Managing Efficiency, Processes & Productivity

Chris Jarvis



Work Study 

generic term for management services and
system engineering techniques, used to investigate 

methods of performing work (method study) 


improve its efficiency and economy the time taken to do it (work measurement) with a view to rationalization, routinisation, utilisation, cost and incentive improvement 

the worker-work system-technology relationship:

how this is best designed and improved (ergonomics and the human-machine-information interfaces)

Chris Jarvis




a measure of performance.  broadly a ratio of output to input, i.e. comparing amount produced (output) with resources used (input)  materials, machinery, labour, capital, energy --- a combination  What improvements have there been over the last 50 years

How do we evaluate productivity levels and identify areas
for improvement?
Chris Jarvis 


construction productivity payroll processing Car servicing banking


objectives and procedures  Method Study approaches and tools of Method Analyst  Work Measurement and calculating times for Jobs      Flow Diagrams & Process Charts etc Critical questioning techniques Defining job elements & calculating performance rating and standard/basic times Determining allowances: fatigue.mg2066 A work study curriculum . unavoidable & avoidable delays.1  historical development & commitments of Work Study  basic concepts. extra allowances  various incentive plans Chris Jarvis 4 .

backs. preventing accidents use of visual displays for dynamic information Designing for: lighting systems. vibration etc data capture and processing design of the user interface  Ergonomics & human-machine-environment interfaces  Systems analysis the human-machine information system  Business process re-engineering (BPR) Chris Jarvis 5 . reaction times. tools and devices Workstation layout & design (EU work-station directive) Occupation Health & Safety:signals. industrial noise. thermal controls.mg2066 A work study curriculum . eyes. human controls. RSI safety criteria.2  examining worker-machine relationships         workload & line balancing & staff/machine inefficiencies material handling.

mg2066 System relationships Process analysis Engineer workflows Design work station & information arrangements Method study Plant layout Jobs Work breakdowns Time study standard times Chris Jarvis Incentive rewards 6 .

social/sentient Chris Jarvis 7 .mg2066 Nature of the Theory  organised common sense. utilisation and costs  predictability and control over quality  maximise use (utilisation) of compliant labour & capital . human ingenuity & creation of tools  functional and assumed to be neutral/unemotional  critical questioning & taking nothing for granted  focus on efficiencies.unit costing  machine & economic man vs.

mg2066 Opposition to Work Study  All work is different idiographic vs/ nomothetic  Large firm/employer and large engineered systems only  Work study is obsolete  It is exploitative of workers  It has never been and never will be accepted here Chris Jarvis 8 .

Springfield Rifle  F W Taylor at Bethlehem Steel work  Henry Gantt  Frank and Lillian Gilbreth  Time and motion study  Charles Bedaux  Work measurement Chris Jarvis 9 .pin making  Pioneers of agrarian and industrial revolutions  Abraham Derby & Josiah Wedgwood  Madame Guillotine.mg2066 Pioneers of efficiency measurement & systems  Gunpowder manufacture  Chinese ceramics industry  Adam Smith observations of French .

times and systems for performance improve methods . automation & substitution of machine technologies for people Braverman and de-skilling in the labour process Chris Jarvis 10 . piece work & measured day work human-computer interface & systems analysis & design rationalisation.get it right:    Method study O & M & Ergonomics Industrial & systems engineering define & maintain work standards incentive schemes e.g.mg2066 Methods.

monitor (slippage) & maintain 11 Chris Jarvis .challenge job    components & necessity (purpose.mg2066 Method study  Select job/process to be examined & observe current performance      high process cost. sequence. develop alternative methods & present proposals document as base for new work system Install. tortuous route. method). place. erratic quality activities performed operators involved . low productivity. etc equipment and tools used materials processed or moved  Record & document facts  apply critical examination .

mg2066 ASME Symbols and Process Charting Operation Move Delay Store Inspect/ process Decision Chris Jarvis 12 .

safety and health must not compromised  Method Chris Jarvis 13 . How else could. Why then. Who else might & should do it? How. Why. When else could & When should ? Who. Why. Where else & Where should it be done ? When.mg2066 Traditional O&M critical examination questions  Purpose      What. What else might & Should be done ? Where. How else should  Place  a sound reason for every activity  Sequence  People  no assumptions so double check  quality. Why. Why.

video.etc computer-based modeling Chris Jarvis 14 .mg2066 Other types of process modelling multiple activity charts string diagrams 3-dimensional models recording methods .

motivated workers be clear about "allowances" & fatigue  Toyota Avensis 10000 mile service  MOT testing  Service times & queue management  Banks  Airline check-in  Call centres  Out-sourcing & service level agreements  Work-load balancing  Work related bonuses 15 .mg2066 Measuring Work  Why define/measure work?        Chris Jarvis standard. reliable methods control performance & quality obtain predictability defined labour costs & performance set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward relationship  Why set standard times assumptions about competent.

for charging & estimating Chris Jarvis 16 .criteria for appraisal  gather information to calculate production capabilities &  data for capacity planning. define/cost work content of finished goods and services e.g.  motivated worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. time Study:  establish standard times .mg2066 Work Measurement  techniques to establish the time for a knowledge  rate operator performance .

100% effort rating .is it efficient/agreed?  start a Time Study sheet & break work task into "units"  several times with a stop watch & for a sample of workers. motivated/committed.trained/qualified. little  Chris Jarvis     completion times for each unit of work in the job sequence average for each worker determine & apply worker effort rating for each worker (BSI scale) Apply fatigue. routine work cycle (all workers). personal & other allowances discretion.mg2066 A Time Study  select job & identify the work tasks  check the method . time measure  From the observation data (worker average times) calculate standard time for the task  Assumes: set sequence. working at normal pace & not fatigued Fix standard time and enter into measured work manual/database 17 .

39 minutes Chris Jarvis 18 .81 4.mg2066 Example standard time calculation Element Basic time 1 2.55 Standard time Total 13.50 Relaxation % +10% Effort % 110% Standard time 3.80 3.03 2 3 4.60 + 5% + 15% 110% 110% 5.

mg2066 Incentive Schemes  What are incentives?  Effort-reward relationships  Economic orientation & motivation     Time rates of pay & assumptions/requirements Piecework Measured day work Group Schemes  Incentive scheme problems  Criticism and prevalence Chris Jarvis cost savings ? economy of operation ? easily understood ? maintain safety standards ? equitable to all ? control and improve effectiveness & standards ?  common goal ?       19 .

logistics. quality (zero defects & process orientation. facilities layout.  applied across a wide range of industrial/commercial activity:     process flow charts etc  describe the business process & jobs at sub process levels  document for: capacity planning. processes/transformations. JIT purposes Chris Jarvis manufacturing. outputs. inspection). safety. planned maintenance. operator intervention. IT and IS Identify process components & interrelationships (inputs. accounting/cost. materials handling. interfaces break down the process into its logical sub processes (work breakdown structure) map using 20 . office.mg2066 Process Analysis and BPR Management services & business process re-engineering  how work is done & data for planning. rules. service industries. staffing & control functions.

mg2066 From Work Study to Systems Analysis and Design Human activity Information modelling Analysis & design Socio-tech Keep in mind Our focus Chris Jarvis 21 .

Build Projects Business Situation & Information Processing Requirement Feasibility ‡ Technological ‡ Financial ‡ Organisational Contribution/VfM? Accept Continuity contracts Design Specification Build & test ‡ databases ‡ programs ‡ HCI ‡ Hardware New system ‡ Add modules ‡ Review performance ‡ Devel. Design.mg2066 Analysis. Team dispersed ‡ Maintenance BSOs. TSOs Requirements Design ‡ databases ‡ programs ‡ HCI ‡ Hardware ‡ security Analysis ‡ data flows ‡ d-structures ‡ events Implement ‡ Fine-tune ‡ Conversion ‡ Training ‡ Cut-over Chris Jarvis Prototyping 22 .

mg2066 System Development Costs Chris Jarvis 23 .

mg2066 Modelling the Information System Our 'model' of the information system Requirements ‡information processing functions ‡data to store Input .triggers activities Data items Output to activities which use the processed information 24 Chris Jarvis .

mg2066 Data Flow Modelling (DFDs)  Data flows across the system boundary & within the system  Processes (functions that process data)  Data stores  Sources/sinks (external entities)  Functional decomposition (levels & modularisation)  Do not show  System boundary  Diagrams .better than narrative  CASE tools to draw and record details Chris Jarvis   Time (when things happen & sequence) Decisions (see process specification) 25 .

Level 0 Chris Jarvis 26 .mg2066 Context DFD .

mg2066 Level 1 DFD Chris Jarvis 27 .

mg2066 DFDs .Levelling Consistency of data flows between levels. Are the diagrams consistent? Chris Jarvis 28 .

security and integrity of the data  Create database schema for developers and DB managers Chris Jarvis 29 . Attributes The data items stored in each occurrence of an entity Relationships how the data in one entity may be related (for functional purposes) to another) system processes use the data .mg2066 Logical Data Modelling  data captured by the system  Analyse the data entities. calculations. attributes and relationships      Entities things (physical or conceptual) of interest that the system needs to store information reports maintain the access rules.

mg2066 Events acting on data applies interviewed final accept/reject enrols/pays assessed leaves graduates Identify all processes ‡Map against the LDM ‡Data updates ‡Referential integrity & validation ‡Menus. reports Chris Jarvis 30 . screens.

mg2066 Example: Dabbs plc  Customers place sales orders  A single order may contain several products  Each customer is in one of 500 areas  Each customer is serviced by one of 6 depots  Each customer is allocated a depot depending on their area location  All products are stocked at all depots Chris Jarvis 31 .

goals scored. next of kin. weight. sending-offs. payments. number of international caps  Relationships with  Games. salary. injuries. agents. club TV appearances. address. team sheets. contracts. contract dates. skills. position. treatments Chris Jarvis 32 . insurance policies. height.1  Entity: Footballer  Occurrence: David Beckham  Attributes  DOB.mg2066 Entity occurrence .

{treatments}.mg2066 Entity occurrence . appointments. address. allergies. private health payments Chris Jarvis 33 . NHS number. age.2  Entity: Patient  Occurrence: Chris Woodhead  Attributes   Name. medical conditions. {medical conditions}. allergies. GP. medical staff. private health care  Relationships with Treatments. clinics. next-of-kin.