BIODIVERSITY

The diverse species of plants & animals interacting with one another on earth CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM.

MONERA
•Prokaryote orgs, Unicellular has cell walls •No membrane bound •Typical shape: rod, round, spiral • Eg: Cyanobacteria.

PROTISTA
•Unicellular, algae, protozoa •Membrane bound nuclei & organelles •Autotroph & heterotroph •Eg: Spirogyra sp, Amoeba sp. Paramecium sp.

KINGDOM ANIMALIA
Multicellular & heterotroph Eukaryotes Well develop tissue

•All land plant •Multicellular •Autotrophic •Has cellulose walls

PLANTAE

FUNGI
•Multicellular eukaryotes •Saprophytic , has hyphae •No chlorophyll •Eg: yeast, mucor, Mushroom

HIERARCHY IN CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM Living organism are classified into seven hierarchy levels according to their basic characteristic..
KINGDOM PHYLUM Eg: Animalia Plantae

Eg: Chordata

Trachaeophyta

CLASS ORDERS FAMILY GENUS

Eg: Mammalia Eg: Primates Eg: Homonidae Eg: Homo

Angiospermae Glumnifloflorae Maydeae Zea

SPECIES

Eg: sapiens

may

TYPES OF MIC ROO RG ANIS M.
BACTERIA FUNGI

MICROORGANISM ALGAE PROTOZOA

VIRUSSES

THE ROLE OF USEFUL MICROORGANISM
1. NITROGEN CYCLE •Allows nitrogen to be utilized by organism & return to physical environment. •Nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Nostoc sp. & Rhizobium sp. will convert nitrogen from atmosferic to ammonium through nitrogen fixation process. •Plants absorb nitrogen in form of ammonium & nitrate then convert to plant protien. •When animals eats plants the organic nitrogen is transfer into their body. •When they die decompose bacteria change them into ammonium . •Ammonium compounds are converted into nitrites by Nitrosomonas sp.through nitrification process. •Nitrites convert into nitrates by Nitrobacter sp by nitryfying process •Nitrates will break down to nitrogen back to atmospere by denitryfying process.

2. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN HUMANS •Symbiotic bacteria in human colon synthesis vitamin B 12 & Vit K. •Deficiency in vitamin B 12 lead to anemia •Lack of Vit K slow down the blood clotting process 3. ALIMENTARY CANALS OF TERMITES •Termites feed on wood which contain cellulase but they do not have cellulase enzyme. •Trichonympha sp. Is mutualistic protozoa present in alimentary canal of termites & secrete cellulase. 4. DECOMPOSITION Carried out by saprophytic bacteria & fungi called decomposers Secretes enzyme that break down complex organic into simple inorganic it can reduce pollution cauce it turns to water, minerals & CO2 Maintain life on earth by recycling & release nutrients into soil.

THE EFFECT OF HARMFUL MICROORGANISM
Food & Water. •Microorganism enter digestive systenm through contaminated food & water, unwashed hands & faeces of infected people. •Eg: Cholera (b), Hepatitis A(v) HOW THE DISEASES SPREAD Airborne & Droplet Transmission •Method where pathogens change into spores then transmit by air. •Liquid droplet of infected people enter other people respiratory sys. •Eg: flu, viral fever, Vectors •Malaria is caused by Plasmodium sp. transmit by mosquitoes Anopheles •Houseflies can cause food poisoning . Direct Contact •Infected person by sharing personal item such as towel, unprotected sex Eg: ,Ringworm (f), AIDs

VACCINES Dead or weaked bacteria or viruses is inoculated into body to induce antibodies Eg: BCG

ANTIBIOTICS •Penicillin & streptomycin are •Produced by microogrs which inhibit the growth or kill other microogs esp. bacteria

METHODS OF CONTROLLING PATHOGENS

ANTISEPTICS •Used on cuts & wounds to kill & inhibit growth of microorgs. • Eg: iodine solution

DISINFECTANTS •Solutions used to sterilize surgical equipment, kill microorgs on the floor •Eg: phenol, farmaldehyde

MICROORGANISM USE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
1. Production of antibiotics, vaccines & hormone.
Eg: Sabine vaccine used to treat poliomyelitis Modified bacteria used to produced insulin hormone

2. Cleaning of oil spills.
Genetically eng. Bacteria are used to clean the oil spills These bacteria convert the oil into less harmful molecules which are environment friendly

3. Waste Treatment
Sewage from household & industries Aerobic bacteria in the sewage decompose organic matter at treatment plants. Anaerobic bacteria continue decompose the organic matter to methane & carbon dioxide. The digested sludge is rich in nitrates & phosphates is dried to be used as fertillizers

4. Food Processing.
Fermentation by yeast in bread making produces CO2 which helps the dough to rise. Beer is brewed from barley grains. Wine is made by fermentation of grape juices, ethanol & CO2 are realeased. Yoghurt is made from fermentation of milk by using bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus which convert sugar into lactic acid. Cheese is made by mixing Streptococcus with the enzyme rennin.

5. Production of Biodegradable Plastic (bioplastic)
Bioplastic can be broken down into inorganic compound by bacteria. Bioplastic is produced by culturing bacteria such as Erwina sp in glucose. The bacteria react by producing plastic as a storage component in their cells Bioplastic is to used to make credit card, bottles, medical gums.

6. Production of Energy from Biomass Two sources of energy that are generated through the activities of microorganism are biogas & gasohol. Biogas is a gas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter or waste in a bioreactor Gasohol or biofuel is a combination of 10% ethanol & 99% petrol. Sugar cane & maize are the main sources of gasohol. The cane or maize is crushed & sucrose is extracted to form a syrup , the fermentation of this syrup by yeast will produce ethanol.

IN TE RSP ECIF IC COMPE TITIO N