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Marine Sanctuaries” The research question that will be addressed in this planned proposal is how can geographical information systems (GIS) analysis assist in the discovery, preservation and conservation of submerged cultural resources; and how can GIS analysis and conservation methods be applied to real world research to support the Mission of the NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuaries? There are three major contexts that will be applied to support this planned research proposals aims and objectives. The first context will be the in depth study of nautical archaeology as a doctoral candidate. The courses that will be completed through a program of study will emphasis the importance of technical understanding of wooden, iron and steel ship construction technologies and methods; maritime history and culture; ideology; methods of in situ preservation and conversation of organic and inorganic materials and artifacts for future use in research and study; or for interpretive programs aimed at public understanding; and finally, the various methods use to record and analyze the remains of maritime activities in our oceans, seas, lakes and rivers (Texas A&M University [TAMU], 2010). The second context of this proposal addresses how GIS analysis can promote he National Marine Sanctuaries Mission to “serve as the trustee for the nation’s system of marine protected areas, to conserve, protect, and enhance their biodiversity, ecological integrity and cultural legacy” (National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA], 2010a). While this is the overall mission of the NMS, each of the thirteen sanctuaries also have their own uniquely individual mission statement that focuses on each of the sanctuaries unique natural and cultural. While the scientific methods and applications of this research will be used to promote the mission of all the NMS they can also span beyond the boundaries of NOAA’s NMS to all the oceans, seas, lakes and rivers around the world. This is helpful for collaborative research work NOAA conducts with other governments and agencies around the globe, which promotes awareness and understanding of out maritime heritage. There are several National Marine Sanctuaries that are of particular interest to me for the actual field research and the application GIS analysis and underwater mapping technology for the purpose of cultural resource management (CRM). The NMS’s that are of particular interest to me for this proposed research are also the NMS’s that have a strong Maritime Heritage Program. The MHP was “created in 2002 and focuses on maritime heritage resources within the sanctuary system and promotes maritime heritage appreciation” (NOAA, 2010a). This proposed research plan will directly support the MHP’s mission. Through the continued study of nautical archaeology with a focus in GIS analysis and artifact conservation for cultural resource management of submerged resources, this plan
could be used to identify and spatially reference previously undocumented submerged cultural resources. The use of GIS analysis and remote sensing can also be used to monitor the submerged resources already identified to determine the best methodologies for in situ preservation of these submerged cultural resources. The application of conservational methods for archaeological materials would also be of great use for understanding how to handle artifacts that must be removed from their submerged environment. By determining through scientific methods how long archaeological remains will survive in situ based on the material these remains are constructed of; or the biological, physical, ad chemical parameters relevant to their current environment, a course of action can be implemented or improved for conserving and managing these submerged cultural resources (Harrison, 2006). Previously conducted research for my master’s thesis addressed some of these pressing issues that directly impact NOAA’s mission to protect and conserve cultural and archaeological resources: such as the effects of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content; water movement and purity; bottom-type analysis; corrosion products and marine concretions. This research plan would elaborate on these issues and evaluate the impact of each on submerged cultural resources within NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuaries and Monument (McCarthy, 2000). While it is possible for all of the National Marine Sanctuaries to benefit from the proposed research theories for the application of GIS analysis, remote sensing, and archaeological conservation practices, I have enumerated below, seven of the thirteen NMS’s and the one National Marine Monument that I would like to most likely conduct my field survey work and research in. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (CINMS) encompasses over 1,252 square nautical miles and contains two known historical shipwrecks within the NMS boundaries (NOAA, 2010b). The CINMS mission is to protect and preserve the “submerged remains of the past that occupy the bottomland of the sanctuary.” The main method for finding these submerged sites and remains is through the use of remote sensing and GIS spatial analysis. By developing a strong skill set in the methodologies and applications of various remote sensing technologies and geographic system analysis, it could be possible to identify additional submerged cultural resources within the National Marine Sanctuaries. This would promote the protection and preservation of these submerged resources. It would also enhance the NMS philosophy to promote maritime heritage appreciation. Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary (TBNMS) currently protects over 200 shipwrecks in Lake Huron and currently has a list of at least 65 other possible shipwrecks within the sanctuary that have not been located (NOAA, 2009). GIS analysis and remote sensing along with other technologies such as ROV’s or AUV’s would most likely be the methods of discovery of these shipwrecks (Wiseman & El-Baz, Eds., 2007) This proposed research plan would focus on using GIS and remote sensing along with numerous other analytical research methodologies and technologies to locate these
shipwrecks. The two Dr. Nancy Foster funded NOAA research collaborations could be used for this purpose. The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale NMS contains at least 146 known losses of ships dating back to 1824 (NOAA, 2000). The application GIS analysis and spatial data referencing of these submerged cultural resources would be beneficial for the long term implementation of a Submerged Cultural Resource Management Plan and also take into consideration the Natural Resource Management Plan and create a symbiotic Resource Management Plan that truly addresses the National Marine Sanctuaries Mission (Ormsby, Napoleon, Burke, Groessl & Feaster, 2004). Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, and The Stellwagen Bank NMS all have localized missions for their area and resources and the research presenting in this proposal could continue to assist in the Maritime Heritage Programs focus(NOAA, 2010c). One of the potentially greatest areas for the application of this planned research is The Papah!naumoku!kea Marine National Monument, which was recently created by Presidential proclamation on June 15, 2006. With over 139,797 square miles (105,564 square nautical miles) of Pacific Ocean, Papah!naumoku!kea Marine National Monument is ideal for the application of remote sensing and GIS spatial data analysis for the implementation of a maritime heritage program and the protection of submerged cultural resources (NOAA, 2010d). The final context of this planned research has already been discussed throughout the proposal: the application of artifact conservation. In addition to earning a certificate in GIS (which I have nearly completed at San Diego Mesa College) I will also pursue a certificate in conservation methods. This skill set can be applied for in situ preservation or the laboratory research and analysis. Nautical archaeology is a discipline that requires numerous skill sets for real world application and understanding (Broadwater, Kikiloi, Lawrence, Lusardi, Marx, Oliveria, Taomia, Terrell, & Tilburg, 2007). By conducting research that applies discovery techniques through the application of GIS analysis and the methods of artifact conservation, this planned research encompasses the full spectrum of a real world project and is quite appropriate for a doctoral research proposal. The longterm benefit both to my growth as a nautical archaeologist, and to the mission of NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuaries is an opportunity I look forward to. It is my mission to apply the knowledge and skill sets obtained through this research to support NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuaries mission, and specifically to address the mission of the Maritime Heritage Program, which is of grave importance for preserving the history, cultural and archaeological resources of our maritime heritage.
Broadwater, J., Kikiloi, K., Lawrence, M., Lusardi, W., Marx, D., Oliveria, J., Taomia, J., Terrell, B. G., & Tilburg, H.V. (2007). Fathoming our past: Historical contexts of the National Marine Sanctuaries, B.G. Terrell (Ed.). Silver Spring, MD: NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program. Harrison, J. (2006). The S.S. Carnatic: A historical and archaeological analysis of potential underwater cultural heritage of a 19th century steam powered screw propelled ship. (Master’s dissertation, University of Bristol, 2006). McCarthy, M. (2000). Iron and steamship archaeology, success and failure on the SS Xantho. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Plenum. National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2010a January 11). National Marine Sanctuaries. Retrieved from: http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/welcome.html National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2010b February 16). Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Retrieved from: http://channelislands.noaa.gov /welcome.html National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2010c February 1). Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Retrieved from: http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/ National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2010d January 22). Papah!naumoku!kea Marine National Monument Retrieved from: http://papahanaumokuakea.gov/ National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2000 January 1). Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Retrieved from: National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration [NOAA] (2000 January 1). Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Retrieved from: http://hawaiihumpbackwhale.noaa.gov/ Ormsby, T., Napoleon, E., Burke, R., Groessl, C., & Feaster, L. (2004). Getting to know ArcGIS desktop. Redlands, CA; ESRI Press. Texas A&M University [TAMU], Center for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation [CMAC] (2010, January 13). Artifact conservation and underwater mapping technology. Retrieved from http://nautarch.tamu.edu/cmac/ Wiseman, J., & El-Baz, F. (Eds.). (2007). Remote sensing in archaeology. Boston, MA: Springer.
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