FOOD DIGESTION PROCESS IN HUMAN!

IN THE MOUTH (a)
   

Salivary amylase start the hydrolysis of starch into maltose Chewed food rolled into form of bolus. Bolus moves down oesophagus by peristalsis. When cardium sphincter relaxes food enter the stomach.

IN THE STOMACH (pere)
  

The digestion of protein starts, change to polypeptides by enzyme pepsin. Casein change to caseinogen by enzyme rennin. Hidrochloric acid create acidic condition & kill bacteria & stop the activity of salyvary amilase. The semi fluid content called chyme enter duodenum when the piloric spincter relaxes.

IN THE DUODENUM (ALITRI)

   

Starch that not hydrolyze in mouth is hydrolyze here to maltose by enzyme amylase. Emulsifications of lipid (breaking up fats into small droplet) by help of salt which reduce the surfaces tension of fat. Lipase will hydrolyze lipid to fatty acid & glycerols Trypsin will hydrolyze polypeptides to peptides.

IN THE ILEUM ( MALASULIEREP)
    

Maltose is hydrolyze to gucose ,enzyme maltase Lactose is hydrolyze to gucose & galactose ,enzyme lactase Sucrose is hydrolyze to gucose & fructose,enzyme sucrase Lipid is hydrolyze to fatty acids & glycerols ,enzyme lipase Peptides is hydrolyze to amino acids ,enzyme erepsin

IN THE COLON

Only absorbtion of water take place.

ADAPTATION DIGESTIVE SYSTEM FOR RODENT & RUMINANT RUMINANTS
Stomach

RODENTS
One

is made up of four

chamber
Food

stomach only with no division of chambers
Faeces

is digested twice by regurgitating and rechewing before swallowed again
Caecum

are eaten twice for second round of digestion
Posses

& appendix are

a large caecum and

absent
Cellulose

appendix
Cellulose

is digested in the rumen & reticulum
Microorganism

is digested in the caecum and appendix
Microorganism

are found in rumen and reticulum

are found in caecum & appendix

THE DIFFERENCE OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BETWEEN HUMAN ,RUMINANTS & RODENTS
HUMAN
Stomach

RUMINANTS
has one is short
Stomach

RODENTS
Stomachhas

has 4 is short

1

chamber
Caecum Cannot

chambers
Caecum Digest

chamber
Caecum Digest

is long

digest

cellulose
No

cellulose in rumen & reticulum
Bacteria

cellulose in

caecum
Bacteria

enzyme cellulase
The

& protozoa in rumen & reiculum secretes cellulase
The

& protozoa in caecum secretes cellulase
Food

food goes through the alimentary canal once

food first goes into rumen, reticulum then return to mouth to be chew again. Then swallowed into omasum

goes into alimentary canal twice. Rodents eats back the partially digested food after pass it.

PROBLEMS WITH FOOD DIGESTION…
INCOMPLETE DIGESTION

Excessive intake of food and oily food cause severe pain in the stomach, nausea, vomitting & bloated stomach.

REDUCED PRODUCTION OF ENZYME

Difficulty in digestion lactose in adult, damage of pancreas will reduce of amylase, trypsin & lipase enzyme.

FORMATION OF GALLSTONE

Excessive intake of fatty food cause gallstone that block the bile duct , preventing bile to be channeled out. As a result lipids cannot be emulsified.

ASSIMILATION OF DIGESTED FOOD

The product of digestion are brought directly to liver. The liver control the amount of nutrients released into the blood circulatory system. Assimilation takes place in the cells where the nutrients are use to form complex compound.

FUNCTION OF LIVER

    

Influence of insulin & glucagon hormone to regulate blood glucose level. Manufacture of fibrinogen, prothrombin & bile. Detoxification of alcohol,drugs & toxins Deamination of amino acids. Storage of Vit A & D, B12, ferum, copper & potassium. Produce heat.

ASSIMILATION PROCESS IN LIVER
AMINO ACIDS
Excess

GLUCOSE
Excess

amino acids cannot be stored & broken down into urea by deamination process.
If

glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver by help of insulin hormone.
When

lack supply of glucose, liver converts amino acids into glucose

the blood sugar level falls, glucagon hormone converted back to glycogen to glucose
Glucose

Plasma

protein can be synthesized from amino acids for blood clotting & osmoregulation.

in the liver is used for cellular respiration to form energy.

ASSIMILATION PROCESS IN THE CELLS
AMINO ACIDS
Use for synthesis of new protoplasm and repair of damage tissues.
 

GLUCOSE

LIPIDS

Phospholipid & Are oxidize to released energy during cholesterol are major cellular respiration. components of plasma membrane.

Important as building blocks for synthesize enzyme and hormone

Energy is required for chemical processes in the cell.  eg; muscle contaction & synthesis protein.

Excess

fats are stored in adipose tissue underneath skin. When body lack glucose fats are oxidized to release energy.

POOR EATING HABITS
Gastritis

If food not taken at regular times, the absence of food in the stomach will result in the acidic gastric juice acting on the epithelial lining of the stomach wall then becomes inflames. Inflamation and damage to the stomach lining can also cause by excessive alcohol consumption, stress & taking pain relievers regularly. Treatment involves taking medication such as antacids: sodium bicarbonate & magnesium hydroxide which can neutralize the HCL yhe gastirc juice

HOW TO CHOOSE FOOD
When choosing food, we must consider the:
  

Nutritional contents of food, avoid oily food. Freshness of food Presence of food additives such food flavouring, colouring & preservatives should be avoided.

* OUR GENERAL HEALTH DEPEND TO LARGE EXTENT ON A HEALTHY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The end…
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