Suruchi Pandey

Chapter Objectives
1. Job analysis Definition, Purpose, Process 2. Job Description 3. Job Specification 4. Job Design
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Simplification

A job may be defined as a ³collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as a whole, are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees´.

In other words, when the total work to be done is divided and grouped into packages, we call it a ³Job´.

Each job has a definite title based upon standardized trade specifications within a job; two or more grades may be identified, where the work assignments may be graded according to skill, the difficulty in doing them, or the quality of workmanship. Further, a job may include many positions, for a position is a job performed by, related to, a particular employee.

What is job analysis?
The documentation of the major responsibilities, duties, and tasks of a job, as well as the kinds of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. A systematic approach to collect information about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the skills required to perform those tasks An important part of Human Resources (HR) planning

Job Analysis
It is a systematic analysis of each job for the purpose of collecting information as to what the job holder does, under what circumstances it is performed and what qualifications are required for doing the job.

Definitions of Job Analysis
Edwin Flippo: ³Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job´.

Definitions of Job Analysis
Harry Wylie: ³Job analysis deals with the anatomy of the job « This is the complete study of the job embodying every known and determinable factor, including the duties and responsibilities involved in its performance; the conditions under which performance is carried on; the nature of the task; the qualifications required in the worker; and the conditions of employment, such as pay hours, opportunities and privileges´.

Defining ³responsibilities´, ³duties´, and ³tasks´.
The major groupings of activities (i.e., duties) performed in a job.

Clusters of specific actions (i.e., tasks) with a common purpose used to carryout each major responsibility.

A specific action taken for a specific purpose.

EXAMPLE: ³Sales Manager´

I. RESPONSIBILITIES Planning sales campaigns. Assisting in recruiting and hiring sales staff. Training sales staff. Supervising sales staff. Developing pricing and discounting policies. Directing and assisting in customer service.

I. RESPONSIBIITIES - ³Training Sales Staff´ II. DUTIES

Researching sales literature. Developing training curriculum. Selecting training methods (manuals, power points, computer software, etc.) Obtaining equipment, materials, facility, etc. Scheduling training programs. Assessing trainee learning.

I. RESPONSIBIITIES - ³Training Sales Staff´ II. DUTIES - ³Researching Sales Literature´ III. TASKS

Searching on Internet for sales training. Reviewing sales training magazines and books. Reviewing product literature. Reviewing customer brochures, etc. Contacting training consultants. Contacting other companies for ³benchmarking´.

Uses of Job Analysis
Human resource planning Recruitment Selection of personnel Training and development Organization audit

Uses of Job Analysis
Job evaluation Job design Performance appraisal Career planning Safety and health

B. Purposes






Purposes Illustrated
(Legal, Staffing, & Appraisal)
Legal Compliance Specifying required duties to properly classify jobs into Exempt or Nonexempt categories under the Fair Labor Standards Act Of 1938. Recruiting Constructing accurate and detailed job advertisements in order to attract qualified and truly interested applicants for further screening. Selection Choosing tests that measure the kinds of KSAs identified in a job analysis for a specific job. Performance Appraisal Using job analysis to identify the relevant performance targets used in annual employee appraisals.

Purposes Illustrated
(Training, Career Development, & Compensation) Training
Developing training programs that cover the kinds of tasks and skills needed for a specific job.

Career Development
Specifying career paths comprised of sequences of jobs with specific duties and KSAs.

Evaluating job duties and KSAs to determine the worth or ³value added´ of different jobs for setting equitable wages and salaries.

Steps/stages/process/procedure in Job Analysis: Collection of background information Selection of representative job to be analyzed Collection of job analysis data Job Description Developing job specification

Techniques of Job Analysis Data Personal observation Sending out questionnaires Maintenance of log records Conducting personal interviews

Who does the job analysis?
HR staff or outside consultants guide the job analysis process, including (a) questionnaire design, (b) collecting the information, and (c) documenting information. Employees who perform the jobs and their supervisors provide the information and are often referred to as ³Subject Matter Experts´ (SMEs).

What methods are used to collect job information?
Observation ± Good for (a) simple jobs that are not too complicated and (b) jobs that involve physical manipulation of tools, equipment, etc. Interview ± Good when (a) job duties take place over different periods of time (impractical to observe) and (b) jobs are complex and require detailed explanations by the SMEs. Employee Diary ± Good when (a) job duties take place over different periods of time and (b) it is difficult to schedule interviews with employees. Questionnaire ± Good for (a) insuring uniformity of the information collected for different jobs and (b) insuring completeness of the information gathered.

Data collection methods
Interviews  Questionnaires 

Job performance  Observation  Diaries  Critical incidents  Focus groups 

HR records

Should a qualitative or quantitative approach be used?
1. Open

Ended Questionnaires.

Provides full and detailed information needed to construct Job Descriptions.

2. Quantitative Questionnaires.
Provide scores for jobs on a set of work-skill characteristics ± like those in Figure 2.4 and 2.5.

Examples of Quantitative Questionnaires Task Checklist or Inventory ±
Used when there are a large number of employees in a given job distributed many geographical locations. Goal is to determine the typical duties and tasks being performed for (a) developing a generic job description and/or (b) placing jobs into a classification system based on the employee task ratings .

Examples of Quantitative Questionnaires

Functional Job Analysis (FJA) ± Used by the Office of Personnel Management in the federal government to score jobs and place them into job families for testing and training decisions. The FJA measures three primary characteristics of work ± People, Data, and Things.

Examples of Quantitative Questionnaires
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ± Used to score jobs and group them into job families for testing, training, compensation, and legal decisions ± such as classification of jobs into Exempt and Non-Exempt categories under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.

Components of Job Analysis

Job Description

Job Specification

Job Description The preparation of job description is necessary before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature of a job. In other words, it emphasizes the job requirements.

Definition of Job Description
Edwin Flippo: ³Job Description is an organized factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It should tell what is to be done, how it is done and why.´

Job descriptions
A written description of a job, the types of duties performed and the conditions under which these duties are performed A factual statement and summary of the job contents in terms of job title, job duties equipment to be used. Working ocnditions, supervision needed, Hazards, relationship with other jobs

Uses and Limitations
+ Development of Specification + Help in Orientation + Develop performance standards + Clarity in working and focus approach x Not a permanent reflection of job x Needs Updatation x Becomes outdated for dynamic jobs

The details given in Job Description
Job title Organizational location of the job Supervision given and received Materials, tools, machinery and equipment worked with Designation of the immediate superiors and subordinates Salary levels: Pay, DA, other allowances, bonus, incentive wage, method of payment, hours of work, shift, break etc.

The details given in Job Description
Complete list of duties to be performed separated according to daily, weekly, monthly and casual, estimated time to be spent on each duty Definition of unusual terms Conditions of work: Location, time, speed of work, accuracy, health hazards, accident hazards Training and development facilities Promotional chances and channels

What is included in a Job Description?
1. Identifying Information
Title/Department Location Supervisor Date completed Who provided information Who reviewed Proper signatures

3. Responsibilities, Duties, and Tasks
Detailed description of the major responsibilities, duties, and tasks of the job.

4. Job Specifications
a. List of KSAs. b. List of qualifications that include education, training, and experience. c. Special credentials such as licenses, certification, etc.

2. Job Summary
Brief description of major responsibilities and their purpose within the work flow and department.

Job descriptions

Job title
Job Description 1. Title. 2. Statement. 3. Essential Functions. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX 4. Specifications. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX

Job identification

Essential functions

Job specifications

Job description problems
Often poorly written  Static rather than dynamic ± not updated as job duties change  discriminatory  Tasks not directly work-related  Vague rather than specific 

Job Specification
Job specification is based on job description. It is a written statement of qualifications, traits, physical and mental characteristics that an individual must possess to perform the job duties and discharge responsibilities effectively.

Person specification
Details the qualifications, experience and personal qualities required of suitable job-holders States minimum acceptable qualification that incumbent must posses to perform the job satisfactorily such as educational qualifications, job related experience, knowledge skills and abilities needed to do the job effectively. It tells what kind of person to recruit . It is important selectiontool

Definition of Job Specification
Edwin Flippo: ³Job Specification is a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly´.

Job Specification covers:
Educational and professional qualifications Skills Practical experience Physical fitness Special qualities required for performing the job Intelligence, judgement and initiative required for performing the job

Uses of Jobs Analysis
HRP Recruitment and Selection

Training and Development Job Description Job Evaluation Job Analysis Remuneration Job Specification Performance Appraisal Personnel Information Safety and Healthy

Job Design
Job design is defined by Michael Armstrong, ³as the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities; on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues´.

Job design integrates work content ( tasks, functions, relationships the rewards ( extrinsic and intrinsic) and the qualifications rquired ( skills, knowledge, abilities ) for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and the organisation

Job Design
Ibid, ³Job Design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in term of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the jobholder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues´.

Two important goals of job design
To meet the organizational requirements such as higher productivity, operational efficiency, quality of product/service etc. and To satisfy the needs of the individual employees like interests, challenges, achievement or accomplishment, etc.

Poorly designed jobs often result in
Boredom Increased turnover Reduced motivation Low levels of job satisfaction Less than optimal productivity Increase in organizational costs Accidents

Four Techniques
Work Simplification Job Rotation Job Enlargement Job Enrichment

Techniques of Job Design Job Rotation Job Simplification Job Design Job Enrichment Job Enlargement

Work Simplification
For very specialised jobs. Complete job is broken down into small subparts Well trained and less paid employees can do the jobs or it can be done simultaneously.

Job Simplification
This requires that jobs be broken down into their smallest units and then analyzed. Each resulting subunit typically consists of relatively few operations. These subunits are then assigned to workers as their total job. This is done so that employees can do these jobs without much specialized training. Many small jobs can also be performed simultaneously, so that the complete operation can be done more quickly. Time and motion studies are often used for work simplification

Advantages of Job Simplification

‡ Requires less training ‡ Less costly unskilled labour ‡ Increase in speed

Job Enlargement: (Horizontal)
It involves the addition to or expansion of tasks in the job and job becomes a meaningful operation.( opposite of simplification) It is the strategy adopted by many organizations to combat the ill-effects of division of labour. Its focus is on enlarging the contents of jobs by adding tasks and responsibilities.

Job Enlargement
It involves expansion of the scope and width of the job by means of assigning certain closely related operations. E.g. a clerk in an office doing typing work may be also assigned tasks of drafting simple letters, sorting mail and filling of papers. This will reduce his boredom and make him satisfied with the job. His efficiency will also improve.

It Suggests that
Employee are given complete job Environment is created in which employee are able not only to get involved actively but also participate in planning Motivates employees to make job interesting and challenging Increases efficiency and reduces fatigue Number and variety of jobs to perform

Job Enlargement

Two Operations

Basic Tasks JOB 1 Five Operations Increased

Two Operations

In this case meaning full component is done by one person. Hence reduces the boredom and give more meaning to work

Job Enrichment: (Vertical)
It is a direct outgrowth of Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory of Motivation. It is therefore based on the assumption that in order to motivate personnel, the job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth.

Job Enrichment
It involves the vertical expansion of jobs by increasing the amount of worker responsibilities associated with the positions. E.g. a worker who previously only loaded boxes for delivery into a trailer may be given the responsibility of verifying that the customer order is correct.

Job Enrichment

Added Responsibilities

Basic Tasks JOB 2

Job Enrichment
Through job enrichment, autonomy, responsibility and control becomes part of a worker¶s job. This in turn leads to greater feelings of satisfaction, higher motivation and increased productivity.

It motivates employees to perform better Improves qulaity of work Increases employee morale Employee satisfaction Reduces boredom, monotony and dissatisfaction Time management More commitment

Job Rotation
This refers to the movement of an employee from one job to the another over a designated period of time. Jobs themselves are not actually changed, only the employees are rotated among various jobs. An employee who works on another job for some days or months and returns back to the first job.

Job Rotation
This would relieve the employee from boredom and monotony, improves the employee¶s skills regarding various jobs and prepares the employee to meet the contingencies. This is also intended to improve worker¶s selfimage and provides personal growth.

Job Rotation
However, job rotation can have a very limited potential. It does not change the basic nature of jobs. Rather an employee is asked to perform several monotonous jobs in place of a single job. Therefore, the employees who want a challenging and satisfying job still feel frustrated. Moreover, frequent rotation of employees may cause interruptions in the work routine of the organization.

Approaches To Job Design

Scientific Management Approach (F.W. Taylor)

Behavioural Approach (Herzberg)

Socio-technical System Approach

Scientific Management Approach
The earliest approach to job design is the rational approach or industrial engineering approach propounded by F. W. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management.

Scientific Management Approach
‡ The standardization of jobs into the single best ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡
way by which they can be performed. The training of workers in the single best way to perform the job. The specialization of labour leading to expertise in small narrow jobs. The systematic and specific determination of job description for each job. Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job.

Behavioural Approach
During 1950s, Herzberg¶s research popularized the notion of enhancing need satisfaction through what is called job enrichment. There are many different approaches to job enrichment, yet all of them attempt to help the job incumbent satisfy personal needs while performing the job.

Behavioural Approach
One widely publicized approach to job enrichment uses the ³Job Characteristics Model´. This model is based on the view that three key psychological states of a job incumbent affect motivation and satisfaction of the job.

The three states are
‡ Experienced meaningfulness ±
worth of the work ‡ Experienced responsibility ‡ Knowledge of results ± Understanding how effectively he/she is performing the job

The more these three states are experienced, the more job incumbent will feel internal work motivation.

Socio-Technical System Approach
This approach calls for the decision of work systems that would foster a meshing of the technical and social aspects of jobs. In order to create jobs, which have this supportive relationship, work teams, not individual jobs, must be studied. Job design through socio-technical approach requires the combined efforts of employees, supervisors and union representatives in analyzing significant job operations.

Socio-Technical System Approach
The major thrust of the socio-technical approach to job design is that both the technical system and the accompanying social system should be considered when designing jobs. According to this concept, jobs should be designed by taking a ³holistic´ or ³systems´ view of the entire job situation, including its physical and social environment.

A Real World Example
The Department of Labor ‡ Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee ‡ Information organized into 3 categories
‡ Data ‡ People ‡ Things

A Real World Example
Work Functions Data 0. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Synthesizing Coordinating Analyzing Compiling Computing Copying Comparing People 0. Mentoring 1. Negotiating 2. Instructing 3. Supervision 4. Diverting 5. Persuading 6. Speaking 7. Serving
*U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p.xix.

Things 0. Setting up 1. Precision work 2. Operating 3. Driving 4. Manipulating 5. Tending 6. Feeding 7. Handling

8. Helping

A Real World Example
Job titles are listed in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Each job is given a code ‡ Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7)
‡ See previous table

An Exercise
Bruce Spuhler, customer service manager at BGS Sports, wants to conduct a job analysis on how his employees interact with customers and other employees. What steps should Bruce take to implement a successful job analysis, and what method should he use to analyze his employees?

An Exercise
Possible Answer ± Determine the Purpose- to reinforce good behavior among employees and provide better customer service ± Gather as much information as possible about retail and customer service, including past experiences with customers

An Exercise
Choose best method of job analysis -Critical Incident Technique -This would allow Bruce to discuss with his employees past incidents and whether they were effective or not -Assign values of effectiveness Gather information from workers and other managers about the job

An Exercise
Draft a behavioral job description Identify areas that need improvement, and implement training programs to improve those areas

Job analysis is an effective approach to gathering information about jobs There are 6 popular techniques to conducting job analyses Job analysis is directly related to nearly every function of Human Resource departments in organizations It Includes Job Description and Job Specification

Job Analysis ‡ The procedure used to determine the duties of particular jobs and the kinds of people (in terms of skills and experience) who should be hired for them. Job Specification ‡ The human qualifications in terms of traits, skills, and experiences required to accomplish a job. Job Description ‡ A document that identifies a particular job, provides a brief job summary, and lists specific responsibilities and duties of the job.

Checklist 9.1 Job Analysis Questions
What is the job being performed? What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? What are the education, experience, skill, and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements? In what activities do you participate now? What are the job¶s responsibilities and duties? What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work?

Checklist 9.1 (cont¶d) Job Analysis Questions
What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved? What are the job¶s physical demands? Its emotional and mental demands? What are the health and safety conditions? Does the job expose you to any hazards or unusual working conditions?

BIRD EYE VIEW ³The Multifaceted Nature of the Job Analysis´
Labor Relations Safety and Health Recruiting Selection
*DeCenzo and Robbins, p. 145

Job Analysis Job Description

Strategic HR Planning Employee Training Employee Development

Compensate Performance Appraisal

Job Specifications Career Development

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