HUMAN LOCOMOTION & MOVEMENT

JOINTS
• Is the place where bones meet & are held together by ligaments. HINGE JOINT • Found in elbows & phalanges of the toes & fingers • Allow the lower leg to swing back & forth • Allow the movement of bones in one plate

HINGE JOINT

ELBOW

BALL-AND-SOCKET JOINT • Allow the bones to rotate in all direction • Allow the swinging of arms and legs in a circular motion • Eg.shoulder joint-between humerus & pectoral girdle • Hip joint-between femur & pelvic girdle

HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB…?

BENDING THE FOREARM ( FOR ARM RAISED )
• Biceps contract-at the same time, triceps relaxes • As the result-elbow joint bends, and the forearm moves upwards

STRAIGHTENING THE FOREARM ( FOREARM LOWERED )
• Triceps contracts-biceps relaxes-and the forearm is straightened

MUSCLE INVOLVED IN WALKING
• The calf muscle contracts and raises the heel-it pushes the ball of the foot against the ground by exerting a forward thrust • The hamstring muscle contract to pull the femur back and bend the knee. The leg is raised • The weight of the body is now supported by the left leg since the right foot loses contact with the ground • The quadriceps muscle will contract, pull the femur forward and extends the leg-the thigh is extended • After the extension of the legs, the foot with the heel touching the ground first will regain contact with the ground again • The weight of the body is supported by the right leg. Now the whole sequence is repeated with the left leg

WALKING