `utullin zaneem is one who is a lowly-born reprobate. . “You did not listen to me! By All~ h! You will never be able to do it again!” “Rebuke someone else. used by the Almighty and the Exalted One with regard to al-W al§d ibn al-Mugh§rah al-Makhzãmi [father of the renown military leader Kh~lid ibn al-W al§d] who is described in verse 13 of Sãrat al-Qalam thus: `utullun ba`da th~lika zaneem. and it is the Book that is recited day and night. The taunting applied by the Im~m (–) finds references to the taunting .” So. 13.3 . Al-Irsh~d. and so will you. On p. . According to the rules of genealogy.have surely lied and sinned. Ibn Shahr }shãb. he is one whose lineage is claimed by someone else.6 He. of al-‘}lãsi's lexicon Rãh al-Ma`~ni. Ibn `As~kir. __ Tr. descendants of al-Muhallab Abu Sufra. p.

or on account of the differences among the status of each one of them. al-Fayd is of the view that their souls . dissertation dealing with this issue. Among such relevant statements are those mentioned by Im~m al. Al-Khis~l. and that they are permitted to leave their graves and have the freedom of movement in both the upper and the lower domains.Tãsi says that . . of al-’‘}lãsi's book Rãh al-Ma`~ni. On p. and that they are permitted to get out and enjoy free movement either in the higher or in the lower domains. Ali and al-Husain (–). Al-Tawh§d. the judge. In his book Al-W~fi. Ibn al-`Arabi is quoted as saying that the souls are returned to the . In his Tahth§b. souls are returned to the prophets after their death. so he praised All~ h for not exposing him to a difficult situation on account of al-Husain (– ). 1. the Prophet (‰) is quoted as saying. is not confined to any place. On p. and also al-R~wandi's Khar~’§j and on p. Ibn al-`Arabi. B ased on such information. . Th~bit ibn Hurmuz. He says that this is controversial among the scholars. are quoted as saying that no prophet remains in the ground for more than forty days. al-Karakchi on p. 227. Vol. . They say . 33:40) of Sãrat al-Ahz~b. Sa`§d ibn al-Musayyab and Abu al-Muqaddam. He kept bowing and prostrating till morning. 37. return). 213 of Ibn Hajar's book Al-Fat~wa al-Had§tha. Shaikh Yousuf al-Bahr~ni on p. as well as al-Rawd. Kh~lid al-`Abasi. 2. Shaikh al-Muf§d has said. “The servants of All~h go to the place where their graves stand even if none is inside them out of veneration for them and a sanctification of the places where they resided then raised. Al-Sadãq's K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. the Omnipotent that He is. But both K~mil al-Ziy~r~t (of Ibn Qawlawayh alQummi). W hen Ibn al. cites another narration indicating more than two days. whereas others . Al-`Uyãn. 54. It is like the servants of All~h worshipping Him by going to His Inviolable House although He. . p. al-Majlisi. Al-Maj~lis. 172. 390. . The disagreement among them may either be due to explaining the reason behind the small or large number of days. Noah. “No prophet is buried except that he is raised after three days except I.Haramain in his book Al-Nih~ya as well as by al-R~fi`i in Al-Sharh. are raised while the elements composing their bodies remain in the earth.Haramain . I have heard my 1 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. and the traditionist al-Nawari on p. for I pleaded to All~h Almighty to be among you till the Day of Judgment. he said. adding.H~jib asked our mentor al-Muf§d about the meaning behind the presence of those who go to visit these graves. Joseph. chapter 108. of D~r al-Sal~m. both views are stated: some of them will be raised after three days. On p. Najafiyya. .Testify against them. p. are both quoted as saying that the . so he said. 1. 130 of Al-Bas~’ir all quote statements supporting the view that our Prophet (‰). Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib commenting on the issue whether the prophets and wasis remain in their graves or whether they are raised . 407. he thought that he (– ) had left Med§na. “My Lord honours me too much to keep me in my grave for more than three days. Bih~r al-Anw~r. he would not remain more than forty days before being raised to the heavens. . to the heavens. Shu`ayb. . al-M ajlisi on p. . Vol. . nor a wasi stays in the earth more than three days before his soul and remains are raised to heavens. 2. at the conclusion of a chapter on visiting grave-sites. So it is possible that many may see the Prophet (‰) because he is like the sun. Marw~ n met Abu `Abdull~ h (– ). Since that . prophets inside the graves. In the morning. 102 . messenger did not find the Im~ m (– ) at home. 2. It is possible that such narrations came to discourage the Kh~rijites from exhuming the graves. will be raised after forty days. . . then he adds his own viewpoint. Vol. of Mir’~t al-`Uqãl. Among those who accepted the view that the original bodies are lifted is Shaikh al-Muf§d as stated on p.” `Abd al-Razz~q has narrated saying that Sa`§d ibn al-M usayyab saw once some people greeting the Prophet (‰) [at his grave-site]. so he admonished him as he would his own likes to: swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d since in it. This is my complaint to you till I meet you. O Prophet of All~ h. in a chapter dealing with building shrines. of al-Samhãdi's book Waf~’ al-Waf~’. “M uhammed was not the father of any of your men” (Qur’~. and the prophet referred to in the incident relevant to istisq~’ are still on earth. the remains of Adam. 266 of Al-Durra al.” Al-Husain (– ) said. . Sayyid Mahmãd ibn Fath-All~h al-Husaini al-K~zimi wrote a . Vol. and that the first to be resurrected will be our Prophet (‰). that the Prophet (‰) has said that no prophet dies and remains in his grave for more than forty days. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. 258 of Kanz al-Faw~’id.” On p. that they betrayed me and did not safeguard my right. Yousha` [Joshua] ibn Nãn are still in their graves. “Inn~ lillah wa inn~ ilayhi r~ ji`oon” (We belong to All~ h and to Him shall we . Vol. Both references cite . 10. “No prophet remains in the ground for more than forty days.1 Al-Wal§d dispatched someone to inquire about the whereabouts of al-Husain (– ). They cite testimonials that . concluding that they are present at their graves. . p. 373. and al. al. Praise to Him. Part Two. in the explanation of the verse saying .” On p. “is the goodness of the creed and the life of this world. state that neither a prophet . 331. 76 of al-Majlisi's book Sharh al-Arba`een. 84 of Al-Maq~l~t. but it is done to glorify Him and to exalt His status. “Bid farewell to Islam if the nation is afflicted by a caretaker like Yaz§d. Anas is quoted in many traditions as saying .” Im~m al. that the Prophet (‰) has said. Vol.Tãsi's Tahth§b. it is stated that a group of scholars think that they are returned to their graves after their souls are raised. of Mir’~t al-`Uqãl.

' The people of Med§na did.2 In the second night. O 1 2 3 Ibn T~wãs. Hasan (– ). see him on that pulpit. the Commander of the Faithful (– ). But the Father of the Oppressed distinguished between the supplication of his grandfather (‰) and destiny. and I hate abomination. View of `Omer al-Atraf . He (‰ ) said. al-Husain (– ) again visited the grave of his grandfather. “O All~ h! This is the grave of Your Prophet Muhammed (‰ ). it will be better for you. so the one who carried out the Divine Call informed him that All~h Almighty had decreed to grant him a great status which could not be achieved without his martyrdom. You. But the most holy Prophet refused to do so before his grandson was to do that which would earn him his rewards in a way which the Great One. and I am the son of Your Prophet's . mother and brother have all come to me.3 . the reprobate. and being acquainted with the abominations committed then and with aborting righteousness. 185.” Al-Husain (– ) woke up then narrated his vision to his family whose grief and weeping intensified. See p. p. said.” Their dialogue continued for a long time till Marw~ n left angrily. to either assent to Yaz§d's wish or to go far away from that land. O Lord of Glory and Honour. and he entered into a covenant in its regard with confirmed promises. be slain. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. made death an easy remedy for them according to the norms of manliness and to their profound concern about the creed. This narration is cited on the authority of Muhammed ibn . He saw in his vision the Messenger of All~ h. al-Khaw~rizmi. and the uncle of your father will all be gathered on the Day of Judgment in one group till you enter Paradise. O . MEN EXPRESSING FEAR FOR AL-HUSAIN (– ) . They surrounded al-Husain (– ) and asked him . . therefore. This does not mean that the Master of Martyrs was preferring something better than what All~h had chosen for him. nor is it an indication of his fear of death. Abu T~lib. O All~ h! I love the doing of good. second edition.” Al-Husain (– ) said. 1. and they are eager to see you. They all realized that time had come to witness what the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) had beforehand promised them to undergo. so they would then lose the sublime rewards they all aspired to attain. `Sufy~ n's offspring are prohibited from the caliphate. 54 of Maqtal al-`Aw~lim (of `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni).grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) say. your father. Far away from him are such presumptions. . “My loved one. I plead to You. by the status of this grave and by the one inside it to choose for me what best pleases You and Your Messenger. Maqtal al-Husain. Husain! Your father. surrounded by a large crowd of angels on his right and left and in front of him. and due to their concern about the noor of Prophethood being veiled from them. p. “My father told me that . He was fully aware that destiny had to be carried out. . “You have to be granted martyrdom so that you will receive the great rewards All~ h has allotted for you. if you see Mu`~ wiyah on my pulpit. peace of All~ h be upon him and his progeny.” Al-Husain (– ) . Such expression of frustration clearly demonstrates the situation then. you must rip his stomach open. If you swear fealty. with those incidents. . told me that his father. He did not fear his destiny. p. 103 . Is there anyone in the nation who is admonished thereby or who discerns it? 4 W e have indicated his biography in the appendix to our book Zayd al-Shah§d. chapter 9. and I am encountering that of which You are fully aware. 10. but they did not rip his stomach open. 13. There is a lofty lesson in every syllable of the cause of the Prophet's grandson. 100. indeed. daughter. your uncle. He offered prayers then . al. Al-Luhãf. Vol. Ibn Nama. “O son of the Commander of the Faithful!4 Abu Muhammed. . then wept and asked his grandfather to take him with him and to let him enter his grave.” then he wept. Praise to Him.1 so. . had told him that you would . and it teaches the nation that getting to be familiar . Shortly before sunrise. All~ h afflicted them with Yaz§d. p. prefers on the Day of Argument. mer al-Atraf then said to him. he accepted it. He hugged al-Husain (– ) and kissed his forehead then said. he placed his head on the grave and slept.

Al-Luhãf. Vol. 7. for me at all. then they might fight with one another.2 F~ tima is bound to come on the Judgement Day. you the most. T~r§kh. 2. You have offered your advice . and none who had harmed her offspring shall ever enter Paradise. p. 29. 1. If you do not . K~mil. . so he marched on to Mis`ab till he participated in the battle and was killed among those who . Al-Mukht~ r . Abu Han§fah al-Dainãri (henceforth referred to only as al-Dainãri). 104 . If they swear the oath of allegiance to you. Vol. You deserve such an advice most. and that his resting place would be close to mine. dismissed him. of Ibn Shahr }shãb's Man~qib that these poetic verses were composed by Mas`ãd ibn `Abdull~h alQayni. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. “Where should I go?” Muhammed said. whereupon he . . praise All~ h for it. . we discussed some of his biography. 316 of our book Zayn al-`}bid§n. and you will be the first person sought by their lances. and that he had met . nephews. . p. .the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) had told him of his murder and mine. Things will be most complicated for you if you turn your back to them. uhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya said. When the Trumpet is blown on the Judgment Day.” Al-Husain (– ) asked him. then send your messengers to people. 91.3 View of Ibn al-Hanafiyya . So. as much as you can. too. there is reference to a letter sent by Ibn al-Hanafiyya to Yaz§d after al-Husain's martyrdom. 15 (Saida edition). you will either remain the best of this nation in person and in lineage..4 “Brother! I love you more than I love anyone else. . I fear for you lest you should enter one of these metropolises and people will split into parties. . I would still refuse to swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. some with you and some against you. and your magnanimity and distinction will not have been wasted. Your view will be the most wise and your actions the most terse when you are ahead of events. . “Is Muhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya with you?” He answered in the negative. 2. and supporters see M 1 Ibn T~wãs. and given a terse suggestion. . and I cherish . but if they rally behind someone else. Abandon both your fealty to Yaz§d son of Mu`~wiyah and the metropolises. 6. and you should move from one country to another till you see what the people decide to do. Vol. . Woe to one who seeks intercession from his adversaries. “Settle in Mecca. p. He was the standard bearer of the Commander of the Faithful during the battles of the Camel and of alNahraw~n. He was ten years . On p. I am sure that some people have told lies about him because a magnanimous and zealous person like him could never have done any such things. All~ h will not have diminished aught of your creed or wisdom. or the one whose blood is spilled most vainly and whose family is humiliated the most. you should seek the sands and mountain passes. 191. On p. F~ tima (– ) shall . On p. were killed there and then. Do you think that you know what I do not know? I shall never yield to lowliness. find yourself comfortable there.. . and I am determined to go to Mecca. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain.” It was then that Muhammed interrupted his statement when he burst weeping. and I do not advise anyone as I advise you. older than al-`Abb~s. “Brother! Had there been on earth neither resort nor a hiding place . My brothers. 104 of our book Qamar Bani H~shim. with Yaz§d! This is one way to demean his status. we indicated that he was twenty years old during the battle at Basra. With her shirt stained with Husain's blood. Vol. 2 3 It is stated on p. asked him. Ibn al-Ath§r.”5 Al-Husain (– ) said. 79.”1 `Omer ibn Ali ibn Abu T~ lib came once to al-Mukht~ r when the latter revolted in Kã fa. p. Al-Husain (– ) then said to him. “Brother! May All~ h reward you well. meet her father (‰ ) complaining of what her offspring suffered at the hands of his nation. 5 4 al-Tabari. .

191. 186. know that I will be slain unjustly and . 339. century A. behind this scene as a whole. oppressively. Ibn `As~kir. making him one of the renown scholars of the 5th century A. 6. quoting Th~qib al-Man~qib by its highly respected author. I can show you my grave and those of my followers. p. The eminent ones are not frightened in the morning By an assailant. and if not tomorrow. 4.D.6 U Maqtal Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib. in the after-noon. telling her to keep it in a bottle. Vol. they were both . and the Omnipotent has decreed to see my family and followers in chains./1011 A.D. and the grave in which I will be buried just as I know you. . who cites al-Muf§d. On the tenth day of the month of Muharram.4 Umm Salamah's View mm Salamah said. and I look at it just as I look at you. And I even know the day when I will be killed./11th. . . 102. Vol. Ibn Nama al-Hilli states the following on p. p. chapter 9. his authorship of this book . in 401 A. 47. . leave no room for us except to submit to the legality of his lagging . 17.H. . 6 5 al-R~wandi. “Do not cause me grief by going to Iraq. p. In his book titled Akhth al-Th~r. p. in a chapter dealing with his miracles. . Al-Khar~’ij. Vol.Tãsi. fearing death.2 Should I. If you wish. 1. By All~ h! There is no avoiding death. . is confirmed by K~mil al-Bah~’i and also based on this dialogue being narrated by Ja`fer ibn Muhammed al-Duroysti. 1. 105 . for I heard your grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) saying. Then he gave her a little of that soil. `My son al-Husain will be killed in the land of Iraq in a tract of land . she looked at both bottles [the one . p. Once she saw it boiling in blood. she would know that he had been slain. you may stay in Med§na so that you may keep an eye on them and not conceal anything of their affairs from me. 2 3 4 1 He is referring to Yaz§d ibn Mufrigh. Mad§nat al-Ma`~jiz. whereupon he showed her the graves of his companions5. he recited them in M ecca. While the fates watch over me against deviating?3 Abu Sa`§d al-Maqbari heard him. p. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. Hanafiyya. so he could not march with al-Husain (–). Abul Faraj al-Isfah~ni. the narrator. seeking help and finding none to offer it to them. called Kerbal~ ’. boiling in blood. Vol.” She asked him to do so. 68.” The greatness and famous stands of Ibn al. so he realized that he was undertaking a great matter. “Mother! If I do not die today. p. T~r§kh. of Ans~b al-Ashr~f. al-Tabari. and his recognition of the Im~mate of al-Sajj~d (–). to injustice yield.H. . Abu Ja`fer. D~r al-Sal~m. and the time when I will be killed. 66. “Mother! And I. `all~ma al-Hilli seeks an excuse for Muhammed for not accompanying the departing band on . Vol. 4. T~r§kh.' and I have a specimen of your grave's soil in a bottle which the Prophet (‰ ) had given me. Maqtal al-Husain. . 244. 81: “He was afflicted with pus . mother. I will tomorrow. Vol.” Al-Husain (– ) said to her.” Umm Salamah then asked him. On p. Muhammed ibn Ali ibn . too. Al-Agh~ni. account of his sickness. On p. titled Ajwibat Mas~’il Ibn Muhanna. 593 of Rawd~t al-Jann~t.. given to her by the Messenger of All~ h and the other given to her by Im~ m Husain (– )]. and their view is my view. nor shall I be called a Yaz§d. As for you. because of som e people envying him. Al-Khaw~rizmi. Those who have documented such type of incidents do not mention this excuse. al-Nawari.”1 Im~ m Husain (– ) left Ibn al-Hanafiyya and entered the [Prophet’s] Mosque as he recited these verses: . Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. “How strange! How do you march there knowing that you will for sure be killed?” The Im~ m (– ) said to her. then the day after.what I see. In his book . Muhammed al-Mashhadi al.

on p. “Who should we save weeping and mourning for. did very well [in composing those lines].. it is stated that Sulaym~n ibn Qattah passed by the place where . whereas Ibn `As~kir states on p. of his book Ham~sat Abu Tamm~m. on p. 149. 211. on p. 3. 211. . 4. 124 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn . It is also quoted as one of eight lines on p. 200. mourning. a view which Ibn N~ma states. On p. and al-Thahbi on p. p. and Ibn Shahr }shãb adds to it the last name “al-H~shimi”. to Ibn Qattah al-`Adawi. by Ibn Nama’s Muth§r al-Ahz~n. al-Tabrizi's Sharh. 2. 1. Abu Tamm~m. passed by Kerbal~’ three days after Im~m Husain (–) had been killed. who was dedicated to Banã H~shim. `Urwah ibn al-Mugh§rah kept narrating to him the details whereupon . of Ibn Kath§r's book Al-Bid~ya. Vol. On p. 74.. and on p. All these authors and compilers differ with one another as to who composed these lines. The commentator adds saying that they were all five lines. and in Ibn Nama's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 3. 3.. i. a poet who composed . it is stated that Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr entered . Never did I see their likes: from their residents they were empty. Hajar al-`Asqal~ni). Vol. as Sulaym~n ibn Qutaybah. .” al-Husain (– ) said to them after going to their . Zainab. Faraj ibn al-Husain al-Basri who died in 659 A. of Ibn Kath§r's book Al.D. and on p. . Vol. Vol. in Nasab Quraish by Mis`ab al-Zubayri. on . al-Hasan (– ). “not to reveal this matter in disobedience to All~ h and His Messenger (‰ ). 8. they . 6. He stated the same in Al-Ist§`~b. Vol. 37. 19 of Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n (Iranian . of his book Al-Mu`jam fi ma Ista`jam. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n [by Y~qãt al-Hamawi]. 215. It is cited as one of seven verses quoted on p. 2. 228. of [al-Mas`ãdi’s] Murãj al-Thahab from al-Zubayr ibn Bak~r. of Maq~l~t al-Isl~miyy§n by Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ari. slaughtered. . 6. 343./1261 A. 154 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn al-Jawzi. and on p. of Tahth§b K~mil al-Mibrad. They are also quoted on p. In . poems praising Mu`~wiyah and `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr and Yemen's w~li. Vol. and so does al-Mas`ãdi in his book Murãj al-Thahab. F~ tima. of al-Thahbi's A`l~m al-Nubal~’. of Ibn `}s~kir's Tahth§b al-T~r§kh. On p. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book K~mil. . 6. 4. On p. 142. of Man~qib of Shahr }shãb. according to p. Vol. they are attributed to Duhbal al-Jamhi. All this weakens the possibility of his having composed such lines. On p. Vol. the author says. 52. 13. Vol. 4. adds to him the last name of al-`Adawi. of his book T~r§kh. Vol. as Ibn Rumh al-Khuz~`i. place of gathering. of Banã Tam§m. In Al-Ist§`~b.H. the people were slaughtered.” They said. in his Ham~sa. Kãfa once and inquired about al-Husain and his being killed. . 52. 3. Bid~ya. 165. Vol. and on p. 2. it is said to belong to Sadr ad-D§n ibn Abul. 342. 119 of Ibn T~wãs's book Al-Luhãf (Saida edition). Vol. of Nasab Quraish by Mis`ab al-Zubayri. and also in Maq~l~t al-Isl~miyy§n. on p. 96 of K~mil al-Ziy~r~t by Ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi where a couple of these poetic verses are quoted.. of al-Tabrizi's Sharh al-Ham~sa. may All~ h consider us as your sacrificial ransom from your own demise. 17. On p. He is “Abu Duhbal” W ahab ibn Zam`ah ibn Asad. the grandson. that of Ali. . 8.” On p. 2. 37. 235. This line is one of four other lines from Abu Tamm~m's chivalric poems as indicated in their explanation by al-Tabrizi who states so on p. slave . edition). this line is attributed to `Adiyy. . where the following verse is attributed . 49 of Abul-Faraj's book Muq~til [al-T~libiyy§n]. are said to belong to Zam§j al-Khuz~`i who is identified by al-Bakri on p. Vol. the grandson (Iranian edition). also of Al-Agh~ni. . whereas in Al-Ham~sa al-Basriyya. .. by Ibn Nama's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. He leaned on an Arabian bow which he had as he composed those verses. since the day of your departure to us is like the demise of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). This view is endorsed by the author of T~j al-`Arãs as stated in a chapter dealing with al-Taff where the same line is cited. O one loved by the righteous from among those who reside in the graves!” Some of his paternal aunts informed him that they had heard a voice saying:1 H 1 See p. and Abu `Amr in Al-Ist§`~b. they are said to belong to Ramj al-Khuz~`i. 1. 2. or Umm Kulthã m?! We . he is said to be Sulaym~n ibn Qattah. 136. “I plead to you in the Name of All~ h. 92. Vol. Vol. It is cited as one of five lines on p. On p.. Vol. Vol. and he looked at the place where they had been . they are attributed to al-Taimi. Taim Murrah. citing al-Mirzab~ni. Vol. . I passed by the houses of Muhammed's family. al-Jawzi. “Ibn Qutaybah. 149.VIEW OF THE H} SHIMITE LADIES is departure very much grieved the daughters of Banã `Abd al-Muttalib who assembled for a group . so he wept then composed four lines. Vol. . of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n.e. but he cited only this line. the author states that Sulaym~n ibn Qutaybah al-`Adawi. as indicated on p. 4. plead to you. but he did not cite them all. . Vol. Vol. they are attributed to Abu Rumh al-Khuz~`i. he is identified . 4. they all state his name to be Qanah. saying that they were composed by Sulaym~n ibn Qabah. 41. On p. 215. Vol. It is one of six lines quoted on p. 35.of Al-Agh~ni. of Ibn Kath§r's K~mil. 106 . of A`y~n al-Sh§`a. 14. 891. a slave of `Omer ibn `Abdull~h al-Taimi: . In Ans~b Quraish. al-Zubayr ibn Bak~r refers to these lines. of his book Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. may All~h have mercy on his soul. Vol. of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn .

she had died during Mu`~wiyah's reign. there is no doubt about it. . nor recklessly. O father of `Abdul-Rahm~ n. Al.” The Im~ m (– ) unveiled his navel for him which he kissed thrice then burst in tears. . . . He is said as having met Ibn . of Ibn Shahr }shãb's Man~qib. In the Name of All~ h. for she had died either during the Prophet's lifetime or duing Mu`~wiyah's reign as indicated on p. and that my head will be given as a present to one of the Umayyad tyrants. nor he cited the following line by Sulaym~n ibn Qattah: The foremost ones. . the eyes of All~ h is that the head of Yahya (John the Baptist) was given as a present to one of the . 93. “O `Abdull~ h! One of the reasons why this whole world is worthless in . nor seeking to make corruption in the land. . 110. On p. .”3 A THE WILL B efore leaving Med§na. majlis 30.. One another. but this cannot be accurate. p. he is referred to as Sulaym~n ibn Qatta. promoters of misguidance in order to put an end to abominations and to remove the thorns from the path of the sacred Shar§`a. Vol.”1 Once Ibn `Omer was convinced that al-Husain (– ) was determined to leave Med§na and to face the . Who has no . with “Qatta” being the name of his . Al-Luhãf. the Most Merciful This is the will of al-Husain ibn Ali (– ) to his brother Muhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya. I did not march out exultingly. Al-Husain (– ) admonished her to be patient. telling her that that was something already decreed. Him. the Most Gracious. 1. so they are abased. After some time. that he belonged to Taim. 1. al-Sadãq. the Omnipotent and the Vengeful Lord that He is. 314. p. partner. edition of Ibn Hajar's book Taqr§b al-Tahth§b. “O Abu `Abdull~ h! Please uncover for me the place where the Messenger of All~ h used to always kiss you. 3 107 . Ibn T~wãs. `Abb~s thrice and `}sim al-Juhdari met him once. and that he was a slave from Basra. On p. that the Hour is approaching. tyrants of the Israelites. but al. Husain testifies that there is no god except All~ h. There are those who say that the one who had heard the voice was Umm H~ni. He seized them. “Fear All~ h. al-Husain (– ) wrote his will in which he stated: . and that Muhammed (‰ ) is His servant and Messenger who brought the truth from .2 The Im~ m (– ) then said to him. }m~li. that Paradise is right. and that All~ h will resurrect those in the graves. . VIEW OF `ABDULL} H IBN `OMER bdull~ h son of [second caliph] `Omer ibn al-Khatt~ b asked al-Husain (– ) to remain in Med§na.. . India. . the One and Only God. mother [rather than that of his father].. Dishonoured necks from Quraish. at al-Taff. of Ibn al-Jazri's Tabaq~t al-Qurr~’. from Banã H~shim consoled . Husain (– ) refused saying. 1 2 Ibn Nama and Al-Luhãf. and that hell is right. so consoling became for the dignified a sunnah. not abandon your support for me. and do . he said to him (– ). 17. Have you not come to know that the Israelites used to kill seventy prophets as the sun rose then buy and sell as if they did nothing?! Yet All~ h was not swift in punishing them.The one slain at al-Taff from Banã H~ shim . Vol. 620 of the Lucknow.

54. fresh in taste and in hue. With his splendour shattered the darkness of the blind. upon Him do I rely. . and what his ultimate goal. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. With his wounds the creed's wounds he healed. chapter 9. and the Book. The goal of the . 1. p. He folded it. 188. And they did become comfortable homes For knowledge. Through him they turned into lofty domes. till they refuted that lie and achieved their march’s objective.1 . Glories were built through his determination. With his heart did he raise the flag of guidance. What a precious price he paid indeed! With his soul he brought life to guidance. So. The creed grew green only through his blood. what his undertaking was. holy grandson of the Prophet (‰) behind writing this will is unambiguous.to oppress anyone. And its lofty corners towered. Killed with thirst. while in his insides Is All~ h's nourishment for those whom He guides. 1 108 . I desire to enjoin what is right and to forbid what is wrong and to follow the Sunnah of my grandfather and of my father Ali ibn Abu T~ lib. al-Khaw~rizmi. Through such rumors. he and his family and companions. righteousness. to acquaint them with who he was. whoever accepts me an acceptance of . None watered them but the oppressed one's blood. Al-Maqtal. Since they resorted to their mighty support. Rather. and to Him is my return. that he . the Umayyads wished to justify their cruel actions in eradicating the family of the Prophet (‰). I marched out seeking to reform my grandfather's nation. brother. With his life he bought the life of the creed. Fragrant. after he slipped. He raised those for whom they did fight and fall. Vol. and whoever refuses. He wanted to underscore his noble objective behind his sacred uprising and to introduce himself to the public. Through him the pillars of Tawh§d stood. Gardens of knowledge with simã m winds dried. He continued doing the same till he was martyred in order to refute the claims of the Umayyads and of those who followed in their footsteps and who duped people into thinking that al-Husain (–) had rebelled against the caliph of his time. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. surely He is the best of judges. So mellow leaves their trees grew. Through him this Shar§`a was corrected. and to rally people behind him because of desiring the government for himself and because he was power hungry who wanted to be the top leader. and my success comes only from All~ h. though he died of thirst. I shall persevere till All~ h judges between me and the people. stood quite tall. then handed it to his brother Muhammed. sealed it. He maintained such a policy in all situations. Till the creed. With the water of life. His insides from thirst burnt like fire. promoted disobedience to him in order to create disunity. Like a spring it gushed forth for its seekers. All~ h is the Master of what is right. the Sunnah. p. This is my will to you.

“I shall not abandon it till All~ h carries out His will. were more willing to swear fealty to him. two days before the end of Rajab. al-Muf§d. p. and so did those who came from the suburbs.`Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. supplicated to All~ h for a good while. 109 . and the offspring of his brother al-Hasan (– ) together with .” He reached Mecca on a Friday. an entrance. . . Vast in munificence. by All~ h.” said the Im~ m (– ). his line became clear to all. Al-Husain (– ) went out one day to visit the grave of his grandmother Khad§ja. to space confined. The earth shrunk for a man like al-Husain. Al. A caravan for whom Paradise is the destination. 6. Not knowing a haven. 35 (Tabriz edition). Should anyone else be with calamity strained? Who would from his trouble free? O king! You did your own subjects oppress 1 2 3 Excerpted from a poem by the authority Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ni. . . his family2.. He kept reciting this verse from the Holy Qur’~ n: “So he went out of it fearful. Seeking security in the desert while Being ever apprehensive of Banã Sufy~ n. Ibn `As~kir. nobody would go to Ibn al-Zubayr to swear it to Yaz§d.5 A My heart do I present to the noble ones who To nobility they saddled their mounts Trailed by fates. al-Husain (– ) entering Mecca because he (– ) was greater than him and more prestigious and because people . brothers. 28:21). “When he went in the direction of Midyan. so. Vol. may All~h sanctify him. It was hard for him to see . . 28:22). After blindness. al-Tabari. p. and those who went there for the `umra met him. Vol. Said he: Lord! Save me from the oppressive people!” (Qur’~ n. [`Abdull~ h] ibn al-Zubayr was camping near the Ka`ba as al-Husain (– ) kept meeting people. 4 5 Shaikh Ja`fer al-Shushtari. p. Irsh~d. T~r§kh. 4. . “No. . p. . The Im~ m (– ) took the main highway. O perturbed one! None other than the light Of your will can guide anyone at all. 328. He prayed there then . . accompanied by his offspring. apprehensive. Passing through many a trial and tribulation. 20. perhaps he would not be caught by those who sought to arrest him.1 DEPARTURE FROM MED¦NA l-Husain (– ) left Med§na for Mecca on the eve of a Sunday. 190.Khas~ ’is al-Husainiyya. . he said: Perhaps my Lord will guide me to the right way”3 (Qur’~ n. three days after the beginning of the month of Sha`ban as he was reciting. troubled with eulogies. T~r§kh. whereupon some people suggested to him to take a side route as Ibn al-Zubayr had done. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. The Sacred House was honoured by him. He stayed at the house of al-`Abb~ s ibn `Abd al-Muttalib4 where the people of Mecca .So sacred clouds rained blood with ire.

Al-Ahnaf wrote al-Husain (– ) saying. says that `Abb~d ibn Mas`ãd ibn Kh~lid ibn M~lik al-Nahshali . 480. Al-Munthir lied to her. was a man of nobility. and `Amr ..Your Lord decreed caliphate should you possess. heirs.D. and the most worthy of all people of his status. . If you listen to me.H. the author indicates that that letter was sent with Thir~` al-Sadãsi.D. a Persian. Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d appointed him as ruler of India till he died there in 61 A. knowing that we were most worthy of what belongs to us than those who took it away from us. who w as on the side of Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr when the latter . al-Bakri2. in the discussion of the events of the year 71 A. Khal§fa said he was appointed ruler of al-Sind where he died in 62 A. No. usurped our right. His sister./681 A. 200. 63 (first edition). He sent his letter with one of his slaves named Sulaym~ n4. ibn `Ubayd ibn Mu`ammar. wasis. he was . Al-Munthir ibn al-J~rãd. Prophet. Vol. 6 The following information is provided by the author of Muth§r al-Ahz~n./691 A. .” This is indicated on p. individuals charged with collecting the khums from the Muslims of Basra. . Yet our people .1 IN MECCA n Mecca. . 7 (first edition). p. 218 of Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. and that he had sheltered Marw~n during the Battle of the Camel. 200. true. Mas`ãd ibn `Amr.D. Al-Is~ba. 6. saying that that messenger .H. . he is nicknamed “Abu Raz§n. 6. Banã Hanzalah and Banã Sa`d. . Bakr.H. . Ibn Nama. messenger during the night. so he claimed to belong to `Abd al-Qays. Vol. When they all . 183. Vol. . he gathered Banã Tam§m.D. 21 of Al-Luhãf of Ibn T~wãs. Then he went out in the morning to Kã fa in order to reach it before al-Husain. T~r§kh. On p. on p. supporters. I am sending my messenger with this letter to invite you to the Book of All~ h and to the Sunnah of His Prophet. 3. M is`ab ibn al-Zubayr said to al-Hakam ibn al-Munthir ibn J~rãd: “Al-J~rãd was a donkey living on the island of Ibn Kaw~n. 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by Hujjatul-Islam Shaikh Muhammed Husain K~shif al-Ghit~’. Vol. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. and `Abdull~h. al-Ahnaf ibn Qays. 7 110 . al-Munthir ibn J~ rã d3.”6 As for Yaz§d ibn Mas`ã d7. according to this reference. . al-Tabari. so we put up with it out of fear of disunity and out of love for people's safety. T~r§kh. He was given the responsibility of dealing with Istakh~r and his mother Um~ma daughter of al-Nu`m~n. . then He took him away after he had advised His servants and conveyed the Message with which he was entrusted. so he did not earn any distinction at all. “Be patient. I shall show you the path of guidance. p. Al-Munthir ibn al-J~ rã d al-`Abdi handed al-Husain's messenger to Ibn Ziy~ d who crucified the ./682 A. 5 4 3 al-Tabari. W hile discussing the events of the year 38 A. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. and its text was as follows: I All~ h chose Muhammed (‰ ) from among His creation and blessed him with being His . Ibn Hazm. But according to al-Tabari and Ibn al-Ath§r. al-Husain (– ) wrote one copy of a letter which he arranged to be circulated to the five . Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. had been sent to spy on Ibn Ziy~ d. while bid`a has already been revived. for this Sunnah has been killed. . 13. was on Ali's side during the . and do not let those who have no conviction take you for granted. Bahriyya daughter of al-Munthir was Ibn Ziy~ d's wife. We are his family.” and . He chose him to convey His Message. Qays ibn al-Haytham. p. . 12 of Muth§r al-Ahz~n.H. the historians indicate . that M~lik ibn Musmi` supported Banã Umayyah. Mas`ã d ibn `Amr. may All~h sanctify him. Battle of the Camel. On p. They were: M~ lik ibn Musmi` . . . for All~ h's promise is . who was killed fighting on al-Husain's side.. . he took to the coastline. p. by All~h! I do not know anyone alive more evil than them! Then he married his sister off to al-Muka`bar. was wife of [Im~m] Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–).5 . Vol. Layla daughter of Mas`ãd./659 A. She gave birth to his son Abu . he was Persian. 6. on p.

even with our bare hands. the one whose prestige is pure. Should any of you fall short of assisting him. now claims to be the caliph of the Muslims. say what you wish. you seek my assistance. may All~ h never remove oppression from you or stop you from killing one another. Battle of the Camel. in providing your answer. “O Abu Kh~ lid! The most hateful to us is to do anything against your wish or to disobey you. “He was found slain in his tent. 101 (second edition) of my book Zayd alShah§d. By All~ h! You shall not enter in any battle without us. He was killed when al-Mukht~r's men fled away. He is an excellent care-taker when taking care of his flocks and an excellent Im~ m from among people obedience to whom is mandated by All~ h. and nobody knew who had killed him. and let us hear you. you will be the conqueror. “Very good. do not be blind from seeing the light of guidance. “O Abu Kh~ lid! We are your brothers and allies! We are not pleased when you are angry. and I understood the task for which . so we abided by his order and maintained our honour. though he tried very hard to achieve what he wanted. “Should you do that. Al-Husain is the son of Ali and . Here I am outfitted for war. he said. and his knowledge never ends. victory will be on your side. so. The matter is in your hands. you are the most distinguished one. are our backbone and the source of our prestige. nor should you remain idle from suppressing falsehood. by All~ h. and that nobody knew who . seniority. nor do we stay when you depart. by All~ h. “O Banã Tam§m! How do you see my status among you and my lineage?” They said. Through him is your proof and argument. if it pleases you. I quoted what the historians have said with regard to his being killed at al-Mathar. and the ignorant one that he is. he sought advice then betrayed those who offered it to him! Yaz§d has now taken charge! Yaz§d.” They said. “Mu`~ wiyah died. W hile discussing the miracles performed by Im~m Ali (–) in his book Al-Khar~'ij. and one who flees will never escape from death. very good. Wisdom is perfected through him. indeed! You. so that we may consult each other. “By All~ h! We shall grant you our advice and still find your view the best. It is better. he has failed. He is kind to the young and benevolent to the elderly. Sakhr ibn Qays had ordered us to abandon the battlefield during the . while his tribe's number will be diminished. a Basra suburb. and in lineage you are ahead of everyone else. He had undertaken a fealty for which he thought he did his best to secure. he will be given by All~ h the shame that his offspring will inherit. “O Abu Kh~ lid! We are the arrows in your quiver and the knights of your tribe! . then we will let you know of our decision. so order us as you please. whose view is the most wise. He now rules them without their agreement. accomplishments and kinship to the Prophet (‰ ).” He then wrote al-Husain (– ) saying. the youth that he is.” He said to them. Far away. be good. and when you assault. One who is not killed will still die.” He said. therefore. nor will you. who drinks wine and is the source of all evil. You betrayed Sakhr ibn Qays during the Battle of the . the son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). In distinction. face hardship without us being on your side. is he from the truth. “Your letter reached me. I swear by All~ h a true oath that waging jih~ d against him is better than waging it against the polytheists. so. By All~ h. We shall support you with our swords and protect you. may All~ h have mercy on you. indeed.” He said. the man who does not know where his foot should stand in order to be right. When you fight with us. al-R~wandi says. had killed him. ..” Banã Sa`d ibn Zayd spoke out saying.” Banã Hanzalah said.” 111 . His distinction can never be described enough.. to see him dead and lost! The flank of oppression is now crumbled and the corners of injustice weakened.assembled.” Banã `} mir ibn Tam§m spoke out saying. Camel. Grant us a respite. so. He is more worthy of taking charge on account of his record. You have called upon me to shoulder my share of the responsibility of obeying you so that I may win the rewards of having supported you.” On p. “Then I have gathered you for a matter about which I wish to consult you and for which I seek your support. by All~ h. All~ h has never deprived the world of a doer of marched to fight al-Mukht~r. so wash away that stigma by marching out to support the son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and by helping him.

”2 `} mir. . so. p. Thakh§rat al-D~rayn. Hijar ibn Abjar. Come to us. chapter 10. Yaz§d ibn al-H~ rith. `Amr ibn . 224.” (When Ibn Mas`ã d was making preparations to march. his slave. hurry.” When al-Husain (– ) read his letter. waiting for you.” He said. Some .3 They joined al-Husain (– ) at Mecca. and I have left them racing to obey you faster than thirsty camels seeking water. if you will. the fruits are ripe. he said. You branched out of an Ahmedi olive tree the stem of which is the . You are the Argument of All~ h against His creation and His trust on earth. At the house of that lady. accompanied him. They accept no views other than yours. came forth. I would still place myself at the service of the one who has sought my support. said to his ten sons. Vol. for the descendants of Tam§m are at your service. 11. three.”4 W As many as the seeds were the letters he did receive: Saying: Come to Iraq. . for the grass is green. THE Kâ FIANS’ LETTERS hile still in Mecca. p. others contained two. The last letter he received was sent by Shabath ibn Rab`i. so he was very grieved and sorrowful for having lost the opportunity to realize eternal happiness through the avenue of martyrdom. may you be the recipient of glad tidings. al-Husain (– ) received the letters sent to him by the people of Kã fa. 6. On p. Vol. p. p. . “By All~ h! Should camels' hooves be flattened because of the lengthy way. 10. martyred. T~r§kh. for you will be coming to hosts already recruited for you. to those who connive and deceive. “Who among you will join me in marching?” Two of them. or four signatures. Fear. so much so that he received a total of as many as twelve thousand letters. too. While you are the best of those who deserve it. adding their strength to his. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 13. who belonged to the tribe of `Abd al-Qays. till they reached Kerbal~ ’ where they were all . He did not answer any of them. 193. are at your command: rain water washed their hearts of any uncleanness. 4 112 . letters were written by single individuals. Ibn T~wãs. and the trees are full of leaves. so they shine as brightly as lightning. Prophet (‰ ) while you are its branches. 3 Ibn Nama. They wrote saying that they never prayed congregational nor Friday prayers with al-Nu`m~ n. all requesting him to go there because they did not have an Im~ m. . him. al-Khaw~rizmi indicates the details of the meetings held by . 198. or without someone to guide others to the path of salvation.1) M~ riyya daughter of Sa`d (or Munqith) was a bondmaid and a sincere Sh§`a. Banã Sa`d. and Muhammed ibn `Omayr ibn `Ut~ rid. Al-Luhãf. . Her house was the place where other Sh§`as used to meet to discuss the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (– ). al-Tabari. and may He grant you dignity and permit you to quench your thirst on the Day of extreme thirst. Come. 21. p. the Kãfians and their correspondence with al-Husain (–). Yaz§d ibn Nab§t. Caliphate has no guardian nor anyone worthy of it. news of al-Husain (– ) being killed reached . al-Hajj~ j. and so did Sayf ibn M~ lik and al-Adham ibn Umayyah. `Izrah ibn Qays. Many letters were delivered to him. he was addressed by his followers thus: “We fear for you the retribution of Ibn Ziy~ d. “May All~ h grant you security on the Day of Extreme .good. namely `Abdull~ h and `Ubaydull~ h. 1 2 Muth§r al-Ahz~n. The latter's letter stated the following: “The people are . O son of the Messenger of All~ h.

Maqtal al-Husain. so. al-Husain (– ) wrote them one letter which he gave to H~ ni ibn . proceed with All~ h's blessing and help. As he looked around. 6. if he writes me saying that your view is united with that of those of distinction and wisdom from among you and in agreement with what your messengers and letters state. of Shu`ar~’ al-Hilla. 198. 174. p. the Most Merciful H~ ni and Sa`§d brought me your letters. He crossed the sierra.1 AL-HUSAIN (– ) RESPONDS . published on p. Like the leopards in their forests. come to you very soon. These were the last of his messengers. Descending. Al Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. Vol. Mounted were those whose faces were Like the moons shining. . and All~ h shall deal with you as He pleases. .”3 Excerpted from a poem lauding al-Husain (–) by Shaikh Muhammed ibn Ism~`§l al-Baghdadi al-Hilli. 238. al-Dainãri. who died in 1247 A. . reaching al-Taff and . . he dedicates himself to follow All~ h's Commandments.So he came with hardened men like lions. I shall. for its flanks Are cut only for our graves. p. The horse stopped. And the sons of the blue woman would in its light And in its halo receive the night. “I am dispatching you to the people of Kã fa. Why did not your eyes avoid it at all? Alight. views and intentions. Never for a moment did I believe it could or it might A shining moon would in the desert be so bright.” I have sent you my brother and cousin and the confidant of my Ahl al-Bayt and ordered him to write me with regard to your conditions. perhaps All~ h will gather us with you on the path of guidance and righteousness.” . glorious. Its text ./1832 A. famous as “Ibn al-Khalfa. and peace be with you. By my life. and they are the last to deliver them to me. 2 3 1 al-Tabari. I understand what you narrate. by the Will of All~ h. p. stay with the most trustworthy of its people.H. W hen letters filled two saddlebags. so he said: Kerbal~ ’ is this. 5. so. Vol. and the gist of most of your letters is: “We have no Im~ m. 113 . come to us. the Most Benevolent. Vol.D. of treachery. 1. In their courtyards he did settle. al-Khaw~rizmi. chapter 10. he saw the flags Of betrayal. virtuous.2 He handed his letter to Muslim ibn `Aq§l saying. So. H~ ni al-Subay`i and Sa`§d ibn `Abdull~ h al-Hanafi. T~r§kh. an Im~ m is one who acts upon the Book [of All~ h] and implements justice and follows the path of righteousness. mending his sword To cut the helmets on their heads. I wish that I and you should be in the status of the martyrs. 196. was: In the Name of All~ h. Once you get there. .

that water source. Vol. p. T~r§kh. The distance between them and water was not known. and they became extremely thirsty. Muslim immediately resumed his trip and passed by a watering place belonging to the tribe of Tay. and `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn `Abdull~ h al-Azdi. al-Husain (– ) sent Qays ibn Mush§r al-Said~ wi. And it was very hot. hence his decision to abandon them where they were. They said to Muslim (– ) once they recognized some road marks. al-Mas`ãdi. Vol.1 W Muslim left Mecca on the fifteenth of the month of Ramadan2 using the Med§na highway. 198. and to find . What those road guides had actually seen was not the road itself but some landmarks leading thereto. He saw a man shooting and killing a deer. 2. `Im~ rah ibn `Abdull~ h al. a generous man. His experience taught him wisdom. “Take yonder road and follow it. al-Muf§d. perhaps you will be saved. al-Tabari. Muslim and those serving him barely survived till they reached the highway and the water source where they rested for a while. al-Dainãri. left them. Al-Irsh~d. p. al-Tabari. Murãj al-Thahab.” He. Having read the letter. (– ) at Mecca and delivered the letter to him. 6. and that he was staying at a narrow passage at Batn al-Khabt awaiting his instructions. He kept company with the Progeny of the most holy O 1 2 3 4 5 al-Muf§d. He reached Med§na and went to the Mosque of the Prophet (‰ ). Murãj al-Thahab. p. He underwent calamities from which he learned self-discipline. The messenger met al-Husain . Al-Irsh~d. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l.MUSLIM STARTS HIS TRIP ith Muslim ibn `Aq§l (– ). a man of ambition and daring. too. Both road guides died of thirst. p. then he bade his family farewell3 after having hired two road guides from the tribe of Qays. about the hardship he underwent. 199. Vol. He alighted there then departed. Al-Husain (– ) wrote him back ordering him to continue his . he entered Kã fa6 and stayed with al-Mukht~ r ibn Abu `Ubayd alThaqafi7 who was highly respected among his people. 2. 6 7 114 . he. T~r§kh. He enjoined Muslim to fear All~ h. The most urgent matter was to preserve precious lives and to continue the march till water could be reached. 6. peace be upon them. so he took it as a sign of good omen: the killing of his foe. and they were unable to ride on their own. Had Muslim (– ) stayed with them. He was a wise man. He told him about the death of the road guides. one well experienced and determined. a man of great discretion especially with regard to the rules of the battle and the means of subduing the foe. 86. 86. . would have perished.4 He could not carry them because they were about to pass away. Sallã li. march to Kã fa without any delay. he should rush a letter to him. p. One night the road guides were lost. al-Mas`ãdi. out what the people of Kã fa had collectively decided to do. 232. and a formidable opponent of the enemies of Ahl alBayt. therefore. Vol. . following their advice. Muslim sent a letter to al-Husain (– ) with a messenger whom he hired from those who settled near . If he saw them united and trustworthy.5 ENTERING Kâ FA n the twenty-fifth of Shaww~ l. nor could they ride with someone else.

al-Majlisi. T~r§kh. and `Imarah ibn `Uqbah ibn Abu Mu`§t. and by All~ h. God. I shall defend you with my sword till I meet All~ h desiring nothing except what He has in store for me. . He assisted the Muslims in fighting the Romans (Byzantines). adding that al-Nu`m~ n ibn Bash§r was not strong enough to stand in his [`Aq§l’s] way. the grandson. 211.2 whereas some historians said they were as many as twenty five thousand men. . p. I feel exactly she same. Vol. 210. nor do I deceive you in their regard. . 310. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The following comment is stated on p. “Had T 1 2 Ibid.4 It was then that Muslim wrote al-Husain (– ) a letter which he handed to `} bis ibn Shib§b al-Sh~ kiri informing him of the . hurry and come here as soon as this letter reaches you. of Muhammed Kurd Ali's book Al-Islam wal Had~ra al-`Arabiyya: “Serjun .”5 That was twenty-seven days prior to Muslim's martyrdom.” said Yaz§d. Eighteen thousand Kã fians have already come to me.. Vol. Ibn Shahr }shãb. ibn Mansãr was a Syrian Christian who was employed by Mu`~wiyah. 158. 224. “You have briefly stated your intention. Vol. p. Ibn al-Jawzi. . days of Heracles.1 . pp. and I shall fight your enemy. wrote Yaz§d warning him of the arrival of Muslim ibn `Aq§l and the rallying of the people of Kã fa behind him. . . “`Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d is your man!” “There is no good in him. too. so. . al-Tabari. p. . al-Tabari. p. Bih~r al-Anw~r.Prophet (‰ ). consensus among the people of Kã fa to obey him and to wait for his arrival. he said. was in charge of Syria's treasury since the . 6. By All~ h! I can tell you what I personally have decided to do. p.” Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir said. His father. 10.”7 This angered a group of the Umayyads with vested interests. 99-201. Serjun asked him. 6. In it. Other Sh§`as came to swear the oath of allegiance to him till his d§w~n counted as many as eighteen thousand men. When he read to them al-Husain's letter. Mansãr. p. Ibn Nama... before the country fell to the Muslims. `} bis§ ibn Shib§b al-Sh~ kiri stood and said. O son of the Messenger of All~ h! A hundred thousand swords are in Kã fa on your side. . nor do I know what they conceal in their hearts. `Abdull~ h ibn Muslim ibn Rab§`ah al-Hadrami. . 2. p. in a government job except after they had embraced Islam. . and [second caliph] `Omer ibn al-Khatt~b used not to appoint Christians . T~r§kh.6 The Kã fians. added to it their own letter wherein they stated the following: “Hurry and come to us. Vol. 138. This increased his happiness and elation. THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE he Sh§`as went in hordes to meet Muslim as he stayed at al-Mukht~ r's house and expressed to him their obedience. Like his father. 6. and he sought their advice publicly and privately. 11.” 115 . the number of those who swore allegiance to him reached forty thousand. Mansãr ibn Serjun ibn Mansãr also served the government. Al-Tabari. “I do not speak about the people.3 According to al-Sha`bi. .8 Yaz§d solicited the advice of his slave Serjun9 who was also his scribe and entertainer. “A scout does not lie to his people. 2. 185 (old edition). Serjun said. They . do not tarry. . Among them were `Omer ibn Sa`d ibn Abu Waqq~ s.” Sa`§d ibn `Abdull~ h al-Hanafi made a similar statement. Vol. the One and only . so. Ibid. Vol. T~r§kh. By All~ h! I shall respond to your call. so he benefitted from their ethics and virtuous morals. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss.

near . or in 33 A. saying that Marj~na was a war captive from Isfah~n. Vol. on the Battle of Taff. and that she was said to be Zoroastrian. He rode alone and whenever he passed by a checkpoint. .. his mother. He continued his march till he reached the governor's mansion.D.D.H. paying no attention to anyone who fell off his . and his age during the Battle of Taff as thirty-two years. W hat Ibn Jar§r says must be based on assumption. thinking that Ibn Ziy~ d would slow down for their . sake. 8. 8. of his book Al-Bid~ya. O son of the Messenger of All~ h!” This only intensified his ire. “One who is praised will one day be condemned. and one who is condemned will one day be praised. Even when Shurayk ibn al-A`war fell on the way. . dispatched `Ubaydull~ h to Kã fa and deposed al-Nu`m~ n ibn Bash§r. horse due to exhaustion even if he were one of his own closest friends. twenty-one years old. “Kit~b al-Fad~’il. . its guards thought that he was al-Husain (– ). .D. Marj~na. What ails you so you. When he .” Based on this statement. On p.. Vol. and that of his death at the age of twenty-one must have been 53 A. O son of the Messenger of All~ h!” Ibn Ziy~ d said to him. however. Vol./673 A. was twenty-seven or twenty-eight years old when the Battle of Taff took place at the beginning of 61 A. your reward will be a hundred thousand [dinars]. Ibn Ziy~ d paid no attention to them for fear al-Husain (– ) would reach Kã fa before him./680 A.D. as the w~li of Khurasan.H. reaching the clouds and beyond. on p. Ans~b al-Ashr~f. 7. and `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith ibn Nawfal escorted by five hundred soldiers whom he hand-picked .H.” Yaz§d. for your night has extended for too long!”3 1 2 3 al-Bal~thiri.H.2 When he arrived. reached Kã fa via the Najaf highway. Ziy~d. Historians maintain no consensus with regard to [Ubaydull~h] Ibn Ziy~d's date of birth./673 A.D. This means that he was fourteen years old when his father.” discusses al. AlNu`m~ n did not open the gate for him. so they said. . 4. the close of 60 A. Ibn Ziy~ d rushed to Kã fa.H. does not agree with the date stated by Ibn Jar§r [al-Tabari] on p./673 A. India). Says the . quotes al-Fadl ibn Rak§n ibn `Ubaydull~h saying that [`Ubaydull~h] Ibn Ziy~d was twenty-eight years old when al-Husain (–) was .H.” But it is highly unlikely that a fourteen years old can be appointed to govern a vast country such as Khurasan. Those who did state it cannot be accurate even if it is to be taken by way of guessing. “`Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d was born in 32 A. he was. who was twenty-five years old./673 A. therefore. reached al-Q~ disiyya. Muth§r al-Ahz~n.Husain's merits. Vol./653 A. . 82.H. and nothing stopped me from recommending him except my knowledge of how much you hate him. On p. 271 of Ibn Hajar's book Ta`j§l al-Manfa`a (which was printed in Hyderabad. from among the people of Basra. and even when `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith fell. of his book `Umdat al-Q~ri fi Sharh al-Bukh~ri. You are named for a task wherein the first part of this statement applies to you./660 A. Ibn Kath§r quotes Ibn `As~kir citing Ahmed ibn . O son of the Messenger of All~ h!” He remained silent till he ./673 A. and also according to al-`Ayni who. watch the sun?1 He ordered Ibn Ziy~ d to rush to Kã fa in the company of Muslim ibn `Omer al-B~ hili. p. al-Munthir ibn al-J~ rã d.” Mahr~ n said.” He. 283. latter. “By All~ h I cannot do that!” `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d abandoned him on the highway then disguised in Yemeni clothes and put on a black turban.D. says.H. people welcomed him and said in one voice: “Welcome. for he says on the same page that “In 53 A.Mu`~ wiyah been alive and suggested to you to employ him [as governor of Kã fa]. his slave Mahr~ n fell down. . “I shall not return the trust to you. “Open the gate.D. . 8. On p.D.H. Ibn Nama al-Hilli. This. Said he. of his T~r§kh. 656.” This would put his date of birth in 53 A. on p. died in 53 A. crippled. At any rate.H. He wrote the latter saying. 116 . 383. His statement agrees with what is stated by Ibn Kath§r who.D. would you then do so?” Yaz§d answered in the affirmative. “Mu`~wiyah appointed `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d as the w~li [provincial governor] of Khurasan in 53 A. of his book Al-Bid~ya./654 A. 6. . of Ibn Kath§r's book Al-Bid~ya. 166. was Zoroastrian.H.D. “If you remain thus on foot and reach the [governor's] mansion. and he spoke to him from the mansion's roof-top.D. you were. Mu`~wiyah appointed `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d. Ibn Ziy~ d said to him. 283. Yãnus al-Dabi saying that `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d was born in 39 A. the author . “Welcome. If that is the case. Vol. Vol. killed. therefore./681 A. “Mu`~ wiyah had given him his own seal.” Elevated./653 A. his year of birth must have been 32 A.

Marj~na is quoted as saying the following to [her son] `Ubaydull~h: “O you corrupt one (khabeeth)! You have killed the son of the Messenger of All~h! By All~h! You shall never see Paradise. 185. `Ubaydull~h. it is stated that. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. Vol. `Ubaydull~h's brother. “W henever Ibn Ziy~d became angry with someone. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. the Aswari. There. the author quotes Marj~na. K~mil.” On p. common in other countries. 167.” `Ubaydull~h did not . Vol. 84. 50 of his other book Al-Nuqãd al-Islamiyya al-Qad§ma. Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath. of al-Bal~thiri's book Ans~b al-Ashr~f. whenever he walked. and he married his bother `Uthm~n off to the daughter of hOmayr ibn Ut~rid . left alMukht~ r's house after the dark and went to the house of H~ ni ibn `Urwah al-Mathhaji who was a . On p.” The same is stated by al-Maqr§zi on p. so Muhammed ibn `Omayr ibn `Ut~rid.A man heard his voice and recognized him. committed what you have committed. al-J~hiz says that he [`Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d] used to stutter. he was thought to be riding. of Ans~b al-Ashr~f. married al-Nu`m~n's mother . he delivered a speech warning them against mutiny and promising them generous rewards for conforming. . al-Tabrizi. 50 of Al-Nuqãd al-Qad§ma al-Islamiyya. he is described as a man who was glutton and who would eat more than fifty times a day. “He is Ibn Ziy~ d. al-Muf§d. 81. each going back home. 1. where Ibn Ziy~d's death is discussed. He.”2 MUSLIM'S STAND W hen Muslim ibn `Aq§l came to know about Ibn Ziy~ d's speech and his explicit threats. 4.” On p. it is stated that.” On p. therefore. “His stuttering must have originated from his descending from the Aswaris. p.” 1 2 al-Bukh~ri. T~r§kh. the author says. Vol. who was the daughter of Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath. . It is also stated on p. “I wish you had been a menstruation. Vol. the lineage of Ziy~d ibn Abeeh [Ziy~d the son of his father] w as traced back to `Ubaydull~h. On p. said to the people. the [Byzantine] Roman. Vol. On p. of his book Al-Tiby~n wal-Taby§n (second edition).” On p. 6. `Uthm~n. 2. 4. said to him. who was with `Ubaydull~h.D. respond. saying [the following . “The first person to forge dirhams and to counterfeit them is `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d who did so after fleeing from Basra in 64 A. it became . 256. 75. . and `Amr ibn Har§th shamed him for having done so. In the morning. 339. “W oe unto you! W hat have you done?! W hat madness have you committed?!” On p. 268. and that he was very beautiful!” And on p. thereupon. Some historians say that she said to him . 117 . Ibn Ziy~ d gathered people at the grand mosque. of al-Qalqashandi's book Ma’~thir al-In~qa where the author says. therefore. “`Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d had no hair on his face. “He was very tall. Muhriqa and on p. who married him off to Marj~na. and their language had an impact over his own. “Anyone found to be sheltering one of those who scheme against the authority of the commander of the faithful and who does not hand him over will be crucified on the door of his own house. “He was full of evil. 82. to her son]. Vol. 34. It was Sheer-a-wayh (Ceroe). 6. 201. He. 5. Vol.” On p. “`Ubaydull~h married Hind daughter of Asm~’ daughter of Kh~rijah.H.” in addition to other such statements. he would throw him from the roof-top of the governor's mansion or from the peaks of the highest elevation. 6./684 A. “I wish there had been a ring in the nose of each man belonging to Banã Ziy~d till the Day of Judgment. 4. 1. dispersed. 116 of Ibn Hajar al-`}sqal~ni's book Al-Saw~`iq al. Ibn Qutaybah says in his book Al-Ma`~rif. and having come to know about people's conditions. and on p. 77. Said he. as quoted by Anstas al-Karmili in his own book Majmã`at al-Nuqãd al-`Arabiyya. Al-Irsh~d. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al. 7. How could he. by the Lord of the Ka`ba!”1 They. . of Ibn `As~kir's T~r§kh? . and he was the first person to penalize people with the same faults which they had articulated. 61 of his book Kashf al-Ghumma and also on p. which both agree with Murãj al-Thahab. he feared being assassinated. it is stated that. and that al-Husain had never been killed. especially since he had already seen the walls of the governor's mansion with blood flowing over them as soon as the sacred [severed] head [of al-Husain] was brought to it as stated on p. he adds saying. therefore. 4. 103. “During the caliphate of al-M ehdi. Vol. and married his brother `Abdull~h off to the daughter of `Amr ibn Har§th. Vol. Vol. and that you never saw al-Husain nor . . of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. as well as on p. when `Ubaydull~h killed al-Husain. After this date. So he grew up among the Aswaris. Vol. 86. the author says.” On p.

Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 45. Thakh§ra. have accurately referred to Shar§k as “al-Mathhaji” is Ibn Durayd who says on p. Sayyid al-Am§n. Al-K~mil. . Vol. Vol. in Basra. who belongs to Banã Tam§m./1967 A. . p. . 4. . Under . fought in all his three battles.10 He had participated in the Battle of Siff§n and fought side . . Vol. Vol.2 one of its q~ ris of the Holy Qur’~ n. p.3 and the shaikh and chief of Mur~ d. The confusion stems from historians identifying Shar§k as the son of al-A`war alH~rithi. 2. “Among the notables . Basri. . are confused about him despite the fact that in his Appendix to Vol. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni.H. Vol. 1. 89. He states only six lines on p. one of the three main distinguished families of the Arabs. Part 3. He also states responding statements made by the H~shemite but makes no reference to the said poetic lines. 201.H~rith al-Hamad~ni died in 65 A. citing four lines from the same poem. p. . Murãj al-Thahab.H~rith been from Hamad~n. Vol. one of the main supporters of the Commander of the Faithful. Al-Is~ba. he was more than ninety years old. He could easily raise four thousand troops fully armed and eight thousand cavaliers. On p. son of al. p. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. one of the companions of . and Ibn Nama. The genealogy of Shar§k actually belongs to al-H~rith ibn al-A`war. Vol. If he includes his tribe's allies from Kindah.D. 95. .1 He was also one of Kã fa's dignitaries. 5 6 al-D~rmi.4 He was one of the closest friends of the Commander of the Faithful Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– )5 on whose side he . al-Mas`ãdi. When he was killed. 70. 10. p. 278. and `Abd al-Madan of Banã . a man .H. is confused . 235. p.D. Zur~rah ibn `Adas. 118 . of his book Maqtal al-Husain. Huthayfah ibn Badr. . W hat makes us feel comfortable with attributing him to Mathhaj is the fact that he resided at Kãfa at the house of H~ni ibn `Urwah. . he is said to have fought during the Battle of Siff§n . . in his book Muth§r . the number would swell to thirty thousand. 397-398: “The men belonging to Sa`d al-`Ash§ra are named after Mathhaj who . . of Al-Mustazraf.7 Muslim ibn `Aq§l stayed at the house of Shar§k8 ibn `Abdull~ h9 al-A`war al-H~ rithi al-Hamad~ ni al.) which contains the three verses of poetry mentioned by Ibn Hajja in his book Thamar~t al-Awr~q which comments about the contents . 2. with `Amm~r ibn Y~sir. Among their distinguished families are those of: `Abd al-Madan. of Al-Ham~sa al-Basriyya. 229. H~rith among whose notable men is Shar§k al-A`war who addressed Mu`~wiyah and with whom he had a discussion. whereas al. Vol. Ibid. 616. he would have stayed over his father's house. one of his immediate kinsmen and tribesmen. p. who belongs to Fiz~ra. Al-Agh~ni. between Mu`~wiyah and Shar§k is documented by al-Hamad~ni on p. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. in his book Maqtal al-Husain. Al. Ibn Jar§r . [al-Tabari] makes a reference to him. 14. 2.6 He had seen and was honoured by being a companion of the Prophet (‰ ). Had this . p. overlooking the fact that Shar§k belonged to Mathhaj. peace be upon him. 2 3 4 al-Dainãri. a reference is made to the same dialogue. 3. of p. . 616. is M~lik ibn Adad. 10. of Hamad~n is Shar§k ibn al-A`war who addressed Mu`~wiyah with a poem that included this verse: Does Mu`~wiyah son of Harb really taunt me W hile my sword is unsheathed and my tongue is with me?” The same author goes on to state the following on pp. al-Khaw~rizmi says./685 A. the heading “`awa” of T~j al-`Arãs. 10 Ibn Nama. 1. Part 3.' Both al-Khaw~rizmi.H~rith al-A`war was from Hamad~n.very zealous Sh§`a. 12 of his work T~r§kh al-Umam wal-Mulãk. 14. On p. 1. when he identifies Shar§k as `al-Hamad~ni.” Among those who . “The great religious authority. who enjoyed great prominence among our men. Al-Is~ba. in Chapter 8 which contains silencing answers. the Commander of the Faithful [Im~m Ali (– )]. 1 Ibn al-Ath§r. 401 of his book Al-Ishtiq~q. al-Ahz~n. So is the case when al-Zamakhshari records in his Rab§` al-Abr~r a list of silencing answers. 4. Vol. of his book Al-Ikl§l (Egypt: 1386 A. Vol. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni.” The dialogue . 7 8 9 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni.

and 70 (Sasi edition).by side with `Amm~ r ibn Y~ sir. This tradition is quoted quite often in compilations of had§th. coming from a scholar of Ahl al-Bayt (–) and a vicegerent of the Master of . p. of Al-Man~qib by . Ibn Nama. it is recorded on p. Though drinking it brings sends me to eternity. There is another minute mystery and implication viewed by the “mansion's martyr” the essence of which we sensed and found to be unique. Once he feels secure at my house. `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d appointed him as Governor of Kerman on behalf of Mu`~ wiyah. “Your cousin. only if its members contemplate. 60. and he does not know what he says. in it have I fallen. you should stay inside the storage room.”7 1 2 al-Tabari. 11. 123. example. at a later time. . doing so several times as he recited the following verses of poetry in an audible voice which Muslim could hear: Why do you not Sulma greet? Greet her and those whom she does greet.” 5 Ibn Nama. Ibn Shahr }shãb. and in Waq~i` al-Ayy~m where it is quoted from Al-Shih~b fil Hikam wal . so. he kept taking his turban off and putting it on the ground then putting it back again. 206. 240. Such a statement. . A pure drink is what I desire when thirsty. Vol. `Faith stops where murder begins. asked Muslim. of Kunãz al-Haq~ ‘iq. Ibn al-Ath§r. “Give it to me to drink even if my death lies therein. 2. . 6. p. of al. }d~b. the arrival of the ameer (provincial governor) at the door was announced. “W hat do you think of Sulma? W hy do . Al-Agh~ni. 60. is useful for religiously conscientious people who follow in their footsteps in order to comprehend the fiqh of the holiest Prophet (‰). 4. p. Before his arrival. It exists when the 7 6 119 . Vol. Al-Nujãm al-Z~hira. is surely hallucinating. Vol. p. where Shar§k is cited saying. “Two reasons: first. “Shar§k has been hallucinating since he fell sick. in a footnote on p. in Vol. 14. For . Vol. T~r§kh. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni.'6 The second reason is H~ ni's wife. you not greet her? Give it to me to drink though in it lies my own death. 57. 1. 1. of Ahmed's Musnad. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 204. “What stopped you from killing him?” He said. and I shall spare you having to deal with him in Kã fa while you yourself remain in good health. Al-K~mil. on p. on p. Ibn al-Ath§r. Martyrs in both religious and secular matters. If you fear Sulma's watchful eyes. When Shar§k thought that Muslim had taken too long to come out. p. 4. T~r§kh. Riyadh al-Mas~’ib. p. al-Tabari. . for sure Against her conniving you will never feel secure. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. p. one had§th of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) narrated by Ali (– ) says. 352. 3. He fell very seriously ill. of al-Sayyãti's book Al-J~mi` al-Sagh§r. “Woe unto her! She has killed me and killed her own self! That from which she fled. Pure souls refuse to expose a host to any hardship on account of his guest. Vol. . 153. 3 4 Ibn Nama. Vol. Such fiqh prohibits treachery. 14. Then he raised his voice so that Muslim could hear him saying.” H~ ni said.” H~ ni said. on p. in a footnote on p. you should come out and kill him. al-Tabari. Vol. 64 . of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. Such are the sacred teachings of the Umma. 11 of al-Majlisi's Bih~r al-Anw~r. 17.1 Due to his distinction and prominence. p.”3 As they were thus engaged in their dialogue. 95. 202. on p. faithful man does not murder others. 1. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Vol. Vol. 203. 4. Vol. He kept repeating these lines as he cast quick glances at the storage room. chapter 10. T~r§kh. a . 6. . 1. 14. so Muslim entered the storage room. so Ibn Ziy~ d went to visit him.”5 Shar§k. 1. 318.”4 It was then that `Ubaydull~ h turned to H~ ni and said.2 He used to be in contact with and in the company of H~ ni ibn `Urwah. 1. 166. “Your objective and that of your Sh§`as is his annihilation. Vol. on account of his sickness. She pleaded to me in the Name of All~ h not to do so in her house. Vol. H~kim's Mustadrak. p. Shar§k said to Muslim (– ). of Muntakhab Kanz al-`Umm~l. Vol. Vol. p. p. and she wept before my very eyes.

then he was buried at al-Thuwayya. and Kumayl [ibn Ziy~d]. These same men rode to H~ ni and asked him to meet the sult~ n. That man kept meeting Muslim every day. They told . pressuring him till he . for “He cannot stand you staying away from him. the feet W Commander of the Faithful (–) was asked once. This is proven by the martyrdom of the Commander of the Faithful (–) at the hands of Ibn Muljim and that of Im~m al-Husain son of Ali (–) at the hands . The secrets known by the Progeny of Muhammed (‰) are not easy for others to withstand. he said.Shar§k died three days later. therefore. then . 202. I would have exhumed Shar§k's grave. Ibn Ziy~ d. He said. he came close to him and made the above claim to him. He delivered the money to Muslim and swore the oath of allegiance to him. . Vol. Al-Irsh~d. he said. . Vol. Ibn Ziy~ d performed the funeral prayers for him1. p. and that he had with him some money which he wanted to hand deliver to him. When it became clear for Ibn Ziy~ d that Shar§k used to instigate people to have him killed. He asked them why H~ ni had not been coming lately to visit him. . 10. al-Tabari. admonishing each other to keep it to themselves.3 The money was handed over to Abu Thum~ ma al-S~ `idi who was a far-sighted and a brave Sh§`a dignitary appointed by Muslim to receive the funds and to buy thereby weapons. Ma`qil entered the grand mosque and saw Muslim ibn `Awsajah al-Asadi offering his prayers. al-Tabari. Muslim where we simplified our explanation of this issue under the heading “Muslim is not to commit treachery. Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath and `Amr ibn al. al-Muf§d. H~ ni. about the method how they themselves will be killed and who will kill them. “W hy do you not kill Ibn Muljim?” He (–) answered. As soon as Ibn Ziy~ d saw him. Hab§b. T~r§kh. He gave him three thousand [dinars] and ordered him to meet the Sh§`as and to tell them that he was a Syrian slave of Thul-Kil~ `. T~r§kh. he had Asm~ ’ ibn Kh~ rijah. rode his mule and went. 134 of our book Al-Shah§d . 1. . his slave. And who will reside in my grave instead?! And how will they otherwise be tested?!” The implication of such statements is that nobody is capable of altering anyone's fate which is determined by the Almighty W ho implements whatever He decrees. Hajj~ j brought to him.”2 The Sh§`as kept meeting Muslim ibn `Aq§l secretly at H~ ni's house without attracting the attention of Ibn Ziy~ d. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. who by now knew that Muslim was hiding at the house of H~ ni ibn `Urwah. “By All~ h! I shall never perform the funeral prayers for anyone from Iraq! Had it not been for Ziy~ d's grave being in their land. Muslim prayed All~ h to grant him goodness and success. “If I do not proceed to Kerbal~’.” 1 2 al-Khaw~rizmi. it is quite possible that the M aster of Martyrs (–) had informed Muslim ibn `Aq§l of what will happen to him to the letter. him that it was due to his sickness. “W ho will then kill me?!” It also exists in a statement made by al-Husain (–) to Umm Salamah. yielded. 202. Ch. could not know where Muslim was. p. He then accompanied him to the place where Muslim ibn `Aq§l was. 3 4 120 . You ought to read p. He called Ma`qil. p. Having seen him finish his prayers. of Yaz§d. to meet him. 237. 6. p. that All~ h blessed him with loving Ahl al-Bayt of His Messenger (‰ ). so he kept gathering intelligence and getting it to reach Ibn Ziy~ d in the evening. but he was not convinced especially since his informers had already told him that H~ ni used to sit at the door of his house every evening.4 H} NI'S STAND hen the matter became clear to Ibn Ziy~ d. who will then kill me?! . al-Dainãri.” they said. therefore. that it came to his knowledge that one of the members of Ahl alBayt (– ) had come to that country. Ibn `Aq§l is in the zenith of conviction and the most discreet far-sightedness. 202. “His feet. 6. But the circumstances did not help him to reveal such secrets. such as Maytham [alTamm~r]. If it is possible for the Commander of the Faithful (–) to inform some of his closest followers. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. Rash§d. No secrets were kept from him.

of Al-Agh~ni. of poetry:2 I seek his pleasure while he seeks my death. Al-Mustaqsa. 15 (Hayderabad. 14. al-Mayd~ni says that this verse was composed by al-H~rith ibn Jibillah al. “By All~ h! Had he been under my foot. Then Ibn Ziy~ d turned to H~ ni and said. hence. Ibn Ziy~ d ordered Ma`qil to be brought to him. al-Zamakhshari. 2. 274.” Ibn Ziy~ d said. and when their argument became heated. H~ ni. The latter. According to p.of the treacherous one. `Abdull~h wrote him back saying. edition). Iraq).” thinking that the tribesmen of Mur~ d would protect him from Ibn Ziy~ d who then pulled H~ ni's braids. “By All~ h! You will not stay out of my sight before you bring him to me. there will be plenty of swords around you. . Ibn Nama. of his book Mujma` al-Amth~l. 32. Vol. 1. On p. 3. was the sister of `Amr ibn al-Hajj~j. therefore. p. so he said to Ibn Ziy~ d. W hat your friend seeks is now your own excuse. therefore. 88. where Qays ibn al-Makshãh's biography is detailed. .” H~ ni said. . so he wrote the latter in this regard and included this verse: I seek his love while he seeks to murder me. 19. “And under the foam is the pure sour milk. and they all surrounded the mansion. How could he thus seek while you are Like the arteries of his heart? How could he thus seek while your forearm Derives its strength even from his own? How could he thus seek while you are To H~shim a head and a guide?” 3 2 1 al-Mas`ãdi. “You brought `Aq§l's son to your house and gathered weapons for him.5 `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j heard that H~ ni had been killed. rode with a .”4 Ibn Ziy~ d then said to him. al-Ya`qãbi says. breaking his nose and scattering the flesh from his cheeks and forehead on his beard. Vol. H~ ni. Why do you not listen to my good advice and safely depart for Syria with your family and wealth? Someone who is more worthy than you and your friend3 of taking charge has come here. and I now wish to reward him. Vol. Raw`a. . Vol. mother of Yahya son of H~ ni. says that this verse was composed by `Amr ibn Ma`di-Karb wherein he referred to his sister's son from whom he had distanced himself. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni says. published by the Hayderi Press (Najaf.” On p. Ghass~ni as he seized al-H~rith ibn `Af§f al-`Abdi who had composed poetry defaming him. “Your father had done me great favours. H~ ni's wife. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. of his T~r§kh. Muljim al-Mur~di came to swear the oath of allegiance to him. 2. Vol. to fight him.”1 Then he turned to his judge Shurayh and cited this verse . have brought him to you. hitting his face with his sword. p. “In that case. did you not?” H~ ni denied. who is well known as the . Vol. Murãj al-Thahab. 1. When Ibn Ziy~ d came to know . the author . He then jailed him at his mansion. On p. By “your friend” he meant Yaz§d. . 4 5 121 . multitude from the tribe of Mathhaj. said. I would not have lifted it!” Ibn Ziy~ d then spoke rudely to him and even threatened to kill him. “The Commander of the Faithful (–) cited this verse when Ibn . 97. “It came to the knowledge of Abu al-`Abb~s al-Saff~h that Muhammed ibn `Abdull~h raised an army in M ed§na . Now from your fellow you have an excuse To carry out what you intend to do. India. . understood that that man was actually Ibn Ziy~ d's spy. of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni).

. only three men accompanied him. them as such to Mis`ab when the latter had asked the first to raise for him an army from among the people of Iraq./695 A . 338. Four thousand men assembled. Ibr~h§m ibn al-Ashtar described . he rushed to rise prior to the date which he had set with the public. Al-Agh~ni. whereas al-`Abb~ s ibn Ja`dah alJadli was given the command of the Med§na troops. . Ibn Ziy~ d fortified himself inside it. . Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. p. Vol. 5. therefore. who had then filled the houses surrounding him. Vol. 5 al-Tabari. “in command of the cavalry. 3 4 2 1 al-Tabari. . 6. T~r§kh. “When H~ ni saw me. p. 162. According to Ibn Nama and Ibn T~wãs. 1. 206.4 When those inside the mansion called upon the people of Kã fa saying. 330. p. “O Kã fians! Fear All~ h and do not expose yourselves to Syrian cavaliers whose might you have already tasted and whom you have already tested on the battlefield. enter here. He could not resist because there were only thirty policemen with him and twenty of his close men and slaves. . Vol. the judge. 207. al-Bal~thiri.” the remaining three hundred dispersed.1 to see H~ ni and then to tell those horsemen that H~ ni was still alive. 17. 240. ibn al-Hajj~j. Ans~b al-Ashr~f. 6.” said Muslim. and a wife would cling to her husband till he returned home.5 Muslim offered the evening prayers at the [grand Kã fa] mosque accompanied by only thirty men. the latter in kicking the Ethiopians out of Yemen. or cousin and tell him to go home.about it. p. and that he died in 76 A . when he went to Kindah's quarters. .6 He hardly proceeded for a W On p. Shurayh narrates saying. of his book Al-Tabaq~t. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. he said in a loud voice. Abu Thum~ ma al-S~ `idi was placed in charge of Tam§m and Hamad~ n. . .3 Al-Ahnaf . attributing his lineage to the Kindah tribe.” al-Tabari. . not been with me. to gather together. I would have conveyed his message. the policeman.D.”2 . “Take charge of the infantry. locking all its gates.” Muslim ordered him. so much so that a man would come to his son. They marched towards the governor's mansion. ibn Qays described them as a whore who demanded a different man every day. MUSLIM’S UPRISING hen Muslim came to know about what had happened to H~ ni.” Muslim ibn `Awsajah al-Asadi was placed in command of Mathhaj and Banã Asad. their standards kept disappearing till no more than three hundred men remained out of the original four thousand. 208. 16. Vol. 6 122 . Then. . T~r§kh. On p. brother. you must come to my rescue!' Had Ham§d ibn Abu Bakr al-Ahmari. the name of H~ni's wife was Rowayha daughter of `Amr . he ordered Shurayh.” He adds saying. `O Muslims! Should ten persons . Khal§fah ibn `Amr says that Shurayh was one of the “sons” who were in Yemen. Suhayl Zakar identifies the “sons” as “the descendants of the Persians who had accompanied Sayf ibn Thu Yazan to help . “March ahead of me. he feared being assassinated. 1.H. of his own commentary on AlTabaq~t. al-Dainãri. But the substance from which the people of Kã fa were made was treachery. p. 6. but I had to simply say instead that H~ ni was still alive. . He ordered `Abdull~ h ibn H~ zim to call upon his men. Vol. Vol. They were shouting Badr's call which was: “O Supported One! Annihilate them!” `Ubaydull~ h ibn `Amr ibn `Az§z al-Kindi was placed in command of the Kindah and the Rab§`ah quarters. Vol. “These `sons' constitute a special class in Yemen: their fathers are Persian while their mothers are Arab. T~r§kh. `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j then praised All~ h and went back accompanied by the other men. p. so.

his mother is Umm Farwah . al-Qa`qa` ibn Shawr al-Thuhli10. .8 Ibn Ziy~ d ordered Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath9. 6. 6. . therefore. Vol. arresting `Abd al-A`la ibn Yaz§d al-Kalbi and `Im~ rah ibn Salkhab al-Azdi. of his encyclopedia titled Mu`jam al-Buld~n. 209-210. gouging one of his eyes. p. peace . According to p. O servants of All~ h! Fear All~ h and safeguard your obedience and oath of allegiance. 253 of his Al-Ma`~rif. p. 192.1 He alighted from his horse and cautiously traversed Kã fa's alleys not knowing where to go.. kept lowering their lanterns down its walls and lighting reeds then lowering them down with ropes till they reached the mosque's courtyard. so they informed Ibn Ziy~ d who ordered his caller to call people to assemble at the mosque. their noise died down. al-Mukht~ r was at a village called Khatw~ niyya5. `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d hit al-Mukht~r on the face with his whip. They could not see anyone. Vol. 6. 5.. he said. 215. of Khal§fah's Tabaq~t. his supporters raising a green standard while `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith was raising a red one. so. chief of his police force. 215. and also on p. “I want to stop `Amr. “Al-H~rith al-A`war died in Kãfa during the caliphate . Vol. 169. “`Aq§l's son has caused the dissension and disunity with which you all are familiar. of Ibn Sa`d's Tabaq~t. According to p.”6 It became obvious to them that both Muslim and H~ ni had been killed.4 . warning him that he would kill Muslim should the latter succeed in fleeing from Kã fa. 3 4 On p. Anyone who captures him and brings him to us will be paid his blood money. Y~qãt al-Hamawi . Vol. . Ibn Har§th testified that they had both avoided Muslim ibn `Aq§l. They. T~r§kh. On p. W 1 2 al-Shareeshi. of `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr. . Having planted his standard at the door of `Amr ibn Har§th's house.7 They remained in prison till Im~ m al-Husain. to search homes and highways. and his governor over it was `Abdull~h ibn Yaz§d al-Ans~ri al-Khatmi. at the conclusion of the tenth maq~m. and do not expose yourselves to peril.2 When people abandoned Muslim. Al-Luhãf. in a chapter dealing with those with deformities. causing him to lose the vision from one of his eyes. Vol. and it was suggested to them that they would feel more secure in the company of `Amr ibn Har§th. . 1. Ans~b al-Ashr~f. Ibn Nama. He threw them in jail then killed them. When they filled the mosque. 8 al-Bal~thiri. 6 7 5 al-Tabari. Sharh Maq~m~t al-Har§ri. p. al-Tabari. 303 of Ibn Hab§b's Mahbar.” Then he ordered al-Has§n ibn Tam§m. Then he jailed a group of prominent leaders as a safeguar against what they might do. he ascended the pulpit and said. AL-MUKHT} R IS JAILED hen Muslim marched. 331. Ibn Ziy~ d ordered his bodyguards to inspect the mosque's courtyard to see whether there were any men lying in ambush. T~r§kh. p. the author says. Iraq. pp. Ibn Ziy~d ordered them jailed after having reviled al-Mukht~ r and hit his face with a lance. . 214. 5. 29. He performed the funeral prayers . Ans~b al-Ashr~f. p. Shabth ibn Rab`i. Muslim. 449. 9 123 . Sadir's edition. there is no security henceforth to any man in whose house we find him. He came accompanied by . . was martyred. Among them were al-Asbagh ibn Nub~ tah and al-H~ rith al-A`war al-Hamad~ ni.3 Al-Has§n stationed his guards at highway crossroads and pursued the dignitaries who had supported . 1.short while before finding himself without anyone at all to show him the way. . be upon him. Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath is the son of Qays. says it is one of the suburbs of Babylon. Vol. . . and so they did. . Ibn Qutaybah.” al-Bal~thiri. Vol. 3. and Ibn Ziy~ d could not hear the voice of any of their men. for him according to his own will. Vol.

Muslim realized that he was being pursued. 6. p. Upon hearing the horses' hoofs ploughing the ground.D./661 A. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. . . a resident of Kãfa. share of the intercession of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). . 84. He stood at the door of a house of a freed bondmaid named Taw`a who had a number of sons. so. This is also stated on p. 1. Vol. the author indicates that he was Christian. and she served him some food. Vol. and again he repelled them as he recited these poetic verses: I It is only death. 210. 4. succeeding in repelling their attack. who were controlled by fear. . waiting for an opportunity to launch an attack on the camp of falsehood. Maqtal al-Husain. ibn Abb~d ibn Imri'ul-Qays ibn `Amr ibn Shayb~n ibn Thuhl. Her son was surprised to see her entering that room quite often. and that he died in 40 A. . Al-K~mil. Ibn Ziy~ d dispatched al-Ash`ath accompanied by seventy men who belonged to the Qays tribe in order to arrest him.H. . His Glory is Grand! daughter of Abu Quh~fah. 2 3 Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. Then he put on his battle gear and said to his hostess Taw`a: “You have carried out your share of righteousness. Vol. which she did. 208. He then requested her to host him. I saw my uncle the Commander of the Faithful (– ) in a vision telling me that I was going to join him the next day. was in the crowd when his mother was standing at the door waiting for him. 1 10 On p. of Al-Jarh wal-Ta`d§l. al-Khaw~rizmi. 4 Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. his full name is given as al-Qa`qa` ibn Shawr ibn al-Nu`m~n ibn Ghanal ibn H~rithah . Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. and she gave birth to his son Bil~ l who ./686 A. 12. 6.Hijar ibn Abjar1. and that his name was Muslim ibn `Aq§l. He and Mis`ab were killed in 67 A. She refused to answer his question except after obtaining an oath from him to keep the matter to himself.2 A number of men. and you have secured your .”4 He came out to face them raising his unsheathed sword as they assaulted the house. 3. do whatever you devise. and `Amr ibn Har§th to surrender and to discourage people from rebelling. . . Ibn al-Ath§r. She used to be the bondmaid of al. Yesterday. . 2. 1. responded positively to his call in addition to others who coveted rich rewards and were thus deceived. that he belonged to a family capable of intercession on the Day of Judgment.H. Ash`ath ibn Qays who freed her. But in the morning he informed Ibn Ziy~ d of where Muslim had been hiding. p. of Al-Jarh wal. So I shall be patient about the Command Of All~ h. of Khal§fah's Tabaq~t. For you shall no doubt meet your demise. Ta`d§l. p. p. She took him to a room which was not the same one where her son used to sleep. chapter 10. whereas those whose conscience was pure went underground. Nafs al-Mahmãm. T~r§kh. 56. Vol. bn `Aq§l's feet took him to the quarters of Banã Jiblah of the tribe of Kindah. al-Tabari. during al-Mukht~r's uprising. 206. telling her that he was a stranger in that land without a family or a tribe. MUSLIM AT THE HOUSE OF TAW`A . so he asked her about it. Shimr Thul-Jawshan.D.3 so he hurried to finish a supplication which he was reciting following the morning prayers. Muslim requested her to give him some water. Vol. 137. Vol. 328. This is also stated on p. On p. As§d al-Hadrami married her. Vol. Part 2. They repeated their attack. 124 .

57. 2. The messenger came back to him carrying the latter's blame of his incompetence. therefore. p. On p. .4 Then they attacked him from the house's rooftop. Vol. tenth night. He attacked them in the alley as he quoted the following rajaz verses composed by Hamr~ n ibn M~ lik: . 30 of his book Al-Luhãf (Saida's edition). I fear only being charged with lying or being tempted. so it did settle. Nafs al-Mahmãm. Muslim on the mouth. . took place. Al-Muntakhab. I swore not to be killed except as a free man. Vol. or to a Nabatean from H§ra?! Rather. 3 4 5 These verses are mentioned by Ibn T~wãs on p. the author says. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. chapter 10. Vol. Though I found death something repelling. brother of Thul-Jawshan al-Kil~bi. Every man will one day face evil. 210. original poem on p. He killed as many as forty-one of their men. p. of Y~qãt al-Hamawi's encyclopedia Mu`jam al-Buld~n. chapter 10. They kept burning reed bales then throwing them at him. Ibn Shahr }shãb cites six lines of the . . He was . a mountain. 1062. of al-Bakri's Mu`jam bima Ista`jam. Man~qib. ordered to surrender. 1. Vol. you sent me to one of the swords of [Prophet] Muhammed ibn `Abdull~ h (‰ )!” Ibn Ziy~ d then assisted him with additional . in reference to what he calls the Battle of the Qarn. al-Ahz~n.2 Ibn al-Ash`ath sent a messenger to Ibn Ziy~ d requesting reenforcements. The soul's ray returned.” Yet all of this does not really tell us the whole truth. . Hamr~n ibn M~lik ibn `Abd al-M~lik al-Khat`ami was fought at the mountain. 321 of al-Qalqashandi's book Nih~yat al-Arab. Vol. and p. Shaikh Lutfallah ibn al-Mawla Muhammed Jaw~d al-S~fi al-Gulpaygani). [a dissertation about those assassinated]. so Thul-Jawshan raided them assisted by `Ayeenah ibn Has§n on the condition that the latter would take the booty. soldiers.All~ h's decree is always done In His creation.1 and he was so strong that he would take hold of one man then hurl him on the rooftop. book Maqtal al-Husain with the author providing the name of the poet who composed them. killing some of their men and taking booty. of his book Al-Man~qib (Iranian edition). 1. Bak§r struck . wounding the lower one and breaking two of his lower teeth. 2. the genealogist. But on p. 212. sent him this message: “Do you think that you sent me to one of Kã fa's shopkeepers. p. Maqtal al-Husain. Muhammed ibn Hab§b. 3. 299.5 1 2 Ibn Shahr }shãb. and by Ibn Nama in his book Muth§r . al-Khaw~rizmi. 7. And what is cold will be mingled with what is hot. it is indicated that [the tribe of] Khath`am killed al-Sam§l. this name is given to a mountain where a battle. almost splitting his stomach. which is listed among the seventh group of rare manuscripts researched by `Abd al-Sal~m Harãn. “Banã Qarn are one of the branches of the tribe of Mur~d. . 212. 209. Vol. in which Banã `}mir lost. He. hurling rocks at him. No historian who wrote about battles during the j~hiliyya period makes any reference to such a battle. Among them is Oways al-Qarni. 243 of Ris~lat al-Mught~l§n . . 310. Muslim fiercely struck him with one blow on his head and another on his shoulder muscle. Muslim and Bak§r ibn Hamr~ n al-Ahmari exchanged blows. killing him instantly. Yes. on p.3 Fighting intensified. . of al-Khaw~rizmi's . They fought Khath`am at Faz~r. cutting his upper lip. Vol. whereupon he recited these lines: 125 . on p. 64. 9. this is well known. They are also cited on p. of T~j al-`Arãs. p.

/690 A. Muslim ibn `Amr al-B~ hili3 said to him. the cup became full of his blood and both his front teeth fell in it. so he abandoned it saying. al-Turayhi. T~r§kh. . 126 . Man~qib. “Why do you hurl stones at me. A valiant fighter who stubbornly fought: How could he possibly accept the shame? 1 Ibn Shahr }shãb. where the events of the year 71 . Vol. Muslim ibn `Amr al-B~hili is identified as Qutaybah's father. p. the member of the household of the pure Prophet (‰ ) that I am? Do you not have any respect for the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) with regard to one of his own descendants?” Ibn al-Ash`ath said to him. he bled extensively. p. M I swore never to be killed except as a free man. so he supported his body on the side of the house. he sat down.1 Another account says that they dug a hole for him which they covered then fled before him. Maqtal al-Husain. he cried.D.His wounds were numerous. “Shall I then be captured so long as I have some strength in me? No.” Muslim (– ) asked him. His sister composed a poem eulogizing him in which she said: W oe upon Hamr~n. 6. 2. p.” Having said so. . then they arrested him. 7. 212. At the mansion’s gate. Vol. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh (first edition). and that he was in the company of Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr when the latter's army clashed with that of `Abd al-Malik. 299 (published by the Hayderi Press. They attacked Aq§l from all directions. the cup became full of his blood. . Vol. are more worthy of tasting of the ham§m. `Amr ibn Har§th sent his own slave Sal§m to bring water. I saw death something abominable. thus luring him into falling in it. so he fell on the ground and was arrested. A man stabbed him from the back..H. Then he was killed. 185. al-Khaw~rizmi. A. Najaf.” Muslim ibn `Aq§l said to him.” he asked them. 4. . son of B~ hilah. the author says that Muslim ibn `Amr al-B~hili was killed at a Catholic convent. Vol./690 A. I loathe being deceived or tempted. He did more than his share of goodness. On p. Al-Irsh~d. Iraq). MUSLIM MEETS IBN ZIY} D uslim ibn `Aq§l was brought before Ibn Ziy~ d. are discussed. “I am one who knew the truth which you rejected. Whenever Muslim was about to drink of it.4 `Im~ rah ibn `Uqbah ibn Abu Mu`§t sent a slave named Qays5 to give him water. In his third attempt to drink. supporting his back on the mansion's wall. al-Tabari. Al-Muntakhab. Thirst had taken its toll on him. “You shall not taste one drop of it till you taste of the ham§m in the fire of hell. by All~ h! This shall never be. “as non-believers are stoned. in the discussion of the tenth night.” Then he attacked Ibn al-Ash`ath who fled away before him. 2 3 On p. 126. one who did not give himself away. Having entered the room where Ibn Ziy~ d was. According to al-Muf§d.D. Vol. It was then that they assaulted him with arrows and stones.” Muslim asked him. and who remained faithful to his im~ m when you betrayed him. “Had it been prescribed in destiny for me to drink it. I would have drunk it. . . he saw an urn containing cooled water. 1.2 When they took his sword away from him. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. “May your mother lose you! How hard-hearted and rude you are! You. 209-210. He owed others nothing at all.” Ibn Ziy~ d's guard came out to escort Muslim. “Who are you?” He said. 212.H. in the discussion of the events of the year 71 A. He asked to drink of it. `Amr ibn `Ubaydull~ h al-Salami was surprised to see him cry. 4 5 al-Shaikh al-Muf§d. pp. “Please do not get yourself killed while you are under my protection.

Muth§r al-Ahz~n. p.” But he refused to listen. Besides.” said Muslim. was not unfamiliar with the nature of `Omer ibn Sa`d. “I only advise you and will never name them to you. it is stated that a treacherous person . p. you shall be killed.Hasan. in addition to disrespect to the Prophet of Islam (‰) and the abusing of the master of wasis [Im~m Ali. 17. reminds me of the incident that took place to Kh~lid al-Qasri with regard to safeguarding a secret because this is one of the characteristics of the Arabs' norms of manliness and one of the Islamic morals and ethics. peace be upon them. desired nothing but reforming the nation and the promotion of the Divine call. Muslim conveyed his desire to him to sell his sword and shield and pay a debt in the amount of six hundred dirhams4 which he had borrowed since he entered Kã fa. “Why did you not greet the ameer?” “Keep your mouth shut. “There is kinship between me and you. 212. al-Tabari. Vol. 241 of al-Dainãri’s book Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. . but you placed your trust in a treacherous person. “A trustworthy person never betrays you. whom they entrusted. . you shall never abandon committing murders. 2 3 4 5 On p. be upon him. al-Tabari. Al-Luhãf. . Al-Muntakhab. spent his days. chapter 10. Said he. 6. The seeds of dissension were sown by your father. being mean. saying that Abu Ja`fer [Im~m al-B~qir]./744 127 . 6. asked him not to reveal their plot. which were sixty-four in number. as a matter of fact. Maqtal al-Husain. 211. “You disobeyed your im~ m. to ask Ibn Ziy~ d to give him his corpse to bury it. p.”1 It is also said that he said to Ibn Ziy~ d. Relying on the authority of Mu`ammar ibn Khal~d. peace . p. `The trustworthy one did not betray you. Al-W al§d ibn `Abd al-Malik once wanted to perform the hajj. divided the Muslims. 2. They. Yousuf ibn `Omer. . of Al-Was~'il by al-Hurr al-`}mili. so he looked at those present there and saw `Omer ibn Sa`d. `Omer ibn Sa`d stood up and walked to Ibn Ziy~ d to reveal the secret with which he had just been entrusted by Muslim! Ibn Ziy~ d said to him. Al-Khaw~rizmi. T~r§kh. but Kh~lid refused. “You have uttered falsehood. The guard asked Muslim. 1. having the upper hand will be the doing of anyone else but you.”5 1 Ibn T~wãs.” Ibn Ziy~ d said.Muslim did not greet him. This man [Muslim]. finds appropriate to state. 643. al-Kulayni says. “I shall not name them. 30. and I wish All~ h will grant me to be martyred at the hand of the worst of His creation.” said Muslim to him. “he is not my ameer. be upon them. his debt was a thousand dirhams. It has been made by Ahl al-Bayt. “I shall hand you over to your enemy.”2 Muslim said. “I heard the father of al. But he. someone worse than you had already killed someone much better than me. 212. in chapter 9. A huge stone was placed on his chest that finally killed him in 126 A. did not stretch his hand to bayt al-m~l although he had the full authority over it to do whatever he pleased. setting a bad example. and they sought Kh~lid's participation in their plot. Al-Irsh~d. al-Turayhi. They should not regard the wealth which belongs to the poor as a booty.” so Ibn Ziy~ d laughed and said. instead. . al-Muf§d. should never be trusted. therefore. on p. Thus should those charged with authority behave.” responded al-W al§d.”3 Then Muslim asked permission to convey his will to some of his people.” Al-W al§d handed him over to Yousuf who tortured him. He had another reason: He wanted to let the people of Kãfa know that Ahl al-Bayt. Vol. He was granted permission.H. peace . Rather.” Muslim said. and to write al-Husain (– ) . p. and it is a secret between us. but he wanted to let the Kãfians know the extent of this man's “manliness” and his lack of safeguarding a secret so that nobody would be deceived by him.” But he refused to name them.” `Omer stood with Muslim in a way that enabled Ibn Ziy~ d to see them both. to tell him what happened to him. . . Ibn Nama. “Do not hesitate from tending to your cousin's need. whereupon Ibn Ziy~ d said to him. 300. peace be upon him] from the pulpits and saying about him what no writer . Vol. and those charged with authority among them. peace be upon him. but the man still refused to name them.'” Muslim. T~r§kh. “If you kill me. “Whether you greet or not. nor was he ignorant of the meanness of his origin. and sowed the seeds of dissension. the mansion's martyr. p. but he instead went to al-W al§d and advised him not to go to the pilgrimage that year because “I fear lest you should be assassinated.” “Even if you do so. For example. thinking ill of others. “W ho do you fear may assassinate me? Tell me of their names.” he said. used to say. feared the consequences in the hereafter. those who divided the Muslims are Mu`~ wiyah and his son Yaz§d. so a group of men decided to assassinate him. whereupon he was jailed.” “In that case. This statement runs like a proverb. Vol. and obeyed the Exalted King. borrowing money. This treacherous person. but you have placed your trust in a treacherous person. “and I need a favour of you which you should oblige.” AlW al§d asked him. “Peace be upon whoever followed the right guidance.

Maqtal al-Husain. shed their blood./1843 A. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. “What do you have to do with all of that? Have we not been dealing with them with equity?” Muslim said. 79. . Vol. 18. `}mir ibn Sahl al-Ash`ari hamstrung his horse on his grave. He was buried in a suburb. By my life! You thus immortalized his prison And caused it a great deal of pain: Should you imprison the Qasri. “O All~ h! Judge between us and the people who deceived. he somehow managed to get one of his arms out of the ropes and said. Ibn Nama.Then Ibn Ziy~ d turned to Muslim and said. “Subh~ n-All~ h! La il~ ha illa-All~ h! All~ hu Akbar!” He also kept repeating. so I was frightened. and for mere suspicion. “I am not going to give it away to you so generously.5 H~ ni was taken to an area of the market place where sheep were sold. out of enmity. and did what Kisra and Caeser do. you should not Imprison his name. p. nor his virtues among the tribes.” Ibn Ziy~ d said. .H. . Vol. 31. p.” Ibn Ziy~ d then verbally abused him and abused Ali (– ). H~ ni said. p. “All~ h knows that you are not telling the truth. “O son of `Aq§l! You came to a united people and disunited them. indeed. “I saw a black man with an extremely ugly face standing beside me biting his finger. but he missed. p. a knife. I shall not assist you at the cost of my own life.D. Also Al-Luhãf (by Ibn T~wãs). and alHusain (– ). Truly. the best of men alive or living Is a captive with them in chain. I did not come to do that.” Muslim said. and to invite all to accept the judgment of the Book [of All~ h]. issue . “Is there anyone who would hand me a stick.” said Ibn Ziy~ d. 2 3 Sayyid K~zim ibn Q~sim al-Rashti al-H~’iri (d. whereupon Muslim said. He kept saying.” A Turkish slave named Rasheed owned by `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d struck him with his sword. You. Asr~r al-Shah~da. He was then sixty years old. 1259 A. He was ordered to stretch his neck so that they might strike it with their swords. Vol. 213. whatever decree you wish. 128 .3 . 5. betrayed and lied to us. al-Khaw~rizmi.” then he faced Med§na and saluted al-Husain (– ). of Ibn `As~kir's Tahth§b. These verses are recorded on p. “To All~ h is my return! O All~ h! To Your Mercy do I come and to Your Pleasure!” Rasheed hit him again and killed him. “The moment I killed him. Nobody in all of Arabia dared to eulogize him despite his open-handedness except Abu alShaghab al-`Abasi who said. He was very startled. a rock. 259. “No.” “Perhaps you lost your mind for a moment.D. p. . . so Yousuf whipped him seven hundred lashes. . his arms were tied. but the people of this country claimed that your father killed their best men. Ibn Ziy~ d asked him what was wrong with him. so.” said he. Al-Luhãf. “O Mathhaj! Any man from Mathhaj to help me today?! O Mathhaj! Where has Mathhaj gone away . you enemy of All~ h!”1 It was then that Ibn Ziy~ d ordered a Syrian2 to go to the top of the mansion and to behead Muslim and throw both the head and the body to the ground. 1 Ibn Nama. 312. 4 5 al-Khaw~rizmi. from me?!” Having seen that there was none to respond to him. The Syrian took Muslim to the flat rooftop of the mansion as the latter kept repeating. . 1. 1. . in fact. Maqtal al-Husain. `Aq§l. “You and your father are more worthy of being thus abused. . This same slave was killed by A. or even a bone so that a man may be able to defend himself?” Guards attacked him and tied him again. so we came to them in order to enjoin justice. kill when angry.). The Syrian struck Muslim's neck with his sword and threw his head and body to the ground4 then hurried down.

then he sent their severed heads to Yaz§d who displayed them at one of the streets of Damascus. Maqtal al-Husain. Tabaristan Sea..D. it is stated that al-Hajj~j ibn Yousuf al-Thaqafi crucified the corpse of Abdull~h ibn . . Man~qib. “bahr al-baskoon. that I assigned spies for them and let men infiltrate their assemblies and plotted against them till I forced them out. too.”. and I found their views and merits just as you indicated. maintaining your composure. be they the corpses of M uslims or of non-M uslims. 21. where the events of the year 555 A. the author says. 266. Vol. prepare with arms. so I killed them and sent you both of their heads with H~ ni ibn Abu Hayya al-W~ di`i al-Hamad~ ni and alZubayr ibn al-`Arwah al-Tam§mi who both are from among those who listen to and who obey us. `Ubaydull~ h Ibn Ziy~ d wrote Yaz§d saying: Praise to All~ h Who effected justice on behalf of the commander of the faithful and sufficed him having to deal with his foes.. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. and on p. `Mawl~na! Please sign for us!'” On p. read the following: “Nero. it is written that. truth. Ibn Ziy~ d ordered the corpses of both Muslim and H~ ni to be tied with ropes from their feet and dragged in the market places2. understanding. __ Tr. we . of al-Bal~thiri's book . Vol. so. 1. so people were shouting. then it was set on fire.] Ibn Shahr }shãb. of T~r§kh al-Kham§s. should pass by the house of `Amr ibn al-}s.” “bahr Baku. the king [of ancient Rome]. in the prophets. p. be cautious It is also called “bahr jurgan” [the sea of jurgan].” and “bahr saraee. “bahr al-daylam. 116 of Ibn al-`Arabi's book Mukhtasar T~r§kh al-Duwal. may All~ h bless him. 301. “Mu`~wiyah ibn Khad§j ordered Muhammed ibn Abu Bakr to be dragged on the highway. Ans~b al-Ashr~f..`Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn al-Has§n al-Mur~ di who saw him at the Khazar1 (Caspian Sea) in the company of .D. On p. Al-Muntakhab. 2. His corpse was taken down then burnt. “Certain individuals . `Ubaydull~ h. citing Murãj al-Thahab. ordered his corpse to be buried. 215. . He crucified them upside-down3 at the garbage collection site. Then he . 11. and that the dragging party . . AlHajj~j had likewise done to the corpse of [the sah~bi] `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr as we read on p.” the Basque Sea. al-Zubayr in Mecca upside down./1160 A. You have done very well and testified to the correctness of my good impression about you. 3 2 1 129 . . 481 of Al-Mahbar (Hayderabad edition). 575 A. placed in one of his hands. “bahr shirwan. 12 of Midm~r al-Haq~'iq by Muhammed ibn Taqi al-Ayyãbi. an order was issued to tie his penis with a rope and to drag the body on the streets. an ink-pot was . knowing how much the latter hated to see Muhamm ed ibn A bu B akr killed. A donkey was stuffed with the corpse. that is. 268. governor of (the Syrian town of) Hama. the Georgian Sea.H.D. where [first caliph] Abu Bakr's sons are discussed. Al-Khaw~rizmi.” [Islam prohibits mutilating or burning corpses. Such a heinous action is not . for there is knowledge with them. You have behaved with strictness and assaulted with courage. therefore. should be killed then crucified upside down.” On p. 2. “W hen Z~hir . You should. 481 of Ibn Hab§b's book Al-Mahbar. author says. ad-D§n ibn al-Att~r was killed. killed two disciples of Christ then crucified them upside-down. You do not cease being the source of my delight. 153. All~ h gave me the upper hand over them. . p. On p. On p. the . Vol. so the faq§hs decreed that he. (April 19. committed except by one who reneges from the Islamic creed and whose heart does not contain one iota of mercy or compassion. 1180 A.” In Hay~t al. are discussed. . and a pen was placed in the other. . so.H. 5. cut his [Z~hir’s] ear off on Thul-Qi`da 15. al-Turayhi. and piety. Hayw~n. we are told that Ibr~h§m al-Faz~ri was found guilty of committing many heinous deeds such as ridiculing belief in All~h and .” “bahr jilan. And peace be with you. Yaz§d wrote Ibn Ziy~ d saying.” Islam reached the Caspian on a large scale during the early 9th century A. that Muslim ibn `Aq§l had sought refuge at the house of H~ ni ibn `Urwah alMur~ di. towards Iraq. I invited your messengers and asked them and confided in them. Vol. p. Vol. let the commander of the faithful ask them whatever he pleases. take good care of them. It has also come to my knowledge that al-Husain ibn Ali has marched . set up observation posts. I would like to inform the commander of the faithful.

1. This is stated in Al-Akhbar al-Tiw~l. ordering him to take charge of the pilgrimage caravans and to kill al-Husain (– ) . . . 139 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn al-Jawzi. 19. as your fractured teeth Fell into the drink. on the ninth of Thul-Hijjah. Says he. These authors say that Muslim was seen in Kãfa in public on the 8th of Thul-Hijjah and was killed one day after . . . . Shaikh Lutfall~h al-Gulpaygani. implying. their wording. The .1 Your tenure is put to the test by this Husain rather than by anyone else. It is not a secret that there are three viewpoints with regard to the date when Muslim was martyred: The first is that he was martyred on the third of the month of Thul-Hijjah. . . Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. . in his book Al-Luhãf f§ Qatl~ al-Tufãf. the first day of `Id al-Adha. if M uslim had been killed one day after al-Husain's departure.4 THE JOURNEY TO IRAQ hen it came to Husain's knowledge that Yaz§d had appointed `Amr ibn Sa`§d ibn al-`} s as the head . Kill anyone whom you suspect. of his book. p. the grandson. 304. . `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. and the same is stated on p. Vol. Vol. p. wherever he could find him. Tearful eyes shall never cease Greeting you as they come and go.” The . Al-Mas`ãdi. p. may All~h have mercy on his soul. . 210 of his book Al-Khas~’is. night. 66. his martyrdom would have been on . “on the same day when Muslim was killed. . Both authors have stated that M uslim was killed on the 8th of Thul-Hijjah. “Al-Husain (–) left Mecca on the third of Thul-Hijjah. p. 1. This is what al-Muf§d says in his book Al-Irsh~d and al-Kaf`ami in his book Misb~h al-Kaf`ami. T~r§kh.. from . as well as the author of Murãj al-Thahab [al-Mas`ãdi] who states the same on p. Maqtal al-Husain. 1. 332.for mere suspicion. in Zarã d there are Many a mourner mourning you in the night and the day. outcome will determine whether you will be freed or whether you will return to slavery. were you not their prince Only the day before? Should you spend without anyone mourning you? Is there anyone in the land to mourn you? Is there anyone in the land to cry over you? Should you die. This . so is your country and your own self as governor. making his uprising public. . that it was on the eve preceding the third day which would have been the Day of `Arafa. . Not even once. p.5 he decided to leave Mecca before finishing the pilgrimage and be satisfied with performing only the `umra because he hated that the sanctity of the House might otherwise be W 1 2 3 4 al-Tabari. 90. Vol. agrees with . So. . Vol. . 2. It seems that Ibn T~wãs.3 O cousin of al-Husain! Tearful eyes of your Sh§`as may . 10th . Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. 214. This is stated in Al-Watw~t on p. of an army.2 so. of his T~r§kh. Muntakhab al-Athar f§ Akhb~r al-Im~m al-Th~ni `Ashar. date seems to be the one accepted by Abu al-Fid~’ as stated on p. and al-Tabari on p. Having tied you. other view is that he was martyred on the eighth of Thul-Hijjah. 2. .” adding. With blood provide you with water to drink. This is also what Ibn Nama says in his book Muth§r al-Ahz~n . in his book Murãj al-Thahab. you have to either fight him or arrest and transport him to me. For you were not given to drink. 6. These poetry lines are excerpted from a poem by Sayyid B~qir al-Hindi. . al-Khaw~rizmi. Vol. From the mansion did they hurl you. 5 130 . Ibn `As~kir. of his T~r§kh. Vol. T~r§kh. this view. makes a statement to the effect that al-Husain (–) left Mecca . . 215. 215.

p. 89. through my death. 2. of al-Azraqi's T~r§kh Mecca. He gave each one of them ten dinars and a camel to carry his luggage. He said. and He shall give us in full the rewards due to those who persevere. . Death is inscribed on Adam's children like a necklace on a girl's neck. He was . Rather. . . My passion to be reunited with my ancestors is like that of Jacob for Joseph. and the demise I shall soon meet is better for me./September 12. p. There is no might except in All~ h. and he shall fulfill his promise. asked him to postpone his trip till he could get to know the condition of the public. . in addition to others. as they stand. “My father told me once that there is a ram in Mecca through which its sanctity would be violated. said to [`Abdull~ h] Ibn al-Zubayr. I see my limbs being torn by speeding steeds in the desert between al-Naw~ w§s and Kerbal~ ’. Basra and Kã fa who joined him . The facts. T~r§kh. Al-Luhãf. hollow bellies and starved pouches. 60 A.2 His departure took place on the 8th of Thul-Hijjah. He.D. Vol. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. peace be upon him. . they shall be gathered before him in the presence of the most Holy One. for example. for I shall depart in the morning if All~ h Almighty so wills. He. it is better for me than being killed inside it. All~ h has blessed His Messenger. The Will of All~ h be done. Whatever pleases All~ h also pleases us. Ibn T~wãs. All praise is due to All~ h. His eyes shall be cooled upon seeing them assembled. There is no avoiding a day recorded by the Pen. Al-Tabari. and Sh§`as from the people of Hij~ z. al-Husain (– ) stood up to deliver a sermon. On p. so they shall fill. Should I be killed outside Mecca even the distance of a span. are not to be revealed to just anyone who seeks them due to the different levels of people's comprehension and the differences in their ability to absorb. B efore departing. 4 131 . Anyone among us who is ready to sacrifice himself and is determined to meet All~ h should join our departing party. p. . during his sojourn in Mecca. But the “Father of the Oppressed” was unable to reveal the knowledge with him about his fate to everyone he met. we Ahl al-Bayt. accompanied by his family. 150. p.3 ATTEMPTS TO DISSUADE HIM FROM DEPARTING group of his family members. slaves. 6.1 MECCA: AL-HUSAIN (– ) DELIVERS A SERMON .H. Nafs al-Mahmãm. 33. p. 177. They feared the treachery of the Kã fians and were apprehensive of a possible reversal in the situation. We shall be patient as we face His trial.4 By All~ h! Had I been inside A 1 2 3 Ibn Nama. 91. and I do not like to be it. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Vol. Ibn Nama. it is stated that Im~m Husain (–) made this statement to Ibn `Abb~s. 20.violated. had to answer each person according to his own condition and ability to comprehend. The Prophet's offspring shall not deviate from His path. 680 A.

163. . Do not hurry in marching. and he tried very hard to dissuade al-Husain (– ) from marching to his destination. 219. but Abu `Abdull~ h . as they claim. (– ) refused. for you will then realize your objective in good health. for you are the standard of guidance and the hope of the faithful. promised him to think about it. He informed `Abdull~ h that he had seen the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in a vision giving him an order which he had to carry out. Ibn al-Ath§r. Al-K~mil. for I fear lest you should be killed as they look on. al-Majlisi. “O cousin! I seek solace. If the people of Iraq want you. “I fear lest Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah should assassinate me inside . and to Him is our return). and I fear for you if you do it lest you should perish and be eliminated. the light on earth will be put out. the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) came to me in a vision and said. saying. then you should go to them. Al-K~mil. . Ibn . do not go near them. granting al. “But after your departure.” al-Husain (– ) answered. 6. Vol. Husain (– ) security. Stay here. and it is a wide and spacious land. . “O cousin! By All~ h! I know that you are an advisor with compassion. 16. al-Husain (– ) said to those in his company. Ibn Kath§r. the haram.one of these holes. for you are the most respected one in the haram. Al-Husain (– ) said. Al-Bid~ya. p. p. `Abdull~ h son of Ja`fer al-Tayy~ r. but you are not solacing me. If you get killed. and I fear lest your case should be like theirs. do not take your women and children. ilayhi raji`oon” (We are All~ h's. so Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) . p. “There is nothing in . 2 3 132 . Vol. came to him and said. .”2 .” Ibn `Abb~ s then said. He asked him about the reason for letting his family accompany him.” `Abdull~ h took a letter from Yaz§d's governor over Mecca. yet I have already decided to go. He asked him what he had seen.”1 During the same night following which al-Husain (– ) left for Iraq. so he wished to see me leave so that the space will be all his.” Ibn al. thus becoming the one on whose account the sanctity of this House is violated. al-Tabari. and your father has many supporters there. Muhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya . Bih~r al-Anw~r. .” As soon as Ibn al-Zubayr had left. “Did you not promise me to think about my suggestion?” “Yes. 1 Ibn al-Ath§r. 6. dispatch your messengers and disseminate your message. T~r§kh. “It is the Will of All~ h to see them taken captives. plead to you in the Name of All~ h to go home once you read this letter. 4. then. “You know very well how the Kã fians betrayed your father and brother. Vol. so. If you insist on going out.” Al-Husain (– ) said. By All~ h! They shall oppress me and transgress just as the Jews oppressed and transgressed the sanctity of the Sabbath. During the early hours of the morning. “and I shall not narrate it till I meet my Lord. 184. p. “Inn~ lill~ hi wa inn~ . for I shall see you shortly after you read this letter. “I have not narrated this vision to anyone. He knows very well that people do not equate him with me. `O Husain! Get out! . “I . then let them unseat their governor and enemy. al-Hanafiyya again came to him and held the reins of the she-camel upon which al-Husain (– ) had already . You will then be able to write people. “By All~ h! They [the . Ibn `Abb~ s said to him. . `Amr ibn Sa`§d ibn al-`} s.” Al-Husain (– ) said to him. 4. al-Husain (– ) started the preparations for his departure. Vol. p. . All~ h Almighty has decreed to see you slain. and peace be with you. You will be insulated from [the evil] people. Vol. the most Exalted One. for it has fortresses and valleys. Hanafiyya suggested to him to go to Yemen or to other parts of the peninsula. . go to Yemen. `} s. they would have taken me out of it and done what they wish to do. . the most Great. most secure.” Al-Husain (– ) said to him. . this world this man loves more than seeing me depart from Hij~ z. The people of Iraq are treacherous. . for I fear lest you should be killed and your Ahl al-Bayt (– ) be eradicated.”3 .'” Muhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya said. 10. He brought it to al-Husain (– ) who was then accompanied by Yahya ibn Sa`§d ibn al. wrote him saying. and the . mounted. for you are the master of the people of Hij~z. “If you insist on going. and also his sons `Awn and Muhammed. . 17.” said Im~ m Husain (– ). Stay in this land.

One of them forgot once to curse Ali (– ) in his Friday sermon. despite their treacherous nature. of the Kã fians or with their treachery and hypocrisy. despite his knowledge [of such an imminent fate]. stressing the importance of his going to meet with them in order to save them from the evil of the Umayyads. where else would he have gone especially since the earth suddenly became straitened before him despite its vastness? This is the meaning of his saying to Ibn alHanafiyya. The father of `Abdull~ h [Im~ m al-Husain. and what happened between Bishr ibn Arta'ah and the people of Yemen underscores the latter’s weakness of resistance and inability to face an oppressor. or from redeeming them from the claws of misguidance and guiding them to what best pleases the Lord of the World. and so that they would not argue on the Day of Judgment saying that they sought refuge with him and solicited his help against the oppression of the oppressors. especially since their dissension and disunity had not yet become manifest? The reason he gave for marching to meet them. He evidently was. it became quite clear to the people of his time. exposing his sacred life and those of his family and children to the atrocities that befell them. that right was on his side and that those who oppressed him were the misguided ones. it is due to the fact that the tyrants from among Banã Umayyah had convinced themselves that they were right and that Ali and his offspring and supporters were wrong. may All~ h elevate his status. But they sought him even there to either arrest or to kill him even if he had been found clinging to the curtains of the Ka`ba. They prohibited him from going anywhere. 1 133 . and an evident one: a) As for the real one that caused him to face . The rag Im~m al-Husain (–) is referring to is one used by a woman to absorb the blood during . morally obligated to go along with what they had suggested in order to bring his argument against them home. he (– ) sought to safeguard himself and his family by all possible means.”1 WHY DID THE IM} M (– ) LEAVE? his is the ultimate end of anyone seeking to know why al-Husain (– ) did not tarry before going to . He had no choice except to perform a singular `umra rather than a complete hajj. but he could not do so. Since he was travelling. Should they do so. the truth left. so they had to remind him of it.. Had he not gone to them. All~ h will appoint over them those who will humiliate them till they become more degraded than a woman's rag.. He has said. This is so because there were many who thought that entering into a covenant with the Umayyads was indicative of their legitimacy and good conduct. he had to repeat his prayers as qaza! Had al-Husain (– ) surrendered and sworn the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d. Iraq. had to get out of it fearing for his life. p. Then he went to . his father and brother (– ). therefore. Yaz§d wrote his governor over Med§na to kill him. . “AlHusain (– ) had two obligations: a real one. T Ibn al-Ath§r. the safe haven of anyone in apprehension. her menstruation. obedience and submission to his orders? Can the Im~ m of a nation be excused for not providing guidance when he is solicited. Vol. The Im~ m chosen for the guidance of the public is greater than doing anything that would be used as an argument against him. so much so that they made cursing him part of their Friday congregational prayers. The country to which Ibn `Abb~ s and others referred has no security. therefore. `Had I entered inside one of these land cracks. But what could he do after they had expressed their loyalty. but he accused them of dissension and did not help them. would prompt those who look at the exterior appearance of matters to blame him. 4. which manifested itself in the way they treated him. 16. then he sought refuge with All~ h's Sacred House. they would have taken me out of it and killed . there would have been no trace of .Umayyads] shall not leave me alone till I am dead. He. Al-K~mil. Kã fa because its people had written him and sworn the oath of allegiance to him. peace be upon him] was not unfamiliar with the nature . death and to expose his family to captivity and his children to slaughter. and to succeeding generations. But after al-Husain (– ) had fought them. b) As regarding the superficially evident cause. Such is the view expressed by al-Shaikh al-Shushtari.

Thousands do they meet. p. “And All~ h's Command is a decree already passed. . . .”1 Everyone in Mecca was grieved to see him leave. Honour loathes a free man being subdued. Then he cited the verse saying. 137 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn al-Jawzi. . When sharp swords did smile. and I again remained patient. so I fled. Might in his help. 32 (Tabr§z edition). for there is no shame In death to a man who set his mind To follow the truth And to perform jih~ d as a Muslim. Swift in the sahara. disputing with Banã Umayyah.”2 He loathed peace in humiliation. subdued for him the conveyance.. . 134 . When they persisted in their attempts to dissuade him from leaving. Opposing the criminals. On p. red in hue Not by slapping reddened but by the enemy's blood.me!'” The Im~ m (– ) had likewise said to Abu Harrah al-Asadi once. dignified in stature. al-Husain (–) cited these verses when al-Hurr warned him against . These are the folks from Ali the conqueror The darkness through them dissipates And harm at bay is kept. yet I remained patient. what is bitter tastes good! Surrounded he became by his family's best youth A family to which sublime honour and prominence belong If it marches in the darkness of the night it shines: Its shiny faces over-shining the brightest of the stars By brave knights on wading steeds In whose walk there is pride and grace. When the day of death is in black and in woe. “Banã Umayyah confiscated my wealth. So he said: O soul! Refrain from shame: At the time of death. He consoled the righteous men in person. Leaving behind the depraved. he quoted poetic verses composed by a poet from the Aws tribe who had been warned by one of his cousins against participating in the jih~ d in support of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ): I shall proceed. Their faces with delight become bright and mellow 1 2 Al-Khas~’is al-Husainiyya. courageous and bold If and when their banners unfold On a day when the face of death frowned. Slapping the earth's face. And they defamed my honour. Then they sought to kill me. the grandson.

Agonies crowding my heart Do you know how much trial and tribulation Your revered offspring faced at the Taff? . What will you. Nor two are two when lance clashes with the armour: Had he wished to finish his foes at hand He would have shaken existence itself at his command. for them the war testifies That they were men of honour when faced by what terrifies. They assault. while heroes out of fear hesitate And lions are accustomed to assault. though on the right guidance Dawned having none to console? Near the Taff are the youths of H~ shim . On the hot desert sands he dawned A corpse that fell a prey To every sword and lance in every way. Blood outfitted them with outfits of crimson red. Till they were spent under the clouds of dust On a battle resembling the Assembly Day! Nay! Less terrifying is the Assembling Day! They died in dignity. 135 . his corpse trampled upon by trained steeds O son of Hasan! I complain to you for these are .. Buried under the heat. So one is not one when the swords clamour. They stood on the battlefield only to cross To death: the bridge is awaiting everyone who walks. Let me console you in their regard. in the desert. If his lance composes poetry in one's heart. On the day of struggle with dust he covered every face Of his troops as horizons grew pale shrouding the place. Again and again the Oppressed One went back to his foes With his sword and mare helping him to give them blows. O bereaved one. Buried under the lances' tips. Between the ends of the lances he was spent Thirsty. so he opted to march To death patiently.As the faces of startled brave men turn yellow. assault and be Turning the blood of your foes into a sea? Will you close your eyes when revenge can you take From seeing the blood which. White bandages decorated their every head. His sword writes prose on his foes' necks on its part. Not a drop wetted their thirst. But decree had already passed.. for patient are the oppressed. For they approached death with heart. Wind burying them with the dust. their blood is sought By everyone! No respite there shall be till you Raise it so nothing can stand in its way.

in enemy hands. a war no mighty host can subdue How many times did Umayyah stir your wounds No healing of the wound till the Meeting Day. And a startled youth whose heartbeat almost Sparks with fright. . Handled by a filthy hand. . Here the sands make their every bed. By their enemy were they now displayed For all to jeer at and to see: A war trophy they now came to be.A fire you shall light. .. over Yemen. Al-Husain (– ) seized it and said to those who tended to the camels. . miles from Mecca. 2. his governor . They grew up confined. It is named . merchandise and clothes sent to Yaz§d ibn Mu`~ wiyah by Bah§r ibn Yas~ r al-Himyari. Welcomed the night without a haven. it is said to be three or four . and a mosque is there. . And whoever prefers to part with us. we shall compensate him according to the distance he travelled. And another confused. . So with her hands she seeks to hide What with her veil she used to shield Walked unveiled before the enemy eyes.. . On p. Here they lie dead. what’s the plain or the terrain. you wishes to join us in our march to Iraq will be paid in full. and we will keep him good company. 416. blood was given instead. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. here the arrows embrace them... it is said to be a place located two farasangs from Mecca. 136 . Vol. On p. By the sight of steeds not at all amused. A free lady who used to be confined Dawned on the plains hot like timber lit by the heat And a pure woman not used to mourning Is now with whips driven. From one country to another she cries. Now they were insulted and dismayed.. without resort Her veil. while the valley is called Na`§m~n. rebuked. they never knew What slavery was. Taken from land to distant land. of Y~qãt al-Hamawi's Mu`jam al-Buld~n. “Whoever among . Is being passed from this to that. 60 of Ahmed ibn Muhammed al-Khadr~wi's book Fad~’il al-Balad al-Am§n. No healing to babes whom Umayyah nursed with death Instead of breasts' milk.1 AL-TAN`¦M l-Husain (– ) marched on his way out of Mecca via al-Tan`§m2 where he met a caravan laden with .” Some of A 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by the hujjah Sayyid Muhammed Husain al-Kayshw~n published in `all~ma Shaikh Shar§f al-Jaw~hiri's .. as such because on its right there is a mountain called Na`§m and another on its left called N~`im.

Praise to Him. so I . . 6. p. p. . Vol. he has expenses to pay. and amber passed . I would not have diminished your share of it. in a chapter dealing with repetition. and Destiny descends from the heavens!” Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) said. 338. then none whose intention is to effect righteousness. t al-Sif~ h. Al-Thahbi. and that . . so he asked him about the people . p. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. p. “You have said the truth. is referenced in al-Muf§d's Irsh~d as well. the swords are with Banã Umayyah. T~r§kh.” Mu`~wiyah wrote him back saying. `This is a short name!' Said I. But it was a destiny that the Master of the Youths of Paradise could not give what the oppressors had confiscated of Prophet Muhammed's nation back to its rightful owners. account of his being the Im~m appointed by the Omnipotent. fear lest you should be tried by one who does not regard you more than he regards a she-camel's hiccup. “Their hearts are with you. nusub. . etc. the poet. but there is in your head a certain desire. indeed. `Your name is even shorter! You are the son of the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h!'”3 A al-Tabari. whom he had left behind. in the desert and inquired who it belonged to. Ibn al-Ath§r. After that. I need it. we shall praise All~ h for His blessings. Ibn Abul-Had§d. AL-SIF} H . . I was told that it was the army of al-Husain ibn Ali (– ). Tathkirat al-Huff~z. . p. 16. Ibn Kath§r. . .' He said. Shaikh . they parted. Al-Muf§d. He asked me. by All~h. 6. Al-Irsh~d. Sharh Nahjul Balagha. al-Thahbi says that the meeting between al-Husain (–) and al-Farazdaq took place at Th~t . By All~h! Had that wealth been left alone till it reached me. and He is the One Whose help we seek so that we may thank Him enough. Anw~r al-Rab§`. To All~ h belongs the affair. Every day. “You took that wealth while you were unworthy of it after your admission that it belonged to me. Al-Farazdaq said. Maqtal al-Husain. 4. “I went out of Basra seeking to perform the `umra. `Irq. whereas others preferred his company. This meeting . I saw an army . .” AlFarazdaq asked the Im~ m (– ) about his verdicts regarding issues such as nathr. . it is said to have taken place at al-Sif~h between Hunayn and the haram's . gave of it generously to the bedouins who accompanied him on the way and who complained to him of the pain of poverty from which they were suffering. Vol. If Destiny descends with what we love. T~r§kh. 137 . 1. moreover. 220. All these references say that the wealth confiscated by al-Husain (–) had been transported to Mu`~wiyah ibn Abu Sufy~n. our Lord deals with a matter.them parted from him. on the west side upon entering Mecca. outfits. `Al-Farazdaq ibn Gh~ lib. .1 Al-Husain (– ) considered that caravan his own wealth which All~ h Almighty put at his disposal on . 3 2 1 Sayyid Ali Khan. so it became mandatory on him to take control of the Muslims' spoils to distribute to the needy among them. Al-Bid~ya. 218. al-Husain (– ) met al-Farazdaq ibn Gh~ lib. 703. whereas in Y~qãt al-Hamawi's Mu`jam al-Buld~n. p. 166. so I am taking it.” al-Tabari. 8. 327 (first Egyptian edition). “A caravan coming from Yemen carrying merchandise. But I. 218. p. p. and I very much like to see it come out during my own time so that I may recognize your value and overlook what you have done. . p. rituals. . 1. `Who is the man?' I said. 21. decided to express my gratitude to the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Yaz§d and his father had already confiscated what belonged to him as well as what belonged to the Muslims. Vol. and All~ h does whatever He pleases. Vol. al-Husain (–) wrote Mu`~wiyah in its regard saying. Vol. by us on its way to you so that you may deposit it in the coffers of Damascus to thereby elevate the status of your father's offspring after you take of it whatever satisfies you. has transgressed. Al-K~mil. But if we are destined not to attain our desires. The w~li has a greater right to fare with the wealth. Vol. Vol. He. Al-Khaw~rizmi. Ibn Nama. although his precious sacrifice removed from visions the veils of the misguidance of those who transgressed on Divine Authority.2 It is narrated that al-Farazdaq said. I came to him and greeted him. . and whose heart is full of piety. 4.

however. it is indicated that . of T~j al-`Arãs. The rag referred to is used by a woman to insert in her vagina to absorb her menstrual blood. leaving no sanctity of All~ h without violating it.e. he sent the people of Kã fa the answer to the According to p. 2. quotes Ibn Durayd saying that al-Rumma is a spacious low land in Najd in which the rainfall pours from several valleys.” said the Im~ m (– ). including Iraq and Khurasan. peace be upon him. Vol. 219.. . so I went in their direction and inquired who they belonged to. where Zuhayr ibn Abu Sulma's biography is detailed. recommending not to . and it is closer to Mecca. it is indicated that it lies within the expanse of al-Rumma. I noticed a number of tents. it is said to be a place on the highway to Mecca. despite the fact that it was That `Irq that designated the timing zone for all the people of the east [i. `These people [the Umayyads] terrorized me. 317. al-`Aq§q is situated in the valley of Thu Hal§fa. “and the hearts are with you. 195. peace be upon all of them. Vol. At That `Irq1 he met Bishr ibn Gh~ lib and asked him about the people of Kã fa. Vol. 257. of Al-Bid~ya. in Najd. Vol. of Ibn Muflih's book Al-Furã`. Vol. however. Vol. According to Sunnis. I said. and here are the letters of the people of Kã fa. . al-Nawawi. of T~r§kh al. of Ibn Qud~mah's book Al-Mughni. it is said to be located at the distance of two days' travel. Vol. it is indicated that al-Ghaz~li. 2. On p. 169. Vol. So. Adab al-`Arabi . 216. 250.” he said. (History of Arab Literature). 290. This narrator says. On p. As I thus walked. Im~mite faq§hs have been cautious. a place where the people of Kãfa . wear the ihr~m at That `Irq which lies at the end of al-`Aq§q. 2. 6. 21. 118. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n. “Having performed the pilgrimage. I set out on the highway alone. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. which is recommended by Im~m al-Sh~fi`i who says so on p. p. of Al-Bahr al-R~’iq by the Hanafi author Ibn Naj§m. I went to see him.” but I could not make much sense of it. Vol. of T~j al-`Arãs. say that the Messenger of All~h (‰) marked al-`Aq§q as the timing zone for the people of Iraq. It is named as such after a small mountain in its locality as indicated on p. 274 of his book Jughr~fyat Shubh . I was told that they belonged to alHusain son of Ali and F~ tima. According to Mu`jam al-Buld~n. . That `Irq and Mecca. Rida Kahh~lah. and that it was . The latter is quoted as saying that al-H~jir is located in the south of today's city of Riyadh. 7. entrance of the tent reading a book in his hand. 136. 4. this is what al-Bukh~ri tells us as he quotes [the caliph’s son. That `Irq marks the timing zone of the people of the east. 3 On p. 8. Vol. `O son of the Messenger of All~ h! May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! What brought you to this desolate land which has neither countryside nor strongholds?' He. Traditions recorded by Im~mites. and those who documented al-Sh~fi`i emphatically insist that there is no tradition designating That `Irq a timing zone as such. 8. believing that there is no had§th designating That `Irq for such timing. 2. On p. 3. of Fath al-B~ri. and I saw him leaning on the . of Mu`jam al-Buld~n.2 Al-Rayy~ sh narrated about those who met al-Husain (– ) on his way to Kã fa. of his book Al-Umm. On p. The Hanafis. On p. al-R~fi`i.THAT `IRQ bu `Abdull~ h (– ) heedlessly marched on. Jaz§rat al-`Arab (Geography of the Arabian Peninsula). . in a footnote on p. once they do it.. 199. and Basra meet. All~ h will send them those who will kill them till they become more debased than a bondmaid's rag'. however. my assassins. Hanbalis. this statement is altered to read: “. 1. On p. Ibn Abd al-Birr is cited as saying that the wearing of the ihr~m garb is better done at al-`Aq§q.. Vol. [second caliph] Omer who designated it as such. a plateau in Najd. Ibn al-`Arabi says that al-Rumma is wide and expansive and is traversed by one 4 138 . On p. Muslims residing in the eastern region of the then Islamic domain]. 3. “al-h~jir” is a water jetty built at the borders of a valley as a safeguard against the flood. more lowly than a bondmaid's scarf. said to me. it is also referred to as a resting area for those travelling from Basra to M ed§na. . and Sh~fi`is have all testified to this fact. According to p. Vol.”3 A AL-H} JIR H 1 aving reached al-H~ jir4 from the direction of al-Rumma. “The swords are with Banã Umayyah. . it is located at the distance of two stages between .” “You have said the truth. nor is it supported linguistically! The accurate wording is what is indicated above. 2 Ibn Nama. `Abdull~h] Ibn `Omer. . 3.

“Al-Rumma's low land is a huge valley acting as a barrier to the right of Falja and al-Duthayna till it passes through the quarters of al-Abyad and al-Aswad which are separated by a distance of three miles. one with `Abdull~h ibn Yaqtur and another with Qays ibn . The high areas of al-Rumma are inhabited by the people of Med§na and to Banã Sal§m. maintain your stand. p. following the discussion of Qay's lineage. they will not fear anyone else after you. When the latter came to know that al-Husain (– ) intended to reach Iraq. then Banã Asad. those who joined him kept increasing2. 492. peace be upon him. while its south is populated by Banã Asad and Banã Abas. to him. Mush§r. A AL-KHUZAYMIYYA H e. In it. . it is indicated that he was dispatched by .” He continues to say. said. In it. As he passed by each watering place of the Arabs. I plead to All~ h to enable us to do what is good and to reward you with the greatest of His rewards. 4 139 . Finally he reached a watering place where he met `Abdull~ h ibn Mut§` al-`Adawi. the number of . and it is quite possible he had sent them two letters. Al-Irsh~d. “I fear for you. peace be upon her.letter he had received from Muslim ibn `Aq§l and dispatched it with Qays ibn Mush§r al-Sayd~ wi1.” but al-Husain (– ) insisted on marching3. whereupon Abas and Ghatf~n people do likewise. Vol. 3. 168. . Muslim ibn `Aq§l's letter reached me. 8. Vol. and once they have killed you. lest the sanctity of Islam should be violated. 152 of Ali ibn Muhammed al-Fatt~l al-Naishapuri's book Rawdat al-W~`iz§n.” On p. “Al-Rumma extends from the Ghawr [deep low land] to Hij~z. Ibn Ziy~d killed the man at Kãfa. By All~ h! If you seek what is in the hands of Banã Umayyah. and I plead to you in the Name of All~ h with regard to the Arab's sanctity. shall the martyrs mourn? travelling for a full day. I have come to you from Mecca on the eighth of Thul-Hijjah. of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni). . do exceedingly celebrate! Who. `Abdull~h ibn Yaqtur. . for I shall reach you in a . al-Muf§d. stayed at al-Khuzaymiyya4 for one day and one night. “I heard a voice saying: O eyes.” This is incorrect. therefore. they will kill you. then it ends at the sand dunes of al-`Uyãn. Al-Asma`i says. . . he . . a place upon the high lands of which Banã Kil~b descend. his sister Zainab. Its middle part is inhabited by Banã Kil~b and Ghatf~n. O son of the Messenger of All~ h. It is named after Khuzaymah ibn H~zim and it is located one stage after Zarãd on a traveller's way from Kãfa to Mecca. we rely on Mu`jam al-Buld~n. arrangement of these stages. then they depart therefrom. so. if my messenger reaches you. 2 3 1 Ibn Kath§r. On p. few days. after me. came to him and said. “He was . he informs me of your consensus to support us and to demand our rights. he said . In the . with al-Husain (–) when he [al-Husain (–)] was killed at the Taff. Al-Bid~ya. SOME INFORMERS l-Husain (– ) departed from al-H~ jir. the author says. In the morning.

” Then he narrated to them what Selm~ n al-F~ risi had foretold him with regard to the imminent battle. by Ibn Nama on p. al-Husain. 3. says. 4. as for me. Maqtal al-Husain. 1.H. Zuhayr hesitated to say anything. 376. therefore. “[His full name is:] Zuhayr . 4. “We invaded Ballinger5 and we were victorious. of his book Al-K~mil. Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn al-Bijli3. and it is the site of the Battle of Zarãd. . T~r§kh. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n. . “O sister! Whatever is decreed shall come to pass. There is a lake in it. “Whoever among you loves to support the son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). the author traces the lineage of Saba' [known to W esterners as Sheba] thus: “Saba' ibn Ya`rub ibn Qaht~n (Joktan). “Go to your family. 40. . `If you ever meet the Master of the Youths from the Progeny of Muhammed. 153 of his book Rawdat . of his book Maqtal . by al-Khaw~rizmi on p. it is described as sand dunes between al-Tha`labiyya and al-Khuzaymiyya on a pilgrim's way coming from Kãfa. . 5. he said. This is supported by what al-Tabari states on p. . fima Ista`jam. 3. I could not find any reference in either of these books to any other city bearing the same name. Ibn Hazm. but his wife. were very glad. Qasr ibn `Abqar ibn Anmar ibn Arash ibn `Amr ibn al-Ghawth ibn Nabt ibn M~lik ibn Zayd ibn Kayl~n ibn Saba'. 17. but Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. He ordered all is belongings to be packed. let him join us. As Zuhayr and his group were eating. for I hate to see you receiving any harm on my account. a messenger sent by al-Husain (– ) came to them inviting .”1 ZARâ D hen al-Husain (– ) reached Zarã d2. Muth§r al-Ahz~n.'”7 Zuhayr's wife said. on p. “He participated in the conquests of Iraq and was martyred at Ballinger. therefore. 77. otherwise.” 4 5 3 Ibn T~wãs.D. and I request you to remember me on the W 1 2 Ibn Nama. urged him to meet the Im~ m (– ) and to listen to what he had to say4. 225. on p. When Selm~ n al-F~ risi6 saw how excited we all were. of his book Al-Is~ba. 50. al-W~`iz§n. of his T~r§kh. 1. Water gathered them somehow at the same place. p. chapter 11. alighted near him. He said to his wife. his progeny. you should then be more elated for fighting on his side than you now are elated on account of your booty. Zuhayr said. p. 23 of his book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Qays ibn Farwah ibn Zur~rah ibn al-Arqam adding. and by Ibn al-Ath§r as he states so on p. 327. Vol. 1.” Then he said to those around him. 6. p. Vol. p. Vol. 7 6 al-Tabari. Al-Luhãf. and it lies one mile from al-Khuzaymiyya. this should be the last time I see you. by Selm~n ibn Rab§`ah al-B~hili./653 A. of his concordance Al-Mu`jam . to fulfill a promise sworn?” He said. it is one of the cities of the Khazar conquered in 33 A. Having discussed the Bijli tribes. so we acquired a great deal of booty and we. al-Khaw~rizmi. Vol.” (!!!) He placed the accent marks on the word then added saying that Selm~n ibn Rab§`ah was the commander of the army. . Iraq.” On p. Vol. “All~ h has chosen this honour for you. 274. went and swiftly returned elated with his face showing signs of excitement. hated to be near him. Zuhayr. Vol. 222. details the biography of . 23. Vol. . According to both Mu`jam al-Buld~n and Al-Mu`jam fi ma Ista`jam [Concordance of what is non-Arab]. by Ibn al-Ath§r on p. who did not support him and even . peace of All~ h and blessings be upon him and . 224. Zuhayr to meet his master Abu `Abdull~ h (– ). 365 of his book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. On p. He also ordered everyone to go to the Master of the Youths of Paradise (– ). of his book Al-K~mil. 140 . The following statement by Selm~n is cited in Al-Irsh~d by the mentor al-Muf§d and also by al-Fattal on p.Who shall mourn folks driven by fate To their destiny. I now bid you farewell. 310. and by al-Bakri on p. ibn al-Qayn ibn al-H~rith ibn }mir ibn Sa`d ibn M~lik ibn Zuhayr ibn `Amr ibn Yashkur ibn Ali ibn M~lik ibn Sa`d ibn Tuzayn ibn . Dulham daughter of `Amr. Vol. Both authors testify that Selm~n participated in that invasion. Vol.

says that he did so repeatedly..” But I do not understand what his objective behind this divorce might have been! Did he wish to exclude her from inheriting him. p. both from the tribe of Asad. . O son of the Messenger of All~ h. 6. 3. to go away. O `Aq§l's son! May you be sacrificed by every soul For your calamity is the greatest of all. 4 3 Ibn al-Ath§r. Now says she. “We plead to you in the Name of All~ h. and there was a great deal of wailing coming from the women’s quarters. Tears poured profusely. as he wept.” `Aq§l's offspring stood up and said. Vol. Al-Luhãf.. “There is nothing good in life after these folks. 41. . so much so that the whole place was shaken because of Muslim ibn `Aq§l being killed. 17.”1 . “Expelled. 224. al-Thahbi. p. happiness through martyrdom. Ibn T~wãs. or did he not wish her to be his wife in the hereafter?! The Commander of the Faithful (–) had divorced some of the Prophet's wives. 40. At Zarã d. 8. for you will not find any supporter in Mecca. p. 1 Ibn Nama. T~r§kh. . pleading to All~ h to have mercy on them2. on p.. “Now who shall his own orphan console? “Bereaved. Ibn Kath§r. 208. said to the Im~ m (– ). or did he permit her to remarry after three months. too. On p. so he kept repeating: Inn~ lill~ h wa inn~ ilayhi raji`ã n (We belong to All~ h. Our only solace is the fact that the person who had narrated that “tradition” was none other than alSuddi. peace be upon him. 4. With his counselling family did he mourn you.” Al-Husain (– ) looked at them and said. . so she sensed that something terrible must have happened. spending the night stung by pain. 141 . being his {al-Rida’s} father]. “We shall not leave before seeking revenge or taste of what our brother has tasted. But I could not find even one reliable reference stating that al-Husain (–) took M uslim's daughter . Al-Luhãf. first edition. it is stated that . This free woman had actually done him [Zuhayr] a favour: she paved for him the path to eternal . .Day of Judgment and say a good word on my behalf to al-Husain's grandfather. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. With hearts within set on fire not fear? Consoled by the Prophet's grandfather? So she may near him be pleased. With him the H~ shemites wept. . Zuhayr said to his wife. Vol. on the Taff. Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. 995. al-K~zim's wife [Im~m Mãsa al-K~zim . for I do not wish any harm to reach you on my account. For what values our every salted tear? How many daughters of yours are bereaved. Vol.. Let's mourn it with hearts grieved. . Surrounded by youths like the morning shone. .”4 . “You are divorced! So go back to your family. Vol. from her home exiled?” And how many a courageous warrior In whose heart did she the fire of grief ignite? Your cousin. We mourned your youth and tragedy Marked with death and sad destiny. the Im~ m (– ) was informed of how Muslim ibn `Aq§l and H~ ni ibn `Urwah were killed. 6. Ham§da by the head. “An uncle of mine is now gone. and to Him shall we return). p. Im~m al-Rida (–) had divorced Umm Farwa. Ibn T~wãs. p. 2 al-Tabari. Youths whose lineage to everyone is known. Al-K~mil. 23. did you support.3 `Abdull~ h ibn Sal§m and al-Munthir ibn al-Mashma`il. Vol. 168. of his book Al-Bid~ya. of Tabari's T~r§kh. p.

It is one stage after al-Shuqãq for one travelling from Kãfa to Mecca as we are told by Mu`jam alBuld~n. Ba s~ ‘ir al-Daraj~t. al-}b~di's grave lies there. Our Lord. The Im~ m said to him. 213. Says he. Praise to Him. He called upon his near in kin: “Avenge his death. “By All~ h! Had I met you in Med§na. 35. who was able to dig a well in it. 42:7). But now the deer are the ones mired. 17:71). our Lord does whatever He pleases. 5 142 . `This is full of letters. peace be upon him. Fountainhead of the Prophet's Family. p. and another shall be in the burning fire' (Qur’~ n. I would have showed you the marks Gabriel had left in our house and the place where he used to descend with revelation to my grandfather. On p. `O son of the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h! I see your followers to be very small in number. . while another im~ m calls others to misguidance and is also answered positively: this group shall be in Paradise. the poet. He. and it is the explanation of the verse saying. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. a man came to Im~ m al-Husain (– ) and asked him about the meaning of the verse . Into the mire of death did he lead them. Vol. Al-Tha`labiyya was named after a man belonging to Banã Asad named Tha`labah who had been there and . On p. AL-THA`LABIYYA t al-Tha`labiyya. 93. . O brother of Kã fa! It is from us that knowledge initiates. brother said to him.A ma'tam he held for you despite his condition And even white deer wailed for you. “Al-Husain passed by us when I was a young lad. narrates saying. Vol. 1. said. According to p. and also according to the offset edition of Ibn Rastah's book Al-A`l~q al-Naf§sa. }m~li. it is a city surrounded by a bulwark. 2. Vol. is mocked. p. 3.”1 At the same place. al-Husain (– ) saw a man coming from Kã fa5. 205. My .” al-Thahbi. It is also recorded in al-K~fi's U sãl. “An Im~ m calls others for guidance and is answered positively. each day manages the al-Sadãq. 233. He. 2. al-Khaw~rizmi claims he was al-Farazdaq. “(Remember) the Day when We will call every people by their Im~ m” (Qur’~ n. O family of the F~ tiha!” . he made. said to him. He informed the Im~ m (– ) that they were all against him. peace be upon him. in a chapter headed “Knowledge Derived from the . On p. so he asked him about the people of Iraq. a man from Kã fa met him. Have they become learned while we became ignorant? This shall never be. and it belongs to Banã Asad. though serious.”2 A Baj§r. “O folks stingy with their souls! “Your battle. `A party shall be in Paradise. “The affair is with All~ h. . of Ibn Shahr }shãb's book. al-Saff~r. of al-Samhãdi's book Waf~’ al-Waf~’. and that shall be in hell. saying.'”3 AL-SHUQâ Q A 1 2 3 4 t al-Shuqã q4. but this is an error which . Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. it is an area located near a watering place called al-Tha`labiyya. 3. it is one stage following Zub~la on the way of one who travels from Kãfa to M ecca.' With his whip he pointed to a saddlebag a man was carrying [for him] and said. Vol. p. of al-Tha`labiyya.” he calls. According to Mu`jam al-Buld~n. 311 of al-Ya`qãbi's book Al-Buld~n.

p. . `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d who ordered him to ascend the pulpit and to curse the liar son of the liar. attributing these lines to the Im~m. When `Abdull~ h ibn Yaqtur looked at the people from the pulpit. His bones were crushed. They dispersed right and left. If wealth is hoarded to be left behind. He. he said. For I see myself from you soon departing. “There is no doubt in my mind that I am going to be killed. a woman belonging to the `Am~liqah. but he did not die.2 A IN THE HEARTLAND OF AL-`AQABA T 1 2 he Imam (– ) left Zub~ la. “I killed him in order to put an end to his suffering. ibn `Aq§l. knowing fully well that if he permitted them to leave. Buld~n. . Actually. a mosque for Banã Asad named after Zub~la daughter of M as`ar. he was informed that `Abdull~ h ibn Yaqtur. The Im~ m (– ) informed those who were in his company of what had happened. whereupon `Ubaydull~ h ordered him thrown from the mansion’s rooftop.” Then he quoted the following verses of poetry:1 If this abode is held as dear. giving them the option to leave. It is located after al-Shuqãq on a traveller's way from Kãfa to Mecca. He was hurled down from there. and there are some narrators of had§th whose last names are derived from Zub~la as we are told by Mu`jam al. had been killed. I saw myself being mauled by dogs the Ibid. only those who were ready to support him to the end would remain. peace be upon him. But al-Khaw~rizmi does not quote the fifth line of the original Arabic text. And if the bodies are for death made. O family of Muhammed! . 226. There is a fort there and . So peace of All~ h be upon you. To be less concerned about it is more beautiful. peace be upon him. he said. One killed for the sake of All~ h is surely better.affairs. reaching al-`Aqaba's heartland where he said to his companions. 6.” . Vol. the rewards Are more sublime and noble. The Battle of Zub~la is well known to the Arabs. Al-Has§n ibn Nam§r arrested him at al-Q~ disiyya and sent him to . 143 . the man dispatched by al-Husain (– ) to Muslim . ZUB} LA t Zub~ la. In the abode of All~ h. Why should one be miser with what is left? If sustenance is destined in proportion. Those who remained with him were his own companions who had come with him from Mecca. A man named `Abd al-Malik ibn `Umayr al-Lakhmi came to him and cut his throat. T~r§kh. al-Tabari.” It is also said that the man who killed him was tall and that he looked like `Abd alMalik ibn `Umayr. hated for them to march with him except with their knowledge of what to expect. When the latter was shamed for having done so. In a vision. a large number of bedouins had joined him thinking that he was going to a land where he would be welcomed by supporting natives. “O people! I am the messenger of al-Husain son of F~ tima (– ) to you so that you may support and assist him against the son of Marj~ na.

3 4 Mu`jam al-Buld~n tells us that it is named after a man bearing this name who had dug a well there followed by many large and plentiful wells of sweet water. .”2 Then he.”1 `Amr ibn Lawthan. On p. In his Hij~ zi accent. Chapter 11. then they filled water pots and brought them near the horses each one of which drank three to five times of them till they all drank to their fill. In the pre-dawn. T~r§kh. . he was suffering acutely of the pangs of thirst. p. and that what he saw could have been lances and horses' ears. Vol. The Im~ m (– ). said. He left the throngs of men at Shar~f and took to Iraq. 4. “Ankhi al. 7 8 6 al-Khaw~rizmi. They gave each and every one of them water. al-Tabari. “All~ hu Akbar!” Al-Husain (– ) asked him about the reason. peace be upon him. . his full name is al-Hurr ibn Yaz§d ibn Najiyah ibn Qa`nab ibn . he ordered his servants . al-Ash`ath . All~ h will send upon them those who will humiliate them till they become the most abased among all nations. 5 It is named after a mountain where al-Nu`m~n ibn al-Munthir used to hunt. dispatched by [`Ubaydull~h] Ibn Ziy~ d in order to prohibit al-Husain (– ) from going back to Med§na. T~r§kh. arrest him. . Al-Husain (– ) said. of Banã `Ikrimah.” but the man did not understand what he (– ) meant. therefore. but those who were in his company denied that there could be any palm-trees in such a place. 213 of the same . . r~ wiya. and al-Thuby~ni. Soon. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. When the Master of Martyrs (– ) saw how thirsty that band was. Vol. “I am of the same view. so the Fragrant Flower of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) now said to him. he ordered his followers to serve water to them and to their horses. “I did so upon seeing palm-trees.” When the man tried to drink. 1. when Sa`d ibn Abu W aqq~s was at Shar~f. “They shall not leave me till I am dead. 75. 98 and following pages. to fill their water bags with water. Husain (– ).most fierce among them was spotted. `Atab is called “al-Radf” because kings used to ride with him. . ibn Qays joined him with a hundred Yemenites. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. to . so . 215 of Ibn Hazm's book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. he heard a man among his companions crying. p. According to p. . . p. al-Hurr al-Riy~ hi6 came to them face-to-face escorted by a thousand cavaliers. 87.”3 SHAR} F l-Husain (– ) left al-`Aqaba then set up his camp at Shar~ f4. al-Tabari. Nafs al-Mahmãm. al-Husain (– ) said to him. Maqtal al-Husain. the name of Yarbã` is provided as: Yarbã` ibn Hanzalah ibn M~lik ibn Yaz§d-Manãt ibn Tam§m.8 Ali ibn al-Ti`an al-Muh~ ribi was in al-Hurr’s company. He was .7 . suggested to him to return to Med§na due to the treachery and betrayal upon which the people of Kã fa were bent. 144 . yet All~ h's will shall never be overruled. left side. this time using classical Arabic: “Ankhil-jamal. According to p. 226. he caused the water to run wastefully out of the water-bag. . “I am not unfamiliar with their attitude. It was a very hot midday when al-Hurr and his men confronted al. Irsh~d. 226. composed poetry about it. Abu `Abdull~ h.” said the man. p. They suggested a place called Thu Hasam5 on their . peace be upon him. `Atab al-Radf ibn al-Harmi ibn Riy~h Yarbã`. them whether they could shelter themselves anywhere. p. At midday. first edition (Iran).” then he asked . the genius poet. . and once they have done it. Vol. said. . reference. Al-Husain (– ) swiftly moved there and set up his camp. 6. Vol. repeated his statement. and to bring him to Kã fa. al-Muf§d. 230. A 1 2 Ibn Qawlawayh. 6. He happened to be the last to be served.

” The Im~ m (– ) led the prayers. But if you hate my arrival. . O son of al-Zahr~ ’. more so than these who lay a claim to what does not belong to them. ibn Sam`~ n to bring out two saddlebags full of letters. heart of Ali the valiant. Al-Hurr said. provide me with that whereby I can trust your promises and covenants. responsibility of authority. But the Prophet's blood that ran in his veins. we will all pray behind you. and if your view now is different from what your letters to me described. “Would you like to lead your men for the prayers?” He answered: . therefore. so come to us.” but the poor man did not know exactly what to do due to his inability to think because. praised and glorified All~ h and blessed Prophet Muhammed (‰ ) then said. the most Mighty. Surely he was fully aware of the situation being so precarious. the most Exalted One. then I have come to you. are more worthy of you in shouldering the . The men did not utter one word. the Im~ m (– ) faced them. . it will please All~ h better. This is to seek pardon of All~ h. But they did not value your precious soul: How can dust be compared with the mountain? How wondrous to see All~ h's Clemency When they.” Im~ m al145 . knowledgeable of the consequences should water run out the next day. then that al-Husain (– ) asked al-Hurr. the favourites of All~ h became For Yaz§d and for Ziy~ d a booty to claim! Then al-Husain (– ) welcomed them. Al-Hurr said. and I .” Al-Husain (– ) immediately ordered `Uqbah . O people! If you fear All~ h and wish to get to know who follows righteousness. knowing that it could be the sole cause of death. and of your own selves: I did not come to you except after having received your letters which your messengers delivered to me. Al-Hajj~ j ibn Masrã q al-Ju`fi called the ath~ n for the noon prayers. Rather.. requesting me to come to you. . perhaps All~ h will gather all of us under the shade of His guidance. Having finished the prayers.. “I do not know what letters you are talking about. This time the Im~ m (– ) stood up and adjusted the water-bag for that man in person till he drank enough. It was . violated your sanctity! How strange. did not leave him any choice. of the thirst from which he was severely suffering. O soul of the guiding Prophet! Strange how these people did not Come to you to sacrifice themselves for you. “I am not among their senders. “No. the family of Muhammed (‰ ). and the exemplary generosity of his father Ali (– ). If you insist on hating us and ignoring our right. again. saying. Such is the kindness and compassion of the most Oppressed One towards that band that met in a desert where each drop of water was as precious as life itself. then I will part from you. as He watched. have been ordered not to part with you once I meet you till I bring you to Ibn Ziy~ d in Kã fa.” So if the case is as such. We. whose tradition is oppression and transgression. He praised All~ h and glorified Him then said: . then he (– ) watered his horse as well. then I shall leave you and go to where I had come from.“Ankhi al-siq~ . “We have no Im~ m.

demonstrating corruption and making mischief evident. companions in one area while al-Hurr and his fellows rode in another. 2. These folks have upheld Satan and abandoned their obedience to the most Merciful One. Leaving a depraved one. 193. 3 It is located between W ~qisa and `Uthayb al-Hajan~t and is a spacious land inhabited by the offspring of Yarbã` ibn Hanzalah. “Death is closer to your reach than that. too. glorified All~ h. AL-BAYDA . so al-Husain (– ) said to al-Hurr. O people! The Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) has said. and the . I would not hesitate to let his mother lose him no matter who he may be! By All~ h! I have no way to refer to your mother except in the very best of way of which we are capable. To meet a lion in the battle. I am the best suitable person to change the situation.” Having heard him say so.” Al-Husain (– ) said. In it he said. Ibn Shahr }shãb adds the following verses to them: My soul do I present.Husain (– ) said. .” al-Hurr . “If one sees an oppressive ruler. “and he is in the same boat as you now are. rode. . let me say what the brother of the Aws [tribe] said to his cousin who desired to support the Messenger of All~ h. the Im~ m (– ) delivered a speech to al-Hurr's companions after having praised and . and so did some of your messengers who brought me your 1 2 Reference to his citing these verses has already been indicated above. rode with his . And if he the righteous with his life consoles. therefore. responded. Al-Husain (– ). women. So if I live. of his book Al-Man~qib. Your letters reached me. They idled the limits (set forth by All~ h) and took to their own selves what belonged to others. your mother lose you! What do you want of us?” “Should anyone else other than you say so to me. .2 . Irsh~d. scaring me with death?! Will your calamity really lead you to kill me? In that case. . al-Muf§d. who makes lawful what All~ h has made unlawful. A t al-Bayda3. . and he does not get him to alter his conduct through something he does or says. I shall not regret or be shamed But if I die. opposing a criminal.” He ordered his companions to ride. “May . 146 . But let us come to a mid-way between both of us which neither leads you to Kã fa nor takes you back to Med§na till I write Ibn Ziy~ d. prohibiting what All~ h has permitted and permitting what He has prohibited. not sparing it. On p. If he truly intends so and As a Muslim struggles. it will be incumbent upon All~ h to resurrect him in that ruler's company. you will be killed. Vol. . a charging one. surely I shall not be blamed Humiliation suffices you if you accept to be oppressed. peace of All~ h be upon him and his Progeny:1 I shall proceed: There is no shame A man to his death goes. “Are you . perhaps All~ h will grant me safety and not try me with anything relevant to your issue. but al-Hurr forbade them from going to Med§na. al-Hurr stayed away from him.” After a short while he added saying. “I admonish you to remember All~ h with regard to your life. . for I testify that should you fight.

al-Has§n ibn Nam§r al-Tam§mi arrested Qays ibn Mishir al-Sayd~ wi. 6. Vol. . p. But if you do not. Moreover. and I again took to patience. and F~ tima daughter of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ).” . wealth. . majlis 30. so I fled. p. 3. his bones were crushed. then he . According to Vol. “O son of the . . 21. Surely it is to the detriment of your own luck that you thus err. . you should rush to his aid. your families. “O people! I am the messenger of al-Husain (– ) to you! I have left him in such-and-such a place.”4 A A AL-Q} DISIYYA t al-Q~ disiyya. it is located about three miles from Khifya. Al-Bid~ya. . 3 al-Sadãq. 451. Ibn al-Ath§r. “Ascend the pulpit and curse al-Husain and his father and brother. Vol. you will achieve the right guidance.oath not to hand me over [to my foes] nor to betray me. so `Abd al-Malik 1 2 al-Tabari. 6 al-Muf§d. then. “O Abu Har~ m! Banã Umayyah taunted my honour. al-Qatqat~na is located more than twenty miles from Ruhayma. 136 (first . . where the entire had§th is cited. by my life. and peace be with you and the mercy and blessings of All~ h. guard the area between Khaf~ n and Qatqat~ na5. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. reneges against his own soul. . and if you violate your promise and renege in your oath of allegiance to me. and to . al-Fatt~l. Vol. it will not be the first time that you do so: you did so to my father. to my brother [Im~ m al-Hasan (– )]. whereupon Ibn Ziy~ d said to him. And they confiscated my . Ibn Kath§r. Whoever reneges. If you. al-Tibrisi. 226. According to Mu`jam al-Buld~n. he. p. he cursed `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d and his father and all Banã Umayyah. p. 4. Then they sought to kill me. therefore. T~r§kh. said. rendering your lot a loss. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n. Khaf~n is a place near Kãfa where there is a well near a village inhabited by the offspring of `Eisa ibn Mãsa al-H~shimi. . 8. 93. 125. for I am al-Husain son of Ali . a word that will abase them3 till they become more abased than the people of Saba' (Sheba) who were ruled by a woman over their wealth and their lives. my family is with . On p. indeed. 1. messenger to the people of Kã fa. By All~ h! They will kill me. took the letter out and shredded it. praised and glorified All~h and blessed the Prophet (‰ ) and his Progeny (– ) and was profuse in imploring All~ h's blessings on the Commander of the Faithful (– ) and on al-Hasan . a Kã fian named Abu Har~ m met the Im~ m (– ) and said to him. I`l~m al-Wara. Qays refused. All~ h will then cover them with an overwhelming humiliation and with a sharp sword which He will place over their heads. my cousin Muslim. and All~ h shall suffice me for you. 147 . I will cut you to pieces. Deceived is whoever trusts you. otherwise.1 AL-RUHAYMA t al-Ruhayma2. and you have in me a model of conduct. . 229. . Messenger of All~ h! What made you leave the sanctuary of your grandfather?” The Im~ m (– ) said. 4 5 al-Khaw~rizmi. p. and he died. 7. Rawdat al-W~iz§n.” Ibn Ziy~ d ordered him to be thrown from his mansion's rooftop. Vol. the latter . al-Husain's . He told Ibn Ziy~ d that he did so in order that they would not know what it contained. Ibn Nama. . and I took to patience. complete the terms of your oath of allegiance. and al-Husain (– ). When he wanted to search the messenger. so. But Ibn Ziy~ d insisted that he should tell him about its contents. p. 118.6 Some accounts say that he did not die immediately. Al-Has§n had been ordered by Ibn Ziy~ d to station cavaliers to . . and the latter is located westward more than ten miles from al-Rahba. Al-K~mil. Vol. My soul is with yours. p. He was thrown. Qays ascended the pulpit. Maqtal al-Husain. Al-Irsh~d. . }m~li. He was brought to Ibn Ziy~ d who asked him why he had shredded the letter.

O my she-camel! Do not complain of my impatience. saying. 151. . 309. 1. Vol. `Aja. and he was prone to err quite often.H. about it. 33:23).ibn `Umayr al-Lakhmi slit his throat [as stated above]. and from al-Aswad and al-Ahmar.”1 AL-`UTHAYB A t `Uthayb al-Hajan~ t2. and they said to me.. plead to you in the Name of All~ h not to go to fight them. They were: `Amr ibn Kh~ lid alSayd~ wi. and N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l. of them is he who accomplished his vow. so he. 1 2 al-Muf§d. them “al-K~ mil. “I only wanted to put an end to his suffering. “A covenant . or whether we win victory. It is stated on p.” a horse belonging to a man called N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l. al-Husain (– ) met four men who were leaving Kã fa on camel-back. . peace be upon him. and include us and them in Your mercy and in all what is desired of Your treasured rewards. they will suffice to put an end to you. that Abd al-Malik ibn `Umayr al-Lakhmi was made governor of Kãfa after al-Sha`bi.” Al-Tarm~ h has said. quoted the Qur’~ nic verse . And set out just before the sun rises. It protected us from the kings of Ghass~ n and Himyar. Majma` ibn `Abdull~ h al-Mathhaji. they chanted those verses for him.D. of al-Nawawi's book Thahth§b al-Asm~’. al. from al-Nu`m~ n . promising that he would hurry back to support Iranian edition). “Prominent personalities have . and we cannot depart till destiny deals between us and them. for I see none aiding you.” They informed him of Qays ibn Mishir al-Sayd~ wi having been killed. It was named so because the horses of al-Nu`m~n. king of H§ra. at the age of a hundred and three. then shall they be sent away to fight al-Husain. Come with us in order to settle at our mountain.” Al-Husain (– ) prayed All~ h to reward him and his people with goodness then said. `They are being paraded. . the same one I see watching you. By All~ h. On p./754 A. “. “By All~ h! I hope what All~ h fares with us will be good. . received great bribes.. Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. “Make Paradise our home and theirs. Al-`Uthayb is a valley inhabited by Banã Tam§m where a Persian garrison is [then and there] stationed. taking with . his slave Sa`d.” he added. people's hearts are with you.' I. Vol. he died in 136 A. So we may join the best of riders and embark Upon the best journey till we reach One beautified with the best of descent. used to graze there. I guarantee you twenty thousand men from Tay who will defend you with their swords till it becomes clear to you what you wish to do. Their guide. he said. If only this group fights you. whether we are killed. The distance between it and al-Q~disiyya is six miles. but his memory was weak. therefore. . “O All~ h!. 1. The munificent. of al-Thahbi's book M§z~n al-I`tid~l.” Al-Tarm~ h then asked his permission to get provisions to reach his own family. so he (– ) said. after no more than ten days.” Al-Husain (– ) asked them about the public opinion. Al-Irsh~d. come to your aid riding or on foot. peace be upon him. binds us to the people. the open-hearted one Whom All~ h brought for the best of affair: May He preserve him as He preserves time! When they reached al-Husain. Tarm~ h ibn `Adiyy al-T~ ’i. was chanting the following verses: . . They said. and of them is he who awaits” (Qur’~ n. When he was blamed for doing so. 148 . I asked them . . “I saw people before my departure from Kã fa meeting outside. the free. Tay's men will . ibn al-Munthir. while the swords are turned against you. . al-Fatt~l.

corpse was taken out of the river and installed as a practicing target. ibn al-Hurr's sons are: Sadaqah. with a large army. There. he would have assisted al-Mukht~r in killing those who had killed al-Husain (–). Vol. . she was ordered to hand the newborn over to `Ikrimah. On p. 7. peace be upon him. l-Husain (– ) marched from `Uthayb al-Hajan~ t till he reached Qasr Bani Muq~ til2. staunch follower of `Uthm~n [ibn `Aff~n]. esteem. Having fled. if you only accept.. a lance planted in the ground. demolished his house after confiscating all its contents and took his wife whom he jailed in Kãfa. W hen the man heard about it. who knowingly walked to his Place. rather than supporting the oppressed Im~m (–). p. 4. On p. hurled himself into the river as he was bleeding and died.D. descended from Imri'ul-Qays ibn Yaz§d ibn Man~t ibn Tam§m [the famous poet]. Vol. `Does this mean that you are going to deprive me of . It was then that he was confronted by `Ubaydull~h ibn al-`Abb~s al-Sal~mi who fought him. Barrah. so he. The followers of his killer wanted to seize the boat. but he did not mention the name of `Ubaydull~h ibn al-Hurr. of Tabari's T~r§kh./687 A. of his book Al. it is stated that when al-Mukht~r decided to seek revenge for al-Husain (–). . Al-Husain (– ) invites you to support him. 168. 6. On p. confiscation of wealth. Had he sincerely repented for lagging behind. an Umayyad “caliph. He said.. first edition. .him. so he attempted to take him back.' Ibn al-Hurr said. p. “Qasr Muq~til” means: the castle of Muq~til. That page states that `Abd al-Malik dispatched `Ubaydull~h ibn al-Hurr al-Ju`fi to fight Mis`ab .H. 7. `Ubaydull~h ibn al-Sal~mi threatened to kill the ferry's attendant if the latter succeeded in transporting the fugitive to the other side of the river bank. `Ubaydull~h . and on account of his own Sh§`as betraying him. . On p. 10. Ibn al-Hurr's . Once he was seriously wounded. . but he did not send him any answer. 492 of his book Al-Mahbar. `Ubaydull~h was killed near al-Anb~r. Al-Tarm~ h delivered the provisions to his people then quickly returned. Vol. 385 of Ibn Hazm's book Ans~b al-`Arab. a number of incidents are narrated w ith regard to his violation of the Shar§`a. then he rebuilt it. was killed. 583 of his book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. 136. On p. It is situated between `Ayn alTamr and al-Qatqat~na. causing him to drown with him. 169. and a mare waiting. had been killed. Ibn Hab§b says that Mis`ab . Vol. who was by then pregnant [by `Ikrimah] and entrusted her to the custody of someone whom he could trust till her delivery. On p. Al-Mukht~r. in a chapter dealing with the Kharijites. you will be . “I have a gift for you and I have . the brother of his wife married the latter off to `Ikrimah ibn al-Khab§s. Mu`jam al-Buld~n.” To this incident does M uhammed ibn al-Hasan refer on p. having refused to respond to the invitation of the Master of Martyrs . take part in his bid to avenge the killing of Im~m al-Husain (–).' The Commander of the Faithful (–) took the woman. Ibn al-Ath§r says the following about him: “W hen he over-extended his stay in Syria. . . so he went back. he boarded a ferry to cross the Euphrates. On p. . He inquired about them and was told that they belonged to `Ubaydull~ h ibn al-Hurr al-Ju`fi3.” cousin and bearer of the seal of third caliph `Uthm~n ibn `Aff~n]. . therefore. examined by Harun `Abd al-Sal~m. namely Muq~til ibn Hassan ibn Thu`labah who. . except on account of the large number of people whom I saw going out to fight him. It was demolished by Eisa ibn Ali ibn `Abdull~h ibn al-`Abb~s. . your justice on that account?' The Im~m (–) answered.” Ibn al-Hurr said. 289 of Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l of al-Dainãri. but the army had lagged behind him till all those in his company were killed. he came to know that al-Husain. of al-Bal~thiri’s book titled Ans~b al-Ashr~f. QASR BANI MUQ} TIL . being extremely frightened of them. `No. “By All~ h! I did not leave Kã fa . forcing him to flee. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. this is why he went out to support Mu`~wiyah against Ali (–) in the Battle of Siff§n. in the . he saw a . Then he (–) reunited her with `Ubaydull~h who went back to Syria till the time when Ali. but Ibn al-Hurr embraced him. If you fight for him. . Ibn Hazm says that `Ubaydull~h . his name is included in the seventh group of rare manuscripts . tent. Mabsãt. . Al-Husain (– ) sent him al-Hajj~ j ibn Masrã q al. 112. On . Having reached `Uthayb al. [only recently] fought against us on the side of our enemy. 5. and if you get killed.1 . How could he have been able to attain repentance. his killer is identified as `Ubaydull~h ibn al-`Abb~s al-Sal~mi. He granted him permission as others accompanied him. T~r§kh. and al-Ash`ar who all participated in the Jam~jim Battle fighting on the side of Ibn al-Ash`ath.. ibn al-Hurr al-Ju`fi was on the mountain staging assaults on people's properties. so I realized that he was certainly going to be killed and that I am unable to do A 1 2 al-Bukh~ri. he boarded a boat to cross the Euphrates. crowned with the divine light and surrounded by his family members? 3 149 . rewarded. you will be a martyr. Ju`fi as his messenger. his . and also on p. Once she gave birth. Ali (–) said to him. Vol. and even his involvement in highway robberies. Hajan~ t. 230. it is stated that this man was a . Ibn al-Hurr asked him what he wanted. `You have . . . 268 of Ris~lat al-Mughtal§n by Ibn Hab§b. Vol. During the reign of `Abd . he returned and raised a complaint against `Ikrimah to Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–). year 68 A . of his book. peace be upon him. al-Malik [ibn Marw~n ibn al-Hakam. according to Y~qãt al-Hamawi's . ibn al-Zubayr displayed Ibn al-Hurr's head at Kãfa. . 297. . so al-Mukht~r sent him a message inviting him to . . .

whoever hears our mourners and refuses to come to our rescue will be hurled by All~ h into the fire of hell headlong.much for him. so he composed the . 1 2 al-Dainãri. “Should you prefer your own safety over supporting our cause. nor did I ever feel sorry for anyone as much as I felt sorry for him when I saw him walking .”2 Having settled there. al-Dainãri. He said to me. “And how is that. p. to me. so I asked him whether it was naturally black or whether he had dyed it. 94. Ans~b al-Ashr~f. edition). so. so shall my sigh Reverberating between my chest and my choke When he did say to me at the mansion: “Should you really leave us and from us depart?” Husain in humility seeks my support . Vol. 18:51)6. surrounded by very young men. for I hate to die! My mare. p. “I never saw in my life anyone better looking or greater than al. pursued anything except that it caught up with it. 298. Against the people of enmity and dissension. Ibn . p. 298 (Bulaq. Khiz~nat al-Adab.”7 Ibn al-Hurr regretted having lost the opportunity to support al-Husain (– ). I do not like him to see me. Sayyid K~zim al-H~’iri. p. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. plead to you in the Name of All~ h to agree to this plan of mine. 104. therefore. following poetic lines: So long as I live. Husain. 291. nor did anyone pursue me except that I outran him. p. accompanied by a number of . They asked me to go to them. I looked at his beard and found it as dark as a raven's wing. 249. Egypt. . Al-}m~li. nor do I like to see him. would you like to seek repentance whereby you wipe out your sins?” He said. 233. `O Ibn al-Hurr! Gray hair hastened . . al-Sadãq. The latter seated the Im~ m (– ) in the middle. Khaz~nat al-Adab. Nafs al-Mahmãm. . majlis 30. how much help can I afford you. his family members and companions. . Ibn al-Hurr said. 5. Had I defended him with my life I would have earned mercy on the Day of Meeting. Vol. but . having left in Kã fa none to support you? I. 1. she is yours. is such that I never . we . “By All~ h! I know that whoever supports you will be happy in the hereafter. al-Ad§b al-Baghdadi. p. p. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. have no need for your mare nor for you5: `You should not take those who mislead others for friends' (Qur’~ n. “You should support the son of your Prophet's daughter and fight on his side. Asr~r al-Shah~da.3 You have committed a great many sins.” Al-Husain (– ) said. My heart would now be cleft. for by All~ h.”1 Al-Hajj~ j relayed what he had heard to al-Husain (– ) who stood up and. 3 4 5 6 7 150 . p.' so I realized that he had dyed it.”4 . but it seems it is not as they claimed. al-Hurr himself narrated later saying. entered al-Hurr's tent. I advise you just as you advised me that if you can. do not hear our cries. Should sighing cleave a freeman's chest. . al-Mulhiqa. O son of the Messenger of All~ h?” Al-Husain (– ) said. Your countrymen wrote me saying that they were unanimous in supporting me. “O Ibn al-Hurr! . Vol. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. 246. al-Bal~thiri. 1. . nor should you witness our battle. Take her. . Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) praised All~ h and glorified Him then said.

At the same place. . They waited for him. “I drowsed for a moment. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. etc.” said al-Hurr. “Let us camp at .” “May All~ h never permit you to see any evil. assigned men to spy on me. the Im~ m (– ) ordered his servants to fill their water bags and to leave Qasr Bani Muq~ til.D. said to them. asked him why he was weeping. 35.”4 W 1 2 al-Sadãq. `You are speeding. and do not hear our women mourn.'” According to Vol.. Al-Husain (– ) said. Surely winners are those who support Husain. 231. hen the night came to a close. the hypocrites. Vol.' so I realized that we are being eulogized.Had I fought beside Muhammed's son. 10. it will be incumbent upon All~ h. 4 3 al-Muf§d. dated 1330 A. `Amr ibn Qays al-Mashfari and his cousin met al-Husain (– ) who asked them . we do not mind at all having to die so long as we are right. . 48 of Maqtal al-`Aw~lim (of `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni). by the One to Whom all the servants shall return. “May All~ h reward you for being such a good son with the best of rewards whereby He rewards a son on behalf of his father. . (–) took a nap in the after-noon at al-Uthayb.”1 THE TAFF VILLAGES . heard him and asked about the reason which prompted him to keep repeating these statements./1912 A.” “I cannot do that.”2 Al-Husain (– ) kept marching till he arrived at Nineva3. an armed man riding a camel was seen . He turned out to be a messenger sent by Ibn Ziy~ d to al-Hurr .” He. “We have a large number of dependents and we have many items which belong to others. p.. Vol. yet death is speedily taking you to Paradise. Al-Kashshi. ilayhi raji`ã n. There. On p. to hurl him in hellfire headlong. a town full of scholars . On their way. T~r§kh. . it was one of the Taff villages. We do not know what will happen. He saw in a vision someone saying. Such was the letter which al-Hurr himself had read to al-Husain (– ) who said to him. Kit~b al-Irsh~d. the most Great. or al-Gh~ diriyya. “O . al-Husain (–) reached al-Tha`labiyya where . to set up his camp anywhere other than in the wilderness where there was neither access to water nor any natural fortifications.” said Ali. 226.'” According to p. amount to anything. While deeds of others. So bid farewell and hurry to set out. His son. wal hamdu lill~ hi rabbil `~ lam§n.” al-Husain (– ) answered.H.. may I . His son. the most Exalted. `Son! This is an hour in which no vision tells a lie! Just as I felt drowsiness overtaking me. Said the Im~ m (– ). `These people are marching as fates march towards them. for whoever hears our women wailing or sees our black without supporting us. `Iq~b al-A`m~l. At the beginning of the third century. or Shfayya. al-Tabari. nor should you see us wearing black.. 7. whether they had met him in order to support him. For him sacrifice my life. and all Praise belongs to All~ h. whereupon I saw a horseman saying. 6.. p. Ali al-Akbar. “Are we not right?” “We are. it did not . . 151 . coming in their direction. p. He woke up weeping. will be in vain. peace be upon him. Rij~l.” said Ali al-Akbar. Ali al-Akbar. . he slept in the after-noon. and scholarship. . the Lord of the worlds). It reached its zenith during the time of Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq (–). (We belong to All~ h and to Him shall we return. “for the man [governor] has already . father! In that case. it is stated that “Al-Husain . al-Husain (– ) was heard repeating: Inn~ lill~ h wa inn~ . Nineva. 1. . “Go. and we hate not to give people back what they had entrusted to us. 74. bound edition No. carrying a letter wherein he was ordering al-Hurr to be rough in treating al-Husain (– ) and not to permit him . . They said to him..

” On . it is a well belonging to Banã Asad. . . Vol. even if all do./1950 A. 95.” Al-Husain (– ) then turned to al-Hurr and asked him to keep on marching further. the Im~ m (– ) said. Vol. . 2 3 1 al-Turayhi.”5 By All~ h! Never shall I forget. Bih~r al-Anw~r. 10. al-Husain (–) asked which land it was. “This place is near the Euphrates. “People used to say that the offspring of Harb sacrificed their religion in the Battle of Kerbal~’. 16 of his book T~r§kh al-Mosul. .H. p. It means that the first did so when they killed al-Husain (–) at Kerbal~’.” Al-Husain (– ) said to him. . 3. and when he came to know that it was called “al. Zuhayr said to him. it is stated that al-Farazdaq eulogized Yaz§d ibn al-Muhallab with verses one of which is the following: No female ever conceived nor did any deliver Anyone after the one killed at `Aqr.” Al-Husain (– ) asked him about its name. . whereas the other party did so when they killed Yaz§d son of al-Muhallab at `Aqr. Some say he is the son of Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–). a clan of Banã Asad. They all marched till they reached an area called Kerbal~ ’. martyrs' cemetery at al-H~ir.D. and he had an estate two farasangs from Kerbal~’ where he died. . Al-`Aqr used to be the area where the people of Bachtnuzzer used to reside. a manuscript at the private library of the authority Shaikh Agha Buzurg al-Tehrani. . It was then that al-Husain (– ) inquired about the . of Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. Ibn Shadq~m. “I shall not be the one who fights them first. In Man~hil al-Darb by Sayyid Ja`fer al-A`raji al-K~zimi. peace be upon him. forbidding him from going any further. Many people are confused about him. There.H.” Then Zuhayr said.). 308. There are ruins there of a citadel known as Banã Asad's citadel. al-Husain's horse stopped and refused to move just as All~ h had caused .D. . so he . asked him whether it had any other name. 16. it is defensible and it overlooks the Euphrates from all but one direction. al-Bakri says. `Aqr. See Al-Luhãf of Ibn T~wãs. Hayderi Press edition (dated 1369 A.) cites Kath§r ibn `Abdul-Rahm~n al-Khuz~`i saying. The Battle of `Aqr is the one wherein Yaz§d ibn al-Muhallab was killed in 102 A. “There . Ibn Iyas (who died in 334 A. name of that place. How his charging mare stood at al-Taff. 152 . “Karb (affliction) and bal~’ (trial and . “Goodness. Vol. All these places are villages close to each other.Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn said. 3. the offspring of Marw~n sacrificed their manliness in the Battle of `Aqr. and here will our blood be spilled and our graves be dug! My grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) had told me so. since the latter was buried at the . `Awn is the . It is said that as they were marching. It is said to lie to the north of `Awn’s grave. son of `Abdull~h ibn Ja`fer ibn M ar`i ibn Ali ibn al-Hasan al-Banafsaj ibn Idr§s ibn D~wãd ibn Ahmed al-Mas`ãd ibn `Abdull~h ibn . whereas others say he is the son of `Abdull~h ibn Ja`fer al-Tayy~r. . . By my life! Armies will come to us which our eyes had never seen before. “O son of the Messenger of All~ h! Fighting this band is easier for us than fighting those who will come after them./945 A. of his concordance titled Al-Mu`jam fima Ista`jam. Mãsa al-Juhn ibn `Abdull~h ibn al-Mahz ibn al-Hassan II ibn [Im~m] al-Hasan (–) son of the Commander of the Faithful (–). saying. It was then that the Im~ m (– ) started weeping3.D.”1 [which means in Arabic “hamstringing”]. and when he was told it was called Kerbal~’. “We seek refuge with All~ h against hamstringing./720 A. This land is called al-Taff.” 4 5 al-Majlisi. told him that it was also called “Kerbal~ ’”. . he said. He said. is a village nearby at the bank of the Euphrates.” And on p. “O All~ h! I seek refuge with You against the kerb [affliction] and bel~ ’ [trial and tribulation]!4 Here shall we camp. Tuhfat al-Azhar (a manuscript). 209. 188. the she-camel of the Prophet (‰ ) to stop at the Hudaibiya2. al-Hurr and his company stopped . “Keep on marching and do not ask about anything till All~ h brings us ease. . was annihilated when the son of al-Muhallab was killed.” He. at the holy city of al-H~’ir. by All~h. Muntakhab. He was buried there.H. al-Thahbi writes saying that when . He lived . His shrine is sought by pilgrims and by those who have nathr. On p. p. On p. tribulation). p. in front of al-Husain (– ). under a dome. As regarding Shfayya.” . . O mare of his! Did the hand of fate tie you al-Gh~diriyya is named after Gh~dira. and his grave lies .

To us. hearts might feel contented. Al-Khaw~rizmi. an Im~m is acquainted with what goes on in the cosmos of events and epics. his resting place. al-Majlisi. Vol./October 5. and other family members. 20. children.”3 H 1 Excerpted from a 93-line poem by Shaikh M uham m ed ibn Shar§f ibn Fal~h al-K~zimi. p. they had been promised as was the Prophet (‰) or his wasi. it was. . 233. 237. and Banã Umayyah oppressed us. so that the determ ination may remain firm. al-Muf§d in his book Al-Irsh~d. peace and blessings of All~h be upon them. Exalted is He.H. “Kerr~ri Poem” in praise of the Commander of the Faithful (–). In this book's Introduction. giving religion their lip-service. 61 A. Im~mites. Vol. These issues are not haphazard especially since similar ones had already been reported about the Prophet (‰) who had asked about the names of both men 3 2 153 . sisters. M aqtal al-H usain. of his T~r§kh. peace be upon him. Once they are afflicted with a trial. by Ibn al-Ath§r on p. it was. To always grieve till the Pretender. . He cast a look at them then burst in tears. that caused Muhammed's progeny . it is then that they prepare themselves to attain their objective. obscure mysteries. 680 A. Should you not have avoided the road and strayed From that valley to the wide expanse? How did you take him to perdition. how dared you? Why did you not refuse. 4. It is then that the knowledge of their cause increases. Vol. the same poet who had composed the . why? O what a great stand when Those throngs did gather and stand! A great stand that shook the foundations Of All~ h's `Arsh a great shaking. and by . This date is provided by al-Tabari on p. The reader cannot escape the .D. the most Exalted One. All things related to the Master of Martyrs are . “Stand up and intercede!” A stand. indeed. author of the Al-Ghad§r encyclopedia. 198. Vol. 1. O All~ h! Seek revenge on them on our behalf. so that there will be no room for anyone to cast any doubt about Kerbal~’. Both poems are among the manuscripts at the library belonging to the authority critic al-Am§ni. one critiqued by as many as eighteen of his contemporary poets. followed by a fall That gave us a drink hard to take A stand. 10. they uphold it as long as their livelihood is profitable. and so that the men might be tested. we provided proofs for this statement. “People are the worshippers of this life. p. may you Lose your father. decreed to the beings.” He approached his companions saying. the stage of the sacrifice which . Bih~r al-Anw~r. inquiring about the name of that land. and grant us victory over the oppressing people. The secret behind his inquiry about the name of the land which they were prohibited from crossing. and so that sacrifice would be for the sake of the truth. the Creator of the heavens and earth that He is.So you stood and refused to budge? You used to be faster than a cloud's lightning. is to acquaint his companions with that land.2 He gathered his . few. were foretold. so that the . will be those who uphold religion.1 KERBAL} ’ is arrival at Kerbal~ ’ took place on Muharram 2. He supplicated saying. “O All~ h! We are the progeny of Your Prophet Muhammed! We have been . Calamity descends whether you speed or not. 6. of his book Al-K~mil. So shall Yaz§d stand One Day When it will be said to Ahmed: . expelled and estranged from our grandfather's sanctuary. knowledgeable of the characteristics which All~h. or about the fact that All~h Almighty caused his horse to halt just as He had caused the she-camel of the Prophet (‰) to halt at the Hudaibiya. for eternity. implication of al-Husain. .

229. the M aster of Martyrs (–) was not superstitious when he sought refuge with All~h against afflictions. “And what is that in your right hand. 3. . of Al-`Iqd al-Far§d (by Sayyid .” A superstitious person is not knowledgeable of what will happen to him. Vol. `As~kir's book. of his T~r§kh. . Vol. Muslim. so. There were folks who were unanimous in supporting and fighting with him against those who broke their promises. 76. we are not too scared to meet All~ h's destiny. 90 of our book. These shall not harm except their own selves. Vol. Vol. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. 39. and who abandoned the creed altogether. Vol. leaving nothing but a trickle like a pot dripping and a life of hardship like an afflicted pasture. when he heard the word “Kerbal~’.” Burayr stood up and said. The Almighty was fully knowledgeable of Abraham's conviction. He. “O son of the Messenger of All~ h! All~ h has blessed us with your company so that we may fight defending you till our parts are cut off for your sake. and from p.” Such sort of questioning is labelled by the scholars of oratory “rhetorical. his family and companions. On p. . On p. then your grandfather will intercede on our behalf on the Day of Judgment. Also. the Martyr. Your father Ali underwent the same. peace and blessings of All~h be upon him and his progeny. He knew. of Mujma` .Then he praised All~h and glorified Him. A`l~m al-Nubal~’. 3. Al-Luhãf. 2. An Im~m whom He installs in order to safeguard His Shar§`a cannot be thus ignorant. 2:260). . p. He was foretold of all of that more than once. Vol. of al-Thahbi's book Siyar . Vol. nor do we hate to meet our Lord. . W e have referred to such questions on p. We are determined to befriend whoever befriends you and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes you.1 Zuhayr stood up and said. Today. Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli). Al-Tabari. 6. It appears from reviewing p. He went to a mercy from All~ h and pleasure. . it is stated that al-Husain (–) made this statement to his companions when `Omer ibn Sa`d confronted him. on p. O Moses?” (Qur’~n. This text is recorded in Al-Luhãf by Ibn T~wãs. of Al-`Iqd al-Far§d. under the heading “Muslim is not superstitious. Al-Husain (–) was convinced of what would happen to him of All~h's destiny at the Taff land. 2 1 Ibn T~wãs. says that al-Husain (–) had delivered . 9. on p. adding.”3 who once stood to milk his she-camel and about both mountains on his way to Badr. 333. of Ibn . asked Moses. on p. “We have heard your statement. 192. There is a reason why He raised such questions. Do you not see how righteousness is not upheld and how falsehood is not shunned? Let every believer desire the meeting with All~ h. we would still have preferred to rise with you rather than remain therein. 3 154 . Life has changed and turned against us. this speech at Thu Hasm. being rightly guided and in good health. al-Bahr~ni. . march with us. 20:17). from p. He had already been informed of the . that he had delivered that speech on `}shura. Glory to Him. till he met his fate. but reasons hidden from us prompted him to raise the questions.” Consider how the Creator of everything. 149 of Thakh~ir al-`Uqba. Our affair has reached the point which you can see. the One W hose knowledge encompassed everything small and big. blessing Muhammed and his Progeny. 44. O son of the Messenger of All~ h! Had life been secured for us forever. By All~ h. had also asked His Friend Abraham: “Have you not already believed [that I can bring the dead back to life]?” (Qur’~n. I see death as nothing but a source of happiness while living with the oppressors as sure displeasure. and All~ h shall suffice you for them. be it to the east of the earth or to the west. and there were many hypocrites among them who promised to support him while hiding their treacherous intentions against him. all texts agree with what is recorded in Al-Luhãf of Ibn T~wãs. p. 4. affliction that would befall him. Rather. “You know that your grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Its goodness has abandoned us. trials and tribulations. he bases his superstition on certain things the Arabs used to regard as ominous. who regarded themselves as more fair than him. 312. al-Zaw~’id of Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. of Hilyat al-Awliy~’. could not instill his love in the heart of people nor make them obey him and do what he liked them to do. They would meet him and speak to him words sweeter than honey then depart from him with those more bitter than colocynth till All~ h took his soul away. “Did you tell people to take you and your mother as two gods?” (Qur’~n. W as not the Prophet. you are with us in the same situation: there are those who reneged from their promise of support and who abandoned their oath of loyalty. He also asked Jesus. . 312. . 2. 209. . knowledgeable of all of that? Of course he was. 5:116).”2 N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l said.

their lances would sparkle And if the swords sing. A band. How lofty their glory was though their foe Numbered as much as the valley's waterflow. they were. though distant from them.With my father's life do I sacrifice Those who. With white necks did they shield him against the swords. He stood for a short respite. prohibit us From mourning you. When his arms weighed heavily on him. Opted to meet and support al-Husain. And everyone sober is elated with joy. like solid statues. They stood to thwart the lances. O bright light of the day! You were for me a fortified haven. They distanced themselves from the swords. Whenever he mounted his steed as though on wings. was his body. and the sun. And if my being a captive in the hands of the foes Riding on bare she-camels. My heart was on fire for Zainab when she Saw how in the dust. that In a night battle. and the bleeding. who brightens the night. And the throne fell on the ground. If my estrangement with the foes. Can you see how the people Whenever we pass by you. So they became his sacrifice at the Taff. Never shall I forget. Their greatest feast was when they joined al-Husain . a cool shade. heavy with wounds. O shade from the heat. with their own demise. And with the ashes of the calamity All was covered with the dark. Stole her tongue away was the calamity. 155 . And the arrows. . They separated the foes' souls from their bodies. it was then when Fate shot him with an easy arrow. if my exile. Defending the Prophet's creed he was With a spark that removes the darkness of shirk. from wailing? If my humiliation rests easily with you. and the cups of death go round. . So hearts would fly away in terror at his sight. from weeping. When life was still within you. With their glorious faces they kept arrows from him. Then when thirst. So she addressed him with her tears which were More eloquent than words could ever be: O one who shatters misguidance.

verify this incident from whatever he had read of what other scholars have documented. . bought.. and peace be with you. unless you submit to my authority and to that of Yaz§d.. 3 156 . 245 of Kit~b al-Mat~jir .. he wrote Ibn al-Hanafiyya and a group from Banã H~ shim .1 Al-Husain (– ) bought the lots where his grave now stands from the residents of Nineva and al. . He then turned and gave it back to them as charity on one condition: they lead people to his grave-site and host whoever visited it for three days. was four miles long by four miles wide. 151. l-Hurr sent a message to Ibn Ziy~ d telling him that al-Husain (– ) was camping at Kerbal~ ’. of Ibn T~wãs's .” so he wrote him back stating the above. . for forty thousand . “I have no answer for him because he has already been condemned with the torment.” See also p. Al-Husain's sanctuary. not fulfill that condition. “that there are two Kãfas: the first will answer the call of the second. How I lament those who wore reddened attires Decorated by wanton winds. According to Murãj al-Thahab. “I heard the Messenger of All~h (‰). . He is quoted by al-Sayyid Ibn T~wãs in the latter’s book Misb~h al-Z~'ir. . How they were kept away from accessible Euphrates. Qummi. p. of his book Al-Agh~ni (Sasi edition). Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. As the war gnawed its teeth: Either he surrenders or 1 2 This poem was composed by the scholar Sayyid Rida son of }yatull~h Sayyid M u hammed al-Hindi. .” A She saw him riding one of two. Wassal~ m. p.2 When al-Husain (– ) camped at Kerbal~ ’. on p. Kashkool.. al-Husain (– ) .” The messenger asked him to respond to the letter. Actually. Vol. the Commander of the Faithful (–) had bought the area between al-Khawarnaq and al-H§ra from one direction. 91 (Egyptian edition). book Farhat al-Ghari (Najaf: The Hayderi Press). Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) has said that those people did . have camped at Kerbal~ ’. “It is as if this life has never been. “O Husain! It has come to my knowledge that you .” said the Im~m (–). Shaikh al-Bah~'i. quoting Kit~b al-Ziy~r~t by Muhammed ibn Ahmed ibn D~wãd al. . The commander of the faithful. so I desired that they would do so from my own property. dirhams. Chapter 23. Your corpse on the sands. seventy thousand shall be gathered from there to enter Paradise without reckoning. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. . and from there to Kãfa from the other. how the author did not believe that al-Husain (–) had bought four miles of land surrounding his sacred grave. How I lament those who drank of the pool of death. It is full of bliss. whereupon Ibn Ziy~ d wrote al-Husain (– ) saying. and be brief. . your head raised on lance's tips. claiming he could not . threw it away saying. the all-Knowing. saying. Vol. but the Im~ m (– ) said to him. . . It is amazing to read on p. .”3 IBN ZIY} D MEETS AL-HUSAIN (– ) . Yaz§d. It is lawful for his offspring and those loyal to him and is prohibited from those who oppose them.Is against my wish to see you Lingering among dark lances and white swords. `Omer ibn `Abd al-`Az§z wrote Abu H~zim al-Madani al-A`raj saying. “They shall never succeed those who buy the pleasure of the creatures with the price of the Creator's Wrath. He told those who criticized him for doing so that that land was barren. Ibn Qawlawayh. which he . says that al-Hasan al-Basri wrote `Omer ibn `Abd al-`Az§z about that when the latter became caliph. 29. . Chapter Two.” Having read this letter. 2. Gh~ diriyya for sixty thousand dirhams. 75. and as if the hereafter has always been. had already written me ordering me not to sleep on any soft bed nor drink enough wine till I send you to the Munificent One. “Admonish me. 8.

blood. doorman of Bishr ibn al-Hakam. with four thousand men who were being dispatched to Dustaba where the people of Daylam had declared mutiny3. 189. 6. al-Dainãri. who died in 697 A. He saw firmness till death as the mark of honourable men. Vol. 76. p. . According to the text at the beginning of p. He was heard saying: Should I abandon the domains of Rey Though it is my ultimate desire? Or should I return in ignominy. Shamed for killing al-Husain? . . . as well as Daylam4. W aqq~s. p. . Then through death will the body be dismantled. . 251. He stood though the ground beneath him did shake Under the warriors' feet like an earthquake.” Due to the efforts exerted by Abu M~lik./1298 . Ibn Sa`d wrote him a promise to place him in charge of governing Rey. The latter had been camping at Hamm~ m A`y~ n . giving him one night's respite to reconsider. I will do so. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim.” On p. Said he. 157 . Hamzah ibn al-Mugh§rah ibn Shu`bah.” a town . . Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. it was annexed to Qazw§n (the Caspian). A. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n. offspring and commit a sin against your Lord! By All~ h! If you depart from this world after having lost all your wealth and authority. “This bath-house was known after A`y~n. 1.”5 Ibn Sa`d said. so Ibn Ziy~ d required him to return his written promise to him. . p. According to p. He got ready for the battle Wherein knights were subdued by death. His rage intensified2 and he ordered `Omer ibn Sa`d to march out to Kerbal~ ’. .. To the depth of the heavens did he ignite it. T~r§kh. 4 5 al-Tabari. it will be much better for you than having to meet All~ h stained with Husain's . One part of it is known as “Dustaba al-Razi.1 The same messenger informed Ibn Ziy~ d of what Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) had said. Vol.`Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. . .H. he stated so as he started narrating the events of the B attle of Hunayn. .. If you find no attire other than humiliation. Hanzalah ibn Kh~lid al-Tam§mi. may All~h have mercy on his soul. between Hamad~n and Rey. For killing him there is nothing but the fire One from which there is no shield though I 1 2 3 This poem was composed by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. 3.” whereas the other is known as “Dustaba Hamadan.” He spent his night contemplating upon his affairs. 58. Vol. 4. For honour is a dignified man's decoration. 10. Ibn Sa`d asked him to relieve him of such a task. `Omer ibn Sa`d gathered his advisers who advised him not to march to fight al-Husain (– ). however.Death is to be faced By a soul whose surrender honours refused. Dustaba's fortified border. p. of Tajr§d al-Agh~ni by Ibn W ~sil al-Hamawi. 76. a slave of Sa`d ibn Abu . burning in heat. al-Majlisi. an ornament. . Bih~r al-Anw~r.. 334. “If All~ h so pleases. of Mu`jam al-Buld~n. “Dustaba” is written as “Dastaba. “I plead to you in the Name of All~ h not to march to fight al-Husain and thus cut off your . His sister's son.D. Vol. said to him. A cause of pride. 232. it is attributed to A`~n. So he said to her: Seek refuge with destiny. Vol. Red in blaze.

Sa`d till he killed al-Husain son. decide what to do with him. The highways have become. wrote Ibn Ziy~ d informing him of what al-Husain (– ) had said. went to face al-Husain (– ) with four thousand men.” Then he cited both verses of poetry as indicated . and if you wish. al-Husain. p. He. So was the case during the time of his father Mu`~ wiyah. so. of Safwat al-Safwa. I shall go somewhere else. . . had brought him here. Kath§r ibn `Ubaydull~ h al-Sha`bi stood up. “I can meet him. Vol.. 4. so. let me carry it out. the Im~ m who responded by saying. Ibn al-Jawzi. Abu Qul~bah visited him and said to him. during his regime. came: “Give Husain and his band the option to swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d. asked to be . news came to him about al-Husain (–) being killed. He asked the other prominent chiefs with him. `Omer ibn Sa`d ordered `Izra ibn Qays al-Ahmasi to meet al-Husain (– ) and to ask him about what .. therefore. 385 of al-Maqdisi's book Ahsan al-Taq~s§m: “The city of Rey caused the annihilation of the wretch . and al-Hurr and everyone with him joined his . who was one of the . 233-234. 158 . Yaz§d. T~r§kh. He leaned on his cane and said. If he does. we will .” The messenger went back and conveyed these words to Ibn Sa`d who. he met Ibn Ziy~ d and said to him. too. hand me over the covenant which I had written you. . in turn. saying that he was one of those who had written al-Husain (– ). has been and how generous to his subjects. “I wish this incident will bring you goodness. His son. 3. do so with our troops. but they. as he himself admits. He has doubled your payment and ordered me to make funds available to all of you and to require you to come out to fight his enemy. 6. 22. may All~h humiliate him. “Just look at my condition!” After seven days. Yaz§d.. I shall kill him. excused for the same reason. and send to the battlefield those who are no less competent than I am. O people! You tried Abu Sufy~ n's offspring and found them just as you like. `Omer ibn Sa`d called upon Qurrah ibn Qays al-Hanzali to . do not kill him but ask him about what had brought him there.. Qurrah delivered the message which he had brought from Ibn Sa`d to . saying. too. Vol.See the domains of Rey as the apple of my eye!1 In the morning. whereupon he praised All~h for not having anything to do with it.” He then named a number of Kã fa's dignitaries. says that a man in Basra. “The people of your land wrote me asking me to go to them. forces. breaking his legs. fell from his rooftop. if you now hate my presence. he was recognized by Abu Thum~ ma al-S~ `idi who stood up in his face and shouted at him to put his sword on the ground before entering the Im~ m's tent. 161. here with the exception of his saying that to be the governor of Rey is his desire. ask al-Husain (– ) the same question. Ibn al-Ath§r.” Kath§r came to meet the Im~ m (– ). on p. so he said to the messenger. Ibn Ziy~ d said. “No. . Vol. pp. so. . If you march. Ibn Sa`d agreed to march2. you should listen to him and you should obey.” When he saw how persistent Ibn Ziy~ d was. and he was quite a daring man. commanders of Ibn Ziy~d.” His prediction materialized: The man received an order from Ibn Ziy~d to join the troops fighting al-Husain . otherwise. The following is stated on p. and you have come to know how good in conduct the commander of the faithful. . so he was turned away. He refused. 3 2 1 al-Tabari. quite safe.” Ibn Sa`d said. is even more generous towards All~ h's servants. “I do not receive orders from you with regard to who I dispatch. “You have put me in charge of a mission of which people have already heard. but `Izra requested to be relieved of having to do so. Soon the answer . enriching them with wealth.”3 IBN ZIY} D DELIVERS A SPEECH I bn Ziy~ d gathered people at Kã fa's grand mosque where he delivered a speech to them. (–).

It lies near Thul-Kifl. When Ibn Ziy~ d came to know about the large number of those who deserted. sending rain upon the earth till grass grew after an extended period of drought. when they meet the believers. so much so that only a small number of them remained by the time they reached Kerbal~ ’. of Al-Yaq§n by Radiyy ad-D§n ibn T~wãs. Hijar ibn Abjar. He agreed to do what he [Ibn Ziy~ d] had required of him. go back. . Vol. He reached Kerbal~ ’ and joined al-Husain (– ) and stayed with him till he was . AL-HUSAIN (– ) MEETS THE Kâ FIANS . so Zajr said to him. if you are one of our subjects. incident about which the Kã fians were talking everywhere. hence. in honour of his chosen brother (– ).” `} mir charged at him and at his company. p. 321 of Ibn Hazm's book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. 101. . meet him face to face and fight him. charge of a regiment of cavaliers. eople never ceased expressing their hatred towards having to fight al-Husain (– ). . and when they meet their demons say: `We are with you! We only laugh at them!' So. so they complained to his father (– ) who took out this same martyr to pray for rain. D~l~n are a family branch of Hamad~n. 2 3 4 1 al-Dainãri. They all realized his status with All~ h when Kã fa was hit by a drought and by a famine.As soon as he came down from the pulpit. On p. citing Maqtal Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib. named after `Ur~r ibn Ru'~s ibn D~l~n ibn Jab§sh ibn M~shbih ibn W ~di`ah. 15 and p. . p. revered Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and Master of the Youths of Paradise. 147. He had previously participated in all the wars waged by the Commander of the Faithful. Sal~ mah ibn `Abdull~ h ibn `Ar~ r al-Dal~ ni passed on the bridge. He was also the same person who secured the watering area during the Battle of Siff§n. he sent al-Suwayd ibn `Abdul-Rahm~ n al-Minqari in . 87 and p. . and it is presently called al-`Abb~siyy~t. 253. al-Nukhayla is two farasangs from Kãfa. p. How could anyone. Almighty responded. 10. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. They had not forgotten all the statements made by the Prophet (‰ ) in his honour and in honour of his father the wasi (– ). according to Ibn Nama. he distributed money then went out to al-Nukhayla1 where he camped.” He went to meet him after the evening prayers so that he would not clearly see that there were actually no signs of any sickness showing on his face. that was the . going to extremes in oppression. 45. 5 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. which is made of that of Muhammed (‰ ). Ali ibn Abu T~ lib. Chapter 46. and I fear lest you should be among those who. al-Majlisi. . thus making water available . Shabth sent word saying that he was sick2. that All~ h . killed in his defense. He called to his presence al-Has§n ibn Nam§r al-Tam§mi. `} mir ibn Abu . the son of the most . had it not been for succumbing to inclinations. peace be upon him. ordering them to go to Ibn Sa`d's aid.4 . . Al-Ikl§l. It was by the blessings of his holy soul and that of his noor. as well as . None of them dared to come close to him. al-Hamad~ni.3 `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d put Zajr ibn Qays al-Ju`fi in charge of five hundred cavaliers. Among them are Banã `Ur~r. so. Bih~r al-Anw~r. “My messenger informs me of your pretending to be sick. and due to the weakness of people when facing temptation? This is why many of those who marched out to meet him deserted and stole their way to safety. . of W~di`ah is provided in detail. Shabth ibn Rab`i. so he sent him a letter in which he said. They also came to know how he provided water for al-Hurr and for all the one thousand men and their horses in that desolate desert. forcing them to flee. come swiftly to us. say that they believe. “I know exactly where you are going. Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan. 159 . On p. for the Muslims who had by then been exhausted by acute thirst5. ordering him to tour Kã fa's alleys and quarters to announce the beginning P It is the same as al-`Abb~siyya. the lineage . ordering him to station his troops at the bridge in order to prohibit anyone from reaching al-Husain (– ). Maqtal al-`Aw~lim.

but there is no day like your own day. . thus the total number of those who assembled under the command of Ibn Sa`d on the sixth of Muharram totalled twenty thousand strong4. In `Uj~lat al-Mubtadi' fil Nasab . and also Maqtal Muhammed ibn Abu . when thirty thousand strong.D. of `Umdat al-Q~ri by al-`Ayni. `What has been administered to me is only a poison . peace be upon him. Harshah was in command of two thousand3. Vol. When people saw how ruthless Ibn Ziy~ d was. all claiming to belong to the nation of our grandfather. Abu al-Fid~’ refers only to Ibn Sa`d marching in four thousand and to al-Hurr . p. His father is said to be a narrator of traditions. Among those brought to him . T~lib. It is then that Banã Umayyah will be cursed and the sky will rain ashes and blood. eighty thousand. Al-Luhãf.).” He urged him on the sixth day of Muharram to start the war. . . says that they numbered . they all went out. Im~ m Abu `Abdull~ h. According to H~mish ./1722 A. said. their number was twenty thousand. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. Muhammed. his name is written as Bishr ibn Thul-Jawshan. . 5 al-Sadãq. 10. the latter ordered him to be killed. Ibn Nama. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. p. reinforcements to Ibn Sa`d till the number of the latter’s troops swelled to thirty thousand. asked him.H. On p. 1134 A. al-Has§n ibn Nam§r al-Tam§mi marched out with four thousand. . . even the beasts in the jungles and the fish in the seas.D. will mourn you. Radiyy ad-D§n ibn Nabi al-Qazw§ni (d. of Al-Bid' wal T~r§kh. 1 2 Al-Dainãri.”5 Ibn Ziy~ d wrote Ibn Sa`d saying. According to p. 237 of Asr~r al-Shah~da of Sayyid K~zim al-H~’iri. Hijar ibn Abjar marched out with one thousand. 6. assemble to kill you and shed your blood and violate your sanctity and arrest your offspring and women and plunder your wealth. . A They assembled their hosts against Muhammed's son. Ja`fer al-S~ diq (– ). 101. . Mud~ y§r ibn Rah§nah al-M~ zini marched out with three thousand. . 190. Hasan (– ) during his sickness that caused his martyrdom.6 . out with one thousand. Vol. On p. O father of `Abdull~ h. in his book Tuhfat al-Azhar. thousand footmen. was a man from Syria who had gone to Kã fa seeking an inheritance belonging to him. . p. you should not receive the evening nor the day thereafter before I hear good news about you. he wept. to kill me. According to Mat~lib al-Sa'ãl. .” Ibn Ziy~d's army numbered a thousand horsemen headed by al-Hurr and in their vanguard was al-Has§n ibn Nam§r. 7. . has narrated saying. they were one hundred thousand. and Shãr quotes him. Shabth ibn Rab`i marched ./1188 A. Ibn Ziy~ d kept sending . and everything. in his “Kit~b al-Man~qib. Al-Hasan (– ) . his name is Shãr ibn Thul. . they were six thousand horsemen and one . 71 (majlis 30). . Yaz§d ibn al-Rik~ b marched out with two thousand. 2. by the h~fiz Abu Bakr M uhammed ibn Abu `Uthm~n al-Hazimi al-Hamad~ni (d.). alleging adherence to the Islamic faith. Al-Hasan. 584 A. so. Ka`b ibn Talhah marched out with three thousand. 2. Once he was brought to Ibn Ziy~ d. Vol. 215.H. 656. At Taff.' he answered.. 3 4 Ibn Shahr }shãb. . will .of the war against al-Husain (– ) and to bring him all those who lagged behind.1 THE HOSTS l-Shimr marched out2 with four thousand or more. when they remembered their ancestors. “Al-Husain (– ) visited his brother al. and Nasr ibn . `O father of `Abdull~ h! What grieves you?' `I am grieved on account of the harm inflicted on you. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. Vol. “I have not left you any excuse with regard to providing you with plenty of horses and men. whereas Ibn Shadqam. p.. }m~li. 6 160 . According to p.. Having seen his condition. of his T~r§kh. in two thousands. Jawshan. 253. .

and they. O cloud. burning their insides. The might and swords of Muhammed's family used to be . death was before and behind. How Clement All~ h is as He did see How long they kept their wailing and their cries! 161 . by sinning pleasures. The world became too small for it so Wherever it went. satisfying those who thirst. Even death hated to meet them in such a way.! THE WATERING PLACE Modesty never wetted their faces Even if they had walked through the Safa. . spreading your wings On people to shade. riding dignity even from The back of the humiliation they rode. their modesty? They subdued. Yet I find you. So they leaped with thirsty hearts that Found nothing to drink except the taste of death. The back of death they rode. How insolent they were when they met His forehead with their very swords. Even its stones would have felt modest.. The veils of Prophethood and the curtains were violated. Against those who cried for help and against the enemy.. Having shed... The worst cup they drank of all the calamity Was the oppressors' unveiling of Muhammed's daughters: .. So their insides were further burnt even as The hands of the foes vied to grab their garments. dethroned their princes.. The fangs of death were shown to a band For which the swords were fates and destiny Whose hearts were tested by the Almighty. Through their swords. How can such Umayyad faces know modesty. through their might. Yet All~ h loved that they should thus meet Him. At a stand where patience and endeavour were put to test. They overpowered them till they Deprived their corpses of being buried. The offspring of al-Zahr~ ’. Though the hearts of the Prophet's sons were cracked With thirst in a desolate land.All~ hu Akbar! O pillars of this earth! Dissolve! The son of piety has to face the hosts Whose banner the son of the blood-shedder tied.

. p. Al-Khaw~rizmi. How painful to Muhammed's heart it must be. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. p. Their water supply had already depleted. as much as you can. Nafs al-Mahmãm. from digging wells. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. . Ibn al-Ath§r. O Should the daughters of F~ tima ever be in pain . Had Double-Horns closed it against him. In his right hand a trained sword. p. How heavy with al-Batool the calamity!1 Ibn Sa`d posted his horsemen to guard the Euphrates in order to prohibit the Master of Martyrs (– ) from reaching it. 1 2 These verses are excerpted from a poem by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. so he and his company are drinking of it. soon as this letter reaches you. Bahr~ni. may All~h be pleased with him. so each one of them had to deal with the flames of the thirst on his or her own. .” He instantly dispatched `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j with five hundred horsemen to the . al-Khaw~rizmi. al-Tabari. Al-K~mil. And against the pain of thirst to him complain With sighs high as the current of the Euphrates? Had he sought al-Majarra river to quench his thirst. p. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. Maqtal al-Husain. But what could he have done since swords and lances stood between them and the water? Yet the man who quite often served water to the thirsty could not tolerate that condition any longer. 3 162 . In his left hand is a watering bag. T~r§kh. . Al-Husain (– ) took an axe and . but soon it dried up. Ibn Ziy~ d sent a letter to Ibn Sa`d saying. 6. Expose them to the severest of hardships. His determination would have surely undermined it. 116. Naturally. 234. It would surely have raised itself and done so first. p. Like a cloud he aimed to reach F~ tima's offspring. the siege around the Master of Martyrs (– ) and those with him intensified. al-Muf§d. . Thirst bit them severely. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al. and they were blocked completely from reaching the water. Vol. It would have turned its current into a ladder to reach. THE SEVENTH DAY n the seventh day. Some of them were pleading for water while others were trying anything they could think of to quench their thirst. the children were moaning on account of the pain of thirst. Vol. walked behind the women's tent nineteen steps in the direction of the Qibla then dug a well of potable water from which they drank. 1. 1. 78. watering place2 three days before al-Husain's martyrdom. Al-Husain's followers found no access to water. 4. 22. . . you must prohibit them. All of this was taking place before the eyes of Abu `Abdull~ h and the honourable ones of his family and companions. . Kit~b al-Irsh~d.How Clement All~ h is as He did see How in agony they sighed and in grief cried: With one hand each tried to stay alive. As . Vol. 244. “It has come to my knowledge that al-Husain is digging a well and reaching water.3 . With the other she tried to shun the foes.

They went to the Euphrates at night paying no attention to those who were charged with guarding the watering place. Im~m .2 We cannot overlook the fact that the amount of water brought to them was very little. “We came to drink of this water from . of al-Sadãq's }m~li. al. they were in the company of the lion of Muhammed's Progeny (– ). “No. . Maqtal Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib. It was then that those under the command of Ibn al-Hajj~ j attacked them. They brought the water while none of their enemies could even contemplate getting near them out of fear of that same brave hero.1 At that juncture. the children. What could that quantity do to a band that numbered more than a hundred and fifty men.. though others are better in speech than I: “Why do you flow__may you not__and tended one day “To wash your own shame! “Have not the livers of Muhammed's Progeny flame-dried? . . if you will. According to p. their seeking water must have taken place on the seventh day which . Some of them kept watering their bags anyway while others were . so . N~ fi` said. Al-Husain (– ) asked him to bring water for the ladies and .” Said the Euphrates: “Listen.” . or maybe even two hundred. hence. Yet the heart of people's waterer on the Day of Gathering Is cooled. drinking no more than once? Soon thirst returned to them. . `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j shouted at him to identify himself. `Abb~ s.. were able to quench their thirst.” said he.” May All~ h reward on their behalf their uncle Abul-Fadl. According to this report. 163 . . whereas this one's heart with the heat boils. The latter had . “Accept my excuse. and children. may All~h fill his grave with noor.” He then called upon his companions to fill their water bags. I stood by the water of the Euphrates and I still have been Telling it. . If the Pool's Waterer on the Day of Gathering be Hayder. “What you see are my tears when “Wailing after them became my affair. O should only you have seen Abul-Fadl! . He was a sword crafted by Ali in his right hand. He said to him. so. 95. The ladies and the children. giving him command over a detachment of twenty men each carrying a water bag. al-Husain (– ) assigned his brother al-`Abb~ s to shoulder this responsibility. defending them headed by the one who grew up in the very lap of Hayderi bravery. “They were not cooled by water or by rain. Then the Waterer of the thirsty at Kerbal~ ’ is Abul-Fadl. al-Husain ibn Ali (–) dispatched his son Ali al-Akbar with thirty horsemen and twenty footmen to fetch water. “but do not carry of it to al-Husain. “You ought to fold your branches and cause them to wither “Out of grief and shame of their withered lips.But the foe was certain to stone him with everything. which you have prohibited us. 1 2 These lines are excerpted from a poem by Sayyid Ja`fer al-Hilli. by All~ h. to All~ h and to His Messenger is one's complaint. may explain why the seventh day is dedicated to the memory of al-`Abb~s. namely Abul-Fadl. and do not increase your blame. After all. N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l al-Jamli advanced. all parched by thirst. I shall never drink one drop while al-Husain and the Ahl al-Bayt with him and their .” “Drink then and cool your eyes. to what I say. majlis 3. women. supporters are thirsty. already been burning with the desire to do just that.

4 Ibn Sa`d then said.” Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. al-Khaw~rizmi. Why don't you come to my side and leave these folks. instead. . 164 . he stood up as he said. “I fear lest my estate should be confiscated. Among their brothers he will surely be numbered. “I have in Kã fa many children. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. Few can be so loyal to their loved ones. may All~h have mercy on his soul. Ibn Sa`d. with the exception of al-`Abb~ s and his oldest son. and may He never forgive you on the Day of Gathering?! By All~ h! I wish you will only eat a little of the wheat of Iraq. Never have I seen one thirsty around the water. And by your left one.” “I shall rebuild it for you. By your severed right hand do I swear. Vol. Each came out escorted by twenty cavaliers. “Barley suffices me!”5 The first Sign of All~ h's Wrath.”2 It is said that the Im~ m (– ) promised Ibn Sa`d to give him his own estate called al. .. Bughaybgha. . was the loss of his anticipated post as the A 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by Shaikh Muhsin Abul-Habb al-H~’iri. “I fear lest my house should be demolished [if I do so].So his cub needed no polishing at all. His concern was only loyalty. and I fear lest Ibn Ziy~ d should kill them all. may All~ h soon kill you on your bed. Something my mind cannot comprehend: He proved loyal to you not knowing Whether losing you terrified him Or whether the `Arsh was by fates subverted. .” said . Tazallum al-Zahr~’.1 CONCEIT OF IBN SA`D l-Husain (– ) dispatched `Amr ibn Qarzah al-Ans~ ri to Ibn Sa`d asking for an evening meeting between . p. Al-Husain (– ) said. both warring factions. By your perseverance in defending the Prophet's son At Kerbal~ ’. “What is the matter with .” When al-Husain (– ) lost all hope of winning him over. . The Im~ m. __ 3 4 The word “million” does not exist in Arabic.” Ibn Sa`d responded by saying sarcastically. but he refused to sell it to him. 1. for that will surely be better for you with All~ h?” `Omer ibn Sa`d said. return?! I am the son of you know very well who. . keeping his son. p. Tr. . Maqtal al-`Aw~lim.. 245. with him together with his slave. few can be seen like that.. peace be upon him. a vast tract of land containing palms and many other fruit trees. the gatherer of all. the Arabs say “a thousand thousands. Ibn Sa`d did likewise. Without drinking of it though his heart is on fire. Maqtal al-Husain. . you. When Prophet Muhammed's sons are counted. said. 5 Ibid. though terrifying. Al-Husain (– ) ordered those in his . “I shall compensate you for it with one even better from my property in Hij~ z. Mu`~ wiyah had offered the Im~ m (– ) one million3 dinars for it. . not to lag behind. “O Ibn Sa`d! Are you really fighting me?! Don't you fear All~ h to Whom you shall .” was al-Husain's answer. p. 78. Brother! You were both my shield and my sword Yet I lost both: No shield do I now hold Nor even my own sword. which this man witnessed. 103. p. 103. Ali al-Akbar. Hafs. company.

. . “Does not al-Husain (– ) deserve to be mourned?”2 And when the . Yaz§d. How could he place himself at the service of Marj~ na's son or follow the views of the son of the liver-chewing woman?! Al-Husain (– ) had said to his brother. 1 2 al-Tabari. When he returned from Kerbal~ ’. The bastard-son and the son of the bastard-son gave me the option to either accept a reward or to succumb to humiliation. . He stated the following in his letter: All~ h has put out the fire of dissension. 15. Al-Mukht~ r said to him. 2. Murãj al-Thahab. Ibn Ziy~ d required him to bring him the covenant wherein he promised to make him governor of Rey.governor of Rey. Sayyid Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli.” To Ja`fer ibn Sulaym`~ n al-Zab`i he said. he hired women to mourn the death of al-Husain at the doorstep of `Omer ibn Sa`d's house. claiming that he desired the reform of the nation and the beauty of unity. where Yaz§d is discussed. p. “Was not Ibn Sa`d satisfied with killing al-Husain so he now wants to be the governor?” People wept. so Ibn Sa`d said. none shall survive except my son Ali. and so does His Messenger.4 Far away it is that such a man of dignity could do any such thing. and that al-Husain had never been killed. . in a chapter bearing the heading “Al-Mukht~r's Uprising. 6. or to go to one of the border . Vol. This Husain has offered me to go back to where he had come from. had you conveyed it to . following the death of Yaz§d son of Mu`~ wiyah. CALUMNY OF IBN SA`D I bn Sa`d attributed to Im~ m Husain (– ) doing something which he actually never did. and honourable men who prefer to be killed in dignity rather than obey the abased. Far away it is from us to do that! All~ h refuses. and reformed the nation's affairs. 105. that in that place shall I meet my death and the death of my companions. “They shall never leave me till I am dead. “By All~ h! I shall never submit to lowliness. and there is in it goodness for the nation. or that the commander of the faithful. al-Shabr~wi. may discuss their views. 3 4 165 . This attracted the attention . By All~ h! I had advised you with regard to al-Husain with one piece of advice which. He wrote Ibn Ziy~ d . p. 253. T~r§kh. . “I know of certainty . Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. towns and be one of the Muslims receiving what other Muslims receive and shouldering the same responsibilities like anyone else. p. “Yes. Al-`Iqd al-Far§d.” To Ibn al-Hanafiyya he said once. All of this meets your pleasure. . 268.”1 . he has said the truth! I wish there is a ring in the nose of each and every person belonging to Banã Ziy~ d till the Day of Judgment. united the views. 2. comes and places his own hand in Husain's and both men . dignified people. Vol. al-Atraf. of passers-by to the fact that the person living inside was the one responsible for killing the Master of the Youths of Paradise. [We are] good and purified families. One of the ways whereby al-Mukht~ r dealt with him was that when he granted him security. said.” The last statement he made during the Battle of Taff was: .” . Al-Ith~f bi Hubb al-Ashr~f. Ibn Hajar.” `Uthm~ n ibn Ziy~ d. He pressured him to bring it to him. but Ibn Sa`d claimed that he had lost it. . turning away from him. p. al-Mas`ãdi. the women of the tribes of Hamad~ n and Rab§`a came to the grand mosque screaming and saying. you would have paid him what you owe him. He is the one who taught people how to persevere when facing what they dislike and when meeting death.3 . Vol. my father Sa`d. This caused a great deal of embarrassment to Ibn Sa`d who requested al-Mukht~ r to have them removed from there. “I left it being read for the old women of Quraysh as means to apologize to them. `Ubaydull~ h's brother. and so do the believers. people of Kã fa wanted `Omer ibn Sa`d to be their governor.

al-Tabari says the same.” Al-Thahbi says. He was a poet. says. He stayed there in dignity and security. “W hen al. was leprous. Yes. His head was sent to M uhammed ibn al-Hanafiyya. was suffering. till he was killed. of his T~r§kh. who killed al-Husain (–). al-Kalbi demonstrated his fanaticism in support of the Yemenites. in Iraq or at his own camp. “Al-Shimr ThulJawshan. did you side with the enemies of the son of F~tim a (–)?.'”1 AL-SHIMR'S OPPRESSIVENESS aving read Ibn Sa`d's letter. at al-M ath~r. H~tim. “Al-Sam§l ibn H~tim ibn al-Shimr ibn Thul. we . he will get even stronger. he could not harm Adham in the least. 1. fled to Syria accompanied by his wife and . or death itself./759 A.” On p. Jawshan was a chief of Mudar who bore a great deal of grudge against the Yemenites. causing his sword to reach the man's bones. “Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan al-Kil~`i. I heard him say. therefore. W hen he was asked. al-Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan. Ibn al-Ab~r says. to tell him. Vol. . Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan went out. 7. Adham struck Shimr on his forehead. . 188. he went back to his camp to drink some water. Vol. 143.” On p. Al-Sam§l was one of the dignitaries selected by the army from among the people of Syria. and they exchanged two blows. I heard all his statements. . Ibn Kath§r. Vol. He entered Andalusia under the authority of Balaj ibn Bishr who looked after the Mudarites in Andalusia when Abu al-Khatt~r al-Hus~m ibn Dir~r .” This narrative. He left it to be the governor of Tulaytala. 222 of the Beiruti edition . Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan was leprous. “Do you really accept such an offer from him after his having settled in your land? By All~ h! If he ever departs from your land without making an agreement with you. 1. but never did I ever hear him say what people claim. Vol. al-Maqr§zi says. . and . 122. 303 and on the following pages of his book titled Siff§n (Egyptian edition). “Al.' W hen he saw that al-Shimr was leprous. . . 235. Vol. Mukht~r killed Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan.” In a footnote in the same book. Adhma's fellows carried him away. “I accompanied al-Husain from Med§na to Mecca. is the one who presented the head of al-Husain (–) to Yaz§d ibn Mu`~wiyah at the Balaj . a fellow of al-Fahri. On p. 145. “W hy . peace be upon him. a Kãfian. Ibn Rastah says. Vol.. Nasr ibn Muz~him says. O n p. would have been more wretched than red camels. . which was: `It is as if I see a spotted dog licking the blood of my Ahl al-Bayt (–). Ibn Rastah says. `Let me go in this spacious land. Ibn Ziy~ d said. T~r§kh. Mukht~r appeared in Kãfa. sons. He is grandfather of al-Sam§l ibn H~tim ibn Shim r al-Qaysi. obedience is due to what is right. 222 of his book Al-A`l~q al-Naf§sa. edited by Muhammed Muhyi ad-D§n. “Our men of authority ordered us.” On p. so Shimr left. therefore. causing him to fall from his horse. anyone from Ali's army for a duel. of his book Al-I`tid~l.” On p. son of al-Shimr. that he wanted to put his hand in Yaz§d's hand. 1. “Shimr son of Thul-Jawshan . and from the latter to Iraq. Had we disobeyed them. W hen al. He took a spear and composed these lines of poetry: I have reserved for the brother of B~hilah A swift blow. 449. . p. “This is only an ugly excuse. was with the Commander of the Faithful (–) at Siff§n. Serqasta. of his book T~r§kh `Ulam~' al-Andalus. It is said that al-Mukht~r killed him. On p. only should I live A final blow shall I strike him with. i. was one of those who killed al-Husain. is not an original.” he said. . 222 of his book Al-A`l~q al-Naf§sah. “This is a letter of someone who advises his people and who is compassionate towards them. on p. 234. .e. peace be upon him. 2. Vol.H. From the company of Mu`~wiyah came out Adham ibn Muhriz challenging .” He was about to respond to it when al-Shimr2 stood up as he said. al-Thahbi says. was with his father at Kãfa. whereas he fled till Kulthãm ibn `Iy~d al-Qushayri went out to invade al-Maghreb.” This is stated on p. Al-Sam§l died in the prison of `Abdul-Rahm~n ibn Mu`~wiyah in . I never heard him say so when I was with him in Med§na nor in Mecca or on any highway. 67.” W hat is really accurate is the account narrated by al-Dainãri on p.” On p. it is stated that H~tim fled to Qinnasrin. of his book Al-Hulla al-Sayr~. 296 of his book Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l: “Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan was killed by the supporters of al-Mukht~r . pierced him with his sword. I did not part with him till he was killed. he immediately said. . `He is the one who shall kill me!'” On p. A blow like death. of his book Nafh al-T§b (`Eisa al-Babi Press). who killed al-Husain ibn Ali (–). 8.The statement made by Uqbah ibn Sam`~ n explains the condition from which Abu `Abdull~ h. the year 142 A. he says that al-Sam§l was governor of . Al-K~mil. garrison. Said he. Ibn al-Fawti says the following. 1. while you will get H 1 2 al-Tabari. “Al-Husain (–) used to narrate to his companions at Kerbal~’ what his grandfather (‰) used . 166 . and so does Ibn al-Ath§r in his book .D. W hen Shimr responded with a blow of his own. . He charged at Adham. “Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan . .

ibn Rab§`ah ibn al-W ah§d who was wife of Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–) and who gave birth by him to M uhamm ed Asghar [Muhammed . “Answer his call though he may .” Ibn Ziy~ d found his statement to be the wisest.” Al-Shimr said to him. says. let me take charge of the army. . I .” On p. Zuhayr said. of Al-`Iqd al-Far§d. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. so he wrote Ibn Sa`d saying. “When your father A 1 2 3 Ibn al-Ath§r. is nicknamed “al-Dib~b”. for we have granted him authority to do so. . then remove yourself from our business and our troops. his grandson. On pages 261 and 265 of his book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. “I shall do it. Among Ka`b’s offspring are Banã al-W ah§d from whom descended Umm al-Baneen daughter of Hazam ibn Kh~lid . Ibn al-Jawzi. p. Said he. By All~ h! Husain shall never . company surrender to my authority. Among the latter”'s offspring is al-Sam§l ibn H~tim. let the horses trample over his chest and back. nor to negotiate with him. send them to me safely. ibn Sa`s~`ah ibn Mu`~wiyah ibn Bakr ibn Haw~zin ibn Mansãr ibn `Ikrimah ibn Hafsah ibn Qays-Ghayl~n. “Shall I narrate one had§th for you . of authority in Andalusia where he left offspring. `Uthm~n. do not think that this will hurt him after his death.. He came to be a man . . the latter .”1 When Shimr brought this letter. “Eleven are the sons of Kil~b ibn Rab§`ah ibn `}mir .” They asked Shimr what he wanted. . “Tell me what you are going to do: Are you going to carry out your prince's order or not? If not. Vol. Al-K~mil. . Ibn Hazm says. 28 of I`l~m al-Wara by al-Tibrisi. and no thanks to you. T~r§kh. be a debauchee. The real name of Thul-Jawshan is Jam§l ibn “al-A`war” `Amr ibn Mu`~wiyah. and al-`Abb~s. 6. Since al-Shimr belonged . “I did not dispatch you to al-Husain so that you would spare him. “Woe unto you! May All~ h never make your home near. son of Thul-Jawshan who killed al-Husain. whereas al-Dab~b belongs to Banã `}mir ibn Sa`s~`ah. p. . If al-Husain is killed. Shimr shouted: “Where are the sons of our sister?!3 Where is al-`Abb~ s and his brothers?!” The latter ignored his calls. if not. Vol. “O sons of my sister! You are safe and secure! Do not get yourselves killed with al-Husain! Maintain your obedience to the commander of the faithful . “The curse of All~ h be on you and on your security! Do you grant us security while the son of the Messenger of All~ h has no security at all?!4 Do you order us to be obedient to the damned folks and the offspring of the damned?!”5 Did that rogue think that he could win over a man with full awareness and zeal and thus bring him into the pits of humiliation? Could the father of al-Fadl exchange the light with the dark or abandon the standard. 28. 167 . Junior]. al-Tabari. to Banã `}mir ibn Sa`s~`ah. surrender. Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn stood up and said. for there is an honourable soul within him. See if Husain and his . but this is in fulfillment of a promise which I had made to do just that. . the author discusses the offspring of al-Dib~b saying. Yaz§d!” Al-`Abb~ s said. “Al-Dib~b belongs to Banã al-H~rith ibn Ka`b. whereupon al-Husain (– ) said. and al-Dab~b. nor did I dispatch you so that you would intercede on his behalf with me. Ja`fer. 4. . we shall reward you as someone who listens to us and who obeys. 270.” . auther of Al-Agh~ni]. Ibn Sa`d said to him. 83. 2. . security. for they surely deserve it. the author .weaker. the grandson. his kin is al-Dib~b [rather than “al-Dab~b”]. “Among them is Shimr . when reference to Mathhaj is made. 5 4 Ibn Nama. . This statement is quoted by Abul-Faraj [al-Isfah~ni. nor to give him any glimpse of hope of . Vol.” On p. son of Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan. and let Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan take charge of the army. which I learned very well?” When al-`Abb~ s answered him in the affirmative. but if you refuse. 142. p.” `Omer ibn Sa`d answered him by saying. . bearer of the Prophetic call and enlist under the standard of Maysoon's son?! No way! When al-`Abb~ s returned. and may He reveal the ugliness of what you have done! I believe you are the one who discouraged him from doing it and thus foiled our hopeful attempt to bring about reconciliation.”2 SECURITY s loudly as he could. as stated in Al-Muntazam and also on p. If you carry out our order. attack them and kill them and mutilate their bodies. Among them are Ka`b . . if so. p. . . but you should be in charge of the infantry. 236. . 23. .

nearby. do not fall short . A fight broke out. The latter instantly sent four hundred men as enforcement to al-Azraq's men in order to intercept that small band on the highway. 2 3 al-Majlisi.” that is. His valour is like that of his Lest I should exaggerate./October 12. so she said to her brother. may All~h sanctify his soul. the most Exalted One. Your father.”3 H DAY NINE n the eve preceding Thursday. So he is the hand of All~ h and this is his arm His stands suffice you for a proof. quoting Maqtal Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib. His only concern was to get water to his brother's children. 168 . . . “Shortly you will join us!” Zainab. the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) saying. I would have said: Exalted is his might!2 BANâ ASAD ab§b ibn Muz~ hir sought the permission of Im~m Husain (– ) to go to Banã Asad who were domiciled . and permission was granted to him. 61 A. then. 387. . so. . From a poem by the authority Ayatull~h Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ni. of supporting your brother or protecting your sisters. he asked . Ninety men responded to his call. therefore. . One man slipped away from their quarters to inform Ibn Sa`d of what had happened there. The Im~ m (– ) said. He echoes his pristine words in his qualities The hand of All~ h is but his father. except in All~ h.. on Muharram 9. heard the men's voices. “La hawla wala quwwata illa billahil `aliyy al-`azeem. they. He plays al-Karr~ r as he charges. Banã Sa`d. . treasured you for a day such as this one. asked them to support the son of the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). 680 A. . Bih~r al-Anw~r. Maqtal al-Husain. `Aq§l.H. p. “The enemy is getting I 1 Sayyid K~zim al-H~’iri. . who was fully knowledgeable of Arabs’ genealogies.D. descended upon him and he saw. his brother. . by way of a fleeting vision. on a day such as this?! By All~ h! I shall show you something your eyes have never seen. O Zuhayr. Hab§b went back to al-Husain (– ) and .” Al-`Abb~ s said. for that. He. would bring them honour in this life and honour in the life hereafter. Ibn Sa`d stood up and called . When he came to them and identified himself as one of their tribesmen.[the Commander of the Faithful. Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib. nor might. killed renown heroes and turned standards upside down and fought as one who was not concerned at all about being killed or about paying any heed to the bravery of famous heroes. And the Might of All~ h is manifested in him. . Vol. his sister. indeed. and a number of men belonging to Banã Asad were killed while those who survived fled away back home. “Do you really encourage me. to select a woman born to the most valiant from among the Arabs so that he would marry her and she would give birth to a brave son who would support al-Husain at Kerbal~ ’. fearing a sudden attack from Ibn Sa`d. hence. 243.”1 He. Heaviness . Asr~r al-Shah~da. “There is neither power. 1. moved out of that area in their entirety under the cover of the night. peace be upon him] wanted to get married. came to recognize him. Al-Khaw~rizmi. he told them. p. told him about what had happened. upon his army to attack al-Husain (– ) who was sitting in front of his tent leaning on his sword. the Great. .

337. tomorrow. The implication of this golden statement is not hidden. his Progeny. Vol. including Zuhayr and Hab§b. (–) to perform the pilgrimage (ziy~rat) to the shrine of Im~m al-Husain (–) and to teach him what he should do and say.” Al-`Abb~ s set out escorted by twenty men. “You can keep on lauding yourself as long as you like. when I saw his face. . . is not actually the one who is addressing them. 6. Vol. . 176. reciting the ziy~rat of the martyrs.”2 Umayyah strayed from the goal When swords met to do battle. T~r§kh. them. and good is the land wherein you are buried. Al-Husain (– ) said. nor sent him a messenger. we shall send you to the governor [`Ubaydull~ h] Ibn Ziy~ d. nor promised to support him. “Ride. 169 . 8.” Ibn Sa`d said. p. on horseback. . If you surrender. we shall not leave you alone.” The Im~m (–). a request. as narrated by the mentor al.'” . 6. but a meeting with him on a highway tied me to him. the recitation of His Book. so that you may meet . “Go . and the seeking of His forgiveness. Ibn .close to us. p. having seen where I stand with their regard. “W hen you reach al-H~’ir. supplicate to Him. so. “Glory to All~ h! Even if they had been from Daylam and made such . “By both of my parts.. are those who come to Him after having killed the offspring of His Prophet. `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j said.. from the ameer (governor) came that we should make you an offer either to surrender to his authority or we shall fight you. It was then that I decided to support him. “By All~ h! The worst people in the sight of All~ h tomorrow [in the hereafter] . the abundance of invocations. “O `Izrah! All~ h has already lauded and guided my soul! So. . admonishing him to address them thus. T~r§kh. Al-Bid~ya. dear reader. “By All~ h! If I am sure that he will do so . . face the martyrs and say: `}ssal~mo Alaikom.” Qays ibn al-Ash`ath said. al-Muf§d. Kath§r. “O Zuhayr! You are not in our regard as one of the Sh§`as of Ahl al-Bayt but a man who thought the opposite of their thinking. not to be among those who support the people of misguidance in killing the pure souls.” Al-Husain (– ) said to his brother al-`Abb~ s. by doing so. “O Safw~n! Fast for three days before you start your trip.” Then he continued to say. Im~m al-S~diq . into thinking that this statement is insignificant especially after the Im~m (–).Tãsi in Misb~h al-Mutahajjid says that Safw~n had sought Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq . you have proven your good m ettle. I plead to you in the Name of All~ h. etc... 2 1 al-Tabari. Ibn Sa`d stood up and asked his companions what they thought. his Ahl al-Bayt (– ). Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. Do not be misled. . and their answer was: “An order .” Zuhayr said. . He was actually teaching this text to Safw~n. O `Izrah. Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir said to them. How could he soar to the zenith of the truth that comes from a holy one? It is fathomed only by a discreet critic.” Al-`Abb~ s (– ) went back to inform al-Husain (– ) as his escorting party stood to admonish those folks. . (– ): “We have postponed fighting you till tomorrow. Al-Irsh~d. . back to them and ask them to give us this evening as a respite till tomorrow so that we may pray to our Lord. They wanted to drive an unyoked horse al-Tabari. had said. I remembered the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and his status with him and came to know what a crime his enemy wants to commit. “Grant them what they ask. but if you refuse. p. “Then exit out of the door next to the feet of Ali ibn al-Husain (–). (–) said to him. He asked them.” Zuhayr said to him. the camel lessor. an implication that defies reason. for I am only admonishing you. may I be your sacrifice1. the worshippers of this land who offer tahajjud in the pre-dawn and remember All~ h quite often. for by my life. O `Izrah. Ask them about the reason why they had come and about what they want.” `Izrah then said.” Al-`Abb~ s informed his brother Abu `Abdull~ h of what those folks were up to. 157. Ali ibn Muhammed al-Fatt~l al-Naishapuri. 137. and seek His forgiveness. that I am one of such Sh§`as? By All~ h! I never wrote him a letter. say: All~hu Akbar!” Then the Im~m continued to describe the ritual to him till he said. he [al-Husain] shall fight you tomorrow. etc. . . Vol. for He knows how much I love prayers. The incident. “Do you not conclude. and to defend him with my life because you yourselves have discarded your duty to the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ).. O friends of All~h. you ought to have granted it to them. p.” `Izrah ibn Qays said to him.. to be in his party. fear All~ h.” Al-`Abb~ s went back and negotiated an evening's respite. . I will not then postpone the fighting till tomorrow!” Then he sent the following message to al-Husain .

so ride it as a camel. though the father of lions he may be. for . The ignorant only temptation produced. Al-K~mil. Vol. pp. You are not obligated henceforth to stay with me. Al-Husain (– ) turned to `Aq§l's sons and said. the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). and the son of the best of our uncles without 1 2 These verses are from a poem by al-Ka`bi. 6. Ignorance its soul induced. and was seduced. all of you. Lord! I praise You for having honoured us with Prophethood. and the understanding. than mine. Go. I know no companions more worthy. And in their hand they wanted him to be Servile. al-Fadl ibn Sh~th~n. for it contains only one . Ithb~t al-Raj`a. nephews and the sons of `Abdull~ h ibn Ja`fer said. 34. 238-239. al-Husain (– ) went to his companions to say: . The night has already covered you. the vision. master. . may All~ h reward you all! Disperse to your cities and villages. may All~h have mercy on his soul. “What would people.Like one subjugated in yoke. so. the sublime.4 I think that our day of confronting these enemies shall be tomorrow. Towards glory surely sly. to freely go.” The first to speak from among them to make this statement was al-`Abb~ s ibn Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ) followed by the offspring of H~ shim.” They all said. I glorify All~ h in the best of glorification and praise Him for both ease and adversity. and what can we say to them? Shall we tell them that we left our mentor. say about us. nor any members of a family more joining of the ties of kinship than my Ahl al-Bayt (– ). Umayyah aimed to attain what they could So they paid no heed to what they ought and should. Vol. to `Omer to subdue The Prophet's son. Ibn al-Ath§r. This reference ought to be regarded as a book about the occultation. for these folks are after me.1 THOSE WHOSE CONSCIENCE IS FREE O ne night before his martyrdom2. told me that I would be taken to Iraq and settle in a land called `} mã ra and Kerbal~ ’ where I would be martyred. the pure. and if they get hold of me. taught us the Qur’~ n. may All~ h reward all of you on my behalf. I have permitted you to leave. “Suffices you of the loss the killing of Muslim. And slanted.3 My grandfather. and You did not let us be among the polytheists. made us faq§hs in the creed. . That very time has come quite close. in that case. 170 . Unattainable. and let each man among you take with him one man from my Ahl al-Bayt (– ). they will not seek others. it seems. sons. Ithb~t al-Raj`a. They eyed the mirage with an eye. “And why should we do that? Just to survive you? May All~ h never permit us to see that day. single had§th referring to the raj`a (the return). nor better. so. . p. T~r§kh. made for us the hearing. 3 4 al-Tabari. 4. and I have given you permission. The Im~ m’s brothers.

4. al-Tibrisi. we shall sacrifice our lives. p. . Ibn al-Ath§r. “By All~ h! We shall never abandon you till All~ h ascertains that we .” Sa`§d ibn `Abdull~ h al-Hanafi said. the Great. I`l~m al-Wara.”1 Souls insisted on upholding their father's legacy So they are either shot or are shooting. . “Are we the type of people that would abandon you?! And what excuse shall we produce before All~ h for not having carried out our responsibilities towards you?! By All~ h! I shall never part with you till I stab their chests with my lance and strike them with my sword so long as my hand can hold it.having shot an arrow or stabbed with a lance or dealt a sword blow in his defense. and we shall fight on your side till we meet your fate. someone said to Muhammed ibn Bash§r al-Hadrami.” said he. Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. They rushed when a war caller called Trampling in Kerbal~ ’ the plains. 6. p.” The rest of the companions made similar statements. And why should I not do so since it is only one time's killing followed by eternal bliss?!” Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn said. go and secure the release of your son. young and aged. al-Muf§d. . so. by All~ h! We shall never do anything like that! Rather.” He said. and this will be done to me seventy times. 24. will let such fighting keep you and these youths from among your Ahl al-Bayt (– ) alive. T~r§kh. T~r§kh. wealth and families for you. 53. I shall hurl stones at them till I die with you. 238. 17 of Ibn Nama's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Al-Irsh~d.2 Muslim ibn `Awsajah said. Vol. 2 These verses are cited on p. al-Tabari.” and their value was estimated at one thousand dinars. outskirts of Rey. “I shall never do so. p. 1 al-Tabari.” “No. Al-Irsh~d. 6. 141. Al-K~mil. and that All~ h. p. I shall still refuse to part with you till I meet my death defending you. Thahbi. 202.” Al-Husain (– ) said to him. 3. one that Inherited glories. 3 4 171 . “Your son has been captured in the . p. Ibn Nama. the most Exalted. may the wild beasts devour me should I ever part with you!” The Im~ m (– ) said to him. by All~ h. 3 well. Vol. Meanwhile. then I shall be burnt alive. Lions whose ornaments are the swords Whose clothes are the shields. then my ashes will be strewn. . “You are relieved from your oath of allegiance to me. By All~ h! Had I come to know that I shall be killed. and that we do not know what they did? No. then brought back to life. p. Their souls are to the battlefield accustomed Just as their feet are to the pulpits used. then I die. We loathe life after you. al. Vol.4 A band raced to defend him. . safeguarded our word to His Messenger in his absence with regard to you. and so on for thousands of times. 239. They took water-bags as their eyes' decoration. al-Muf§d. And even if I have no weapon to fight them. “By All~ h! I wish I will be killed. Whoever solicits them for what he dislikes Will find them lions enraged. “Then give your [other] son these five outfits so that he would utilize them in securing his brother's release. Vol. “I do not like him to be arrested while I survive him. so al-Husain (– ) invoked All~ h to reward them . then killed again. Al-Luhãf. .

. Ithb~t al-Raj`a. al-B~ qir. p. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. al-Mas`ãdi. Al-Khar~’ij. Leaning as though the deer sang for them And as though they served them their cups. Akhb~r al-Zam~n. They found death in defending Muhammed's offspring . “Good news for you about your entering Paradise! By All~ h! We shall stay as long as All~ h wills after whatever happens to us. long time then shall he reappear and fill the world with justice and equity just as it had been filled with injustice and inequity. . 247. wished them well4 then unveiled from their vision what All~ h has in store for them of the bliss in Paradise. “All praise is due to All~ h Who has granted us the blessing of being your supporters and honoured us with dying with you! Should we refuse to be in your degree [of divine bliss]. he is the one who will remain in occultation for a . Said he. Moses the prophet showed them their places in Paradise. p. therefore. so they rained With their blood as the ground turned into clouds. he is al-Hujjah son of al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Muhammed ibn . Nafs al-Mahmãm. then All~ h will bring us and you back to life when our Q~ 'im reappears.6 In a statement. al-R~w§ini. nor `Abdull~ h. with the exception of my son Ali Zayn al-`} bid§n. for All~ h will not permit my family line to discontinue should he be killed. It was filled with unpleasant things and with calamities. . and none of you will survive. When they believed in Moses (– ) and Pharaoh was about to kill them.They dyed their hands with ponds. As though they were welcoming the hã ris: Thus did they welcome the lances and the swords. O son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ )?!” The Im~ m (– ). peace be upon him. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. . . “Who is your Q~ 'im. I shall be killed and so shall you. said to his companions. so he will seek revenge against the oppressors. yet life after them is pain. 122.” He was asked. Nafs al-Mahmãm. showing them their mansions therein.”7 THE NIGHT PRECEDING `} SHâ RA T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 he night that preceded `} shã ra was the hardest on the hearts of the family that descended from the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Ali ibn Mãsa ibn Ja`fer ibn Muhammed son of my son Ali. Im~ m Abu Ja`fer. [Im~ m] Muhammed ibn Ali al-B~ qir (– ). 122. I and you shall witness them chained and shackled and suffering from various types of pain. p.1 Once he realized how sincere they were in defending him. and he shall be the father of eight Im~ ms. Asr~r al-Shah~da. 172 . It followed evil and was filled with presentiments of imminent dangers. Sayyid K~zim al-H~’iri.5 This is not too much to expect in his regard due to the Divine Will of the most Exalted One.2 not even al-Q~ sim. The very hard time Banã Umayyah had cut them off from These verses were composed by the `all~ma Sayyid Rida al-Hindi. Sweet in taste. O son of the Messenger of All~ h?” “He is the seventh from among the offspring of my son. “Tomorrow. nor was it a strange conduct coming from an Im~ m. unpleasing. Their swords shone.”3 They all said. . my infant son. may All~h have mercy on him. he acquainted them with what they did not know of fate.

we will find ourselves embracing the hã ris!”2 . By All~ h! The only barrier between us and the hã ris with large lovely eyes is that these folks assault us with their swords! I sincerely wish they do so this . may All~h have mercy on his soul. worthy of smiling?! As soon as these folks attack us with their swords. 241. “Is this the time for indolence?!” . So they raced like bleeding to meet their death. . 2 3 Excerpted from a poem by the `all~ma Sayyid Muhammed Husain al-Kishw~n. . very moment!”1 Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir came out of his tent wearing a big smile. the companions of Husain (– ). al-Kashshi. 6. . “On the contrary: what other time is more . 53 (Indian edition). said. “My people know very well that I never liked indolence in any phase of my life. teased one another. Yaz§d ibn al-Has§n al-Hamad~ ni said to him. but I am in high spirits on account of what we will be receiving [of All~ h's rewards]. . Glory leaves on their faces its marks In contentment. that laughed In happiness and in ecstasy Though death never wears a smile. as if they were bees in a bee-hive in the noise of their commotion! Some were standing in prayers while others were sitting or bowing. Rij~l. But what was the condition of the men who sought glory. “A regiment of cavaliers belonging to Ibn Sa`d passed by us. became happier and more rejuvenated. men who descended from H~ shim. .3 They remained quite energetic. al-Dahh~ k ibn `Abdull~ h al. “This is not the time to smile about anything. . knowing that the war would most surely take place the next day? Yes! The valiant ones from Abu T~ lib's family. Burayr joked with `Abdul-Rahm~ n al-Ans~ ri. though the faces of the valiant Are in fright constrained. One of them. as well as the elite from among the Im~ m's followers. . with regard to such calamities? Did they leave them any strength at all whereby they could stand on their feet? Did they have any morale to lift them and to empower them to struggle for survival.” Hab§b said to him. Like moons shining in the darkest of night As they appear on their steeds riding. Since at Nineva they opted for death Seeing some marks for treachery This one smiled. Mashriqi. and one of their men heard al- 1 al-Tabari. . 173 . were most ecstatic! They were more firm in their determination to fight to the last drop of their blood than any time before! They were elated on account of the divine bliss and happiness awaiting them! Whenever the bad situation worsened. and dark agony was looming in the air. As if in death lies their very ecstasy Their souls embraced their swords Then the embracing was in the Garden for the hã ris.any necessities of life. the honourable . . T~r§kh. p. Women were wailing. Burayr said. Vol. alternating between a deep involvement in acts of adoration and the readying of their weapons for the fight. they even smiled more. . p. children were crying on account of the acute thirst. whereupon the latter said.

is that the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) is our best example. . for their souls. T~r§kh. Once I am killed. Vol. On no account will All~ h leave the believers in the condition in which you are till He distinguishes the evil [doers] from [the doers of] good' (Qur’~ n. so I was overcome with tears. `O sister! May All~ h console you! Be informed that earthlings die. He has distinguished us from you. . the past generations and the best remnant of those that remain!' Al-Husain (– ) consoled her and admonished her . 45. we are the good ones while you are the bad ones. `Woe unto me! Shall I survive you?! I wish death had deprived me of life! My mother. Zainab. are the doers of good. . . Al-Luhãf. Iranian edition. Im~ m. Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. `O sister! O Umm .Husain (– ) reciting the verse saying. at dawn and at dusk Of friends and of vengeance seekers. Vol. telling her. al-Thahbi. 217.' Burayr said to him. sincere devotion and submission to All~ h Almighty. p. Vol. has just died followed by my father Ali (– ) then my brother al-Hasan (– )!3 O vicar of . to persevere. and it surely is harder on my soul. We grant them a respite only so that they may add to their sins. peace be upon her. Vol. p. as he was mending his sword. by the Lord of the Ka`ba. you should not tear your pockets nor . Ali ibn al-Husain (– ) has said. beating their cheeks. 2. O Time! Fie upon you for a friend! How many do you have. .' She. Ibn Nama.” Ahmed ibn Ibr~ h§m testifies to the authenticity of the above. Kulthã m! O F~ tima! O Rub~ b! Pay attention to me. T~r§kh. to refer to Ali . 4. and that of every Muslim. and they shall have a disgraceful chastisement. Al-K~mil. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n.' The man [citing a verse from the Holy Qur’~ n] said sarcastically to him. Zainab (– ). he has said. Najafi edition. p. 4. `Do you force yourself on it? This causes my heart to swell even more. 238. and that even those who live in the heavens do not live forever. yet I remained silent. 3:178-179). al-Ya`qãbi. She said to him. 1 2 3 al-Tabari. 6. First Edition. ibn al-Husain (– ) with regard to any ahk~ m and to convey the same to the Sh§`as as a measure to protect the new .'5 Then al-Husain (– ) instructed his sister. `And I am a witness to that!'”1 It is reported that on that same night. 240. . As for my aunt. “I heard my father on the night preceding the day on which he was killed . 3. scotch your cheeks nor utter any verbal abuse. saying. 5 174 . Ibn al-Ath§r. p. p. `We. Al-Irsh~d. once she heard those verses. That man commented saying. she leaped and went to see him. `Let not those who disbelieve think that Our granting them respite is better . Al-Khaw~rizmi. 240. al-Tabari. Al-Luhãf. Umm Kulthã m cried out.'4 The women wept when they saw her weeping. Vol. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. 210. Maqtal al-Husain. said to him. 11. knowing that fate was near. “He repeated them twice or thrice. my consolation. Vol. F~ tima (– ). Everything shall perish except His countenance. for by All~ h. While Time with a substitute is never pleased? But the affair is with the Mighty One And every living being will go his way. p. 4 Ibn Nama. `O man of debauchery! Shall All~ h really count you among the doers of good?! Come to our camp and repent your great sins. as many as thirty-two men defected from the camp of Ibn Sa`d and joined al-Husain's camp2 after having seen how the latter were supplicating and praying. 24. T~r§kh. . `O Muhammed! O Ali! O mother! O Husain! How lost we are after you!' Al-Husain (– ) said. I understood his implication. 1. demonstrating the most . al-Muf§d. . therefore. Chapter . p.

They all said. Ni`ma. .” Al-Husain (– ) supplicated to All~ h to reward them with goodness. .” Then al-Husain (– ) entered Zainab's tent as N~ fi` remained outside it on guard waiting for al-Husain (– ) . I asked her about her religion. could you please gather your companions and say something nice to these ladies?” Hab§b then . friends who are more eager to die for me than an infant for his mother's milk. He also ordered a ditch to be dug behind them and to be filled with firewood which was then lit so that the enemy’s horses would not attack from that direction. and I spoke to her from behind a . peace be upon him. “By All~ h! I have done so and found them brave and valiant. to come out.” . “Have you verified the intentions of your companions? I fear lest they should abandon you once the attack starts. To Banã H~ shim he said. we would have hurried this very minute to attack. went out in the depth of the night outside the tents in order to inspect the hills and plateaus and to find out whether there was anyone lying in ambush for them. Then he said. “By All~ h Who has blessed us with such a stand! Had we not been waiting for Husain's orders. “Let us all go to see the ladies to comfort them. Then she said.” I asked her. a promise which can never be broken. instructed his sister Zainab in the open. 275. peace be upon him. p.” N~ fi` said. people who record what goes on. T~r§kh. would be confined to one front. “You are . so she named the Im~ ms whom she emulated. so. “When I heard him say so. 6. . hence. Fighting. chapter 49. Have you not reported saying that the ninth from among the offspring of al-Husain (– ) shall distribute his estate during his own lifetime?” .” Hab§b accompanied him together with .” He said to her. “Should I emulate . curtain. Then the Im~ m (– ) ordered the tents to be pitched beside one another so that they would be able to face the enemy from one direction. 240. I would have attacked them . . calm yourself and cool your eyes. “By All~ h! Had I not have to wait for his orders. “Why don't you make your way between both of these mountains and save yourself?” N~ fi` fell down kissing the Im~ m's feet and saying. Vol. “O men of zeal! O lions!” They rushed from their tents like fierce lions. and I think the women are terrified. “Go back to your places. “This is it. “By way of what is transmitted by Abu Muhammed who recorded it for his mother.I visited Hak§ma daughter of Muhammed son of [Im~ m] Ali al-Rida (– ) and sister of [Im~ m] . returned holding the hand of N~ fi` as he was saying. . by All~ h Who has blessed me with your company. “O honourable ladies of the Messenger of All~ h! Here are the swords of your slaves who have vowed never to thrust them except in the necks of anyone who wishes to harm you! Here are the lances of your slaves who have sworn never to plant them except in the chests of whoever terrorizes your 1 al-Tabari. They shouted out. or a place from which the cavalry might attack.D. 175 . . I wept and went to see Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir to tell him what I . observation or on account of what is reported on their behalf. “It is emulating al-Husain ibn Ali in Abu T~ lib (– ) who . He heard Zainab saying to him. one who instructs a woman?!” She said. Abul-Hasan al-`} skari (– ) in 282 A. may your eyes never be deprived of sleep. I shared their feeling of depression. this very night.” so I realized that anything which was being attributed to Zainab was done only to protect the identity of Ali ibn al-Husain (– ). first edition of al-Sadã q's book Ikm~ l ad-D§n wa Itm~ m al. by All~ h.” Then he turned to his fellows and narrated to them what he and N~ fi` had witnessed and heard. stood up and shouted.H. I have left him with his sister. (895 A. She said. . I asked her whether she was emulating them due to her . . “May my mother lose me! I bought my sword for a thousand [dinars] and my horse for the same. She was actually referring to p. Then he.” Then he said to him. overheard of the dialogue between him [al-Husain] and his sister Zainab. Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir said.1 He. naming one of the sons of [Im~ m] al-Hasan (– ).) in Med§na. I shall never abandon you even if they both are exhausted because of my attacks and retreats. his companions. so.

Never left their chambers became Assaulted by the steeds even in their own homes. p. al-Tabari's T~r§kh. The hearts of those about whose veils The foes disputed with one another? How many were the orphans who were terrified to see How their protector to the ground did fall. 176 . lying on the sands. Let your breakfast be with me. 125.1 In the predawn of the same night.. The steeds of the people of shirk on his ribs trampled In haste.quarters!” Hearing them... Where are the protectors and here are your girls Muhammed Jaw~d Shubbar. for here is an angel who has descended from the heavens in order to take your blood in a green glass vase. so much so that the earth seemed to get dizzy. Nafs al-Mahmãm. But where are the defenders since at Taff . Just as wise ladies of Ahmed who . Becoming a target for Banã Umayyah's arrows.. Tasting the pain of the whips. Al-K~mil. and that the one who would kill him from among those men would be leprous. where Im~m al-S~diq (–) is quoted. Al-Dam`a al-S~kiba. The name of Hil~l ibn N~fi` is mentioned twice in his statement. “You are this nation's Martyr. It is confirmed that the name is N~fi` ibn Hil~l. making around him circles. his companions that he saw in a vision dogs charging at him and mauling him. the women came out crying and wailing and said. In another vision he saw the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) accompanied by a group of his companions and was saying to him. Falling upon his body and his neck with cries.? So they call upon their people's defenders. With broken hearts. turning. is an error.”2 Subdued by thirst became the defender of the Shar§`a Never could he wet his palate with the Euphrates water. thirsty. and do not be late. 325. p. al-Husain (– ) dozed off for a short while then woke up and informed . How many hearts were frightened. How they lost their head-covering in their fright. as recorded in the ziy~rat of the area. and so have those who occupy the High Plane. How they fell upon al-Husain's corpse . Their blood spilled by Umayyah's swords and spears? Where are the protectors? Here are their sons Slaughtered. and Ibn al-Ath§r's . To their tears responded their eyes.. Till he was spent thirsty on the battlefield.. . which . About to melt by their very sighs. “O men of goodness! Please do protect the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h and the ladies of the Commander of the Faithful!” Everyone cried. As he was sought by every spear. the most fierce among them being a spotted one. 2 1 Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. and those in the heavens have congratulated each other on account of your martyrdom.

repeating in agony their sighs So who. O All~ h! What a momentous day! It removed my patience. . out did it my sleep wear. moaning. Its grief stole from the days their light. 3. Woe upon me and many a woe How under the hooves the ribs were low. And the creed in grief almost passed way. dying. shall console F~ tima ..” __ Abu `Abdull~ h.. crying. And so every month. And a suckling woman lolling at her babe. That Day the life of every h~ fiz was robbed. frightened by the danger. That very Day. The foes' eyes slept As the faithful's eyes wept. Everyone from the family of Ayat al-Tath§r Was either slain or in the dust rubbed. Its sun would not have been bright. of Shau`ar~’ al-Ghari. These verses were composed by the `all~ma Sayyid M uhammed Husain al-Kishw~n whose biography is detailed on p.Carried on the humps by their own foes? Despite their creed were they carried away Having lost those who would protect them. And on the plains the corpses did scatter: Grieving women coming out of the chamber Wailing. al-Husain (– ) . And atop every spear A severed head did appear. About her sons being killed And about her daughters taken captive?1 `} SHâ RA “I see death as nothing but happiness. . . . 1 177 . and so every day. Had `} shã ra Day only known What calamity in it went on. while living with the oppressors is nothing but annoyance. panting. crying: On the sands lying. Vol. Its aura would not have dawned. Tearful. Its light would not have shown. . after Ahmed. 8.

. the son of F~ tima al-Zahr~ ’ (– ). lances having feasted on them. Al-Maqãla al-Husainiyya. cried. and had those grieved died grieving over such a great calamity. May his hands be paralyzed: How he with his sword severed his head! What a youth Umayyah's steeds trampled upon His corpse charging. . Its pain penetrated the hearts. laugh and feast. Their protectors from them did depart. to weep. it would still have been less than it deserves. weeping and wailing. the . There were those who kept covering their heads with the dust as a sign of grief. 1 178 . The greatest calamity is that Upon the chest of the Prophet's son al-Shimr sat. The concern of the people whom All~ h did hail Was only to mourn. 62 of . the safeguarded trust. the horror of the painful tragedy made them look like that. Had the hearts been split into bits and pieces. and to wail. is recorded on p.1 That day was spent by the family of Muhammed. those who beat their forehead and were struggling to stay alive while putting one hand on the chest and another to beat it. wherewith people are tried. People looked as though they were intoxicated. Had you been able to hear how those in the Higher Plane were wailing. agonized.And women taken captive on she-camels bare Their veils taken away. those who beat their chests in agony. On a day deep grief is to be upheld at least. the glow of the caliphate. He is none other than the grandson of the Chosen Prophet (‰ ). All the Im~ ms of Guidance were likewise tearful. and arrows having pierced them? They were spent thirsty on the bank of the flowing Euphrates wherein the dogs wade and from which wild beasts drink while the family of Muhammed (‰ ) was prohibited from drinking of it. The Martyr had in him the fragrance of the Message. His tragedy is no less worthy of such tears or condolences. as they moaned and groaned. The eyes were filled with bloody tears. There is no exaggeration here at all. and the gate . on and on! So my heart for him does go This poem by the Islamic authority. Yes. and the wreath of the Im~ mate. by continuous .. Killed by every fiend having no heart. }yatull~h Shaikh H~di Al K~shif al-Ghit~’. You could see only those whose hair stood up and who demonstrated their exhaustion because of the tragedy. sighed and lamented. the chosen wasi. you would have realized the cry of the cosmos and the wailing of the hã ris in the chambers of Paradise . peace of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. their parts cut off. Do you see life being worthy of anything so long as the very essence of life is he himself.. racing. he is the treasured Sign. bodies cut to pieces by the swords. . the joined mercy. wearing a stare. and the brother of the other grandson of the Prophet (‰ ). incinerating them. crushing. Whereas the Turks eat. the living and the pure essence? What is the value of tears shed as long as All~ h's “Vengeance on Earth” is thus bereaved? Should the eye be cooled as it sees the victims from Muhammed's family slaughtered on the ground. wailing and weeping. their . may All~h sanctify him. drink. Hujjah against the creation. You could hear nothing except the cries of those who suffered the loss of a dear one and hear the sighs of those deeply depressed. but they were not.

. Ibn al-Mashhadi. humiliated in the land of kerb and bal~ ’. The .” Saluting his grave-site. who emulates the great Prophet (‰ ). 2. Misb~h al-Mutahajjid. and with tears of blood shall I over you weep. .How the steeds' hooves drenched in his blood. O son of the Messenger of All~ h?” He. “It is for people like al-Husain (– ) that the mourners should weep. “Are you oblivious to the fact that al-Husain (– ) was martyred on this day?” Then he ordered him to look . K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. . . said. “May All~ h increase our rewards and yours for mourning al-Husain (– ). `Abdull~ h ibn Sin~ n came once to visit Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) on `} shã ra. 125. tears were trickling down his cheeks like pearls. since that was the time when Muhammed's Progeny became bereaved with that great loss. memory of the day when al-Husain (– ) was martyred surely causes our eyelids to swell. He found the colour of his . Today calamity has marked their every face Today glory on him threw the attire. to unbutton his shirt. p. p. Today whoever seeks guidance is misled And whoever seeks hope is shunned.”3 .). to hold mourning ceremonies commemorating the martyrdom of the Master of Martyrs. peace be upon them.H. p. like one who has just been afflicted by a great calamity. such sadness reached its peak. says. Maz~r. al-Hujjah from among Muhammed's Progeny. . own selves among those who seek revenge for him in the company of His wali. and on the tenth day. Today the foundations of the creed. uncover his arms. p. 83. and to require everyone in his house to mourn him. and may He count us and your . (the twelfth century A. The author is one of the prominent figures of the sixth century A. Then he said to him. peace be upon him. he would be the one to console. He was grief-stricken. “Why are you weeping. 175. He said to him. complexion to have changed. al-Sayyãti. Al-Khas~’is. Today those who seek their hopes Are rubbed in the dust. 39. I`l~m al-Nubuwwa. answered him by saying.” So. Im~ m al-Rida (– ) has said. And let them console one another on account of what happened to al-Husain (– ) just as Im~ m al-B~ qir (– ) has . Of guidance. . “So I shall mourn you in the morning and in the eve. should we not abandon merriment and put on the robes of grief? Should we not cry? Should we not learn how to glorify All~ h's Signs by mourning the martyr who died thirsty on the tenth of Muharram? . “Has the . from the Progeny of Muhammed. and to fast for an entire day and to break his fast with water one hour after `asr time. al-Mehdi (– ). . . crumbled down And the religion of the truth is now worn out. . Vol.”4 Im~ m al-K~ zim (– ) was never seen smiling during the first ten days of Muharram. al-M~wardi. may All~ h hasten his . 179 .1 What a true follower. 1 This poem was composed by Shaikh Ja`fer al-Hilli as stated on p. Our man of dignity was . Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) been alive.Tãsi. al. so it was his day of grief and agony. reappearance. 2 3 4 Ibn Qawlawayh. He looked very sad. to leave his head uncovered. . . ought to do is to cry as this great Prophet (‰ ) did for the mere mentioning of his name and the remembrance of his tragedy2. 93 of Al-Durr al-Nad§d.D.

/1810 . 193. 2. which is . . . footmen. the one who was the best to unite his kinsfolk. p. Ibn Jar§r [al-Tabari] on p. this poem was composed by Shaikh H~di al-Nahwi who died in 1225 A. 17 of his book Al-Ith~f bi Hubbil-Ashr~f.5 B 1 According to p. The sixth view says they were thirty-two horsemen and forty footmen. Today death descended upon its valley. . al-Fatt~l on p. al-Khaw~rizmi. and you should fight. so. says that the Im~m (–) was escorted by seventy . Vol. He let Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn be in the right wing and Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir on the left. 6. 1. An eighth view says they were . having found the moon of the H~ shemites the best qualified of all the men with him to carry it. Vol. the most safeguarding of the trust. 31. is quoted. . 4. 540. Ibn al-Jawzi. 1. . of al-Thahbi's book Mukhtasar T~r§kh Duwal al-Islam. The tenth view. the most firm in the battle. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. 327 of Al-Dam`a al-S~kiba of Muhammed Jaw~d Shubbar where al-Mukht~r is cited. members remained in the center. Today Mudar's glory is in the dark. 139 (Najaf. . Historians differ with regard to the number of al-Husain's companions. . 24. 56 of his other .H. were eighty-two footmen. where he relies on a tradition wherein Im~m al-B~qir. of his book Tahth§b T~r§kh al-Sh~m. 241. counts sixty-one men. 4. 337. . Today glory's necklace refused its pearls. What apology will Hind's sinners on the Judgment Day have When their opponent is the Chosen One and their Judge is All~ h? What is their excuse when his sons' blood Became on their feast the dye for their hands?1 AL-HUSAIN (– ) ON `} SHâ RA . this is what al-Khaw~rizmi indicates on p. 2.. He and his family . reign. The ninth view says they were seventy-two men. “All~ h Almighty has permitted your being killed today.” Then he prepared them for the battle in one line. al-Husain (– ) led . T~r§kh. you should persevere. Such is the view stated by al-Shar§shi on p. p. 73. of Hay~t al-Hayw~n as he discusses Yaz§d's . 4. Today Asiya joined her to console. Ibn al-Ath§r on p. This is what al-Dimyari states on p. Today Banã Hind achieved their desire. work titled Al-Luhãf. and al-Dainãri on p. Iraq: Hayderi Press). of his book Sharh . 142 of his book I`l~m al-War~.Today honours for him lowered their heights. 28 of his book Muth§r al-Ahz~n and on p. 2 Ibn Qawlawayh. this is what al-Shabr~wi states on p. Vol. . Today apostasy returned to the creed. Vol. Vol. of Shu`ar~’ al-Hilla. 73. 4. Today their sublimity is idled. of his book Al-K~mil. 241. forty-five horse-men and one hundred footmen as stated by Ibn Nama on p. (And All~h surely knows best). Vol. the most composed and the most courageous. the morning prayers for his band then stood up to deliver a sermon. Maqtal al-Husain. p. Ithb~t al-Wasiyya. peace be upon him. the most kind. p. Vol. 3 4 5 al-Tabari.3 He gave his standard to his brother al-`Abb~ s4. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. p. p. the most zealous in calling for his principles. oth Ibn Qawlawayh and al-Mas`ã di2 have said that when it was the tenth of Muharram. Maq~m~t al-Har§ri. A second view says they . . 143 (old edition). 180 . Vol. this is what Ibn `As~kir says . horsemen as he departed from Med§na. A third view says they were sixty men. 108 of his book Akhb~r al-Duwal. The fifth view says they were forty-five horse-men and about one hundred footmen. The fourth view says that they were seventy-three. 254 of his book Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. as we are told on p. .D. the grandosn. of his T~r§kh. . indicated on p. on p. 5. 1. Today al-Zahr~ ’ stood to wail. al-Qarm~ni on p. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. which is expressed by al-Mas`ãdi on . The seventh view. 35 of his book Ithb~t al-Wasiyya (published in Najaf at the Hayderi Press). of his book Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. al-Tibrisi on p. They were eighty-two horsemen and two footmen. He praised All~ h and glorified Him then said. One view says they were thirty-two horsemen and forty . 158 . 6. Vol. the most valiant in protecting them. . Vol. A. this is what al-Shaikh al-Muf§d says in his book Al-Irsh~d.

al-Husain (– ) raised his hands to supplicate thus: . Thuwayd. Vol. 241. . to Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan al-`} miri. exhausted my plans. 4. “You son of the goat herder! You are more worthy of the fire than I!” Muslim ibn `Awsajah was about to shoot him with an arrow. then gather your affair and your accomplices. . Ibn al-Ath§r. . he gave charge . but al-Husain (– ) prohibited him saying. . With the . 202.4 THE FIRST SERMON l-Husain (– ) called for his camel. p. Lord! You are my trust in every adversity. who headed Rab§`ah and Kindah. 3. 25. p.”3 AL-HUSAIN (– ) SUPPLICATES . Vol. Having mounted it. of his book Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. whereupon the Im~ m (– ) said to him. 233. he called out loudly enough to be heard saying: . Ibn `As~kir. of his book Sharh Nahjul-Bal~gha (Egyptian edition). p. Al-Irsh~d. al-Kaf`ami says . who headed Mathhaj and Asad. if you accept my excuse and believe my statement and fare with me with equity. The footmen were commanded by Shabth ibn Rab`i. week. so. Chiefs of the Kã fa quarters at that time were: `Abdull~ h ibn Zuhayr ibn Sal§m al-Azdi. “Who is the inquirer? It seems as if he is Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan!” The answer came in the affirmative. 1 On p. `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn Abu Sabrah al-Hanafi. betrayed my friends. This supplication is abridged by al-Thahbi who quotes it on p. Vol. the author says that their respite in Kãfa lasted for one . Vol. Qays ibn al-Ash`ath. T~r§kh. and al-Hurr ibn Yaz§d al-Riy~ hi. 158 of his Misb~h (Indian edition). Vol. T~r§kh. surely my Lord is All~ h Who revealed the Book and He looks after the righteous. you will be much happier. . (– ) asked. be upon him. 1. peace . exception of al-Hurr al-Riy~ hi. . and elated my enemy which I complained to You. 4. and you will see no reason to expose me to this. and so that I tell you why I have come here. “I hate to start fighting them. Vol. . having placed my hope upon You? You are the Originator of every blessing and the ultimate end of every wish. On the left wing. . al-Tabari. O people! Listen to my speech and do not rush till I admonish you with that which I owe you. my hope in every hardship! You are to me my trust and treasure for whatever afflicts me! How many worries have You removed and dissipated that over-burdened my heart. But if you do not accept my reason and do not fare with me with equity.Commanding a force of thirty thousand strong. The cavaliers were commanded by `Izrah ibn Qays al-Ahmasi. . `Omer ibn Sa`d marched to confront al-Husain. The standard was with the latter's slave. . seeing how the fire was raging in the ditch. H A aving cast a look at the troops that resembled a torrent. al-Shaikh al-Muf§d. 181 . 6. Ibn Sa`d put `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j al-Zubaydi in charge of the right wing. Shimr shouted as loud as he could: “O Husain! Have you resorted to the fire soon enough before the Day of Judgment?” Al-Husain . 2 3 4 al-Tabari. who headed Tam§m and Hamd~ n1. p. 81. 6. Al-K~mil. who headed the Medenites. and do not feel sorry for what you do but effect your judgment in my regard and do not grant me any respite. 242. that the Prophet (‰) had thus supplicated during the Battle of Badr. On p. all the other men took part in fighting al-Husain (– ). . T~r§kh.2 They came circling around the tents.

But if you disbelieve in me. the foremost to believe. my uncle? Is not Ja`fer al-Tayy~ r my uncle? Have you not heard that the Messenger of . What is new in it will soon grow old. Then he said. . . Kind is our Lord. Its pleasure diminishes and its happiness is fleeting. 62 (D~r al-Kutub al-`Arabiyya: 1372 A. and mean servants of His are you! You declared obedience to and belief in Muhammed the Messenger (‰ ). Maqtal al-Husain. the most Exalted One. do not let this life deceive you. Perdition. making you forget the remembrance of All~ h. “By All~ h! I see you worshipping All~ h on seventy letters. 6. delivering a speech which no orator before or after him was more outspoken1. Ask J~ bir ibn `Abdull~ h al-Ans~ ri. 242. 3 182 . Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib al-H~’iri. Abu Sa`§d al.H. the son of his wasi and cousin. can inform you of the same. there is no son of a Prophet from the east of the earth and the west besides myself. is your lot and ultimate end! We belong to All~ h. . do you doubt that I am the son of your Prophet's . Conceited is whoever gets fascinated by it. the Master of . “He worships All~ h by a letter. Is this not sufficient to curb you from shedding my blood?! Al-Shimr then said. and his son. there are among you those who. Am I not the son of your Prophet's daughter. had he known what he is saying!” Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir said . Fear All~ h so that you may be the winners2. whereupon he sent them his brother. ./1952 A. to ask them to remain quiet and not to cry. p. T~r§kh. p. hence. for the best with which you prepare yourselves is piety. and their voices grew loud. “If you doubt what I have said. . the one . then see whether it is lawful for you to violate my sanctity. al-`Abb~ s. created life and made it a temporary abode. Martyrs. let me swear by All~ h that I never deliberately told a lie since I came to know that All~ h hates lying and liars. had it remained for anyone at all. so. Woe unto you! Are you seeking revenge on me for killing one of you? Or is it on 1 2 al-Tabari. These are people who have turned apostates after having believed. All~ h had said about me and about my brother: “These are the masters of the youths of Paradise”? So if you believe what I say. blessed Muhammed and all angels and . al-Husain (– ) praised All~ h again and glorified him. be it among you or among others. daughter?! By All~ h. Khudri. 1. Sahl ibn Sa`§d al-S~ `idi. . for it shall disappoint whoever trusts and desires it! I can see that you have all set your minds on doing something because of which you have caused All~ h to curse you and to turn His Glorious Countenance away from you. and Anas ibn M~ lik. O people! All~ h. So. and that lying is detrimental to those who invent it. Ali al-Akbar. who testified to the truth of what he had brought from his Lord? Is not Hamzah. But All~ h created this life so that it would perish. the Great. al-Husari. taking its people from one condition to another. Vol. so away with the oppressive people3. then you put your ranks together to kill his Progeny . which is the truth. Zayd ibn Arqam. they cried and wailed. O people! Identify me and find out who I am! Then go back to your evil selves and blame them. causing you to be the object of His Wrath. prophets. and miserable is whoever gets infatuated by it. Zahr al-}d~b. and they will tell you that they have heard these ah~ d§th of the Messenger of All~ h with regard to myself and to my brother. and one's house is a fort. Once the ladies were quiet. .). and offspring! Satan took full control of you. . O servants of All~ h! Fear All~ h and be on your guard with regard to this life which. and I testify that you are truthful when you say that you do not know what he is saying! All~ h has surely sealed your heart!” Al-Husain (– ) then said. if you ask them.D. . get ready for the next. Vol. and to Him is our return. to him.When the women heard his statement. the prophets would have been the most worthy of it and the most pleased with fate. A man's home is but a mound.

“Subh~ n-All~ h! [Glorified is All~ h]. captive. asking `Uqbah ibn Sam`~ n to tie it for him. the pastures are green. let me go away from your sight to a safe place on earth. Magnified All~ h between the swords and did sanctify. . “Are you the brother of your brother?! Do you want Banã H~ shim to demand that . . you did exactly so!” Then he said. Misqalah [ibn Hab§rah] al-Shayb~ni paid their ransom and set them free. Since he to All~ h prostrated to glorify. “We did not do so. reneged from Islam during Ali's caliphate. went ahead and approved their being set free. against your stoning me. (– ). Said he: Identify me now then behold: Is it permissible for you to shed my blood? But they found none but arrows at his neck shot For their answer. and they will not harm you in the least. T~r§kh. and a torrent Filled the valley of apostasy.account of your wealth which I devoured? Or are you seeking qis~ s?” None of them spoke a word to the Im~ m .” The Im~ m (– ) said. so he called out. “Followers of al-H~rith ibn Rash§d. nevertheless. and I seek refuge with my Lord and yours against any arrogant person who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning. and deeds are always weighed. take me! My limbs for you now are booty Far it is from me to yield to what is wrong Even if on the very lances is my seat. then he fled to Mu`~wiyah. ibn al-H~rith. Vol. O fates. “O people! If you hate me. So he charged and the world shrunk. Yes.” Al-Husain (– ) said to him. for the fruits are ripe. by All~ h. killing them and taking their women and children . Ibn Hazm says. Ali (–).” 2 1 al-Tabari. On p.” Qays ibn al-Ash`ath said to him. `Come. nor shall I flee from them as slaves flee!1 O servants of All~ h! I have sought refuge with All~ h. “Are you not going first to accept the authority of your cousins? They surely will not deal with you except most amicably. . 6. so he (–) fought them. your Lord and mine. take me! Here I am. you not write me saying. a descendant of `Abd al-Bayt . and you will come to troops ready for your command'?” They said. you pay for the blood of someone else besides that of Muslim ibn `Aq§l? No. Al-Shimr came to him to lift his head With the sword he struck him so All~ h's `Arsh shook and His light was dimmed. 243. As soon as the Prophet's grandson realized That his grandfather's creed was no more And no more among the people remained a Muslim on earth He sacrificed himself in supporting the creed Riding perils so the Muslims would be saved.2 The voice of All~ h stood to speak and to admonish But they turned deaf against his lights' sanctity And they did become blind.” The Im~ m (– ) alighted from his she-camel. . “O Shabth ibn Rab`i! O Hijr ibn Abjar! O Qays ibn al-Ash`ath! O Zayd ibn al-H~ rith! Did . p. Said he: Take me. 164 of his book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. And fate was effected. 183 . O swords. by All~ h! I shall not give them as the subservient ones give.

whereupon al-Husain (– ) raised his hands till the whiteness of his arm-pits became . raising his voice as he said. came charging in the Im~ m's direction. Who is Forgiving. but from him banned. . . Ban§ H~shim.1 A MIRACLE AND GUIDANCE number of men. .” the rogue said. his horse .. So my heart burns for the pure one how he A stoning post for them came to be. twice. “Lord! We are the Ahl al-Bayt of Your Prophet. 27. O son of Muhammed! . the cosmos dim. al-Fatt~l says. praising Him for swiftly responding to his invocation.. Al-K~mil. So my heart burns for him when he was left alone Surrounded by his foes' throngs. hurling him into the fire in the ditch.. jolted him. including `Abdull~ h ibn Hawzah al-Tam§mi2. As the charger leaped over it. “Liar! Rather. causing him to hit the rocks and tree stumps in its way3. his last breathed. Grinding. surely You hear. 159 of his book titled Rawdat al-W~`iz§n (first edition). He died instantly by burning. finally hurling him into the burning fire of the ditch. trampling. so do split the spine of those who oppressed us and usurped what belongs to us.. and thrice.. companions said. After the third call. A small dry rivulet was in the way between them. And when he fell to the ground it remained still And turned greater even than the heavens. “O Husain! Let . The horse kept dragging him. thirsty. “Is Husain among you?” shouted `Abdull~ h once. me convey to you the good news of your going to hell!” Al-Husain (– ) said. his offspring and kinsfolk. the rider fell. On p. 4. And your belongings became among them a booty. Your body is grabbed by their swords and arrows. One of his feet remained hooked in the stirrup.. “He was the son of Abu Juwayrah al-Mazni. . stampeding. . His other foot as well as leg and thigh remained hanging. I shall meet a Lord .The face of earth shone. And my heart goes for you.” 3 2 1 Ibn al-Ath§r. Even as the Euphrates near him flowed Free for all.. 184 . . “Al-Husain (– ) is right here. visible as he supplicated thus: “O Lord! I invoke You to hurl him into the fire!” Ibn Hawzah became so angry that he instantly charged at the Im~ m (– ). what do you want from him?” He said. Obeyed. Vol. and You are ever near!” A Excerpted from a poem by the authority Shaikh M uhammed Husain K~shif al-Ghit~’ quoted in its entirety in my book Qamar . Gracious. and He accepts intercession. al-Husain's . (– ) prostrated to thank All~ h. My heart burns how he. but who are you?” “I am the son of Hawzah. They increased in ignorance as he in clemency increased. My heart burns for him how his corpse was lying On the sands as the steeds his ribs kept smashing. p. It was then that Im~ m Husain . And when the pillar of the universe leaned And almost with everything overturned.

“Shut your mouth! May All~ h forever silence your voice! You have bored us with talking too much!” Zuhayr said. once the sword starts doing its thing. Till now. 3 185 .” Zuhayr said to him. 249. “I was in the vanguard of the horsemen who came to fight al. . Shimr shot him with an arrow saying. for by my life! Yaz§d will be satisfied with your obedience to him even if you do not kill al-Husain (– ).” Zuhayr said. alighted from his horse and started . p. Ibn al-Ath§r. . 2 1 al-Fatt~l. 159 (first edition). (‰ )?” Al-Husain (– ) said. Having seen what happened . I seek refuge with All~ h against you killing them! Save this man from Yaz§d. so I left the . “All~ h will soon kill you and your friend. They will kill the best among you. Husain son of Ali (– ) hoping to cut his head off and win by it favour with Ibn Ziy~ d. leaving him polluted with his own feces1.” . He shouted out: O people of Kã fa! Be forewarned of a torment from All~ h! It is the obligation of each Muslim to admonish his brethren. Vol. or we safely send him and them to `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d. for you should not expect from them except evil so long as they rule over you. . You deserve to be admonished. In his book Al-}m~li. none of you shall be protected from such a torment. I realized that there is a sanctity and a special status of Ahl al-Bayt (– ) with All~ h. Vol. his invoking All~h's wrath against Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath. Muhammed! Lord! Show me today how You swiftly humiliate him!” All~ h did. Im~ m's supplication: Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath came out of the army. and I do not think that you fully understand even two verses from the Book of All~ h! So. of being loved and supported than the son of Sumayya! But if you do not support them. Then they said. They will mutilate you and crucify you on palm trees. to Ibn Hawzah. for you are. we are still brethren following the same religion so long as the sword does not interfere between us. be prepared to be shamed on the Day of Judgment. 1. what we and you will be doing. . “We shall not leave this place before killing your friend and all those who accompany him. p. fully armed. . Masrã q ibn W~ 'il al-Hadrami has said. We will then be one group and you will be another. indeed. 4. 27. They taunted him and praised `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d and even supplicated for him. We call upon you to support them and to abandon the tyranny of Yaz§d and `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d. so.'”3 ZUHAYR IBN AL-QAYN DELIVERS A SPEECH Z uhayr ibn al-Qayn came out on a horse with a huge tail. Maqtal al-Husain. defecating. . an animal. killing him just as the villain's private parts were thus exposed2. “What kinship do you have with Muhammed . p. “Are al-Khaw~rizmi. swiftly respond to the . Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. . As he was thus engaged.Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath [sarcastically] asked the Im~ m. Al-K~mil. “O servants of All~ h! The descendants of F~ tima (– ) are more worthy . by All~ h. Chapter 11. “Lord! Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath says there is no kinship between me and . . and they will kill those among you who know and recite the Qur'an such as Hajar ibn `Adiy and his fellows and also H~ ni ibn `Urwah and his likes. All~ h has tried us and your own selves through the offspring of His Prophet Muhammed (‰ ) in order to see . a black scorpion bit him. al-Sadãq contented himself with quoting only . and be prepared for a very painful chastisement!” Shimr said. people saying. “You! You son of the man who urinates on his heels! I was not addressing you. `I shall not fight them and thus be hurled into the Fire. They will gouge your eyes and amputate your hands and legs.

claiming you would defend them with your own lives. “O servants of All~ h! Let not this crude ruffian and his likes deceive you with regard to your creed! By All~ h! Muhammed's intercession shall never reach those who . . They said to him. 243. .you scaring me with death? By All~ h! To die with him is more pleasing to my heart than having to live forever among you. . “Are you not satisfied if they go back to whence they had come from? Woe unto you Kã fians! Have you forgotten the letters you wrote and the pledges you made. among you! These are his offspring. daughters and ladies. we do not know what you are talking about!” Said he. “O Burayr! You have already said too much. what you are planning to do with them. by All~ h. forcing him to retreat. you now want to hand them over to Ibn Ziy~ d and even prohibited them from drinking of the Euphrates' water?! Evil. Bih~r al-Anw~r. spill the blood of his offspring and Ahl al-Bayt (– ) nor those who kill their supporters and who protect their women. p.” He said.”1 BURAYR'S SPEECH B urayr ibn Khdayr sought al-Husain's permission to deliver a speech. a warner. folks. for the believer from among the family of Pharaoh had admonished his people and was quite eloquent in doing so.” He asked them. . let us know what you have in mind. Vol. progeny. a t~ bi`i. yet it has been made taboo for the son of the daughter of All~ h's Messenger! Is this how you show your gratitude to Muhammed (‰ )?!2 . when they came to you. 186 . 96. 10. suffer of thirst just as those before him had suffered. 6. Burayr sought his permission to address those folks. “O people! Muhammed's offspring are now .” It was then that arrows started pouring on him. invoking All~ h to be a Witness over you and over what you said therein?! Did you invite the family of your Prophet. he stood near the enemy and said: O people! All~ h sent Muhammed (‰ ) as bearer of glad tidings.” He then loudly called out to them. and a lantern of noor. Here is the water of the Euphrates wherein black boars and dogs wade. for surely you are a most evil people!” Some of them said to him. Having acquired permission. and permission was granted to him. “All Praise is due to All~ h Who blessed me with more insight than you. of al-Sadãq's }m~li (or Maj~lis). where Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib is quoted. He was a mentor. so. Vol. 3 al-Majlisi. “Abu `Abdull~ h is telling you to go back. T~r§kh. a q~ ri. is the way how you succeeded your Prophet (‰ ) in faring with his offspring! What is the matter with you?! May All~ h deprive you of drinking on the Day of Judgment. then. Lord! I invoke You to testify that I dissociate myself from the deeds of these people! Lord! Direct their mischief against their own selves so that they may meet You and You are angry with them. a caller to All~ h's Path . indeed. “We intend to put them at the disposal of the governor `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d who will fare with them as he sees fit. 1 2 al-Tabari.” A man from among his group called out to him saying. so spare us for. Among the people of Hamd~ n he enjoyed a great deal of honour and prestige.” They said to him. majlis 30 (first edition). . You have admonished these folks and you have been quite eloquent had admonishment and eloquence been of benefit for such people. it is stated that when thirst took its toll on al-Husain . . “Man.3 AL-HUSAIN'S SECOND SERMON . . al-Husain (‰ ) shall . (–) and those in his company. actually one of the most prominent q~ ris of Kã fa's grand mosque. According to p.

205. it is. accompanied by men from the tribe of Mathhaj. Vol. the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). of Maqtal al-Husain by al-Khaw~rizmi without stating . were.” According to . p. 334. On p. In his S§rat. Al-Ist§`~b.l-Husain (– ) rode his horse and took a copy of the Holy Qur’~ n which he spread over his head then stood . . The Prophet (‰) put him in charge of Mur~d. hence. “O people! The Book of All~ h and the Sunnah of my grandfather. indeed. . 181. from us to do either! Far. 1. 3. 143. souls that refuse to prefer obedience to the lowly over dying in honour and dignity! I most surely am attacking with this family. 6. thinking you are acting wisely! But you opted to fall greedily upon life like the swiftest of all birds. be forewarned of calamities! You abandoned us. say that they .. . of T~r§kh al-Sh~m and on p. from us to accept humiliation! All~ h Himself refuses that we should ever be thus humiliated. 3. so. kindling a fire against us which we ignited against our enemy and yours. of Al-Rawd . al-`Al~' ibn Qarzah: As time subdues some people. On p. 19. cites seven of them. peace be upon him. It had already bent the necks of others. following verse to his uncle. keeping your swords resting in their scabbards. 2. 2. Yet on p. On p. Now you have sided with your own enemies against your friends. This text we have quoted from p. Vol. nor do you hope for their reform.D. Vol. attributing the . Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni cites al-Farazdaq. 191. of his book Al-}m~li. the grandosn. Vol. 7. though being betrayed by those who promised to support me. It is also narrated by Ibn `As~kir on p. 2. the ones who put out the Sunnah! Woe unto you! Are you really supporting such sort of people while thus betraying us?! Yes. on p. splinters of the parties! You have forsaken the Book of All~ h. they are said to be excerpted from a poem by Farwah . throwing yourselves on it as butterflies fall into the fire! So./630 A. were composed by al-Farazdaq himself. of his book Sharh al-Ham~sa. “W hen a battle broke out between Mur~d and Hamd~n tribesmen. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni says. then addressed them in these words: A Woe unto you. commenting on the text on p. Vol. of his book Al-Agh~ni. ibn Musayk but are attributed to `Omer ibn Qa`~s. then you unsheathed your swords in violation of your vows. Such enemies have disseminated no equity among you. 30 of Al-Hamasa al-Basriyya. it is. Their texts differ from one another. al-Murtada attributes them to Thul-Isbi` al-`Adaw~ni. Ibn Hish~m.. and so does His Prophet. Mathhaj and Zubayd. 187 .” Ibn Nama. the name of their author. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. . distorted His Word. 3. 4. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. Vol.”1 Then he asked them whether the sword. and so do the believers! Ours are honourable chambers. are the arbitrators between you and me. . He. Vol. men of dignity. becoming the party of evil. so we came to help you in apprehension. an eyesore to the beholder. 333. enjoying your comfort and ease. thus do you violate your vows! May you be crushed. the poet. the battle gear. he resided in Kãfa during `Omer's reign.. the breath of the devil. Ibn Qutaybah. 54 of Ibn Nama’s book Al-Luhãf. Then he asked them about the reason why they were planning to kill him. O slaves of this nation. of his book `Uyãn al-Akhb~r.” they said. 4. O people. he composed nine verses. al-An§f. . 244.H. on p. in front of those people and said. 114. a morsel to the usurper! Truly the bastard-son who is the offspring of the bastard-son has bidden us to either unsheathe our swords or succumb to humiliation! Far. of his book T~r§kh al-Sh~m and by al-Khaw~rizmi on p. and they all testified that they. “In obedience to the governor `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d. by All~ h! It is your same age-old custom of treachery which goes back to your own roots and upon which your branches grow! You. says. Vol. of his book Al-Is~ba. in Al-Luhãf. and both al-Tabr§zi. Then the Im~ m (– ) cited the following poetry verses by Farwah ibn Musayk al-Mur~ di2: 1 2 Ibn al-Jawzi. are the worst fruit. These verses are cited on p. and the turban which he was wearing belonged to the Prophet (‰ ). “Farwah ibn Musayk came once to meet the Prophet (‰) in 9 A. 49. though small in number. shame and infamy! You sought our help in earnest. Vol.

Maqtal al-Husain. A 1 2 3 Ibn `As~kir. The Im~ m (– ) said to him. 188 . for my Ahl al-Bayt (– ). the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ): [then he cited the verse saying]: “. (– ) in the eyes. The Im~ m (– ) then raised his hands as he supplicated thus: Lord! Keep rain water from them and send upon them years like thosef of Yousuf's. none chases us away. It is only because to others he goes. Al-Luhãf. Vol. 110. al-Khaw~rizmi. . and send upon them the slave of Thaq§f to make them drink of a most bitter cup. do whatever you wish. p. p.” `Omer.1 All~ h will not let a single one of them without having sought revenge on him on my behalf: my killer shall be killed. . 2. shaking you as the axis shakes. T~r§kh. p. while You are our God. p. He shall most certainly seek victory for me. then resolve your affair and (gather) your associates. Not out of cowardice at all. 10:71). The grinding stones shall then spin you. whoever deals a blow against me shall be dealt likewise. for they lied to us and betrayed us. al-Bahr~ni. 7. so. 84. and to You is our destiny. Vol. and because of others' authority. turned his face away from the Im~ m (– )3. But it is only our fate that we should be Thus. 4.. Ibn Nama. Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. 334. “O `Omer! Do you really claim that you will kill me so that the bastard-son will make you the w~ li of the land of Rey and Jurjan?! By All~ h! You shall never have such an enjoyment! This is a promise already made. 54. then have it executed against me and give me no respite” (Qur’~ n. and for my supporters. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. The latter very much hated to look the Im~ m .2 IBN SA`D’S MISGUIDANCE l-Husain (– ) called upon `Omer ibn Sa`d to come forward. upon You do we rely. then let not your affair remain dubious to you. Having said so. outraged. . But if we flee. al-Khaw~rizmi. . for you will not be pleased after my demise with either this life or with the life hereafter! It is as though I can see your head mounted on a stick and the children of Kã fa tossing it from one to another. p. 84. So tell those pleased with our calamity: They shall meet what we have just met. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. . `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. he continued his speech thus: By All~ h! You shall not linger after this incident except as long as one stays on his horseback. we do so headlong.So if we chase. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. p. this is a promise which my father had been promised by my [grand]father. If Death spares some people his throes.. using it as a toy.

” Having said so. shivered.” said `Omer. . p. Qarrah took .e. [going to] Paradise!” I said to myself. that statement to imply that al-Hurr was reluctant to fight al-Husain (– ) and did not wish to be seen by him . “Do you then wish to do so?” was al-Hurr's question. 42. T~r§kh. departure?” `Omer answered: “Had it been up to me. Beside him stood Qarrah ibn Qays whom he asked. 43: “Al-H~rith ibn Z~lim came to `Abdull~h ibn Jad`~n at `Uk~z .” came the answer. adding. 2. head. “Do you want to charge at him?” Al-Hurr remained silent. so he . by All~ h. so. George. `He will have rewards greater than ours because we believed in our Prophet (‰) who is alive among us receiving revelation from the heavens. feeling too shy to look at the Prophet's family in the eyes because of having exposed them to such hardship. . Among what he said to him was: . can my repentance be accepted at all? Al-Husain (– ) said. By All~ h! I do not prefer . to fight this man?” “Yes. . “Woe unto me! How can I be given such glad tidings since I am going to fight the son of the daughter of All~ h's Messenger?!”3 Maqtal al. “a fight in the easiest part of which heads will roll down and hands will be cut off. so. a Christian. “I am giving my soul the option between choosing Paradise or hell. p. meant upon his departure from Kã fa. . Al-}m~li. they would turn their lances upside down. . He felt chilled to the bones. which had addressed him. W e read the following on p. when everyone was embroiled in the Battle of Qays. “Are you going . Vol. Vol. filling it with joy. defecting. so he walked away from him. I would have given no name other than yours. becomes Muslim]?' Kh~lid said. Turning his spear upside down and holding his shield the opposite way.” The same author says the following on p. “What is your objection to his offer of . . Al-Hurr kept getting closer and closer to al-Husain (– ). Vol. 58. anything over Paradise even if it means I will be burnt alive. Ali ibn Muhammed al-Fatt~l al-Naishapuri. p. bringing them to such a place where neither water nor grass could be found. why do I see you look like that?” Al-Hurr said. Vol. Al-Luhãf.Husain. and we witnessed the miracles. . of Ibn Kath§r's book Al-Bid~ya: “During the Battle of Yarmãk. he raised it. of al-Bal~thiri's book Ans~b al-Ashr~f (published by D~r al-Ma`~rif of Egypt).'” On p. al-Sadãq. When I went out of Kã fa. majlis 30. but your governor refuses. will be better than us. 1 2 al-Tabari. All~ h will accept your repentance2. so he turned his lance upside down. said to Kh~lid ibn al-W al§d: `W hat is the outcome of one of us who enters into this matter [i. I was addressed thus: “O Hurr! You are given the glad tidings of . 189 . It now became clear to him what that voice. al-Hurr came to `Omer ibn Sa`d and said.” AlHurr left him and stood by the others. Al-Muh~ jir ibn . 6. 63.' It was then that George turned his shield upside down and inclined to Kh~lid saying.AL-HURR REPENTS aving heard his speech and his plea for help. He had a dialogue with al-Husain (– ). W hoever among you embraces Islam without having ever heard what we have heard nor seen what we have seen of the wonders and proofs. “W henever the Arabs felt they were in danger and sought refuge and asylum. 1. . “Have you watered . . 244.” 3 Ibn Nama. 8. “Yes. Aws asked him. al-Muh~ jir felt terrified and said to him. He took a moment to contemplate upon the eternal life and the incessant bliss. `Teach me about Islam. he beat his horse in the direction of al-Husain (– )1.” This statement found its place to al-Hurr’s heart. Once he was recognized and felt secure. Having seen him shiver. Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. . he came lowering his . Loudly he spoke these words: H O All~ h! To You do I surrender. your horse today?” “No. “Had I been asked: `Who is the most daring of all the Kã fians?'. accepting it in a true intention. p. 97. . for I have filled the hearts of Your walis and the sons of Your Prophet with fear! O father of `Abdull~ h! I am repentant. I would have accepted it.” Al-Hurr asked him. . so do accept my repentance. 7.

As loudly . as he could. treating his progeny! May All~ h never permit you to drink on the Day of Thirst! His own men now started shooting him with arrows. .Al-Husain (– ) said to him. 27.2 AL-HURR ADMONISHES THE Kâ FIANS A l-Hurr sought al-Husain's permission to address the people. “You have now acquired a great deal of good and a great reward. 3 4 2 Ibn al-Ath§r. al-Hurr called out to the Kã fians thus: . was with him. “Stand. Ibn Nama. 2. p. You have prohibited him. p. . 2.” Others followed suit4. 84. M uth§r al-Ahz~n. 4. . for these arrows are messengers of these people to you. may All~ h be Merciful unto you. . The Im~ m (– ) said to his companions. . O p. al-Majlisi. being shot at by an arrow5. 9. al-Khaw~rizmi says that he [al-Hurr] had a . where Muhammed ibn Abu T~lib is quoted. unable to help himself. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. Al-Luhãf. . THE FIRST CAMPAIGN mer ibn Sa`d advanced towards al-Husain's troops and shot an arrow saying. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. O people of Kã fa! A foolish and a bad example for others have you surely set when you invited him to come to you then grieved him and surrounded him from all directions. . p. . 1 It oppressed even as the desert crushed its valiant ones Ibid. By the time the cloud of dust dissipated. Hardly any of al-Husain's men escaped . Turkish slave with him. his children. Bih~r al-Anw~r. “Testify for me with the . and permission was granted to him. al-Maqrizi. and the Zoroastrians drink and wherein black swine and dogs wade! Look and see how thirst has subdued them! Evil is the way whereby you have succeeded Muhammed (‰ ) in . his ladies. so he was forced to retreat till he stood face-to-face with Im~ m Husain (– )3. rendering him like a captive in your hands. . Vol. . 5 6 Ibn Nama. 56. Vol. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni.”1 A Turkish slave . 7 190 . p. Vol. forbidding him from going anywhere in All~ h's spacious land so that he and his family might be safe.” He and his companions charged together6 and fought for a while. 159. and his companions from the flowing water of the Euphrates of which the Jews. p. On p. governor that I shot the first arrow. 287. 31. the Christians. fifty men had been killed7. and meet the imminent death. Khutat.

Then `Abdull~ h swiftly turned to him with his own sword.1 Yas~ r. “I believe he is a match for both of them. may All~h sanctify his soul. you?” the challengers inquired. and S~ lim. Till they. It is published . They would have gone to that side. The latter said . who belonged to al-Nimr ibn Q~ sit. Meanwhile. Umm Wahab daughter of `Abdull~ h. yielding in hardship to none. to the ground did fall. And from its blood do the spears always drink. Ziy~ d's slave. All~ h's peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny!” He . “The slave is now charging at you!” But he did not pay attention to him. they are. They fell. to him. 1 191 . One of them said.” “Who are . And the men of honour always seek What is honourable and what glorifies. but al-Husain (– ) did not permit them. Excerpted from a poem by the authority Shaikh Muhammed Husain K~shifal-Ghit~’. “You son of the adulteress! Do you not wish to fight me?!” then charged at him and engaged him in a sword duel. . took a rod and came to him saying. . Al-Husain (– ) permitted him saying.” Yasar stood nearby. He identified himself to them. `Abdull~ h . “We do not know you. so say the mountains were crushed to the core. he went back to al-Husain (– ) reciting rajaz . so S~ lim hit him with his sword. and a man of courage and martial experience. Dignified.And the face of the morning its battle curiously examines. who was known as “Abu Wahab. So their swords on the battle day drip of blood. holding to his clothes and saying. so his companions warned him saying. “I shall not leave you till I die with you!” Al-Husain (– ) called out to her saying. So if glory in a star does reside. stood up. `Abdull~ h tried to protect himself from it with his left hand. let either Zuhayr or Hab§b or Burayr come out. came out and challenged anyone to fight them in a duel. but she kept persisting. like stars. Their faces were with the battle elated. getting his fingers cut off in the attempt. Their flesh is always with the swords' brink. (martial) poetry. the offspring of Muhammed. but they could not recognize him. Having seen how her husband so valiantly fought. . S~ lim attacked him. ibn `Omayr al-Kalbi. a slave of `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d.” a tall and masculine man with broad shoulders. a man who was held with very high esteem among his people. of Banã `Al§m. in my book Qamar Ban§ H~shim. “May both my parents be sacrificed for you! Do defend the good ones. Nor do they fear any calamity. wanted to take her back to the tent. killing him instantly. Hab§b and Burayr leaped to meet their challenge. Having killed both men. And their hands are with glory always dyed. How many faces of valiant men then turned grim? Pleased they are when the lances come to them And music it is to their ears to hear swords' clamour. Only to glory their souls yearn Only glory do their souls earn. so say that the brightest stars are no more They fell. “May you be well rewarded on behalf of your . Though after them I wish no star remains at all.

. Iy~s ibn `Abd Man~t ibn Sa`d was killed with al-Husain ibn Ali. but we are weeping only because we can see how you are thus surrounded while we cannot do much for you. T~r§kh. Al-Husain (– ) asked his brother al-`Abb~ s to go to their rescue. W 1 al-Tabari.6 . both with the last name of al-J~ biri. Part 3. Two Ans~ ris. 4. Despite their wounds.” Al-Husain (– ) prayed All~ h to reward them both with goodness. they were soon circled. 192 . they kept fighting till they were all killed at the same place4. “All~ h's Wrath intensified against the Jews for having attributed a son to Him. 4. Al-Had~’iq al-Wardiyya. Vol. the enemy came close to them.” Then he called out. Ibn al-Ath§r. they also heard the cries of his children. namely Sayf ibn al-H~ rith ibn Sar§` and M~ lik ibn `Abd ibn . .” They kept fighting al-Husain's enemy till they were both . “People have driven us to you [against our wish]. p. two. before all those men received heavy wounds. three. during the Battle of Taff. . 2 3 On p. . and His Wrath also intensified against the Zoroastrians who worshipped the sun and the moon instead of worshipping Him. 29. p. On their way. `Abdull~ h and `Abdul-Rahm~ n. Vol. it is stated that Mujma` ibn `Abdull~h ibn Mujma` ibn M~lik ibn . killed. which he did. Once they were in the latter's midst. camp. . 245. came and said. near him till they were killed2. Ibn Nama. he took hold of his sacred . Vol. 4 5 6 al-Tabari. AND GUIDANCE hen al-Husain (– ) saw that a large number of his companions had died. Sa`d ibn al-H~ rith and his brother Abul-Hutã f. 3. `Amr ibn Kh~ lid al-Sayd~ wi and his slave Sa`d. beard and said. p. both cousins. 37. but not . peace be upon him. Al-Husain (– ) asked them. Vol. Ibn al-Ath§r. T~r§kh. and His Wrath intensified against the Christians who made Him one of three [Triune]. or four men simultaneously sought al-Husain's permission to let them defend him . . came out and collectively attacked the Kã fians. “Why are you weeping? I hope after a short . and . p. DUELS BETWEEN TWO OR FOUR WARRIORS hen the rest of al-Husain's companions saw the large number of those who had been killed from their . 6. By All~ h! I shall never agree with them about anything they want me to do till I meet All~ h drenched in my blood. ibn `Abdull~ h al-`} 'ithi3. Vol. And His Wrath intensified against people who collectively agreed to kill the son of their Prophet's daughter. 57. Two men. 94. . sons of `Urwah al-Ghif~ ri. and his ladies. Each member of these groups tried his best to protect the other or others as they fought. 255. 6. p. . . heard al-Husain (– ) pleading for help. . while you will see what will cool your eyes!” They said. They suddenly turned against al-Husain's enemy around them and kept killing them till they themselves were killed. W AN APPEAL FOR HELP. as well as J~ bir ibn al-H~ rith al-Salm~ ni and Majma` . a manuscript. They were both with the army of `Ubaydull~ h Ibn Sa`d. Al-Luhãf. the women cried and wailed. Saree`.Prophet's Ahl al-Bayt (– )! Go back to the tent! Women are not required to fight!” She did1. “May All~ h accept us as your own sacrifice! We are not mourning our own death. came out weeping. of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni ). They both fought . “Is there anyone who would defend the ladies of the Messenger of All~ h?!”5 Hearing him.

kept shouting in excitement that they killed Muslim. “Woe unto you. 6. Vol. send word to everyone and tell them not to come out to them for any duel. but the men were able to maintain their ground. land's knights. Muslim ibn `Awsajah. “Do you really know who you are fighting?! You are fighting the . “May All~ h convey to you.” pointing to al-Husain (– ). Your idea is the sound one. . you. truly devastating me. I would have liked you to convey your will to me with regard to anything on your mind. and they never changed aught in the least' (Qur’~ n. those who stay firm till death. once dissipated. T~r§kh. adding. Muslim ibn `Abdull~ h al-Dab~ bi and `Abdull~ h ibn Khashk~ rah al-Bijli attacked him. 2 3 4 193 . p. and among them are those who wait. and wounding others. 27. None of you comes out to fight them except that he gets killed despite their small number. . “May your mothers lose you! Do you really feel elated when a man such as Muslim is killed?! A great stand which I saw with my own eyes involving him was in Azerbaijan where he killed six polytheists even before the Muslim cavalry had enough time to form its ranks!”4 A 1 al-Tabari. T~r§kh. “W~ Muslim~ h [O Muslim!] O master! O son of `Awsajah!” Ibn al-Hajj~ j. `Amr ibn alHajj~ j then shouted loudly at his men. you will be able to kill them all!” `Omer ibn Sa`d said to him. al-Husain's men met them with their arrows. the people of vision. too. Shabth ibn Rab`i said to those around him. al-Husain's companions resorted to .”1 `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j attacked al-Husain's right wing. Ibn Kath§r. al-Husain (– ) said to him. showed Muslim lying on the ground drawing his last breath. By All~ h! If you throw rocks at them. 6. i. they will finish you. “Fight those who abandoned their creed and . Al-K~mil.THE RIGHT WING REMAINS FIRM aving seen how the number of their fighting men became so small. who deserted the jam~ `a!” Hearing him say so. . killing some of them . 249. al-Tabari. if you fight them singly.” It was then that Muslim breathed his last as he was lying between . really instigating people to fight me?! Are we really the ones who abandoned their creed while you yourself uphold it?! As soon as our souls part from our bodies. you have said the truth. Thus. 4. the dying hero said. “Had I not known that I will soon be following . 249. in duels. Vol. “Your being killed is . kneeling down as they planted their lances. “All I want you to do is to look after this man. you will find out who is most worthy of entering the fire!”3 H MUSLIM IBN `AWSAJAH mr ibn al-Hajj~ j attacked from the Euphrates' side. Ibn al-Ath§r. such glad tidings!” Hab§b said. al-Husain (– ) walked towards him and said. They were thus able to frighten the enemy's horses. they were able to kill a large number of the Kã fians. “Yes. Vol. .2 `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j kept saying the following to his men. both men. Al-Bid~ya. fighting for a while. Escorted by Hab§b ibn Muz~ hir.e. His woman cried out. Vol. 33:23). so. This engagement involved .” Muslim said. When the horsemen came back to charge at them again. p. causing a huge cloud of dust which. . 182. 8. O Muslim! `Among them are those who died.” Hab§b came closer to him and said. . True. p. “and to defend him till death. “May All~ h be . Hab§b said. feeling elated about Muslim's martyrdom. . O `Amr! Are you .” . O Muslim! Receive the glad tidings of Paradise!” In a very faint voice. “I will Insh~ -All~ h do exactly so. Merciful unto you. p. fight individually.

2 His wife. but the latter was able to stay firm .. then we transgressed on his son [al-Husain] who is the best man on the face of earth. wiping the blood from it and saying.THE LEFT WING l-Shimr and his company attacked the right wing of al-Husain's army. . . Vol. 6. In that engagement. who was head of the cavalry division. 251. however. Vol. His mother took it. She was the first woman to be martyred from among al-Husain's companions. (– ) called out to him saying. which he did. (– ) sent her back saying. It is stated in the latter reference that the . . p. while there are with you those who can spare him such a task?!” Shabth ibn Rab`i. Musnad. “O son of Thul-Jawshan! Are you calling for fire to burn my Ahl al-Bayt (– )?! May All~ h burn you with His fire!” Shabth ibn Rab`i asked Shimr. `Abdull~ h ibn `Omayr al-Kalbi participated. offspring of Abu Sufy~ n on the side of Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ) then on the side of his son [al-Hasan] after him. Al-Man~qib. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. al-Husain. “Why don't you attack them?” He answered: “Y~ Subh~ n-All~ h! [Praise to All~ h] Are you asking the dignitary of the land to shoulder such a responsibility . wiped . He was taken captive and instantly killed. 2. . On p. disappoint you!”4 Al-Shimr now attacked. killing nineteen horsemen and twelve footmen.” Al-Shimr heard her and told his slave Rustam to hit her head with a rod. 13. fighting him in support . Im~ m al-Husain . `Abdull~ h's head was cut off then thrown in the direction of Husain's camp. `Omer ibn Sa`d said to Shabth ibn Rab`i.3 . p. “Give me a torch . “For five years did we fight the . he sent a message to `Omer ibn Sa`d asking for more men. walked towards his corpse and sat at his head.” She went back saying. “Go back. p. This incident is abridged when narrated by al-Khaw~rizmi on p. while on a military expedition. may All~ h have mercy on you. 4 5 3 Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. H~ ni ibn Thab§t al-Hadrami charged at him. so he went away. in their positions. T~r§kh. 16. T~r§kh. 194 . left hand was cut off after his right hand had already been cut off. “O All~ h! Do not disappoint me!” Al-Husain (– ) said to her. 113. . . Umm Wahab. He was even heard saying. Vol. for you are exempted from participating in jih~ d. 2. “May All~ h never . Messenger of All~h (‰) passed. says that his . Vol. attacked al-Shimr's company till they succeeded in distancing them from their quarters. by the body of a woman who had been killed and banned the killing of women and children. al-Tabari. p. heading a company of ten fighters. .5 A `IZRAH REQUESTS REINFORCEMENTS hen `Izrah son of Qays. 2.” The rogue felt ashamed of himself. the adulteress! How we have strayed! By All~ h! W 1 Ibn Shahr }shãb. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. “Congratulations for having earned Paradise! I plead to All~ h Who blessed you with Paradise to make me join you. cutting his right hand off1 as Bakr ibn Hayy was cutting his left. Vol. Ahmed. al-Khaw~rizmi. . of his book Maqtal . Al-Husain . of fire to burn the tent and everyone in it!” The women inside the tent screamed in peril as they fled.. 2 This is how it is recorded by Ibn al-Ath§r. of Mu`~ wiyah's offspring and in support of the son of Sumayya. Vol. She died there and then. remained all the while too reluctant to fight al-Husain (– ). piercing al-Husain's tent with his lance and loudly shouting. 6. forcing the attackers to withdraw. nor a situation more ugly than yours. 251. p. 2. 100 (Egypt: first edition). al-Tabari. in all reality. “Have you sunk so low so as to be one who thus frightens women?! I have never seen anyone doing a worse thing than what you have done. 217. the blood from it then grabbed the pillar of a tent and ran in the direction of the enemy's camp. noticed how weak his fellows were and how they failed in their mission whenever they charged. Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn.

According to p. may All~ h count you among those who uphold the prayers and who remember Him often. of al-Hamd~ni's book .4 Then he charged at the enemy and killed nine more before he himself was killed5. of Ibn Ath§r's book Al-Lub~b. . “But. al-Sadãq. namely Yaz§d ibn Ziy~ d al-Kindi.” said the Im~m (–).3 ABU AL-SHA`TH} ' bu al-Sha`th~ '. would attack and kill every man as he attempted to plunder. 6. Vol. O Commander of the Faithful?!” “I am watching the sun. Vol. you shall not be killed before I die defending you. Ibn al-Ath§r. 4. (continued. 2. therefore. 28. p. have remembered the prayers. al-Khaw~rizmi. . this is the beginning of its time. dispatched men with instructions to demolish those homes then surround them. chapter 41.) 7 6 195 . al-Tibrisi. “Let them burn them. who had heard the Im~ m (– ) say these words. 10. p. 373 of Ibn Hazm's book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. shooting him with an arrow from a close distance. 16. . 251. Vol. . Ibn Sa`d issued his order to burn all the tents. 4. was first fighting on the side of `Omer ibn Sa`d. and I love to return to All~ h after having performed the prayers whose time has approached. 2. 97. . . p. p. “W hat are you doing. they would .. Vol. Husain (– ) kept supplicating. not be accepted!”7 Ibid. On p. Having seen what happened to the women and the children. he stood up and said. Yet the enemy forces failed whenever they attacked them from any direction due to the fact that their homes were close to one another. Vol. Vol. Ibn Sa`d. Vol. by All~ h. suffered most of the wounds.” Al-Husain (– ) raised his head to the heavens and said. “You . . majlis 30. he killed nineteen men. 28. 151.” Al-Has§n. 145. and according to the text of the ziy~rat of that sacred area. for once they have done so. p. (– ). Ask them to leave us alone so that we may perform the prayers. Al-Ikl§l.” responded Ibn `Abb~s. He was killed defending al-Husain . And so it was. their horses were hamstrung. A A 1 2 3 4 5 AT THE TIME OF ZAW} L bu Thum~ ma al-S~ `§di6 looked at the sun and saw that it was already after-noon. not touch you with any harm. Al-Husain (– ) said. No. His order was carried out. he defected and joined al-Husain's camp. According to Thakh§rat al-D~rayn. so Ibn `Abb~s asked him. of Al-Was~'il. 247. and also according to p. and also according to p. 17. Al-}m~li.The people of this country will never be granted goodness. I`l~m al-War~.. “It [your prayer] will . al-S~`idi was named after Sa`§d. children were dumbfounded. 46. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. Vol. According to p. Al-Husain's companions . so he said to al-Husain . Each group of three or four persons from among al-Husain's band would stand before each tent. commented by saying. the name of Abu Thum~ma was Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Ar§b ibn Hanzalah ibn D~rim al-S~`idi. T~r§kh. 6. nor will they ever be rightly guided!”1 Yet he sent him al-Has§n ibn Nam§r in charge of five hundred archers. 6. The riders were thus forced to fight on foot2. . Ibn al-Ath§r. Maqtal al-Husain. p. p. Vol. Yes. “It is clear to me that I have killed five of them”. “May I be sacrificed for your sake! I can see that these folks have advanced towards you. . he knelt down in front of al-Husain (– ) and shot at least a hundred arrows as al. a branch of [the tribe of] Hamd~n. 1. (–). the Commander of the Faithful (–) was very much engaged in battle. 255. an excellent archer. arrows. They .. S~`id's real name was Ka`b ibn Shurahb§l. Women screamed in fright. which deals with prayer times (published by `Ayn al-Dawlah). “O All~ h! Guide his shots and reward him with Paradise!” Having run out of . and fighting intensified. He was . al-Tabari. yet he remained mindful of the prayer time.

the other would attack to rescue him. so Hab§b slapped the face of al-Has§n's horse. . 7 (. p. Al-Has§n said to Yaz§d ibn Sufy~ n. Hab§b. 248 and 250. 5 6 Ibn Shahr }shãb. . 2. who was . al-Tabari. 118 of Tazallum al-Zahr~’ of Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. a young teenager. ab§b ibn Muz~ hir heard what that rogue had said. prayers are not accepted from the Prophet's Family but yours are accepted. “It is only to All~ h . again. 8. . . Vol.. p. hits on its ears and eyebrows. 1 2 al-Khaw~rizmi. Vol. been killed as prophets and the offspring of prophets are killed. Vol.”6 Al-Husain (– ) turned to al-Hurr. people of Kãfa saw that. Some say that it was done by Bad§l ibn Sar§m. . Vol. It turned out that al-Has§n was asking for a swift death. Al-Bid~ya. W hen the . Vol. came out and challenged al-Hurr to a duel. “Do you claim that . “Is this al-Hurr whom you wished to kill?” “Yes. 252. 2. Man~qib. 217 (Iranian edition). 19. 135. 4. Al-Khaw~rizmi.” the Im~m (–) said. 6. (continued. alighted and severed Hab§b's head. and to Him is our return]. p. 183. Al-Husain's companions carried his body and put it before the tent in front of which they were fighting. As he attempted to stand up . p. . “Al-Tam§mi . so the first . . from p. “on account of establishing the prayers. Vol. Maqtal al-Husain. . . 251. that I complain about what has happended to me and to my companions. and al-Husain (– ). each time. hamstringing .HAB¦B IBN MUZ} HIR . At its chest. p. . at him. so the rider leaped from it like a lion4. causing him to fall again face-long. .”2 For a good while. where the author says.. Vol. of al-Nu`m~ni's Ghayba. . the son of Hab§b ibn Muz~hir.continued) “we are distracted by the battle from the prayers. assaulted its rider and cut his head off. despite his advanced age. Hab§b now fell on the ground. The man from Tam§m . and they kept doing so for a while3. al-Hurr ibn Yaz§d al-Riy~ hi came out accompanied by Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn who was protecting . him from the rear. 2. H AL-HURR AL-RIY} HI .” He never stopped performing sal~t al-layl till the very last night during which he (–) died. you ass?!” Al-Has§n charged . They . 6. al-Has§n hit him with his sword on the head. till blood drenched it all. Vol. . killing as many as sixty-two men. 13. T~r§kh.” “W e fought them. p.. . He kept fighting on foot till he killed more than forty men. one of them. The severed head was hung around a mare's neck.” said Yaz§d. al-Tabari. were doing so whenever a man was killed.) 196 . and it was bleeding as its rider was quoting the following verse by Antar ibn Shadd~ d al-`Abasi: A I kept shooting them at its very mouth. . fought them valiantly. 3 4 al-Tabari. . Vol. cut off Hab§b's head. fter him. 17. The poor horse leaped. This text is quoted from p. so he responded to him by saying. Whenever one of them attacked and the situation became critical. p. the Im~ m (– ) kept repeating the statement: Inn~ -Lill~ hi wa inn~ ilayhi raji`ã n [We belong to All~ h. it. causing it to leap and throw its rider on the ground. T~r§kh. The horse on which al-Hurr was riding received . Hab§b being thus killed shook al-Husain (– ) who said. . Bad§l ibn Sar§m attacked him and dealt a sword blow to him as a man from Tam§m hit him with his lance. holding his sword in his hand.” . for it did not . 29. Al-Has§n's men had to rush to his rescue and to carry him away to safety1.. . 6. kept repeating this statement: “He has .5 A company from the footmen fiercely attacked him and killed him. Ibn al-Ath§r. . T~r§kh. take al-Hurr long to kill him! Ayyã b ibn Mashrah al-Khayw~ ni shot al-Hurr's horse with an arrow. pp.

breathing his last. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. 44. . he had received from his grandfather. Husain's prayer was performed as qasr because he had arrived at Kerbal~’ on the second of Muharram. 30. as he wiped out the blood from his face. Nor did the army stop it from near nor from far. but these authors did not mention al-Husain (–) by name due to the magnanimity of the situation. How it defended All~ h's creed. the following verses which some people claim the Im~ m (– ) himself had composed:2 How good al-Hurr of Banã Riy~ h! . majlis 30. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book. just as your mother named you. . The guided ones were few. 6. It was a special prayer called sal~ t al-khawf. 4 3 Ibn Nama. p. How patient when the lances intertwined! How good al-Hurr when he defended Husain! . In front of him stood Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn and Sa`§d ibn `Abdull~ h al-Hanafi and half of the . al. Ali ibn Muhammed al-Fatt~l al-Naishapuri.continued) According to p. for his life. 1 2 6 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. It shook the hosts so it was as though Al-Taff's plains and valleys were not vast at all. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. Though death was from it quite near. . he could not intend to stay there for ten days or more. For it was not of death frightened.” One of the companions of al-Husain (– ). Maqtal al-Husain. al-Sadãq. and said to him. Vol. p. . a tent . who some say was [al-Husain (– )’s son] Ali ibn al-Husain1. p. . 85. al-Khaw~rizmi. and you are free in this life and in the life hereafter. Due to the knowledge which . (. Other historians say that he and his companions offered their prayers individually. 197 . Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. . was placed on the battlefield. . In my view. Vol. And the sun was burning. But the bloody stand did not cause it to bend. from among his companions. though thirsty.. Al-}m~li. Vol.. . he had performed sal~t al-khawf (prayer of one who fears for his life).4 A Far away it was from being a prayer in fear. 4. eulogized him with . How it defended All~ h's every sanctity So it did not harm any glory at all Nor did it in fear flee. in addition to his knowledge that he was going to be killed on the tenth of Muharram. p. . . 160. From it the ground was as though on fire. . Ask the battlefield about it and you will see How it stamped it with stabs and with blows. 11. as well as al-Muf§d's book Al-Irsh~d. 88. 17. p. Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. 2. surviving companions3. Those who are not familiar with all of this presumed that . 2. And in the morning his life he sacrificed! PRAYERS l-Husain (– ) stood to perform his prayers. free man]. It is said that he led the prayers' service before the survivors . . p. al-Khaw~rizmi. the Messenger of All~h (‰). 97. the prayer said by one fearing . Muth§r al-Ahz~n. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh and p. 256. . . It charged. p. “You are al-Hurr [which means: the . .

him. Ibn Nama. Al-Luhãf.. 178. with its rivers joining one another. . and of them is he who yet waits. 198 . and they have 1 2 This poem was composed by the authority Sayyid Muhammed son of }yatull~h Sayyid Jam~l Gulpaygani. 34. “. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. al-Dahh~ k ibn `Abdull~ h al-Mashriqi who recounted this report: . .” said the Im~ m (– ). “Have I carried out my obligation.4 Having finished his prayers. . p. T~r§kh. and may our blood protect yours! By All~ h! So long as blood flows in our veins. . 255. O honourable men! Here is Paradise with its gates wide open for you. p. p. companions and to hamstring their horses6. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. so of them is he who accomplished his vow. “Peace be upon you. They fought most fiercely7.”2 He turned to Im~ m al-Husain (– ) and asked . `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. 6 7 al-Tabari. Not a single horseman remained with al-Husain (– ) except . O son of the . 3 4 5 Thakh§rat al-D~rayn.”3 Then the hero died. . Asr~r al-Shah~da. “And upon you. 88. with its fruits ripened. Whoever wanted to come out to fight would bid al-Husain (– ) farewell and say. Having seen how the horses of our fellows were being hamstrung. for I desired Your rewards when I supported the offspring of Your Prophet. About them wrote history: Their mischief filled the valley. . p. 6. Messenger of All~ h!” Al-Husain (– ) would then respond to him by saying. They are congratulating one another on your account.Their enemies filled the place They had arrows and swords but no grace..”5 THE HORSES HAMSTRUNG O mer ibn Sa`d dispatched `Amr ibn Sa`§d in charge of a company of archers to shoot arrows at al-Husain's . too. “May our lives be sacrificed for yours. Sayyid K~zim al-H~’iri. . . p. be peace. al-Husain (– ) addressed his companions thus: . As many as thirteen arrows were found planted in his body in addition to the blows which he had sustained from swords and lances. Vol.1 When Sa`§d's wounds became overwhelming. “and you shall reach Paradise before I do. and here is the Messenger of All~ h and the martyrs who were killed in the Cause of All~ h: they all are waiting for you to join them. O son of the Messenger of All~ h?” “Yes. and do protect the women of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Ibn Nama. no harm shall reach you or your ladies. . I came with my horse and entered a tent belonging to our fellows. and we shall soon join your company. p. 175. he fell on the ground as he was supplicating thus: “O All~ h! Curse them as You cursed the peoples of `} d and Thamã d and convey my Sal~ m to Your Prophet (‰ ) and tell him about the pain of the wounds which I have received. Peace of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. 62. so do defend the religion of All~ h and of His Prophet (‰ ).” Then he would quote the Qur’~ nic verse saying. They all said to him.

”2 `AMR IBN QARZAH mr ibn Qarzah al-Ans~ ri3 came and stood before al-Husain (– ). “May All~ h never keep you distant from us.” A 1 2 3 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. And the one with Two Wings. 20. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. 33:23)1. He killed a hundred and twenty men. a cousin of Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn al-Bijli. indeed. 345 of Ibn Hazm's book Ans~b al-`Arab. protecting him from the enemy and . It was then that al-Husain (– ) stood up and said. exposing his own chest and face to their arrows. O son of the Messenger of All~ h?” The Im~ m (– ) said. may you guide. [the latter is] also a poet. Sa`d and whose name the said genealogist does not mention. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. al-Husain (– ) was not harmed. shall follow. permission to fight with these verses: Advance. The lion of All~ h. 2. 253. Vol. Zuhayr am I and the son of al-Qayn With my sword do I defend Husain! . had two sons: `Amr. ABU THUM} MAH A S bu Thum~ ma al-S~ `idi came out and fought till he was very heavily wounded. he was a descendant of `Amr ibn `}mir ibn Ziy~d-Man~t ibn M~lik al. and I will be the next person to be in Paradise. 85. ZUHAYR AND IBN MUD} RIB . and there was a great deal of enmity between them both. . T~r§kh. and may He condemn those who killed you as He had condemned those whom He turned into apes and pigs. “Yes. Zuhayr kept reciting this verse: . Aghar. p. O guided one! For today shall I your grandfather the Prophet meet! And I shall meet al-Hasan and Ali the pleased one! . too. 25. According to p. 199 . al-Tabari. p. al-Khaw~rizmi. Zuhayr. Qarzah . O . killed. p. so. “And I. killed him. . Al-Husain (– ) responded by saying. Vol. But when his . who was killed while fighting on the side of Im~m al-Husain (–). His father is the poet whose poetry overflows with praises.” As he fought. Kath§r ibn `Abdull~ h al-S~ `bi and al-Muh~ jir ibn Aws jointly attacked and . and another son who fought on the side of Ibn . 2. p. the living martyr! Zuhayr am I and the son of al-Qayn With the sword do I defend Husain! . elm~ n ibn Mud~ rib al-Bijli. the valiant youth greet. 6. Thus. He had a cousin named Qays ibn `Abdull~ h who was fighting with `Omer ibn Sa`d. he turned to Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) and said. namely Qarzah ibn Ka`b ibn `Amr. “Have I carried out my responsibility towards you. He was followed by Zuhayr ibn al-Qayn who put his hand on al-Husain's shoulder and sought .not changed in the least” (Qur’~ n. came out and fought till he was . . The latter attacked him fiercely and killed him. convey my Sal~ m to the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and inform him that I will soon follow. wounds overpowered him. . al-Khaw~rizmi.

4. he attacked al-Husain (– ) with the intention to stab him. 4 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. though the latter provides the name of Hil~l ibn Hajj~j as the poet. 253. 88. 8. and he was taken captive. . al-Tabari. Vol. Jamali intercepted and stabbed him seriously but not fatally. and its tips trained In poison. All~ h is the One Who showed him the right guidance while leaving you to stray.7 W} DIH AND ASLAM . “Can't you see in what condition you are?” He said. p. N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l al-Jamali al-Mathhaji shot arrows on which he had written his . Vol. Al-K~mil. “Who can be as . rather. 184. . Vol. T~r§kh. “My God knows what I want. so. 253. Al-Bid~ya. p. lucky as I am when the son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) puts his cheek on mine?!” Having said so. On p. shouted. the man fell dead. Vol. “I did not deceive your brother. W 1 2 3 5 6 7 hen Wadih. . 8. 6. he sought the help of al. T~r§kh. but N~ fi` ibn Hil~ l al.” Al-Shimr pulled him and struck his neck with his sword. Ibn al-Ath§r. of his book Al-Bid~ya. p.” “May All~ h kill me. . Ibn Kath§r. p. His friends carried him away and treated him till he was healed. not counting the ones I injured. al-Khaw~rizmi. and the soul Is not benefitted by fear at all. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni.5 Al-Shimr and those in his company dragged him away. and so does al-Sadãq in his book Al-}m~li. . not counting those whom he injured. p.”6 AlShimr pulled his sword out of its scabbard to kill him.” A man who saw how blood was pouring down his face and beard said to him. Vol. p. who was fighting on Ibn Sa`d's side. you would have found it very hard to meet All~ h stained with our blood. Vol. he pulled his sword to fight them. Ibn Kath§r cites portions of . To fill the earth with shots. p. He killed twelve men. p. 6. . [`Omer] Ibn Sa`d asked him. Having seen that. al-Tabari. 200 . but N~ fi` said to him. “O Shimr! Had you been Muslim at all. 4.” the man responded. 84. p. 27. p. brother till you got him killed!” The Im~ m (– ) said.2 N} FI` AL-JAMALI U sing poisoned arrows. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. . a Turkish slave of al-H~ rith al-Mathhaji. . . Vol. 8. 6.1 His brother. Vol.Having heard these words. these verses. had you only not taken me captive. 184. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. Maqtal al-Husain. Ibn al-Ath§r. 2. I have killed twelve of your men. “By All~ h. Ibn Kath§r. 21. name3 as he recited these verses4: I shoot it. 29. on the wind borne. T~r§kh. “O Husain! You liar! You deceived my . “What caused you to do to yourself what you have done?” He said. received a heavy blow. “if I do not kill you!” Having said so. 252. Al-Bid~ya. he retorted saying. Having run out of arrows. but he was hurled with stones and spearheads till his arm was broken. al-Tabari. Husain (– ) who came to him and hugged him. and I have no regret at all for resuming the jih~ d against you if I remain alive and if I have any strength at all. Vol. 90. all Praise is due to All~ h Who caused our death to be at the hands of the very worst of His creatures.

Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. By All~ h! I shall never speak to you a word. With me was my sword never disappointed. . his wife. Yaz§d fell as Burayr's sword was still planted in his head. p. “This is Burary ibn Khdayr. cutting. 2 3 Thakh§rat al-D~rayn.” When Ka`b ibn J~ bir returned to his family. sitting on his chest. 85. they both raised their hands and supplicated to All~ h.” his name is given as Lawthan ibn `Abd-W udd ibn Zayd ibn Jasham ibn H~shid. he belonged to Banã `Umayr ibn Rab§`ah and was an ally of Banã Sulayma ibn . and hugged him. and before today you were never known to lie. Radiyy ibn Munqith al-`Abdi attacked Burayr and engaged .. him in a fight for some time.. According to p. al-Khaw~rizmi. 201 . cutting the tip of his nose off. the q~ ri who used to teach us the Qur’~ n at Kã fa's mosque. invoking Him to curse the liar and to kill him. killing him. “O Burayr! How do you see what All~ h has done to you?!” Burayr answered: “All~ h has done very well to me while afflicting you with evil. sharp edged. you have done something monstrous. 6. He felt proud and died with a smile lighting his face.. Then they fought one another. 4 In T~j al-`Arãs and under the word “lawth. Vol. Burayr hit the man on his head with his sword. Ibs~r al-`Ay~n. The loser screamed for help.1 Al-Husain (– ) walked to Aslam. breathing his last and was able to smile. As he was trying to take it out.” He said in his answer the following verses: Y Ask about me and you will be told. Banã `Abd al-Qays. Vol. remove him from the man's chest then hit him with his sword. In the latter reference.” but he did not pay him any attention and stabbed Burayr in the back. the author says that the Turkish slave was one of the slaves of al-Husain (–) who used to recite the Holy Qur’~n . al-Husain (–) placed his own cheek on his. splitting it in two halves. too.. whereupon `Af§f ibn Zuhayr ibn Abu al-Akhnas shouted at him saying. Even if you may be held in low esteem. . Maqtal al-Husain. 2. p. and was familiar with Arabic. 247. . 91. are among the misguided!” Burayr then challenged him to a Mub~ hala. Ka`b used his lance to . . Burayr subdued this one. az§d ibn Ma`qil3 called out. Do you remember the day when I was walking with you in the quarters of Banã Lawth~ n4. p. Never have eyes Seen anyone like them in their time 1 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. . “You have lied.. p. 24. “And I bear witness that you . “You have sided with the enemies of F~ tima's son and killed the master of [Kã fa's] q~ ris.” Yaz§d said.2 BURAYR IBN KHDAYR . Glory to Him. “O brother of the Azd! You have done me a favour which I shall never forget. 366. So I unsheathed it against a gang Whose creed is not mine at all. Did I not do the most of what I did seem? Hate and no fear did I feel from what I did. White. when you said that Mu`~ wiyah had strayed and that the Im~ m of guidance is Ali ibn Abu T~ lib?” Burayr answered: “Yes.” Yaz§d said. W hen he fell. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. al-Nuw~ r.his pure soul parted from his body. Burayr fell on Radiyy and bit him on the face. He was . rebuked him saying. so the dying slave smiled. How al-Husain fared when the lances were bold . And I know who the son of Harb and call Him what he really is. his slave. I testify that such is my view. The al-`Abdi man stood up to remove the dust from his clothes saying.

He fought till he was killed. so he bid al-Husain (– ) farewell and . According to p. how is it now that they have killed their righteous brethren?” Hanzalah said. They for the blows and the stabs persevered Though they had none to protect. Nor J~ bir's son would have sought my bliss. of the people of Noah. 202 . book Al-Irsh~d. So how I wish before killing him I better knew And on Husain's Day was in the grave. And they would have dueled. none can guide him. had it been of any use. that I hear and obey. . . advanced.” . mercy on you! They have now become worthy of the chastisement because they rejected your call to the truth and rose to spill your blood and that of your companions. p.1 . “O folks! I fear for you the like of the day of al-Ahz~ b. “O Shawthab! What do you intend to do?” Shawthab said. That day was nothing but a curse and a shame Sons after friends will call it by its name.2 H `} BIS A 1 2 3 bis ibn Shab§b al-Sh~ kiri came to Shawthab3. “May All~ h have . of `} d. Radi son of Munqith al-`Abdi responded to him with these verses: If my Lord willed. in his . and of those who came after them. a slave of Sh~ kir. O people! I fear for you the Day of Arguing. He said. O people! Do not kill Husain else All~ h should chastize you with a terrible chastisement. anzalah ibn Sa`d al-Shab~ mi called out. when you go without having anyone to protect you from All~ h. too. p. the like . agrees with ours here. . became excited. 248. of Thamã d. “You have said the truth. Except one who protects his honour to the extreme. Burayr did I kill: a bliss I carried. Shawthab was a sincere man whose house was always frequented by the Sh§`as. it was there that they discussed the merits of Ahl al-Bayt (– ). and those who falsify shall be disappointed. Vol. but the text recorded by al-Muf§d. 145 of al-Tibrisi’s book I`l~m al-War~. “I shall fight on your side till I am al-Tabari. hereafter?” Al-Husain (– ) then permitted him to go to perform jih~ d. . I would not have fought them at all. Of Abu Munqith when he to duel invited. 6. 254. T~r§kh.. Al-Husain (– ) prayed All~ h to reward him well for having made such a statement saying. his name appears as Shawth~n. Ibid. So tell `Ubaydull~ h if him you meet That I obey the caliph. O son of the Messenger of All~ h! Are we not going to the . Whoever All~ h permits to stray. HANZALAH AL-SHAB} MI .Nor before their time even in my youth More striking with the sword on the battlefield. All~ h never intends to deal unjustly with His servants.

the Christian that he was. stood before al-Husain (– ) requesting him to grant him permission . so. . All men who saw him shouted. my lineage is lowly. calls him Juwayn son of Abu M~lik. for this is a day when we seek as much reward as we can. `Abis stood before Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) and said: “None on the face of earth received the night. Vol. He. before he himself was finally killed. Vol. “Advance to greet Abu `Abdull~ h (– ) so that he may pray for you just as he prayed for the others. may very possibly be “John. Observing the situation. his face.] 3 4 Ibn Nama. my colour is black. al-Khaw~rizmi . and my colour will be whitened! No. . al-Husain's permission to go and fight. . Al-Husain (– ) stood by his corpse and supplicated saying. Al-Luhãf. . p.” He prayed All~h to reward him well then said to him. too. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. 2. granted him permission3.” and on p. “May All~ h thank you. al-Husain (– ) cried and said. make his smell good. 61. 218. so you are excused. Had I been able to ward off injustice from you with anything more precious than my life. `Omer ibn Sa`d shouted.killed. Whoever thereafter passed by the battleground was able to smell his corpse emitting a fragrance sweeter than that of musk4. The Im~ m (– ) said. Muth§r al-Ahz~n.” But the old man fell on the Im~ m's feet kissing them and saying. Vol. On p. “O John! You followed us seeking your good health. who is dearer to me than you. by All~ h. Soon they surrounded him from all directions and killed him. 33 (Iranian edition). He killed as many as twenty-five men . 1. a slave of Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ ri. J ANAS AL-K} HILI nas ibn al-H~ rith ibn Nab§h al-K~ hili was an old man and a renown sah~ bi who had met and listened to . and I testify that I am on your and your father's guidance!” He walked towards the enemy with his sword raised despite a wound which he had already received on his forehead.” He distributed the slain hero's head-gear among them. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. join him with Muhammed (‰ ) and link him to the progeny of Muhammed (‰ )!” . causing as many as two hundred men to flee away from him. for what you . . Ibn Sa`d said. . Having seen him looking like that. “Kill him with your stones!” He became the target of a shower of stones. I shall never abandon you till this black blood mixes with yours!” Al-Husain (– ). He came out tying his waist with a turban. Ibn Shahr }shãb . my lineage will be honoured. his name exists as “Hoy. therefore. Having seen that. A number of them disputed with one another about who among them would take his head covering as a booty. slave of Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ri. . of his book Al-Man~qib. 237. “O men! Stay away from him!” They knew very well that he was most courageous. Vol. a black slave of Abu Tharr al-Ghif~ri. to fight. On p. so do bestow upon me a breeze from Paradise so that my smell will be good. his forehead bandaged.1 JOHN ohn2. O shaikh. A 1 2 al-Tabari. calls him John.” __ Tr. the had§th of the Prophet (‰ ) and fought in his company the battles of Badr and Hunain. p. should I in the time of hardship betray you? My smell is surely bad. I would have done so. Ibn Nama. 6. Peace be with you. he put down his shield and charged. 239. 6. p. . 254. “I in the time of prosperity lick what is served on your tables. 203 . p. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. be he a near or a distant kin. “This man was not killed by one single person.” Shawthab advanced and greeted al-Husain (– ) then fought till he was killed. [The Translator of this book is of the opinion that his name. sought . “O Lord! Whiten . T~r§kh. 88.

208. of his book Usd al-Gh~ba and Abu H~tim al-R~zi on p. 123. al-Sayyãti discusses him. of his book Al-K~mil. . It was taken by his . He went to al-Husain reciting: . and Ibn al-Ath§r. 180. 5. Vol. O thigh. reference is made to the fact that both he and his father had been companions of the . Vol. 2. Muf§d about the Battle of the Camel (second edition). .” On p. instantly killing him. him reciting the following poetic lines after having killed that man: Do not mind. “Once his leg was cut off. father was killed in the first campaign. 10. he killed eighteen men before being finally killed. instantly killing him. Then your father. “A man from among the followers of Musaylamah [the Liar] cut off the leg of Th~bit ibn Qays. Ibn al-Ath§r says. Vol. On p. This is recorded by both Ibn Shahr }shãb on p. 1. This should not strike the reader as far-fetched especially if he reads p. Vol. of his book Al-Jarh wal Ta`d§l. . says that during the Battle of Yarmãk. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. the author says. Vol. 2. of his book Al-Khas~’is. It was not long before he was killed and his head was thrown in the direction of Husain's camp. . . al-Khaw~rizmi. . so Th~bit took it and hit the same man with it. The fact is that with me is my Arm whereby I save my leg.” Both al-Tabari. 219.3 . 125. “This is a young boy whose . . and recited these verses: A An old women and a weakling am I Crumbling. 22. 22. Bih~r al-Anw~r. .2 She went back to the camp and took a rod or. sought al-Husain's permission to fight. W hoever comes . Vol. 1. AL-HAJJ} J AL-JU`FI . and old. p. 2. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. Vol. Ali. Vol. Messenger of All~h (‰) who narrate from him the following had§th: “My son shall be killed in the land of Kerbal~’.” al-Majlisi. 3. a sword. the generous one. according to other accounts. of his book Al-K~mil. to know about the battle should support him. “It was my mother who ordered me to do so!” It was then that the Im~ m (– ) permitted him to fight. but al-Husain (– ) refused saying. On p. Thakh§rat al-D~rayn. killing him instantly. 198. of his book and al-Khaw~rizmi on p. The author of Al-Is~ba (Ibn Hajar . who details the biography of Asm~' daughter of Yaz§d ibn al-Sakan. 68. 1. 140. Today shall I meet your Grandfather. al-`Asqal~ni). on p. 287. He . . mother who wiped the blood from it and used it as a weapon to hit a man nearby.are doing for us!” Despite his old age. the honourable and bold. Al-Hajj~ j ibn Masrã q al-Ju`fi fought till his body became soaked with blood. 35. and perhaps his mother hates to see him go.” But the boy said. p. The one we know as the wasi. Vol. 3 2 1 204 . and so do both . . . he used it to hit a man. In his book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 3. Ibn Nama details his duel and recitation of rajaz poetry. . Al-Husain (– ) took her back to the tent after she had killed two men using a tent pole. of Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni). the Nabi. 2. I do in earnest beg. too. 137 of the book written by the great mentor al. skinny. of his T~r§kh. on p. cite . p. Yet I with force strike you and try To defend F~ tima's son. al-Jazri on p. Vol. He was only eleven years old. .1 `AMR IBN JUN} DAH mr ibn Jun~ dah al-Ans~ ri came out after his father had been killed. she killed nine Roman soldiers using a tent post. There.

. Ibn Sa`d wanted to kill him. Its text agrees with what is stated by Al-Ikl§l. 10. p. He was the last of the companions to die after al-Husain's martyrdom. therefore. sure of their march. that he died because of his wounds. each and all. fought till he was killed. `Omer ibn `Abdull~ h al-Jund~ `i. They charged even when the steps of the valiant stray And the person of death under the dust makes its way. Bih~r al-Anw~r. . by their virtues attired. Or if under the dust clouds the regiments collide. 2 3 Al-Had~'iq al-Wardiyya (a manuscript). and the hope of the hopeful. where al-H~’iri's Maqtal is cited. . went back and . If they raise their lances you would think They are stars in the light of the pitched dark. 198. he fell facelong. he died six months later. 205 . shall meet them soon after you. so he stayed with them as long as he was wounded. Vol. They fell to the ground and the swords on them feasted. 103. but the author does not refer to his captivity. was involved in a fierce engagement till he was overwhelmed with wounds2 and was taken captive. . p. SUW¦D hen the wounds inflicted upon Suw§d ibn `Amr ibn Abul-Mut~ ` became too much to bear. When al-Husain (– ) was martyred and he heard people . One after another they would seek death. Vol. Their bodies bare. talking about it.3 When people go for the ziy~ ra of the sacred places.” He. With their swords they would light and say: Ignite! Heavy in steps but for the battle light. The Grandson kept turning his eyes Seeing only their corpses on the ground lying 1 al-Majlisi. they recite the following: S Peace be upon you. but his people sought to intercede on his behalf. If the fire of the battle dies down. With swift steps. They turned away from injustice so they On the ground they did fall: A master after a master. too. Al-Ikl§l. O Suw~ r ibn Abu Humair al-Fahmi al-Hamd~ ni. W The refuge of the asylum seeker they are When in fright. O wounded captive. a descendant of Fahm ibn J~ bir ibn `Abdull~ h ibn Q~ dim al-Fahmi al-Hamd~ ni. and upon the bereaved one. 10. that is. and people thought that he had died. .1 SUW} R uw~ r ibn Abu Humair. “And I.Al-Husain (– ) responded by saying. al-Hamd~ni. he took out a knife which he had with him whereby he fought till he was overwhelmed by their masses and killed.

5. . And the unsupported one stood among their crowds Alone defending Muhammed's law. He fell in the burning heat of the sun With his face dusted. . . All~ h support him. a manuscript written by Sayyid Muhammed `Abd al-Husain al-Ja`feri al-H~'iri which he wrote for . and your mothers. Ali al-Akbar4 who was twenty-seven years old. His ziy~rat. beating her cheek she kept. 5 4 As quoted in An§s al-Sh§`ah. And guidance was obliterated. Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq (–) instructed the first to say: . so she under them bends. 239 of K~mil . al-Ziy~r~t of Ibn Qawlawayh. we quoted Im~m Abul-Hasan al-Rida (–) saying that he was married to a “mother . He fell.) 206 . She went away led by asses: Umayyad. so Tawh§d did fall down . He was born on the 11th of Sha`b~ n. 14 of our dissertation of Ali al-Akbar. . how his heart yearned for water But was spent on the ground that burnt like fire. 26. In our dissertation on Ali al-Akbar. underscores this fact. may All~h have mercy on his soul. at least two. . 2. (continued.Hujjah Sayyid Muhammed Husain al-Kishw~n. might and to maintain their dignity. which is stated on p. From one apostate to another she was led. And the pillars of the creed crumbled and fell Though before they had stood very well. the good ones from whom All~h removed all abomination and whom He purified with a perfect purification. She cries. They came bidding each other farewell2 the first being Abul-Hasan3 . may they first be paralyzed And his heart could not quench the fire of thirst. Maqtal al-Husain. and her voice oft Causes even the stones to get soft. Instructing Abu Ham zah. composed this poem./653 A. Vol. . On p. Till he fell on the ground.” “Offspring” implies a number of persons. W e shall quote Zayn al-`Af§f [al-Sajj~d] recognizing this fact when we discuss the post-martyrdom events in a dialogue between the Im~m (–) and Ibn Ziy~d.1 MARTYRDOM OF AHL AL-BAYT (– ) Ali al-Akbar one remained with al-Husain (– ) except his Ahl al-Bayt who were determined to face death with their . of sons. al-Khaw~rizmi. ..D. shaded by the spears And the steeds kept on his chest going back and forth Going to battle and returning therefrom. . She was carried on lean beasts in captivity From a place to place displayed as booty. we quoted historians saying that he was older than Im~m al-Sajj~d (–). 33 A. . losing its crown. And a woman cried from the side of her tent She lost her protector. The whips hurt her.” hence his kunya “Abu [father of] al-Hasan” after his son by her..Seventy thousand surrounded him so he Kept them at bay: like ostriches did they flee. p. your offspring.H. . N 1 2 3 Al. “All~h bless you and your progeny and family and bless your fathers. al-Hasan.

207 . to the Messenger of All~ h. . peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. Wise in speech like the Prophet Ahmed. Al-M~ dih al-Akbar says1: .and he was a mirror reflecting the Prophet's own beauty and a model of his own sublime code of ethics. “Have . No eyes saw him have ever seen Anyone walking. They all surrounded him and pleaded to him saying. The most Glorified One had recorded their names in the tablet brought by Gabriel (– ). (. He was truly worthy of being a caliph had it not already been determined by the Lord of the Heavens. Ali al-Akbar is the one who branched out of the tree of Prophethood.continued) sult~n Fath Ali Shah. 32 of Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. while yet another would see Muhammed's code of ethics coming to an end. Or a lone man with no family. 1 2 5 According to p. sanctify him. the man who inherited the great merits. . Good in make and in conduct.. the one of the dew. I am describing the son of high lineage to you.2 . He inherited the merits his legacy From every valiant warrior and brave In Hamzah's might. while another would see the sun of Prophethood nearing an eclipse. their only hope after al-Husain (– ) is gone. in Ahmed's dignity . it rested extremely heavily for the ladies who grew up in the lap of Im~ mate because he was the one upon whom they rested their hopes for their protection and security. may All~h . Whenever fire for it was lighted. These verses and the ones to follow were composed by the authority Ayatull~h Shaikh `Abd al-Husain S~diq al-`}mili. Just as a poor person sees it in hope. Nor did he sell what is right for a misdeed. I mean the son of Layla. One of them would see the Message about to be muted . Flesh boils till when it is ripe. bare-footed or not.. Once he was about to start his role in defending Ahl al-Bayt (– ). In al-Husain's loftiness. He with lofty honour ignited. Never did he prefer his life over his creed. . in Hayder's bravery . this poem was written in memory of Ali al-Akbar [Ali Senior]. a specimen of his wise speech. One poet of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) praised him saying: Never have any eyes seen better than you Never have women begotten more beautiful than you Fault-free you have been made As if you as you wished were made. with his death. The eater finds it not expensive at all.

Qarashi!4 Al-Husain (– ) could not help flooding his eyes with tears5 and shouted at `Omer ibn Sa`d: “What is the matter . al-Muf§d. the family of Abraham and the According to p. Al-Irsh~d. had a mare named al-Yahmãm and another named L~hiq upon . 2. manners. 208 . for they invited us to support us. Al-Luhãf. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. p. 30. p. . al-Khaw~rizmi. 57. . . create dissension among them..” He (– ). are more worthy of the Nabi. “O Ali! You have kinship with the commander of the faithful Yaz§d. a man shouted. then they transgressed on us and fought us! Then he recited the Qur’~ nic verse saying. 4. Vol. peace of All~ h and His blessings be upon him and his progeny. . we can grant you security. and may He send upon you someone to slay you on your own bed6!” Then he uncovered his hair and raised his hands to the heavens supplicating thus: O All~ h! Bear witness against these folks that a man who looks most like Your Messenger Muhammed in his physique. “The kinship I have with the Messenger of All~ h. 2. Maqtal al-Husain. 2 3 1 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. and do not let their rulers ever be pleased with them. p. . and we wish to safeguard it. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. . if you wish. . . “Al-Husain son of Ali (–). so. p. p. which he carried his son Ali al-Akbar ibn al-Husain during the battle of the Taff where they were both killed. Vol. .mercy on our being strangers in this land! We cannot bear your separation!” But he did not pay them any attention because he could easily see how his enemies were to the end determined to spill his pure blood. and make them into many parties.”3 then he recited these rajaz verses. 178. mother of Ali al-Akbar and daughter of Maymã na daughter of Abu Sufy~ n2. Maqtal al-Husain.). 35. and eloquence7 has come out to fight them! Whenever we . From the camp of Layla. we would look at him. Noah. . 30. Abu Nasr. by the House's Lord. Vol. in the discussion of genealogy in general and that of Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr of Quraish in particular. He sought his father's permission then came out riding a horse belonging to al-Husain (– ) named L~ hiq1. in his book Al-Irsh~d. and on p. Al-Is~ba. Ibn Nama./1402 A. 4 The rest of these verses are recorded by Shaikh al-Muf§d. with you?! May All~ h cut off your lineage just as you have cut off mine and just as you have not respected my kinship to the Messenger of All~ h. identifying his holy self and his sublime objective: I am Ali son of al-Husain son of Ali . . where the biography of Abu Murrah is discussed. We. Ibn Nama. 183 the author says.D. missed seeing Your Prophet. said. is now more worthy of being safeguarded. . . “All~ h surely chose Adam.H. . 5 6 7 al-Khaw~rizmi. one of al-Husain's mares was . 805 A. . Sirr al-Silsila. named L~hiq.” . Ibn T~wãs. may All~h sanctify him. 178 of Fadl al-Khayl by `Abd al-Mu’min al-Dimy~ti (d. By All~ h! We shall never be ruled by the da`i With the sword shall I defend my family And strike like a young H~ shemi. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. O All~ h! Deprive them of the blessings of the earth.

1 2 al-Khaw~rizmi.”1 He kept charging at their right and left wings. According to p. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. al-Khaw~rizmi. Al-Man~qib. he would repulse them. of al-`Abb~si's book Ma`~hid al-Tans§s. p. Ibn Shahr }shãb. . so he returned to his father to rest and to complain about suffering from thirst2. his iron is heavy. p. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol.” He gave him his tongue to suck then his ring to put in his mouth3. Time stumbled on him. and he is heavy-hearted. 161. Maqtal al-Husain. and All~ h is Hearing. al-Kulayni quotes Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq (–) saying that it is alright for a fasting person to suck on his ring. 47 (old edition). p. p. In his book Al-K~fi. Naishapuri. . there is no particular function played by the ring but by what those glands do when a stone or such thing is put in the mouth. Ibn Nama. . al. Vol. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. Ali went back to the battlefield feeling very happy about the good news which he had just heard from the Im~ m. he would kill him: He assaults the regiments as the ground closes in on them All because of his fiery might. when Yaz§d ibn Maz§d al-Shayb~ni was pursuing al-W al§d ibn Tarif. the chosen one. . p. Death. diving in their midst. Maqtal al-Husain. While on his body it leaves its mark From their midst he disappeared and did not come back. peace of . Such is the fatwa of . Vol. Thirst took its toll on him. took its toll on him. His insides burn. As soon as he was bent to meet his death with a smile. from his ears and sight. 30. 2. . Vol. But his own thirst was not. 2. meet your grandfather who will give you a drink after which you shall never suffer of thirst. offspring of one another. therefore. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. Vol. he put his ring in his mouth and kept pursuing al-W al§d till he stabbed him with his lance. religious scholars. Whenever a group of fighters met him. . p. “O help! How quickly shall you . . . . 2. Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. 96. so his body now Is food for every sword and every bow. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. He killed a total of one hundred and twenty knights. p. 3 209 . and whenever a brave man faced him. 2. He returns to bid farewell. Yet he with his saliva preferred him over his own self Had only his saliva not dried yet. Mounting his steed though almost bear. 31. He turned the battle around and moved its grinding stone. and when thirst . stayed only for a while. It is possible one of the reasons for it is that it stimulates the glands. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. 2. p. 3:34). Knowing (Qur’~ n. 30. all of them. With his sword he struck their flesh and their bone. His heart is thirsty. 222 (Iranian edition). Al-Luhãf. With his withered shoulders he meets their braves And places his sword in the necks of their knaves. 35. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. 64 (Saida edition). 51. p. So he forcibly sends them back on their tails In his might he resembles the angry lion. Al-Husain (– ) wept and said. al-Khaw~rizmi. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. Ibn T~wãs. 95. mind you. p. . who had told him that he would soon meet his grandfather. the Hujjah (– ). his sword's thirst is quenched with dew.family of Imran over all people.

There. splitting it in half. He kept killing the Kã fians till the number of those whom he killed reached fully two hundred. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. his name is Murrah ibn Munqith ibn al-Nu`m~n al-`Abdi al-Laythi. Al-Irsh~d. Early did witherness visit his fresh flower. May my life be for him a sacrifice Like a fresh flower that dried In the ocean of thirst and the heat of the sword. al-Muf§d. . al-Khaw~rizmi. Ibn al-Ath§r. p. and he says that there is another one 1 2 al-Khaw~rizmi. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. advanced towards them with courage reminiscent of [his grandfather] Im~ m Ali (– ). 31. p. According to p. 31. 4. 256. 30.Ibn . The latter could not tell whether it was Ali al-Akbar who was chasing the enemy or whether it was the wasi (– ). Vol. or whether . “Peace be upon you from me. al-Tabari. 2. 321. his name is given as Munqith ibn Murrah. so they cut his body into bits and pieces5. Al-Luhãf. Maqtal al-Husain. 2. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. p. 6. He. p. He wiped out shame. 210 . The water of youth and the blood both flew Within him. 3 al-Muf§d. he became the target of their swords. Ali embraced his horse that carried him to the enemy camp. Al-Irsh~d. Maqtal al-Husain. . . O father of `Abdull~ h!6 My grandfather has given me a drink with his own cup after which I shall never suffer any thirst. a shining one The one sought by both houses of H~ shim The haven of both honour and loftiness How could death to you reach? You have not hesitated nor tarried. 2. Al-K~mil. . 265. Vol. p. Withering is the foe of a fresh flower. p. p. Al-Man~qib.1 Murrah ibn Munqith al-`Abdi2 said. Vol. Ibn Shahr }shãb. 254. T~r§kh. 95 of Maqtal al-`Aw~lim (of `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni). He met the enemies face-to-face. 6. Vol. . 95. therefore. 222. T~wãs. wearing only their every spear. “I shall bear all the sins of the Arabs should I not succeed in causing his father to lose him for good!”3 He stabbed him with his lance in the back4 and hit him with his sword on the head. Drenched in blood was he yet the Euphrates was Turning green what was still black.All~ h be upon him and his progeny. On p. . p. Vol. al-Dainãri. He called out saying. and his heart was still on fire. Ibn Nama. 4 5 6 Riy~d al-Mas~’ib. All~ h fight the shame A crescent in the dark. thunderbolts came emitting in an array from his sword. By All~ h! What a moon on them did he shine! The sword mixed his substance with its gold. Vol. roaring like a lion on the battlefield. . Never shall I him forget How he was turbaned with the youth of the deer Among the warriors.

p. griefstricken. Not a drop of it fell. . 6. crying and wailing6. p. to Abu Hamzah al-Thum~li. 185. 8. peace and blessings of All~h be upon him and his progeny]. . How dare they defy the most Merciful One. . .” According to p. Vol. Before them stood the wise lady of Banã H~ shim. 3 4 Ibn Qawlawayh. p. 6. This explains the recitation in his ziy~ rat of the following statement: May my father and mother be your sacrifice! How you were slaughtered without having committed a crime! May my father and mother be your sacrifice! How your blood ascended to the one loved by All~ h! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! He mourns you with a burning heart. 2.. 6. 256. Vol. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. Maqtal al-Husain. and how dare they violate the sanctity of His Messenger!2 Hard it is upon your grandfather and father that they cannot respond to you when you call upon them. for he was the guardian of her home and its pillar7. Vol. their wailing defeaning the world. “There is no good . Vol. Vol. al-Khaw~rizmi. 31. Zainab daughter . Vol. His corpse was brought to the tent in front of which they were fighting. Al-Husain (–) took her back to the tent.5 The honourable ladies who grew up in the home of revelation kept looking at him as he was carried away with blood covering him with its red mantle of dignity. Vol. Should the head lady of those . of F~tima (–) came out screaming and fell on his corpse. to preserve the blood of his Ahl al-Bayt (–) and that of the sah~ bah. Stabs and wounds had spared no place in his body. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh and p. 256. I asked about who she was. bereaved women. 31. al-Khaw~rizmi. . In our discussion of the Eleventh Night. This statement is supported by accurate isn~d and is taught by Im~m Ja`fer al-S~diq (–) . p. My heart goes for the ladies of the Prophet When thus they saw him in that condition. raising your blood to the depth of the heavens. p. According to p. (–) took her in his hand and brought her back to the tent. Messenger of All~ h (‰ ).”3 Then he took a handful of his pure blood and threw it towards the heavens. Maqtal al-Husain. 256. Al-Husain . al-Tabari. 95. . I saw a woman coming out of the tent crying. namely Zainab. come out in such a manner. and I was told that she was Zainab [granddaughter of the Messenger of All~h. hugging it. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. 2. their hair uncovered. Vol. the great one.. . Ham§d ibn Muslim has said. T~r§kh. the lady who was trying her best to comfort them. 2. p. 6. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. we will refer to Sunni texts saying that the Prophet (‰) used . in life after you. al-Tabari. 31. She threw herself on the corpse of her nephew. . . not a drop whereof returns. 95. `O nephew!' She went and fell on his corpse. Their wailing and their cries did intensify 1 2 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. T~r§kh.reserved just for you!”1 Al-Husain (– ) came to him and placed his cheek on his as he said. . of Ibn Kath§r's book Al-Bid~ya. 239. can anyone expect that there were ladies who remained inside the tent? 7 211 . They welcomed him with very heavy hearts. 265. Al-Irsh~d. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. and that they cannot help you when you ask for their help. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. nor one sigh of your father finds an ease!4 He ordered his servants to carry him to the tent. . daughter of F~ tima daughter of the . 5 6 al-Muf§d. p. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh and p. “W hen Ali al-Akbar was killed.

So the minds and the souls were baffled by their cry. He at the Taff saw the Friend of All~ h from Mina. He was mourned by what can be seen and what cannot From the zenith of the `Arsh To the deepest of the earth. may All~h . . He was mourned by the eyes of guidance and uprightness And by the one appointed as the wasi. 1 212 . He was mourned by the master of all creation. My heart goes for her since she lost The one she could depend on. Son! Never shall I ever sleep While your body on the burning sands lies. Son! Men's eyes mourn you till the Day Of Gathering and of Accounting. Son! The attributes of perfection do you mourn. The wise ladies mourned their protector And so did virtues and merits. And how can anyone equal the one she lost? Who can in honour equal the one who was Like in manners Yasin. . so why From me you now severed your tie? Son! Your ties eclipse the hue of death And the eclipse precedes perfection. Son! You insisted on reaching the heights. And the tenderness of youth and the angels. For his calamity was indeed the greatest of all. The one whom he sacrificed was now Sought by the swords. The mountains were almost to disappear. sanctify him.1 . My heart goes for her when she seeks The Messenger's help. His father's condition could best be described thus: Son! From my heart did I make you. Leaving for me only the dark nights. . like in form Taha? O All~ h help his father when The light of al-Akbar went out. You rushed to meet your father the Prophet at the Pool Excerpted from an extemporal poem composed and delivered by Ayatull~h Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ni.

as recorded on p. the great daughter of the Commander . the author says that she gave birth to [`Abdul-Rahm~n's] son Sa`§d. he attributed the genealogy of Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr to Quraish. Ali and Muhammed. Ibn Hab§b. On p. therefore. “Be patient. `Abdull~h and `Abdul-Ra hm~n. 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by the authority Sayyid Mehdi al-Bahr~ni. took out the arrow from his forehead as its tip remained inside. is given as “al-Janbi”. T~r§kh. On p.Having arranged the hearts of men's eyes. `Aq§l ibn Abu T~lib. p. where the biography of Im~m Ali (–) is discussed. p. of al-Thahbi's book Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’. . Vol. 89 of Ibn Qutaybah's book Al-Ma`~rif. . Al-Man~qib. 238. . According to both Al-Irsh~d and p. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. . but he was not martyred yet. According to p. one of which found its way to his heart. On p. 6. his brother Ja`fer son of . Vol. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. of the Faithful. . 10 9 8 213 .” . son of Abu T~ lib and Ruqayya. When `Abdull~ h ibn Muslim was killed. Al-Husain . 3 4 5 6 Ibn Shahr }shãb. Vol. 78. `Aq§l. Vol. 220. . 239. 64 of Al-Luhãf of Ibn T~wãs.6 Yaz§d ibn al-Ruq~ d came to him. `Amr ibn Sab§h al-S~`idi shot him with a couple of arrows . of Ans~b al-Ashr~f of al-Bal~thiri. 5. killing him instantly. said. Kill them. of al-Khaw~rizmi's Maqtal al-Husain and on p. As many as eighteen wounds were received by al-Hasan II son of Im~ m al-Hasan. the family of Abu T~ lib undertook a collective campaign. so they humiliated us. Im~ m Ali (– )2. “Khad§ja daughter of Ali. This statement appears on p. charged as he recited this verse: Today Muslim. . .1 `Abdull~ h ibn Muslim After him `Abdull~ h ibn Muslim ibn `Aq§l. Abul-San~bil. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn `Aq§l ibn Abu T~ lib9 . `Aq§l. whereas the call for perseverance is recorded on p. 6. He killed a number of the enemy troops in three of his assaults3. of Ans~b al-Ashr~f of al-Bal~thiri. my father. Vol. 2. says. 256. the name of the person who shot that arrow is said to be Yaz§d ibn al-Ruq~d al-Janbi. son of Ja`fer al-Tayy~ r and the wise lady Zainab. shall I meet With a band sacrificed for the Prophet's creed. Vol. 179. 3.7 Campaign of the Family of Abu T~ lib . namely `Abdull~h ibn `}mir ibn Kar§z. (– ). and Muhammed son of Muslim ibn `Aq§l10. but it pierced his hand and found its way to his forehead. . Vol. his brother Muhammed son of al-Khawsa. O cousins! By All~ h! After today you shall not meet any hardship at all. 217. 57 of his book Al-Muj§r. called out to them saying. . [after the death of her husband] she was married to . the genealogist.” As he was thus engaged. O Lord. Yaz§d ibn al-Ruq~ d al-Jahni4 shot him with an arrow which he unsuccessfully tried to avoid with his hand. were both killed with al-Husain (–). . .. of Ibn Jar§r al-Tabari's T~r§kh. 7 al-Tabari. may All~h have mercy on his soul. as they have killed us. and his right hand was cut off. . a man threw a spear at him which pierced his heart. On p. adding. the Prophet (‰ ). [older] grandson of .”8 The assailants were comprised of `Awn ibn `Abdull~ h. was the wife of `Abdul-Rahm~n ibn . “She is the mother of his brothers . “O All~ h! They have found us few in number. p. 5. . sons of Muslim ibn . He could not remove it from his forehead. . 27 (Iranian edition). His last name. . 45 of his book.” On p. 2. 6. 256.5 He. Vol. 57 of Ibn Hab§b's book Al-Muj§r. . . .

. He fought till he 1 According to p. it is stated that . states that his corpse was found in a canal. . his name was Zahr ibn Qays al. . .. his mother and the mother of al-Q~sim was Ramla. where the author traces Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr's genealogy to Quraish. was not known. al-Tabari. 2. whose first name was Muhammed2. . Nufayla was the mother of al-Q~sim. p. And the lances collide and sound And the arrows vary in their round. 50 of the same reference. . On p. Nakh`i. Al-Man~qib. and . of alKhaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. Two ornaments none but they can wear How can you a wearer with a bare one compare? From Shaybat al-Hamd descended youths who Happily marched to support the creed Neither arrogantly nor for a show. 4 5 6 2 These verses were composed by the authority Shaikh `Abd al-Husain S~diq al-`}mili. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. According to al-Khaw~rizmi's Maqtal al-Husain. Had happiness not been their goal I would not have left any of their foes at all. According to Al-Had~'iq al-Wardiyyah. Abu Bakr son of Layla daughter of Mas`ãd was killed with al-Husain (–). Like ships they sailed to the war And ships are only their vanguards. killed him. They do not mind as the swords clamour With warriors covering the plain like an armour. . T~r§kh. 2.4 Al-Q~ sim and His Brother Abu Bakr. 1. whereas Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. so he fell. was killed by Zahr ibn Badr al-Nakh`i3. 34. Vol. Abu Bakr. Vol. . p. . Arabs are not only names for glory The sons of `Amr are only offspring.” He was killed with al-Husain (–). where the author. `Uthm~ n ibn Kh~ lid al-Tam§mi took advantage of the situation. 28. in his book Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. 119. in his book Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. . of Safwat al-Safwah. of Ibn al-Jawzi's boon Safwat al-Safwah. p. his name appears as `Abdull~h.Abu Bakr son of the Commander of the Faithful (– )1. . (continued. . . came out and . relies on Ibn Sa`d's Tabaq~t. 221. namely Ibn al-Jawzi. 269. p. 6. walked to him and killed him. And heads get severed from their shoulders And chests are arranged in their insolence. Muhammed Asghar [Junior] son of “umm wuld. 119. and `Abdull~h. says that she was “umm wuld” whose genealogy . son of Im~ m al-Hasan son of the Commander of the Faithful (– ). `Abdull~ h ibn `Aq§l now came out and kept fighting till his wounds overwhelmed him. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. 2.. 118 of Ibn Hazm's book Jamharat Ans~b al-`Arab. 3 Ibn Shahr }shãb. Vol. 1. For there is for Prophethood a crown And for the Im~ mate a necklace worn. he is named .) 214 . On p. They smile as the heroes frown Showing pearls their front ones. On p. .. p. came out. . On p. His first name was . Vol. nobody knew who had . may All~h sanctify his soul. `Abdull~ h al-Akbar [`Abdull~ h senior] and his mother was an “umm wuld”5 named Ramla6. Vol. Vol. 103 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. . Both Al-Irsh~d and I`l~m al-War~ count him among the sons of the Commander of the Faithful (–). the grandson. 98.

`Does not the trouble in which you are distract your mind from doing that?' Ja`fer answered by composing a line of poetry meaning: `More hard for me than shoe-string mending is my foe seeing me to troubles succumbing. . According to p. Carrying his sword. got his information from so he wrote a dissertation about that wedding which he named “al-Q~simiyya” as we are told on p. Then he permitted him to fight. to mend it. p. p. He. I`l~m al-War~. 2. 202 of Nãr al-Abs~r. p. 256. On his feet he wore sandals. . R~ghib§n in a footnote referring to p. when al-Husain (–) informed his companions and family members . al-Khaw~rizmi says that al-Husain (–) was reluctant to permit him to go. feeling unconcerned about their thousands. him such a myth. “crown of scholars”. When al-Husain (– ). . that they would all be killed. 2. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni.1 After the latter. p. as well as in Is`~f al. chap kept begging him. al-Mad~'ini. T~r§kh. The sandal's string on his left foot was cut off5. leaving no offspring. 2. paying no heed to their multitude. Vol. He leaned to mend his shoe As the war near him drew Their war. 6. “Ja`fer . For a branch is rendered to its root. of al-Tehrani's voluminous work Al-Thar§`ah. hated to walk bare-footed on the battlefield.was killed. Husain. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. After the clouds comes the rain And a cub is but a lions' son. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. p. says that `Abdull~h ibn al-Hasan was her . so he. Maqtal al.” . so he came out . I do not know where his eminence Sayyid Ali M uhammed of Lucknow. 37. 11. by its sheath shaded. . . stopped for a moment to tie his sandal6. . says. came out2. 127 of al-Tibrisi's book I`l~m al-War~ and to Al-Mujdi fil Nasab of Abul-Hasan al-`Amri.7 (. 215 . kissing his hands and feet. Vol. they knew. looked at him. Authors of both Al-Irsh~d and I`l~m al-War~ say “One of his shoe laces was cut off. Vol. Thakh§rat al-D~rayn. Maqtal al-Husain.'” 7 6 5 These verses were composed by the authority Sayyid Mir Ali Abu Tib§kh. A man asked him. Maqtal al. I say that it does not surprise me to see how this descendant of the Chosen Prophet (‰) thus heedless of the odds on the battlefield. He had to fight on foot. his full-blooded brother. He was a lad who had not yet come of age. of his book Al-Agh~ni. Vol. 6. Ibs~r al-`Ay~n. 27. therefore. Shaikh Fakhr ad-D§n al-Turayhi is a greatly knowledgeable man. Al-Irsh~d. 4. I say that this claim is contradicted by what is stated in the discussion of the events during the night that preceded `}shãra. Al-Q~sim had not yet come of age. till he consented. . 3 2 1 6 al-Tabari. regarding those enemies as no more valuable than his own sandal. on p. 256. p. 4 al-Tabari. Muq~til al-T~libyy§n. 152. Was no more precious than his shoe. 144. al-Khaw~rizmi.. 146. . and al-Turayhi shall question [on the Judgement . 27. Husain. On p. p. Vol. Nobody can fairly attribute to . Like the tale of al-Q~sim's wedding.continued) al-Q~sim and Abu Bakr were both killed at the Battle of al-Taff. may All~h have mercy on him. Its existence is his book is a deliberate and unauthorized addition. p. but the . al-Khaw~rizmi. he hugged him and wept3. . this is a groundless claim. Vol. the son of the great Prophet. Day] whoever incorporated it in his book. al-Muf§d. All references to the alleged wedding of al-Q~sim are not true. he is said to have married Sukayna daughter of al-Husain (–). including al-Q~sim and his own infant son. in the first group of rare manuscripts he categorizes. 17. who is titled the . He stopped . and no authentic historical record supports such an allegation. Do not worry about what he did. with a face looking like a full moon4 bearing a sword and wearing a shirt and a mantle. 27.. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. first husband. T~r§kh. al-Khaw~rizmi. ibn `Alyah ibn Rab`i ibn `Abd Yaghãth of Banã al-H~rith ibn Ka`b was once captured and his shoe string was cut off. al-Q~ sim. 64 of . . . Vol. his book Al-Mutar~dif~t. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni.

al-Khaw~rizmi. T~r§kh. `Amr ibn Sa`d ibn Naf§l al-Azdi attacked him. 28. Vol. p. causing their horses to trample upon him and to eventually kill him.As he was thus engaged. “Hard it is. Al-Husain (– ) said. 2. One who paid no heed to the number Of his foes. and souls do slacken.” Then he carried him away. of what their sword could do. . examining his feet. The lad fell face-long crying out. It is a lone voice whose enemies are numerous and whose supporters are few. p. by All~ h. 186. Except when you did see him being distracted From the struggle. And it was what it was from its da`i. Vol. 257. his arm. As many as the sands in count. So he fell down and for help cried. 1 al-Tabari. Then he raised his eyes to the heavens and supplicated thus: O All~ h! Count their numbers. O my Ahl al-Bayt! You shall never meet any hardship after today at all. opponent on the Day of Judgment will be your grandfather (‰ )!” Then he said. Ibn Kath§r. “By All~ h I shall attack him!” He hit al-Q~ sim with his sword. beside that of Ali al-Akbar and of those of his family who had been killed1. Vol. Al-Irsh~d. he would not have mended a shoe In its midst before him stood his foe. The cavalry of Ibn Sa`d charged in order to rescue him. 6. Al-Husain (– ) put the corpse . so al-Husain (– ) was now seen standing at the head of the . his legs were dragging on the ground. `Amr met them face-to-face. “O uncle!” AlHusain (– ) came out to his help like an angry lion and struck `Amr with his sword. As if their lances were cups Served to him by their waiter to drink. `Amr tried to avoid it with . Engaged in the war paying no heed To what in it went on. As if its swords to him spoke. and do not leave any of them alone. So with his white sword he was painted red. “What do you want to do to this lad? Are you not satisfied to see all the crowd that surrounds him?” He said. or that he does answer it but cannot do much for you. 2 216 . Al-Q~ sim was on al-Husain's chest. causing him to let out a very loud scream which was heard by the entire army. Ham§d ibn Muslim asked him.2 Never can I tell you enough about al-Q~ sim Son of the chosen one al-Hasan. And the Prophet's grandson did to him respond. . . From beneath comes the assault and from high He would not have worn on his head a shield. O cousins! Be patient. so the Im~ m cut it off from the elbow. . As if they were beauties with him flirting. that you call upon your uncle to help you and he cannot answer your call. 8. young boy. After some time the cloud of dust dissipated. And that was only a lion's slumber. and do not forgive a single one of them! Be patient. Had he minded any danger or had he Feared death. Maqtal al-Husain. al-Muf§d. p. Al-Bid~ya. “Away with people who have killed you while their .

These verses were composed by Thiqatul-Islam Shaikh Muhammed T~hir from the family of the faq§h Shaikh Radi. al-`Abb~ s.2 Martyrdom of al-`Abb~ s (– ) Al-`Abb~ s could no longer bear life after having seen how his companions and the members of his family killed and how the Hujjah of his time was suffering from the great number of the enemies surrounding him after his . supply route had been cut off and after hearing the women wailing and the children crying of thirst. O brothers. therefore. The dark clouds by the steeds raised Were uncovered showing their riders And what was hidden was revealed. sought permission from his brother. “Advance. Oppressed was he.”1 They fought in front of Abul-Fadl.” Then he turned to `Abdull~ h. and said. Since al-`Abb~ s (– ) was the most precious asset to the grandson 1 2 Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. Their first were killed and so was their last. On the page of the ground did his feet leave marks Dotted by his tears. `Uthm~ n. pp. He took him carrying him to the camp And his eyes were reddened by their tears. “Advance. How good the Lord's many sacrifices Offered on the banks of the Euphrates! The best of guidance is that Sacrifices come from those who guide. 32-33. yet the sun's heads were ripe. sanctify him. so that I may see you supporting the cause of All~ h and His Messenger (‰ ). may All~h . Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. he said to his brothers `Abdull~ h. followed by his heart. so that I may see you receiving the honour of martyrdom. and Ja`fer. After having said their prayers Spent to be for the prayers sacrifices. And only his sharp sword was the harvester. Till became fed-up was the sword. He was seen hugging on his chest a moon Decorated by the blood on his forehead. O brother. all killed.The falcon took him and with his peers joined. their oldest. . He. O what a shining moon that removed With his eclipse how he wiped it out! Brothers of al-`Abb~ s (– ) When al-`Abb~ s (– ). saw how such a large number of his family members were being killed. 217 . And from the sword the valley overflowed. . till they were .

p. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. 10. . before him. for thirst has burnt their hearts!” As he kept repeating his pleas. 251. p. 94. “O brother! You are my standard-bearer!”1 Al-`Abb~ s (– ) said. To be kind to kinsfolk you used to always exhort. and had it been in our hands. He kept chasing those throngs alone as his standard kept fluttering above. To me you were a mountain where I seek resort. He was fired up with his H~ shemi zeal. we would still have not given you a drop of it to drink unless you swear the oath of allegiance to Yaz§d!” Al-`Abb~ s went back to his brother to tell him of the outcome of his negotiations with those ruffians. and here are his children suffering from thirst! Give them some water. 218 . but al-Shimr shouted as loudly as he could. he also kept saying to them. and I shall leave Hij~ z and Iraq for you all. Bih~r al-Anw~r. Those people could not tell whether that was al-`Abb~ s who was thus slaughtering their heroes or the wasi roaring on the battlefield. He then shouted: “O `Omer ibn Sa`d! Here is al-Husain son of the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h! You have . killed his companions and family.” Al-Husain (– ) ordered him to bring water for the children. 118. Vol. The one whose light enables all to see At Kerbl~ ’ is killed and none to bury. the sacred soul of the Father of the Oppressed did not accept to part with him. so he could not tolerate the situation any longer. It yearns. but all of that fell on deaf ears. warning them of the Wrath of the Omnipotent. May your balance of Good Deeds never fall short. “Let me go to Rome or to India. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. Mourning them with blood. but its yearning is crying. As many as four thousand archers soon surrounded him and shot him with their arrows. The Im~ m (– ) said to him. The mighty lions mourn their youths And their saviours when calamity overwhelms. people and admonished them. and he succeeded in getting into the Euphrates river heedless of the huge crowd around him. especially since the foes always dreaded having to fight him and feared his advance. Their men could not maintain their grounds . and how the ladies felt a sense of security upon seeing the standard raised high. Who now shall to the orphans and the destitute import And to whom shall the helpless go when in need? By All~ h! Never shall I fall short of my every deed By trading you for anyone else's worth Till I am buried between the sands and the earth. O Grandson of the Prophet! May He Reward you with goodness for us and for me. Then he rode his horse and took the water bag.of the Prophet (‰ ). Al-`Abb~ s heard the children crying of thirst2. 1 al-Majlisi. who is soon to be martyred. 2 al-Qazw§ni. so they wept.” There were some people among the enemy ranks who . “O son of Abu Tur~ b! Had the face of earth been entirely covered with water. yet their large number did not impede his attempt. . . p. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. so al-`Abb~ s went to those . “I am fed-up with these hypocrites. So tell the burning heart How the red sigh does ascend. were genuinely moved by those pleas. and I want to seek revenge against them.

. Riy~d al-Mas~’ib. Al-Muntakhab. While you drink of cool water?! By All~ h! Such is not a deed At all enjoined by my creed!3 Then he filled the water bag. p. 201. 119. but its mourning is only by sign. A son of the trustworthy Prophet whom All~ h did send. p. . .1 The moment he took one handful of water to drink he remembered how thirsty al-Husain (– ) and those with him . And an Im~ m true to his conviction do I defend. . p. al-Qazw§ni. 313. completely severing it. 95. Here is al-Husain nearing his end . Al-`Abb~ s am I. All~h al-Bahr~ni. 311 (third edition). Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. p.It mourns. Till among the swords you bury me. After him. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. 313. 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by K~shif al-Ghit~’. and went in the direction of the camp. He (– ). . rode his horse. Bih~r al-Anw~r. but H~ kim ibn al-Tufayl was still hiding behind . majlis 9. . so he spilled it then said2: O soul! After al-Husain nobody does count! . `Abdull~h Nãr. He did not pay attention to the fact that his right hand had been cut off because he was only concerned about getting the water to the children and the family of al-Husain (– ). may All~h sanctify him. were. 219 . . al-Majlisi. said. . al-Turayhi. His path was blocked. I know no fear! Zayd ibn al-Ruq~ d al-Jahni ambushed him from behind a palm tree assisted by H~ kim ibn al-Tufayl al-Sanbasi. p. 3 Sayyid Muhammed Mehdi al-Mãsawi. Riy~d al. I shall not cease defending my creed. By All~ h! If you cut off my right hand. so he kept killing those who blocked it till he was able to make his way through them as he was saying: I do not fear dead when it calls upon me. My soul protects the one Who is the Prophet's grandson. dealing a sword blow to his right arm. Mas~’ib. . . Sayyid M uhammed Mehdi al-Mãsawi. the water bag do I bear When I meet evil. Vol. night 10. 10. p. you should to nothing amount.

p. may All~h sanctify him. . tearful. All~ h's peace be upon him. Why not since it was the beauty of his face And on his forehead the pleasure of his heart? O supporter of his family. that the apparent status enjoyed by Abul-Fadl al-`Abb~ s . p. amputating it.”4 Disappointment marked his forehead. Praise to Him. It is there that dazzling miracles manifest themselves and the nation thereby comes to know his lofty status and station with All~ h Almighty. 315. . and of the Omnipotent.. So the mountains crumbled for his pain. Vol. Excerpted from a rajaz poem by the authority Ayatull~h Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ni. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. Greeting him will establish a link between them and All~ h. How I wish to know in what condition he went to him. Vol. severely injuring him. 4 5 al-Majlisi. and so that his grave-site would be a place for the ziy~ rat of the people who seek nearness to the Almighty. staring in the sky. H~ kim struck him with his sword on his left hand. could stand on his feet? Only al-Husain remained after the martyrdom of Abul-Fadl. 222. He. He could not even see anything. Riy~d al-Mas~’ib. Vol. He called out: “Is there anyone who helps us?! Is 1 2 3 Ibn Shahr }shãb. . and so it was.H. with a soul imperiled by this great loss. According to p. . `Abdull~ h (– ). An arrow pierced his chest2. . p. It then carries out its obligation of loving him which is renewed by continuous visits. his head was on the ground bleeding. It was the desire of the Hujjah of his time. and . glowing. Is it accurate to say that al-Husain (– ) saw all of these calamities and still had any strength whereby he . stripped of all the necessities of life. . .). the father of . H~kim ibn al-Tufayl hit him with an iron bar on his head. “Now my spine has been split and my endeavour is further weakened. al-Husain (– ) reached him and witnessed how sacrifice is being offered to the Holy One on a plain . Al-`Abb~ s had no might nor speech nor anything whereby he could keep his foes away. p. covered with blood and crowned with arrows. too1. He kept wiping his tears with . . 220 . al-Turayhi. al-Qazw§ni. He fell on the ground shouting. }shãb's book Al-Man~qib. 251. or by the brotherhood that pulls a brother to his beloved brother.another palm tree when he passed by. 2. 315. Yes. Riy~d al-Mas~ib. Al-Husain (– ) went back to the camp feeling extremely depressed. Al-Muntakhab. piercing the water bag and boring a hole in it through which its water was completely spilled. 312 (Hayderi Press. “Peace unto you from me. p. p. described his condition best when he said. Praise to Him. Bih~r al-Anw~r. Al-Man~qib. 221. soon a large number of men were surrounding him. O father of `Abdull~ h!” Al-Husain (– ) rushed to him3.. A man hit him with a pole on his head. 10. 1. should be similar to the one preserved for him in the hereafter. 369 A. how I wish to witness Those who subdued him drinking of bitterness. . under its dome that stands lofty in the sky. waterer of his children. the most Exalted. Beside al-`Alqami he fell. He remained a figure . Arrows fell on him like rain. . his cuffs as men raced with one another to assault his camp. 120. Bearer of the standard with all his determination!5 He left him where he had fell and did not move him anywhere due to a hidden reason which time later unveiled: He was to be buried where he had fallen separately from the other martyrs so that he would have a mausoleum of his own visited by those who seek his intercession with the Almighty to grant them the fulfillment of their wishes. of Ibn Shahr .

And the wound is healed only by What is more painful. cheeks are beaten. “O brother! O `Abb~ s! O our loss after you!” Women wept. 221 . . p. and split is my spine. so he supports us?! Is there anyone who fears the Fire. al-Husain (– ) turned to see none to help him against his foes. They are published in their entirety in Muth§r al-Ahz~n by the `all~ma . he called out.2 THE MASTER OF MARTYRS (– ) ON THE BATTLEFIELD hen al-`Abb~s was killed. and said. “Is there anyone who defends the sanctity of the Messenger of All~ h? Is there anyone who believes in the Unity of All~ h and who fears All~ h in our regard? Is there anyone who comes to our rescue and who wishes by doing so to please All~ h?” The women's voices now grew even louder as they cried. My eyes blinded. saw how his family members and companions lied slaughtered on the ground. filling the valleys with his cries Even solid stones from their horrors are in pain O Brother! Who after you shall guard Muhammed's daughters . But these white deer before my eyes Are now beating their cheeks. He was sick and could hardly W 1 2 Al-Muntakhab. He heard the wailing of the orphans and the cries of the children. He told her of his being killed. These verses were composed by Sayyid Ja`fer al-Hilli. so He knelt over and his tears Painted the ground like gold. Shaikh Shar§f al-Jaw~hiri. 312. Here is your sword: Who after you Shall with it subdue the foes? And here is your standard: Who shall with it advance? O son of my father! You have dwarfed in my eyes The death of all my offspring. . He wished to kiss his lips but he found No place spared from a weapon's kiss. came to him and asked him about her uncle al-`Abb~ s. too. so he defends us?!”1 Sukayna.there anyone who grants us security?! Is there anyone who seeks justice. He called. and al-Husain (– ) wept. his daughter. Al-Luhãf. Between your terrible death and my own Is like I call you before and you are pleased. He was leaning on a cane and dragging a sword. so she cried out. When they seek mercy from the merciless? My hands after you are paralyzed. 3 Ibn T~wãs.3 Al-Sajj~ d (– ) stood up. 65. As loud as he could. p. For others. Zainab heard him revealing this sad news. He looked and . “O our loss after you!” .

Ibn Shahr }shãb refers to him as Ali Asghar (Ali Junior). .” so she took him back to his bed. killing him instantly.D. . Vol. his own blood sand saying. used to wear. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his progeny. Bih~r al-Anw~r.” . 3 Al-Muntakhab. Muhammed (‰) is greater than that of S~lih. but he does not mention the name of his mother. al-Majlisi. of Mir'~t al-`Uqãl `an }l al-Rasãl. . Vol./1950 A. On p. . Vol. of his book Rãh al-Ma`~ni. Zainab brought him his baby son `Abdull~ h7 as well as the latter’s mother al-Rub~ b. . . 59 . commenting on the verse saying. 9. 10. 2. Ibn Shahr }shãb. 259. 105. Vol. Ibn T~wãs states al-Husain's ziy~ra on the day of `}shãra. 32. He called the ath~n in his [right] ear and applied the hanãk to him. since he knew that he was going to be killed soon. 218. 129. and the status of . al-Tabari. Al-Husain (– ) now ordered his dependents to be silent. 111. “As al-Husain (–) was standing. hence. who was younger than his brother who had already been killed. 2. and was carrying his [Prophet’s] sword. 30 of Sirr al-Silsilah. Al-Man~qib. . . 35 of his book Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. He was wearing a . and also al-}lãsi on p. who have documented his sickness during the Battle of Kerbal~’ are: M is`ab ibn al-Zubayr as quoted on p. 2. . 1369 A. p. 315 (Hayderi Press. . p.' Then he took him and placed him with his other slain offspring and nephews. 6.move. Al-Husain (–) pulled the arrow out of his son's mouth and kept staining him with . . “Ali ibn al-Husain.. THE INFANT H 1 2 e then ordered his infant son [`Abdull~ h] to be brought to him so that he would say good-bye to him. Vol. placing its pieces underneath his clothes5. In his book Al-Iqb~l. 192. Vol. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. 217. . . Among those . Al-Khas~’is al-Husainiyya [Husain’s characteristics]. Al-Luhãf. 222. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni on p. al-Majlisi. Husain. p. Vol. al-Ya`qãbi on p. 10. al-Khaw~rizmi says. V ol. his newly born son was brought to him. “Confine him so that the world may not . of his book Al-Man~qib. They brought him small trousers but he was not interested in them since they were the outfits of ignominy4. commenting on the text on p. . Vol. are: Shaikh al-Muf§d on p. and so do both Ibn Hajar on p. p. According to p. but al-Husain (– ) called on his daughter Umm Kulthã m saying. 2. p. Vol. of his T~r§kh. where Im~m al-B~qir (–) is quoted. . and Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr on p. . On p. 4 5 6 7 Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. 205. p. was sick and unable to carry a sword. 9.H. . run out of the progeny of Muhammed (‰ ). of Nasab Quraish. He placed him in his lap and kept kissing him8 and repeating this statement: “Away with these people when your Shaikh Ja`fer al-Shushtari (may All~h sanctify him). of al-Ya`qãbi's T~r§kh (Najaf's edition). p. 8 222 . Vol. 222. 58 of Nasab Quraish and . prohibited the embellishments of All~h which He has brought forth for His servants and the good provisions?” (Qur’~n. .. your son Ali Asghar whose loss grieved you. . Al-Luhãf. etc. . all say that al-Husain (–) was wearing a dark silk jubba on the day of `}shãra. Vol. 8. and he bade them farewell. 2.3 He asked for a thawb (garment) which nobody wanted and which he put underneath his clothes so that nobody would be interested in it and. whose mother was al-Rub~b. of his book Maqtal al. p. Ibn T~wãs.. “Say: W ho has . it is stated that the one who was killed with an arrow as he was in his father's lap was `Abdull~h. p.). `By All~h! Your status with All~h is greater even than the she-camel [of prophet S~lih]. Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. 3 of his book Al-Ikhtis~s. T~r§kh. 69. On p. It contains the following: “Peace of All~h be upon you and upon them and upon . Bih~r al-Anw~r.” In his book Al-K~fi. 4. 305. 35. Then he asked for wrapping trousers which he also tore then put on so that nobody would take them away from his corpse6. Vol. .” Those who say it was `Abdull~h. 7:32). 65. . so he took a worn out garment which he ripped.1 . It was then that an arrow penetrated his son's mouth. 2. al-Kulayni. dark silk jubba (long robe)2 and a florid turban with two tresses let loose on the sides and wrapped himself with the same burda (gown) which the Messenger of All~ h. in removing it from his body. Ibn T~wãs. 193. of his book Majma` al-Zaw~’id and al-Khaw~rizmi on p.

in the tents. it is stated in all these books that Im~m al-Husain (–) threw it towards the heavens. Vol. Vol. “None of it came back. of .”1 Then he brought him to those folks and asked for some water for him. of Ibn Shahr }shãb's book Man~qib. “Peace be unto `Abdull~ h. says. Ibn Kath§r says that the man who had . the one shot with an arrow. From the parching of the sun his voice changed. In a tribulation from which what is solid melts. the one slaughtered with an arrow in his father's lap! The curse of All~ h be upon the person who shot him. Al-Husain (– ) . 32. 23. . . and upon his kinsfolk. on p. So my soul weeps for him since the arrow surrounded him Just as it was decorated before by amulets. where the incident is narrated by Im~m al-B~qir (–). Bih~r al-Anw~r. . and what else other than Such kissing suits him? My heart goes for the infant's mother when the night descends Upon her. on p. it is stated that. . al-Khaw~rizmi.grandfather the chosen one (‰ ) is their opponent. He yearned smiling for the Prophet's grandson to plant his kiss To bid him farewell. . How many an infant did their arrows suckle One F~ tima would have rather nursed? .” On p. 186. 108 of al-Qarm~ni's book Akhb~r al-Duwal. the Hujjah of the Progeny . shot that arrow belonged to Banã Asad and was named “Ibn Mãqid al-N~r” [son of the fire lighter]. So once she saw the arrow in his neck planted. You came to the people asking for water. . And on the prairie. On p. 10. She brought him closer to her chest in earnest So once she sings lullabies for him and once she to him talks: Son! Wake up from the slumber of death! 1 al-Majlisi. Vol. p. and on p. received his blood in his hand then threw it up towards the heavens. Vol. may All~ h hasten his reappearance. 222. Harmalah ibn K~ hil al-Asadi. Harmalah ibn K~ hil al-Asadi shot the infant with an arrow that slaughtered him. and when the doves mourn. 22.”2 In this regard. on p. In the dark does she come to see her babe As his mark showed among the victims. are mourners Pointing to your babe with agony and repeat. Ibn Kath§r's book Al-Bid~ya. Vol. This is stated in the ziy~rat of that sacred place. 66 of Ibn T~wãs’s book Al-Luhãf. 8. p. . The poem that follows the text was com posed by the virtuous orator Sayyid Muhammed Jaw~d Shubbar. . Maqtal al-Husain. In her hands she places him as she kisses his lips And kisses a neck before her the arrow had kissed. Hard it is for me how you carried your thirsty babe And the fire of his thirst could not be quenched. She wished she shared his arrow of death. 2. . Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-B~ qir (– ) has said. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. the one whose blood was shed in a most cruel manner and whose blood ascended to the heavens.”3 . 36 of Ibn Nama's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. of Muhammed (‰ ). the slaughtered infant. 3 2 223 . 2. “Not a drop of it fell. But how could you reach the watering place? For the bow surrounded his neck as if It was a string of the crescent wherein the star rests. 2.

102.. p. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. So how when deprivation follows begging? Of his pure blood he towards the heavens flung. p. . 36. 214. because of the thirst. Al-Muntakhab. 26.4 O All~ h! You are the Witness against people who killed the one who looked most like Your Messenger Muhammed. 144. the Prophet (‰) said..2 O . Vol. Vol. 313. Vol. and also according to p. .My breast should you suck. p. Im~m's sons.1 Al-Husain (– ) said. O Husain. In the biography of Ibr~h§m son of . All~ h! It is not less in Your esteem than the life of a son! Lord! If You have kept victory away from us. Al-Luhãf. and let what has happened to us in this life be a treasure for us in the hereafter. of al-Zarq~ni's book Sharh al-Maw~hib al-Laduniyya. . Paradise. the grandson. Ibn Nama. his eyes deeply sank. 8 224 . 66. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him .!”6 Then he (– ). Maqtal al-Husain. . Muth§r al-Ahz~n. p. and on p. p.7 Some accounts say that he placed him together with those of his family who had already been killed. . and seek revenge on our behalf from the oppressors3. Ibn al-Jawzi. al-Muf§d. Ibn T~wãs. p.. 32. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. “There is a nurse for him in Paradise.” 7 al-Khaw~rizmi. 2. then heard a voice saying. p. Son! You used to entertain me in my loneliness And my solace whenever the oppressors oppress. 3 4 5 6 al-Qazw§ni. p. Al-Irsh~d. p. So he found no choice except to beg Though begging for a father is the greatest calamity. then let it be so for something even better. and his progeny. “Leave him. alighted from his horse and with his sword dug a grave for him and buried him. Ibn Nama. The heavens was painted red from his blood Woe upon them from All~ h's curse! 1 2 From a poem by the `all~ma Shaikh Muhammed Taqi al-Jaw~hiri. in a chapter dealing with the . book Tahth§b al-Asm~’. “What decreases my affliction is the fact that it is witnessed by All~ h Almighty. p. and I know your thirst So maybe I thereby quench your burning thirst. . . al-Tibrisi. 2.8 My heart burns for his father when he saw How. The earth would have swallowed everyone. He could find no water for his babe. his blood was mixed with the sands. 1. Al-Ihtij~j. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 122. . 385. Maqtal al-Husain. How great his kindness. 163 (Najaf edition). 32. al-Khaw~rizmi. the Messenger of All~h (‰). Vol. of al-Nawawi's . it is stated that when Ibr~h§m son of the Messenger of All~h (‰) died. Mirza Farh~d. as stated in Al-Is~ba (of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni). Son! I have milk for you. how magnanimous! Had he not thrown it to the heavens. 3.”5 He (– ). . then he offered the funeral prayers for him. Al-Qamqam. for there is a nurse for him in . . Maybe my heart will then calm down.

p. Then he charged on the army's east flank as he recited this verse: Death is better than accepting ignominy. My heart goes for her how she mourned her infant. He killed all those who accepted his challenge. 33. losing all hope of survival. 223. Vol. of his book Al-Bay~n wal Tiby~n (second edition).1 Al-Husain (– ) advanced towards the enemy raising his sword. nothing to sustain you by. p. 2. So your thirst took you to drink of death. . O tears of mine. Vol. She yearned to him as she would her babe. Till my days showed him how one could be so mean. al-J~hiz adds the following after having quoted those poetry lines: All~h. 225 . is the Refuge. As if your quenching rested in the foe's arrows. 2. 97.4 1 2 Excerpted from a rajaz poem by the authority Ayatull~h Shaikh Muhammed Husain al-Isfah~ni. challenging them to . al-Khaw~rizmi. I wished you would be the best to succeed And a solace for me from their every vile deed. 3.And how was his mother's condition when she did see Her infant going through what had to be? He left her like a white pearl And returned like a red sapphire. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. I decided never to bow nor bend. Protecting my father's family. p. the life of my heart! My greatest calamity that you had to depart. Ibn Nama. p. Vol. from this and that. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. . She mourned him in the morning and at sunset. Man~qib. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. . Never did I think an arrow would wean. a duel. No water to drink. . and their number was quite high2. 4 3 Ibn Shahr }shãb. While ignominy is better than the Fire!3 and on the left flank as he recited: I am al-Husain son of Ali . . Remaining on the Prophet's creed. . Under the heading “A Discourse in Literature” on p. 37. 171. Maqtal al-Husain. may All~h sanctify him. A mourning that echoed her painful heart: Says she: O son! O my ultimate hope! O my desire and my joy! My milk when no water was there did dry.

destiny is done. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. and that was: protecting the ladies with their lives.” He became the target of the fighters. Al-Husain (– ) shouted at them. to it. something the Arabs used to die for. “This is the son of the quarrelsome one. his having abstained from drinking even a little of water. therefore. All issues relevant to the Battle of al-Taff are confined.3 From the direction of the Euphrates. He was never unaware of such a tribute for which he would sacrifice everything precious. Exalted is He. and yet you fear the returning to your Maker. so. “Never have I seen someone surrounded by a huge number of enemies and whose son is slaughtered. and the fighting intensified. “What are you. enemies had said. 2.”1 `Omer ibn Sa`d shouted to everyone saying. saying?” He (– ) said. Vol. W hen a man shouted out telling him that the sanctity of the ladies had been violated. 46. 67. the one with the stomach! This is the son of the killer of the Arabs! Attack him from all directions!” Four thousand arrows2 were at once shot at him. . if you are Arabs as you claim!” Al-Shimr addressed him saying. “O followers of . p. Nafs al-Mahmãm. Bih~r al-Anw~r. Abu Sufy~ n! If you have no religion at all. and women are not held accountable. then at least you should remain free in your life. in their circumstances and sites. spilled the water and did not drink then went in the direction of the tent. statement alleging the horse's refusal to drink water and al-Husain (–) spilling water from his hand merely on account of w hat his . 259. who never spoke out of his own inclination.4 1 al-Tabari. 2. Vol. . clearing . p. too. al-Husain (– ) said .” The horse raised his head as if he understood what the Im~ m (– ) had said to him. and so am I. . Men kept fleeing in front of . . doing exactly what his grandfather (‰). 223. Ibn T~wãs. had instructed him. 98. p. Al-Khas~’is al-Husainiyya. Al-Luhãf. p. . T~r§kh. “We shall grant you that. people would have concluded that he was lacking in his Arabian manliness. 188. Vol. and none kept his ground. and so are his family and companions. not my women. and who still maintained his composure. keep your rogues away from them and stop them from harming my women as long as I am alive. remained relentless. him whenever he charged at them. a man asked him. . to mysteries and reasons which only the Lord of the W orld. His thirst intensified. p. and we have no choice except to take it for granted that the Im~m (–). Had he paid no heed for the call. But I cannot vouch for the accuracy of this .” Said he: “Face me. he attacked `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j who was surrounded by four thousand men. p. and stayed courageous more than al-Husain (– ). was wise in his actions and speeches. Man~qib. yet I shall not drink before you. “Do you enjoy water while the sanctity of your women has been violated?” He. 6. “I am the one . Vol. “My time is come. When his horse was about to drink. . There is something else which was observed by the Master of Martyrs. He was fully aware of the fact that what they said was nothing but a trick.`Abdull~ h ibn `Amm~ r ibn Yaghã th said. in a chapter dealing with animal characteristics. Abu `Abdull~h (–) was the master of the Arabs and the son of their master.” Al-Shimr said. son of F~ tima (– ). 226 . `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. 38. who is fighting you. and you should go back to your lineage. he refused to drink water in order to let everyone know his deep concern about his honour. knows. them from the water and forcing his horse into the river. is a feat for which a man would receive the highest praise. 204. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. al-Khaw~rizmi attributes this statement to some . The action of the master of the men of honour. p. and he was forced to alight from his horse. 2 3 4 Ibn Shahr }shãb. . But the attributes of that day with regard to the Master of Martyrs and those in his company remaining thirsty are beyond our knowledge. al-Majlisi. “You are thirsty. of those who had participated in that battle. 10. something which the Father of the Oppressed would never have done even if he knew that the call was untrue. On p. When al-Husain (– ) stretched his hand to drink.

Had it only wept water for his thirsty heart! O how my heart burns for you.? They were in a constant danger of being plundered and beaten. The most solid of objects would be melting. sighing most depressingly. He put on the outer mantles as he said. the defender of their prestige. ordering them to be patient.” 1 2 3 Excerpted from a poem by Ayatull~h Shaikh Muhammed Husain K~shif al-Ghit~’. that they all assembled and surrounded him. the bulwark of their protection. who had never known before anything but honour and prestige. and be advised that All~ h Almighty shall protect and safeguard you. and He shall compensate you for this trial with many sorts of bliss and honour. having none to protect them besides the Im~ m (– ) whom fatigue had exhausted. How.”2 Indeed. through his vast knowledge.. may All~h have mercy on him. holding to his clothes as the children were moaning. “Get ready for the affliction. and the symbol of their honour telling them of a departure from which he would never return. The heavens mourns him with blood. No wonder. would have been the condition of the master of those endowed with a conscience and the example of affection as he saw. as recorded by al-Majlisi.1 THE SECOND FAREWELL hen he (– ). and little girls kept begging for security against their fear while others kept begging for water. then. . In this text. al-Majlisi. O son of Muhammed's daughter! . bade his family farewell for the second time. anyone may say that that was the most critical situation the Master of Martyrs had to face that day3. O how the foes were able to achieve their goals! They prohibited you from reaching The Euphrates river all the while. al-Zahr~’ (–). so. the trustees of the Message and the ladies who descended from the Infallible Ones.Their blood quenches the earth's thirst As his insides from thirst were burning. then. T Had Job suffered as he did for one day He would surely have stood to say: “This one is he whose calamity “Is greater than what happened to me. and He shall save you from the evil of the enemies and make the ultimate end of your affair good. now running in this empty desert wailing. may All~h elevate his status. Had the burning of his heart been made manifest. He shall torment your enemy with various types of torture. being stunned by the situation. 1 of al-Nawari's book D~r al-Sal~m. The ladies who were raised in the lap of Prophethood saw then the pillar of their security. Jal~’ al-`Uyãn (in Persian). the author refers to the agony of her children at bidding her farewell. It is also recorded in Vol. 227 .. do not complain. nor should you say anything that may demean your status. crying in a way that splits the most solid of stones. This is evident from the will of the truthful lady. so they did not know who would after him protect them from the oppression of the foes or who would be their solace once he is gone. So. . may people after you never enjoy The Euphrates or the Nile. .

the lantern of the Shar§`a to be put out. my dear one. 3 4 5 Ibn Nama. and we shall meet On the Day of Judgment at the Pool of Kawthar So bid your tears good-bye and come to greet And enjoy the fruits of your patience forever. He stood to ask her to be patient and to solace her. 2 From a poem by the orator Shaikh Muslim son of the orator Shaikh Muhammed Ali al-J~biri al-Najafi. so tell the burning heart How the red sigh does ascend. . 338. where al-Isfah~ni's text is cited. .3 He went back to his quarters profusely repeating this statement: La hawla wala quwwata illa bill~ h al`aliyy al-az§m (There is no might nor power except in All~ h.5 1 From a poem by K~shif al-Ghit~’. p. may All~h Almighty have . And when you do see me lying on the ground Bleeding.” That . Al-Shimr said to him.. crying. . . Anyone who could catch up with him he stabbed with his sword and killed as he was receiving the arrows from all directions. . “O All~ h! Do cause him to die of thirst. Tahth§b T~r§kh Ibn As~kir. to be sure. yet it would come out of his mouth and never goes down. kept asking for water ever since. 254. According to p. 67. And it mourns. Vol. 10. His condition could best be described in these verses: This is my farewell. (continued. and the tree of Im~ mate to wither. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. therefore.1 Al-Husain (– ) turned to his daughter Sukayna who was described by al-Hasan II as one “who was always . 4. the rope of Prophethood to be cut off. particular man. p. and water was always brought to him. where the whole .. of al-Majlisi's Bih~r al-Anw~r (Kampani edition). Vol. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni.As for the wise lady of Banã H~ shim. It yearned but its yearning is crying. And their saviour when calamity overwhelms Mourning them with blood. asked for some water. . . but its mourning is only by sign. your right wing will not be separated from the left!” They. Ibn T~wãs. bracing them with his chest and neck. may All~h sanctify him.” finding her staying aloof from the other women. The mighty lions mourn their young. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. We see how the secure niche of the religion was about to be dislocated. p. she saw all of that. the Sublime.) 228 . bear it and do not be by tears bound.”4 In such a condition. assailed him with their arrows till the arrows reached his camp and some of them pierced through the clothes of some of the women. “Woe unto you! Attack him. 47 (Iranian edition). incident is narrated. mercy on both of them. namely Zainab al-Kubra. and he kept doing so till he died of thirst.2 It was then that `Omer ibn Sa`d said to his men. wailing. “You shall not have a taste of it till you reach the Fire. since he is distracted and surrounded by his women! By All~ h! Should he direct his full attention to you. Al-Luhãf. You shall not taste of it till you die of thirst. the Great. overcome by a deep meditation upon All~ h. attacked the enemy like an angry lion.” A man shouted at him saying: “O Husain! Do not you see how the Euphrates water is as clear as the snakes' bellies? .” Al-Husain (– ) said. he . They screamed and entered the tent as they looked at al-Husain (– ) to see what he would do. Al-Husain (– ) . . causing them to be stunned and frightened.

Nafs al-Mahmãm. and do not ever forgive them. Sadly echoing the bereaved one's heart: O conscience of All~ h's ghayb. drenched in my blood. al-Khaw~rizmi. 70.continued) also on p. And swords struck your forehead and they (. Ibn T~wãs. . of Bih~r al-Anw~r.”1 Having become too feeble to fight. blood gushed forth like a drain pipe2. This time he rubbed it on his face and beard as he said. . rather.'”4 In the al-Hajeer he fell on the ground. The stars stood motionless when he fell. The Im~ m (– ) said. . “Lord! You know that they are killing a man besides whom there is no other son of Your Prophet's daughter!” As soon as he took the arrow out of his back. Vol. .” Al-Has§n said to the Im~ m (– ).. 2. 10. 2 5 Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. 98. and also according to Ibn T~wãs and Ibn Nama. Maqtal al-Husain. “He will cause you all to kill one another and thus get your blood spilled. In them the Spirit mourned him as he said. 2.” Raising his head to the heavens. “And how will He seek revenge on our behalf on you. Ibn T~wãs. and on the creed of the Messenger of All~ h [do I die]. . p. 203. p.Abul-Hutã f al-Ju`fi shot al-Husain (– ) with an arrow in his forehead which he pulled out. p. . al-Husain (–) went to the Euphrates. “In the Name of All~ h. causing blood . you will think very lightly of it once you have killed me. to run on his face. . 4. It is then that I shall say: `O grandfather! So-and-so killed me. 34. but he was not permitted to reach its water. p. Vol. these disobedient ones! O All~ h! Decrease their number. Al-Luhãf.3 Then he put it back a second time and it was again filled with blood. 189. Under the swords and their every sharp edge. its toll on him. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. . 1 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. “O All~ h! You see in what condition I am with regard to Your servants. Nafs al-Mahmãm. indeed. how could you Be the victims of their very spears? They pierced from behind His preserved veil. when thirst took . Al-Luhãf. 34. . . O son of F~ tima?!” . al-Khaw~rizmi. “Thus shall I appear when I meet my Lord and my grandfather the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Vol. 2.” Not a single drop of that blood fell on the ground. evil the way how you succeeded . Maqtal al-Husain. Maqtal al-Husain. al-Khaw~rizmi. p. it is being witnessed by All~ h. p. Ibn T~wãs. . p. “Make what has happened to me easy for me. consequences of killing him. then shall He pour His torment upon you in the most painful manner. p. Tahth§b T~r§kh Ibn `As~kir. Vol. Muhammed (‰ ) in faring with his `Itrat! You shall not kill anyone after me and contemplate on the . kill them and leave none of them on the face of earth. 338. By All~ h! I hope that All~ h will grant me the honour of martyrdom then will He seek revenge on my behalf from whence you know not. through All~ h. p. Maqtal al-Husain. 70. . he stood to rest. Vol.” In a loud voice did al-Husain (– ) shout.. 34. Al-Luhãf. al-Khaw~rizmi. 189. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. hitting his forehead and causing his blood to run down his face. And their motions turned still. He placed his hand on his wound and once his hand was filled with blood. p. Vol. p. 2. 34. The Im~ m (– ) answered. 70. he said. where al-Muf§d is quoted. It was then that a man threw a stone at him. “O nation of evil! It is. he threw it above saying. He instantly said. He took his shirt to wipe his blood from his eyes just as another man shot him with a three-pronged arrow which pierced his chest and settled in his heart. 3 4 229 .

4.” Having said so.1 Bleeding soon sapped his strength. . None of them would have remained on the ground. You were not. Ibn al-Ath§r. And the white swords over you like lids descend. A man came running. And you would have raised death-conquering hosts. . . p. 2. the man leaned from his horse and killed that This poem is published in the d§w~n of Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. gray in hue. . . It was then that I looked and saw one of the children from al-Husain's family wearing a robe and a shirt. the dying Im~ m (– ) threw his burnoose away and put on a turban on top of his capuche cap. And the lances. “May you never be . So none would remain to light a fire Nor to build a fort nor a highway. Born in the most vile of womb and of loin. like ribs. weak in might. and may All~ h gather you among the oppressors. You would have removed them from every land. Had you preferred at all in your stand. The fates would have made everything Precious for you as though it were nothing. over you bend. may All~h have mercy on him. It is the most glorious of every right hand. Al-Husain (– ) said. But no help came to your rescue O by your blood-stained beard. Maqtal al-Husain. and in his ears there were two rings. So you saw that meeting with your Lord Sacrificing for Him would surely be Better than to live in misery. AlHusain (– ) was wearing a burnoose which soon became full of blood. M~ lik ibn al-Nisr noticed his condition. so he taunted him then dealt him a stroke with his sword on the head. You took to patience even as the deer from thirst on fire Striking every valiant in a way melting every heart. when you were killed. able to eat nor drink with your right hand. 31. . Al-K~mil. He held a post from those buildings and stood startled looking right and left.Without your right hand would have had no right. al-Khaw~rizmi. Or if you had wished your foes to be wiped out. Folks who are your enemy and mine. . Having come close to that child. feeling his head being too heavy. But a band invited you to spend your all When their misguidance spread what was buried before. so he sat down on the ground. 230 . So your life did you spend among folks Who tried to subject you to their yokes. Vol. Vol.2 MUHAMMED IBN ABU SA`¦D H 1 2 ~ ni ibn Thab§t al-Hadrami has said. 35. p. “I was standing with nine other men when al-Husain (– ) was killed.

255. Vol. Al-Bid~ya. 39. grandson of the Prophet (‰ ). Strange how I see. His mother. `Abdull~ h son of Im~ m al-Hasan (– ). 38. The author of Nasab Quraish adds saying that she had . cutting it off. Greater than him no war has shown. looking at him as the incident unfolded before her very eyes. Al-Husain (– ) remained lying on the ground for some time. How your cheeks use its heaps for a pillow. al-Tabari. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. al-Tabari. al-Maqr§zi. p. .child with his horse. T~r§kh. 6. .. Ibn Kath§r. Vol. . the heavens did think That on the earth was its own Saturn. Ibn Nama. are . . 46 of M is`ab ibn al-Zubayr's book Nasab Quraish. looked and saw how his uncle was being surrounded by those people. said. will make you join your righteous ancestors. 3 4 5 2 Al-Khas~’is al-Husainiyya. His forehead dusted. p. Dusted whenever eyed by a valiant warrior. that F~tima daughter . “O son of my brother! Be patient with regard to what has befallen us.”4 T Harmalah ibn K~ hil shot the child with an arrow. 186. Vol. . of Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–) was the wife of M uhammed ibn Abu Sa`§d ibn `Aq§l.”1 That child was Muhammed ibn Abu Sa`§d ibn `Aq§l ibn Abu T~ lib2. T~r§kh. Al-Luhãf. “O All~ h! Let them enjoy themselves for some time then divide them and make them into parties. “O son of the corrupt woman. 6. . p. for they invited us to support us. and consider it as goodness. When he was shamed for thus killing a helpless child. 68.. was then eleven years old. could have done so. but each tribe relied on the other to do what it hated to do itself.. 258. Had those rogues wished to kill him. p.” Then he (– ) raised his hands and supplicated saying. Strange how unfairly you were slain by those 1 al-Tabari. Al-Bid~ya. . p. p. p. and do not let their rulers ever be pleased with them. 6 al-Dainãri. sat on the ground unable to stand. Ibn Kath§r. Ibn T~wãs. . . then they turned their backs to us and fought us. 68. O stranger in the Taff. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. kept . Zainab wanted to restrain him but he managed to evade her and to reach his uncle. 288. p. . . Khutat. of fright.6 A planting field for the lances he became A practice target for every blood-shedder. so the child shouted. their very color. given birth to his daughter Humayda. p. p. Bahr ibn Ka`b lowered his head to strike al-Husain (– ).5 .. . 259. Vol. . 6. Vol. turning each valiant a villain. 129. Ibn Nama. Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. . Al-Luhãf. “O uncle!” Then he fell in the lap of al-Husain (– ) who hugged him and . Vol. T~r§kh. Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. . 2. Ibn T~wãs. 37. dazed and stunned. The child cried in agony. 56 of Ibn Hab§b's book Al-Mahbar and on p. they . 8. It is . killing him as he sat in his uncle's lap. . you going to strike my uncle?” The man dealt a blow from his sword which the child received with his hand. for All~ h. Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n. p. . 258. As he was slain. . 231 . Stealing. he revealed his last name.3 `ABDULL} H SON OF AL-HASAN (– ) he enemies of All~ h waited for a short while then returned to al-Husain (– ) whom they surrounded as he . so he came running towards him. the most Exalted. who . 186. p. odd to read on p. . p. . 8. .

Hitting his sacred shoulders with blows. 110. Or had your mother. Be starved. “Am I the one who will reach it? Rather. .3 Zar`ah ibn Shar§k struck him on his left shoulder with his sword while al-Has§n shot him with an arrow . 1 Excerpted from a poem by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. may the world be your sacrifice. seen your thirst at al-Taff. 35. yet they are by the foes pursued. . . another man struck him on the shoulder. 2 3 4 5 al-Shabr~wi. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim.7 Had only Ahmed seen you on the ground lying. Ibn Nama. Hil~ l ibn N~ fi` has said. p.” They all became very angry. 70. Should you. which penetrated his mouth4. and I shall complain to him about what crimes you committed against me and what you have done to me. p. . left scorched by thirst?1 Al-Shimr shouted. Man~qib. Vol. and will reside with him in his abode of truth near an Omnipotent King. Ibn Shahr }shãb. . . She would have from her tears given you to drink. Al-Luhãf. 6 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. he asked for some water to drink. Ibn T~wãs. It is as if All~ h did not leave one iota of compassion in their hearts. 2. “What are you standing like that for?! What do you expect the man to do since your arrows and spears have wounded him so heavily? Attack him!”2 O sorrow how they charged from every side at him. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. The full poem by the authority Shaikh H~di K~shif al-Ghit~’ is recorded on p. Sin~ n ibn Anas stabbed him in his collar bone area of the chest then shot him with an arrow in the neck5. 2. “You shall not taste of water till you reach hell from whose hot boiling water shall you drink. did I ever see anyone whose face looked better than him or more glowing as he was stained with his own blood! In fact. He would have spread for you his very insides.6 .Whose fathers yours had bent. p. . al-Khaw~rizmi. p. p. p. p. That left him on the ground lying. 2. whose idols he broke. the Messenger of All~ h. 56 of Al-Maqbãla al-Husainiyya.. the light emanating from his face distracted me altogether from the thought of killing him! As he was in such a condition. . 35. Never . . Like wild beasts the foes ensued. “I was standing in front of al-Husain (– ) as he was drawing his last breath. She called upon her supporter and defender.” A man said to him. Vol. 16. Vol. 7 232 .. al-Zahr~ ’. 39. How I wish none tastes of the Euphrates at all So long as the Prophet's sons its waters desire How many free ladies whose homes the foes did plunder! How their insides shared the shame.” He (– ) said. . al-Khaw~rizmi. S~ lih ibn Wahab stabbed him in the side. . may All~h have mercy on him. I wonder! They flee. Al-Ith~f bi Hubbil-Ashr~f. Maqtal al-Husain. but they refused to give him any. 222. . . I will reach my grandfather. Maqtal al-Husain.

Asr~r al-Shah~da. Near to those who invoke Him. . His ribs and body were by the steeds trampled upon As his ladies on bare beasts to captivity borne. O One Who brings the dead back to life. and they killed us though we are the `Itrat of Your Prophet and the offspring of the one You love: Muhammed (‰ ) whom You chose for Your Message . Remembering those who remember Him! You do I call upon out of my want. Inclusive of Blessings. . 423. Misb~h al-Mutahajjid. . p. surely You are the best of judges. Both references are quoted on p. . . 107 of Maz~r al-Bihar. Overpowering. Excerpted from a poem by the authority Shaikh Muhammed Taqi Al S~hib al-Jaw~hir. p. Becoming All~ h's sacrifice and was not greeted by White deer. . And to defend All~ h's creed he surrendered his soul And every precious one so its pillars would stand tall. To be slain by the sword of his own oppressor. 3 Sayyid K~zim al-Rashti al-H~’iri. .5 THE HORSE 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by Hujjatul-Islam Shaikh Muhammed Husain K~shif al-Ghit~’. al-Kaf`ami. Able. Husain patiently surrendered his soul . O Lord! There is no god but You! O Helper of those who seek help!3 I have no god besides You. do judge between me and them. Receptive to Repentance. . nor do I adore anyone but You! Grant me to persevere as I face Your decree. p. Omnipotent. ziy~rat on his birth anniversary. 4 5 233 . Al-Iqb~l. Subduing His creation. 33. O One Who rewards every soul as it earned. al-Husain (– ) raised his eyes to the heavens and said. . In the lap of the one who would to him have mercy. True of Promise. Appreciative when thanked. Capable of doing whatever You please. O Eternal One Who knows no end. Riy~d al-Mas~’ib. Great of Might. Forthcoming in mercy. nor did they shake his hands peacefully. O most Merciful of all merciful ones!2 Grant me patience to bear Your destiny. 107 in a chapter on his .1 THE SUPPLICATION W hen his condition worsened. O All~ h! Sublime You are. greatly Proud.4 Had Ishmael to slaughter surrendered. and upon You do I rely! O All~ h! Judge between us and our people.Who remained on a burning ground: to death did he surrender. . Independent of all creation. and entrusted with the revelation! Do find an ease for our affair and an exit. . O Helper of the helpless. and You do I seek out of need! From You do I seek help when in fear and cry when depressed! Your help do I seek in my weakness. . for they deceived and betrayed us! They were treacherous to us. Clement.

“The horse! Get the horse. 2. 98. . `Omer! Should Abu `Abdull~ h be killed as you look on?!” He turned his face away. p. “Alight and put him to rest!” Al-Shimr was the first to do so. Vol.10 Then [`Omer] Ibn Sa`d shouted at people. . al-Tabari. 6. 205. to rub his head on the Im~ m's blood as he sniffed him. beating their cheeks. . al-Majlisi. Vol. 259 (first edition).1 It was then that Ibn Sa`d shouted. Vol. From the ziy~rat of the sacred area. p. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. came close to her flanked by some of his men. p. they went out. the earth!7 I wish the mountains had crushed the valley!”8 She was near al-Husain (– ) when `Omer ibn Sa`d . Tazallum al-Zahr~’ of al-Qazw§ni. “Leave him and let us see what he does. He dealt him twelve sword strokes. 37. al-Muf§d. 73. “O Muhammed! O father! O Ali! O Ja`fer! O . And another because of her calamity knows not what to do. Al-K~mil. Al-Irsh~d. 2 3 1 al-Khaw~rizmi. screaming and wailing. 100. . . T~r§kh. 32. Vol. p. al-Tabari. And another wishes she was his own sacrifice. killing forty riders and ten horses. 10. feeling the humiliation after enjoying prestige.4 . From a poem by al-H~jj H~shim al-Ka`bi. the horse went back to al-Husain (– ) . . Maqtal al-Husain. p. Bih~r al-Anw~r. p. al-Khaw~rizmi.11 He then severed his sacred head. Vol. 4. .2 Im~ m Abu Ja`fer al-B~ qir (– ) used to say that that horse was repeating these words: “Retribution! Retribution against a nation that killed the son of its Prophet's daughter!” The horse then went to the camp neighing likewise. . }m~li. H One kneels in earnest at him to hug While another covers him with a robe. al-Khaw~rizmi. Vol. Yet another out of fear seeks with his corpse refuge. p. al-Majlisi. cried out. 2. for it is one of the horses of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ )!” Horsemen surrounded that horse which kept kicking with its front legs. 37. “O . 6. Hamzah! Here is Husain in the open slain in Kerbal~ ’!”6 Then Zainab said. Bih~r al-Anw~r. rubbing his head on his blood. 129.is horse came circling around him. 259. their hair spread out.9 She said.5 Umm Kulthã m. p. “I wish the heavens had fallen upon . His tears were flooding his beard. namely Zainab the wise. . al-Khaw~rizmi. p. . And another does not help kissing him. Ibid.3 When the women saw the horse without its rider and its saddle twisted. 10. . their faces uncovered. Al-Husain (– ) was drawing his last breath. Ibn T~wãs. He was neighing very loudly. 206. al-Sadãq. 2. Maqtal al-Husain. going in the direction of the place where al-Husain (– ) had been killed. Maqtal al-Husain. p. 37. . majlis 30. “Woe unto you! Is there any Muslim man among you?” None answered her. Another with the flow of his bleeding neck Her faces does she for glory paint. 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ibn al-Ath§r. Vol.. p. p. 234 . She cried out. p. Ibn Sa`d then said.” Once he felt secure. 10 11 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. T~r§kh. Maqtal al-Husain.. Al-Luhãf. Vol. He kicked the Im~ m (– ) with his foot then sat on his chest and took hold of his holy beard. 36 and following pages. .

3 Ibn Shahr }shãb. by her father and by Ali . He saw the Im~ m (– ) wearing a ring covered with his blood. 102.”2 The Im~ m (– )’s worn out garment was taken by Ja`oonah ibn Hawiyyah al-Hadrami. Vol. and may He blind you and hurl you into the fire!' Indeed. 4. 2. Being handled by them as they pleased. outer garments were taken by al-Rah§l ibn Khaythamah al-Ju`fi. Al-Luhãf. . “I wanted to take it off. O Commander of the Faithful al-Murtada! May All~ h's rewards for you be great. That he was the fifth of Ash~ b al-Kis~ ’. F~ tima. involuntarily.. . Al-Aswad ibn Kh~ lid took his sandals. al-Khaw~rizmi.. While I was unconscious. `O son! They killed you! May All~ h kill them!' He said to her. Bajdal came. They carried a head whose grandfather they greet. p. and al-Hasan (– ).AL-HUSAIN (– ) MAURAUDED . without being supported. They shrouded him with the earth of the ground. . therefore. `May All~ h cut your hands and legs. 4 235 . F~ tima was saying. Vol. H~ ni ibn Shab§b al-Hadrami and Jar§r ibn . . This man said. Ibn al-Ath§r. and was about to bare him and take it off. He cut his finger off and took the ring. My hands and legs have already been amputated. Ali. so he came to be called “Qays Qateefa. taken away by others. Man~qib. . I saw the Prophet (‰ ). but he had put his right hand on it which I could not lift. mother! This sleeping man has severed my right hand!' She then invoked All~ h's curse on me saying. hose folks now took to maurauding the Im~ m (– ).. Jam§` ibn al. so I severed it. p. I am now blind.3 A man from among them wanted to take his underpants after all his other clothes had been . 32. I severed his right hand. Without being helped. 38. Hardly he erected it before it was no more. 2. . It was then that I heard something like an earthquake. p. p. Maqtal al-Husain. . Vol. He would have now been mourning him. Al-K~mil. took his sword. Mas`ã d al-Hadrami. Khalq al-Awdi. Ish~ q ibn Hawayh took his shirt. . They killed him though they knew. but some say a man from Tam§m named al-Aswad ibn Hanzalah. At Kerbal~ ’ he struck his tent. Be it is out of their free will. They washed him with the blood of his every wound. Maqtal al-Husain. The man for him testifies sublimity. so I became frightened. and nothing remains from her curse except the Fire. . . Dead mourned by F~ tima. He then put his left hand on it which I also could not lift. His bow and . 224. 1 2 Ibn T~wãs.. p. . For the one whose insides were killed By thirst till he spent. They neither honoured him nor sanctified. too. `O . 73. . Vol. Had the Messenger of All~ h been after him raised. Murthid ibn `Alqamah al-Hadrami took his turban.. Al-Akhnas ibn . O Messenger of All~h! O F~ tima! .. 2. Qays ibn al-Ash`ath took his velvet1 on which he since then used to sit. al-Khaw~rizmi.”4 T O slain one snatched by death away. I left him and fell into a swoon.

or who would calm and pacify those who have lost their loved ones. 236 . or who would repel those who might terrorize them. how unkind! Your eyes would have seen a sight That would surely have grieved your insides And would surely have been for your eyes a sore. necks covered with blood. They remained among the corpses of those who used to be their protectors. fear overwhelming them. may All~h elevate his status.O Messenger of All~h! If you only eyed How they kept killing and taking captive. having lost those shining lights. They kept calling upon the Messenger of All~ h Whenever marching was hard. sisters of those who were martyred. They do not know anyone who could defend them if they were to be attacked. Then they drove his family like slaves away. There were mothers of children waned by the arrows. corpses slashed and cut. O nation of oppression and corruption. stumbling. their chambers burnt. their belongings plundered. one following behind. lit during the day by the sun of Prophethood and during the night by the star of caliphate and by the lanterns emitting the radiance of sanctity. . How their thirsty ones were met with the spears How they were driven. And they were in a desolate A 1 From a poem by al-Shar§f al-Radi. Such should not be how the Messenger of All~ h. Yes. be treated They slaughtered like sacrifices his offspring that day. mothers who lost their sons. they were left in the pitch dark. there were among them children crying in anguish. Now they have neither protectors nor defenders. Next to them were body parts amputated. whenever they stumbled. And they were mourning their dear ones. During this night.1 PART II POST-MARTYRDOM EVENTS O Kã fians! Do you know what liver of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) have you cut off? Do you know what blood you have shed? Which daughter of his have you frightened? What sanctity of his have you violated? Should you be surprised if the sky rains blood? Surely in the torment of the hereafter there is more shame. How they were prohibited from enjoying any shade. Another transported on a bare conveyance. and they shall not be helped! __ “Umm Kulthã m” Zainab THE ELEVENTH NIGHT nd what a night it was for the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) whom lofty eminence never forsook ever since they were born! It was only yesterday that they lived in the pavilions of greatness and the chambers of dignity.

And she wished. 1. In it an arrow rested that killed the neck.1 Vexation overwhelmed the world of the domain and of the unseen. Swiftly to the infant's resting place did she go. and so were the angels in the strata between the heavens. . 139. 146.. 386 (first Egyptian edition). or will they be taken captive? None other than the ailing Im~ m (– ) could defend them. But she only saw a corpse at a slaughter place. . as the jinns mourned. . 9. . Perhaps she would find in him some life so he would suckle. 729. 1. T~r§kh. .desert. She now eulogizes him with the best of verse. Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. Saf§nat al-Bih~r. 602 (old . Vol. She hugged him. And it used to overflow with happiness. . 4. Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). with grief after him overflowing. p.”3 . Ibn Abul-Had§d. .. So she yearned and over him knelt With her ribs to shade him from the heat. “`Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d built four mosques in Basra to disseminate hatred towards .). And she often kneels down and sniffs Where his neck was slit and then kisses him again. Vol. had he only been able to defend himself against the danger of being killed. Behind the low marshes stood the army of treachery savouring its “victory”: the recklessness of winners and the meanness of vanquishers. Vol.H. 56. And her breast with her pure milk is weighed For her infant used to overflow. p. Besides all of this. edition) citing p. though dead. Vol. 341. p. And from his spilled blood she dyed her chest. Sharh Nahjul Bal~gha. having seen his cheeks covered with blood That with his arrow her own cheeks were split. . p. . }k~m al-J~n. Shaikh Badr ad-D§n Muhammed ibn `Abdull~h al-Shibli al-Hanafi (d. Vol. the hã ris in the chambers of Paradise were crying. So how miserable you are and how bereaved With the like of your tears did al-Khans~ ’ mourn Sakhr! Of her emotions and yearnings she had that day A cage for eternity from which the bird had flown away. Over his grave she poured her heart With feelings overflowing. T~r§kh al-Khulaf~'. Vol.. She sings lullabies once and once she Hugs his corpse that decorated the pearls. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. Will he announce their slaughter. p. 769 A. 3 2 237 . Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya.2 Ibn Abul-Had§d says. 199. of his other work titled Bih~r al-Anw~r. 8. p. Ibn `As~kir.D. A nurse set out to suckle her infant With feelings that caused her infant to die of patience. . they did not know what the morning would bring them and what the caller would announce.. She saw his cradle./1368 A. 1 Excerpted from a poem eulogizing al-Husain (–) by the authority Shaikh `Abd al-Mun`im al-Fartãsi. al-Sayyãti. 1. Shaikh . p. al-Majlisi. .

she heard in the depth of the night a caller mourning al-Husain (– ) saying . . . She asked him.This is not how to reward All~ h's Messenger O nation of oppression and corruption! Had the Messenger of All~ h lived after him. and I have not yet finished digging his grave and those of his companions. p. p.” On p. 460. in agreement with al-W ~qidi. 356. of Ibn Hajar’s book Tahth§b al-Tahth§b.” .” According to al-W ~qidi. with earth soil on his head. Umm Salamah saw the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in a vision1 with his hair looking quite untidy. Vol. every messenger. of his book Al-K~mil. Thakh~ir al-`Uqba. (681 A. 362. says that the above-cited traditions relevant to al-Husain's martyrdom indicate that she lived till after his death. Yaz§d ibn Mu`~wiyah. Ahmed ibn Abu Khaythamah is quoted as saying that she died during the reign of .). 38. “This can be established if we agree that she lived more than fifty years. p. 38. Zayn al-`}bid§n (–). the poetry she had heard was the following: O eyes! This is a day for your tears On p. the latter discusses the qunãt. 238 .3 It was the bottle given to her by the Prophet (‰ ) who ordered her to keep it. “has been killed. He would have today mourned him exceedingly. 341. of Mir’~t al-Jin~n.H. “O Messenger of All~ h! Why do I see your hair looking so untidy and dusty?” “My son. wife of the Messenger of All~h (‰). . These verses are recorded on p. 427.). She lived till the news of the martyrdom of alHusain (–) reached her. 3 4 2 1 al-Y~fi`i. “Umm Salamah died in Shawwal of 59 A. 1. On p. Vol. and she fainted. . 3. of al-Nawawi's Tahth§b al-Asm~’. she was the last of the mothers of the believers [to die]. Ibn al-Ath§r says. (August of 679 A. 4. Vol. p. before departing to All~h. Maqtal al-Husain. Vol. In his book Al. 137. Vol. she heard in the depth of the night other voices mourning al-Husain (– ) but could not see them. Al-}m~li.H. al-Khaw~rizmi. She was shaken. Vol. al-Y~fi`i. says. and every martyr. died in 61 A. 2. and p. The son of David had cursed you And so did Moses and the man of the Gospel. Among .H. mother of the faithful. 148 of al-Tabari's book . .D. Vol. Umm Salamah saw the Messenger of All~h (‰) in a vision telling her of the martyrdom of al-Husain (–). 2. “She died in 62 . . Al-`Ayni. p. 341./882 A.” In his book Al-Bid~ya. of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni's book Al-Is~ba. Al-K~mil. 146 of the same book. was the last to die from among the mothers of the faithful./679 A. p. She grieved for him a great deal. Ibn al-Ath§r. According to p.” he (‰ ) said. al-W ~qidi is quoted as saying that Umm Salamah died three years before al-Husain's martyrdom. Mir'~t al-Jin~n.D. Shahr is quoted as saying.D. al-Muf§d cites Ahl al-Bayt (–) saying that al-Husain (–) had entrusted the nation's treasures to her in order to pass them on to . who explains p. remaining only for a short while thereafter . 2. of al-Thahbi's book Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~'. K~fi. 4. al-Thahbi says.Tãsi. where . Receive the news of your torture and annihilation. . Vol.4 In fact. 95.” On p. “Umm Salamah.” Ibn Na`§m. 2. says. of al-Bukh~ri's Sah§h. of Ibn `As~kir's T~r§kh. dusty. Vol. she died in 59 A. . 3. A. of Tahth§b T~r§kh Ibn `As~kir. 213. Vol. the most Exalted One. Vol. 134. 139 of al-Sayyãti's book T~r§kh al-Khulaf~'. 4. Ibn Kath§r.”2 She woke up terrified and looked at the bottle containing a specimen of the soil of Kerbal~ '. as quoted in her biography stated on p. O killers of al-Husain out of ignorance . . She found it boiling in blood. 1. Vol. 56. On p. “I came to Umm Salamah to offer my condolences on the death of al-Husain (–).D. 4.H. “Um m Salamah. of al-Thahbi's book Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~’.. Moreover. 142. 1. Shaikh al. the author. On p. Vol. says. All the people of the heavens condemn you Every prophet.

. Muhriqa. al-Khat§b al-Baghdadi. . 354. 28. 340. p. 1. Khutat. of al-Sayyãti's Khas~’is.” he said. Vol. He narrates saying. p. in the events of A ugust of 399 A. 114. 56. . Shaikh Muhammed Ali ibn Gh~nim al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. and he was holding a bottle of blood. A non-Im~mite ought not doubt this fact especially once he reads on p. p. al. Ibn Hajar. al-Shabr~wi. . Thakh~’ir al-`Uqba.. . Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. . Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. Vol. Vol. . p. Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. T~r§kh. . . 339. Vol. al-Shabr~wi. Vol. . Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. Maqtal .. 7. p. . T~r§kh al-Khulaf~'. Vol. Ibn `As~kir. 341. T~r§kh. T~r§kh. . being part of the Prophet (‰ ) who is the cause of all causes. 339. 116. 1. p. 355. p. Vol. Vol. al-Durriyya. Khutat. 1. . 116. Who after me shall the martyrs mourn Over folks led by their fates To a tyrant in the reign of slaves?1 On the day of `} shã ra. the truth which is the cause of all causes . . Vol. Bahr~ni. “Pilgrims who visited al-Tha`labiyya were hit by a black wind that darkened their daytime. 285. Ibn `Abb~ s saw the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in a vision with his hair looking very untidy. 4. . Ibn Hajar. 4. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. al-Thahbi. Al-Ith~f. 56.. The rays of the sun could not be seen8. . p. existence itself. Ibn al-Ath§r. p. 4. p. Ibn `As~kir. 199. 127. Ibn `As~kir. 116. Vol. of his book Usd al-Gh~ba. of his book `Umdat al-Q~ri fi Sharh al-Bukh~ri in a chapter about . al-Husain. p. Maqtal al-Husain. 138. it. p. p. 56. Three days saw nothing but pitched darkness3. Vol. Ahmed. chapter 12. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. .!!! . Vol. Nobody should be surprised at seeing the light of the sun diminishing during the period when the master of the youths of Paradise was left naked on the ground. Durriyya. . 1. Musnad. p. He said to him. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. p. al-Sayyãti. 1. . Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya. al-Tabari. al-Khaw~rizmi. Al-K~mil. by al-Jazri on p. 212. and p. Nobody can find it objectionable in the light of what is recorded by Ibn al-Jawzi on p. 90. Vol. Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. how to perform the eclipse prayers. Vol. p. 1. 2. Nobody should find this strange. . . 212. Vol. . p. . 239 . Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. 1. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. . Vol. of al-Zarq~ni's book Sharh al-Maw~hib al-Laduniyya. Vol. . 138. Messenger of All~h (‰) died as stated on p. Vol.” 5 4 3 2 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. 39. Vol. Vol. 1. 2. p. of his book Al-Muntazim. . . 244. p. 24. Al-Kaw~kib al. Vol. . Vol. the grandson. T~r§kh. p. 242. 1 Reference to these verses is made on p. leaving them unable to see one another. T~r§kh al-Khulaf~'. T~r§kh. 155. 6 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. and all this continued for three long days9. 2. 472. p. . “I have been collecting . T~r§kh al-Khulaf~a'. p. and I have not yet finished doing so. p. . Stars appeared at midday6. . 339. 289. p. . 24. T~r§kh. that the earth was pitched in the dark upon the death of `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~b]. Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya.”2 They kept al-Husain's naked corpse on the ground for three days although he was the essence of . Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. 126. 3. adding. . p. 56. 2. . Al-Kaw~kib . Vol. 354. 3. Ibn al-Jawzi. . Ibn `As~kir. p. 1. People thought that Doomsday had dawned5. p. p. 126. 3. Vol. 6. 134. 2. the sun w as eclipsed when Ibr~h§m son of the . Al-Saw~`iq al. Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al. 9 8 7 Ibn Qawlawayh. 197. Vol. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. 142. . Vol. 2. Mir’~t al-Jin~n. Vol. . 22. for he is the cause in the cosmos running due to what you have come to know of his being derived from the very truth of Muhammed (‰ ). . Vol.So cry hard and spare not. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa.H. al-Maqr§zi. 116. p. of Mujma` al-Zaw~’id of Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. p. p. Ibn Hajar. the one whose light was derived from the holiest light of the Most Holy One. Vol. 148. 4. p. 1. 4. . And they kept colliding with one another7. Al-Ith~f bi Hubbil-Ashr~f. Ibn `As~kir. p.al-Shabr~wi. Y~fi`i. 9. Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~'. 4 of Ibn `As~kir's T~r§kh. 339. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. Vol. al-Khaw~rizmi. “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! What is this?!” “This is the blood of al-Husain (– ) and of his companions. p. . Al-Ith~f bi Hubbil-Ashr~f. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. 9. and by al-`Ayni on p. 2.D. . al-Sayyãti. . 24. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. 4. 77. 116. p. p. of al-Qastal~ni's book . p. Vol. p. and the nights were even more so4. This is the same as our statement saying that it was pitch dark for three days. Vol. Irsh~d al-S~ri fi Sharh al-Bukh~ri. . p. Vol. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. . 138. al-Sayyãti. 139. 94. p. . ./1009 A. 2.. 2. p. T~r§kh al-Khulaf~. Tarh al-Tathr§b. al-Maqr§zi. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni.

heart-rent. pp. how could it not undergo a change. 2. . . p.and the first reason.. It is as if I can see the wild beasts stretching their necks on his grave mourning him all night long till the morning. 206 and . And the wind if it does not blow Except becoming storms and gales And water shall I never drink near him But stay grieved. Ibn `As~kir. p. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. are discussed. p. Khutat. and which is related to how the responsibility of wil~ ya was offered to everything in existence: whoever accepted it would surely benefit therefrom. p.D. . 3 4 Ibn Qawlawayh. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. 255. and if the beasts do not graze. too. . 116. 339. (continued. If they departed. p.2 Yes! The condition of everything changed.”3 And it rained blood4. . Al-Ith~f bi Hubbil-Ashr~f. which confirms the same. author of Al-Ghad§r. Excerpted from a poem by Shaikh Muhammed son of Shar§f son of Fal~h al-K~zimi. the grandson. Vol. Al-Man~qib.H. 989.. T~r§kh. If I ever forget how his offspring were conveyed. and the birds If they do not sing at all.) 240 . . 155. If the talk about the cosmos undergoing some change on account of the birth of a great prophet till the heavens are filled with clouds. Borne on a bare and lean hump stayed. and which eighteen of his contemporary poets critiqued. p. Water urns and jars and every other container was 1 2 al-R~windi. or why should not the sunlight or the moonlight not be obliterated when the [corpse of the] Master of the Youths of Paradise was left on the ground after being mutilated? Why did not the heavens when he was killed not collide? Why did the earth when he fell not crack? I after him excuse the moon of the morn If it does not appear. And the water if not pure and the trees If they do not blossom. and if the sun does not shine. p. and that it rained when a Christian scholar at Surra-man-R~ '~ [Samarr~ ’]1 prayed for rain. al-Maqr§zi. This one totals 39 lines as compiled by the authority al-Am§ni. Maqtal al-Husain. nor were his limbs cut off./1753 A. Vol.). The Commander of the Faithful (– ) has said. . . p. 64 (Indian edition). May the foes shoot my heart with a fateful blow If what the most Exalted Glory did would not let me grieve so. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. al-Shabr~wi.. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. where the miracles of Im~m al-Hasan al-`Askari (–). and all beings were altered. Ibn Shahr }shãb (d. And the comet if let loose and their clouds. 588 A. Commander of the Faithful which he had written in 1166 A. 2. Vol. It is due to the tradition.Ibn al-Jawzi. Vol. 4. 126. 80. 2. so. al-Khaw~rizmi. p.D. killed in the outskirts of Kã fa. and whoever refused would be deprived. The wild beasts mourned him with tears in their eyes./1192 A. 89. author of the Karr~ri poem in praise of the . . 2.H. . “By my parents! Al-Husain (– ) will be . although he did not uncover the body of the prophet [but only a bone of whose body he was holding]. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. Vol. Al-Khar~’ij. . .

the grandson. 338. p. Su`da daughter of M~ lik al-Khuz~ `i. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. Mujma` al-Zaw~’id.H. “Here she is reviving the witchcraft of `Abd al-Muttalib's offspring!” It was . al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya.D. Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. . 155. 2. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. the Fire shall be your abode in the hereafter. . 56. . T~r§kh. 6. The heavens raining blood is mentioned by Ibn al-Ath§r on p. wanted then to inform the nation..” The head kept speaking till the fire was out. 4. 2. Al-Nujãm al-Z~hira. .continued) 182. When the head was brought into the governor's mansion./860 A. . Vol. Everyone in the mansion was amazed7. Ibn al-Ath§r. 4. Maqtal al. This is narrated by the most eloquent among all the orators of Khaw~ rizm. . . Vol. p. p. 87. p. 196. 339. as well as the succeeding generations. 92. 7. This implies attracting everyone's attention to the status al-Husain (– ) enjoys with All~ h. 291. She used this incident as .D. 339. Vol. For a long time did its stain remain on houses and walls2. p. . 2. Vol. 315. Vol. . For two or three months did the people see the walls stained with blood at sunrise and at sunset8. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. 9./1173 A. of his book Al-K~mil where the events of the year 246 A. Exalted One. 103. 90. . the most . Al-K~mil. al-Sayyãti. p. Vol. Vol. Maqtal al-Husain. even in Jerusalem4. al-Khaw~rizmi. Kanz al-`Umm~l. 2. p. 5 Ibn `As~kir. 126. 7 8 6 Sharh Qas§dat Ab§ Fir~s. . Vol. Vol.. T~r§kh. Al-Husain's martyrdom was surrounded with super-natural events. are discussed. al-Turayhi. Bahr~ni.filled with blood1. “Where are you running to. . . Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya. to be acquainted with this epic the like of which has never been witnessed. to know the fact that al-Husain (– ) had another daughter besides F~ tima and Sukayna. He wanted to inform them about the extent of cruelty of the Umayyads in dealing with Abu `Abdull~ h. 4. as we read on p. 1. . O cursed one?! If it does not reach you in this life. . p. Ibn al-Jawzi. . . . the youngest daughter of al-Husain (– ). Al-`Iqd al-Far§d. That fire ran in the direction of `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d who. Whenever a stone was removed. and that his killing will . Another incident is that of a raven stained with the blood of al-Husain (– ). p. Ibn Hajar al-Haytham i. 138. was living at the time. ordered those who were in his company to keep what they had seen to themselves6. the man who sacrificed his all for the sake of the Divine Call. . Vol. not long before the news of his martyrdom came. 37. 125. Ibn `As~kir. . a theme in mourning the killing of her father [before its news reached Med§na] (– ). Sayyid Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli. 241 . p. It is as though the Almighty. 2. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. 56. p. . the mansion's walls dripped blood5 and a fire broke out from a number of its walls. p. noticing it. Vol. they said. house where F~ tima. . Vol. Vol. 196. p. 2. 2. 322. 116. Du`bal al-Khuz~ `i narrated a story which he traces back to his grandfather thus: His mother. . Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. the survival of which was desired by the Lord of the World. 2 3 4 Ibid. p. It flew to Med§na and fell on the walls of the .H. till the Day the dead shall be resurrected. Al-K~mil. al-Khaw~rizmi. . Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. Husain. . blood was found underneath it3. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami. Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al. refute all misguidance and will herald the revival of the creed. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. p. was alive and aware of the fact that a tree belonging (. .. . Al-Muntakhab. When she mourned him to the people of Med§na. He fled away from it. p. 149. 9. p. Vol. Ibn al-Ath§r. Vol. namely Ahmed ibn Mekki [al-Khaw~ rizmi] who died in 568 A. Vol. It was then that the holy head spoke loudly saying. . 1 4 Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra.. 4. T~r§kh al-Khulaf~’. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. p. 1. p. p. This coincident should not surprise anyone especially when we come . 29. Vol. p. . 116.

to the mother of Ma`bid al-Khuz~ `i1 had long been dead. 3 242 . They heard another voice saying: O martyr. anyone who touched the sassafran which had been plundered [from Husain's family] was burnt thereby . the tree was brought back to life: it became green once more. Du`bal al-Khuz~ `i dedicated three lines of poetry complementing the above wherein he said. for whoever forbade you is an ass Why should I not visit you. 588-590 of my book titled Allah: The Concept of God in Islam (Qum. its produce decreased a great deal. Vol. After some time. The Prophet (‰ ) happened to make his ablution there and he poured the left-overs of his ablution water under that tree. For you there is love in the hearts of the wise Your foe is annihilated. Through such a blessing. Visit the best of graves in Iraq And disobey the ass. all its fruit fell at once on the ground. O Husain? . I provided more details about this miracle. of Ibn Shahr }shãb's book Al-Man~qib. and when the Commander of the Faithful (– ) was killed. and martyr is his uncle. Strange how a polished one dared to hit you On the face. and reduced to ashes. And may my people and everyone to me dear. .2 The meaning of the second line was borrowed by a Sh§`a poet of old and reworded in three lines [the rough translation of which runs thus]: How strange should a sword blow be dealt to you On the day when dust high and wide flew! And strange how arrows snatched you from the ladies Who called upon your grandfather with tears abundant. They were terrified for having seen something nobody else had ever seen. When the Prophet (‰ ) died. The taste of the meat of the camels which they had looted was more bitter than that of On pp. and dust had covered you. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. 1997). they heard someone weeping and wailing without seeing anyone at all. People continued to use its leaves as a medicine. This poem is recorded on p. It was not long after having witnessed such an odd phenomenon that news came of the killing of al-Husain (– ). 2. him do we despise. May my life be sacrificed for you. as well as on the preceding pages. When the night brought the mantle of its darkness. Ja`fer al-Tayy~ r . Vol. _ Tr. . 2 1 This poem is cited on p. 100. they looked at it and noticed how its trunk was literally bleeding. All do not at all with you compare. Why did not someone the arrows break? Should your holy and exalted body them overtake?3 In fact. . and its produce was quite bountiful. too The best of uncles. Islamic Republic of Iran: Ans~riyan Publications. 2. 380.

. Ibn `As~kir. has said.”4 . The crowd among them shouted. what would his condition have been had he seen the person who killed his [grand]son and who transported his family on camels’ bare humps?3 Yes! The [soul of the] Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) did. Im~ m alS~ diq (– ). to him. Tahth§b al-Thahth§b. once looking at you. Hamzah's killer. 90. Husain. 339. 2. . what would his condition have been had he heard the moaning of al-Husain (–)? When Wahshi. 4. 116. p. Ibn al-Jawzi . . . . the army heard a thunderous voice saying. Vol. and he heard the cries of the children because of thirst. Exalted is He. till a revolutionary rises for [the offspring of] al-Husain . Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. Shaikh Muhammed al-Qatari al-Bil~di al-Bahr~ni. 1. . embraced Islam. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. “Let it not frighten you!” Abu `Abdull~ h. p. Since the Truth. .” This was so despite the fact that Islam wipes out whatever sins one had committed prior to accepting the faith. 5 243 . In fact. Some angels shouted. Ibn Qawlawayh. Maqtal al. . p. that they were not successful. (– ). . Vol. 126. He manifested His wrath for the killing of al-Husain (– ) through the redness of the horizon on . . p. Should Bucht-Nuzzar of old seek for John revenge? His justice was indeed fully redressed. so. “Woe unto you. al-`Abb~ s ibn `Abd al-Muttalib. Whenever anyone among the people was angry. Nobody had ever seen the sky turning red except on the day when al-Husain (– ) was killed2. the grandson. O people of Kã fa! I see the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) eying you. . p. “Get your face away from my sight. and once looking at the heavens. . 154. who had been taken captive and . . . p. p. Ibn al-Jawzi. 2. account of the magnanimity of the crime committed. nor will they ever be. . 96.. al-Khaw~rizmi. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. Vol.. Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss. “I do not think that that voice came from anyone another than Gabriel. 148. Man la Yahduruhu al-Faq§h. so. . 9. is far above having a physical form to manifest to people. 2 3 4 1 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni. holding his holy beard!” But the desires and the misguidance which have taken control of the souls of that greedy host inspired to them that it was just “a mad man” [who was calling]. 56. the Prophet (‰ ) said . p. “By All~ h! There is no doubt at all . and he saw the wailing of the orphans and the sobbing of the ladies who had lost their loved ones. p. T~r§kh. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. Vol. for I do not like to see the killer of my loved ones. Majma` al-Zaw~’id. 116. Vol. attend and witness the huge host which was bent on eradicating his family from the face of earth. . and they saw fire coming out of it1. “O nation that has become confused and misguided after its Prophet! May All~ h never accept your Adha nor Fitr [Eid] prayers!” Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) has said. used to say. Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya. The Prophet (‰ ) could not sleep as he heard the moaning of his uncle. 354. p. Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa.. indeed. al-Sadãq. Vol.”5 Suppose John's blood on the ground did boil. . who was tied during the battle of Badr. anger left permanent physical marks on his face. 2.colocynth. But the blood of the Prophet's grandson shell not Calm down before al-Q~ ’im. Husain's blood in the hearts did indeed boil.

Shaikh Husain ibn `Abd al-Samad al-H~ rithi. there is a tradition reported by M~ lik al-Juhni who quotes Im~ m [al-B~ qir] Abu Ja`fer [al-S~ diq] . lying on the ground drenched in their blood as the wind blew upon them in that wilderness: parts cut off by the spears. 174. (–) saying. from whose blood swords drank. of his book Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. Day of Judgment receiving the rewards due to two million performances of the hajj and two million . with his loud cries and generous grief. 244 . peace be upon them.By All~ h's leave.1 Shaikh al-Bah~ 'i has narrated saying that his father. to consoling . Whoever had the chance to come close to the ladies. . would find them shedding their tears on those sacred corpses. her. “Whoever visits al-Husain's grave on `} shã ra and remains there mourning will meet All~ h on the . who grew up in the home of revelation. THE ELEVENTH NIGHT IN THE COMPANY OF AL-HUSAIN (– ) . who had sacrificed themselves for Islam. For example. 2 3 On p. It goes without saying that such a grief is related to the truthful one. entered . . nyone who follows the path of the Infallible Im~ ms.. Shaikh al-Tãsi quotes Im~m al-S~diq . and whatever was left was crushed under the horses' hooves. . F~ tima al-Zahr~ ’ (– ). More clear than silver I once used to be Now my color is that of al-Husain's blood. . their hair protruding on their faces3. It is for al-Husain (–) . .2 . sobbing. 17 of the Indian edition of the Kashkãl of Shaikh Yousuf al-Bahr~ni. Excerpted from a poem recorded on p. . Signs of disappointment and depression as well as grief will have painted their marks on his face upon witnessing such a tremendous calamity. “The ladies who descended from F~tima (–) tore their pockets as they grieved and beat their cheeks. performances of the `umra and two million campaigns in the company of the Messenger of All~ h and the Guided Im~ ms. There are traditions from which one may derive such a conclusion if he only contemplates upon them. that the cheeks should be beaten and the pockets torn. so scatter me When the parents of the Prophet's grandson betrothed. He would then console them with his own incessant tears. will surely feel very grieved if he had the opportunity to spend the eleventh night at the grave of the oppressed Im~ m (– ). He would have heard the moaning and groaning. 2. The women were crying. at the end of a chapter dealing with nathrs. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. seeks his revenge. peace be upon them.. and to fulfilling the wish of the Im~ ms of Guidance. . 282. (– ) saying. Vol.”4 Scholars of Arabic who examined the original text of this statement conclude that all such rewards are A 1 Excerpted from a poem by the `all~ma Shaikh Muhammed Taqi al-Jawhari. the sighs and cries of those whom al-Husain (– ) had left behind. Kã fa's mosque once and found a carnelian stone upon which these lines were written: I am jewels from the heavens. . beating their chests. He would have closely witnessed the corpses of the Progeny of Muhammed (– ). according to many traditions reported in all such circumstances. p.” 4 Ibn Qawlawayh.

`Who are you?' She said. understand it better. nor was he sick at all. once about who the son of the mourner was. sheds a light that may help . a great achievement!'” Excerpted from verses recorded on p. No. Tharra. not knowing what to expect from the enemies of All~ h and of His Messenger. and whenever you mention his name. One who pays homage to them and who spends that night at al-Husain's grave will demonstrate through his grief and mourning his .. white and beautiful. the scribe. you should say. for a full day. she even quotes poetry. so I entered and found a clean and most beautiful room. weeping. . and its door was open. ought not depart from there during the [eleventh] night the like of which had never been witnessed by the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and the trust of the caliphate. the mourner. Tell . quotes his father saying. But I could not. and she ordered Tharra to eulogize her son (– ) with these lines: O eyes! Overflow and do not dry And do over the one killed at Taff cry. the most radiating. .. On p. 66 of Shaikh al-Sadãq's book `Uyãn Akhb~r al-Rida. 245 . p. the most beautiful woman I have ever seen.. I asked her.. Discerning this tradition will let one conclude that one who stays at the grave of the one who sacrificed himself for Islam. 1 2 Ibid. He has said. They pointed to the interior of the house. tend to it. decorated with teak wood. Soon I saw a clean room. “How we wish we were with you so we would earn a great achievement. . inquired . sadness for being too late to come to his aid and to earn the greatest salvation.”1 This statement apparently implies staying there for one night prior to spending the day at his grave-site. `Never mind. I saw myself walking in one of the Karkh alleys. Chapter 71. They were left behind in the desert by shining moons and by the elite from among the men of honour. 189. `I have a bondmaid who fasts and who recites tahajjud quite often. and who did so suffering from thirst. In its courtyard stood a young woman who was the best. “If you wish to make your abodes the chambers of Paradise in the company of the Prophet (‰). 4 3 Baghdad's part on the east of the Tigris. al-Muhsin ibn Ali al-Tanã khi. Nobody in the meeting place at Karkh4 knew the answer besides myself. a tradition is narrated about Im~m al-Rida (–) wherein he says to Ibn . “One who visits al-Husain's grave [shrine] and spends a night there will be as . and this is the head of my son al-Husain (– ). They were frightened. They left his body in every place hit.3 Abu Ali. `How I wish I had been with them so that I would achieve . `What is the context of the question?’ He said. Shab§b. She said. Beside them lay the parts that the swords of oppression and misguidance had cut off. Last night. Her bed was close to mine. though he had been martyred in his company. and her accent is heavily Nabatean.”2 He would console the Lady of all Women (– ) who mourned her son who was forbidden from drinking water.due to one who remains there all day long till the night even if he does not spend the night there. wherein he quotes Abu `Abdull~ h [Im~ m Ja`fer al-S~ diq] (– ). `O father of al-Hasan! Come help me!' I asked her what was wrong with . the judge. her.. . There were women standing in it whom I asked about who had died and about what the matter was. you should curse those who killed al-Husain (–). It is the same part where the holy city of Kazimiyya is located. I am F~ tima daughter of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). Vol. “Abul-Hassan. of Ibn Shahr }shãb's book Man~qib (Iranian edition) as quoted from the }m~li by the Naishapuri shaikh al-Muf§d. I asked him. She cried out to me. She was wrapped in white clothes. . He would keep repeating the statement saying: Ya laytana kunna ma`akum fa nafooza fawzan azeema. saw her once in a vision standing at al-Husain's grave . `I performed my prayers and supplications then went to bed. yet she cannot [besides] correctly pronounce even one Arabic word! Moreover. 2.. she woke up terrified. 137. But J~ bir alJu`fi's tradition. trembling. alas. and in her lap there was a head bleeding.

nor was he sick at all. 218.'” She was calmed down by the old lady in the house [apparently the mother of the narrator] till she was able to sleep. 8. It starts with O eyes! Overflow and do not dry And do over the one killed at Taff cry. I went back to Abul-Hasan and told him. the judge.” All this happened during the month of Sha`b~ n when people were suffering a great deal from the persecution of the Hanbalis who resisted their going to al-H~ 'ir. THE LOOTING father of al-Hasan! The one best to protect his neighbour. son with the poem starting with: I did not dress his wound. and everyone who mourned al-Husain (– ) that night used . Let alone a great shame that overspread Wherein tears are part of my address. He felt very vexed. p. No. where . Should you overlook as you today see How Umayyah's offspring sought and achieved All their mischievous revenge? How many for you at the Taff. Vol.' I.. this poem as a eulogy. 246 . “O father of al-Q~ sim! .. . . I kept inquiring about the whereabouts of Ibn Asda` . therefore. woke up frightened. so I narrated to him and to those in his company the incident above. Abul-Hasa. you are now morally obligated to convey the message to him. till I was able to see him. peace be upon her.” Al-Tanã khi agreed saying. I said to him. I reached al-H~ 'ir in the eve of the middle of Sha`b~ n. And how many a child decorated with gold O 1 al-Tanãkhi.”1 . Were wailing like pigeons in their necks Iron collars they had to wear? And how many a child did they scare? Mourning one who never knew but kindness. Since you yourself know Ibn Asda`. Nashw~r al-Muh~dara. “I hear and I obey the order of the Lady of all the Women of the World. and I was at that time unfamiliar with that poem. They all burst in tears. . peace be upon her. the scribe. nor was he sick at all. To you do I complain with overflowing tears. . go.Ibn Asda` on my behalf to euologize him with this verse: I did not dress his wound. I kept pleading to them till I was permitted to . No. “F~ tima. A mourner bitterly mourned. It is written by a poet from Kã fa. . orders you to mourn the martyrdom of her . said to Ali al-Tanã khi.

130. . No excuse shall be for my heart if I say so. of al-Husain (– ) and took her ankle-rings out.” he answered.Did they shackle and did they scold? And with arrows was he shot. was killed. In a condition that grieved everyone with a heart. . p. al-Qazw§ni. 7 247 . 4. riddling her ears in the process5. He was seen by the same F~ tima. When she recovered. “How can I help crying. The daughters of F~ tima al-Zahr~ ’ (– ) tearfully ran away. he went towards her. snatched. someone else will. 3. Having realized . they could find in his tents2. p. Siyar A`l~m al-Nubal~'. majlis 31. She fell headlong and fainted. p. one glorious martyr after another. p.”6 Another man was seen driving the women with the butt of his spear. “I am afraid if I do not take it. . people fell upon his luggage and belongings looting everything . 348. Should my eyes with tears forever overflow. How many a free lady with hair Uncovered came out of the tent Having nothing to veil her except her hands? Should you have witnessed how she With a heavy heart sighed as her heart burned. sitting at her head crying. . their hair uncovered3. Al-K~mil. rings were pulled out of fingers. p. It would have been hard for the Commander of the Faithful That she should thus come out at all. . p. For those who came to Kerbal~ ’ All fell on its ground. . “since I am looting the daughter of the Messenger of All~ h?” She asked him to leave her alone. and she fled away. Another approached F~ tima daughter . al-Sadãq. then they set the tents ablaze.1 When Abu `Abdull~ h al-Husain (– ). Riy~d al-Mas~'ib. He said. she saw her aunt Umm Kulthã m. 6. Vol. Who then should tell al-Zahr~ ’ about Zainab Being taken into captivity And being driven among the foes to Damascus? She has none from the foe to protect Except one in the robes heavily tied up. al-Tabari. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. Vol. . that she had seen him. 204. He was crying. Ibn Nama. T~r§kh. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. al-Thahbi. 4 5 6 Muhammed Jaw~d Shubbar. after having robbed them of their coverings and jewelry as they sought refuge with one another. They spent and the greatness of their glory covered their faces And died in dignity without kneeling before a tyrant. Ibn al-Ath§r. A man took both ear-rings belonging to Umm Kulthã m. p. 341. 99. “What is the matter with you?” she asked him. Al-Dam`a al-S~kiba. Vol. p. 32.7 1 2 3 Excerpted from a poem by the `all~ma the authority Shaikh Abd al-Mun`im al-Fartãsi. 260. People raced to rob the ladies of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). . He threw his spear at her. }m~li. Scarves were . ear-rings were taken out. 40. . and so were ankle-rings4.

” Others were saying. 148 of his book I`l~m al-War~. The rogues reached Ali son of al-Husain (– ) who was sick on his bed unable to stand up3. young or old. from a poem .She was from her sleep disturbed Like doves startled after their slumber Deploring the protection she now lost By losing the best a woman could lose. 140 of his book Ithb~t al-Wasiyya. 8.”4 Al-Shimr unsheathed his sword with the intention to kill Ali. T~r§kh. . . His remedy from them was their whips as they Hit them then did they say. Vol. 225. by Ibn Shahr }shãb on p. Reference to the sickness of al-Sajj~d (–) is documented by al-Tabari on p. 4 5 al-Qazw§ni. al-Ath§r on p. by Shaikh al-Muf§d in his book Al-Irsh~d. . 6. on the birth anniversary of al-Husain (–). Vol. . so she cried out. 188. saw the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) in such a condition. . Some were . 1. of his book Mir'~t al-Jin~n. by al-Y~fi`i on p. Now on the ground they lie motionless. “O offspring of Bakr ibn W~ 'il! Do you permit the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) to be thus robbed? There is no judgment except All~ h's! O how the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) should be avenged!” Her husband brought her back to his conveyance2. “Glory to All~ h! Do you really kill children?! He is only a sick lad!”5 He said. . of his book Man~qib. . 41. p. . 4. 33. remain alive. and by al-Mas`ãdi on p. by Muhammed ibn Ahmed ibn Ali al-Naishapuri on p. Nafs al-Mahmãm. having heard the wise lady Zainab daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) saying. Vol. “May you stay!” They dragged him and prepared for him the leather mat 1 Excerpted from a poem by the authority critic Shaikh `Abd al-Husain al-Hilli. 6 7 248 . p. Some had their parts scattered and some lost their arms One after another on the plain they did fall Did one with his feet to a lion's den walk? They shattered the pitched darkness. She lost the best pillar. of his book Al-K~mil. they left him alone7. 162 of his book Rawdat al. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. of his T~r§kh. Vol.” Ibn Sa`d went to extremes to stop him6 especially after . by Ibn Kath§r on p. So she invoked the “manliness” of Banã `Amr. Ham§d ibn Muslim said to him. 260. p. saying. 2 3 Ibn T~wãs. who was accompanied by her husband. may All~h have mercy on his soul. . “You will not kill him before killing me first. 260. Al-Luhãf. Vol. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. 132. . p.1 A woman from the clan of Bakr ibn W~ 'il. . W~`iz§n. 133. Now they are slaughtered and their corpses strewn. 108. T~r§kh. “Do not let any of them. al-Tabari.” so. p. Vol. It is also mentioned by Ibn . 2. “Ibn Ziy~ d ordered all al-Husain's sons killed. by al-Tibrisi on p. And through whom everything with light shone. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. “Do not be rash in your judgment till we consult the governor `Amr ibn Sa`d. 74. For moons she mourned and cried For the one whose spilled blood she sighed. al-Qarm~ni. of his book Al-Bid~ya. 6. Ibn Nama.

then he returned to his tent. 2 These verses were composed by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli. al-Ahbash ibn Murshid ibn `Alqamah ibn . . some of those in the army took Ali ibn al-Husain (–) and hid him from people. he goes on. p. . . 189. she bent her body to chide Her people. Ibn al-Ath§r. 288. 4. Vol. He assigned to a group of men the task of protecting them. Ibn Ziy~d was the only sponsor and protector of the women of the Messenger of All~h (‰). p. 224. For what the foe's snatched. .After having filled his body with thistles and with thorns. All~h would not permit any of His servants to overpower him thus and to keep him away from the family. 91. . Vol. . Al-K~mil. . `Amr ibn Sab§h al-Sayd~ wi. Now people's hands from mischief do not swerve. wanted to kill him had it not been for the lad's aunt. Vol. al-Tibrisi. . may All~h fill his mausoleum with light. Sal~ mah al-Hadrami. S~ lih ibn Wahab al-Ju`fi. al-Maqr§zi. Vol. 58 of Nasab Quraish. Rawdat al-W~`iz§n. 888. al-Mas`ãdi. Khutat.3 Those miscreant “volunteers” were: Ish~ q ibn Hawiyyah4. Raj~ ' ibn Munqith al-`Abdi. p. of T~j al-`Arãs. none to hinder. Those men had already taken all the ornaments those ladies had had and never returned any of them back1. “Who volunteers to make sure that the chest and the back of al-Husain (– ) are run over by . W~ khit ibn Gh~ nim. her name is recorded as “Huwayza. brought him to Ibn Ziy~d and took his reward. They rode their horses and trampled upon the body of the fragrant flower of the Messenger of I 1 Ibn al-Ath§r. 33. Now the people's hands are free to steal. Perplexed the ladies were From their sleep deprived. T~r§kh. . 2. They camped in honour. al-Tabari. 662. In pavilions they lived and thrived. . Hak§m ibn al-Tufayl al-Sinbisi. 4. But if you know that despite his sickness. p. S~ lim ibn Khaythamah al-Ju`fi. Ibn Sa`d himself came to the ladies who burst in tears upon seeing him. 8. Al-Irsh~d. Vol. from hardship exempt. who threw herself on him saying to Ibn Ziy~d. 32. As§d ibn M~ lik. He was very kind and generous to him. p. 4 3 On p. the horses?” Ten men stood up. 2. I`l~m al-War~. Al-Bid~ya. al-Kham§s.” . 2. Startled when their chambers were assaulted. p. . But al-Zubayri simply wished to besmear his record of deeds with lies. From awe almost none comes near them except The angels that were there to serve. Ibn Shahr }shãb. . and fire filled her inside. Murãj al-Thahab. 249 . 161. Vol. M is`ab al-Zubayri says something quite strange: On p. p. Al-K~mil. he says that . 333. Yes. . 4. Vol. Shaikh al-Muf§d. mentioned something like that even by way of conjecture. H~ ni ibn Th~ b§t al-Hadrami. Al-Man~qib. to plunder For none is there to stop them. p. Ibn Kath§r. 31. heard a caller saying that whoever brought Ali ibn al-Husain (–) would have three hundred dirhams. She rebuked them for fighting over what she had to wear. al-Naishapuri. . He ordered the men to stay away from them. Ibn Ziy~d. as a matter of fact. Vol. . Vol. Zainab. How could it have been had their protector been kept away from them? None of the historians. . “Kill me before you kill him!” This is the end of his statement. but who will hear or care?2 THE STEED bn Sa`d shouted. he tied his hands to his neck then . T~r§kh. and . 6. But when he . p. p. so. Such was the condition of the bereaved women. 3.

41. . On p. p. Then the ten “men” went back to Ibn Ziy~ d with As§d ibn M~ lik in their vanguard reciting this rajaz verse of poetry: We did crush the chest and the back: Mighty steeds made it like a river track. p. Ibn Nama. with stone throwing. . What a martyr whose body the sun baked. of his book Maqtal al-Husain. 46. p. Abul-Rayh~n al-Birãni. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. Like his Qur’~ n. adds the following verses to the above: Till we disobeyed some of the Commandments of All~h. so much so that many of them started making the like of those shoes and hanging them over the doors of their houses. Some of those horses reached Egypt where their shoes were pulled out and fixed on doors as means of seeking blessings. This became a custom among them. 2 3 1 Excerpted from a poem by Sayyid S~lih son of the `all~ma Sayyid Mehdi Bahr al-`Ulãm. . . Al-Luhãf. Vol.All~ h. Al-}th~r al-B~qiya. The Omnipotent. in his grandfather personified? Had those steeds. Just as they against him rebellious they were. They did to al-Husain (– ) what no other nation had ever done to their most evil ones: killing with . when dealing with al-Husain. 4 250 . al-Khaw~rizmi . Ibn T~wãs. . Ibn Ziy~ d ordered generous awards to be given to them1. . only knew That the one under their hooves was but Ahmed.2 Al-Birã ni has said. 75. the Pure One. 2. al-Karakchi.. 39. They against their riders would mutiny declare. Did they not know that Muhammed's soul. And its rising from his origin is born! And what a slaughtered one trampled upon By the steeds from whose names the cavaliers freeze. the sword or the spear.4 May hands that fought you be to pieces chopped.. . 329. . and with horse trampling3. p. Kit~b al-Ta`ajjub. like their riders.

on the Im~ m's body with its horses3. stretching to the heavens as white birds kept hovering around it. On p. But when she saw a light emanating from the bakery oven [where it was hidden]. 251 . . Vol. Kã fa. included among them. B~qir al-Birjandi al-S~fi). On the tenth day. 6 al-Bal~thiri. He adds saying that his other wife. . p. But these words. al-Asb~ hi and Ham§d ibn Muslim al-Azdi. were met by Ibn Ziy~ d with outrage. mentioned this to her husband then went out crying5. his companions to al-Shimr. 238. here?! I shall never share a bed with you henceforth. p. al-H~jj Shaikh Muhammed B~qir ibn Mawla Hasan al-Q~’ini al-Birjandi al-S~fi (henceforth referred to only as Shaikh Muhammed .” Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan. Crushing your ribs. 81. Khawli's house was one farasang from . Qays ibn al-Ash`ath and `Amr ibn al-Hajj~ j4. Rawdat al-Shuhad~'. you will receive 1 2 These verses were composed by Abu Th§b Shaikh Yousuf al-Qat§fi who died in 1200 A. Nuw~r daughter of M~lik. 8. Ans~b al-Ashr~f. peace of All~h and His blessings upon him and his family. `Umdat al-Q~ri fi Sharh al-Bukh~ri. “why did you then take part in killing him?! By All~ h. having lost to your swords their riders. . She was called `Ayoof6. peace be upon them. Their best when they mention descent.” She separated from him. Ibn Kath§r says that his wife saw the light emanating from underneath the lid. The Tam§m tribe brought seventeen.H. . “Have you brought the head of the son of the Messenger of All~h. Ibn T~wãs. 656.1 THE SEVERED HEADS bn Sa`d ordered the heads to be severed from their bodies. son of the best parent. she was terrified. In the morning. . She . 7. . said to him. . Khawli put the head in front of Ibn Ziy~ d as he recited these poetic verses: I Fill my stirrup with silver or with gold: I killed the master of every honour told. They were distributed to various tribes that used them as means to seek favour with Ibn Ziy~ d. Al-Luhãf. Ibn Sa`d had already entrusted the head of Im~ m al-Husain (– ) to Khawli ibn Yaz§d . Al-Kibr§t al-Ahmar.D. spoken in front of everyone. Ibn Ziy~ d had returned from his camp at al-Nakh§la. Khawli took the head to the governor's mansion. she never used any kohl nor any perfume out of her grief for al-Husain (– ). May the steeds over your body charged be hamstrung. so no pleasure shall today be Nor a moon in the night shall ever be shiny. . You became their victim. . 4 5 3 Shaikh al-Muf§d. Al-Irsh~d.” said Ibn Ziy~ d. al-`Ayni. Vol. When she came closer.May feet that oppressed you be forever paralyzed. 5. p. the Mathhaj tribe brought seven. 190. The tribe to whom al-Hurr al-Riy~hi belonged refused to cut anyone's head or to trample . By then. Since then. tribes brought the rest2. The Kindah tribe took thirteen brought by their envoy. “Since you knew that he was that honourable. where the name of `Urwah ibn Qays is . The Haw~ zin tribe brought twelve with their “man. I killed the best of people./1786 A. . the Banã Asad tribe brought sixteen. and it was . Khawli hid the head from his Ans~ ri wife whom he knew to be loyal to Ahl al-Bayt. and the other . she heard the voices of al-Husain's women mourning al-Husain in the most somber way. Qays ibn al-Ash`ath. . Vol. . He entrusted the heads of the Im~ m's family members and those of . .

. 5 6 Mis`ab al-Zubayri. . Ali ibn al-Husain (– ). unburied2. Maqtal al-Husain. 143. the children. 234. 76 of Ibn Talhah's Mat~lib al-Sa’ãl.. 49. p. and the surviving families of al-Husain's companions. He was . and he was worn out by sickness6. Vol. W e have mentioned the story from Khawli only to follow in the footsteps of those who wrote about the Im~m's martyrdom. Vol. he remained with the army till the time of zaw~ l on the eleventh day [of Muharram]. 1. “You are . . p. On p. 2. of his book Al-K~mil. the head bearer is identified as “Khawli ibn Yaz§d al-Asb~hi who was killed by Ibn Ziy~d. With them was al-Sajj~ d. there is the addition of “. and whoever says his prayers in both Qiblas. Kerbal~’ then carried it to `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d. 7 252 . p..” Then the Im~m (–) recited a supplication to be recited following the prayer saying. 204. . “Here was the head of my grandfather al-Husain (–) placed when they went to . p. the grandson. 2 3 4 1 al-Khaw~rizmi. a place on . 193. 54. . of the ziy~rat of the sacred area and according to a host of historians. Riy~d al-Ahz~n. leaving the corpses of the Master of the Youths of Paraidse and the fragrant flower of the most honourable Prophet (– ) and those of his Ahl al-Bayt (– ) and companions unwashed. 2. Vol. it is stated that `Omer said to him. Nasab Quraish. p. 39. On p. 133. without saddles as was the custom then with Turks or Romans taken captive. On p. insane! Had Ibn Ziy~d heard you. . On p. who was twenty-three years old5. al-Mas`ãdi. 40. Vol. of al-Shar§shi's Maq~m~t. . Vol. bare. It is very unlikely that he kills him and lets someone else take the head and use it to seek favour with Ibn Ziy~d.. 1. he would have killed you!” On p. . of Maqtal al-Husain. who According to p. the author says that the poet recited them to Ibn Ziy~d. W On the dust. . but the author does not identify the name of the head bearer. them then buried them. “This place is called al-Han~na.nothing from me at all. On p. 2. Ibn Ziy~d was very angry with him. al-Qazw§ni. 33. Since you know that al-Shimr is al-Husain's killer according to the text . Nafs al-Mahmãm. Vol. then said. the poet was Sin~n ibn Anas who recited them to `Omer ibn Sa`d.”1 DEPARTING FROM KERBAL} ’ hen Ibn Sa`d sent the heads to Kã fa. Vol. These verses were composed by the `all~ma Shaikh Muhammed Taqi al-Jaw~hiri. Vol. p. 144 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn al-Jawzi. . . . 2. His son [later Im~ m] al-B~ qir7. They included twenty women4 whom they mounted on camels . According to Ibn Jar§r al-Tabari. exposed to the wind and to the wild beasts of the desert. the bondmaids. of al-Nawari's book Mustadrak al-Was~'il (first edition). who indicates so on p. placed on a lean camel without a saddle. Ithb~t al-Wasiyya. of his T~r§kh. 437 of Riy~d al-Mas~'ib. Ibn Sa`d left for Kã fa with the women. . 213. He gathered those killed from his army and performed the funeral prayers for . of al-Y~fi`i's book Mir'~t al-Jin~n. although they belonged to the best of all prophets (‰ ). Shaikh al-Muf§d and Sayyid Ibn T~wãs both cite Im~m al-S~diq (–) saying that he (–). Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. should he remain? None to mourn him except his women? Which folks were not touched by his corpse? Which hearts did not mourn him?3 After the time of zaw~ l. you likewise know that he must be the one who recited them.” whereupon Ibn Ziy~d became very angry with him and had him beheaded. the highway leading to al-Ghari (Najaf). of Al-`Iqd al-Far§d of Sayyid Muhammed Rida al-Asterb~di al-Hilli. without shrouds. had prayed two rek`~ts at al-Q~'im.” . 4. and Ibn al-Ath§r who states so on p. . 58. Bishr ibn M~lik recited them to Ibn Ziy~d. 6. Ibn T~wãs. it is stated that al-Shimr is the one who recited these verses.” Historians contend among themselves about who had brought the head and who had said the above verses. According to al-Irb§li's Kashf al-Ghumma and al-Khaw~rizmi's p. so he killed him. 261. Al-Iqb~l.

and also according to p. Ibn al-Ath§r says that Ibn Ziy~d threatened to banish the people of Kãfa [who refused to fight al-Husain] to Oman's Z~ra. al-Buld~n. There. released him. where the events of the year 321 A. On p. . he . With them was `Uqbah ibn Sam`~ n. the judge. And from the captives besides every valiant one A free lady fell pleading for help. 33. . he treated him at Kãfa. 203. Bih~r al-Anw~r. Vol. 9. of al-Bikri's book Al-Mu`jam mimm~ Ista`jam. Vol. 28 of Is`~f al. Stunned after that by the steeds assaulting. Al-Muraqqa`. 1. It also is a city in Persia where a duel took place between al-Bar~' ibn M~lik and the city's satrap. it is stated that Muhammed al-Muhallabi banished Muhammed ibn . battled al-Aswaris. 4.H. perturbed. T~r§kh. `Amr. he transported him to M ed§na. Ithb~t al-Wasiyya. al-Barbah~ri. Have ever suiters sought the help from the slain? They feebly fall down from the animals' backs. On p. therefore. al-Bara' killed the latter and cut his hand off. trouble. and Hasan II. The latter was captured after he had killed seventeen men. 8 of Al-Luhãf (of Ibn T~wãs. Vol./933 A. Vol. it is a place in the Bahrain area where wars waged by alNu`m~n ibn al-Munthir. 4. He took his belt and both bracelets the value of which was thirty thousand [dinars]. According to p. Raghib§n. time in the history of Islam when a loot was taxed by 1/5 [and delivered to the caliph]. . In the blood of martyrdom did they build a throne One none before them ever built. 367. 10. eighteen wounds. and when he healed. 4. three years old. in a chapter discussing the offspring of Im~m al-Hasan (–). p. p. . Vol. al-Hasan ibn `Abd al-`Az§z al-H~shimi to Oman in a boat because of something which he had done which angered him. are discussed. of Nashw~r al-Muh~dara by al-Tanãkhi. he ran away from Ali ibn Yal§q. Ibn al-Ath§r. 86. On p.). How did the modest ladies receive the night After being “vanquished. He received . and his right arm had been cut off. Vol. 8. p. 8. 10. Vol. a Hanbalite. 6. a slave of al-Rub~ b. Ibn Ziy~ d was informed that al-Muraqqa` ibn Thum~ ma al-Asadi had scattered his arrows around then fled to his tribe where he sought and received protection. al-Tabari. Vol. The latter captured al-Barbah~ri's followers and shipped them in a boat to Oman. Vol. It appears from the latter account that Z~ra is a place in Oman. who was nicknamed al-Gharãr [the conceited one]. he ordered him to be banished to al-Z~ ra3.. 692. 261. of Abul-Fida's T~r§kh. `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~b] took the khums of the loot. of his book Al-K~mil. Al-K~mil. p. 1. it is stated that Ali ibn Yal§q ordered Mu`~wiyah and his son Yaz§d to be cursed from the pulpits in Baghdad. 143 (Najaf edition). and there is another in W est Tripoli as well as another in the upper Delta of the Nile. captive were: Zayd. where the latter stayed till Yaz§d's death and Ibn Ziy~d's escape to Syria. used to stir . of Y~qãt al-Hamawi's Mu`jam . 203. al-Husain's wife. They complained from the whips giving them pain. . al-Z~ra is a village in Bahrain. 2. commenting on a footnote in Nãr al-Abs~r.. and that was the first . . And so did every girl.. Asm~ ' ibn Kh~ rijah al-Fiz~ ri intervened to get him freed because his mother was also Fiz~ ri. whereupon the Sunnis were outraged. Also on p. 256 of Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. Among the children of Im~ m al-Hasan (– ) taken . left it and went back to Kãfa. When Ibn Ziy~ d came to know that that man was al-Rub~ b's slave. so Ibn Sa`d let her husband take him2. According to p. According to p.” and in defense of the camp died? Do you see them to captivity surrendering Or against their wish did their protectors depart? They departed after their strength was crushed And after the blows took their toll. According to p. he was . 3 2 1 253 . al-Mas`ãdi.D. al-Majlisi. accompanied him. Where are the men of honour to defend? The ladies screamed and sought help From their slain men in slumber. . Vol.was two years and a few months old1. Ibn Ziy~d banished al-Muraqqa` to al-Zabada .

overcome by deep contemplation upon All~h. 160 of al-Shiblinji's Nãr al-Abs~r. and that she was born before the . where the biographies of the offspring of Im~m al-Hasan (–) are discussed. Shaikh Muhammed B~qir al-Birjandi al-S~fi. Vol.D. p. . al-Husain (– ). p. . they screamed and beat their faces in anguish3. while keeping the difference in mind. Zainab. 3. Vol. the wise lady.Whenever the she-camels are by the hadis1 disturbed. the mourning was even on . 280. 39. Rab§` I 5. . p. The statement in her honour made by the M aster of Martyrs (–). . This should not be discounted outrightly. killed before her marriage. al-Tibrisi's book I`l~m al-War~. 2. 1. Ibn T~wãs. Zainab cried out. how the spears had drank of their blood. 163. . 254 .” When they saw how they had lost their limbs. Maqtal al-Husain. . clearly outlines for us the status his daughter occupied in the sacred canons of Islam's Shar§`a. 127. . she married her cousin. al-Turayhi. 2. saying: 1 2 3 The h~dis are men who. she was a little more than ten years old. p. al-Turayhi. p. 74./April 8. that during the Battle of al-Taff. and so is the substance. 13. . You are referred to the second edition of my book Lady Sukayna. . .7 Sukayna8 hugged the body of her father al-Husain (– ) and kept telling him how she had heard him . Vol. p. “Sukayna is . 58. Once al-Husain (– ) carried out his . where the author details her biography. . 39. . covered with blood. who was killed during the Battle of al-Taff. 2. death [martyrdom] of her uncle Im~m al-Hasan (–). . 1. 163.H. p. Maqtal .2 The ladies pleaded thus: “For the love of All~ h! Please take us to those killed. `Abdull~h ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–). Excerpted from a poem by the authority Mirza Muhammed Ali al-Urdbadi. Al-Luhãf. responsibility through his martyrdom. shouldered her other responsibilities. Ibn Nama. Vol. 735 A. One fell to the swords and to their pain And the other by life's agonies taken captive. 41. of al-Nawawi's Tahth§b al-Asm~'. 332. . She did not bear any children by him. 117 A. of al-Manawi's book Al-Kaw~kib al-Durriyya. According to the authors of both Maqtal al-Husain and Al-Luhãf. . citing Al-Tir~z al-Muthahhab. al-Khaw~rizmi. Maqtal al-Husain. al-Husain. . p.” This stand demonstrates to us the fact that Zainab was then elevated to the height of sacred responsibility. Then she. 332. even the horses' tears ran on their hooves5. . of Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni's book Al-Agh~ni. According to Abul-Hasan al-`Amri's book Al-Mujdi and to . may All~h fill his mausoleum with light. started her duty which included presenting the sacrifice to the Mighty Lord and promoting his cause.” as is recorded by al-Sabb~n in his book Is`~f al-R~ghib§n. “O Lord! Do accept this sacrifice from us6. Then she put her hands under his sacred body and lifted it as she supplicated saying. . Vol. p. a much larger scale. According to p. . She and al-Husain share their complain . p. . . “O Muhammed (‰ )! Here is Husain in the desert . in the vanguards of caravans. According to p. 12. Vol. Vol. Al-Kibr§t al-Ahmar. Fate decided that they should. But the author of I`l~m al-War~ says that he was . that of holding a holy covenant. and Ibn Khallik~n's Wafiyy~t al-A`y~n. . that she would henceforth carry out a sacred revival like the one started by her brother. These verses were composed by the trusted authority Shaikh `Abd al-Mehdi Matar al-Najafi. al-Maqr§zi. Khutat. his limbs cut off! Here are your daughters taken captive and your offspring slaughtered!” These words caused friends and foes alike to weep4. Al-Muntakhab. sing for the camels to maintain their pace. Muth§r al-Ahz~n. and how the horses had trampled upon them. 5 6 7 8 4 al-Khaw~rizmi. p. peace of All~ h be upon her. Sukayna daughter of al-Husain (–) died on a Thursday. . for their noor is one and the same.

89. daughter of Ali (– )4. Vol. 255 .3 When Ali son of al-Husain (– ) looked at his slaughtered family and noticed how al-Zahr~ ’ was in a condition . 6. And to the one lying on the burning sands she went Pouring over him from her eyes a river she wept. having lost her head-scarf. me should you remember and mourn.” is the daughter of F~tima al-Zahr~’ (–). . the traces of which shall never be obliterated. When Zainab al-Kubra. Ibn Qutaybah says. She gave birth to a number of sons. . In his book Al-Ma`~rif. . T~r§kh and by Ibn al-Ath§r on p. though orphaned. p. yet it shall get more and more lofty 1 These verses are recorded on p. All~ h took a covenant from people whom you do not know. then shall they set up on this Taff a banner for the grave of your . of his . Excerpted from a poem by the `all~ma Shaikh `Abd al-Mun`im al-Fartãsi. . and who are known to the people of the heavens. 3. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. of my father and brothers? By All~ h. Like a bird by an eagle chased. Among what she said to him is the following: Why do I see you pleading for death. read his face. She is identified as such by al-Tabari on p. She fell upon al-Husain's body so he kept . from him.2 An orphan girl with being orphaned startled Her heart is filled with pain. the mighty ones on this land. al-Qazw§ni. titled “al-Kubra. And the leaders of apostasy and the promoters of misguidance shall try their best to obliterate and efface it. nor shall it ever be wiped out so long as there is day and night. To his chest taking her between a right and a left. A cry she let out when the horsemen assaulted Her.” .1 Only a number of them could collectively remove her from his corpse. And it was hard for him to see her without it. He would not have left their whips cause her to seek help With her father's body when. he felt greatly grieved and worried. “Zainab al-Kubra daughter of F~tima (–) was the wife of `Abdull~h ibn Ja`fer. O the legacy of my grandfather. And whenever you are a stranger on a sojourn. 158. 376 of the Indian edition of Misb~h al-Kaf`ami. 2 3 4 Zainab. father. She was forcibly removed. she felt upset on his account and took to consoling him and admonishing him to be patient although even the mountains could not match him in his patience and fortitude. of his book Al-K~mil. . One whose nest is assaulted. She seeks refuge with him.O my Sh§`as! Whenever of water you drink Never from mentioning my name should you shrink. this is something which All~ h had divulged to your grandfather (‰ ) and to your father (– ). 135. so she now is more startled. which the heavens deplored and for which the earth would split and the mountains crumble. Vol. the Master of Martyrs (– ). Or see a martyr. forcefully dragging her away. that they would gather these severed parts and wounded corpses and bury them.

guarded by fierce and honourable lions of `Abd al-Muttalib's offspring. may All~h sanctify him. To All~ h do I complain and say: 1 2 Ibn Qawlawayh. 177. To them did the folks’ swords deal many a blow. And Shimr is her cameleer? O Muhammed! Light the house for Zainab so . Her people's chief lying slain she saw. This poem by the authority Ayatull~h Shaikh H~di K~shif al-Ghit~’. p. . K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. She saw an infant with an arrow waned And children after their father orphaned. Where is she going? To what fate? What is her refuge and what is her aim? On whose shoulder should she lean When she was conveyed. 361. she did suffer. chapter 88. 256 . either slain or widowed. She witnessed the men of dignity from her people of honour On the ground slaughtered in a row without cover: The winds on their corpses freely blow. surrounded by anxious swords and . p. Maqbãla al-Husainiyya. 3 al-Qazw§ni. None like her prestige in the morning was Nor like her condition on the after-noon.instead.2 Zajr ibn Qays came to them and shouted at them to leave as he kept whipping them. polished spears.1 To All~ h do I complain about the patience of Zainab the pure How many a tribulation did she have to endure? From the calamities and from the pain From pains. from which death is welcome. . And she was surrounded by servants who would not enter without her permission. Others surrounded them and mounted them on camel humps. and her cameleer rebukes. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. with their misery pleased. Their ears torn.Husain (–).. How I wish on the Taff your eyes saw . is recorded in full on p. She saw heads on the lances carried And corpses with only sands shrouded. She saw how with her brother they dealt every foul deed. Even in the night none can see her shadow. Moaning like camels that lost their young. She saw the enemies gleeful. . The beasts over their bodies come and go. 61 of Al.3 Zainab the wise rode her own she-camel. virtues of Kerbal~’ and merits of visiting the grave-site of al. She recollected the days of lofty honour and inviolable prestige. Your daughters' ornaments to looters did go.

. And once towards the land of shame are taken. None to protect them as they cross every plain. 477. To the east they are once taken by the mean gangs. She threw away what had been given to those children4. Amazed am I about one who thinks of fate Excerpted from a poem by the trusted authority Shaikh Muhammed T~hir who belongs to the family of the sect's faq§h. and she was told: “We are captives belonging to the Progeny of Muhammed (‰ ). 81. Sayyid K~zim al-Rashti al-H~’iri. Ibn T~wãs. R~di. Al-Luhãf. Radiyy ad-D§n al-Qazw§ni. 84. . so Umm Kulthã m shouted at them. None heeds their complaints when they complain. “O people of Kã fa! Do not you have any sense of shame before All~ h and His Messenger so you look at the ladies of the Prophet (‰ )?”2 One of Kã fa's women came to them and saw their condition for which even a most bitter enemy would feel sorry. 2 3 4 1 Muhammed Jaw~d Shubbar. While your daughters on the camels to Syria are brought? Do you find life pleasing when your wise ladies are uncovered? Whenever they cry. . Are you pleased with your women in captivity. Tazallum al-Zahr~’. And suddenly both prestige and men deceased. that is.All~ h help him how he was bereaved. She overlooks and in the slumber she delights Now only with her hand can Zainab cover her face O father of Hasan! . shouted at them that they were prohibited from accepting charity. They received the night in a condition that Before it you would stand and feel awfully.1 Kâ FA hen the daughters of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) entered Kã fa. Their breath by grief is almost snatched away. p. with lashes they are whipped. Asr~r al-Shah~da.”3 The people of Kã fa kept doling out dates. Shaikh . . . p. p. Al-Dam`ah al-S~kibah. p. 257 . walnuts and bread to the children. If only you stand to think about it carefully. She asked them what captives they were. W O father of Hasan! . Muth§r al-Ahz~n. As Banã Harb's women in their chambers veiled with grace? Does your side on the bed find comfort and ease. . Their voices were lost and their hearts melted. No loss by death is to them a cause of complain Except it was done by those who were not humane. Ibn Nama. the city's residents gathered to see them. Zainab al-Kubra. . 364. And with humiliation they were treated. . 150. p. whereupon Umm Kulthã m. may All~h sanctify him. to the west.

O Kã fians! Do you know whose heart you have burned. And with the crown is crowned the son of a whore. as we are told on ... Is there anyone among you one who is not a boaster of what he does not have. and for which the mountains crumble. a man of grudge without any justification. the refuge of the righteous from among you. and how could you do so? The descendant of the Bearer of the Last Message (‰ ).! Miserable you are and renegades from the path of righteousness. Your similitude is one who unspins what is already spun out of the desire to violate [a trust]. Excerpted from a poem in praise of al-Husain (–) by Shaikh Hassãn al-Hilli who died in 1305 A. It was then that she. 155.. 2. . You have done something most uncanny.. Nothing could quieten the commotion nor silence the numerous voices other than the divine dignity and the magnificence of Muhammed (‰ ) that crowned the wise . The effort is rendered futile.. remaining in the chastisement for eternity. and you earned nothing but Wrath from All~ h and from His Messenger (‰ ). the one who saves you from calamity. One's body is to cruel elements left exposed As the other covers his with silk and with gold. Vol. for you have earned nothing but shame and infamy.H. the toil is ruined. upon his good and righteous Progeny (– ).. of Shu`ar~’ al-Hilla. the very essence of the Message. what blood you have shed. one submissive like bondmaids. something for which the heavens are about to split asunder and so is the earth. O how horrible is the sin that you bear. and even the bells of their animals stopped ringing. Do you really cry and sob? By All~ h. a charger of debauchery. Peace and blessings be upon my [grand]father Muhammed (‰ ) and . You are doomed with servitude and humiliation. what a “feat” you have laboured. When Zainab daughter of Ali (– ) signaled to people to calm down. addressed them saying. May the resounding [of this calamity] never stops. She signaled to the large crowd to calm down. They stood speechless and motionless. . T All Praise is due to All~ h. most defaced. the source of your security and the beacon of your guidance. They did. is killed. You have reaped the Wrath of All~ h. the deal is lost. calm and composed and with courage reminiscent of that of [her revered father] Hayder (– ). As Husain on the ground is left unburied.1 ZAINAB'S SPEECH he daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) explained to people Ibn Ziy~d's villainy and meanness in a speech which she delivered to them. And his head is on a lance openly carried. an instigator. as much as the fill of the earth and of the sky. 1 258 . a pasture of what is not wholesome. standing as if birds were resting on their heads. p. and what sanctity you have violated? You have done a most monstrous deed.D. they did. a reciter of a story to someone buried? Truly bad is that which your souls have committed. . a conceited liar. lady who descended from his Progeny (‰ ). You make religion a source of your income. and you shall never be able to wash it away. For three days did Husain stay unburied or more. . the Master of the Youths of Paradise. Woe unto you. may you be distanced and crushed./1888 A.And contemplates upon it and wonders alone: A fornicator turns about on his throne... you should then cry a great deal and laugh very little.

Praise to All~ h. From the wasi did she inherit wisdom . was a great personality. So for the Shar§`a did he ignite a light. Ibn Nama. . . O aunt. W hen al-Hasan II approached him asking him for the hand of either of his two daughters. he (–). . al-Husain's daughter4. Or she is the tumultuous ocean whose waves Crushed one another in knowledge. as we are told . now they did not know what to do. Al-Ihtij~j. Her speech had the greatest effect on people's hearts. . Or that she leads a whole regiment of hosts And drives from facts' hosts a crowd. might and dignity. and from al-Tibrisi's book Al-Ihtij~j. from Al-Luhãf of Ibn T~wãs. .. (continued. The crowd which had been brainwashed by lies and by greed stood stunned. one who comprehends without being made to do so.. Ibn Shahr }shãb. This speech is compiled from the writings of Shaikh al. Her father. delivered a speech saying.Tãsi in his }m~li as well as that of his son. Or like a sword in the hand of a valiant she may be With it he defended and won victory. . F~tima daughter of al-Husain (–). a learned lady whom none taught. . and they shall not be helped. F~ tima. Or in wisdom has the wise lady of H~ shim shattered blindness greatly.3 F} TIMA DAUGHTER OF AL-HUSAIN (– ) DELIVERS A SPEECH .. so they realized the magnanimity of what they had committed. testifies to this fact. Or that Hayder on his steed wipes out The hosts of misguidance one after another. Or in the Im~ mate's woods a lioness For her roaring even heads bow down. Excerpted from a poem by the `all~ma M irza Muhammed Ali al-Urdabadi in praise of the wise lady Zainab. Or from the Lord's Wrath lightning ensues From which Harb's clan could not escape. Your Lord is waiting in ambush for you. Or the summit of the pulpit embraced him. . . 2 3 4 1 al-Tibrisi. .) 259 . the M aster of Martyrs. for you are. She enjoys a great status in the creed. Let no respite elate you. Whenever she expounds you would believe From oratory she derives her treasures.Do you wonder why the sky rains blood? Surely the torment of the hereafter is a greater chastisement. “That is enough.”2 The wise lady discontinued her speech. . p. for rushing does not speed it up. peace be upon her.1 Im~ m al-Sajj~ d (– ) said to her. 166 (Najaf's edition). Particularly hers in its beauty and oratory. nor does it fear the loss of the opportunity for revenge. . Her statements caused many to wake up and the minds to listen to reason.

. and Husain. On p. of Ibn Hajar's book titled Tahth§b al. She made her ablution then sprinkled the leftover water on it. . Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni says. have all quoted her ah~d§th. of the M essenger of All~h (‰). 4. . Vol. for she. calling it “Zamzam”. 474.” On p. so. including al-Tirmithi. Never did he ever accept anyone's blame nor the criticism of any critic in doing what is right. 39. as much as the number of the sands and of the stones. Umm Ja`fer. 1. she must have lived for almost ninety years. Ibn Maj~h al-Qazw§ni does likewise. Tahth§b. quote her had§th. his dealing with others was commendable. 8. O people of Kã fa! O people of treachery. Abu D~wãd. He always desired the hereafter. F~tima . . 267. Vol. and the daytime she spends fasting. said to him. and she was informed of it. Abul. Then she ordered a well to be dug up. and his beliefs well admitted by everyone. at one of the houses of All~ h. “She is mentioned ./729 A. In the manuscript of my book Naqd al-T~r§kh. .H. pens of those who follow al-Zubayr. 1. and that Muhammed is His servant and Messenger. Her sons. Lord! I seek refuge with You against telling a lie about You and against saying anything contrary to what You have revealed of taking many a covenant regarding the vicegerency of Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). F~tima daughter of al-Husain (–) used . and rely upon Him. Vol. and also according to p. she stays awake all night long offering prayers. as much as the `Arsh weighs up to the ground. He made our dealing with you good. is like my mother F~tima daughter . Destruction may afflict their heads that did not ward off from him any injustice as long as he lived nor at his death. 234. and I testify that there is no god other than All~ h. . . On p.” So do both . she must have been almost thirty years old during the Battle of al-Taff. Miqdam quotes her had§th through his mother. and Asm~’ daughter . Vol. . 12.All Praise is due to All~ h. at the hands of those who give Islam nothing but lip service. sin. . and that his offspring have been slaughtered by .H. on p. in the book of funerals in Bukh~ri's Sah§h. the man whose right is confiscated and who was killed without having committed a . sister Sukayna. . 30 A. believe in Him.D.continued) on p. Ibr~h§m. of al-Tabari's T~r§kh. and He bestowed upon us its comprehension. it was not difficult at all to dig that well. proving that Muhammed al-D§b~j [her fabricated husband] was a fictitious character created by the . more than anyone else. I cited the historians who claimed that she married a follower of `Othman. I praise Him. authors. `Abdull~h. . of his book Shathar~t. built for her. al-Y~fi`i. Based on what Ibn Hajar says in his book Tahth§b al-Tahth§b.H. Hence. we are the bastian of His knowledge. on p. till All~ h Almighty took his soul to Him while his essence was praised.)./651 A. his merits were well known. 18 of Tahq§q al-Nusra ila Ma`~lim D~r al-Hijra by Abu Bakr ibn al-Husain ibn `Omer al. As far as the creed is concerned. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-K~mil. She died seven years before her . so You chose him and guided him to a Straight Path.D. understanding and wisdom. and her daughter. and al-Nass~’i. “I choose for you F~tima. of `Umays. 442. aunt Zainab. of his book Mir’~t al-Jin~n. she is said to have narrated had§th from her father. In beauty. brother Zaynul-`}bid§n . 202 of Nãr al-Abs~r. and His Arguments on the earth which He created for the good of His servants! All~ h bestowed upon us (. With him were You pleased. and Ibn al-`Im~d. 425 of Khul~sat . Never did he ever cease enjoining others to follow Your Path and that of Your Messenger (‰ ). it is stated that the authors of the sunan books. placing her year of birth at about . just as his son was only yesterday killed../1414 A. a mountain stone appeared in it. she looks like the hãris with large lovely eyes. 816 A. to use knots on a string as her rosary bead. Vol. . 35. Ibn `Abb~s.. Vol. adding that she died in 110 A. . People used to seek blessings through the use of its water. Lord! You guided him to Islam even when he was a child and praised his virtues when he grew up. one of the signs of her lofty status with All~h is that when al-W al§d ibn `Abd al-Malik ordered to house the chambers within the parameters of the Mosque. 6. a man who carried out jih~ d for Your Cause. afflicted by you. Zuhayr ibn Mu`~wiyah quotes her had§th through his mother. 4 260 . On p. Mar~ghi (d. and He entrusted His knowledge to us. there is no partner with Him. F~tima daughter of al-Husain (–) went out to al-Harra where she had a house . of Ibn Sa`d's Tabaq~t (Sadir's edition). was older than her sister Sukayna.D. On p. After that. the most Exalted One. the Euphrates river neither on account of blood revenge nor out of dispute over inheritance. Tahth§b al-Kam~l. offspring of al-Hasan II. the One and Only God. of betrayal and conceit! We are members of a Household tried on your account by All~ h. He always paid no heed to the riches of this world. So does the author of Musnad Ali. and Ibn Haban holds her reliable.

Thus have your eyes been cooled. Suppress it. and so is looting our possessions. boastful” (Qur’~ n. and All~ h does not love anyone who is conceited. “Enough. and more and more signs of Wrath are on their way to you from the heavens till He makes you taste of the chastisement and make some of you taste of the might of others. May you be ruined! Expect to be cursed and to be tormented. Such is All~ h's favour: He bestows His favours upon whomsoever He pleases. grandfather. 57:23). and in your eyes you deemed killing us as lawful. Yet you called us liars and apostates. O daughter of the pure ones. by what feet did you walk towards us with the intention to fight us? Your hearts became hardened. then on the Day of Judgment shall you all remain for eternity in the painful torment on account of the injustice with which you have treated us. And we placed their women in captivity Like the Turks! We crushed them with severity. so that you may not be grieved because of what you missed nor feel happy because of what you acquired. the curse of All~ h be upon the oppressors. and what blood revenge will he seek from you on account of your enmity towards his brother. placing a veil over your eyes. Woe unto you! Do you know what hand you have stabbed.) 1 261 . and thus have your hearts been elated.His blessings and greatly honoured us with His Prophet. surely this is easy for All~ h. favouring us over many of those whom He created. he shall have no noor at all. for what has befallen us is truly a great tragedy and a momentous calamity “In a Book even before We created them. for it seems as though it has already befallen you. Your swords drip with our blood. the blood of Ahl al-Bayt. and towards his good and righteous offspring. O people of Kã fa! What a legacy of the Prophet (‰ ) is standing before you. your hearing. With Indian swords and spears. Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). for you have burnt our hearts and necks. and surely with All~ h are great favours. while All~ h is the very best of planners.. the most Exalted One. favoured and preferred us. peace and blessings of All~ h be upon him and his Progeny. so you can never be guided. out of past animosity. So do not be carried away with your excitement because of our blood which you have spilled or our wealth which you have snatched away.. woe unto you. enough. for what All~ h. and squat just as your fathers did. just as you killed our grandfather in the past. and Satan inspired to you and dictated. UMM KULTHâ M1 SPEAKS OUT In several places of this book have w e pointed out the fact that Umm Kulthãm is the wise lady Zainab. what soul found fighting us agreeable? Rather. W e are repeating it only following in the tradition of other narrators of this (continued. and your vision. Destruction is your lot. yet you even brag about it saying: We killed Ali and the sons of Ali. May stones and pebbles fill your mouths! You brag about killing people whom All~ h chose and purified with a perfect purification and from whom He kept away all abomination. Voices were raised with weeping and wailing. my . For whoever All~ h does not make a noor. then. You envied us. telling lies about All~ h and out of evil plans which you hatched.” so she took to silence. as if we were the offspring of the Turks or of Kabul. for each will get the rewards of what he earns and will be punished for what he committed. and All~ h sealed your hearts. and they said to her. and the following statements are excerpted from her speech quoted above.

Silence. “You killed my Progeny.. “May All~ h have mercy on anyone who acts upon my advice. loot his wealth. yet you are not aware of it. This suffices me to be proud. . whose wealth has been plundered. indeed. how would you then plead? On bare beasts of burden have you Transported us. said. and may you be crushed! Woe unto you! Do you know what adversities have befallen you and what a burden of sins you have placed on your backs? Do you know what blood you have shed and what honourable ladies you have afflicted. while your women mourn us! The judge between us and you is All~h on the Day of Final Judgment. 1 262 . what children you have orphaned. AL-SAJJ} D (– ) DELIVERS A SPEECH A li ibn al-Husain (– ) was brought on a lean camel. and he was handcuffed. as if we never put up a creed for you! He signaled to people to be silent. I am the son of the one killed in the worst manner. I am the son of the man whose sanctity has been . who safeguards my legacy with regard to All~ h.” Then he (– ). He was repeating these verses: O nation of evil. then take his women captive? May you be ruined. O people of Kã fa! Horrible.Umm Kulthã m said. (.. so you do not belong to my nation”? Loud cries rose. Why did you betray Husain? Why did you kill him. let me tell him that I am Ali son of al-Husain ibn Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– ). whose children have been seized. so mercy was removed from your hearts! Surely All~ h's party shall be the winner. is what you have committed. he praised All~ h and glorified Him and saluted the Prophet (‰ ). Then he said. and whoever does not. “You have perished. then you fought him? May you be ruined for what you have committed against your own souls. violated. your promise. women pulled their hair in grief and beat their faces and cheeks. and there were more tearful eyes that day than anyone could ever recall. and your allegiance. and out of your corrupt views! Through what eyes will you look at the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) when he says to you. and what wealth you have looted? You killed the best of men after the Prophet (‰ ). O people! I plead to you in the Name of All~ h: Do you not know that you wrote my father then deceived him? Did you not grant him your covenant. O people! Whoever recognizes me knows me. People burst in tears. . O people of Kã fa! Your men murder us. I am the son of the one who has been slaughtered by the Euphrates neither out of blood revenge nor on account of an inheritance. crying and wailing. Chains were placed on his neck. violated my sanctity. Both sides of his neck were bleeding. Once they were silent. whereas the party of Satan shall be the loser.continued) epic. . and they said to each other. may your quarter never tastes of water! O nation that never honoured in our regard our Grandfather! Should we and the Messenger of All~ h meet On the Judgment Day.

“Far. Ibn al-Ath§r. al-Tabari. p. upon my father (– ). 445 (Najaf: Al-}d~b Press) of Riy~d al. Before the messengers comes rolling up his sleeves And to you shall he say: Woe unto you! My sanctity did you violate And your swords drank of my blood. so. 263 . order us. and we shall seek peace when you do so. is between both of these [sides] and its bitterness is between my throat and palate. It is as if on Judgment Day I see Ahmed . O Banã Harb. and so were his Ahl al-Bayt (– ). Vol. We shall not turn away from you. nor shall we disobey you. O son of the Messenger of All~ h. Al-K~mil. by the Lord of all those [angels] that ascend and descend'?! The wound is yet to heal. These verses were composed by al-H~jj Muhammed Rida al-Azri and published on p. My father was killed only yesterday.”1 Wait. . . hear and obey.His Messenger (‰ ). Vol. and the loss inflicted upon the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ). said. `No. al-Muf§d. T~r§kh. 256. 6. may All~ h have mercy on you. and upon my family is yet to be forgotten. Do you want to come to me as you did to my father saying. for we have in the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) a good example of conduct to emulate. we dissociate ourselves from whoever oppressed you and dealt unjustly with you. for we shall fight when you fight. and we shall safeguard your trust. by All~ h. p. Stabbed the necks and slit the throats? Such is your reward for me so How soon you were untrue To the trust with regard to my daughter And with regard to my brother?2 THE BURIAL H 1 2 3 istorians record that the Master of Martyrs (– ) set up a tent on the battlefield3. far away it is from you to do so. Al-Irsh~d. Madh wa al-Rath~’. Its choke is resting in my very chest. O people of treachery and conniving! You are separated from what you desire. Whenever a fresh martyr was brought. “We. and his Ahl al-Bayt (– ). . Its pain. O how Muhammed will feel when you have . ordering those killed from among his companions and Ahl al-Bayt (– ) to be carried to it. All these speeches are mentioned by Ibn T~wãs in his book Al-Luhãf and by Ibn Nama in his book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. . . for what we have gone through Is seen by the Lord of Heavens who well knows all. 30. They would never have committed such great injustice.” They all said.” He (– ). 4. Do you know what blood you on the ground spilled? Or which ladies you took to captivity? Is it just that you safeguard your girls And leave my free ladies taken captive like the Daylams? And should you make water for the wild beasts permissible While my children because of thirst are on fire? O by All~ h! If the hosts of unbelievers Had ever vanquished my offspring.

I fancy it blocked. river bank of the Euphrates. 3 4 264 . 10. It was then that I saw candles and heard voices that filled the earth with painful cries and wailing. p. 115 of my book Qamar Ban§ H~shim (Hayderi Press edition. of al-Majlisi's Bih~r al-Anw~r where al-Nu`m~ni's book Al-Ghayba is . Najaf). Stabbing changed every sense of theirs Except virtues. and sweet scents were surrounding him from all directions. 2 1 This is what a group of historians have recorded. I was more amazed when midnight came.4 On the thirteenth day of Muharram. 263. Mad§nat al-Ma`~jiz. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. This is narrated on p. Vol. he left behind those who were described by the Commander of the Faithful (– ) as the masters of martyrs in the life of this world and in the hereafter. whom he left where he fell near the . Nor did they make of him something new He was a moon and now he is the morning sun. A wounded one whose beauty the swords could not change. I saw a terrifying lion walking between the amputated parts till he reached the Embodiment of Sanctity and the Sacrifice of Guidance. cited. 211. I came to the battlefield and saw light emanating from those corpses that were covered with blood yet smelled sweet scents. I hid among the marshes and kept watching to see what else he would do. from all they are secure. Refer to p.he (– ). lying on the sands incinerated by the sun and sought by the wild beasts of the desert. 13. Sayyid H~shim al-Bahr~ni. and p. So the heat refused to send him missive. 219. “You have been killed just as the prophets and the families of prophets are killed.”1 He did so to everyone with the exception of his brother Abul-Fadl al-`Abb~ s (– ). And trees of lances give him shade. Vol. A man belonging to Banã Asad has narrated the following: Once the army had left. 125. chapter 127. His rays protect the eyes so Whenever they try a path. an honour to which nobody ever preceded nor will anyone succeed them3.2 When `Omer ibn Sa`d accompanied those whom he arrested of the custodians of the Message and left for Kã fa. Since the hand of blood outfitted him with its garment. would say. . Among them was the Master of the Youths of Paradise who was in a condition that would split the hardest of the stones. yet divine lights were emanating from his corpse. Never have I ever seen such a fierce lion abandon what would be for his likes nothing but a meal. Ibn Qawlawayh. since only an . He rubbed himself on his blood and rubbed his body on his as he kept muttering and letting out a very strange sound. Zayn al-`} bid§n (– ) came to bury his martyred father (– ). I was amazed. p.

“If so. . A case in point is how one particular person came close to the Seat of Divinity two bow's throw or even closer. “But where was Ali ibn al-Husain at the time?” Ali ibn Abu Hamzah said. of his . “Congratulations to the land that contains your pure body. Such mysteries cannot be realized by a human mind. . and the mercy of All~ h and His blessings. hugged it and wept loudly. The ladies of Banã Asad loosened their hair in grief and beat their cheeks. 22 of Sulaym~n al-Hilli's book .” Then he took it and went down without being assisted by anyone from among the Banã Asad to whom he said. “He was jailed at Kã fa . al-`Abb~ s (– ).” On the grave he wrote: “This is the grave of al-Husain son of Ali son of Abu T~ lib. in all reality. the Great. Perhaps it is to be understood that the corpse of an infallible person. 51 of his book Manhaj al-Rash~d. . the one whom they . As to the night. go to Kerbal~ ’ in order to take care of his [slain] father then return is the same One Who will enable the person entrusted with a similar task [meaning himself] to go to Baghdad [from Khurasan. “I have with me someone who will assist me. and their listening to the greetings of those who visit their grave-sites. arriving at a station from which even the Trusted One (Gabriel) kept his distance. their bodies ascending to heavens. for All~ h shall choose for your Ahl al-Bayt (– ) your abode wherein you shall abide. killed even as he was a thirsty stranger. they were created of the same substance [noor] from which Muhammed (‰) was created. All~ h has said the truth. but he came out without their knowledge in order to bury his father then returned to the prison once he was through. Husain ibn Ali (– ) an Im~ m?” He (– ) answered in the affirmative. He informed them of the names of the slain. “In the Name of All~ h.1 This brings to memory a dialogue that once took place between Im~ m [Ali son of Mã sa] al-Rida (– ) and . 402 of my book Zayn al-`}bid§n. and according to the creed of the Messenger of All~ h. The Im~ m [by way of testing the verocity of the man] (– ) was asked. Vol. and he is neither jailed nor confined. Im~ m Zayn al-`} bid§n (– ) walked to his father's body. and tears filled the eyes of everyone present there and then. he put his cheek on his father's sacred neck and said. identifying those who belonged to Banã H~ shim from the rest. cannot fully comprehend them unless they reach the limit of impossibility. Traditions do not reveal such a safeguarded mystery. it is the harbinger of sleep. From me to you is Sal~ m.” Im~ m al-Rida (– ) said. buried except by another Im~m. then . 1 265 . they could have inquired about them with the families and the tribes of those slain. “Ali ibn al-Husain al-Sajj~ d (– ) did. Then he came to the grave-site and lifted a handful of its soil. The Im~ m (– ) was again asked.” Then he walked to the body of his uncle. informed them that it was his task to bury those pure bodies. Vol. and by al-Nawari on p. All of this is endorsed by our mentor. Crying and wailing rose. at the termination of his earthly life. They could not identify the corpses especially since their killers had separated the heads from the bodies. and so did a pre-constructed shrine. asked him. and so has His Messenger (‰ ). when journeying to the Supreme One. Ali ibn Abu Hamzah. The will of All~ h be done. Ithb~t al-Wasiyya. and there is no way to deny them just because we . . such as bringing the dead back to life in the latter's original physical forms. O son of the Messenger of All~ h. A claim put forth with regard to our Im~ms is not out of the ordinary. while grief remains forever.” Im~ m al-Rida (– ) in turn . p. 1.. especially since. by K~shif al-Ghit~’ on p.. “Tell me: Was al. 289. 84 of Al-Maq~l~t (Tehran edition). book D~r al-Sal~m. A grave already dug appeared. 373. They shared . 173. al-Muf§d. and he saw him al-Mas`ãdi. who took care of burying him?” Ali (– ) said. is granted certain privileges such as nobody can come close to it unless he is one of his status. 1.” When al-Sajj~ d (– ) came to the place. Authentic traditions have stated that there are many unusual situations which surround the Im~ms (–). On p. Al-Muhtadir (Najafi edition). of his book Mir’~t al-`Uqãl. But he (– ). their ability to see one another [despite the distance that separates them or the time]. I quoted the traditions proving that an Im~m is not . all the merits of their grandfather with the exception of Prophethood and consorts. situations which other humans cannot emulate. as stated on p. by al-Majlisi on p. by al-Karakji in his book Kanz al-Faw~’id. “Then the One Who enabled Ali ibn al-Husain (– ) to . inside Ibn Ziy~ d's prison.” Once he laid it down in the grave. for the world after you is dark whereas the hereafter in your light shall shine. northeast Iran] in order to take care of his father.Im~ m buries another Im~ m. he saw Banã Asad assembled around the slain not knowing what to do. Had it been otherwise. He placed his hands under the Im~ m's back and said. there is no power nor might except in All~ h. Such is stated on p. leaving the Prophet (‰) alone in the oceans of the divine domain.

and even the wild beasts. ordering them to dig two pits in the first of which he buried those slain from Banã H~ shim and in the second those slain from among their companions1. Whoever visits it is envied and is rubbed for blessing. In this regard. The authority Sayyid M uhammed al-Qazw§ni responded to him with these verses: . He is the . . invokes All~ h's mercy for him because of the fact that he was not supported when he called upon people to uphold righteousness. the martyr.] dug up the place. Asr~r al-Shah~da (of Sayyid K~zim al-Rashti al-H~’iri). and whoever does not visit it grieves for him. The first of the martyrs should you his visit pay. So. and ruled Iran from 907 . O martyr. .H. and there was a bandage on his head. mankind. the jinns. 344 of his book Al-Anw~r al-Nu`m~niyya. Jaz~’iri cites testimonials to this statement.1524 A.H. He was abandoned in his grave. “There is someone with me to help me. and the mercy of All~ h and His blessings. of Tuh fat al-`}lim. 2 266 . (– ). latter's grandfather up to 18 generations back. details how [sult~n] Ism~`§l al-Safawi [founder of the Safavid dynasty who lived from 904 . In loneliness. As regarding al-Hurr al-Riy~ hi. How doing so suffices every man free.D. One of them used to say: Point out to the Hurr and see. 37. he did not support his denial with any evidence.” He dug a grave for him and took him down in it by himself just as he had done to the corpse of his martyred father (– ). his corpse was taken away by his tribe that buried it where it now stands. He fell upon it kissing his sacred neck and saying. whereupon he saw the deceased as though he had just been killed. and looking at his grave is done in 1 See Al-Kibr§t al-Ahmar (of Shaikh Muhammed B~qir al-Birjandi al-S~fi). It is said that his mother was present then and there. “May the world after you be obliterated. They disregarded their obligations in his regard towards the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) who had enjoined them to be kind to him and to his Ahl al-Bayt (– ). blood started pouring out. in his book Al-Lulu’ wal Marj~n. Vol. . and when she saw what was being done to the corpses. . whoever does not see him is very depressed on account of being deprived of doing so. slain among his kinsfolk and Sh§`as. therefore he grieves. 1. for example. On p. . Once he untied it. Shaikh Muhammed B~qir al-Birjandi al-S~fi. denies that he had been buried. Sayyid al. Visit the Hurr./1499 . My father has told me that since he was killed. far away from his kin. . O moon of Banã H~ shim. . . He. and the bleeding did not stop till he tied it back again.D.1524 A.in a condition that had left the angels in the heavens' strata baffled and caused the hã ris to weep even as they were in the chambers of Paradise. . He built a dome above the grave and assigned someone to tend to it. whoever sees the grave of his son at his feet in a desolate land. he gave a piece of jewelry to Banã Asad as a token of appreciation for consoling him in burying the martyrs. and Al-Iyq~d. On p. . . “The father of `Abdull~ h was killed as a stranger. and peace from me to you. Sayyid Ja`fer Bahr al-`Ulãm states that Hamad-All~h al-Mustawfi has indicated . Im~ m al-S~ diq (– ) says to Hamm~ d al-Basri.. __ Tr. . she carried her son's corpse somewhere else. Do not hear one who calls and does say Point out to the Hurr then a salutation pay. he is mourned be whoever visits his grave-site.930 A..2 The closest in proximity to the grave of al-Husain (– ) from among the martyrs is his son Ali al-Akbar ./1502 . his place has never been empty of those who bless him from among the angels. . in his book Nuzhat al-Qulãb saying that there is in Kerbal~’ the grave of al-Hurr [al-Riy~hi] which is visited by people.” Yes. and by those who recognize our rights. and do not delay. being near his grave removes the pain of loneliness and so is his being distant from his grandfather (‰ ) and from the house which none could enter except those whose conviction of heart All~ h tested. . and he assigned for them two places. so much so that they exposed his corpse to the wild beasts and prohibited him from drinking of the water of the Euphrates of which the dogs drink. Al-Kibr§t al-Ahmar. . He said to Banã Asad. and because the renegades assisted one another against him till they killed him and did not have any respect for him.930 A. when al-Nawari. . away from home.

The war's morning did turn The regiment dusted. and what was Broken on him buries him. They were still many. threaten them.anticipation of earning goodness. they mourn him. and patience is The strongest of all. al-Majlisi. “I have personally witnessed some of what . As far as what such pilgrim receives from us. The man of glory passed away Under the swords. we invoke All~ h's mercy for him every morning and every evening.” The Im~ m (– ). having returned the swords To the lances. and mourn us. He left his impact On them and on death itself. they narrate his story. 325. The most mighty protector of all A protector of honour he was. 1 Ibn Qawlawayh. He showed his might. The one who most feeds the beasts With his foe's corpses. It has come to my knowledge that some Kã fians as well as others in Kã fa's outskirts pay it a visit in the eve of the middle of Sha`b~ n. And if he is spent thirsty. you have just described. His support in the heat of blows was keen: Though his supporters were a few. and describe what they do as ugly.”1 Today fell the one who Most protects honour. K~mil al-Ziy~r~t. citing the previous reference. and women eulogize him while others compose their own eulogies. 124. heart-broken He had terrified the heart of death Till the heart is split. p. So if he does receive The time of the eve With a dusted forehead. He is spent. All~ h boasts to the angels of those who visit it. p.” Hamm~ d said to the Im~ m (– ). Maz~r al-Bih~r. And he crushed the foes And he did annihilate What fates give birth to suckle on death. and praised is He for making our enemy shame them for doing so. . 267 . praise us. then said. The most true teller. And the most courageous to lead the hosts. “Praise to All~ h Who has made some people come to us. They recite the Holy Qur’~ n. From between two shields he emerged: Battle and patience. The one who most stains The bird and the vulture.

It stumbled till it died The edge of his sword But his grip did not. As if the sword granted him patience, So he did not leave the battle Till his sword was broken to pieces. All~ h is his Supporter, how his heart From patience was split then did depart. Had patience been stone, it would have cracked. He bent to kiss his son But the arrow before him kissed his neck. Both he and death were born in an hour And before him the arrow in his neck make Takb§r, And in captivity there were elite ones of chambers, Hard for their men to see them thus driven. They had, before, protected their chambers And in protecting their honours They remained ever vigilant. On the Day of Taff fate walked blindly . Not leaving any support for them Without taking him away. He forced them to traverse the desert at night, Never before the Taff did they know . What the desert was, nor did they know How to traverse at night, Not even their eyes Had seen their shadows. Till they appeared and wailed At the Gh~ diriyya, unveiled...1 AT THE GOVERNOR'S MANSION2

1 2 3

aving returned from his camp at Nakh§la, [`Ubaydull~ h] Ibn Ziy~ d went straight to his mansion3. The

This poem was composed by Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli, may All~h enlighten his mausoleum. .

According to p. 8 of Siff§n, a book written by Nasr ibn Muz~him and printed in Egypt, when Ali (–) entered Kãfa, he was asked, . . . “W hich [prison] house do you prefer?” He said, “Do not lodge me at the house of oppression and corruption.” He, therefore, remained in the custody of Ja`dah ibn Hab§rah al-Makhzãmi. According to p. 142, Chapter 9, of al-Tha`~libi's book Lat~’if al-Ma`~rif, `Abd al-Malik ibn `Umayr al-Lakhmi has narrated saying, “I saw the head of al-Husain ibn Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–) at the government mansion of `Ubaydull~h ibn Ziy~d placed on a shield, and . . I saw the head of al-Mukht~r with Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr on another shield. I saw the head of Mis`ab in front of `Abd al-Malik ibn . . Marw~n on yet another shield! W hen I told `Abd al-Malik [ibn Marw~n ibn al-Hakam] about that, he regarded it as a bad omen and . left the place.” The same is narrated by al-Sayyãti on p. 139 of his book T~r§kh al-Khulaf~’, and by Sibt ibn al-Jawzi on p. 148 of his . book Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss (Iranian edition). ..


sacred head was brought to him, and it was then that the walls started bleeding1 and a fire broke out from one part of the mansion, making its way to the place where Ibn Ziy~ d was sitting2. He fled away from it and entered one of the mansion's rooms. The head spoke out in a loud voice that was heard by Ibn Ziy~ d as well as by those who were present there and then. It said: “Where do you flee to? If fire does not catch you in the life of this world, it shall be your abode in the hereafter.” The head did not stop speaking till the fire was out. Everyone at the mansion was stunned; nothing like this had ever taken place before3. Yet Ibn Ziy~ d was not admonished by an incident such as this, so he ordered the captives to be brought to him. The ladies of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) were brought to him, and they were in the most pathetic condition4. She was brought with nothing to cover her head In a condition that left no patience for the skin. With nothing to cover her face; Did they keep any cover for the ladies of guidance? No, by the One Who outfitted her with His Light, They robbed her even of her cover. May those hands be forever Paralyzed; they left no veil for them at all.5 Al-Husain's severed head was placed in front of him, so he kept hitting its mouth with a rod which he had in his . hand for some time. Zayd ibn Arqam said, “Stop hitting these lips with your rod, for by All~ h, the One and Only God, I saw the lips of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) kissing them,” then he broke into tears. Ibn Ziy~ d said to him, “May All~ h cause you never to cease crying! By All~ h, had you not been an old man who lost his wits, I would have killed you.” Zayd went out of the meeting place saying, “A slave is now a monarch ruling them, treating them as his property. O Arabs! Henceforth, you are the slaves! You have killed F~ tima's son and granted . authority to the son of Marj~ na who kills the best from among you and permits the evil ones to be worshipped. You have accepted humiliation, so away with whoever accepts humiliation.”6 Zainab daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) kept a distance from the women as she remained disguised, but she could not disguise the prestige of being brought up in the lap of prophethood and in the glory of Im~ mate, so she attracted Ibn Ziy~ d's attention. He inquired about her. He was told that she was Zainab, the wise lady, daughter of the Commander of the Faithful (– ). He wanted to tell her how rejoiced he was at what had happened. Said he, “Praise be to All~ h Who exposed you to shame, Who killed you and proved you liars.” She, peace be upon her, responded with: “Praise be to All~ h Who honoured us by choosing Muhammed [from . among us] as His Prophet and purified us with a perfect purification. Rather, only a debauchee is exposed to

Ibn `As~kir, T~r§kh, Vol. 4, p. 329. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni, Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. Thakh~’ir al-`Uqba, p. 145. Ibn T~wãs, . . . . Al-Mal~him, p. 128 (first edition). . Ibn al-Ath§r, Al-K~mil, Vol. 4, p. 103. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami al-`Asqal~ni, Mujma` al-Zaw~’id, Vol. 9, p. 196. al-Khaw~rizmi, . Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 87. al-Turayhi, Al-Muntakhab, p. 339 (Hayderi Press edition). Ibn Kath§r, Al-Bid~ya, Vol. 8, p. 286. . . .
3 2


Sharh Qas§dat Abi Fir~s, p. 149. . . “Abul-Abb~s” Ahmed ibn Yousuf ibn A hmed al-Qarm~ni, Akhb~r al-Duwal, Vol. 1, p. 8. . . Excerpted from a poem by Sayyid `Abd al-Muttalib al-Hilli recorded on p. 218, Vol. 3, of Shu`ar~’ al-Hilla. .. . .


5 6

Ibn Hajar al-`Asqal~ni, Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa, p. 118. al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 262. Ibn Kath§r, Al-Bid~ya wal Nih~ya, Vol. . . . . 8, p. 190. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Mujma` al-Zaw~’id, Vol. 9, p. 195. Ibn `As~kir, T~r§kh, Vol. 4, p. 340. These authors have expressed . their disbelief of what he has said. The fact that he was blind does not necessarily render his statement inaccurate, for it is quite possible he had heard the same. Ibn `As~kir's statement that Zayd was present then and there supports his.


shame, and a sinner is proven to be a liar, and we are neither.” Ibn Ziy~ d asked her, “How have you seen what All~ h has done to your Ahl al-Bayt (– )?” She, peace be upon her, said, “I have seen Him treating them most beautifully. These are people to whom All~ h prescribed martyrdom, so they leaped from their beds welcoming it, and All~ h shall gather you and them, and you shall be questioned, and your opponents shall charge you1; so, you will then find out whose lot shall be the crack of hell, may your mother, O son of Marj~ na, lose you.”2 This statement enraged Ibn Ziy~ d, and her words incinerated him with ire, especially since she said it before such a huge crowd. He, therefore, was about to kill her when `Amr ibn Har§th said to him, “She is only a woman; can she be held accountable for what she said? She cannot be blamed when she thus prattles.” Ibn Ziy~ d turned to her one more time and said, “All~ h has healed my heart by letting me seek revenge against your tyrant and against the rebels and mutineers from among his Ahl al-Bayt!” The wise lady calmed herself and said, “By my life! You have killed my middle-aged protector, persecuted my family, cut off my branch and pulled out my roots; so, if all of this heals your heart, then you are indeed healed.”3 He then turned to Ali son of al-Husain (– ) whom he asked what his name was. “I am Ali son of al-Husain . . (– ),” came the answer. Ibn Ziy~ d asked Ali, “Did not All~ h kill Ali (– )?” Al-Sajj~ d (– ) answered, “I used to have an older brother4, also named Ali, whom [your] people killed.” Ibn Ziy~ d responded by repeating his statement that it was All~ h who had killed him. Al-Sajj~ d, therefore, said, “All~ h takes the souls away at the time of their death; none dies except with All~ h's permission.” Ibn Ziy~ d did not appreciate him thus responding to his statement rather than remaining silent, so he ordered him to be killed, but his aunt, the wise lady Zainab, put her arms around him and said, “O Ibn Ziy~ d! Suffices you what you have shed of our blood..., have you really spared anyone other than this?5 If you want to kill him, kill me with him as well.” Al-Sajj~ d (– ) said [to Ibn Ziy~ d], “Do you not know that we are used to being killed, and that martyrdom is one of All~ h's blessings upon us?”6 Ibn Ziy~ d looked at both of them then said, “Leave him for her. Amazing is their tie of kinship; she wishes to be killed with him.”7 Al-Rub~ b, wife of Im~ m Husain (– ), took the head and put it in her lap. She kissed it and said, . O Husain! Never shall I ever forget Husain! . . Did the foes' lances really seek him? They left him in Kerbal~ ’ slain,

1 2 3

al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 262. . Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf, p. 90. .

Ibn al-Ath§r, Al-K~mil, Vol. 4, p. 33. al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 42. al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 263. al-Muf§d, . . Al-Irsh~d. al-Tibrisi, I`l~m al-War~, p. 141. According to p. 145, Vol. 3, of K~mil al-Mibrad (1347 A.H./1735 A.D. edition), Zainab . daughter of Ali ibn Abu T~lib (–), the eldest of those taken captive to Ibn Ziy~d, was quite eloquent, driving her argument against . the latter home. Ibn Ziy~d, therefore, said to her, “If you achieved your objective behind your oratory, your father was an orator and a poet.” She said to him, “W hat would women do with poetry?” Ibn Ziy~d, in fact, used to stutter, and he had a lisp; his speech had a heavy Persian accent.
4 Such is the statement of Muhammed ibn Jar§r al-Tabari in his book Al-Muntakhab in a footnote on p. 89, Vol. 12, of his T~r§kh. . . So does Abul Faraj al-Isfah~ni on p. 49 of the Iranian edition of his book Muq~til al-T~libiyy§n, and al-Dimyari in his book Hay~t al. . . Hayaw~n, as well as al-Turayhi's book Al-Muntakhab, p. 238 (Hayderi Press edition). It is also indicated on p. 58 of M is`ab al. . . . Zubayri's book Nasab Quraish. 5 6

al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 263. . Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf, p. 91. al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 13. . . Ibn al-Ath§r, Al-K~mil, Vol. 4, p. 34.



May All~ h never water Kerbal~ 's sides.1 When it became clear to Ibn Ziy~ d that there were many people present who were voicing their resentment of what he had committed and how everyone was repeating what Zainab had said, he feared an uprising, so he ordered the police to jail the captives inside a house adjacent to the grand mosque2. Ibn Ziy~ d's doorman has said, “I was with them when he issued his order to jail them. I saw how the men and women assembled there weeping and beating their faces.”3 Zainab shouted at people saying, “Nobody should tend to us except either a bondmaid, a freed bondmaid, or umm wuld4, for they were taken captive just as we have been.”5 What Zainab meant is that only a female captive is familiar with the pain and humiliation of captivity; therefore, she would be sympathetic and would not rejoice nor enjoy seeing them in captivity. This is undeniable. It is reported that when Jassas ibn Murrah killed Kal§b ibn Rab§`ah, it happened that his sister was in the company of Kal§b at the time. When the women of the quarter met for the funeral ceremony in Kal§b's memory, they said to the latter's sister, “Get Jal§la (Jass~ s's sister) out of this ceremony; her presence causes her . . . to rejoice, and it is a shame among the Arabs; she is the sister of one who has killed one of us.” The woman voluntarily left as Kal§b's sister said, “This is the departure of the aggressor and the parting of one who rejoices on account of our misfortune.”6 Ibn Ziy~ d again called them to his presence. When they were brought to him, their women saw alHusain's head in front of him with its divine rays ascending from its curves to the depth of the heavens. Al. Rub~ b, al-Husain's wife, could not check herself from falling upon it and kissing it as she said: . The one that was in Kerbal~ ’ a luminary Is now slain but not buried at all O grandson of the Prophet! May All~ h reward you On our behalf with goodness and may you Be spared the shorting of the scales. To me you were a mountain, a refuge And you used to be our companion in lineage and in creed Who will now help the orphans and those in need? To whom shall the needy go for help? By All~ h! I shall never exchange your kinship with anyone else Till I am lost between water and mud.7

These lines are recorded on p. 148 of Tathkirat al-Khaw~ss of Ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson. Due to confusion and absence of .. verification, these same verses are recorded under No. 18, p. 314, Vol. 1, or Al-Ham~sa al-Basriyya, in a chapter dealing with . eulogies, attributing them to `}tika daughter of Nufayl, al-Husain's wife! Not even one reliable historian has ever indicated that al. Husain (–) had ever married her! .


Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf, p. 91. al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 43. . . al-Naishapuri, Rawdat al-W~`iz§n, p. 163. . .


4 “Freed umm wuld” is a bondmaid who bears sons by her master and who is set free on that account but remains in the latter’s custody as his wife. __ Tr. 5

Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf, p. 92. `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni, Maqtal al-`Aw~lim, p. 130. . . Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni, Al-Agh~ni, Vol. 4, p. 150. . These verses are recorded on p. 158, Vol. 14, of Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni's book Al-Agh~ni (Sassi Press edition). .

6 7


IBN `AF¦F am§d ibn Muslim has said, “Ibn Ziy~ d ordered to hold a congregational prayer service. They assembled at the grand mosque. Ibn Ziy~ d ascended the pulpit and said, `All Praise is due to All~ h Who manifested the truth and elevated those who act according to it and Who granted victory to the commander of the faithful Yaz§d and to his party, and Who killed the liar and the son of the liar, al-Husain son of Ali, and his . Sh§`as.'1 Nobody among that crowd that had sunk in misguidance objected to such a preposterous statement except `Abdull~ h ibn `Af§f al-Azdi and also one of the sons of W~ libah al-Gh~ midi who both stood up and said to him, `O son of Marj~ na! The liar and the son of the liar is you and your father, and so is everyone who accepts your authority and his son! O son of Marj~ na! Do you really kill the offspring of the prophets and still talk about who is truthful and who is a liar?!'2 Ibn Ziy~ d asked who the speaker was. Ibn `Af§f answered by saying, `I am the speaker, O enemy of All~ h! Do you really kill the righteous offspring from whom All~ h removed all abomination then claim that you are a follower of the Islamic creed?! Oh! Is there anyone to help?! Where are the sons of the Muh~ jirã n and the Ans~ r to seek revenge against your tyrant, the one who and whose father were . both cursed by Muhammed (‰ ), the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds?' Ibn Ziy~ d's anger now intensified. . He ordered him to be brought to him. The police grabbed him.3 It was then that Ibn `Af§f shouted the slogan used by the Azdis which was: `Ya Mabroor!' This caused a large number of the Azdis present there to leap to his rescue and to forcibly free him from the police and take him safely home.” `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn Makhnaf al-Azdi said to him, “Woe unto someone else other than you! You have . surely condemned yourself and your tribe to destruction!”4 Ibn Ziy~ d then ordered a number of men from the Azd tribe, including `Abdul-Rahm~ n ibn Mikhnaf al. 5 Azdi , to be jailed. During the night, a band of men working for Ibn Ziy~ d went to the latter's house to bring him intelligence of what the Azd tribesmen were discussing. When these tribesmen came to know about such spying, they gathered their fighting men, as well as the fighting men of their allies in Yemen, together. Ibn Ziy~ d came to know about such assembling of troops, so he sent Mudar tribesmen headed by Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath6 . to fight them. A fierce battle broke out, and many men from both sides were killed. W~ sil ibn al-Ash`ath reached the house of Ibn `Af§f. He and his men broke its door open. His daughter screamed warning her father saying, “The people have come to you!” He said to her, “Do not be concerned, just hand me my sword” with which he kept defending himself as he was reciting these lines:


The son of the honoured, the clement, and the pure am I Clement is my mentor and the son of Umm `} mir How many of you shielded or did not shield, How many a hero left slain on the battlefield? His daughter kept saying, “How I wish I had been a man so that I could defend you against these sinners, the
1 2 3 4

Ibn al-Ath§r, Al-K~mil, Vol. 1, p. 34. al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 263. . Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf. . al-Tabari, T~r§kh, Vol. 6, p. 263. .

5 6

al-Qazw§ni, Riy~d al-Ahz~n, p. 57, citing Rawdat al-Safa. . . . .

According to Ibn Nama al-Hilli's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n, Ibn Ziy~d had dispatched Muhammed ibn al-Ash`ath. Since he was killed . . . on `}shãra as a consequence of Im~m al-Husain's curse upon him when a scorpion bit him, the person dispatched in this account . should instead be one of the offspring of al-Ash`ath.


killers of the righteous Progeny of the Prophet (‰ )!” For some time, no man was able to come close to him due to the fact that his daughter kept warning him about the direction from which they were attacking him since he was blind. In the end, however, they overwhelmed him. His daughter cried out: “What humiliation! My father is surrounded and there is none to help him!” He kept circling with his sword in his hand as he repeated this line: I swear, should I am permitted to see, Unable to face my might shall you be. By All~ h do I swear! Had I been able to see You wouldn't know whence and how I attack thee! Once they overpowered him, they arrested him and brought him to Ibn Ziy~ d who started by saying to him, “Praise be to All~ h who subjected you to such humiliation!” Ibn `Af§f asked him: “What did He humiliate me for?!” Then he recited this line of poetry: By All~ h do I swear! Had I only been able to see You wouldn't know whence and how I attack thee! Ibn Ziy~ d asked him, “O enemy of All~ h! What do you think of `Uthm~ n [ibn `Affan]?” Ibn `Af§f verbally abused `Uthm~ n then said to Ibn Ziy~ d, “What do you have to do with `Uthm~ n whether he was good or bad? All~ h, the most Praised and Exalted One, is in charge of His creatures; He judges between them and between `Uthm~ n with justice and equity. You should instead ask me about your father and about Yaz§d and his father.” Ibn Ziy~ d said, “I shall not ask you about anything; rather, you shall taste of death one choking after another.” Ibn `Af§f said, “Then Praise to All~ h, the Lord of the Worlds! I have been for years praying my Lord to grant me the honour of martyrdom even before your mother gave birth to you, and I prayed Him to let it be at the hands of one whom He curses and hates the most! When I lost my eyesight, I lost hope of attaining martyrdom, but now I praise All~ h Who has blessed me with it though I had lost that hope, responding to my supplications of old!” Ibn Ziy~ d ordered his neck to be struck with the sword and to crucify him in the salty tracts of the land.1 Ibn Ziy~ d ordered Jandab ibn `Abdull~ h al-Azdi, who was an old man, to be brought to him. He said to him, “O enemy of All~ h! Did you not fight on Abu Tur~ b's side during the Battle of Siff§n?” The old man . answered, “Yes, and I love him and am proud of him, while I despise you and your father especially after you have killed the grandson of the Prophet (‰ ) and his companions and the members of his family without fearing the One and Only God, the Great Avenger.” Ibn Ziy~ d said, “You have less feeling of shame than that blind man, and I seek nearness to All~ h through shedding your blood.” Jandab said, “In that case, All~ h shall never bring you closer to Him.” Ibn Ziy~ d, on a second thought, feared the might of the man’s Azd tribe, so he left him alone saying, “He is only an old man who has lost his mind and wits.” He released him.2 AL-MUKHT} R AL-THAQAFI

Ibn Nama al-Hilli, Muth§r al-Ahz~n, p. 50. Ibn T~wãs, Al-Luhãf, p. 92. al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 53. Al-Tabari, . . . . . on p. 263, Vol. 6, of his T~r§kh, abridges his story. Ibn Hab§b, on p. 480 of his book Al-Mahbar, and Shaikh al-Muf§d in his book Al. . Irsh~d, agree on the fact that he was crucified on the garbage collection site. al-Irb§li mentions him on p. 116 of his book Kashf alGhummah.


Ibn Nama, Muth§r al-Ahz~n, p. 51. al-Khaw~rizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 55. al-Qazw§ni, Riy~d al-Ahz~n, p. 52. . . .


1. After only one year. and how . Shimr ibn Thul-Jawshan and a large number of the Kã fians who had . the governor of Basra.4 . Al-Qazw§ni.t the same time when Ibn Ziy~ d ordered the captives to be brought to his meeting place. Safiyya daughter of Abu `Ubayd al-Thaqafi. One incident he narrated was the following which he recollected about the time when he was in Ibn Ziy~ d's jail: `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith ibn Nawfal ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and Maytham al-Tamm~ r were among his cell . nor shall he kill me. . When al-Mukht~ r saw that horrific and most deplorable scene. Vol. 3 4 5 al-Majlisi. Bih~r al-Anw~r. For the second time did `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer write Yaz§d who in turn wrote `Ubaydull~ h ibn Ziy~ d ordering him to release the man3. he killed Ibn Ziy~ d and those who fought al-Husain (– ). mates. but people reminded him that `Omer ibn Sa`d was the husband of his sister while another brother-in-law was none other than `Abdull~ h ibn `Omer [ibn al-Khatt~ b]. Ibn Ziy~ d became burning with outrage and ordered him to be sent back to jail1. .”5 This came to be exactly as these men had said. and I do not want him to do so while there is unwanted hair on my body. Riy~d al-Ahz~n. “You are the liar. 58. p. Paradise and with forgiveness just as He humiliated Yaz§d and his army with the fire and with shame. . They reminded him of his lofty lineage. 295. p. al-Muf§d. Al-Irsh~d. Among them . `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith asked for a piece of iron to remove the hair in certain parts of his body saying. citing Ibn Nama's book Akhth al-Th~r. and you shall trample on his cheeks with your very foot. . man who wants us to be killed. al-Majlisi. having him killed.. 284. 6 al-Dainãri. almost ten thousand6 of them fled away from him and sought refuge with Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr.” Al-Mukht~ r said to him. 274 . 178-179. Having ordered the execution of Ibn `Af§f. 52. he also ordered al-Mukht~ r son of Abu `Ubayd al-Thaqafi to be brought to him. Al-Mukht~ r had been in prison since the assassination of Muslim ibn `Aq§l. Maqtal al-Husain. 210 (Egyptian edition). killing Ibn Ziy~ d. p. he [and his army] killed eighteen thousand Kã fians. “I do not feel secure against Ibn Ziy~ d executing me. `Abdull~ h ibn al-H~ rith was released from jail after Yaz§d's death and became . Ibn Abul-Had§d.. 284. nor shall you face except very little hardship before you become the governor of Basra!” Maytham heard their dialogue. . briefly narrates it on p. . of how he rose seeking revenge for al-Husain (– ). Al-Mukht~ r incessantly kept after that informing the Sh§`as of the merits which he knew of the companions of the Commander of the Faithful (– ). Harmalah ibn K~ hil. and you shall kill the same . Vol. Ibn Ziy~ d delivered a speech wherein he abused the Commander of the Faithful (– ). 10. p. . Al-Akhb~r al-Tiw~l. . yet he insisted on sending him back to prison. Some say that he whipped him. “By All~ h he shall not kill you. al-Mukht~ r rose seeking revenge against the killers of al-Husain (– ). so he changed his mind of . But Ibn Ziy~ d postponed carrying out Yaz§d's order for three days. then . he sighed loudly and an exchange of harsh words took place between him and Ibn Ziy~ d wherein the harshest words were al-Mukht~ r's. . author of Riy~d al-Ahz~n. 2. p. . . . O enemy of All~ h and enemy of His Messenger! Rather. al-Khaw~rizmi. Ibn Rastah. then he ordered him to be sent back to jail. p. Vol. 10. so .” Ibn Ziy~ d hurled an iron bar at him that fractured his forehead. . Al-A`l~q al-Nafisa. was Shabth ibn Rab`i who reached him riding a mule whose ears and tail he had cut off and who was wearing A 1 2 al-Qazw§ni. Sharh Nahj al-Bal~gha. causing al-Mukht~ r to denounce and to taunt him to his face saying. Vol. As Ibn Nama al-Hilli tells us.2 After the execution of Ibn `Af§f. “You yourself will rise seeking revenge for al-Husain's blood. blinding one of his eyes. he said to al-Mukht~ r. al-Mukht~ r was released due to the interference of `Abdull~ h son of `Omer ibn al-Khatt~ b who asked Yaz§d to have him released. Praise to All~ h Who dignified al-Husain and his army with . . Bih~r al-Anw~r. . pp. 224. Yaz§d was the husband of al-Mukht~ r's sister. . too. betrayed al-Husain (– )..

mandated upon the Master of Martyrs (– ) to rise in order to close the gates of misguidance in that particular fashion defined by the circumstances. never ceased reciting the Qur’~ n all his life as he taught . He liked any and all deeds that would firm the foundations of this martyrdom whose epic was recorded by al-Husain's pure blood. al-Husain (– ). p. whose hearts were sealed. According to p. so much so that his sacred head kept reciting the Qur’~ n even as it stood atop a spear. oppress. 2:7). Even during his stand in the Battle of Taff. The speech of a severed head is a most eloquent means to drive the argument against those who were blinded by their own desires home. Vol. “Help! Lead us to fight this debauchee who demolished our homes and killed our honourable men!”1 THE SACRED HEAD SPEAKS My heart goes for your head atop a spear Outfitted with its own lights with an attire. Thus were he and his brother (– ). The greatest Prophet (‰ ) had stated that they and the Holy Qur’~ n would never part from one another till they meet him at the Pool of Kawthar. for they were the legacy of the Messenger of All~ h. Through him did they raise the Book even higher. It underscores the fact that his stand was right. perhaps someone among the people would be enlightened with the light of the truth. bringing about shining pages narrating the deeds . to become acquainted with the misguidance of those who deviated from the Straight Path and who played havoc with the Shar§`a. 1 2 al-Tabari. . But this lamp-post of guidance did not see except people whose comprehension was limited. these verses were composed by Sayyid Rida al-Hindi. and over their vision there is a veil” (Qur’~ n. so. as well as the successive generations. This became enshrouded with many extra-ordinary events which most minds could not comprehend. Divine Providence did not do something for the first time when it enabled al-Husain's head to speak in . He had inspired His holiest Prophet (‰ ) to recite this particular page to his son. when he was at home or when travelling. and method. 275 . 36 of Sayyid Muhsin al-Am§n's book Al-Durr al-Nad§d. . Thus was the son of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) energetically marching towards his sacred objective. though surrounded by his foes. . T~r§kh. 7. place. Al-Husain (– ). It drew the nation's attention to the misguidance of those who dared to . and whose ears were deafened: “All~ h sealed their hearts and hearing. 21:23). . This must not surprise anyone who comprehends divine mysteries. Praise to Him. there is no way other than its acceptance and the submission to whatever best pleases the Lord of the Worlds: “He is not asked about what He does. and cultivated others. The Omnipotent and the Exalted One wanted such a sacred uprising to make the nation then. 146. The Lord. He did so for the achievement of certain objectives set by the Great One.2 The martyred grandson of the Prophet (‰ ) remained an ally of the Qur’~ n since his early childhood.a torn outer garment and shouting. of those who rose against abomination. . he used the Qur’~ n to argue with them and to explain his point of view to them. One such strange event was the recitation by the great head of the sacred verses of the Holy Qur’~ n. his vicegerents over his nation. whereas they are asked” (Qur’~ n. therefore. Reciting the Book from the top of the spear. a stand which he never undertook except in obedience to the Lord of the Worlds and to the detriment of those who in any way harmed or oppressed al-Husain (– ).

and do not (O Lord!) increase the unjust in aught but error” (Qur’~ n. the Knowing” (Qur’~ n. 2:137)5. stopped his recitation and turned to the man to say. “Lord! Grant me to look at You!” al-Majlisi. leave them alone. 4. Ibn Abul-Had§d says. According to Ibn al-Ath§r. p. “I was sitting in my room when they passed by. Al-Irsh~d. 5. 2. O son of the Messenger of All~ h! Your head is much more amazing!”2 When the holiest of severed heads was placed at the money changers' section of the bazaar. The same is stated by Ibn Kath§r on p. Sharh Qas§dat Abi Fir~s. the Im~ ms. . therefore. the head was reciting Sã rat al-Kahf. “They are youths who . Hil~ l ibn Mu`~ wiyah has said. Never did people hear a severed head hawking before the martyrdom of alHusain (– ). p. 119.' He. “And those who oppressed shall come to know what an end they shall meet” (Qur’~ n. 18:9). for they shall come to know when the collars are placed around their necks and when they are dragged with chains. there was a great deal of commotion and noise of the dealers and customers. He. Vol. . . Vol. and I heard the head reciting this verse: `Or do you think that the fellows of the cave and the inscription were of Our amazing Signs?' (Qur’~ n. so may All~ h separate between your flesh and bones. therefore. 488. a spear and in front of it stood a man. in the explanation of the verse saying. p. 3 4 5 6 2 1 Ibn Shahr }shãb. People assembled around it looking at the dazzling light that emanated from it as it recited the verse saying. . “I saw al-Husain's head in Damascus atop . raised his whip and kept whipping the head till it ceased. 2. of his book Al-K~mil. `By All~ h. Al-Durr al-Manthãr. Vol. believed in their Lord. 2. and may He make you a Sign for those who shirk from the Straight Path. 8. It then recited Sã rat al-Kahf from its beginning till it reached the verse saying. “O son of Wak§da! There is no way to do that. The head was hung on a tree. are living with our Lord receiving our sustenance?” He. Vol. thus turning all faces to it. where the exit of Moses (–) from . Qasas al-Anbiy~’. 120. so. whereupon he (– ). so he was doubtful whether it was. indeed.”4 Salamah ibn Kah§l heard the head reciting the following verse from the top of the spear where it had been placed: “All~ h shall suffice you for them. . Asr~r al-Shah~da. p. so his severed head hawked quite loudly. p. Sayyid K~zim al-Rashti al-~’iri. 148. Sharh Qas§dat Abi Fir~s. “I saw a man carrying the head of al-Husain (– ) as it [the head] was . . and how can a tree be compared to a severed head in as far as obedience to the most Merciful One. 1. Vol. Ibn Wak§da says that he heard the head reciting Sã rat al-Kahf. indeed. 26:227)3. p.. so he (–) condemned him with blindness. al-Tha`~libi. When the recitation came to the verse al-Sayyãti. Vol. 191. 125. p. 2. who indicates so on p. 276 . Their shedding my blood is greater with All~ h than placing me on a spear. and We increased their guidance” (Qur’~ n. 362. . Midian is detailed. citing Al-Muhaj. and also by al-Maqr§zi on p. Vol. . 18:13) . 148. p. saying. 188. . My hair stood up. . chapter 8. Al-Khas~’is al-Kubra. prophet of All~ h (– ). and He is the Hearing. 71:24). Ibn Ziy~d ordered the head of al-Husain (–) to be paraded throughout Kãfa. 278. became blind till his death.”6 Al-Minh~ l ibn `Amr has said. “O son of Wak§da! Do you not know that we. Praise to Him. “. . the voice of the Im~ m (– ).order to serve the interests the essence of which many fail to comprehend. decided to steal and bury the head. Bih~r al-Anw~r. On p. of Sharh Nahj al-Bal~gha. . of his Khutat. of his book Al-Bid~ya. al-Muf§d. . “Zayd ibn Arqam was one of those who deviated from the line of the Commander of the Faithful Ali (–). `You separated between my head and my body. 288. The Master of Martyrs (– ) wanted to attract the attention to him so that people would listen to his terse admonishment. It was then that the glorious head spoke again to him saying. He was reluctant to testify that the Commander of the Faithful (–) was appointed [by the Prophet] to take charge of the nation after him. is concerned? Zayd ibn Arqam has said. Vol.. and I said. 24. It had enabled a tree1 to speak to Moses son of Imr~ n [Amram].

Oppressed they were as their only protector is tied Some were handcuffed complaining from their pain. And the earth echoes the heavens in its sighs So while one wails. . the other cries? The Wahi held a mourning of its own . p.saying. `Or did you reckon the fellows of the Cave and the Inscription among our amazing Signs?' (Qur’~ n. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim. and the one solaced is Muhammed. Yet the greatest calamity of all Is the suffering of his free ladies' every soul. 127. Vol. At his house. and the other with the sword to pieces sawn. Injustice slit a throat the moon's light does envy And in each of his veins for the truth there is a star And crushed ribs wherein compassion does reside And stopped breathing wherein the Truth is Glorified. al-Bahr~ni. What a martyr whose body did the sun bake? Though from its very origin did its own rays take? And what a slain save one whose body the horses crushed Though from his mention their riders freeze and are hushed. 1 al-Sayyãti. .2 Is it your soul or the soul of Prophethood that does ascend From the earth to Paradise as the hã ris prostrate? Is it your head or the head of the Messenger atop the spear Repeating the ayat of the fellows of the cave? Is it your chest or the reservoir of knowledge and wisdom That crushed a host of the ignorant attempts? Is it your mother or the Mother of the Book that did sigh So her sighing heart did indeed melt. Some martyred and some expelled in the plains full of sorrows. is in his grandson personified? Had those horses. 2 277 . Like his Qur’~ n. the head loudly articulated these words: La hawla wala quwwata illa bill~ h! (There is no power nor might except in All~ h). 18:9). the head spoke in an articulate tongue saying. 2. like their riders. They would have against their riders declared a mutiny Just as they against him revolted and declared. Did you know that Muhammed's very soul. . only come to know That the one under the hooves was in fact Ahmed. . p. . . Al-Khas~’is.’”1 When Yaz§d ordered the killing of a messenger sent by the then Roman [Byzantine] emperor who resented what Yaz§d had committed. Seeing the Two Weighty Things: One to pieces torn With arrows. 151. . `More amazing than the fellows of the cave is killing me and thus transporting me. So his `Itrat some killed by the sword and some by the arrows.

. he was very . “Had F~ tima (– ) been alive. 1 2 Excerpted from a poem by Sayyid S~lih son of the `all~ma Sayyid Mehdi Bahr al-`Ulãm. He ordered the man to rush and to buy another she-camel if the one he was riding was not fast enough. . . He. but what else can we do to a man who drew his sword with the intention to kill us other than to put an end to the danger to which he exposed us?” `Abdull~ h ibn al-S~ ’ib stood up and said to him. Nafs al-Mahmãm. nobody could tolerate his ire. He maliciously added saying. Ibn Ziy~ d wanted to send `Abd al-M~ lik ibn al-H~ rith al-Sal~ mi to Med§na in order to inform `Amr . Ibn Abul-Had§d. Vol. therefore. “I have heard the Messenger of All~h. just as it was his habit. happily excited and was subdued with elation.” A number of men from the Ans~ r rebuked him with shame for having made such a statement. `One of the tyrants of Banã Umayyah shall have a nosebleed on my pulpit. 4 278 . cut off his ties with us though we did not. and a crushing for a crushing! A sermon followed another! This is sound wisdom.1 OPPRESSION OF AL-ASHDAQ I bn Jar§r [al-Tabari] narrates the following: . his other book titled Al-Saw~`iq al-Muhriqa. 1. his mother was our daughter. 240. and just as it was ours. claiming to be sick. Husain's [severed] head.” `Amr ibn Sa`§d rebuked him and said. saying.”3 Then he turned to the grave of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) and again maliciously said. He ordered a caller to announce it in the city's alleys. but he sought to be excused of such an undertaking. Sharh Nahjul Bal~gha. According to p. . and not to let anyone reach the destination before him. As if said to his people the Messenger of Oneness: Seek revenge against my `Itrat and with cruelty oppress. and before long. T~r§kh. . `The answer rests with the governor.' was his answer. 222. Messenger of All~ h. she would have wept for him. Shaikh `Abb~s al-Qummi. And had F~ tima been alive. He condemned us as we praised him. . so no nathr can do any good. rushed to Med§na. 368. . Ibn Ziy~ d was described as very heavy-handed. worthy of F~ tima than you: Her father was our uncle. have a nosebleed as he was on the pulpit of the Messenger of All~h (‰). . she would have cried but would not have blamed those who killed him in self . When Ibn Sa`§d was informed of al-Husain (– ) having been killed. Abu Hurayra is quoted as saying. Al-Ashdaq refused to accept his excuse. . p. 3 al-Tabari. . peace of All~h . of Ibn Hajar al-Haythami al-`Asqal~ni's book Mujma` al-Zaw~’id. Vol. Noisy with grief were the women of Banã Ziy~ d As noisy as our women on the Rabbit Day. “O people! It is a blow for a blow. “Now we have gotten even with you. indeed. “A wailing noise like the one we raised when `Uthm~ n was killed. and his blood will flow thereupon. “We are more . 6. 5. staining it with his blood.While other ladies were being slapped and in chain. the cries and the wailing coming from the H~ shemite ladies mourning the Master of the Youths of Paradise (– ) were heard like never before. A man from Quraish met him and asked him why he seemed to be in such a hurry. and also according to p.4 . her husband was our brother. ibn Sa`§d al-Ashdaq2 of the killing of al-Husain (– ). He ascended the pulpit and said. be upon him and his progeny. p. Those cries reached all the way to the house of al-Ashdaq who laughed and quoted a verse of poetry composed by `Amr ibn Ma`di-Karb saying. Vol. p. for what you did to us during the Battle of Badr. 361.’” `Amr ibn Sa`§d did. and had she seen al. 141 of .

The whipping caused his death. He did. p. He also demolished the home of Ibn Mut§` and beat people with cruelty. so `Abdull~h ordered everyone who had suffered an injustice at his hand to whip him. Maqtal al-`Aw~lim.. That was not my reward for having advised you 1 2 `Abdull~h Nãr-All~h al-Bahr~ni. 23. after al-Husain (– ) had been killed. Vol. On p. p. . They fled from him and went to [`Abdull~ h] Ibn al-Zubayr3. kept mourning al-Husain . Zainab. According to p. 55. 2. . All~ h. since you are the last of nations. . Abdull~h's army captured `Amr ibn al-Zubayr. 155. burst in tears then turned to the Muh~ jirã n and the Ans~ r and came forth instantaneously with these verses: . p. Al-}m~li. Vol.? You handed it over to those who are never fair So your intercession with All~ h will go nowhere. of his book Al-Man~qib.. Escorted by a number of women from her kinsfolk.. Her sister. punished him [in this life before the hereafter] in the worst manner. p. 231. al-Mirzabani. 227.defense. of al-Bal~thiri's book Ans~b al-Ashr~f. 131. Al-Agh~ni. the mother of `Amr ibn al-Zubayr was Ama daughter of Kh~lid ibn Sa`§d ibn al-}s. What will you on the Judgment Day To the Prophet stand and say? Surely what you will hear will be true: Those who betrayed his Progeny were you. He was carried to `Abd al-Malik ibn Marw~ n in chains. Were you present. There was no such weeping ever before6. 279 . p. he was ordered to be killed5. the grave of the Prophet (‰ ) where she threw herself on it. once he had profusely remonstrated with the latter. Abu Hil~l al-`Askari. You saw all those who did die So to All~ h you shall never come nigh. to demolish all the houses of Banã . With my Progeny and family after my demise? Some of them were taken captives and some in blood stained. the daughter of `Aq§l ibn Abu T~ lib went out to visit .Tãsi. Mu`jam al-Shu`ar~’.”1 `Amr was very crude and uncouth. Shaikh al. Vol. those verses. The reason why he was called “al-Ashdaq” [one whose jaws are twisted to the right or to the left] is due to the fact that his jaws were twisted after having gone to extremes in taunting Im~ m Ali ibn Abu T~ lib (– )4. 3 4 5 6 Abul-Faraj al-Isfah~ni. persecuting them beyond limits. All those present wept. a man of legendary cruelty. Her father was in command of an army which `Amr ibn Sa`§d al-Ashdaq dispatched to Mecca to fight `Abdull~h ibn al-Zubayr. Jamharat al-Amth~l. Though on the Taff Day absent was he. head of the police force. 4. He ordered `Amr ibn al-Zubayr ibn alAwwam2. Yet all the dead did your very eyes see.. Ibn Shahr }shãb says it was Asm~’ who had composed . 4. therefore. or were you not there at all And justice is combined in the Lord of all. H~ shim [the Prophet's clansmen]. . 9 (Indian edition). (– ) in the most somber manner while repeating these verses: What will you say when the Prophet to you will say: How did you fare.

. . 268. . People would assemble to listen to her. which is attributed to al-Akhfash. . and she would . all Praise to Him. Juhni citing Mu`~ wiyah ibn `Ammar citing Ja`fer saying that Umm al-Baneen was the mother of four brothers who were all killed.1 UMM AL-BANEEN2 I could not find any reliable reference clearly stating that Umm al-Baneen was alive during the Battle of Taff. in his book Sharh al-K~ mil. hence it cannot be regarded as a second independent opinion. 6. . The second statement is clearly a quotation of what Abul-Faraj has written. . 2. Vol. Marw~ n used to go among those who went there. but he quotes only two lines.” __ Tr. On p. 1. on p. 60 of his book Riy~ d al-Ahz~ n. so. . of his encyclopedia Bih~ r al-Anw~ r. As to the text in Sharh al-K~ mil. carry his son `Abdull~ h. it is stated that. with silence. of his T~r§kh. on p. They would all weep for the grief in her mourning. But the first quotation contains . and that he built his tale around them. 201. The people of Med§na used to assemble and listen to her eulogies. Vol. and so does Abul-Rayh~n al-Birãni who states so on p. Vol. Vol. 31 of the second edition of al-Sam~ wi's book Ibs~ r al-`Ay~ n. of al-Khaw~rizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain. and there are three theories refuting anyone's claim to the contrary: FIRST: `All~ ma Muhammed Hasan al-Qazw§ni says on p. Among them was Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam. . Such is the case with alMajlisi who quotes Abul-Faraj on p. “I find my heart pouring out for the eulogy of his mother F~ tima. “The mourning of . THIRD: Abul-Faraj [al-Isfah~ ni] in his book Muq~ til al-T~ libiyy§n says the following when he discusses how . The same is stated by Ibn . I even told him frankly that the verses of poetry in it must be his own. but he always met me . Faraj with regard to this incident is faulty due to the following: 1 These verses verbatim are recorded on p. There is no clue in it to her being present there and then. and . The narrative by Abul. 329 of his book Al-}th~r al-B~qiya. 36. biographer referring to it.” This is all I could find indicating that she was alive during the Battle of Taff. .” . no proof. but the latter concedes that they were by [Zainab] the daughter of `Aq§l ibn Abu T~lib. “Umm al-baneen” literally means: “mother of the sons. 51 of Ibn Nama's book Muth§r al-Ahz~n. .That you should succeed me in faring ill with my family. and it is no more than a tale recorded by Abul-Faraj which he accepted without conducting the least amount of investigation regarding its authenticity. Al-Sam~ wi's Ibs~ r al-`Ay~ n contains pretty much what is included in Muq~ til al-T~ libiyy§n. Umm al-Baneen. I personally quite often asked him about the source of the said Sharh. of his book `Uyãn al. Jar§r [al-Tabari] on p. he listened to her mourning. which was recited by Abul-Hasan al-Akhfash .” SECOND: On p. 4. She used to go out to al-Baq§` to mourn the death of her sons in the most sad of tones and the most burning to the hearts.” Such was called any bondmaid who was freed after giving birth to a son by her master and who remained in her husband/master's custody thereafter as his wife. . his reward will nevertheless be with the Almighty. She used to go to al-Baq§` [cemetery] daily in order to mourn him. of Ibn al-Ath§r's book Al-T~r§kh al-K~mil. al-`Abb~ s was killed: “It is reported from Muhammed ibn Ali ibn Hamzah who quotes Hamm~ d ibn `Eisa al. although I examined the biographies of everyone named “al-Akhfash. 76. all it says is that the mourning was held at the house of Umm al-Baneen. wife of the Commander of the Faithful (– ) and mother of al-`Abb~ s and his brothers. I could not find even one single . on p. that tragedy was held at the house of Umm al-Baneen. 96 of Ibn T~wãs's book Al-Luhãf. says that there is a disagreement among the scholars about these verses. Vol. Akhb~r. 212. Ibn Qutaybah. It carries the same meaning as “umm wuld. 10. 2 280 .” As regarding shaikh al-Sam~ wi. . it is stated that they were by Zainab daughter of `Aq§l ibn Abu T~lib.

2. for weeping . Tahth§b al-Tahth§b where Ahmed is quoted as saying that the man has much to be criticized for. The following is recorded on p. whoever grows up at their homes and learns their ethics does not deviate from their path. As regarding the truthful lady. al-Zahr~ ’ (– ). obliteration of the divine counsels. verses: 1 Sayyid H~shim al-Bahr~ni. Such is the case in all generations. Vol. Abu H~ tim has said. Mad§nat al-Ma`~jiz.2 Historians never say that people used .H. and it is the one called Bayt al-Ahz~n. 93 of Al-Ish~r~t li Ma`rifat al-Ziy~r~t. p. edition of al-Samhãdi's book Waf~’ al-Waf~’. 191 of the first 1310 A. Nobody pays attention to the men upon whom he relies for his isn~ d. 214. Med§na's elders forced her to go out to the Baq§` cemetery to mourn her father (‰ ). Vol. of Ibn Hajar's book . Nobody has written saying that a woman went out to a cemetery to mourn her dear one who is buried somewhere else. had§th 86. . hence the tears pour down from his eyes when he weeps.” . masjid of F~tima (–) daughter of the Messenger of All~h (‰) at the Baq§`. 328. so much so that what she learned lifted her to the highest degrees of conviction.D. and the ./1893 A. It does not fit the daughters of the Messenger of All~ h (‰ ) to go out and [noisily] slam the door behind them. . It goes without saying that when a woman mourns someone she has lost. of Ibn Hajar’s book titled Tahth§b al-Tahth§b. . 103. Egyptian . says that Ali (–) built a shed of palm leaves in the [then] outskirts of Med§na for al-Zahr~’ (–) to m ourn her father (‰).H. the cessation of the heavens' wahi. so his heart gets excited and the emotion overflows. “Bayt al-Ahz~n at the Baq§` belongs to F~tima (–). it is stated that prayers are offered at the . .. She could not have said anything contradictory to the canon of the Shar§`a which prohibits a woman from being exposed in any way to strangers either through prohibition or as a precaution so long as there was no extreme necessity for it. The claim made by Abul-Faraj that Umm al-Baneen used to go to al-Baq§` cemetery is an evident fabrication since there is no proof for it. saying. Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam was the one who rejoiced at the killing of al-Husain (– ). Yaz§d ibn al-Mugh§rah ibn Nawfal ibn al-H~ rith ibn `Abd al-Muttalib ibn H~ shim al-Nawfali is mentioned on p. and he demonstrated his elation . where the author. “His traditions are very bad.” Al-Nass~ ’i says that the traditions he narrates should be discarded. is a sign of grief caused by oppression inflicted upon a dear deceased person to whom one is linked by a certain tie. Vol. 10. .”1 So. 347. Umm al-Baneen quotes a great deal of spiritual knowledge and prophetic ethics from the master of wasss as . so the Commander of the Faithful (– ) built her a shed of palm leaves to shield her from the strangers.D. once said to Abu Kh~ lid al-Kabuli who expressed his astonishment at finding the Im~ m's door open. On p. saying that his traditions are not to be used as arguments. of Fath al-Qad§r by Ibn Hum~m al-Hanafi. besides. 2. 3.1. Abu Zar`ah . . . says. “Near al-Abb~s's dome is Bayt al-Ahz~n to which F~tima (–) used to retire after . on p. of the 1316 A. she ought to sit in her house and fortify herself against being seen by strangers or her voice being heard by them as long as there was no urgency for it.” On p. A woman mourns her lost one at the cemetery where he is buried. describes his traditions as weak and that most of what he narrates is not known to others. he is not well known [to other scholars of traditions]./1899 A. 2. Vol. Mu`~ wiyah ibn `Amm~ r ibn Abu Mu`~ wiyah cites Abu H~ tim . Al-Sajj~ d (– ). well as from the Masters of the Youths of Paradise (– ). . “O Abu Kh~ lid! One of our neighbours has just left our house and was not aware of the door not shutting properly. 318. Abu M uhsin Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Harawi. There is no room to charge Umm al-Baneen of having crossed the divine boundaries legislated by the Shar§`a for women. . and happiness about such a calamity when he looked at al-Husain's head then instantly came forth with these .” Ibn Jubayr is quoted on p. to go there to hear her mourn the setting of the sun of Prophethood. 2 281 . and she spent her grieving time there. . the demise of her father (‰). edition of his book Hamish al-`Ulãm. His objective was to say that Marw~ n ibn al-Hakam was kind of heart. a shed which he called “bayt al-ahz~ n” (the house of griefs).” Al-Khaw~rizm i. 11.

`Uthm~ n. 282 . priority in as far as inheritance is concerned over his half-brother. “This is what we got from al-Husain!” He hurled his sandal at him as he said. The dispute attributed to him was true. and al-`Abb~ s inherited his son `Ubaydull~ h.” Such narrative agrees with what Mis`ab ibn al-Zubayr has recorded on p. so al-`Abb~ s inherited them. uncles to `Ubaydull~ h whereas `Omer did not till someone mediated. “I am the wise man who did not go out to fight. . because al-`Abb~ s was related through both his father and mother to his brothers who had by then been martyred. Day. said to him. . `Omer al-Atraf did not understand the problem although he was the son of Ali (– ). “Praise to All~ h! It surely is very heavy on my heart to I 1 His name as stated on p. she would have inherited the wealth that belonged to al-`Abb~ s's brothers.