RELATING THE FOOD PROCESSING METHODS WITH FACTORS CAUSING FOOD SPOILAGE

Microorganism require water, nutrient, oxygen and a suitable temperature for optimal growth and reproduction. Microorganism can only survive in condition with optimum pH and solute concentration as these will not destroy them. Food can be preserved by destroying the microorganism present in the food or by stopping the activities of these microorganisms.

METHOD OF PROCESSING AND PRESERVING FOOD
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Cooking Fermentation Drying of food Pasteurisation Radiation and canning (killing all microorganisms) Sterilisation Dehydration and freezing (stopping the activities of the microorganism)

FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION FOOD PROCESSING a) COOKING

METHOD COOKING AT HIGH TEMPERATURES OR BOILING FOR AT LEAST 5 MINUTES Yeast is added to fruit juices or other food substances

PRINCIPLES

EXAMPLES

At high temperature Meat , vegetables, -kill microorganisms and fish denature the enzymes -bacterial spores may be killed. At high concentration -produce Ethanol (has great commercial value) -stop the activity of the bacteria. Fruit juices, tapai ( fermentation of glutinous rice or tapioca) Fish, meat, fruits, flour and vegetables.

b) Fermentation process

c) Drying

Drying under the hot -removes water from sun, in hot air or in the food. Prevents oven microorganisms from growing -stop the enzymatic activity in food. -kill bacteri and other harmful microorganisms ( ultraviolet rays

FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION Preservation a) Pickling food

METHOD

PRINCIPLES

EXAMPLES

Food is soaked in an acidic solution -vinegar

Most Chillies, ginger, microorganisms onions, mangos cannot lives in and papayas low pH conditions Microorganisms lose water through osmosis in a hypertonic solution Meat, vegetables, ducks’ eggs, fruits and milk

b) Trating food with Food is soaked salt or sugar in a concentrated salt solution or boiled with sugar.

PASTEURISATION
EXAMPLE : PASTEURISED MILK - destroy disease-causing bacteria ( causes tuberculosis and typhoid) - Purpose: -kill microorganisms while maintaining the nutrient contain and natural flavour of the milk - Unable to kill all type of bacteria. - Need to be stored in the refrigerator. Other examples : fruit juices and soup.

CANNING
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Uses heat sterilisation method. Process of canning :The food is packed in can and steam at a high temperature and pressure.Than seal while the food is been cooled. ADVANTAGES: Food sterile can keep for long period.

REFRIGERATION
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Preventing food spoilage used by household. Example: meat, fish and meat product can remain fresh for a long period of time at temperature below 0 C. Extremely low temperature prevent growth of microorganism or the germination of spores.