BTEC

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science
For first teaching September 2007 Issue 2

March 2008

Specification

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in

Applied Science

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic and vocational qualifications and testing to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries worldwide. Qualifications include GCSE, AS and A Level, NVQ and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas, recognised by employers and higher education institutions worldwide. We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in cuttingedge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to teachers and students which helps to raise attainment.

This specification is Issue 2. Key changes are sidelined. We will inform centres of any changes to this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: www.edexcel.org.uk

References to third party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Sarah Harrison Publications Code BN018348 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2008

Contents

Ten principles for delivering an Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National qualification What are BTEC Nationals?
BTEC National Award BTEC National Certificate BTEC National Diploma National Occupational Standards (NOS) Rationale of the BTEC Nationals in Applied Science Scientific skills development

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Structure of the qualification
Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Biology) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Chemistry) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Physics) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Environmental Science) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Medical Science) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Forensic Science)

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Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) 14 Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Medical Science) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Forensic Science) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Science) 16 17 18 20

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Forensic Science)

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Unit format Units
Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3: Unit 4: Unit 5: Unit 6: Unit 7: Unit 8: Unit 9: Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics

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27 39 51 65 75 87 95 105 115 123 133 145 157 169 181 191 203 215 225 237 247 259 271 285 297 309 321

Unit 10: Using Science in the Workplace Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 14: Energy Changes, Sources and Applications Unit 15: Microbiological Techniques Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 23: Science for Environmental Technicians Unit 24: Principles of Plant and Soil Science Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications

Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry Unit 29: Physiological Investigations Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation Unit 31: Criminology Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 34: Criminal Psychology Unit 35: Forensic Psychology Unit 36: Forensic Fire Investigation Unit 37: Forensic Science Informatics Unit 38: Traffic Accident Investigation Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice Unit 41: Forensic Media and Crime

335 347 357 367 377 389 401 409 419 429 441 453 465 477

Assessment and grading
Grading domains

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Quality assurance
Approval Risk assessment Internal verification External verification

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492 493 493 493

Calculation of the qualification grade
Awarding a qualification grade Unit points Grade boundaries and UCAS points (as of 1st January 2007)

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Programme design and delivery
Mode of delivery Resources Delivery approach Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) Meeting local needs

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496 497 498 498 498

Limitations on variations from standard specifications

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Access and recruitment
Restrictions on learner entry Access arrangements and special considerations

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The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the science sector Further information Useful publications
How to obtain National Occupational Standards

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Professional development and training Annexe A
QCA codes

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Annexe B
Grading domains: Level 3 BTEC generic grading domains

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Annexe C
Key skills Key skills mapping — summary of opportunities suggested in each unit

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Annexe D
National Occupational Standards/mapping with NVQs

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Annexe E
BTEC National in Applied Science legacy (specification end date 31 August 2007)/BTEC National in Applied Science new (specification start date 1 September 2007) — unit mapping overview BTEC Nationals in Applied Science legacy (specification end date 31 August 2007)/BTEC Nationals in Applied Science new (specification start date 1 September 2007) — unit mapping in depth

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Annexe F
Wider curriculum mapping

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Ten principles for delivering an Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National qualification
This specification contains the rules and regulations, along with the units and associated guidance, to enable centres to design and deliver a programme of learning for the Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science. The qualification structures set out the permitted combination of units learners need to complete the qualification. Each unit sets out the learning outcomes and grading criteria along with content, advice and guidance regarding appropriate delivery and assessment strategies. The following generic principles need to be adhered to so that a BTEC qualification is delivered to the appropriate standard.

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The specification: The specification gives the information needed for the successful delivery and achievement of the units and the qualification as a whole. The specification is of importance to the learner and the tutor alike. Individual units can be delivered and studied in isolation but the learner and the deliverer should have access to the full information provided to support the programme of learning. The website: Centres need to make regular use of the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.org.uk) to ensure that they have the most up-to-date information. In particular, the requirements for the external verification of the qualification receive regular updates, and appropriate information for centres is posted on the website. It is the responsibility of the centre to ensure that they are familiar with the latest BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook and that they implement any related policy documentation which may have been posted on the website. Policy: This specification gives details of our assessment and quality assurance procedures. It includes advice about our policy regarding access to our qualifications, the design of programmes of study and delivery modes. Centres must ensure that they follow the procedures and conform to the policies outlined. Recruitment: Centres are required to recruit learners with integrity. A fundamental aspect of this integrity is that centres take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about the applicant’s ability to be able to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. Centres should ensure that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs.

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

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Assessment: Centres are required to use this specification to design and deliver a programme of learning that will enable learners to achieve the grading criteria stipulated in the unit grading grids. The programme of learning should consist of assignments which provide the opportunity for coverage of all grading criteria as set out in the grading grid for each unit. Assignments must be reliable and fit for purpose, giving learners every opportunity to generate evidence which satisfies the grading criteria. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods, including case studies, assignments and work-based assessments, along with projects, performance observation and time-constrained assessments where appropriate. Assignments: Centres are encouraged to apply the grading criteria in a practical way. They should provide, wherever possible, a realistic scenario for learners to work with, and make maximum use of practical activities and work experience. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to the learner’s achievement. National Qualifications Framework (NQF): These qualifications have been accredited to the NQF and are eligible for public funding as determined by the DfES under Sections 96 and 97 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. Details of the qualification units can be seen on the QCA OpenQuals database (www.openquals.org.uk). Qualification Accreditation Numbers (QANs): The qualification titles feature in the funding lists published annually by the DfES and on the regularly updated website www.dfes.gov.uk/. The NQF QANs should be used by centres when they seek public funding for their learners. The QANs are listed in Annexe A. Accreditation: This specification is accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) until 2012 and for certification of learners until 2014. This specification may be updated during its period of accreditation and centres should refer to our website for the latest issue.

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10 Approval: Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications must apply for, and be granted, centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme. When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter into an ‘approvals agreement’. The approvals agreement is a formal commitment by the head or principal of a centre to meet all the requirements of the specification and any linked codes or regulations.

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

What are BTEC Nationals?
BTEC Nationals are qualifications that are designed to provide specialist work-related qualifications in a range of sectors. They give learners the knowledge, understanding and skills that they need to prepare them for employment. The qualifications also provide career development opportunities for those already in work. Consequently they can provide a course of study for full-time or part-time learners in schools, colleges and training centres. The family of BTEC Nationals includes Awards, Certificates and Diplomas which offer opportunities for nested provision and flexibility of delivery. BTEC Nationals are designed to relate to the National Occupational Standards for the sector, where these are appropriate, and are supported by the relevant Standards Setting Body (SSB) or Sector Skills Council (SSC). Some BTEC Nationals form the Technical Certificate component of Apprenticeships and all attract UCAS points that equate to similar-sized general qualifications. On successful completion of a BTEC National qualification, learners can progress into or within employment and/or continue their study in the same vocational area.

BTEC National Award
The 360 guided learning hours (GLH) (usually 6 units) BTEC National Award offers a specialist qualification that focuses on particular aspects of employment within the appropriate vocational sector. The BTEC National Award is a qualification which can extend a learner’s programme of study and provide vocational emphasis for learners following an Applied GCE or GCE route or a combination of both in their main programme of study. It is broadly equivalent to one GCE. The BTEC National Award is especially suitable for more mature learners, who wish to follow a shorter programme of study directly related to their work experience or to an area of employment that they wish to move into. The BTEC National Award in Applied Science provides the underpinning knowledge and understanding for science technicians in employment who would like to obtain a Level 3 qualification in applied biology, applied chemistry, applied physics, environmental science, medical science or forensic science. This qualification would be particularly useful to technicians, such as those employed as science technicians in the education profession. It may be attractive to learners who are unable to commit to the study time required by the BTEC National Certificate and/or Diploma.

BTEC National Certificate
The 720 GLH (usually 12 units) BTEC National Certificate provides a specialist workrelated programme of study that covers the key knowledge and practical skills required in the appropriate vocational sector. The BTEC National Certificate offers flexibility and a choice of emphasis through the specialist units. It is broadly equivalent to two GCEs.

BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

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The qualification offers an engaging programme for those who are clear about the area of employment that they wish to enter. These learners may wish to extend their programme through the study of a related GCE, a complementary NVQ or another qualification. These learning programmes can be developed to allow learners to study complementary qualifications without duplication of content. For adult learners the BTEC National Certificate can extend their experience of work. It is a particularly suitable qualification for those wishing to change career or move into a particular area of employment following a career break. The BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science provides the underpinning knowledge, understanding and skills for science technicians in the areas of laboratory and industrial science, forensic science service and the medical science service. It also provides a progression route to higher education vocational qualifications such as BTEC Higher National Certificates in Applied Sciences or a part-time degree in Applied Biology, Clinical Science or Forensic Science and/or a Level 4 NVQ qualification.

BTEC National Diploma
The 1080 GLH (usually 18 units) BTEC National Diploma extends the specialist workrelated focus available from the BTEC Certificate. The qualification prepares learners for employment in the appropriate vocational sector and is suitable for those who have decided that they wish to enter a particular area of work. Some adult learners may wish to complete this qualification in order to enter a specialist area of employment or progress into higher education. Other learners may want to extend the specialism that they followed on the BTEC National Certificate programme. Progression from the BTEC National Diploma could be into employment where learners might take professional body examinations or complete NVQs. Alternatively, learners could continue to degree or other higher-education programmes in the same vocational sector or in a related sector. The BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science provides the knowledge, understanding and skills for learners wishing to enter a career as a science technician in the areas of laboratory and industrial science, medical science service or the forensic science service. It also provides progression to higher education vocational qualifications such as BTEC Higher National Diploma in Applied Sciences or a full-time degree in Applied Sciences or Forensic Science. This qualification programme provides access to more specialist units and therefore broadens and deepens the learners’ experience in preparation for the world of work.

National Occupational Standards (NOS)
BTEC Nationals are designed to relate to the National Occupational Standards (NOS) in the appropriate vocational sector. NOS form the basis of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). BTEC Nationals do not purport to deliver occupational competence in the sector, which should be demonstrated in a work context. However, the qualifications provide much of the underpinning knowledge for the NOS, as well as developing practical skills in preparation for work and possible achievement of NVQs in due course.

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science relate to the NOS Level 3 NVQ in Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities (LATA). environmental science. personal qualities and attributes essential for successful performance in working life. or to progress to other vocational qualifications such as Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Applied Biology. provision or environment giving learners the opportunity to gain a nationally recognised vocationally specific qualification to enter employment as a science technician or assistant practitioner. medical science and forensic science giving learners the opportunity to acquire technical and employability skills. knowledge and understanding which are transferable and will enable individuals to meet changing circumstances. understanding and skills of learners to meet the needs of the applied science sector increasing understanding of the role of the science technician or assistant practitioner. in context providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills and techniques. • • • • • • • Rationale of the BTEC Nationals in Applied Science The BTEC Nationals in Applied Science offer vocational qualifications that focus on applied science and reflect aspects of employment within science organisations or organisations that use science. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 5 . Applied Chemistry. Applied Physics or health-related or other science-related qualifications providing opportunities for learners who are employed in the applied science industry or organisations that use science to develop their underpinning knowledge and scientific skills developing the knowledge. and these links are identified where appropriate. whether these arise from a shift in their own status or employment. physics. their relationship with the scientific community and their responsibilities towards the community and the environment providing opportunities for learners to focus on the development of the major key skills and the wider key skills. chemistry. These qualifications offer an approach which is different to other NQF Level 3 qualifications in science and will appeal to learners who prefer portfolio-based assessment covering a variety of scientific investigations.Relevant aspects of the NOS are addressed in the learning outcomes and content of the units. providing a range of applied qualifications in biology. laboratory and industrial science. such as improving their own learning and performance and working with others. or general changes in applied science practice. Key features of the BTEC Nationals in Applied Science The BTEC Nationals in Applied Science have been developed in the science sector to focus on: • flexibility of pathway to suit learners’ needs.

working with others and problem solving providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills. forensic science. such as improving own learning and performance. measuring and handling chemical substances. • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . These can include roles such as: • working as a quality control technician/analyst. Managing projects that include setting up apparatus. involved with testing materials working with the forensic science service or using their analytical skills in the chemistry industry working in chemical companies developing fertilisers and other plant feeds working for a scientific magazine or journal. chemical and physical science to provide a route to employment in the science industry or within organisations that use science. separating and analysing products working in the chemical industry. forensic science or other science-related courses developing the knowledge. carrying out observations and measurements. Editing and proofreading articles on issues such as applications and implications of new science discoveries and developments providing opportunities for technicians to achieve a nationally recognised Level 3 vocationally specific qualification providing opportunities for full-time learners to gain a nationally recognised vocationally specific qualification to enter employment as a science technician or progress to higher education vocational qualifications such as the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Applied Sciences or a full-time degree in applied sciences. ICT and data interpretation working in a hospital as a medical physics technician supporting the use of X-ray and other imaging/scanning instruments working in a research laboratory in the development of new drugs. where the employee works in a production plant laboratory carrying out analytical tests using modern instrumentation.The BTEC Nationals in Applied Science have been developed in the areas of laboratory and industrial science. techniques and attributes essential for successful performance in working life. environmental science and biological. medical science. understanding and skills of learners from a technician’s viewpoint understanding how the scientific community works and how science works providing opportunities for learners to focus on the development of the major key skills and the wider key skills in a science and technological context. following procedures.

observe and record data accurately (using ICT wherever possible). particularly through Unit 5: Perceptions of Science. Health (Allied Health Profession Support) and Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities. Learners can progress to Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals or degree courses in biology. It is also important that learners take on the role of being employed within the science industry when completing assignments and activities. where learners can get feedback on their progress as they provide evidence to meet the grading criteria. global warming and health and safety. and present information concisely to enable others to successfully complete the same investigation or practical experiment safely. The assessment approach allows a greater flexibility for ‘assessment for learning’. The BTEC National Award. It is important that learners develop their vocational practical skills and can follow scientific procedures in a logical and safe manner. pollution. This can be through presentations and discussions where they have opportunities to express their opinions about current science issues. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 7 . Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science have been designed to build on Key Stage 4 Science. the opportunities they offer and the needs of the learners. Employers also value employees that are able to communicate effectively using electronic communication. Learners can also take Level 3 NVQs such as Health (Clinical Healthcare Skills).Scientific skills development It should be emphasised that learners following this course need to develop their communication and application of number skills as they progress. environmental science. This is reflected in all the units. This can be achieved by setting assignments and activities with a scenario that reflects tasks and projects that employees would be undertaking in the workplace.or sports-related courses depending on the endorsed title chosen. physics. construction. These qualifications offer course teams in centres an opportunity to develop their own assignments and activities programme to take into account the needs of local employers. Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians and Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians. health. the correct terminology and scientific symbols. Science Learning Centres and at the Association for Science Education meetings and their annual conference) to discuss current generic issues such as sustainable development. chemistry. the Sector Skills Council. Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians. engineering. practical and vocational scientific skills learnt on the BTEC course will enhance and support the progression to a competencybased course. Learners are more likely to achieve a BTEC National in Applied Science if they have two science-based GCSEs at grades A*–C. and to cover ‘How Science Works’ from the Key Stage 5 Science criteria from QCA. There are a number of issues where employees in science work together and come together in forums (eg at the Royal Society. The underpinning knowledge. professional bodies.

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Biology) Unit 1 4 Unit 2 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 15 16 18 24 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Working in the Science Industry Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Microbiological Techniques Chemistry for Biology Technicians Genetics and Genetic Engineering Principles of Plant and Soil Science 60 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 8 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification.Structure of the qualification Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Biology) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Biology) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units.

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Chemistry) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Chemistry) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units. or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Chemistry) Unit 1 4 Unit 2 6 7 8 10 19 22 26 27 28 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Working in the Science Industry Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Practical Chemical Analysis Chemical Laboratory Techniques Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 9 .

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Physics) Unit 1 4 Unit 2 6 7 8 10 14 17 20 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Working in the Science Industry Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Energy Changes.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Physics) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Applied Physics) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units. or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification. Sources and Applications Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Medical Physics Techniques 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 10 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Environmental Science) Unit 1 4 Unit 2 6 7 8 10 16 18 23 24 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Working in the Science Industry Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Chemistry for Biology Technicians Genetics and Genetic Engineering Science for Environmental Technicians Principles of Plant and Soil Science 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 11 .Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Environmental Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Environmental Science) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units. or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification.

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Medical Science) Unit 1 4 Unit 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 15 18 20 21 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Microbiological Techniques Genetics and Genetic Engineering Medical Physics Techniques Biomedical Science Techniques 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 12 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Medical Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Medical Science) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units.

or four 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 360 GLH for the completed qualification.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Forensic Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Forensic Science) consists of two core units plus the equivalent of four 60 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and three 60 GLH specialist units. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science (Forensic Science) Unit 1 4 Unit 5 6 7 8 10 20 22 31 32 33 34 Core units Fundamentals of Science Scientific Practical Techniques Specialist units Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Medical Physics Techniques Chemical Laboratory Techniques Criminology Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Forensic Photography Criminal Psychology 60 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 Level 3 3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 13 .

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Energy Changes.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) consists of six core units plus one other 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist unit plus the equivalent of six 60 GLH specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and five 60 GLH specialist units. or six 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 720 GLH for the completed qualification. Sources and Applications Microbiological Techniques Chemistry for Biology Technicians Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Genetics and Genetic Engineering Practical Chemical Analysis Medical Physics Techniques 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 Continued overleaf… 14 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

Unit 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Specialist units (continued) Chemical Laboratory Techniques Science for Environmental Technicians Principles of Plant and Soil Science Electronics for Science Technicians Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry GLH 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Level 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 15 .

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Medical Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Medical Science) consists of six core units plus one other 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist unit plus the equivalent of six 60 GLH specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and five 60 GLH specialist units. or six 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 720 GLH for the completed qualification. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Medical Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 20 21 25 29 30 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Microbiological Techniques Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Genetics and Genetic Engineering Medical Physics Techniques Biomedical Science Techniques Electronics for Science Technicians Physiological Investigations Medical Instrumentation 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 16 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

that provide for a combined total of 720 GLH for the completed qualification.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Forensic Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Forensic Science) consists of six core units plus either of the 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist units plus six 60 GLH specialist units. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science (Forensic Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 10 20 22 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Using Science in the Workplace Medical Physics Techniques Chemical Laboratory Techniques Criminology Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Forensic Photography Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychology Forensic Science Informatics Traffic Accident Investigation 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 17 .

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) consists of six core units plus one other 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist unit plus the equivalent of twelve 60 GLH specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and eleven 60 GLH specialist units. or twelve 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 1080 GLH for the completed qualification. Sources and Applications Microbiological Techniques Chemistry for Biology Technicians Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Genetics and Genetic Engineering Practical Chemical Analysis Medical Physics Techniques 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 Continued overleaf… 18 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Laboratory and Industrial Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Energy Changes.

Unit 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Specialist units (continued) Biomedical Science Techniques Chemical Laboratory Techniques Science for Environmental Technicians Principles of Plant and Soil Science Electronics for Science Technicians Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry GLH 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Level 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 19 .

or twelve 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 1080 GLH for the completed qualification. Sources and Applications Microbiological Techniques Chemistry for Biology Technicians Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Genetics and Genetic Engineering Practical Chemical Analysis Medical Physics Techniques Biomedical Science Techniques Chemical Laboratory Techniques Electronics for Science Technicians Physiological Investigations Medical Instrumentation 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 20 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 29 30 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Biochemical Techniques Energy Changes.Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Science) consists of six core units plus one other 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist unit plus the equivalent of twelve 60 GLH specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and eleven 60 GLH specialist units.

Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Forensic Science) The Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Forensic Science) consists of six core units plus one other 30 guided learning hours (GLH) specialist unit plus the equivalent of twelve 60 GLH specialist units (ie two 30 GLH specialist units and eleven 60 GLH specialist units. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science (Forensic Science) Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unit 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 19 20 22 31 32 33 34 35 36 Core units Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Specialist units Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics Using Science in the Workplace Physiology of Human Body Systems Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Microbiological Techniques Practical Chemical Analysis Medical Physics Techniques Chemical Laboratory Techniques Criminology Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Forensic Photography Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychology Forensic Fire Investigation 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 GLH 60 60 60 60 60 30 Level 3 3 3 3 3 2 Continued overleaf… BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 21 . or twelve 60 GLH specialist units) that provide for a combined total of 1080 GLH for the completed qualification.

Unit 37 38 39 40 41 Specialist units (continued) Forensic Science Informatics Traffic Accident Investigation Criminal Investigation Procedures Criminal Investigation Practice Forensic Media and Crime GLH 60 60 60 60 60 Level 3 3 3 3 3 22 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. where appropriate. It gives the reader a snapshot of the aims of the unit and the key knowledge. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 23 . Unit title The unit title is accredited by QCA and this form of words will appear on the learner’s Notification of Performance (NOP). GLH include an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching. Guided learning hours are ‘a notional measure of the substance of a unit’. instruction and assessment. Where appropriate. The level of the unit has been informed by the NICATs level descriptors and. Each unit has the following sections. the NOS and/or other sector/professional benchmarks. The unit abstract also highlights any links to the appropriate vocational sector by describing how the unit relates to that sector. understand or be able to do’ as a result of completing the unit. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this qualification. The unit content sets out each learning outcome with prescribed key phrases or concepts listed in italics followed by the range of related topics. It excludes learner-initiated private study.Unit format All units in Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National qualifications have a standard format. skills and understanding developed while studying the unit. Unit abstract The unit abstract gives the reader an appreciation of the value of the unit in the vocational setting of the qualification as well as highlighting the focus of the unit. Not all of the unit content is expected to be assessed in every unit. Evidence to meet the grading criteria will include relevant areas of the unit content as described in the assessment section of the unit. Unit content The unit content gives centres the substance to devise and plan the programme of learning needed for the learning outcomes to be successfully achieved. 60. NQF level This is the level of the unit within the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). Detailed lists provide an indicative range to support the specific topic item. Guided learning hours (GLH) In BTEC National qualifications each unit consists of 30. assessors and those responsible for monitoring national standards. tutors. The unit format is designed to give guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners. Learning outcomes Learning outcomes state exactly what a learner should ‘know. 90 or 120 GLH. this is informed by the underpinning knowledge and understanding requirements of the related National Occupational Standards (NOS).

qca. This section should be read in conjunction with the grading criteria. Links to National Occupational Standards. It is important to note that the merit and distinction grading criteria refer to a qualitative improvement in the learner’s evidence.org. Indicative reading for learners — provides a short list of learner resource material that benchmarks the level of study. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications — sets out links with other units within the qualification. 24 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .uk) for the latest version of the key skills standards.Grading grid Each grading grid contains statements of the assessment criteria used to determine the evidence that each learner must produce in order to receive a pass. The links show opportunities for integration of learning. • • • • Key skills This section identifies any opportunities in the unit for learners to generate evidence to meet the requirements of key skills units. Centres should refer to the QCA website (www. delivery and assessment. Essential resources — identifies any specialist resources needed to allow learners to generate the evidence required for each unit. These links can be used to ensure that learners make connections between units. other BTEC units. This section is based on the more usual delivery modes but is not intended to rule out alternative approaches. Essential guidance for tutors This section is designed to give tutors additional guidance and amplification in order to provide understanding and a consistent level of delivery and assessment. Assessment — gives amplification about the nature and type of evidence that learners need to produce in order to pass the unit or achieve the higher grades. and not a quantitative one. It is divided into the following sections: • Delivery — explains the content’s relationship with the learning outcomes and offers guidance about possible approaches to delivery. merit or distinction grade. Assessors should take care to become familiar with the key skills specifications and evidence requirements and not to rely solely on this section when presenting key skills evidence for moderation. The centre will be asked to ensure that any requirements are in place when it seeks approval from Edexcel to offer the qualification. resulting in a coherent programme of learning.

Units Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3: Unit 4: Unit 5: Unit 6: Unit 7: Unit 8: Unit 9: Fundamentals of Science Working in the Science Industry Scientific Investigation Scientific Practical Techniques Perceptions of Science Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Mathematics for Science Technicians Statistics for Science Technicians Informatics 27 39 51 65 75 87 95 105 115 123 133 145 157 169 181 191 203 215 225 237 247 259 271 285 297 309 321 Unit 10: Using Science in the Workplace Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 14: Energy Changes. Sources and Applications Unit 15: Microbiological Techniques Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 23: Science for Environmental Technicians Unit 24: Principles of Plant and Soil Science Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 25 .

Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry Unit 29: Physiological Investigations Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation Unit 31: Criminology Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 34: Criminal Psychology Unit 35: Forensic Psychology Unit 36: Forensic Fire Investigation Unit 37: Forensic Science Informatics Unit 38: Traffic Accident Investigation Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice Unit 41: Forensic Media and Crime 335 347 357 367 377 389 401 409 419 429 441 453 465 477 26 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

This unit introduces learners to fundamental scientific ideas in chemistry.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Unit 1: NQF Level 3: Fundamentals of Science BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Learners wishing to pursue a career as a laboratory technician will need a general understanding of all the main sciences including some basic practical techniques. This should enable existing or future applied science technicians to carry out work effectively in industry and analytical services. biology and physics. The unit is core to all endorsed titles. chemistry and physics. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 27 . Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the quantities involved in chemical reactions Understand structures in biological systems Understand types of energy and their interconversions Know the basic principles of electricity and electromagnetic radiation. The learning outcomes have also been designed to underpin the knowledge required in fundamental concepts in biology.

ribosome. nucleolus. generation of electrical energy. bacteria. electron microscope Microscopic structures of cells: plants. thermal energy from fuels. molarities. endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough). lysosome. periodicity. examples of applications 28 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . connective. relative molecular mass. tetrahedral basis of organic chemistry Quantities in chemical reactions: balanced equations. cell wall. muscular 3 Understand types of energy and their interconversions Types of energy: mechanical (kinetic and potential). mitochondria. nerve. thermal. covalent bonding. prokaryote. preparation of standard solutions and titration 2 Understand structures in biological systems Design and operation of: light microscope. potential to kinetic. nuclear energy to electrical energy. relative atomic mass. animals. epithelial.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Unit content 1 Understand the quantities involved in chemical reactions The periodic table: organisation of elements. Golgi body. cytoplasm. groups (physical and chemical properties). nucleus. electromagnetic. nuclear Measurement of energy: to include all of the above types of energy. units. chemical. atomic number Electronic structure of atoms: Bohr’s theory Bonding of elements: ionic bonding. vesicles Cell division: mitosis Tissues and their functions: cell differentiation. moles. use of the calorimeter Examples of energy transfer: metabolism. electrical. eukaryote Cell organelle structure and function: cell membrane.

ammeters Electromagnetic radiation: the electromagnetic spectrum. potential difference (volt). main regions and their physical manifestations (ie typical wavelengths and energy contents). resistance (ohm). visible. Xrays. voltmeters.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE 4 Know the basic principles of electricity and electromagnetic radiation Electrical terminology and units: current (ampere). v=fλ speed of electromagnetic waves. Ohm’s law Electrical circuits and components: series and parallel circuits (resistors and capacitors). microwaves. wave amplitude. ultraviolet (uv). periodic time. radio wave. use of a colorimeter BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 29 . infrared (ir). power (watts). direct current (dc) alternating current (ac). frequency.

30 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the structures and functions of the components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and provide illustrations of types of animal tissue M3 practically demonstrate a range of energy interconversions with appropriate explanations of the systems investigated describe how series and parallel circuits operate referring to current and potential difference. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. and explain applications that use electrical circuits.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 draw conclusions based on the practicals carried out D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. atomic structure and chemical bonding and carry out simple titrations and calculate accurate results M2 explain the importance of cell differentiation in the formation of tissues in eukaryotes D2 P2 describe. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: explain the use of preparing standard solutions and titrations and describe how this may be carried out differently in industry compare different tissues with similar functions in terms of their structure and functions To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 outline the key features of the periodic table. P4 construct simple series and parallel electrical circuits and describe the properties of the main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. P3 describe the different types of energy and their interconversions M4 D3 evaluate the efficiencies of energy conversion systems D4 perform calculations on series and parallel circuits. using a light microscope and electron micrographs. and explain the applications of the main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

A risk assessment must be carried out. a quality control laboratory in a fine chemical or bulk chemical industry. The practical activities in this unit will develop technical skills and help learners to understand science. practical work in the laboratory and problem solving. If this is not possible for all learners. method. guided learning. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. Today’s science laboratories depend more and more on the use of computerised systems. Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). This could be reinforced by visits to relevant industries to enable learners to relate scientific theory to applications in relevant industrial sectors. and the separate space for computers. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. discussion. for example. This unit builds on the concepts in Key Stage 4. the GNVQ Intermediate. but even in many chemistry ones). Wherever possible the scientific theories should be applied to the use within. a medical laboratory. conclusion and references). results. For further guidance refer to page 497. Any opportunity should be taken to gather data from the practical activities via science-based technologies. the Edexcel BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science and GCSE in Applied Science. common scientific instruments. materials. The content of this unit should be contextualised for vocational routes.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. Scientists and science technicians need familiarity with basic terminology and principles associated with those measurement systems and their communications with computers. and the use of these instruments in a vocationally relevant context. aims/hypothesis. The fundamental ideas contained in this unit should be introduced through a programme of tuition. or a forensic science laboratory. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories and enable them to better deliver the unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 31 . a research establishment. Learners should be encouraged to use a standard scientific practical report format (introduction. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves.

The quantities in chemical reactions must also be calculated accurately. For P2. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. then tutors should complete observation forms so that evidence generated by learners is documented. Learners must ensure the calculations for the quantities in which chemicals react are accurate. For M1. Learners could be assessed by a variety of means. The merit grading criteria allow learners’ skills and understanding of scientific principles to be developed further. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum listed in the unit content must be fully described. For a merit grade. Electron micrographs should be provided to learners so that the cell organelles listed in the unit content can be identified and drawn. If learners are assessed via practicals. The tutor should teach all the listed types of energy. PowerPoint presentation. learners must know the basic principles of electricity and electromagnetic radiation. The learners must write balanced chemical equations from the results they generate. A diagram must be included by learners to aid the identification of all the regions listed in the unit content. The need for a safe working environment and risk assessments should always be maintained and reinforced by the tutor. Tutors should complete observation forms as evidence of learners demonstrating required practical skills. Tutors should ensure that learners know the design and operation of both the light and electron microscopes. For M2. learners must demonstrate practically the ability to prepare standard solutions and test their accuracy by titration. the electronic structure of atoms and the bonding of atoms. learners must explain cell differentiation and its importance in the formation of tissue types. The introduction must outline the periodic table. Learners must cover all tissue types in eukaryotes. Definitions of all the electrical terminologies and units given in the unit content must be written by the learner. Learners must write a brief description of the structures and functions of cell components. their associated units of measurement and the interconversions listed in the unit content. under tutor supervision. The conclusions given by learners must be accurate and account for anomalous results. 32 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . eg a written report. Learners should be able to explain the different types of energy and understand their interconversions by completing appropriate practicals. eg making simple circuits. For P3. For P4. learners must understand different types of energy and their interconversions. or worksheets provided by the tutor. or a poster presentation. learners must use a light microscope in accordance with good practice to draw and label samples of tissue types. Lengthy descriptions of the quantities in which chemical systems react are not required for P1.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. It is also necessary for learners to identify clearly the main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. possibly in the form of a written report or a poster. For P1. learners must draw conclusions for the practical work completed on preparing standard solutions and titrating as appropriate. Learners should relate the terms to simple circuits to show full understanding.

learners must use appropriate practical methods. Tutors should ensure that calculations are well presented. all the pass. or endocrine and exocrine glands. skills and understanding further. learners must use the practical investigations completed for M3 to write evaluations on the efficiencies of the energy conversion systems. For D1. Each energy conversion system investigated should be individually evaluated with appropriate vocational examples of their applications in industry. Learners must be able to apply knowledge of this topic to appropriate instrumentation of vocational relevance. Distinction criteria will develop learners’ knowledge. This may be presented as a poster. D2. learners must compare different tissues. as provided by the tutor. Learners should be encouraged to take responsibility for ensuring safety and risk assessments are completed. For D3. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners must present evidence of uses of the electromagnetic spectrum in industry. For D4. leaflet or similar: a long formal report is not required. or two sense organs/receptors. Tutors should record practicals carried out by learners on observation forms as evidence of the required work being completed. For example. learners must relate their practical work in the laboratory to industrial applications and comment on how procedures and equipment may differ in industry. learners must compare cardiac and skeletal muscle. D3 and D4. Illustrations learners have provided for M2 would be useful in developing greater understanding of cellular components of tissues and the relationship to the function of the tissue types. frequency and energy. and there is correct use of scientific terminology. For D2. in terms of their structure. Tutors delivering this unit can select appropriate practical methods to enable learners to demonstrate and explain energy conversion systems. This grading criterion requires a detailed review of the information learners have given for M2 so that the cellular components of the different tissue types can be identified and explained in terms of the functions of the tissue types. that have similar functions. Learners must work independently for D1. to show energy interconversions. clearly describing the differences between the tissues and explaining how both tissue types perform similar functions. For M4.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE For M3. For a distinction grade. Some centres may have limited practical apparatus but simple calorimetry is an essential practical requirement included in the unit content. learners must describe the properties of the main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 33 .

other BTEC units. Calorimeter. Colorimeter. Essential resources • • • • • • • • Basic laboratory glassware and general laboratory equipment. The content in this unit will be further developed in: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 14: Energy Changes. Light microscopes.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Links to National Occupational Standards. Basic equipment for building simple electrical circuits. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked with all the units in this programme as it underpins the knowledge and understanding of core scientific principles. 34 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Prepared microscope slides of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Photomicrographs showing cell organelles. Sources and Applications Unit 15: Microbiological Techniques Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 24: Principles of Plant and Soil Science Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis. Burettes.

ici. 2000) ISBN 0199146802 Ciccotti F and Kelly D — Physics AS (Collins Educational.uk/learning www. 2nd Edition (Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry) (Hodder Murray.rsc.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Adams S and Allday J — Advanced Physics (Oxford University Press.cellsalive.ac.com www. 2000) ISBN 0435570951 Fullick A and Fullick P — Chemistry: Evaluation Pack (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.uk www.bbc.nln.co.org.com www. 1997) ISBN 0719575079 Websites www.uk BBC learning CELLS alive The ICI Company National Learning Network The Royal Society of Chemistry BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 35 . 2000) ISBN 043557096X Fullick P — Heinemann Advanced Science: Physics (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2000) ISBN 0003277550 Fullick A — Heinemann Advanced Science: Biology (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2000) ISBN 0435570978 ILPAC — Advanced Practical Chemistry.

1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • acquiring and interpreting data from methods appropriate to a practical investigation. • drawing and presenting conclusions drawn from processed practical investigatory data. present your findings and justify your methods. and planning and undertaking a programme of work to provide relevant data from the investigation using appropriate methods to process primary data from practical work undertaken They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. • N3. 36 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.

3 Present combined information such as text with image.1a Take part in a group discussion. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning and carrying out a search for experimental methods appropriate to a scientific investigation to be undertaken preparing a report of a scientific investigation.1 Search for information.2 • C3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. text with number. image with number. each one giving different information about complex subjects. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 37 . • ICT3. such as the structure and function of cellular components or electronic configurations of elements and relating to their properties presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation reading and synthesising information about a complex subject. • C3.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. such as one of the examples in C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about a complex abstract scientific subject.3 Write two different types of documents. using different sources. One document must be at least 1000 words long. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.1a preparing a document about a complex subject as above. • C3.

and deciding on the approach to be adopted evaluating the plan continuously during the investigation. • LP3.3 Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. • PS3.2 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. • PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 Take responsibility for your learning.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. 38 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan for a scientific practical investigation and consulting and gaining the agreement of their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached. on the basis of the results and conclusions reached. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • formulating the plan with a range of options for a scientific practical investigation identifying and evaluating alternative approaches to the investigation. • LP3.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know how procedures are followed and information passed on in the laboratory Understand the design of a workplace with respect to its efficiency. The unit starts by exploring the essential procedures and practices found in all laboratories. Finally. An understanding of safety regulations and the application of laboratory management information systems are essential. The most important driving force in their success or failure will be how their laboratory is organised. This is supported by a look at specialist laboratories. This unit is crucial in underpinning the training of a science laboratory technician. They are examined on their different individual requirements in terms of efficiency. effectiveness and safety. effectiveness. effective and safe laboratory. the unit provides an essential insight into how laboratories are organised today in the light of up-to-date safe working practices and safety regulations. safety and security Understand laboratory management information systems and a range of scientific computer applications Be able to demonstrate and understand safe working practices in the laboratory. These combine to give an appreciation of how to run an efficient.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Unit 2: NQF Level 3: Working in the Science Industry BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract We continue to encounter many scientific challenges and at the centre of them all is the understanding and skill of the laboratory science technicians who work in a variety of places and scientific disciplines. Laboratory technicians need to have a good understanding of how each of the specialist laboratories have individual requirements and also have generic procedures and practices. This unit gives learners an appreciation of how scientific data and records are kept in a modern laboratory information system. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 39 .

test records. electrophoresis. collection/transport of substances and equipment for disposal. physical sciences. servicing dates and contracts. radioactive substances. reporting of results 2 Understand the design of a workplace with respect to its efficiency. briefings). instrumentation techniques eg colorimeter. specimen records. handling and use of glassware. storage. access. waste disposal records. specialist equipment. validation data. training records. report records. handling and disposal of radioactive substances. Data Protection Act Workplace records: stock records. research facilities Safety requirements: materials. use of ovens. quality assurance data. security. health and safety requirements. toxic and flammable substances. ordering procedures. chemical. calibration records. scientific apparatus records. organisation of the laboratory (weekly. calibration of equipment eg pH meters. use of centrifuges. specific safety equipment and clothing. effectiveness. specification levels. safety and security Design: identify the key features necessary in a laboratory (services. sample throughput and managing. fume cupboard. working as a team. etc). standard operating procedures 40 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . servicing equipment eg burettes and Bunsen burners. furniture. operation of the fume cupboard Communicating practices: lines of authority and accountability to and from other personnel. scientific data. storage. security 3 Understand laboratory management information systems and a range of scientific computer applications Scientific data storage: COSHH records. daily. desiccators and vacuum storage. waste disposal. workspace) Specialist laboratories: biological eg microbiological laboratories. safety equipment. health and safety checks. routines (work schedules. handling of solvents and poisons. work schedules. Pasteur pipettes. laboratory test data.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Unit content 1 Know how procedures are followed and information passed on in the laboratory Procedures: chemical store management.

protective shoes. action to be taken when incidents occur Sources of information: CLEAPSS hazcards.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY 4 Be able to demonstrate and understand safe working practices in the laboratory Definitions: risk. waste disposal. minimisation of risk. goggles. manufacturer’s data sheets. protective gloves. good housekeeping eg safe handling of pathogens. carried out for every practical activity. HSE inspectors. protective glasses BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 41 . incident and accident procedures. UKAS assessments. COSHH register. oxidising agent. protective equipment eg laboratory coat. hazards eg harmful. risk assessments. other relevant regulation/legislation Safe working practices: fume cupboard storage. UKAS BS 17025. BS EN ISO 9001 Regulations and legislation: COSHH regulations. toxic. MSDS. flammable. visor. reaction with water to give flammable gas Risk assessment: need for. good laboratory practice eg quality standards.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. effectiveness and safety D3 explain the advantages gained by keeping data and records on a laboratory management information system D4 explain why working practices in a laboratory are regulated. in addition to the pass criteria. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe procedures and practices undertaken in a laboratory and how they can be communicated M2 P2 identify key features in the design of a specialist laboratory M3 P3 identify the scientific data that may be stored and recorded in a laboratory P4 demonstrate safe working practices in a laboratory and describe their regulation. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Grading grid In order to pass this unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 demonstrate evidence of documented procedures that you have used in the laboratory design a specialist laboratory and justify its individual key features describe the procedure for storing scientific data and necessary records in a laboratory management information system explain how safe working practices in a laboratory are regulated. the learner is able to: explain and analyse why laboratory procedures and practices must be communicated in a laboratory analyse why good laboratory design is important for efficiency. M4 42 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.

It should make the learner aware that these results have to be recorded and stored for future reference. These factors together promote safety for everyone.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. efficiency and safety. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. but even in many chemistry ones). Varied and interesting experiments or exercises can teach the proper use of laboratory equipment. Learning outcome 2 should be delivered in a way that makes the learner fully aware of how the environment in which they find themselves affects their effectiveness. In delivering this unit it is essential that the learner be enthused. and the separate space for computers. and security for staff and information. Key laboratory skills can be developed in this way by concentrating on a practical teaching approach. Learning outcome 1 delivery could consist solely of completing and recording a number of practical exercises. The learner should be encouraged to risk assess each practical exercise they undertake. Reports should be written at every opportunity. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 43 . Well-designed specialist laboratories promote their own efficiency and effectiveness for their intended use and purpose. Industrial visits and guest speakers would also greatly enhance the experience. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. The learner should be made aware of all current regulations. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Learning outcome 4 addresses the safe practice of performing procedures and experiments in the laboratory. Learning outcome 3 brings together the purpose of a laboratory to produce results from scientific investigations and procedures. and have security systems in place to protect it. All four learning outcomes can be delivered to the learner in creative and stimulating assignments to promote successful learning. The recording of all practical work should be written in a hardback practical laboratory notebook by every learner. motivated and stimulated by performing experiments and following procedures in the laboratory. Modern laboratories all employ laboratory management information systems (LMIS) to record this information. The use of industrial visits should be encouraged to enlighten the learner about laboratory organisation in a range of scientific workplaces or laboratories. If this is not possible for all learners. The importance of health and safety regulations should be strongly stressed when undertaking all practical teaching. This will enforce the relevance of the unit.

Due to the enormous size of material in the unit content. to which the learner would apply the unit content to match working practices to their appropriate regulations. The opportunities for the learners to design leaflets or produce PowerPoint presentations should be strongly encouraged. tutors must acknowledge the need for security and must give some examples. For M2. For further guidance refer to page 497. P2 requires learners to describe key features of a laboratory in terms of the design of a specialist laboratory. The tutor could again write a specific worksheet for the assignment. 44 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the learners must identify the scientific data and records necessary for storage in an LMIS. tutors could give the learners a prepared list of scientific data and ask them to decide which sets of information could be stored on an LMIS and which could be placed on a workplace record system. Written justification should be supplied to the design of individual key features.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). For M1. Plans can be placed on a CD ROM or on graph paper according to the abilities of the learner and their ICT skills. learners are required to produce evidence of their practical activities performed in the laboratory. Evidence for this could take the form of a compiled list with accompanying short notes. Guidance on the design of specialist laboratories is expected to have been covered in the unit content. P4 requires learners to show safe working practices and their understanding of relevant current regulation. learners can compile lists on the scientific data that can be recorded and stored in a laboratory. For M3. Alternatively. For P3. Again. This should have been undertaken during the study of the unit content of learning outcome 1 and learning outcome 4. A risk assessment must be carried out. Learners must also demonstrate an awareness of the need for security and confidentiality. The criteria could be assessed by producing a leaflet. a leaflet or a PowerPoint presentation. the learners must produce a design or plan of a specialist laboratory. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Learners will be expected to cover the procedures listed in the unit content. but a catalogue-style presentation is not appropriate. It would normally take the form of a written practical work in a hardback laboratory notebook. Evidence can take the form of an essay or verbal presentation. descriptive list or PowerPoint presentation. For a merit grade. For P1. They should justify why some information should be scientific data and why it should be only stored as records. tutors may confine themselves to choosing specific types of data or records. learners will be expected to describe the procedures commonly used in a laboratory. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. and then decide how each can be communicated. The learner should stress the need for its storage on an LMIS.

Again. D2 requires learners to make an informed judgment on how a well-designed laboratory fulfils its effectiveness. For a distinction grade. efficiency. D3 requires the learners to justify the necessity for keeping data and records in an LMIS. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 45 . merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. other BTEC units. Tutors may wish to draw up appropriate worksheets for learners to complete during these visits. giving reasons and examples to support their evaluation. Their views should be supported by evidence. to assist the implementation of this task. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to the following units: • • • • • • • • • Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 9: Informatics Unit 10: Using Science in the Workplace Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 15: Microbiological Techniques Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques. Attention should be paid to applying the most upto-date regulations in all working practices in today’s scientific environments. For D1. industrial visits and/or guest speakers may assist greatly in the learners’ understanding of this course content. tutors can assist learners with the use of appropriate worksheets on any industrial visit or the visit of a guest speaker. learners should make a judgment about the importance of communicating laboratory procedures to other laboratory personnel. The evidence can be drawn from the course content or industrial visits. Again.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY M4 requires learners to submit a discussion essay. safety and security purposes. all the pass. giving details and examples to support their understanding of how safe working practices are regulated in the laboratory. Examples from industrial visits may be drawn upon to demonstrate the learners’ understanding in the form of a well-constructed essay. the learners must show that they understand why safe working practices are regulated in a modern laboratory. For D4. Links to National Occupational Standards. A well-constructed essay may be necessary to achieve the criterion. This could take the form of a well-structured essay. The learner may have to access the internet to complete this assignment.

Visits to industrial laboratories would enable the learners to talk to technical staff in a scientific environment. Learners should have a hardback laboratory notebook to ensure all laboratory practical work is recorded. The use of as much technical equipment as possible pertaining to the implementation of standard laboratory practices should be sought. This is strongly encouraged. Learners should have access to the internet. 2000) ISBN 0854049193 Morgan S — Advanced Level Practical Work for Biology (Hodder Murray. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Atkinson C and Mariotte J — The Prep Room Organiser (Association for Science Education. 2003) ISBN 0863572839 Hutchings K — Classic Chemistry Experiments (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2002) ISBN 0340847123 46 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Essential resources Tutors delivering this unit will ideally have had some industrial experience as a technician or scientist. Knowledge of contemporary methods and regulations is essential in teaching this unit. a library or a learning resource centre.

mond.uk www.bio-rad.org/biointeractive/vlabs www.uk www.htm www.org. London Science Enhancement Programme Chemical Industry Education Centre (CIEC) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 47 .com www.ase.ac.org.org.rsc.hhmi. Full copy of the Handbook) www.com/virtual. Technician’s Handbook by Judson PF Society of Chemical Industry The Royal Society of Chemistry The Science Consortium Science Learning Centre.gov/od/ohs/safety/basicchem.uk www.uk www.org www.org.explorer.bio.org.iop. htm www.org www.istonline.uk (go to: Publications.uk www.uk www.uk/org/ciec The Association for Science Education The Institute of Biology Office of Health and Safety (American website: has a set of scenarios that could provoke discussion) Bio Rad science education GlaxoSmithKline virtual tour of genetics laboratories Howard Hughes Medical Institute virtual laboratory tours CLEAPSS The Institute of Physics Institute of Science Technology.cdc.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Websites www.york.scienceconsortium.sep.org.sciencelearningcentres. Laboratory Handbook.infomat.net/infomat/rd_staffroom/ rd1/database/cleapps www.genetics.gsk.co.

• performing calibration of standard laboratory equipment.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. N3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.1 Search for information.2 Communication Level 3 When learners are: • showing a PowerPoint presentation as part of an assignment. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • N3. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.3 Present combined information such as text with image. image with number. ICT3. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching information for the grading criteria presenting PowerPoint presentations. present your findings and justify your methods. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. text with number. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. using different sources. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • performing standard procedures in the laboratory and applying risk assessments performing good laboratory practice and preparing stock solutions They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. • 48 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. WO3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. effectiveness and safety in the workplace. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 49 .1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • undertaking practical procedures in the laboratory undertaking communication exercises.2 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • • performing procedures and practices in the laboratory checking the stock solutions prepared.1 Plan work with others.1 PS3.UNIT 2: WORKING IN THE SCIENCE INDUSTRY Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • undertaking exercises in efficiency. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.

50 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

learners will have to make the best use of the laboratory time allocated by the tutor. carry out and analyse the results of their investigation and present it as a scientific report. Working in science often means teamwork but there are many instances of independent work. to plan and execute their ideas and to deal with the results. Learners may be asked to carry out a practical investigation designed by somebody else or to suggest ways of doing an investigation themselves. Learners may need to use questionnaires but these will only be part of their research. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 51 . Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to formulate a relevant hypothesis and plan an investigation relevant to the area of study Understand the scientific principles involved in the investigation and be able to undertake the planned investigation Be able to collect. In this unit.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Unit 3: NQF Level 3: Scientific Investigation BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract All scientists need to have good investigative skills and this unit develops these essential skills. learners will be monitored by the tutor right from the start of the procedure. As in an industrial laboratory. After discussion with the tutor learners will be asked to plan. The practical investigation is designed to allow learners to show their science knowledge and practical skills. their awareness of health and safety issues and how accurately and honestly they record their results. This is a practical unit and one project will be used to cover all the learning outcomes. The topic learners choose for investigation will depend on the endorsed title they are following. The emphasis in this unit is on the learners’ ability to formulate a relevant hypothesis that they would be able to test experimentally. collate and analyse the results from the investigation using appropriate techniques and present them in an accepted format Understand and interpret results from the investigation and present them in a report in an accepted scientific format including any applications and implications of science. although learners may repeat their experiment several times in order to collect accurate data. Assessment will be on the final report and will take into account how learners carry out their practical work.

standard deviation. correct units of experimental quantities used. researched information to support/negate experimental work 52 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . precision. collate and analyse the results from the investigation using appropriate techniques and present them in an accepted format Practical data: organisation of data eg class intervals. fieldwork. elimination/minimisation of identified risks. repeatability. assessment of possible errors in practical work Health and safety: risk assessment. location and extraction of relevant information sources. accurate calculations Validation of method and results: fitness for purpose of methods used. details of experimental design and controls. tallying. use of relevant. availability of physical resources 2 Understand the scientific principles involved in the investigation and be able to undertake the planned investigation Scientific principles: identification. application Experimental techniques: assembly of relevant equipment and materials. recording results. manipulative skills. description of experimental research eg laboratory. observational skills. sources and magnitudes of errors in reading taken Assessment of information sources used: relevance to investigation. methods of data processing and analysis eg mean. accuracy. sports facility Information resources: identification. maintenance of working laboratory book 3 Be able to collect. integrity. use of recognised protocol for recording the sources eg Harvard system. assessment of reliability and validity of information researched Principles of design of investigations: formulation of hypothesis. assessment of experimental accuracy and precision. proposed analytical techniques to be used. appropriate use of instruments and techniques for taking measurements. adherence to health and safety requirements.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Unit content 1 Be able to formulate a relevant hypothesis and plan an investigation relevant to the area of study Nature of the investigation: statement of objectives and hypothesis. student’s t-test.

correct scientific language and terminology ie third person. consideration of the hypothesis BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 53 . past tense. conclusions drawn using scientific principles. sources of error and how to minimise. inclusion in appendix of relevant references and bibliography Data presentation: appropriate format.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION 4 Understand and interpret results from the investigation and present them in a report in an accepted scientific format including any applications and implications of science Scientific report of the investigation: correct scientific protocol ie structure. experimental and literature investigations. correct units Scientific evaluation of findings: evaluation of results. format. appropriate degree of precision.

P4 state and explain the conclusions in a report using accepted scientific protocol and language. drawing on primary and secondary research data. in addition to the pass criteria. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. justifying the statistical methods chosen and relating the findings to scientific principles and applications D4 evaluate the outcomes of the investigation using scientific protocols. experimental procedures and recording methods chosen D2 evaluate the effectiveness of the investigative procedures in terms of accuracy and precision and suggest how these could be improved D3 analyse the data. carry out the planned investigation. the learner is able to: appraise the different approaches considered for the investigation and justify the hypothesis. M4 54 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 state the objectives and hypothesis of the investigation and present a working plan for the experiment including health and safety assessments M2 explain how accuracy and precision are ensured in the investigation P2 demonstrate the required manipulative skills to assemble relevant equipment and materials and safely carry out the planned investigation M3 P3 assemble equipment. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. and justify the use of experimental techniques to increase the accuracy. modify practical procedures if necessary.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the learner is able to: M1 analyse the research information obtained and discuss how it is relevant to the planned experiment D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. including presentation of relevant research resources. reliability and validity of results obtained justify the conclusions made. record the results and analyse the data collected review experimental progress. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

It is not intended that this unit is assessed via other units. Risk assessments. The choice of topic for investigation should be vocationally relevant and chosen specifically for this unit. techniques and information from other units. This extended science project allows learners to show their ability to do meaningful. observation. Formal input will be needed at the start of this unit so that learners are clear about the scientific protocols associated with a science investigation. Formal input will probably be needed initially and then tutorial support as the learners research their area of interest. set up their hypothesis and plan practical work to test it. Tutorial guidance is essential as learners will be limited in their choice of topic by the facilities and equipment available. investigative work using standard operating procedures expected of technicians in the workplace. but each learner must be able to prove that all the learning outcomes and grading criteria are covered by their own work. as is the pooling of results. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories but even in many chemistry ones) and the separate space for computers.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. analysing the results and producing a report. The tutor must observe each learner assembling the equipment needed and safely carrying out the practical work. The whole unit is based around formulating a hypothesis then planning and carrying out an investigation. The investigation carried out by learners is not expected to be original but it should be new to the learners. Health and safety issues relating to this work must be emphasised and safe working practices adhered to. dexterity. the use of COSHH and other regulations must be followed and the learners should be supervised by qualified members of staff in the laboratory. If this is not possible for all learners. The tutor should make it clear to learners what skills they will be assessed on. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. use of suitable equipment. recording of their data in a working laboratory book. ensuring accuracy and consideration of validity of data. but it may well use skills. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 55 . Learning outcome 1 demands the ability to formulate a hypothesis and plan an investigation. Individual or group work is permissible. eg manipulation. For learning outcome 2 learners should carry out the investigation linked with the scientific principles involved.

An expert witness such as the laboratory technician may be used to judge the effectiveness of the assembly of the equipment and working safely. Formal input will be needed in helping them choose and use the statistical techniques (which are covered in Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians). For further guidance refer to page 497. Calculations must be accurate and results that are clearly wrong must be checked and corrected by the learner. Negative results are as valid as positive ones — learners need to explain what has happened and why. The tutor must consider how well the practical is carried out and the accuracy with which learners record their results (P3). A clear objective and hypothesis must be given which is relevant to the practical work planned. For P1. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. A conclusion should be given along with a statement saying clearly whether the hypothesis has been supported or negated and why. If the tutor devises a list of factors to satisfy the grading criteria. especially in choosing and applying the analytical techniques. Learners must be observed as they assemble the equipment and materials they need and carry out the experiment safely. Tutor support will be needed throughout this learning outcome. For P3. 56 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Consideration of statistical analysis must be done during planning to ensure data collected is suitable for the statistical analysis required. The end result should be in a form which any science supervisor would accept as an account of a scientific investigation. data collection charts and evidence of statistical techniques. From this the learners should be validating their methods and results and making reference to their research to support or negate their findings. learners must present a realistic working plan for the experiment with sufficient detail for the tutor to follow the practical work planned. Learning outcome 4 requires a written report which follows standard scientific protocol for reporting investigations. such a list must be shared with the learners well in advance. the results obtained from learners’ observed practical work must be analysed and then compared with information found as a result of the research. Learners need to include references within their text and compile a reference list and bibliography using accepted methods. A risk assessment should be carried out to comply with existing health and safety rules in the laboratory. It is acceptable for learners to state their objective rather than stating how a hypothesis will be supported or negated by their investigation. performing the investigation is normally assessed in the laboratory. For P2.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Learning outcome 3 requires the learners to organise their data using conventional methods and then use statistical analysis. This report will be expected to include text. graphical data. A risk assessment must be carried out. A qualitative approach is sufficient to meet the grading criteria but learners must show that they have analysed their results and considered other relevant secondary data. Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). Calculations must be carried out accurately.

decimal place accuracy. For example. third party. at least one appropriate statistical technique should be applied to the data collected and the method involved should be recorded even if a computer programme did the calculations. why only two decimal places were recorded. Tutors should look for material taken from another source to be acknowledged as such. Learners will be expected to demonstrate accuracy in their observational skills. how it is related to their investigation and possibly how it has affected their plans. Part of this criterion will probably be assessed via observation during the practical procedures. learners must justify why an approximation was used. Research material must be cited using a recognised system. This part of the report requires learners to write more formally using accepted scientific language and protocols.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION For P4 learners must draw together the results of their work. learners must bring together the results of their work by justifying the conclusions they have drawn. For M3. Learners must make it obvious that they have considered how to ensure that the data collected is accurate and precise. Methods to increase accuracy and precision should be given. including websites where the URL should be given and date of last access to the site. Recording the results in an appropriate format is required including noting approximations. For M2. The evaluation of the material needs to be documented so learners can show their ability to analyse and evaluate information and relate it to the experimental topic chosen. etc. and correct referencing of sources. For M4. positioning themselves correctly to read the level in a burette/measuring cylinder. eg reading liquid levels by showing awareness of the meniscus. eg passive. eg the apparatus may have been linked to a computer which has been programmed to convert raw data to a graph. Learners need to show what information has been retained. At this level learners should realise that the bibliography is recommended reading and the references are sources they have referred to in the text or from which they have taken information. It is expected that learners will give a comprehensive bibliography and list of references using a standard protocol such as the Harvard system. etc. past tense. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 57 . stating whether their original objective or hypothesis has been met and explaining their conclusions. Some learners will gather an enormous amount of research material which may or may not be relevant. the execution or the report of the investigation. This can be demonstrated in the plan. For a merit grade. The outcomes of the analysis need to be related to the research data found. the accurate recording of data should be part of the observation process but it can also be assessed as part of the written report when the raw data should be included in an appendix. In doing so they should be in a position to support (or discard) their original hypothesis and justify their opinion based on their data and the researched material. For M1 learners are expected to analyse their research material and relate it to the planned experiment. etc. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met.

D4 requires learners to review the information obtained from their practical work and research. information communication technology. For D1. The development and use of skills for identifying. reporting and communicating are developed for use in this and other units. repeat the whole procedure or even carry on as originally intended. Links to National Occupational Standards. learners may use only one statistical technique but this choice needs to be justified. techniques and information gained from other units. Other skills involving numeracy and data handling. 58 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . decide on its validity and decide whether the original hypothesis has been validated. Whichever. Justification must include reasons why other statistical techniques were rejected. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. the appropriateness of the statistical technique used must be assessed. other BTEC units. Having settled on their plan they should be able to justify their choice of procedures. The results from the statistical application must be analysed and assessed in terms of how they meet the original hypothesis. For D3. Should learners modify their practical procedure while not being observed. Practical skills will be developed and assessed that are vocationally relevant to this unit and others. learners must record their review procedures and explain and justify their decisions. They must evaluate the validity and usefulness of their researched data and how their experimental data compare with published information. The review of the experimental procedure and its progress may end in a decision to start again. modify something. the modification or rewriting of their hypothesis and the strengths and weaknesses if alternative approaches were used. planning. accessing and using information from a variety of sources is needed to achieve the learning outcomes. The statistical techniques chosen must be appropriate and accurately applied. It is expected that correct scientific protocols are observed throughout the project. The unit is designed so the investigation can be carried out in the centre or workplace laboratory and it should be observed as part of the assessment process. once the topic and hypothesis have been decided learners must plan the experiment. Learners need to show they have considered in detail more than one approach and the problems they raised. For D2. Additionally. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit may be linked with many other units in the programme but it is intended that the investigation performed is chosen specifically for this unit. Learners must evaluate alternative experimental approaches. any alterations need to be documented so verification is possible. all the pass. It is not intended that this unit is assessed via other units but it may use skills. the tutor must observe learners performing the planned investigation.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION For a distinction grade.

Research facilities should include access to computers. Similarly. 2003) ISBN 085404468X Reed R et al — Practical Skills in Biomolecular Science (Prentice Hall. The choice of experiment will be negotiated with the tutor but it must be practically based. 2002) ISBN 0340847123 Prichard E and Lawn R — Practical Laboratory Skills Training Guide: Measurement of pH (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 3rd Edition (Prentice Hall. 2003) ISBN 0854044736 Prichard E and Lawn R — Practical Laboratory Skills Training Guide: Measurement of Volume (The Royal Society of Chemistry. normally in the laboratory. CD ROMs and suitable texts. 2005) ISBN 0471780863 Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Chemistry (Prentice Hall. 2002) ISBN 013045141X Lintern M — Laboratory Skills for Science and Medicine: An Introduction (Radcliffe Medical Press. 2001) ISBN 013028002X Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Forensic Science (Prentice Hall. 2003) ISBN 0521815274 Hutchings K — Classic Chemistry Experiments (The Royal Society of Chemistry. Suitably experienced and qualified staff will be needed to supervise the practical work and the assessments carried out in the laboratory. or a combination of them. 2005) ISBN 0131144006 Derenzo S E — Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory: Using a PC for Instrumentation. laboratory space equipped for work at Level 3 standard is required. 2003) ISBN 0130451428 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 59 . 2000) ISBN 0854049193 Jones A et al — Practical Skills in Biology. The learners should have available science and mathematics packages to help them present their data in the most appropriate way. suitable staff will be required for the assessment of the scientific report using standard scientific protocol. Equipment and Technique (John Wiley & Sons. Data Analysis and Control (Cambridge University Press. Therefore the centre will be expected to have the normal range of equipment and materials to carry out advanced level practical work in physics. or field equipment if appropriate. 2006) ISBN 1846190169 Morgan S — Advanced Level Practical Work for Biology (Hodder Murray. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Coyne G S — The Laboratory Companion: A Practical Guide to Materials. chemistry and biology. The facilities needed should include access to equipment which will enable learners to carry out an experiment of their choosing. It could cover any of the content of the units learners are studying as part of this qualification.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Essential resources To deliver this unit.

org/go/Topic/ Default_4.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Journals Nature New Scientist Website www.html ideas for practical investigations 60 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .chemistry-react.

Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. • writing up a report of their investigation. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.3 Write two different types of documents. C3. N3.1 N3. present your findings and justify your methods. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 61 .2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out research to support experimental findings They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. One document must be at least 1000 words long.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning to carry out an investigation recording data and carrying out calculations including statistical analysis They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • explaining their experimental work and its conclusions.

• LP3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.2 Take responsibility for your learning.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. ICT3. Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • discussing with supervisors their plans for the investigation. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.3 Present combined information such as text with image.3 62 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . text with number. • • ICT3. image with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. using different sources. • LP3.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out a search for experimental methods and information for their investigation recording their data and using computer packages for graphical and statistical techniques writing up their experimental report. health and safety checks and the equipment to be used analysing and appraising the plans developed and modifying them as they proceed carrying out their practical investigation and recording observations. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.1 Search for information.

• • PS3.UNIT 3: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • deciding on their investigation and which method to choose discussing their investigation and experimental method analysing results and writing up the report.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. • WO3.1 Plan work with others.3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • conferring with supervisors and laboratory technicians about their investigation agreeing work plans with their supervisor including equipment requirements discussing their investigation with tutors and validity of pooling results with colleagues for greater accuracy.2 PS3. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 63 . They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. WO3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.

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As a result of scientific advances new drugs have revolutionised health care. When scientists undertake investigations they may only need to know what substances are present. conservation. In this unit they will gain experience of a range of instruments and their use. going faster. In all of these areas the ability to work safely and accurately and to appreciate the properties of materials is important. new materials developed by scientists have enabled athletes to break world records. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to use appropriate methods to produce two chemical substances Be able to use sampling techniques Be able to use analytical methods Be able to select and use appropriate instruments for scientific investigations. animal health and breeding. and new forensic techniques have led to accurate and swift conviction of criminals and solved crimes from the past. an investigation of a pollution incident may need to identify the cause of the pollution. Learners will gain experience of both these types of analytical method. learners need to be able to select and use appropriate instruments for the work being carried out. In sport. including environment.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Unit 4: NQF Level 3: Scientific Practical Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The ability to sample and test substances and materials is important in many branches of industry. food manufacturing. If the scientist is checking the purity of a pharmaceutical product then accurate content measurements are needed. In order to do this. engineering and aerospace. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 65 . higher and further than ever before. Practical techniques are the basis of many other science-related industries. For example. in research work and in forensic science. but it is also necessary to find the quantities of the substances.

appropriate reference data 2 Be able to use sampling techniques Sampling: importance of sampling. hazards. calcium. chromatography. chromatography eg paper. potassium. solvent extraction. thin layer. storage to ensure valid results Safety procedures: risks. application of health and safety 4 Be able to select and use appropriate instruments for scientific investigations Selection of instruments: measure scientific parameters. test for cations eg sodium. copper.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Be able to use appropriate methods to produce two chemical substances Preparative techniques: produce samples of two chemical substances. safety. infrared. sulphate. risk assessment. ie an organic chemical compound Separation techniques: eg precipitation. sources of information. assembly of instruments. compressive strength. gas liquid. barium. consideration of the required accuracy Measurement: techniques for measuring material properties eg conductivity. calibration. importance of sample collection. process and record data and qualitative information from the instruments 66 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . spectroscopy eg ultraviolet. cell or tissue disruption Estimation of purity: measurement of melting point and boiling point. centrifugation. risk assessment. pH meter. qualitative methodology. crystallisation. collect. distillation. colorimeter. sources of information. techniques for solids. application of health and safety 3 Be able to use analytical methods Analysis: quantitative methodology. carbonate Safety procedures: risks. tensile strength. elasticity Use of a variety of basic instruments: microscope. preparation and use of standard solutions. labelling. hazards. gases. liquids. balance. appropriate choice of instruments. electrophoresis. test for anions eg chloride. filtration.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 measure the yield and purity in the preparations carried out and describe the factors that influence them describe the importance of sampling in a specific industrial context explain the importance and legal responsibilities of working safely explain the choice of instruments in the practical exercises. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 67 . D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: explain how the highest yield and best purity could be achieved in the preparations carried out explain potential sources of error in sampling and describe how to deal with errors D3 explain the importance of working accurately and how accuracy can be ensured in the techniques used D4 evaluate the variables in operation of instruments used and how they could be optimised. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 produce samples of at least two compounds and estimate their purity M2 P2 apply sampling techniques while working safely M3 P3 carry out analytical techniques and report the results accurately M4 P4 select and use appropriate instruments to test substances or materials.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.

If this is not possible for all learners. Learners should be introduced to the selected techniques and practise them through formative practical work before presentation for assessment. select instruments or analytical methods to obtain results to pre-determined specifications. The procedures selected will be influenced by those in common use in the related vocational area and the resources available to the centre. The delivery should be based on a well-structured programme of practical exercises to develop the necessary skills. • • • • Use of aseptic techniques to culture microorganisms. therefore. They must follow these procedures consistently and accurately to meet the objectives of the organisation. 68 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . desks etc that learners may not be aware of. All practical briefs must include risk analyses consistent with COSHH regulations. and the separate space for computers. with appropriate methods of location and estimation. Setting up and using the light microscope to examine and characterise cellular and tissue samples. The role of the technician in the science industry or related industries is largely defined by standard operating procedures. estimation of bacterial cell counts using haemocytometer. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. they should not. non-reducing sugars. Qualitative tests for representative samples of biochemical materials (reducing sugars. This unit is designed to facilitate the development of consistent and accurate practical skills appropriate to the learners’ employment or interests. The practical exercises used to deliver the learning outcomes will be determined by the specialisation of the learners. use of staining techniques to identify products. starches. lipids). Health and safety must be a recurring theme throughout the delivery and assessment of this unit. The following approaches might be appropriate. be expected to carry out full risk analyses unsupervised for practical work to be undertaken. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. Learners are not ‘competent persons’ under the COSHH regulations. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. The learning outcomes of this unit require learners to carry out selected procedures to pre-determined orders of accuracy. These must be emphasised during introduction of each practical exercise and the learners required to take all identified measures during their work. The technician is required to use these procedures to produce material. Quantitative determination using electrophoresis and/or chromatography. Learners must understand how reasonable precautions can prevent hazards becoming risks. but even in many chemistry ones).UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. proteins.

whether it is carried out in the centre or off-site. tensile and compressive testing apparatus. recrystallisation or solvent extraction. chromatography or spectroscopic methods and using appropriate sampling methods. Learners should produce results within an acceptable tolerance to achieve the criteria for the pass grade. Evidence of assessment of process must be fully documented and made available for verification. the assessment should not concentrate solely on written reports of methods used. The tutor should use appropriate methods to observe the learners’ performance of practical activities and to record them for verification purposes. learners who are outside the allowed limits must be required to repeat the work until the required standards are met. tutors must make firm and written arrangements for assessment. An acid-base titration followed by crystallisation and fermentation. Tolerances should reflect values expected in employment but should recognise that an employed technician might engage in only one or a small number of laboratory techniques. The most important pass requirement for all learners is to work safely and accurately. Safety requirements should be applied to all activities. Assessment The effectiveness of the science technician in industry is measured by completion of set work within timescales and to specified quality standards. use of evidence produced in the workplace may be admissible for this unit. The assessment of this unit should reflect workplace practices as closely as possible. Selection and calibration of instruments for testing or measuring: viscometer. oscilloscope etc. P2. The focus of assessment should be on learners carrying out the required tasks. The learners should be assessed by observation while performing the set tasks and on results obtained. The acceptable tolerances must be applied rigorously. A risk assessment must be carried out. titrimetric. estimation of purity by melting point or boiling point or spectroscopically. If the learners are in employment. For P1. refractometer. rather than concentration on a final written report. In particular. Results that are clearly wrong must not be accepted. If evidence from employment is to be used. Set tolerance should be demanding of the practical skills but achievable by the competent learner.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES • Preparation of inorganic and organic compounds. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 69 . purification by distillation. tensometer. For further guidance refer to page 497. Qualitative analyses of inorganic or organic materials (single compounds or mixtures) using standard chemical tests. Analysis of soil or water samples or another substance found in the natural environment. P3 and P4 learners must use the methods provided to produce results within specification. multimeter. • • • • Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity).

It is not appropriate to base the evidence for distinction on answers to structured questions. Non-employed learners will benefit from visits to appropriate industrial facilities to see practical techniques in operation in the context of the industry. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Most units in the Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science have a practical component and therefore this unit can be linked to many. The merit learner must show an understanding of the precautions in each method to reduce risk from the hazards present. This selection may be informed by the learners’ experience of practical work during study of this unit. Links to National Occupational Standards. The learners’ evidence may be in the form of responses to structured questions designed to focus the learners’ attention on the required information. Practical investigations may assume that the learners possess specific practical skills — if learners do not. which involves the planning of an investigation. This is a valid method of programme planning. D3 and D4 require learners to show sufficient understanding of the techniques used to evaluate their performance. D2. Programme teams may plan to integrate the delivery and/or assessment of practical techniques partially or totally within other units. M3 and M4 learners must show an appreciation of the principles of the methods used and why they are appropriate to the selected activities. Learners must identify how techniques can be optimised and the accuracy of the results maximised. The practical techniques developed in this unit may find application in Unit 3: Scientific Investigation. All learners will need access to appropriate laboratory facilities and information communication technology resources. M2. Learners must show considerable independence when generating evidence. D1. Essential resources The resources required are determined by the learners’ specialist studies. but it must not lead to any dilution of the development of practical skills that are the basis of this unit. 70 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . such questions must not be so prescriptive as to make the generation of correct responses undemanding. The practical methods selected for study should be representative of those in current use in the appropriate vocational area. However. the identified skills may be developed and assessed through this unit. including selection of methods. other BTEC units.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES For M1.

UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Coyne G S — The Laboratory Companion: A Practical Guide to Materials. 2006) ISBN 1846190169 Prichard E and Lawn R — Practical Laboratory Skills Training Guide: Measurement of pH (The Royal Society of Chemistry. Equipment and Technique (John Wiley & Sons. 2003) ISBN 0521815274 Jones A et al — Practical Skills in Biology. Data Analysis and Control (Cambridge University Press. 2005) ISBN 0131144006 Derenzo S E — Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory: Using a PC for Instrumentation. 2001) ISBN 013028002X Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Forensic Science (Prentice Hall. 2003) ISBN 085404468X Reed R et al — Practical Skills in Biomolecular Science (Prentice Hall. 2003) ISBN 0130451428 Journals Nature New Scientist BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 71 . 2003) ISBN 0854044736 Prichard E and Lawn R — Practical Laboratory Skills Training Guide: Measurement of Volume (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2002) ISBN 013045141X Lintern M — Laboratory Skills for Science and Medicine: An Introduction (Radcliffe Medical Press. 2005) ISBN 0471780863 Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Chemistry (Prentice Hall. 3rd Edition (Prentice Hall.

2 • 72 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . each one giving different information about complex subjects.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • presenting their work to an audience of their peers and tutors using slides or other visual aids reading scientific journals and textbooks on the practical techniques used in science writing an essay or producing a PowerPoint presentation on scientific practical techniques used to balance purity and yield against cost.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.3 Write two different types of documents. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. C3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • measuring the yield and purity of compounds produced. One document must be at least 1000 words long. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. • C3. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.UNIT 4: SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning experiments together to produce compounds identifying ways of improving teamwork. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 73 .1 Plan work with others.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. • WO3.

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Learners are free to choose their topics of study. the main thrust of this unit is the analysis of case studies. politics and society. as influenced by the media Be able to identify the ethical and moral issues associated with scientific advances Understand the relationship between science. society as a whole and the media in particular. people and politics? What influences science? In this unit learners can use their science training and knowledge to explore the pressures on the science community. Similarly. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 75 .UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Unit 5: NQF Level 3: Perceptions of Science BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract This unit allows learners to explore the role of science in a wider context. This is an opportunity for learners to show that they can express their opinions constructively. How much influence does science have on society. and the tutor will be available for discussion and guidance in making these choices. they can investigate whether science can influence people and politicians. provided they are relevant to the endorsed title they have followed during this course. Learners will be putting forward reasoned arguments about some of the more controversial current science topics. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the development of scientific knowledge Understand the public perception of science. The aim of this unit is to show knowledge of science and an understanding of its interaction with people. commerce and politics. Is it fair that scientists get the blame when their discoveries are misused? Should scientists withhold their knowledge in case the media get hold of it and release scare stories or misinterpret their work? Although learners will need to do some initial research on the media. Learners can express their own opinions about the science topics of their choice but the final conclusions they present must be supported by fact and well reasoned.

effect of science reporting on different groups in society Perceptions of science: eg science documentaries. control of media output Constraints on the media: legal eg court orders. ethics committees Value and limitations of science: characteristics of a scientific question. owners. hypothesis. other eg government watchdogs. self-regulating bodies eg Press Complaints Commission Science reporting: specialist journals. media representation eg by non-science journalists. accuracy of science reporting. effect of science reporting on different groups in society 76 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . slander and libel. civil law. illustrative examples eg particulate theory of matter. newspaper articles. DNA collection for government database Concerns about science: control of experimental work. level of language used eg technical. science ‘scare’ stories eg MMR vaccine. popular science journals eg New Scientist. blinds. validity. style of writing. reliability. implications of cloning. style of writing. internet. scientific. as influenced by the media Media: eg formats. exploiting public fears eg rapid spread of viruses. control of scientists’ ideas. quantum theory. target audience. use of controls. processes determining the solution. criminal law. scientific theory (hypotheses). legal procedures. testing. science docu–fiction. layman. hidden agenda. concordant data. layman. science detail and accuracy. influences. scientific. evidence.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Unit content 1 Understand the development of scientific knowledge Development of theories: ideas. allocation of public money. double-blinds. placebos. Astronomy Now. level of language used eg technical. theory. cannot prove a negative Uncertainties: ideas develop over time. control of research funds. ideas acknowledged and validated by the scientific community. safeguards for scientific research. informed consent. film and television series. originators. evolution Collection and analysis of data: methods of collection. peer-review 2 Understand the public perception of science. repetition of experiments. target audience. predications. science detail and accuracy.

private funding. financial rewards for donating organs. contemporary scientific or technological advances eg artificial intelligence. genetic manipulation. siting of radio masts Ethical and moral issues: eg animals and humans as organ donors. DNA sampling at crime scenes 4 Understand the relationship between science. stem cell research. development and control of science discoveries later used for non-peaceful purposes eg chemical weapons.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE 3 Be able to identify the ethical and moral issues associated with scientific advances Scientific advances: benefits. incentives offered to doctors for prescribing. interplanetary explorations. public funding. drawbacks. atomic (nuclear) bombs BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 77 . long space journeys. civil rights concerned with eg DNA databases. their influence and association with popular science. their influence on society eg animal rights. commerce and politics Society and politics: eg social groups in society. vested interest. use of scientific data obtained by dubious means eg illegal experiments. voluntary or statutory pressure groups. political groups. chemical weapons. intelligent design. limited research resources and the cost eg of international space stations. analysis of body fluids and materials at crime scenes. their influence on science issues. risks. experimenting on animals eg drug trials. screening eg to avoid inherited conditions. genetic manipulation eg GM crops. postcode lottery of drug availability. artificial reproduction. funding restraints on prescription drugs. development of space exploration programmes. pressure groups. drug treatments. allocation of funds eg cost effectiveness of new scientific developments in medicine eg expensive drug regimes. transplants and self-inflicted illnesses eg smoking and lung cancer. international pressures Commerce and finance: eg financial supporters of research. miniaturisation of electrical components. wartime Nazi experiments. technology.

highlighting the processes involved P2 list public concerns about science highlighted in the media and describe two recent cases M3 M2 analyse whether the media makes a positive contribution to the public’s perception of science D3 analyse the ethical and/or moral arguments associated with two scientific or technological developments and substantiate your own conclusion D4 explain how science can be put to uses other than those originally intended and how this affects either society or society’s perception of science. P3 list scientific or technological developments which have raised ethical or moral issues and describe the issues associated with two developments M4 P4 describe five different groups and/or organisations that have a political agenda and their influence on science. the learner is able to: M1 differentiate between those questions that science is currently addressing. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. those that science cannot yet answer and those that science will never be able to answer. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: explain the necessity for peer-review and why sometimes there is resistance to new scientific theories To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the development of one scientific theory. 78 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Grading grid In order to pass this unit. giving two examples of each explain whether concerns raised about science in the media are justified by analysing two recent cases explain the progress made by one contemporary scientific or technological advance and analyse the effect on society as it was developed explain that financial support influences scientific research.

Additionally. The learners should negotiate. while there are scientific methods. Learning outcome 1 is an opportunity for learners to explore the nature of science: what is a scientific question and what is not. Some guidance should be given by the tutors to ensure learners look at all branches of science and technology and a variety of media formats. This should cause much discussion. Learners can do their own research to define ‘the nature of science’. science ‘facts’ are ultimately arrived at by consensus. after consultation. Learning outcome 2 requires the learners to understand how their perception of science fits in with the public perception. It is not expected that learners explore the depths of the philosophy of science. and why some questions are scientific and why some are not. facilitators or mentors do not all need to be science specialists. Close monitoring of the learners is necessary to prevent loss of momentum and to ensure the focus is kept on the material to be covered. it is important that the learners are able to consider science objectively and have the opportunity to develop a balanced view. They could also explore why there are some areas of knowledge that could be subject to scientific investigation but which are not.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Essential guidance for tutors Delivery In this unit tutors will need to provide factual and stimulus material and use case studies to prepare learners for discussion. This is best done through informed discussion. Learners should be given the opportunity to consider how the general and specialist media report a science story. Learners should understand the ever-changing situation of scientific knowledge as theories are reviewed and improved to give a more realistic reflection of our world and how it works. via individual action planning with their tutor. Learners should appreciate that. However. The use of specialist speakers is essential to provide the backdrop needed for this unit. but that scientists do follow general protocols to ensure validity and reliability of information. Learners may benefit from having some input from staff from other disciplines. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 79 . It is intended that after the factual input the learners will use their tutors as facilitators but essentially the learners should be ‘self-driven’. but they should show an appreciation of the nature of science: that there is no one scientific method. which should be strongly encouraged. how they will meet the learning outcomes and grading criteria. The facilitators should be periodically reviewing each action plan to make sure the goals and target dates set are being met. In this unit the tutors. to consider some topics in line with their particular interests. They may then choose. processes and conventions. they must consider the way science concerns are reported by the media.

some of the topics chosen may be emotive and personal opinions will probably feature largely in the public perceptions put forward. Initially. Learners can take a historical angle if they wish. Learners should be encouraged to research these and must present a balanced view of these groups. 80 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners should also be encouraged to look at historical developments and uncontentious ‘spin-offs’ from contentious research. This criterion lends itself to a verbal presentation or discussion supported by research and presentation notes. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. This is inevitable but learners must provide evidence to support the perceptions outlined. It is important that learners present a balanced report or presentation. but evidence of research and/or presentation must be maintained for verification purposes. This is not expected to be an in-depth study or a long complicated piece of work. A range of visiting speakers presenting differing views would greatly enhance the learning experience. Learners must be able to present arguments against the purpose of certain groups. Monitoring is essential to ensure the research and discussions enable the learning outcome to be met. where arguments exist in order to present a balanced case.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Learning outcome 3 allows any scientific advances to be considered from any branch of science or technology. they must be well prepared with their arguments and supporting evidence. learners should receive mentoring by the tutors via action planning and tutorials but learners should essentially be ‘self-driven’. If learners are to have a successful meaningful debate. learners should be encouraged to carry out their own web-based research. For P3. Competing theories exist in many areas of science. The learners must provide evidence that can be verified. input from tutors will be needed to get the learners to consider a wide range of advances and the subsequent issues that arise. Media reports and documentaries are a good source of stimulus material. especially regarding financial aspects (eg ‘postcode-lottery’ for healthcare). For P2. such as those from voluntary and political groups. analysis of the effect and the ethical and moral issues highlighted will give learners the chance to express their informed opinions based on the facts and views they have researched. For P4. without specific procedures. learners have the opportunity to investigate how science works and must describe the development of a scientific theory. Tutors should ensure learners consider both sides of an argument and are able to articulate and substantiate their own position. Learners must understand that this is a dynamic process. and describe how from several competing theories one has come to prominence. any moral or ethical issues associated with these advances can be studied. so presentations must be recorded or notes retained (eg preparatory notes. The list of public concerns should be tackled in the same way. For P1. explaining the purposes and views of these groups. Learners could present their work verbally. Equally. print out of PowerPoint presentation) for this purpose. Subsequently. Learning outcome 4 introduces learners to the funding issues of scientific research along with other pressures. along with contacting any particular groups in which they are interested.

Much of this comes in various forms from the government. Learners must show their ability to analyse information and then synthesise the relevant material to give a coherent commentary on the influences stated. Drawing on their understanding of the development of scientific theories. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners have the freedom to choose any topical science issues which have affected the public perception of science. the emphasis is not on the development process but the attitudes that were shown as a result of the scientific advancement. learners need to be aware of a range of professional journals and understand that this is how scientific developments are communicated to the scientific world. after researching and reviewing the evidence. learners need to understand that all science needs funding. The tutor must be clear when judging learners’ work that perceptions and concerns have been clearly dealt with. Learners must understand the questions that science can address and be able to explain why there are some questions that science cannot address. which on closer inspection. They must understand the process a scientific paper is subject to in order for it to be published. they must then explain using examples.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE For a merit grade. Learners may be familiar with the more lurid headlines associated with some science developments. As this could be daunting to start with. For M1. learners are required to give their considered opinion about the influence the media has on the public’s perception of science. providing at least two examples are analysed. Learners need to study these portrayals and then comment critically on the presentations made by the media. The tutor may feel that case studies are a useful part of the assessment process as well as allowing the learners to choose examples for analysis. learners must be able to differentiate a scientific question from a nonscientific question (such as a philosophical question) and be able to explain what makes them different. the tutor could give a couple of case studies and then allow learners to choose some examples of their own to finish the assignment. For M2. may not be quite as they have been represented. and be able to explain the peer-review process. For M4. For a distinction grade. The analysis may include concerns raised about science in the media. why a new theory is often greeted with scepticism and takes time to become accepted. For D2. For M3. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. The emphasis is on the validity of the way the media raises concerns about scientific developments. For D1. all the pass. Choosing topics which gave rise to positive and negative responses is to be encouraged. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 81 . but a large proportion comes from public funding and learners must demonstrate an understanding of how this may influence the direction and possibly even the outcomes and presentation of scientific research. Any area(s) of science or technology can be used providing they give enough material for learners to compare and contrast the attitudes that resulted.

Learners are encouraged to carry out their own research into an area that interests them and represent their findings. sociology and philosophy (ethical and moral issues) is highly recommended to provide the wider background needed for this unit. Some scientific research has been put to very destructive uses: learners must explain an example of this and discuss its effects or perceptions. but the learners should be encouraged to look further afield. Specialist input from colleagues and/or guest speakers who have knowledge of the media. 82 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . law. The sources can be newspapers. Evidence of information collected and analysed must be included in any presentation and its use in making judgements needs to be demonstrated. eg military or space programmes. clarity. a poster or information leaflet. The reports need to be analysed for accuracy. Some learners may require access to recording equipment as they can choose to present some of their material via audio/visual recordings. Indicative reading for learners As this unit covers such a wide variety of subjects. the following are suggestions of books which may give a flavour of the kind of material that could come up for discussion. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links with units in all of the endorsed titles in the BTEC Nationals in Applied Science. For D4. other texts and websites may be preferred and suggested by each subject specialist. Links to National Occupational Standards.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE For D3. weeklies and periodicals should be available. scientific journals or websites but they need to be sufficiently different in approach and target readership to make the evaluation worthwhile. other BTEC units. which could take the form of a written or verbal report. Essential resources The delivery of this unit requires access by the learners to library and internet data but does not require laboratory space. and the development of chemical weapons are likely to arise. eg channels with 24-hour news. Issues such as animal experimentation. scientific content and facts versus opinions. As it is likely that several tutors will input into this unit from different subject disciplines. politics. there are many examples of useful everyday products resulting from research in entirely different areas. political shows and other interests. Access to political material and to television channels via cable and satellite are also needed. Relevant journals and daily newspapers. the choice of a reported controversial science development can be made by learners or the tutor but it needs to be evaluated critically by comparing two different sources of information.

Politicians and the Media (Cato Institute US. Politicians and Activists (University of California Press. Technology Advancing Science. 2005) ISBN 1591810329 Websites www. 2003) ISBN 0312303564 Jackson A R W and Jackson J — Forensic Science (Prentice Hall. Serving Society — Project 2061 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 83 . 2001) ISBN 0520219783 Brignell J — The Epidemiologist: Have They Got Scares for You! (Brignell Associates. 2004) ISBN 0953910822 Curran J — Mass Media and Society (Hodder Arnold.indiana.project2061.org www. 2004) ISBN 073772000X O’Sullivan T et al — Studying the Media (Hodder Arnold. 2004) ISBN 0130432512 Jewkes Y — Media and Crime: A Critical Introduction (Sage Publications Ltd.htm www.edu www. 2005) ISBN 1930865791 Moreno J D — Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans (Routledge Inc. 2003) ISBN 0340807652 Spitz V — Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans (Sentient Publications.org Office of Health and Safety (American website: has a set of scenarios that could provoke discussion) Royal Society of Chemistry’s chemical science network Indiana University Science. 2005) ISBN 0340884991 Goliszek A — In the Name of Science: A History of Secret Programs.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Textbooks Best J — Damned Lies and Statistics: Untangling Numbers from the Media. 2000) ISBN 0415928354 Mur C — Animal Experimentation (Greenhaven Press. 2004) ISBN 0761947655 Michaels P J — Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists. Medical Research and Human Experimentation (St Martin’s Press.cdc.kosmoi.gov/od/ohs/safety/ basicchem. Nature.chemsoc.com/Science/Method www.

Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. One document must be at least 1000 words long. • C3.3 Write two different types of documents. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.1a Take part in a group discussion. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.2 • C3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • contributing to any discussions in this unit such as the relationship between the media and science making a presentation about public perceptions and concerns regarding science reading and synthesising information to find reasons and motives for pressure groups writing up information from researches carried out involving facts and opinions. each one giving different information about complex subjects. • C3. 84 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.

text with number. ICT3.UNIT 5: PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching scientific advances. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. Take responsibility for your learning. using different sources. Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing plans and setting targets with tutors and colleagues to carry out researches effectively monitoring progress using their plan and making modifications.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.2 • PS3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • • ICT3. • LP3.3 Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. • PS3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 85 .1 Search for information.3 Present combined information such as text with image. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.2 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • identifying the material needed for an assignment and how to find it meeting supervisors and colleagues to discuss the affect of the media and politics on science reviewing the material collected to see if it is sufficient to meet the requirements of the problem set. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. comparing and contrasting attitudes and evaluating their usefulness researching science developments and developing the material to use in discussing moral and ethical issues presenting information for any of the above researches. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. image with number.

86 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

measure and record scientific data. Throughout this unit learners will use a scientific calculator and be able to input data confidently and access the pre-programmed buttons which will help them do more complicated calculations. science technicians are often asked to make up solutions and to do this they must be able to calculate the quantities required. Mathematics is a wonderful tool once you have overcome any hesitation about being able to use it. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 87 . Calculators are effective tools as they take the hard work out of using numbers. Learners need to know whether the answer that flashes up on the calculator screen is correct. it will invariably involve numbers and their manipulation. Learners may have forgotten any mathematics that they have learned in the past so parts of this unit will help them to remember. For instance. Whatever job learners have in science. Mistakes can be made when inputting figures or pressing the wrong button. The aim of this unit is not to turn learners into mathematicians. but there are drawbacks. Other sections will introduce them to some new topics. but to make them comfortable with handling numbers and using numbers in a scientific setting. Unless learners have some understanding of what is going on they cannot check their work properly. This unit will give learners the confidence to tackle the mathematics for this and other science-related tasks.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit 6: NQF Level 2: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 30 Unit abstract Science technicians and those working in science-related areas need to be able to handle numbers. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Be able to use mathematical tools to process scientific data Be able to classify.

use of ± to represent absolute error. activation energies 2 Be able to classify. significant figures. Hooke’s law — extension of a spring. proportions. pie charts. data charts. enzyme activity. random. electron energies in an atom (s. measure and record scientific data Classifying data: continuous data eg rate of production over time. median. 105 x 102 = 107. percentages. discrete data eg shoe size. miles per BC hour to kilometres per hour. fractions). negative indices in serial dilutions. non-linear graphs eg gas law. definitions. mode. relative. use of estimation as a guide to accuracy eg product estimations in chemical reactions. eg AB or y=mx. conversion graphs eg Celsius to Fahrenheit. calculators (standard function buttons) Indices: in preparation of solutions eg 105.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Be able to use mathematical tools to process scientific data Mathematical tools: SI units (length. re-arrange formulae Plotting and interpretation of graphs: linear graphs eg Charles’ law. numbers (decimal places. p. ie when x = 0 then y = 0 using formulae. rate of catalytic reaction against temperature Recording and displaying data: appropriate format eg spreadsheets. bacterial growth. scattergrams. ratios. gradient of a straight line through the origin. measuring cylinder and burette. d). collect and use data correctly eg rate of respiration and physical activity. systematic. errors. linear graphs eg Hooke’s law Errors and accuracy: accuracy of data collected relating to type of equipment used to collect data. ratio predictions in Mendelian inheritance 88 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . conversions). raw and derived data eg measure time taken to complete a series of 400m circuit runs and measure the mean time taken Measuring data: mean. formulae. histograms. interpret graphs eg rate of reaction. V=IR. population count of invertebrates or plants. area and volume (calculations. absolute. mass. appropriate presentation eg bar charts. its suitability for purpose eg a ruler and a micrometer. index notation for squares and cubes eg p2 ∝ a3 where p = orbital period of a planet and a = radius of its orbit Formulae and equations: simple linear equations. units and notations). volume.

D2 P2 plot and interpret linear and non-linear graphs from primary and secondary experimental data M3 evaluate the usefulness of graphs in displaying the results of scientific experiments D3 evaluate the appropriateness of the methods used to record and display data. the learner is able to: M1 explain how the use of some operations can give skewed information and how errors may occur D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria. formulae and equations in a practical laboratory situation M2 explain why different graphs are used to present scientific data and how errors may occur justify the levels of accuracy in the use of particular types of data collection methods in laboratory experiments. indicating any errors. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 89 . Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. areas. the learner is able to: explain the use of negative indices in the stages of making serial dilutions To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 carry out mathematical procedures involving units. volumes. P3 record and display scientific data appropriately. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. indices. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. numbers.

Formal input will be needed from tutors and time allowed for the learners to practise their mathematics skills before using them in the laboratory. The grading criteria cannot be met through learners carrying out pages of mathematical exercises either via computer packages. and graphical packages and other teaching methods will help the learners appreciate the use of mathematical tools. A repetition of examination mathematics courses is not appropriate here. This unit’s intention is not to create mathematicians. The emphasis is on understanding basic mathematical concepts in a vocational setting. It is intended to overcome the fears that some learners may bring with them about using and understanding mathematics. The work must be clearly set out so it can be followed by the assessor. Learners should understand and be able to use the appropriate method to present results. Getting the learners to use these mathematical tools in the laboratory will make it more relevant for the reluctant learner of mathematics. For example. Other learners may be mathematically competent but a little rusty about how to do some areas of mathematics. The learners may need time to practice some of the material in this learning outcome. Some formal input will be required. P1 expects the learner to show use of the basic mathematical concepts listed. The mathematics done by the learners here should enable them to carry out any practical procedures and correctly use the mathematics required. self-tutoring booklets or from material set for work at home or in the classroom. through doing practical work in a laboratory setting.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit can be delivered in conjunction with any of the practical units in order to contextualise the mathematical concepts and generate meaningful data for analysis. To this end it is expected that the grading criteria will be applied in laboratory situations. use of a bar chart to present the number of stable isotopes of the elements. It is to enable science technicians to comfortably and effectively use mathematical skills as and when needed. Learning outcome 2 is intended to enable learners to use mathematics as a tool in science. Assessment All the pass criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. and a pie chart to show the number of animals kept for human consumption in the UK. 90 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learning outcome 1 reminds learners of work done before entering this course. The whole emphasis in this unit is to apply mathematics in a science laboratory setting. In doing this work the use of calculators is expected and the mathematical calculations must be accurate. In delivering this unit tutors will have the opportunity to emphasise the uses of mathematical procedures and techniques.

Indicating errors requires. They should also be able to show the effect the use of calculators can have on accuracy. They need to show an understanding of how information is collected in laboratory experiments. Finally. decimal places and significant figures are inappropriately used. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 91 . They must apply this knowledge to assessing the accuracy of collection methods. For M1. For D1. At this level their evaluation should include using indices both in manual manipulations and when using a calculator. learners must review the types of data collected before discussing how to record and display them. For M3.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS The data for use in P2 comes either from the learner’s own experimental work or from secondary scientific data. learners are required to demonstrate their knowledge of mathematics in a practical situation. all the pass. P3 — the emphasis here is on choosing the appropriate methods of recording and displaying material. The learner must also carry out the procedures. For M2. For D3. for example. the learner must show some understanding of what happens if. the learner is expected to show they understand both linear and non-linear graphs. The presentation used needs to be logically set out and based on practical experience. at this level. Learners must also understand the limitations of the different graph types in order to decide which one best displays certain data. This will lead to justifying their decisions in terms of accuracy. they must review their material and form conclusions as part of the evaluation process. The learners are being assessed on their ability to plot and interpret information. Learners might include other graphical methods but they must include linear and non-linear graphs as a minimum. They must show examples of recording data and examples of how they can be displayed. a list rather than a quantitative approach. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. The presentation will need to include examples of these graphs based on primary of secondary science data. The evaluation for D2 is based on reviewing different types of graphs. They must show in their presentation which type of data can be used in each graph. and demonstrate their ability to plot such data for both types of graph. For a distinction grade. so at least part of the presentation will be graphical. For a merit grade. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. learners must show they understand the usefulness of indices in science calculations.

2006) ISBN 0435534092 Journals Mathematical Association Mathematical Gazette Mathematics in Schools 92 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Suitably experienced staff will be needed as this unit is to be delivered with the emphasis on mathematics as a scientific tool. and access to mathematical tutorial packages would be an advantage. Job B. 2006) ISBN 0007213611 Parsons R — GCSE Modular Maths: Edexcel Higher Revision Guide (Coordination Group Publications.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Links to National Occupational Standards. 2004) ISBN 1841460931 Pledger K (editor) — Edexcel GCSE Maths: Higher Student Book (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. This will include carrying out practical experiments that allow for the application of the mathematical skills covered in this unit. 2002) ISBN 074876772X Metcalf P — GCSE Edexcel Maths (Revision Guide) (Collins. To deliver this unit the centre will need to provide laboratory space equipped for Level 2 work. Access to scientific calculators. Baker D and Morley D — Key Maths GCSE: Edexcel Summary and Practise Higher (Nelson Thornes. The computers need to have packages used in plotting graphs etc. CD ROMs and the internet is also essential. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to: • • • • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 29: Physiological Investigations Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 33: Forensic Photography. other BTEC units. Indicative reading for learners Hogan P. computers. Work placements may help put mathematical skills into a scientific context. Ideally. Learners will need the facilities to carry out practical work so the technical expertise required at this level can be practised and demonstrated. Essential resources Using mathematical tools is an essential part of any science technician’s work. input from technicians and scientists working in a range of laboratory situations would help to make the unit vocationally relevant.

education.uk/skillwise www.bham.digitalbrain.uk/subjects/maths/links www.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Websites www.co.co.gcsevise.gcseguide.com www.com www.bbc.ac.uk/schools/gcsebitesize www.mathstutor.com BBC GCSE Bitesize BBC Skillswise Digitalbrain University of Birmingham selection of mathematics education sites GCSE guide Gcsevise Mathstutor BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 93 .uk www.co.bbc.

1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.3 94 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . N3. • PS3.UNIT 6: APPLICATION OF NUMBERS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.2 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • investigating a scientific question where numeracy is involved and determining which mathematical methods could help answer it planning and performing the most appropriate mathematical method using mathematical methods to verify the conclusions made and identifying areas where the techniques used could be improved. • N3.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • plotting results in graphs and drawing conclusions from the graphical data. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning a laboratory experiment that will produce raw numerical data manipulating raw data using mathematical methods to produce secondary data They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. present your findings and justify your methods. • PS3.

They might have to look at a graphical printout and work out the rate of change from the graph. learners will not be mathematicians but they should have the skills to deal with the mathematics-related topics that appear in biology. collect. Learners will be expected to use any relevant computer programs. learners should be able to confidently solve problems using their mathematical skills. chemistry and physics calculations. This unit will enable learners to explore the use of some other mathematical tools that are basic to biology. geometrical and trigonometrical techniques to solve scientific problems. Mathematics is a powerful tool and. To do this they need to be able to do the experiment and decide which data-recording techniques are best (table or graph?) and how to analyse them (which statistical test to use). especially spreadsheets. collate and present a set of data. by the end of the unit. This unit will give learners the skills and confidence to do all of this. In Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians the objective is to make learners comfortable with handling numbers in a scientific setting.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit 7: NQF Level 3: Mathematics for Science Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 30 Unit abstract Science technicians and anyone working in science-related areas need to be able to handle numbers. chemistry and physics. On completing this unit. and access more of the function buttons on scientific calculators. Technicians could be asked to check a piece of apparatus to make sure it is giving reasonable results. Science technicians may be required to perform an experiment. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 95 . Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Be able to use and apply algebraic manipulation and data handling techniques to solve scientific problems Be able to use and apply graphical.

equations of motion. ex eg population growths. eg W = Indices: laws for multiplication. using calculators to find and use: Xn. division. substitution of numbers into equations. poker cards. conditional probability eg lottery. E=mc2. relationship to index notation eg pH values and decibels Classifying data: discrete. ≥. relative. estimations and approximations Formulae and equations: symbols (=. logex eg bacterial counts with time. linear equations eg V=IR. standardised normal.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Be able to use and apply algebraic manipulation and data handling techniques to solve scientific problems Number: direct and inverse proportions. ≤. >). x x eg length of pendulum and its V2 R 96 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . quadratic equations. rearrangement of equations eg general gas law. log10x eg decibels and pH values. student’s t-test eg Hooke’s constant from measurement of two different springs 1 eg dioptres in optics. percentage change. period. compound errors. continuous data Mutually exclusive and independent events: addition and multiplication rules. correct use of SI units Errors in calculations: absolute. variance. powers Logarithms: definition. <. Mendelian inheritance Normal distribution: area under normal curves. probabilities eg lifetimes of individual atoms in radioactive element to find half-life Statistical tests: standard deviation.

plot two variables from primary or secondary data. logarithmic plots to test exponential and power law variations eg halflife of radioactive atoms. numerical and algebraic forms eg gas law. graphs of sinusoidal functions eg pure notes and their pressure variations. use of calculator for trigonometric problems eg surveying. population growth BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 97 . activation energies. gradient of tangent to a curve is rate of change.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS 2 Be able to use and apply graphical. significance of area between a curve and x-axis eg velocity vs time graph — area under curve is distance. time constants eg time taken to bring incubator. altitude of sun in sky when due south. Ohm’s law. calculate rates of change eg catalytic reactions. Boyle’s law. tangent. geometrical and trigonometrical techniques to solve scientific problems Trigonometric ratios: sine. symmetry of 2D and 3D shapes eg isomers of glucose (left and right handed molecules) Linear graphs: translate information between graphical. oven or steriliser up to temperature Geometry: represent angles and shapes in 2D and 3D structures. height of trees Trigonometric functions: nature of oscillatory functions. determine the gradient and intercept of a linear graph eg distance vs time graph to give velocity. enzyme reactions Non-linear graphs: use of fitted curve to predict values eg variations of pressure in Earth’s atmosphere with height above sea level. cosine.

the addition and multiplication rules and conditional probabilities explain. the learner is able to: M1 explain. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. by giving at least two examples involving probability. physics or chemistry experiments D3 evaluate using laboratory-based data the advantages of presenting such data in graphical. 98 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . how indices and logarithms can simplify mathematical procedures when dealing with very large or small numbers explain. numerical or algebraic form. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 demonstrate the ability to carry out mathematical procedures as a result of practical laboratory work M2 P2 demonstrate the classification of data and the correct application of a student t-test to data from a laboratory experiment M3 P3 demonstrate the ability to plot a linear and non-linear graph using scientific data and calculate the rate of change by the most appropriate method. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. mutually exclusive and independent events. using given examples. in addition to the pass criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. using three or more examples. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: evaluate. how 2D and 3D structures and their symmetry can be understood and represented diagrammatically. the need to use various methods to determine the size and influence of errors on final calculations and conclusions analyse and justify at least two statistical procedures you have used in biology. using calculations as examples.

and the use of trigonometric ratios. via computer packages. Using material from a variety of sources is acceptable but the assessment procedures should always be in a vocational context. To this end the grading criteria should be applied in laboratory situations. a GCE mathematics examination is not appropriate. chemistry and physics experiments. geometrical and trigonometrical techniques needed to solve scientific problems in the laboratory. using scientific calculators and computer programs such as Microsoft Excel. this unit should enable them to further their mathematical abilities in the context of biology. primarily because calculations involving very large or small numbers are easily done using the function keys on a calculator. Tutors will have the opportunity to emphasise the uses of mathematical procedures and techniques by building on the skills and knowledge that were developed in Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians. Again. ie the rearrangement and solution of equations. Therefore. the tutor should use primary and secondary science data as a teaching and assessment source.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit can be delivered in conjunction with any of the practical units in order to contextualise mathematical concepts and generate meaningful data for analysis. Learning outcome 2 looks at the graphical. It is essential that science tutors are consulted about suitable data to use if this unit is taught by a non-scientist. The grading criteria cannot be met through carrying out pages of mathematical exercises. Logs are approached in this unit as part of indices and their inclusions in pH values etc. Hence a repetition of parts of. self-tutoring booklets or from material set for homework or in the classroom. Learning outcome 1 tackles data handling techniques and algebraic manipulation. As well as consolidating the learners’ knowledge. This unit is intended to help the learners understand and use the mathematical skills and knowledge required in biology. for example. There will be useful material in such examination sources but the emphasis should be on the application of mathematical skills in a vocational setting. An understanding of the mathematical concepts in a vocational setting is required but the emphasis is on the use and application of these concepts. Therefore the whole emphasis in this unit is on applying mathematics in a science laboratory setting. the use of examination modules to teach and assess this learning outcome is not appropriate. The tutor should approach this learning outcome from the point of view of giving learners mathematical skills they can use in the science laboratory. physics and chemistry. It is assumed that calculators and computer programmes such as spreadsheets (but not any high level program language) will be used throughout this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 99 . The use of logarithms has been kept to a minimum.

The data used in P2 can be primary or secondary providing they are derived from a relevant biology. but a calculation from either type of graph is acceptable providing the answer is correct. A lot of molecular chemistry. Different sets of data can be used for each type of graph and the rate of change must be calculated from one of the graphs. Although there is a variety of statistical tests available. It is the use and application of logs and indices being assessed here. For D1. not the mathematical theorems that support them. 100 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Stages in the calculations need to be shown so the tutor can see the learners’ thought processes. learners must show their ability to use the listed activities and must show an understanding of probability and its rules. lends itself to assessment topics here. For a merit grade. the primary or secondary data used must be correctly plotted. learners must evaluate methods used to recognise that errors are often an intrinsic part of any set of measurements (whether taken manually or using a machine). Most learners will probably calculate the rate of change from the linear graph. For P3. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For a distinction grade. This criterion is an extension of statistical techniques and looks specifically at probability. For M3. Having done this.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Assessment All the pass criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Calculators are expected to be used and the calculations must be accurate. The learner must show an awareness of the errors and which methods can be used to determine their size and influence. learners must explain how logs and indices make calculations involving very large or small numbers easier and less prone to errors. This is to avoid the use of calculators where the learner has little or no understanding of the processes involved in the calculations and cannot therefore see where answers are not creditable. For M2. It is acceptable for learners to demonstrate practically the 3D structures using molecular models and then represent them in paper-based diagrams. all the pass. It can be used in this criterion either from data classified in the first part of the assessment or from other scientific data. learners must demonstrate their understanding and ability to show 2D and 3D structures. chemistry or physics experiment. especially organic. The learner must show how this data can be classified. learners are required to evaluate the various methods in order to demonstrate an appreciation of the suitability of the method chosen to calculate the importance of an error. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. Learners must show they know how and why to correctly use logs and indices in situations where very large or small numbers could also be tackled by more numerical means. For M1. the student’s t-test has been identified as being applicable to physics and chemistry. P1 expects the learner to carry out the mathematical procedures listed through doing practical work in a laboratory setting. The choice of examples given can be from physics or chemistry (or both) and use either primary or secondary data.

It is acceptable to use several sets of data from different experiments where only one type of presentation is possible or desirable. Sources and Applications Unit 29: Physiological Investigations.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS For D2. This unit is applicable to all the units with a physics or chemistry content. This is in order for learners to evaluate the advantages of the different methods. Unit 14: Energy Changes. graph plotting (eg Microsoft Excel) and learners should have access to mathematical tutorial packages. It might also be used by other units involved in data collection and analysis: Essential resources Using the mathematical concepts in this unit is part of a physics or chemistry technician’s work so laboratory space equipped to Level 3 standard is required. computers. For D3. the laboratory data can be primary or secondary but it should be presentable it in numerous ways. learners need to show how at least two different statistical techniques have been used and then analyse how the two procedures help in interpreting experimental results. whatever their background. All tutors. such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis. providing the learner can evaluate the presentation method chosen for that set of data. Suitably experienced and qualified staff with a background in both mathematics and science would be ideal as tutors on the course. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 101 . This means the learners have the facilities to carry out practical work and apply their mathematical skills to the results obtained. or drawn from other relevant units depending on the endorsed title chosen. Access to scientific calculators. other BTEC units. The computers should have packages used in statistics. should make sure the mathematics is presented and used in a vocationally relevant way. Links to National Occupational Standards. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Whenever possible the problem(s) to be solved should be drawn from experiments set up for this unit. Learners must then justify the choices made. CD ROMs and the internet is essential.

2000) ISBN 0582411270 Emanuel R and Wood J — AS Core Maths for Edexcel (Longman. 2004) ISBN 0435511009 102 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . 2005) ISBN 0435511238 Clark J — Calculations in AS/A Level Chemistry (Longman. 2005) ISBN 043551122X Attwood G et al — Heinemann Modular Maths Edexcel Revise for Core Maths 2 (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2005) ISBN 0435511254 Pledger K — Heinemann Modular Maths for Edexcel AS and A-Level: Core Book 4 (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Attwood G et al — Heinemann Modular Maths Edexcel Revise for Core Maths 1 (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2004) ISBN 0582842379 MacPherson A et al — Heinemann Modular Maths Edexcel Revise for Core Maths 3 (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.

2 Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching secondary data and statistical techniques using programmes to input data and plot graphs. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. and presenting results appropriately. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • N3. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 103 .3 Interpret the results of your calculations. using different sources. present your findings and justify your methods.1 Search for information. • analysing primary or secondary data.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. ICT3.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. N3. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning practical work to collect data and searching for secondary data calculating rates of change from non-linear graphs They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.

Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • PS3.3 104 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.1 PS3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.UNIT 7: MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • • devising different methods to tackle a problem planning and carrying out an experiment to tackle a problem drawing conclusions and analysing outcomes. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.

so any scientific work involves obtaining. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 105 . Frequently.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit 8: NQF Level 3: Statistics for Science Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 30 Unit abstract Science is founded upon observation and measurement. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Be able to use basic statistics and probability to solve scientific problems Be able to take samples. interpretation of measurements also requires an indication of confidence in the results. For a worker in a scientific environment this will be a constant and important part of their duties. processing and interpreting these measurements. An important aid to this is the appropriate use of ICT methods such as software or specialised calculators. This unit enables learners to explore and develop their techniques and skills in practical statistics. To that end this unit focuses particularly on practical applications to realistic scientific problems. Mathematical and statistical techniques should be used accurately and efficiently to process the information. manipulate and interpret data to solve scientific problems.

standard error of the mean (the uncertainty in the average value of a set of measurements eg the calorific value of oil) Normal distribution: area under normal curve. radioactivity. manipulate and interpret data to solve scientific problems Chi-squared test: goodness of fit. bacterial growth Linear functions: interpolation and extrapolation. determination of probabilities eg heights of men in regiment of soldiers 2 Be able to take samples. cooling. gross) Indices: laws for multiplication. check the validity of fit using correlation coefficient eg extension of a spring for different applied weights 106 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . prediction of values using the equation obtained. contingency tables eg viability of batches of seeds Location of data: scientific applications of the mean. intercept of the straight line eg temperature vs resistance to determine resistance at 0°C Calculations in science: accuracy and precision eg scientific calculators and software.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Be able to use basic statistics and probability to solve scientific problems Recording data: frequency distribution eg table showing number of flowers counted on each of 50 plants. systematic. addition and multiplication rules eg probability of winning lottery twice. division and powers Exponentials: growth and decay. eg population and sample (Gallup or Mori poll). applications to science eg reaction kinetics. standard deviation in scientific situations. mutually exclusive events Sampling: random sampling (quadrant in field sampling). measurements of period of a pendulum Probability of events: independent events. contingency table analysis eg genetics examples Graphs: application of the gradient eg voltage vs current to determine resistance. standardised normal distribution. eg conditional probability. sets of data and their spreads eg birth weight of female babies born in the south-west of England. diameters of ball bearings. median and mode Spread of data: quartiles. fitting a straight line to scientific data using linear regression. types of error (random. interquartile range eg distribution of mass for a sample of 200 carrots for frozen food company.

D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: M1 explain and justify the selection of the two statistical techniques chosen estimate the sources and sizes of the errors and accuracy of the solution analyse the results of the chi-squared test to make valid conclusions to support the scientific hypothesis. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 107 .UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: justify and explain the sampling process and deductions made in the statistical analysis evaluate the techniques used and the conclusions reached to solve the scientific problem D3 evaluate the use of the chi-squared test in making probability judgements. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 use two different statistical techniques P2 process data from a scientific problem using an equation and a graph to display the results and provide a valid conclusion M3 M2 P3 use the chi-squared test to support a scientific hypothesis. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.

This should be the teaching approach to this unit. The chi-squared test is introduced as a powerful tool for testing a proposal (eg the randomness of random numbers. For all the pass criteria it is also important that all numerical values should have the appropriate units of measurement quoted correctly. Learners are required to use calculators or other software. For P1. In this unit learners should produce evidence where they have applied the mathematical and statistical techniques to real scientific problems. Learning outcome 2 introduces the importance of sampling and techniques for carrying this out reliably. The normal distribution will need to be delivered as a procedural technique. All formulae should be quoted and used appropriately. The presentation should be clear and logically organised. These should be their own work and not merely copied out. perhaps taken from another unit.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit can be delivered in conjunction with any of the practical units in order to contextualise the mathematical concepts and generate meaningful data for analysis. 108 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . but rather to develop the skills needed by science technicians in the context of real laboratory situations. although learners should understand the meaning of the results. They should progress from simple examples to real scientific problems. The sampling process must be clearly shown. or fairness of dice) and for analysing a contingency table. Assessment It is essential that this unit is delivered in close relationship with practical science. Learners should be introduced to and guided through all the topics in this unit. learners must use a real scientific experiment. It is therefore appropriate that learners write up their investigatory work as scientific reports. The other data source may be either primary or secondary. It is important that learners are always aware of the need to assess errors and accuracy in their scientific investigations. All the pass criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Learning outcome 1 should introduce the learners to statistics as a more sophisticated mathematical tool. There should be at least two statistical techniques used in the comparison or analysis of the data. for example. Learners must clearly set out a plan and a conclusion. learners must use appropriate methods to take a random sample from a real scientific situation. For P2. to manipulate complex equations and use graphs to determine some scientific properties. from method sheets. This unit is not intended to be purely mathematical. A reasonable complexity of process is expected. These statistical techniques should be exemplified through real laboratory problems.

other BTEC units. learners must understand the relevance of the various statistical techniques that exist. There must also be an evaluation of the conclusions drawn. This must include evaluation of the accuracy and appropriateness of the graphs. It is therefore important that the learners have access to facilities to carry out practical scientific work for demonstration and practice. For a merit grade. as well as evaluation of the sampling process used in the experiment. More analysis is required than for the pass criteria.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS For P3. learners must include a review of the methods of sampling with their benefits and drawbacks. the problem(s) to be solved should be drawn from all the other units relevant to the endorsed title chosen. For M1. learners must state their hypothesis and understand what they are testing. They must explain and clearly justify their choices and how they are appropriate for the task in hand. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. This unit is applicable to many units but there are specific links to the following: • • • • • Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 14: Energy Changes. including their source and an estimate of their magnitude. learners must assess the plan and the experimental techniques used. Links to National Occupational Standards. For M2. learners are required to show a clear indication of errors. For D2. all the pass. Sources and Applications Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions. The analysis should produce valid conclusions interpreted in the context of the problem. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 109 . including explaining the results and their relevance to the problem. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. The results must be correct and presented appropriately. Their explanations must involve comparison of techniques. For a distinction grade. It must also cover the idea of standard error of the mean. For D1. Essential resources This unit aims to develop learners’ skills in mathematics and statistics in the context of practical science. and a resulting estimate of the accuracy. and the mathematical techniques and graphical work chosen. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Wherever possible. There are several mathematics packages that would be useful for teaching purposes (eg Autograph). The conclusions made in the statistical experiment must also be evaluated.

2001) ISBN 0435511173 Attwood G.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS In real-life situations. their technicians and scientists would extend the vocational relevance for the learners and provide a valuable experience and resource. 2001) ISBN 0435511181 School Mathematics Project — Statistics 1 for Edexcel (SMP AS/A2 Mathematics for Edexcel) (Cambridge University Press. It is important therefore that learners have access to these calculators and software. 2 (Heinemann Modular Mathematics for Edexcel AS & A Level Statistics) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. This unit has mathematical content at Level 3 standard and suitably experienced staff are needed to deliver it. 2004) ISBN 0521605350 School Mathematics Project — Statistics 2 for Edexcel (SMP AS/A2 Mathematics for Edexcel) (Cambridge University Press.blackwellpublishing.uk Blackwell Statistics Royal Statistical Society 110 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . 1 (Heinemann Modular Mathematics for Edexcel AS & A Level Statistics) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Attwood G. such as Microsoft Excel. 2001) ISBN 0435511165 Attwood G. Dyer G and Skipworth G — Revise for Statistics: No. 2005) ISBN 0521605393 Journals Journal of Applied Statistics Statistical Methods in Medical Research ISSN 09622802 Statistical Modelling: An International Journal ISSN 1471082X Websites www. scientific calculators and computers are normally used. Dyer G and Skipworth G — Revise for Statistics: No.com/subjects/PB www. Links to scientific organisations. Dyer G and Skipworth G — Revise for Statistics: No. as well as to the internet.rss. 3 (Heinemann Modular Mathematics for Edexcel AS & A Level Statistics) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.org.

3 Interpret the results of your calculations.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning an investigation to obtain quantitative results for a scientific question processing and manipulating their quantitative results using appropriate statistical methods They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. • N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.2 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 111 . Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. N3. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. present your findings and justify your methods. • presenting their processed data in the most appropriate way and drawing conclusions to the scientific question from trends shown by the data. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.

• ICT3. using different sources.3 Present combined information such as text with image. • ICT3. eg using a graph software package to plot the y values obtained for a set of x values and using the programme to calculate the gradient using a software package to produce a graph with a title.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. correctly labelled axes and units. eg electronic journals. text with number. 112 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and multiple search criteria in at least one case. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Search for information. image with number. websites using statistical programmes to process raw data to produce secondary data.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching the most appropriate statistical method to process different types of data from a range of sources.

understanding and performance in order to achieve their highest potential gauging their progress by the feedback received from the tutor for set assignments carried out.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • consulting their tutor and together identifying areas of weakness and devising activities and/or strategies to improve knowledge. • LP3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 113 . using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. where each assignment requires increasingly complex and diverse use of statistical methods and/or applications. • LP3.2 Take responsibility for your learning. understanding and performance following their personal strategy plan ensuring the targets set are realistic but will stretch their knowledge.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.

2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • working with their peers and sharing ideas to tackle set assignments co-operating and working well together. • • PS3.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.2 PS3. 114 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and considering what improvements could be made to their plan.UNIT 8: STATISTICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • identifying a scientific question which the application of statistics would help to answer. • WO3. and determining which are the most appropriate statistical methods to use planning and carrying out a statistical method using the chi-squared test to support or negate their findings. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. and taking responsibility for their own task to collectively complete a set assignment identifying areas of weakness in their collaborative efforts and devising ways of improving the quality of work the group of learners produces.1 Plan work with others.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. • WO3.

and communication of information). processing. Informatics in its broadest sense covers information theory (identifying patterns and trends using mathematics). BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 115 . such as. information science (collection. methods. data storage and the applications of informatics. Learners will study the aims and methods of informatics. warehousing and analysis. retrieval and dissemination of information) and computer science (the study of the electronic storage. classification.UNIT 9: INFORMATICS Unit 9: NQF Level 3: Informatics BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Informatics is the scientific study of information and information processing. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Know the aims. The massive advances in science and technology over the past few decades has generated an unprecedented amount of data. storage. data sources and applications of informatics Understand the processes of data collection. This expansion of information has resulted in the need for more and more sophisticated databases to store. Informatics can refer to a particular discipline. manipulation. and for specialised tools to view and analyse it. organise and index the data. warehousing and analysis. They will also have the opportunity to learn about the processes of data collection. medical informatics or bioinformatics.

data sources and applications of informatics Aims: to understand how systems work. modelling. process of data interpretation and analysis. typical records within files.UNIT 9: INFORMATICS Unit content 1 Know the aims. organisation. developing predictive methods to model function 2 Understand the processes of data collection. design of data formats and databases Data analysis: use of software techniques for finding patterns and regularities in data sets. protein structures Applications: hypothesising. storage. quality standards for new data sets eg human genome project. modelling systems. queries for finding specific information in databases 116 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . increasing understanding of basic scientific processes Methods: representation. predicting. warehousing and analysis Computational biology: computer procedures. distribution and maintenance of data Sources of data: eg amino acid sequences. using search engines. ease of access to stored data. methods. role of the worldwide web Data warehousing/databases: data capture. file formats. manipulation. use of specialised tools to view and analyse data Data collection: new approaches to data collection.

The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: explain the need to be able to extract specific. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 review the aims and applications of informatics P2 build and populate a database. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: M1 M2 write and run queries to obtain specified information from a database. relevant data relate new types of data to types of databases required. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 9: INFORMATICS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 117 . D2 describe a range of methods used in informatics D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.

This may be part of a written report. especially in terms of moral. Assessment To enable learners to generate the required evidence. For learning outcome 2 the development of appropriate computer skills. 118 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . social and ethical issues. should be encouraged whenever possible.UNIT 9: INFORMATICS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit can be delivered in conjunction with any of the mathematical units eg Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians. eg curing diseases or producing sufficient food to feed the world. For M2. learners must demonstrate their understanding of the need for and uses of informatics. The use of computer teaching programs and CD ROMs would enable learners to do some independent study. Where appropriate. Evidence could be provided by use of experimentally-derived data in case studies and interpretation exercises. the unit should be adapted to suit the resources within a centre and the endorsed title being followed by the learner. analysis of experimentally-derived data should also be attempted. Learners need to understand how databases are used and gain some awareness of the vast amount of information that must be manipulated. especially in the correct use of software. They must consider the aim of the dataset when designing and formatting fields. the learners should consider the type of questions that the database needs to answer when designing the database. Learners would benefit from closely guided support in exploring the methods used in informatics. For P2. This can be combined with other units in order to perform meaningful analyses. For M1. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. learners must build their own dataset using Microsoft Access or similar software. learners must interrogate the database to answer specific questions. A case study approach could be used to unify a number of themes and contextualise the learning. For P1. There is a wealth of information on the internet. All the pass criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. and they must populate it with relevant data. Learning outcome 1 lends itself to some discussion on the use of and need for informatics. Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians or Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians or with any of the practical units in order to contextualise the learning and generate meaningful data. learners need to explore the methods used to maintain and manipulate information. Literature searches and reviews would also be appropriate. Ideally. The questions can be set by the tutor or the learner. For a merit grade.

For D2. 2000) ISBN 0970029705 Radford T — Frontiers: Science and Technology: Bk. software. all the pass. 2001) ISBN 1565926641 Jagota A K — Data Analysis and Classification for Bioinformatics (Bioinformatics By the Bay. Links to National Occupational Standards. other BTEC units. 3 (Atlantic Books. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. The use of computer teaching programmes and CD ROM simulations of experiments should be encouraged. as learners must give examples relevant to the endorsed title they are following. tutorial support and library resources.UNIT 9: INFORMATICS For a distinction grade. learners need to show an understanding of the vast array of data and data types that have been generated in recent years and how different databases have been developed to manage and manipulate this data. For D1. 2003) ISBN 1843540177 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 119 . This should be a piece of written work. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links with: • • • • Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians all practical units. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Gibas C and Jambeck P — Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills (O’Reilly. learners can draw on group discussions to explain the needs of many sciencebased organisations to manipulate large databases to answer specific science-based questions. Essential resources Learners will need access to appropriate computer facilities. This may be through casestudies.

UNIT 9: INFORMATICS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • searching databases for protein structures using software techniques to find patterns in data sets. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.1 N3.3 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Interpret the results of your calculations, present your findings and justify your methods.

Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the needs and uses of informatics in terms of the moral, social and ethical issues involved presenting a database that they have built and populated reading and digesting information from bioinformatics textbooks and computer teaching programmes writing an essay on the different methods used in informatics. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion.

C3.1b

Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.

C3.2

C3.3

Write two different types of documents, each one giving different information about complex subjects. One document must be at least 1000 words long.

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Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching databases for amino acid sequences of particular genes using software techniques to find trends in data sets. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Search for information, using different sources, and multiple search criteria in at least one case. ICT3.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.

Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • working with their tutor to improve their knowledge and understanding of informatics adhering to their study plan They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. Take responsibility for your learning, using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.

LP3.2

producing work of improving quality for their portfolio of evidence.

LP3.3

Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • collaborating with others to use software packages to analyse experimentallyderived data working together as a team to achieve a common goal identifying areas of their teamwork which could be improved. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Plan work with others.

• •

WO3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.

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UNIT 10: USING SCIENCE IN THE WORKPLACE

Unit 10:
NQF Level 3:

Using Science in the Workplace
BTEC National

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit will help learners understand the working practices used by organisations while carrying out their day-to-day business. It also aims to put the scientist or technician in context as an important part of the team. This unit looks at the roles and responsibilities of the employee and the employer and the constraints, both statutory and voluntary, that are imposed on the organisation. If a learner is already employed in a scientific workplace they will ideally use their own employer for the practical activity, taking into account any sensitive issues. If learners are not employed in science they will undertake this investigation as an individual or as part of a group. Before starting it is important that the organisation to be studied is researched to ensure that the relevant information is available. Owing to the wide variety of organisations that may be studied, the content has been designed to be contextualised to suit the learner’s situation or experience.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the scientific principles used by a science-based organisation to produce a product or provide a service Understand the role of the science technician Be able to carry out relevant scientific practical work Know the constraints under which the organisation must operate.

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Unit content

1

Understand the scientific principles used by a science-based organisation to produce a product or provide a service The organisation: aims; nature of the business; size of the organisation Products or services: types supplied; their use; type of customer; benefits to the customer Processes and principles: processes used in production of the product or delivery of the service; scientific principles employed; equipment used; roles and responsibilities of scientists, technicians Health and safety: legislation applicable to the organisation eg COSHH regulations Information communication technology (ICT): eg Laboratory Management Information Systems (LMIS)

2

Understand the role of the science technician The scientist/technician: role in the organisation; safety requirements; standard operating procedures Training and development: role of Association of Science Education (ASE), National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs), Independent Operational Test (IOT); rewards; incentives Workload: flexible working Communication: lines of authority and accountability to and from other personnel, external suppliers, external servicing staff, lay people; types of communication; relationships with supervisor, scientists, peer group; scientific terminology

3

Be able to carry out relevant scientific practical work Practical work: a scaled down practical representing a large scale industrial process used by the organisation Equipment: equipment used in the industrial context and laboratory representation Industrial and laboratory scale processes: differences; similarities

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4

Know the constraints under which the organisation must operate Local impact: environmental; forms of pollution; constraints under which the organisation operates; consequences of non-compliance Statutory controls: employment law; health and safety; environmental legislation Voluntary controls: eg British Standards ISO 9000, ISO14001; Investors in People; customer; third-party auditing Issues of public concern: ethical and moral issues; environmental; pollution

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Grading grid

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: M1 analyse the processes used by the organisation to produce a product or perform a service outline typical career development and/or progression for a science technician in the organisation analyse the results of the investigation and explain their contribution to the organisation D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to: assess the influence of legislation on the processes used to produce a product or perform a service analyse the different career paths through the organisation of personnel entering at different levels D3 explain how and why the industrial scale differs from the laboratory scale

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

P1

outline the structures and processes used by the organisation to produce a product or perform a service, and identify any health and safety issues M2

P2

describe the role and responsibilities of the scientist/technician in the organisation M3

P3

plan and carry out a practical investigation in the laboratory to represent a larger scale industrial process that is carried out by the organisation M4

P4

describe the statutory and voluntary constraints that may apply to the organisation (and identify the consequences of non-compliance to both the employer and employee).

analyse systems used by the organisation to ensure adherence to the controls.

D4

comment objectively on any issues of public concern that may arise from the work of the organisation.

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. If this is not possible for all learners, then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories, but even in many chemistry ones), and the separate space for computers, desks etc that learners may not be aware of. This unit requires the learner to be able to research a selected organisation. It is therefore imperative that the organisation chosen has enough relevant and up-todate information freely available. It is also important that a relevant practical can be carried out by the learner in the laboratory. Work experience or visits are useful but not essential for the successful completion of the unit. Much of the information required can be obtained from company websites. Many utility organisations have specific education sections. The learner will need basic information about how a business is organised and run. This may be delivered as short lectures giving sufficient background for the learner to be able to appreciate the information obtained during their own investigation. Consideration of the setting up and running of a business is not appropriate for this unit. The emphasis should be placed on the use of science in the organisation to produce a scientific product or provide a scientific service. The place of the scientist and technical staff in the organisation should be referred to whenever possible. Delivery should focus on how principles of science are applied and how the product or service is of use to the customer, rather than on how the business is run. The safety of the employee, the public and the environment will be studied by investigating the statutory and voluntary controls imposed on the organisation. Legislation such as health and safety for the employees will be studied, as will quality standards affecting the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation in the eyes of employees and the public, including current and potential customers. The impact of these controls will affect the success of the organisation or the demand for its products. Assessment This unit requires the learners to plan, carry out and report on an investigation appropriate to the learning outcomes of the role of science technician. A range of types of technician employment will be appropriate to developing and delivering their evidence. A series of standard exercises set and controlled by the tutor will not meet the requirements of this unit.

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The topics for investigation can be set by the tutor or selected by the learner, but must involve the contextualisation of the role of the technician appropriate to the learner’s programme of study. The learning outcomes may be met by individual or group investigations. In the latter case, tutors must document each learner’s contribution to the investigation and provide appropriate authentication of the evidence presented. Much of the evidence for this unit will be generated by investigative work. The quality of each learner’s work will only be partially reflected in the final portfolio. It is important that the tutor observes all phases of the work and records each learner’s performance. These records should be included in the learner’s evidence as authentication of performance and to support the grade recommended for the work. The tutor’s judgement must reflect the overall quality of the work, and should not be overly influenced by the media through which it is reported. All grades require the learner to undertake some initial planning before starting assignment work. This requires the learner to consider carefully what is involved in the work, and how they are to approach the constituent tasks. For learning outcome 2, case studies would be an appropriate way for learners to present their work. For the distinction grade learners would need to compare two different entry routes, eg graduate and non-graduate. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit follows on from Unit 2: Science and the World of Work in the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science. The practical work for this unit may be completed in a more suitable practical unit. This assignment presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills at Level 3. The unit provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities NVQs at Levels 2 and 3. Essential resources The internet is the core resource needed for researching specific company websites, regulatory bodies, CLEAPSS, BSI and others depending on the organisation chosen. Items from the current news media should be integrated as and when they occur. Relevant television programmes may also be used to illustrate topics of interest. Use of any resource should be checked for permission and copyright.

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Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Atkinson C and Mariotte J — The Prep Room Organiser (Association for Science Education, 2003) ISBN 0863572839 Morgan S — Advanced Level Practical Work for Biology (Hodder Murray, 2002) ISBN 0340847123 Articles from newspapers, television or radio transcripts or other scientific/business journals may also be useful. Websites www.ase.org.uk www.bio.org.uk www.glaxowellcome.co.uk www.iop.org.uk www.mond.org www.rsc.org www.scienceconsortium.co.uk www.sep.org.uk www.york.ac.uk/org/ciec The Association for Science Education The Institute of Biology Glaxo Wellcome The Institute of Physics Society of Chemical Industry The Royal Society of Chemistry The Science Consortium Science Enhancement Programme Chemical Industry Education Centre (CIEC)

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1b Take part in a group discussion. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.UNIT 10: USING SCIENCE IN THE WORKPLACE Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.1a C3. • analysing the results to support a hypothesis.2 130 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning a practical investigation producing results from the practical investigation They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. • writing up their findings and the report of the practical work. • C3.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. N3.3 Write two different types of documents each one giving different information about complex subjects. One document must be at least 1000 words long. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • talking about different types of company or organisation conveying the results of their research to the group using a poster or PowerPoint researching the company or organisation using different websites or journals They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. present your findings and justify your methods.1 N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. C3.

1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.2 PS3. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.1 Search for information. using different sources.2 • LP3.3 Present combined information such as text with image. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.UNIT 10: USING SCIENCE IN THE WORKPLACE Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching using organisation. Take responsibility for your learning. ICT3. • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning the practical investigation working as a group for the practical investigation logging progress of assignment work. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • LP3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. image with number.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 131 .3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • investigating the organisation and a relevant practical that could be carried out planning the practical investigation assessing the result of the practical investigation. • • PS3. text with number. company or regulating body websites producing factual and practical reports.

3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.2 Work to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. 132 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . WO3.UNIT 10: USING SCIENCE IN THE WORKPLACE Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • • planning a group practical investigation working as a group in the practical investigation completing the practical work and assessing the learning outcomes. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. WO3.1 Plan work with others.

beauty therapy or health. Practical work and research will help learners relate the material in this unit to the functioning of the human body. respiration and circulation. when they will study how all these systems are interrelated and coordinated to provide stable conditions for the body to function effectively. Learners will need this knowledge to progress to Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction. The practicals may involve taking measurements to investigate respiration and cardiovascular rates. tissues and organs) that make up the systems in the body. Learners will also study what happens when things go wrong with the body. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Understand how structure and function are related in living human cells Understand how the energy requirements of the human body relate to the functioning of the digestive system and be able to carry out blood sugar measurements Understand the role of transport systems in the human body and be able to carry out cardiovascular measurements Understand the structure and functioning of the respiratory system and be able to measure respiratory functions. This unit will give learners an insight into how the human body works (human physiology). The emphasis will be on understanding the interrelationships between these systems and how they contribute to the working of the whole human body. Learners will be expected to analyse the results and draw conclusions just as a laboratory technician might do. 3 4 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 133 . By the end of the unit learners will have developed their practical skills and increased their knowledge and understanding of human physiology systems. Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science will help support learners if they choose to enter employment in areas such as sport science. or the passage of materials around the body or through membranes. and study digestion. Learners will investigate how the various human physiology systems work by doing experiments and using apparatus. Learners will then be in a position to use this information to understand the basic systems that make up a healthy human body. Learners will look at the building blocks (cells.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Unit 11: NQF Level 3: Physiology of Human Body Systems BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract We all appear to be fascinated by how our bodies work.

muscular. lipids. bone. absorption. neuroglia). adipose. Benedict’s test. diverticulitis infected sac like pouches in the colon 2 Understand how the energy requirements of the human body relate to the functioning of the digestive system and be able to carry out blood sugar measurements Structure of the digestive system: mouth. cardiac). reproductive. covering). facilitated diffusion. large intestine. muscle (smooth. proteins and lipids. flagella and cilia. skeletal. circulatory. fat emulsion test. details of cell structure in relation to their functions for the stomach. liver. grease spot test. lining. vitamins. eg chemical structure of nutrients and their role in metabolism to provide structural or regulatory molecules. elastic. cartilage. osmosis. water. cell products eg melanin. pancreas. small intestine. gall bladder. stomach. chemical digestion. failure of ductus areriosus or closure of foramen ovale after birth. urinary. glucose and cellular respiration. pancreas. mitochondria. minerals. sodium. the cell cycle (mitosis) Tissues: differentiation of cells to form tissues eg epithelial (glandular. nerve tissues (neurons. skeletal. ribosomes. use of slides. presence of inorganic ions using flame tests eg potassium. role of the body’s organ systems eg integumentary — skin and associated organs. pharynx. presence of organic molecules eg iodine test. oesophagus. collagenous. examples of anabolism and catabolism with regard to carbohydrates. lymphatic. summary of structure. reticular. liver. egestion. small and large intestines Functions of the digestive system: ingestion. practical methods used to measure blood glucose. endoplasmic reticulum. proteins. role of minerals and vitamins in the enzyme system Metabolism and energy: definition of metabolism. nervous. centrioles and centrosomes). endocrine. mechanical digestion. fibre. practical investigation of chemical digestion Essential dietary nutrients: carbohydrates. structure in relation to function eg transport across membranes (principles of diffusion. organelles (nucleus. identification of some abnormalities eg heart.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Unit content 1 Understand how structure and function are related in living human cells Human cells: structure seen through light microscope and images from electron microscope eg plasma membrane. endocytosis and exocytosis. functions of organelles. lipids. the body’s energy requirements. Biuret test. active transport. connective eg vascular. glycogen. illustrations and electron micrographs. cytoplasm. specialist cells. chloride 134 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . areolar. structure in relation to function Organs: organisation of tissues to form organs.

vessels including coronary. blood supply). urine production. expiration). capillary network Functions of the respiratory system: breathing (inspiration. blood flow eg major circulatory routes. water content of cells. hepatic. heart (chambers. blood pressure. measurement of the function of the cardiovascular system in a range of situations Structure of the lymphatic system: lymphatic vessels.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS 3 Understand the role of transport systems in the human body and be able to carry out cardiovascular measurements Structure of the cardiovascular system: blood eg erythrocytes. nutrients. regulation of urine volume and composition. bladder. laboratory tests carried out by pathology laboratories 4 Understand the structure and functioning of the respiratory system and be able to measure respiratory functions Structure of the respiratory system: mouth. B and T lymphocytes. phagocytes. bronchi. lymph organs eg spleen. regulation of temperature. arterioles. lymph. pulmonary capacities. nasal cavities. venules. measurement of the functions of the respiratory system in a range of conditions BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 135 . defence eg blood clotting mechanisms. tonsils. cardiac cycle. veins. pulmonary volumes. only gross structure required Functions of the lymphatic system: drainage of tissue fluid and formation of lymph. thrombocytes. systemic. capillaries). leucocytes. bronchioles. pH. constituents of urine (normal and abnormal). outline of defensive role Structure of the urinary system: kidneys (nephron structure. pharynx. eg urine storage and release by bladder. macrophages. alveoli. trachea. use of laboratory techniques in the examination of blood components Functions of the cardiovascular system: transport eg gases. blood vessels (arteries. plasma. ureters. absorption. interpretation of spirometer readings. thymus gland. hormones. valves). respiration — gaseous exchange eg pulmonary. waste products. pulmonary. cerebral. larynx. urethra Functions of the urinary system: filtration. heat.

in addition to the pass criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. 136 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . interpret the results and relate them to the function of the respiratory system. the learner is able to: M1 explain how function is related to structure for the main systems in the body identify how the main food groups are obtained and how they are dealt with. cardiovascular and respiratory systems are interrelated P4 take measurements related to the respiratory system. the learner is able to: explain changes seen in tissue owing to disease interpret data relating to the digestive system and the role of essential dietary nutrients To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 identify tissue types from sections and/or photographs and be able to identify abnormalities in the tissues M2 P2 take measurements of blood sugar levels. D4 analyse and draw conclusions from data relating to the respiratory system. interpret the results and relate them to the function of the digestive system M3 P3 take measurements related to the cardiovascular system. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. including chemical equations and relating the structure of the digestive system to function explain the requirement for a transport system in the body and how this is achieved explain how measurements related to the respiratory system may change under different conditions including disease. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. interpret the result and relate them to the function of the cardiovascular system M4 D3 explain how the digestive.

Although formal lectures will form part of the delivery of this unit. This unit presents the opportunity to use a wide range of delivery techniques. The requirements of carrying out any experiments using human and animal material must be followed. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. If this is not possible for all learners. Risk assessments. use of library resources and suitable workplace experience. The aim should be to stimulate and educate the learners so they will be motivated to pursue their interest in the workings of the human body in a variety of ways. desks etc that learners may not be aware of.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. laboratory work. using the internet or discussion with medical practitioners. but even in many chemistry ones). It is not intended that structures and functions should be a list of one matched against the other. guest visitors. internet research. This learning outcome is concerned with the energy requirements of the body and the structure and functions listed should be taught with that concept in mind. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 137 . Learning outcome 2 should be practically based in a laboratory. eg in higher education. Prior to any placement the learner and workplace supervisor should be aware of the requirements of the unit and how the placement can contribute to the evidence required to achieve the grading criteria. the workplace. for example. to carry out an assay in the work placement which. Health and safety issues relating to laboratory work in the centre or workplace must be emphasised. prepared slides and photomicrographs. seminars. Tutors need to be aware of the integration of some subject matter with other units within the qualification. or further vocational training. practical investigations are essential in helping learners understand the chemical reactions that take place. The work on organs and some of their abnormalities could be covered by learner research. if suitably observed and recorded. formal lectures and learner-research will be the most likely mode of delivery. Learning outcome 1 covers the basic building blocks for the rest of the unit. the use of COSHH and other regulations in place in any laboratories must be adhered to. This learning outcome requires learners to be able to link the body’s energy requirements with input (nutrients) and the chemical processes undertaken to satisfy these needs. Learners may have the opportunity. These include lectures. could contribute towards the requirements of this unit and others. A combination of practical work. Work placements should be monitored regularly to ensure the learners are benefiting from the experience. Laboratory work using microscopes. and the separate space for computers. discussions. site visits. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. and research on CD ROMs and the internet will provide a varied set of resources to cover this learning outcome.

Expert visitors could add to the relevance of the work. annotated with research notes. Assessment All the pass criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. CD ROMs and other research material can all contribute to meeting these learning outcomes. A risk assessment must be carried out. Evidence could be in a variety of presentations. For a merit grade. ejecting bile into the small intestines where the bile breaks up large fat globules. They must understand the results they obtain in terms of the functioning of the digestive system in order to recognise whether a test result is abnormal. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. The use of such monitoring equipment in some gyms and medical laboratories is worth arranging as part of a series of visits. Learners must look at their results and relate them to the theory of body systems. From their research learners will be able to discuss how molecules produced as a result of physical and chemical digestion are used in the human body.’ Learners will also include the major food groups with the dietary requirements. The use of appropriate software packages to give a series of pictorial presentations. especially as the interest in fitness is increasing and will continue to do so. For instance. learners must be able to use their knowledge of the function of the cardiovascular system (P3) and the respiratory system (P4) to be able to correctly interpret test results. ‘The gall bladder is a muscular sac situated on the wall of the liver. The evidence for this could take the form of drawings and diagrams made in the laboratory and then annotated with notes from research. Learners must provide chemical equations for the digestion of the main food groups and explain how the 138 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . learners must take accurate measurements proficiently. Descriptions of practical methods are not required: it is the analysis of results and the subsequent conclusions that are important here. Using appropriate software. For P1. For M2. The use of microscopes. and give a clear description showing where the major food groups are processed. For M1. For P3 and P4. Visits to pathology laboratories to see how blood and urine samples are dealt with would be a good way of covering a practical area of work. tissues and organs in the human body. a presentation involving annotated diagrams would cover the detail required. learners must outline the main structures and functions of the human digestive system. Here learners may include their practical work on the chemical processes in the digestive system and they should show their understanding of glucose and cellular respiration. For P2. They may also use the functions of the digestive system to state how the energy requirements of the body are obtained. learners must relate the structure of the main body systems to their function. would be another way of presenting evidence. learners must identify the structure of the major cells. Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity).UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS In learning outcomes 3 and 4. One layer of the gall bladder wall is smooth muscle and reacts to hormone stimulation. The evidence for this arises initially from the practical work carried out. Measurements of cardiovascular and respiratory functions are essential. For further guidance refer to page 497. laboratory work again underpins the understanding of the transport and respiratory systems in the body.

The emphasis here is on identifying the functions of each system and showing how they are interrelated. For M4. For D3. For D1. For D2. analyse them and then reach a conclusion which they can justify using the primary and secondary data identified. learners must demonstrate their understanding of the effects of external factors on the respiratory system. relating disease to malfunction of tissues.and micronutrients. learners must take their own experimental data and interpret their results against published data. learners must clearly identify the source of the data and any anomalies in the data should be discussed. especially if they discuss the effect of alternative diets. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 139 . all the pass. how does the body deal with the constant leakage of fluid from the cells? Which part of the transport system ensures this intracellular fluid is returned? Evidence could be presented in an annotated diagrammatic form using appropriate software. but they should not be discouraged from displaying an awareness of this. For example. For a distinction grade. Homeostasis may be mentioned but it is dealt with in detail in another unit. learners must give careful consideration to all the factors involved in a human transport system and then show how the body deals with the requirements. and they must explain their role in maintaining the health and function of the body. Learners need not discuss deficiencies in nutrition. such as exercise and temperature. this work lends itself to annotated diagrams with explanatory text rather than a long essay. Again. For D4. learners must be able to recognise healthy and diseased tissue and explain possible causes for the state of the tissue. They must also know how diseases affect the respiratory system and how malfunctions can be detected in respiratory measurements. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. They must display the ability to identify crucial factors. The method of presentation may include the use of software packages to present charts and graphs and perhaps diagrammatical representations of some conclusions. For M3. The emphasis is on the assessment and discussion of information from a variety of sources. Learners are required to include the usual dietary components but others may be included. Learners must identify macro. Experiment details are not required unless they are a factor in differences between the data discussed. The grading criteria allows learners to demonstrate their skills of evaluation.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS body is adapted to use these molecules. Details of ‘diets’ associated with weight control should not be part of this work. learners must provide individual pieces of evidence for moderation purposes (such as a write-up of a class discussion). Analytical skills are required to link the functions of three body systems.

slides and photomicrographs will also be needed. in particular the equipment associated with investigations into how the human body systems function. Access to anatomical models. It has particular links with: • • Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction. dieticians and other related areas of work would also be of benefit to the learners. 140 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . The input of guest visitors working in different aspects of human biology research would also enhance the learners’ appreciation of the subject. There are some standard textbooks and a few are listed below. cardiovascular measurements. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with all the other biology-related units in the qualification. Ideally. Essential resources To deliver this unit the centre will need to provide laboratory space equipped for work at Level 3 standard.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Links to National Occupational Standards. Suitably experienced and competent staff will be needed to assess the science skills and knowledge demonstrated by the learners. computers and CD ROMs are essential. Indicative reading for learners There is a vast array of human biology material available in terms of books. chemical digestion and blood sugar levels. laboratory technicians. journals. but many more are available as a search of the web will show. hence the need for suitable laboratory accommodation. It is expected that laboratory time will be a major aspect in the delivery of this unit. Scientific journals and magazines are often rather specialised and aimed at the medical profession although many are now available online and are a useful reference source. CD ROMs and websites. Research facilities including access to suitable texts. microscopic sections. The materials available change rapidly and both tutors and learners will have their own favourite websites so none are given here. The input from medical and nurse practitioners. other BTEC units. This includes experiments associated with respiratory functions. industry visits such as to a range of laboratories will help the learners understand the vocational relevance of their studies. The same applies to computer packages and CD ROMs where new versions are constantly produced. This unit can also be linked to AS/A2 Biology and Human Biology. Learners will need the facilities to carry out practical work.

3rd Edition (Benjamin Cummings.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Textbooks Adds J et al — Respiration and Co-ordination (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2005) ISBN 0471718718 Website www. 2002) ISBN 0007135998 Fullick A — Body Systems and Health (Life Science In-Depth) (Heinemann. 2005) ISBN 0748774890 Boyle M et al — Human Biology (Collins Advanced Science Series) (Collins Educational. 2001) ISBN 0199141967 Simpkins J and Williams J I — Advanced Human Biology (Collins Educational.hse. 2006) ISBN 1403475199 Johnson M D — Human Biology: Concepts & Current/Issues with Interactive Physiology for Human Biology CD-ROM.uk/pubns/indg342.pdf Health and Safety Executive guidance for employers and employees on blood-borne viruses in the workplace BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 141 .gov. 2005) ISBN 0805354344 Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 1853568961 Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced GCE (A2) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 185356897X Pickering W R — A-level Advanced Human Biology Through Diagrams (Oxford University press. 1987) ISBN 000322290X Tortora G J — Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (John Wiley & Sons.

Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. 142 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .3 Interpret the results of your calculations.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. N3. • writing up the results of their experimental work. present your findings and justify your methods. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning practical activities and researching relevant information to use in analysing the results carrying out measurements as part of their practical work on respiration. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. • N3.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. digestion and circulation They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.

using different sources.3 Present combined information such as text with image. ICT3. • writing up practical reports and evaluating. • C3.1 Search for information. C3. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out research to use primary and secondary data using data obtained from their investigations writing up the results of their investigations and research. analysing and interpreting researched data.3 Write two different types of documents.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • presenting researched material as part of an assignment carrying out research to use in explaining results gained from investigations They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. One document must be at least 1000 words long.2 • • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 143 .2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. image with number. ICT3. text with number.

1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.3 • 144 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.2 discussing their plans with their supervisor and carrying out the agreed practical work evaluating the planned investigations/research. PS3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.2 • LP3.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • • planning their practical investigations They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Take responsibility for your learning. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.UNIT 11: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • consulting with supervisors to plan practical investigations planning how they will undertake their assignments including practical work reviewing the progress of their practical work. • LP3. PS3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.

Learners will now look at how humans reproduce through studying their reproductive system. They will develop an understanding of how human body systems are interlinked and do not function in isolation. All the systems learners will have studied interrelate to maintain this internal environment within certain physiological limits.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Unit 12: NQF Level 3: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The fascinating way the human body works is further explored in this unit. Similarly. A rise in body temperature of 4°C or more can have serious and even fatal results. Learners will be shown and might carry out some of these tests. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 145 . if glucose levels become too far from the norm then the body as a whole can be affected. Homeostasis is the process that maintains the body’s internal environment within optimal limits so that the body can function as effectively as possible. to help understand some even more intriguing systems that the human body has. This is why homeostasis is so important and the monitoring of it through various tests is a major part of a medical technician’s laboratory work. or use it in employment situations such as sport fitness or health and beauty. At the end of this unit learners will have a sufficient knowledge of human physiology to undertake further study at a higher level. and those which regulate the body’s internal environment. They will look at the set of systems that regulate bodily fluids. coordinate body movement and processes. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the structures associated with the human reproductive system and be able to relate them to their functions Understand the importance of regulating body fluids in the human body Know how the systems involved in the coordination of the human body work Understand the regulatory systems of the human body. Learners will use the experience they gained from studying Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems. The retention or loss of too much fluid will also have significant adverse effects on the workings of the human body.

movement of body fluids eg osmosis. environmental influences on embryonic development Fertility: tests. vagina. hormonal regulation of the female ovarian and menstrual cycles. sperm counts. external genitalia. measurements of body fluid requirements 146 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . lactation. in females (ovary. pH Exercise and body fluid control: sources of fluid for the body. fluid balance. uterus) Functions of the reproductive system: production of gametes (gametogenesis). hormonal regulation of sperm production in the male. rehydration. accessory glands). oviduct. methods used to increase the chances of parenthood (IVF. enhance and decrease fertility. uterus. buffer systems eg carbonic acid. protein. fertilisation. regulation of electrolytes Acid-base balance: importance of maintenance of hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Unit content 1 Understand the structures associated with the human reproductive system and be able to relate them to their functions Structure of the reproductive system: in males (testes. electrolytes and their functions. dehydration. penis. mammary glands). cellular structure of male and female organs (testes. epididymis. vas deferens. monitoring of hormone levels. diffusion. phosphate. motility of sperms. oviduct. scrotum. surrogacy). effect of exercise on body fluid requirements. ovary. pregnancy testing 2 Understand the importance of regulating body fluids in the human body Body fluids: intracellular and extracellular fluid. techniques used to control. role of the technician in such procedures eg use of cryogenics for storage. fluid and electrolytic requirements at different levels of athletic fitness. pregnancy and birth.

peripheral nervous system (afferent and efferent pathways). diabetes mellitus. exophthalmic goitre (over production of thyroid hormones) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 147 . adrenal medulla. diabetes insipidus.and over-production of hormones eg pituitary dwarfism. glucagon. regulation of blood glucose (insulin. measurement of nervous responses in a range of conditions Functions of the nervous system: initiation and transmission of the nerve impulse. interpretation of graphical displays of a nerve impulse and EEG recordings Organisation of the endocrine system: pituitary gland. glucocorticoids). significance of homeostatic regulation by hormones compared with nervous system regulation. thyroid and parathyroid gland. effector organs. structure of neurones. adrenaline. osteoporosis (under-production of oestrogens). sense organs. gigantism (over-production of human growth hormone). hypoglycaemia (over-production of insulin due to a tumour). relation of digestive system to cellular homeostasis. role of negative and positive feedback mechanism Homeostatic systems: endocrine control and feedback. significance of maintaining an optimum internal environment for cell function. principles of homeostatic control systems. Cushing’s syndrome. synapses and synaptic transmission.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION 3 Know how the systems involved in the coordination of the human body work Organisation of the nervous system: central nervous system (main features of the brain and spinal cord). autonomic system (sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways). diabetes mellitus. malfunctioning of endocrine system and possible correction eg goitre. electrolyte and pH balance. pancreas. significance of maintaining fluid. somatic and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) control. gonads and placenta. adrenal cortex. gastrointestinal tract Functions of the endocrine system: characteristics of hormones. hormone responses to extremes of stress and alarm eg fight and flight. pituitary dwarfism. names and actions of principal hormones produced by each gland. measurements used in determining imbalances in homeostatic mechanisms Common disorders associated with homeostasis: under. hypothalamus. description of the measurement of endocrine function 4 Understand the regulatory systems of the human body Principles of homeostasis: definition of homeostasis. regulation of body fluids. pineal. coordination role of nervous system. sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) impulses. reflex arc.

including the effect on the human body. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. assess the implications for the human body when there are malfunctions in the homeostatic mechanisms. in addition to the pass criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. 148 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 explain the role of the technician in prefertility tests and the effects of female fertility treatment on ovulation patterns explain the importance of maintaining acid-base levels D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: interpret data relating to sex hormone levels in relation to reproductive physiology explain the effect of exercise on body fluid requirements and how the body adjusts for different levels of exercise and fitness D3 explain the interrelationship between the nervous and endocrine systems To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 identify the functions of the main sex hormones in human reproduction M2 P2 explain how the balance of electrolytes and fluids is maintained in the human body M3 explain the roles of the nervous and endocrine systems in the maintenance of homeostasis P3 describe the functions of the nervous and endocrine systems including the transmission of nerve impulses and hormone action M4 P4 describe common hormonal disorders that affect homeostasis. explain positive and negative feedback in D4 homeostasis using examples from the human body. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.

Risk assessments. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 149 . and the range of courses that higher education can offer. internet research. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. Ideally. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. but even in many chemistry ones). and the use of COSHH and other regulations must be adhered to. should be monitored regularly to ensure the learners are benefiting from the experience. and acid-base balance. Similarly. Tutors must be aware of the integration of some subject matter with other units within the qualification. to carry out an assay of endocrine levels in the work placement. this could contribute towards the requirements of this unit and others. for example. nurse or doctor would be useful here. If this is not possible for all learners. Documentaries and case studies could provide additional sources of material. Tutors delivering this unit have the opportunity to use a wide range of techniques. exercise and body fluid control measurements are frequently referred to in sport science manuals enabling the learners to carry out experiments. site visits. The requirements of carrying out any experiments using human subjects must be followed. a visit to a fertility clinic or laboratory would be a way of gathering information. the learner and workplace supervisor must be aware of the requirements of the unit and how the placement can contribute to the evidence required to achieve the grading criteria. The aim should be to stimulate and educate the learners so they will be in a position to understand how complex the human body is. A guest speaker such as a fertility technician. use of library resources and suitable workplace experience. Learning outcome 1 covers the human reproductive systems and the wider subject area of fertility. This learning outcome will probably involve formal lectures and learner-research and access to CD ROMs. photomicrographs and other material to help the learner to understand the complexities of the reproductive systems. guest speakers. Health and safety issues relating to laboratory work in the centre or workplace must be emphasised. If suitably observed and recorded. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. discussions. Learners may have the opportunity. laboratory work. This understanding enables learners to see the range of job opportunities available at every level. and the separate space for computers. if used. seminars. Prior to any placement. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. Laboratory work should form a major part in the delivery of learning outcome 2. These include lectures. Work placements. but the chances are slim so alternative ways of gathering material are needed. There are many established experiments regarding fluid movements.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended.

Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). it is not sufficient for learners to list the functions of the nervous and endocrine systems. which can be built using appropriate software packages. The emphasis here is on considering the functions in terms of nerve impulses and the actions of hormones. For P2. that they understand it is a regulatory system essential for the maintenance of a steady state in the body. Access to EEG recordings and other graphical material showing nerve impulse transmission will help learners cope with a rather theoretical area of work. Case studies provided by the tutor will be useful here. Learning outcome 4 is the pivotal learning outcome of this unit. For P4. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. A clear but succinct description is required. their functions in the body and how balances are maintained. for example. It is not intended that vast lists are compiled. especially lists of hormones and contraceptive devices. The list of common disorders must be linked with the relevant hormones associated with a homeostatic disorder. flow charts can make the process more dynamic. Learners must demonstrate through the clarity of their account. Learners should be encouraged to use text and visual representations. Input from tutors and possibly guest speakers will be needed and some areas can be covered by independent research. helps learners understand a constantly changing set of systems. learners may have to be guided initially.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Although formal lectures will form part of the delivery of this unit. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For further guidance refer to page 497. learners should be encouraged to use a variety of presentation methods. showing how nerve impulses and the chemical messengers that represent the endocrine products are part of a control system in the body. Learners must identify the main hormones and describe their function. practical investigations are essential in helping learners understand this learning outcome. They must think about what electrolytes are. The use of flow diagrams. This learning outcome is probably best covered by formal input from the tutor and guest speakers if available. whether pictorial or descriptive. It brings together all the systems looked at and requires a good grasp of how human body systems are interlinked. For a merit grade. 150 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Research on endocrine levels and how they are monitored will probably only be found in specialist journals or online medical sites. Laboratory work is possible in order to measure nerve responses under different conditions for learning outcome 3. For P3. For P1. Learners should avoid lengthy descriptions. learners must give a clear account of the main systems involved in homeostasis and how they work. and learners may need tutorial help with the material. Once learners have grasped the basis of the homeostatic mechanism then individual or group research can add more detail. A risk assessment must be carried out.

Finally. Learners are required to show the effect of the disorders and the main methods used to rectify the situation. learners need not give detailed descriptions of treatment. For D3. Learners must consider the internal regulatory mechanisms. For M4. learners may present their work in a variety of ways. The learners must include the positive and negative effects hormone treatment can have. Only an overview. interpret it and relate it to the physiology of reproduction. Some details are essential here because of the interrelationship of so many sex hormones. They must give details about the rises and falls in acid-base levels as part of normal body functions. especially in demonstrating which hormones are targeting which organs and tissues. For D2. Learners are not required to give details of costs. Learners must show their ability to assess the implications of a malfunction rather than a lengthy description. eg extremes of temperature. much graphical data is available from various sources and learners are required to interpret this research. Most learners will probably produce a written account but annotated diagrams are essential in describing ovulation and hormone treatment. all the pass. learners must show they understand the whole homeostatic process — the hormone and nervous systems and how they interact with each other. The consequences of not dealing with these extremes should be mentioned. For D4. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. use of tablets/injections to increase production. eg removal of part of a gland to reduce hormone secretion. learners must explain positive and negative homeostatic feedback. For M2. not great depth. Learners must provide details about the pre-fertility tests carried out (on both males and females). For a distinction grade. Annotated diagrams are an ideal way of presenting some of this material.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION The evidence for M1 will probably arise from research especially on websites. they must review all the information and decide how effective the body is at dealing with such extremes. but the tutor must ensure that learners have understood the role of nerves and hormones in the maintenance of a steady internal environment. Learners must show their ability to analyse the data. Leading on from this. They need to explain how the homeostatic mechanism functions to maintain an internally stable environment. For D1. Diagrams will be an integral part of the presentation. the speed of effectiveness of hormones and nerves should be highlighted. level of services (private or NHS): it is the science of the procedures which is important. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 151 . As a minimum. learners must identify situations where body fluid levels could be affected. learners must explain what the acid-base mechanism is and demonstrate that they understand how it functions to maintain normal stability. For M3. is required. and the learners must refer to males and females. learners must describe the possible homeostatic malfunctions and what these do to the body.

UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Links to National Occupational Standards. The input from medical and nurse practitioners. in particular the equipment associated with investigations into how the coordinating systems function. It is expected that laboratory time will be a major aspect in the delivery of this unit. diffusion).uk will show. The materials available change rapidly and both tutors and learners will have their own favourite websites so none are given here.amazon. Learners will need the facilities to carry out practical work. microscopic sections/slides/photomicrographs will also be needed. There are some standard textbooks and a few have been listed below. Access to anatomical models. visits to relevant work areas such as a range of laboratories will help the learners understand the vocational relevance of their studies. journals. but many more are available. and the measurement of nerve responses and stimuli. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with all the other biology-related units. It has particular links with the following: • • • Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians. CD ROMs and websites. other BTEC units. The input of guest speakers working in different aspects of human biology research would also enhance the learners’ appreciation of the subject. hence the need for suitable laboratory accommodation. Ideally. This includes being able to carry out experiments associated with the movement of fluids (osmosis. Essential resources To deliver this unit the centre will need to provide laboratory space equipped for work at Level 3 standard. 152 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . These resources are particularly important in some sections where experimental data such as EEG recordings are only available as secondary data. computers and CD ROMs are essential. Suitably experienced and competent staff will be needed to assess the science skills and knowledge demonstrated by the learners. and other related areas of work would also be of benefit to the learners. Scientific journals and magazines are often rather specialised and aimed at the medical profession although many are now available online and are a useful reference source. as a search of websites such as www. Research facilities including access to suitable texts. This unit can also be linked to AS/A2 Biology and Human Biology. Indicative reading for learners There is a vast array of human biology material available in terms of books. laboratory technicians. The same applies to computer packages and CD ROMs where new versions are constantly produced.co.

pdf Health and Safety Executive guidance for employers and employees on blood-borne viruses in the workplace BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 153 . 2005) ISBN 0748774890 Boyle M et al — Human Biology (Collins Advanced Science Series) (Collins Educational. 1987) ISBN 000322290X Tortora G J — Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (John Wiley & Sons. 3rd Edition (Benjamin Cummings.gov.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Textbooks Adds J et al — Respiration and Co-ordination (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2005) ISBN 0805354344 Pickering W R — A-level Advanced Human Biology Through Diagrams (Oxford University Press. 2002) ISBN 0007135998 Johnson M D — Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues. 2005) ISBN 0471718718 Website www. 2001) ISBN 0199141967 Simpkins J and Williams J I — Advanced Human Biology (Collins Educational.hse.uk/pubns/indg342.

3 Interpret the results of your calculations.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. 154 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning their research activities and/or practical investigations and using several sources to find relevant information processing data from primary and secondary sources They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. present your findings and justify your methods. • interpreting data from primary and secondary sources.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. • N3.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.

each one giving different information about complex subjects.1a Take part in a group discussion. • C3. text with number.3 Write two different types of documents. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.1 Search for information. One document must be at least 1000 words long. image with number. • C3. ICT3.2 • working on an assignment and writing up a practical report. C3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 155 . Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out research for background information and secondary data collating primary and secondary data presenting their reports for a theory or practical investigation. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. using different sources.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.3 Present combined information such as text with image.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Communication Level 3 When learners are: • working in groups to gather information for any of the grading criteria listed working on an assignment where a presentation could be part of the assessment preparing and writing up an assignment that may involve practical work They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. ICT3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.

3 156 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.2 • LP3.UNIT 12: PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN REGULATION AND REPRODUCTION Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • working with tutors and colleagues to plan their research and practical investigations implementing their working plan to meet the deadlines set reviewing their plans and producing results and conclusions. Take responsibility for your learning.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. • LP3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.

without which life on Earth could not exist. microbiology and clinical chemistry. and know how these pathways are controlled Understand the process of protein synthesis. as well as some reference to their use in industry. a field of corn or even a dog. agriculture and veterinary science. Biochemistry is a study of these chemical processes. physiology. Biochemistry overlaps with many other areas of study such as pharmacology. genetics. A more detailed treatment is provided of the properties of enzymes and how these catalysts can be studied in the laboratory. A significant part of this unit is concerned with the chemical processes involved in cellular energy production. Since it encompasses all life forms. biochemistry applies to a wide range of other disciplines including medicine.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Unit 13: NQF Level 3: Biochemical Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract When you look at an oak tree. For example. In this unit learners will study some of the biological molecules in living organisms and the relationship between their structures and characterisation in the laboratory. a biochemist might be involved in research into new drugs or a study of the interaction of herbicides with plants. you are seeing living organisms that only function and live by means of a series of interrelated chemical reactions. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 157 . Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the structural characteristics that are used to classify biological molecules Know how 3D structural features account for the principal biochemical properties of enzymes Understand the metabolic pathways involved in energy production in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. nutrition and food science.

UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Understand the structural characteristics that are used to classify biological molecules Biological molecules: carbohydrates. role of co-factors and co-enzymes Laboratory techniques: investigation of any two factors affecting enzyme activity eg vary pH. inhibitors. mRNA. hydrophobic bond). proteins and lipids eg thin layer chromatography. electrophoresis. proteins. type of intramolecular bond related to amino acid side chain (S-S link. active site. lipids eg triglyceride. effect on catalytic rate of pH. 3D structures of biological macromolecules Laboratory techniques: one example of commonly used laboratory technique for carbohydrates. catalytic activity. substrate concentration. gas-liquid chromatography 2 Know how 3D structural features account for the principal biochemical properties of enzymes Structural features: concept of peptide backbone and variable side chains depending on amino acid involved. 3D globular structure. temperature. nucleic acids (DNA. denaturisation (caused by extremes in temperature. polymeric nature of biological macromolecules. multiple polymeric structures from a limited number of monomers. RNA. acids and bases) Principal biochemical properties: specificity. tRNA) Structural characteristics: functional groups in monomer units (not nucleic acids). temperature Commercial applications: enzymes in diagnostic testing and industry eg brewing 158 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . gel permeation chromatography. denaturisation. H-bond.

aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (muscle and yeast cells) Energy production: cellular role of ATP and its production in the above pathways Regulation: feedback regulation.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES 3 Understand the metabolic pathways involved in energy production in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. degenerate code Industrial applications: synthetic enzymes BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 159 . and know how these pathways are controlled Metabolic pathways: schematic outline diagrams of fatty acid and glucose catabolism. negative feedback as a control method in glycolysis (ATP. amino acid activation Genetic code: triplet codes. citrate and hydrogen ions). anticodon. Pasteur effect 4 Understand the process of protein synthesis Stages: transcription. codon. AMP. citric acid (TCA) cycle. electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation showing their interrelationships and the cellular locations. translation.

160 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. D4 relate the structures of the different types of RNA to their roles in the biosynthesis of proteins in cells and their use in industry. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. lipids) M2 P2 use laboratory methods to investigate two factors that affect the enzymatic rate of reaction M3 analyse industry-related factors that need to be considered in order to optimise enzyme efficiency D3 evaluate the regulation of glycolysis in terms of energy requirements in cells P3 distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic glucose degradation and fatty acid catabolism M4 P4 describe how genetic information can be stored in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in DNA. the learner is able to: evaluate the techniques used in separating biological molecules To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 demonstrate and explain laboratory techniques that can be used to separate mixtures of biological molecules (carbohydrates. in addition to the pass criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: M1 interpret data from experiments designed to separate biological molecules explain how rates of enzymatic reactions are affected by changes in temperature identify and compare the sites and amount of ATP production and consumption during aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of glucose in cells explain the role of RNA during the biosynthesis of proteins in cells. proteins.

Tutors should outline the structural characteristics of a selected group of biological molecules (eg proteins). In learning outcomes 1 and 2 (relating to enzyme properties) learners should support theoretical aspects with practical investigations. polymeric nature and shapes of biological macromolecules. learners should demonstrate structural diversity arising from differing combinations and sequences of a limited number of monomers. experimental data could be provided. The aim of learning outcome 2 is to explain the relationship between peptide structure (primary protein structure) and shape. including denaturisation and loss of catalytic activity. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. tutors should develop the key aspects of the learning outcomes with the minimal use of detailed chemical structures. with some bonds that are readily hydrolysed to give a number of easily oxidised (degraded) monomer units. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. For example. with carbohydrates the aim is to provide sufficient knowledge of the functional groups of monosaccharides to understand that a storage carbohydrate consists of a highly branched polymeric structure. dictated by the types of side chain intramolecular bonds arising from the amino acid side chains. Throughout this unit. Some knowledge of the chemical structure of the functional groups of the monomers is required: this gives a better understanding of the overall polymeric structure and their associated biological properties. For the groups of biological molecules not investigated practically.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. and the separate space for computers. For each class of biological molecules listed. The commercial use of enzymes should be mentioned. This could be supplemented with a practical study of a separation technique and an explanation of the relationship between behaviour and structural characteristics. If this is not possible for all learners. and this would link to the function of enzymes in living organisms and learning outcome 3. The remaining list of properties could be developed from this. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 161 . but even in many chemistry ones). This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. This should be extended to the concept of a globular molecule with an active (catalytic) site lined with side chains that would have an affinity for certain types of substrate molecules (specificity). The main focus of learning outcome 1 is for learners to understand the diverse.

In learning outcome 4. For a merit grade. learners could produce a diagrammatic representation of the interrelationships between the listed pathways. although other evidence is acceptable. 162 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners should then consider the role of these different molecules in each stage of protein synthesis. For P4. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. In particular. For M1. one method of separation for one of the groups of biological molecules. Detailed chemical structures are not required: only those functional groups directly related to biological properties should be considered. Two factors that affect reaction rate. reference should be made to the suitability of DNA as a molecule for storing genetic information (from learning outcome 1). and shape where appropriate) and how structural diversity can arise from a relatively limited number of monomer units. The general principles of both positive and negative feedback should be considered but only negative feedback should be studied in detail. emphasising the different end products and the effect of their build-up on continued glycolysis. eg temperature and substrate concentration. learners must understand the general structure and shape of an enzyme.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES The listed metabolic pathways in learning outcome 3 should be presented in diagrammatic form. investigated practically and reported. Results from all separation technique exercises (including those not investigated practically) should be interpreted correctly. For P3. For P2. learners should show the differences between DNA and the various types of RNA. Learners must also outline the role of amino acids in the active site and in determining specificity. should be selected from the list. the role of amino acid side chains in stabilising the shape should be covered. For P1. using a laboratory technique. or that represent the first step in a pathway where there is a change in the number of carbon atoms of the intermediates. The diagrams should be annotated with the names of compounds that are common intermediates between the pathways. Diagrammatically or in note form. They must describe separation methods for the remaining two groups. Learners must consider both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Anaerobic glycolysis should be considered in both yeast and muscle cells. They must emphasise the role of nitrogen base pairing and sequence in relation to the storage of information. learners require an understanding of the complex nature of biological molecules (outline structure. Learners should show their interrelationships and highlight only those stages where there are common intermediates and list control or ATP (NADH) producing enzymes. learners must investigate and report. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. learners must understand the structure of DNA.

merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. they could find and discuss relevant examples to illustrate their conclusions. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with the following optional units: • • • Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry. NADH.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES For M2. For a distinction grade. and the stages at which each is involved in protein biosynthesis. all the pass. They must evaluate the importance of each in terms of energy requirements in cells. Distinction grade criteria require learners to demonstrate the ability to apply biochemical principles in the interpretation of information. They must also consider co-factors in terms of changes in rates of reaction. For D1. learners must relate the structural characteristics and functions of differing types of RNA to their role in protein biosynthesis and their use in industry. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 163 . They must include the role of electron transport in recycling NADH and other reduced co-enzymes with the production of ATP. learners must consider the results from all separation technique exercises. For instance. learners must identify sites of energy production (ATP. Observations from the laboratory investigations of enzyme rates should be correctly interpreted in terms of basic enzyme structure. the mesh-like structure of the stationary phase and the molecular shape and size of the protein should be considered. and the underlying principles of the separation technique. For D4. For example. They must account for the concepts of optimum temperature and loss of activity due to denaturisation. For M3. temperature. learners must review the factors involved in determining enzyme structure and the effects on these caused by changes in pH. learners must explain how enzymatic rates are affected by temperature. FADH2) in the listed metabolic pathways (not fatty acid degradation). Learners must demonstrate a clear understanding of the effect of temperature on the stabilising amino acid side chains in proteins and the consequent loss of shape. They must interpret these in terms of the structural features of the molecules being separated. other BTEC units. The optimum efficiency of the enzyme must be related to other industrial considerations. learners must identify the sites of regulation of glycolysis in response to changing concentrations of ATP. For D2. for separation of proteins by gel permeation chromatography. ADP. The effect of the build up of lactic acid (and its removal) during anaerobic glycolysis in muscle cells should be included. Links to National Occupational Standards. For M4. In so doing they must be largely unaided and must integrate information of various types and from various sources. such as cost. hydrogen ions and citrate. learners must explain the characteristics of different types of RNA. For D3. substrate concentration and presence of inhibitors.

3rd Edition (Blackwell Publishing. 2001) ISBN 0716738732 Salway J G — Metabolism at a Glance. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Alberts B et al — Essential Cell Biology (Garland Science. 2005) ISBN 0415367786 Purves W K — Life: The Science of Biology Volume 1 The Cell and Heredity (WH Freeman & Co Ltd. 2003) ISBN 1405107162 Website www.com Nature 164 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . 2002) ISBN 0007136005 Hames D and Hooper N — Instant Notes in Biochemistry (Instant Notes Series) (Bios Scientific Publishers.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Essential resources This unit has an element of practical work where the use of a suitably equipped laboratory will be required.nature. 2003) ISBN 0815334818 Boyle M and Senior K — Biology (Collins Advanced Science Series) (Collins Educational.

2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. present your findings and justify your methods. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 165 . Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • carrying out any practical investigation manipulating data from the enzyme activity practical They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • commenting on error analysis and drawing conclusions from the enzyme activity practical. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. N3.1 N3.

2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. testing and industry using software to produce graphs and tables from experimental data writing reports of practical investigations. each one giving different information about complex subjects.3 Present combined information such as text with image.3 Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: searching for examples of the ICT3. ICT3. image with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. ICT3. • C3. Write two different types of documents. • • 166 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . text with number.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing aspects of 3D structures of biological macromolecules or discussing advantages and disadvantages of separation of biological molecules reporting on any subjectbased topic or results of a practical investigation producing a report on a practical investigation of enzymes’ properties and writing a paper explaining the structural features of an enzyme.1 Search for information. One document must be at least 1000 words long. and multiple search criteria in at use of enzymes in diagnostic least one case. • C3.1a Take part in a group discussion. using different sources.

• WO3. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 167 .2 • PS3.3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning to investigate aspects of glycolysis and its regulation carrying out an investigation as a group into glycolysis and its regulation looking at ways of improving their investigation on glycolysis and its regulation. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. • PS3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.UNIT 13: BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • exploring methods of separating mixtures of biological molecules carrying out a practical investigation of a separation process evaluating the results from a practical investigation.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.1 Plan work with others. WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.

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and recognise the importance of tailoring the energy source to the application. as well as the relationship with volume and pressure. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Unit 14: NQF Level 3: Energy Changes. This unit allows learners to develop an understanding of the need for portable energy sources in a laboratory environment. with consideration of ‘useful’ energy and ‘wasted’ energy.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 169 . Sources and Applications BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract This unit gives learners an understanding of the fundamental concepts of energy and how energy is measured. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know the fundamental concepts associated with energy and its measurement Be able to demonstrate and relate changes of temperature or physical state to changes in internal energy Understand the differences between energy transfer mechanisms and the relationships between them Understand the properties of electrical energy sources. Energy changes can cause a rise or fall in temperature or changes of state: learners will study more about temperature and how it relates to energy changes. They will also learn about energy transfer mechanisms and how they are used in industrial applications.

thermal expansion Energy changes: transfer of energy can cause a rise or fall in temperature or changes of state. useful energy. thermal conductivity of solids. specific latent heat (Q = mL). radiation (absorption. ie Q ⎛ T − T2 ⎞ = kA⎜ 1 ⎟ . temperature gradient. condensation. applications t ⎝ L ⎠ Relationships: eg differences between forced and natural convection 170 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . gravitational potential energy (PEg = mgh). electrons or molecules).UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. pressure law. Stefan’s law of radiation ( W = eσAT 4 ). the ideal gas law. calculations eg specific heat capacity (Q = mcΔt). SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Unit content 1 Know the fundamental concepts associated with energy and its measurement Definitions: work as force x distance moved in direction of force (W=Fd). power as the rate of transfer of energy Concepts: principle of the conservation of energy. liquids and gases. kinetic energy (KE = ½ mv2). Celsius) and fixed points (absolute zero). temperature scales (Kelvin. experimental evidence for a gas law eg Charles’ law. kinetic theory dealt with qualitatively. convection (bulk motion of liquids). kilowatt) 2 Be able to demonstrate and relate changes of temperature or physical state to changes in internal energy Temperature: degree of hotness. power (watt. recognition of energy types as forms of potential or kinetic energies. energy in terms of work. pressure and volume of a gas. Boyle’s law. vaporisation. wasted energy and efficiency Quantities and units: energy (joule). applications 3 Understand the differences between thermal energy transfer mechanisms and the relationships between them Energy transfer mechanisms: conduction (transfer of kinetic energy between atoms. fusion. applications Gases: effect of changing temperature. elastic potential energy (PEe = ½ kx2). emission and relation to surface properties).

their prospects and limitations BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 171 . the leclanche dry cell and the lead-acid cell.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. capacity and behaviour under load. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS 4 Understand the properties of electrical energy sources Structure and operating principles of common primary and secondary cells: characteristics. zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFC). milliampere-hours. their prospects and limitations Solar cells: recent developments. proton exchange membrane or solid polymer. merits and limitations for particular applications. disposal hazards. recent developments. direct methanol fuel cells. applications Fuel cells: eg simple cell. ampere-hours.

merits and limitations. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. gases and combinations of substances. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. convection and radiation and their industrial applications D3 explain the differences between heat transfer mechanisms in solids. volume and temperature changes for gases in given industrial processes D2 explain gas pressure and how it affects industrial processes P3 investigate and describe the processes of conduction. the learner is able to: M1 perform calculations involving changes of state for industrial processes D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. specific heat capacity. in terms of molecular motion. M4 give examples of primary and secondary cells and describe their characteristics. liquids. in industrial applications. and also for given emissivities M2 calculate pressure. P4 describe the difference between primary and secondary cells. temperature changes and the gas laws To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the fundamental concepts associated with energy using industrial examples P2 report on the outcomes of an investigation of one gas law and relate them to industrial processes M3 calculate energy flow using industrial examples for given thermal conductivities and temperature gradients. the learner is able to: explain the behaviour and response of industrial systems in terms of latent heat. bulk motion and surface properties in industrial processes D4 evaluate the use of primary and secondary cells for portable applications. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria. 172 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.

UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. rather than passive note-taking and bookwork. or PE to PE. The aim is for learners to experience techniques used to measure physical quantities. This experiment allows the determination of values for specific heat capacity and latent heat fusion of water. chemical energy and solar energy. highlighting differences in lab-based investigations compared with industry. Tutors should focus on how industrial processes make use of this concept. etc). energy changes and transfer mechanisms to complement advanced scientific studies. Two concrete examples of potential energy are indicated in the unit content but tutors should make the learners aware of other forms of potential energy. use a data logger to record the temperature. tutors should adopt the sequence in the content section. It would be valuable for learners to carry out a practical investigation of PE to KE conversion (or KE to PE. These are energies due to the motion or state of physical objects. Learners should carry out simple experiments to measure the specific heat or latent heat of a substance. They should recognise that the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules is related to the temperature. so the latent heat can be calculated from the electrical energy transferred during the time it takes for a measured mass loss. Learners could. Consideration should be given to implications for industry. For example. Learners should carry out measurements and see effects for themselves. The industrial applications and implications must again be the focus here. rather than to learn a standard experimental technique. such as electrical energy. Practical investigation will form the backbone of the delivery strategy. investigating the effectiveness of double glazing on reducing the rate at which thermal energy is lost. During delivery of this unit. for example. This sequence starts by linking the concept of energy to physical work. The power of the kettle is known. are referring to kinetic or potential energies. This unit aims to develop the quantitative aspects and qualitative understanding. It is important that all the work for this unit is related to industrial applications of energy. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit covers much of the foundation work relating to energy. It is important for learners to see that temperature is related to the internal energy of a substance. There is a very simple experiment for determining the latent heat of vaporisation of water. at regular intervals. This could be done on a simple level. of a container of crushed ice heated by an electric immersion heater. Learners should recognise that energy is the capacity to do work. by finding the height reached by a projectile fired by a spring. The learners will have been introduced to the concept of energy as part of Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science. All the common energy labels. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 173 . Learners are not expected to carry out a series of standard practicals and should develop their own investigations. for example. It is not necessary for learners to do a detailed or quantitative study of distributions of quanta in a hot solid. eg high pressure requires thickened pipes. Water is boiled with the kettle on a balance so that change in mass can be noted.

etc. Quantitative questions requiring the recall of those laws is not necessary. be able to complete calculations using Stefan’s law and be able to explain the industrial applications and implications. The majority of the pass criteria can be achieved through practical activity. so they should study the simple cell. This is a good time to draw out the parallels in different flow systems. but learners should perform at least one in a real laboratory. learners should be aware of the five-fourths power law for cooling by natural convection and the linear law for cooling in a steady draught. convenience. When dealing with thermal radiation. in the context of industrial applications. Forced convection produces a faster cooling rate than natural convection. They must be able to define each term. so they understand the potential benefits and limitations of using solar panels to power remote instrumentation. This unit requires learners to build up a portfolio of laboratory investigations. as listed in the unit content. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS The treatment of thermal conductivity could be linked to insulation of buildings or the effectiveness of double glazing. but it is useful for learners to draw parallels across different systems. Learners need to highlight and explain differences in their investigations compared with those used in industry. reports and calculations. learners must describe the fundamental concepts of energy. as it will help their understanding of science. the flow is the energy flow and the resistance is the inverse of the conductance (note: conductance = conductivity area/length). They should know how they differ from those studied in terms of energy capacity. In this case the ‘push’ is indicated by the temperature difference. suitability for particular applications. learners should understand what is meant by a black body radiator. Learners’ experience should tell them this. For P1. They should also investigate the energy per square metre delivered by sunlight. convection and radiation. the leclanche dry cell and the lead-acid cell. 174 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . flow of charge and flow of heat. and know the associated unit of measure. A risk assessment must be carried out.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. This point need not be laboured. For P2. load performance. At this level. It is useful for the learners to see the heat flow equation as ‘push = flow x resistance’. They could do this through cooling experiments. Learners should know how fuel cells differ from conventional cells. learners must investigate a gas law. learners must investigate conduction. The treatment of energy sources is restricted to those used to power portable equipment. They should consult catalogues of cell suppliers and get to know the range of cell types currently available. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. and this would be a useful opportunity for learners to use data loggers. Fuel cells are being developed as energy sources for vehicles and other devices. The Charles’ law tube is a fairly inexpensive piece of equipment containing a small amount of mercury. For P3. Learners should comment on the effects of surface layers and the industrial applications. Experiments are available interactively on the web. Learners need to understand the basic principles. ie flow of fluid.

learners must describe the characteristics of primary cells and secondary cells and then highlight the differences between these two types of cells including their uses. to at least one industrial system. For M4.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. For a merit grade. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with: • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians. as given by the tutor. in an industrial application. eg MP3 players. They could involve the more practical applications of thermal conductivity in the insulation of buildings. The data for industrial calculations that use Stephan’s law will need to be provided by the tutor. learners must evaluate the use of primary and secondary cells for mobile electronic units. in the unit content. learners must perform calculations to determine the changes in pressure. learners must explain the heat transfer mechanisms in solids. bulk motion and surface properties. learners must do accurate calculations involving changes of state of substances used in industrial process. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. For D4. other BTEC units. liquids. learners must describe the characteristics of primary and secondary cells used for industrial applications. Links to National Occupational Standards. learners must calculate energy flow for given thermal conductivities and temperature gradients. liquids and gases. gases and combinations of substances. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 175 . and highlight the differences of each in solids. They must also comment on the merits and limitations of the primary and secondary cells. learners must apply the principles. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For D1 and D2. and the implications of these for their industrial applications. They could compare two portable devices which use primary and secondary cells. For D3. eg heat energy lost through single and double glazed windows. For a distinction grade. For M1. volume and temperature for gases used in industrial processes. In doing so. For M2. all the pass. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS For P4. For M3. torches. All calculations must be carried out correctly and the correct units must be used. Learners must use examples contextualised to industrial processes. they must describe molecular motion.

jersey. 2005) ISBN 074877663X Johnson K et al — Advanced Physics for You (Nelson Thornes Ltd.indiana. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Breithaupt J — New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level: Core Book AND Course Study Guide (New Understanding Physics) (Nelson Thornes Ltd.mpoweruk.uoregon.org www.cfm www.org. 2000) ISBN 0748743162 Ellse M and Honeywill C — Electricity and Thermal Physics (Nelson Advanced Science: Physics) (Nelson Thornes Ltd.com/secondary.html www.htm A sheet on selective surfaces The Association for Science Education Efunda engineering fundamentals The Online Fuel Cell Information Resource Institute of Physics Ideal gas law experimental instructions MPower 176 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .com/formulae/heat_transfer/ home/overview. They should also have access to a range of Level 2 and Level 3 physics books.efunda.html www.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. 2000) ISBN 074875296X Milward et al — Revise AS Physics for Salters Horners (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2006) ISBN 0435582089 Websites http://physics.iop.edu/~brabson/p310/ selectivesurfaces.edu/vlab/Piston/index.org www.fuelcells. 2005) ISBN 043558345X Milward et al — Revise A2 Physics for Salters Horners (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Essential resources Learners need access to appropriate laboratory facilities and ICT equipment.uk www.ase.

present your findings and justify your methods. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. investigating methods of heat N3. N3. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.2 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 177 . specific latent heat. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. power. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. • constructing cooling curves for heat transfer and generating conclusions from experimental results. thermal conductivity and emissivities N3.1 transfer using formulae to calculate work done. specific heat capacity. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.

gases and combinations of substances. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • presenting an evaluation of the differences between heat transfer mechanisms in solids. ICT3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.2 Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching information from books and internet sources on methods of heat transfer displaying results in appropriate format producing PowerPoint presentations on findings of investigations. One document must be at least 1000 words long. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • discussing factors affecting rate of cooling presenting experimental data from specific heat investigations reading journals and synthesising information about the ideal gas law They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • • 178 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . C3.1a C3.3 Write two different types of documents. ICT3. liquids. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. in terms of molecular motion and surface properties. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.1 Search for information. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. • C3.1b Take part in a group discussion. text with number.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. using different sources. image with number.3 Present combined information such as text with image.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES.

1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning how assignment tasks will be achieved demonstrating responsibility in executing a work schedule reflecting on their performance and areas for improvement. • PS3. Take responsibility for your learning.2 • LP3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.UNIT 14: ENERGY CHANGES. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.2 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • carrying out a group investigation discussing what is to be achieved.1 Plan work with others.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • making hypotheses about factors affecting rate of cooling and planning experiments to explore them undertaking an investigation into mechanisms of heat transfer evaluating whether the results support the initial hypothesis. • WO3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 179 . • LP3. WO3. problems experienced and strategies for avoiding such problems in the future. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. setting objectives and discussing progress at intervals reflecting on what has been achieved. • PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.

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learners should always approach any microorganism with the respect and safety precautions one would afford a serious pathogen. pharmaceutical research and manufacture. As-yetundiscovered species may contain priceless molecular technology that could be applied to an almost limitless range of fields. It is a highly practical unit involving the handling of live organisms. and provide them with the knowledge and skills to be able to work safely and competently in a microbiology laboratory. medical diagnostics. Their work is at the heart of developments in genetic manipulation. Unfortunately. They provide us with the biochemical tools for a host of enormously important biotechnological processes. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to identify the organelles found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and describe their structure and function Be able to use aseptic techniques to culture a range of microorganisms Understand the factors that encourage and limit growth of microorganisms Be able to classify and identify microorganisms. to name a few. This unit will introduce learners to the key concepts and techniques of microbiology.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Unit 15: NQF Level 3: Microbiological Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Microorganisms are essential for the world around us. chemical industries. there is a lot of work for microbiologists to do. It is also important that learners understand the reasons behind these procedures and are able to apply these ideas to new situations. and learners will need to develop good aseptic techniques and risk assessment skills. antiseptics and improved preventative measures. Their continued evolution produces new epidemics that biomedical scientists must attempt to combat with antibiotics. The vast majority of microbial species have not even been identified yet. from ancient practices such as brewing and baking to the cutting-edge techniques involved in genetic engineering. food and drink production and forensics. Microbiology skills are in ever-increasing demand as the benefits and threats from these simplest forms of life become better understood. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 181 . Although the cultures used will be of very low risk. some microorganisms also kill millions of us every year. Clearly.

streaking plates.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Be able to identify the organelles found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and describe their structure and function Eukaryotic: nucleus. streak plating 182 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . viruses and fungi. centrioles. aseptic inoculation of liquid media. continuous lines. disadvantages) 2 Be able to use aseptic techniques to culture a range of microorganisms Microorganisms: bacteria. temperature. mesosome. flagella Functions: energy conversion. biomedical eg prevention of MRSA. human tissue growth 4 Be able to classify and identify microorganisms Classification: key characteristics of the main subgroups of bacteria. transmission. serial dilution. sterilisation Contexts: biotechnological eg fermentation. electron microscopy (scanning. synthesis of biological molecules. plant tissue culture. light microscopy (advantages. fungi Growth requirements: eg nutrients. chloroplasts. haemocytometer counts 3 Understand the factors that encourage and limit growth of microorganisms Limiting factors: temperature. nutrients. microscopic observation. cell wall. rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. selective growth media Separation: colony characteristics. spreading lawns of bacteria. aerobic or anaerobic conditions. antibiotics. viral plaque counts. nuclear envelope. pH Techniques: preparing sterile growth media. disadvantages). cilia. disinfection. colony morphology. viruses and fungi Identification: Gram-staining. ribosomes. ribosomes. transport of substances. cell membrane. capsule. mitochondria. motility Identification: key characteristics of bacteria. cilia. Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles. membrane filtration. pH. gaseous environment. advantages. flagella Prokaryotic: nucleoid. viruses.

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 outline the characteristic features of bacteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: M1 relate structure to function of cell structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. with particular regard to ensuring precision and aseptic technique calculate and compare growth rates of one or more types of microorganism under varying conditions relate techniques for identification of microorganisms to their structure.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. viruses and fungi and use light microscopy to identify. describe their principal taxonomic characteristics. including consideration of cost implications D3 draw valid conclusions from growth rate calculations and suggest how this knowledge might be applied in either a biotechnological or biomedical context D4 describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of identification techniques in a specific application. the learner is able to: describe how several structures within a cell can work together to perform a complex operation evaluate growth conditions. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. measure and count microorganisms M2 explain the principles underlying techniques. and state one commercial application or disease for each. in addition to the pass criteria. describing how best conditions are found and managed. D2 P2 conduct and report on practical activities cultivating and counting microorganisms using aseptic techniques M3 P3 conduct and report practical investigations of factors that encourage and limit the growth of microorganisms M4 P4 identify the main groups of microorganisms. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 183 .

such as Gram-staining. Learners should be taught a range of techniques and skills for learning outcome 2. such as the transfer of a solution from one container to another.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. These techniques should include (as a minimum): • • preparing culture media and pouring plates aseptically sterilisation and disinfection techniques 184 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . If this is not possible for all learners. This can be done quickly and easily either through filling in blank labels. from which they could select appropriate procedures and carry out their investigations for learning outcome 3. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. Learners should become competent in the use of light microscopes and basic preparation techniques. They should also understand how samples are prepared for examination under electron microscopes in order for them to interpret images obtained from scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and transmission electron microscopes (TEMs). Learners should practise all of the basic processes of microbiology. The learners could carry out simple aseptic activities. above a sheet of white paper using a fluorescent dye instead of a live culture. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. With live cultures. including preparatory processes such as the preparation of media. set up a microscope and use it to locate and achieve reasonable resolution at low and high power. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. For learning outcome 1. learners should be able to prepare simple non-permanent slides. Electron micrographs should be used to assess learners’ ability to correctly identify cell ultrastructure. For learning outcome 2. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. They should be able to use oil immersion lenses and calibrate eyepiece graticules. and the safe disposal of materials and cultures. Learners can then examine the paper for spills. A strong emphasis on health and safety is essential from the beginning. non-pathogenic organisms should always be used. but even in many chemistry ones). and use them to measure microscopic objects. and the separate space for computers. an induction into the importance of aseptic technique and risk assessment is necessary before any practical handling of microorganisms. some of which are listed later in this unit. There are a great many very useful websites with excellent electron microscope images. or requesting learners to label images electronically.

measure and count micoorganisms as seen under a light microscope. They may wish to concentrate on disease-causing organisms or commercially useful organisms. in which organisms are ‘sorted’ by learners into appropriate groups. to give learners the opportunity to apply their findings to a relevant scenario for D3. Assessment Owing to the highly practical nature of this unit. Since there is a strong emphasis on practical skills. in order to be able to identify. spread plate. learners must cultivate and count microorganisms. which must be checked and independently risk-assessed by a tutor before implementation. to include at least Gram-staining. For learning outcome 3. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. viral plaque growth aseptic serial dilution of cultures in liquid media assaying antibiotic or disinfectant inhibition of microbial growth direct counting using haemocytometers identification techniques. A planning aspect can usefully be incorporated into this learning outcome. For example.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES • • • • • aseptic plating methods on solid media. viruses and fungi. They must include a risk assessment. learners must carry out an investigation looking at the growth factors of microorganisms. The investigation must be set in a biotechnological or biomedical context. Learners can even develop their own cards. During investigations. learners must identify the main groups of microorganisms. depending on their interest. For example. Again. there should be a record of tutor observation of the key techniques listed in the preceding section. records of learners’ practical activities must form a substantial part of its assessment. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. learners must know the characteristic features of bacteria. microbial taxonomy can be demonstrated through the use of card games. wherever possible. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 185 . activities should be given a relevant industrial context. For P3. or they can be assessed while performing these tasks. They could produce a poster or leaflet. to include at least streak dilution plate. learners could work closely with (and perform many of the functions of) the laboratory technicians normally responsible for these activities. which encourages them to look for similarities and differences between species. learners can be helped to plan their activities. learners could be asked to find optimum growth conditions for the culturing of microorganisms which is notionally to be genetically modified for use in an industrial process. For learning outcome 4. For P4. For P2. Identification techniques can be compared with a view to producing a medical diagnosis in the shortest possible time. they may wish to present their work via a presentation. selective growth media (eg media containing antibiotics). For P1. in the style of ‘Top Trumps’. For a merit grade. This could include the advanced preparation of suitable quantities of sterile growth media and other materials. colony morphology.

For M4. spreaders and culture bottles will all be required. For M3. Golgi apparatus and vesicles are involved in production and secretion of an antibody. learners must show consideration of industrial applications and commercial considerations for growth conditions. in terms of its specialist structure. They must also comment on how these data might be applied in an industrial context. For D4. learners must explain how internal structures link together for the cell to operate. For example. This may be a written report. For D3. learners must describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques used to identify microorganisms in a specific application. They must understand the importance of ensuring precision when performing these techniques. For example. Use of laminar flow cabinets is desirable though not essential. all the pass. or learners may wish to present their work as a verbal presentation. especially for techniques such as serial dilution. For D2. This may be done diagrammatically or in a written report. learners must draw valid conclusions from their calculations of growth rate. or a combination of both. they could relate Gram-staining to cell wall structure. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links well with: • • • • Unit 6: Application of Numbers for Science Technicians Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques. other BTEC units. learners must include their calculations in the report. to their structure. of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. learners must explain the principles underlying microbiological techniques. autoclave. For D1. microbiological loops. Essential resources This unit requires a well-equipped and well-supported laboratory with bench surfaces suitable for topical sterilisation. This could be a consideration of percentage error. or how quickly results are produced and how that might be important in an industrial or medical context. and comment on the best conditions for growth of microorganisms. rough endoplasmic reticulum. learners must relate the techniques used to identify microorganisms. For a distinction grade. 186 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Micropipettes and autoclavable tips are recommended. they could consider how the nucleus. For M2. They could consider to what taxonomic level an organism is identified. Pre-irradiated plastic petri dishes and pipettes. learners must explain the function of cells. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES For M1. media. an incubator. Links to National Occupational Standards. Learners could present their findings as if tendering for a project to a potential employer.

UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Standard laboratory quality microscopes will be needed.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/ BioBookTOC www. Funke B R and Case C L — Microbiology: An Introduction (Benjamin Cummings.ac. Access to the internet and a range of suitable Level 3 texts is also expected.emc.edu/primer/virtual/virtual www.com/index www. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Adds J.cellsalive.com/moviegallery/pondscum/index www. 1998) ISBN 0174482698 Taylor J — Microorganisms and Biotechnology (Bath Advanced Science Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd.uk ‘Cells Alive’ by Quill Graphics Maricopa Online Biology textbook ‘Molecular Expressions’ Virtual Microscopy Nikon Microscopy Digital Movie Gallery Society of General Microbiology BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 187 . 2001) ISBN 0174482558 Tortora G J.maricopa. These should allow oil immersion use for prokaryotic cells. 2005) ISBN 0805377522 Journals Biological Science Review Microbiology Today New Scientist Websites www.sgm.microscopyu. Larkcom E and Miller R — Microorganisms and Biotechnology (Nelson Thornes Ltd.fsu.micro.magnet.

website. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. PowerPoint presentation or display cards.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching microbial taxonomy or cell ultrastructure using the internet They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning investigations for learning outcome 3 estimating microbial population density using haemocytometer counts They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. text with number. using different sources. • ICT3. N3. present your findings and justify your methods. research into poster. image with number. • drawing conclusions from investigations for learning outcome 3.3 Present combined information such as collating results of internet text with image. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.1 Search for information. 188 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .1 N3.

• PS3. • LP3.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 189 . Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • • planning investigation for learning outcome 3 planning and implementing investigation for learning outcome 3 evaluating investigation for learning outcome 3.2 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.UNIT 15: MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning investigation for learning outcome 3 carrying out and evaluating investigation for learning outcome 3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.1 PS3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.

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make vaccines. investigate blood smears. Biological knowledge continues to increase exponentially. work in infection control. Knowing more about chemical formulae allows learners to identify the correct chemicals to use. plants and other organisms. they will need some understanding of chemistry. If learners understand the nature of chemical bonding. Thirty to forty years ago. they will know why certain solvents are used in processing tissue samples. and preparing tissue slides in human anatomy departments or pathology laboratories. grow cell cultures. They carry out microbiological testing on water or pathology specimens.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Unit 16: NQF Level 3: Chemistry for Biology Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Biology technicians may perform an enormous range of tasks including looking after a variety of animals. many textbooks would simply describe processes and explain that the underlying mechanisms were not fully understood. Biological processes work because of the underlying chemical processes. These biological processes are complex and require a good understanding of chemistry. This unit covers some of the basic chemical concepts to allow learners to begin to understand and explain biological processes. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 191 . and carry out biochemical tests and DNA analysis. they will feel more confident that they are making up a solution or diluting it correctly. Understanding about rates of reaction and equilibrium allows learners to see why standard laboratory protocols may have timed steps. Whatever role in science learners may have or come to have. This has changed dramatically. If learners understand units of concentration. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to relate enthalpy changes to the bonding in a range of substances Understand how rates of reaction are affected by varying the conditions Understand chemical equilibrium Know the structure and properties of organic molecules.

activation energy. concentrations on either side of a membrane. dissolution.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Be able to relate enthalpy changes to the bonding in a range of substances Bonding: ionic. intramolecular Substances: salts. units of pressure (Pa. redox processes Proton concentrations: pH. mass of one mole and number of moles. calculations based on number of moles. Van der Waals forces. and Ka from pH. intermolecular. dipoles. equilibrium constants Examples: proton concentrations in aqueous solution. temperature. gases. boiling point Enthalpy and enthalpy change: system and surroundings. emulsions Influence of bonding on physical properties: solubility. g mol-1) of calculations. solids. enzymes as catalysts Quantitative chemistry: calculations based on mass. hydrophilic and hydrophobic eg molecules. biological importance) 192 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . salt solutions. surface area. water. reaction profiles. units of rate (mol dm-3 s-1). eg Kw. ions. dm3. units of enthalpy change. buffer solutions (definition in terms of response to addition of small quantities of H+ or OH-. concept of partial pressure. activation energy. calculations of pH from Ka. electronegativity. mol dm-3. Hess’s law. pKa. eg number of collisions per unit time. spread of energies among particles in a sample. gas pressure. kPa. organic molecules. data from Beer-Lambert law applications or titration. principles of equilibrium. enthalpy change in certain reactions and processes eg respiration. catalysts. rate constant Factors influencing rates: collision theory. dilution. volume and concentration. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 2 Understand how rates of reaction are affected by varying the conditions Description of reaction rate: definition of reaction order. melting point. effect of changing concentration. covalent. hydrogen bonds. g. units (mol. effect of changing particle size. bar) 3 Understand chemical equilibrium Chemical equilibrium: reversible processes. liquids. photosynthesis. strength of acids and bases. reaction profiles. Ka. effect of pH on amino acids. cm3. chemical composition. conjugate acid and base. exothermic and endothermic reactions. standard enthalpy change eg sign convention.

aldehyde and keto sugars Properties: similarity of alcohols to water. reduction eg displacement reaction of metals. structure of sugars (linear and cyclic). alkenes. influence of hydrogen bonding on solubility. diffusion of gases Redox process: oxidation. carboxylic acids as acids. formation of amides) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 193 .UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Concentrations either side of a membrane: definition of diffusion in terms of migration of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration or in terms of movement of water (in the case of a semi-permeable membrane) from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution to attain equilibrium. ketones. standard conditions. esters. alkyl halides. optical (chiral carbon. E0. osmosis. sign convention. oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones. functional group). membrane potential. half-cell reactions. solubility of sugars. amines as bases. standard electrode potentials. planar carbon to carbon double bonds. examples involving simple ions in solution eg Fe2+ ⇌ Fe3+ + e4 Know the structure and properties of organic molecules Functional groups: nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and classes of compounds. solubility of alkanes and alcohols. simple reactions of organic compounds (addition reactions for alkenes. amines. IUPAC nomenclature. carboxylic acids. alcohols. oxidation of aldehydes to acids. isomerism (structural eg chain. positional. esterification. importance in natural systems). aldehydes. recognition of functional groups in complex molecules Structure: tetrahedral carbon. geometric. amides. alkanes.

temperature and presence of a catalyst M3 P3 account for the results of an experiment on osmosis in terms of diffusion and the drive towards establishment of equilibrium M4 P4 construct structural formulae for named examples of a range of classes of simple organic compounds and identify structural. the learner is able to: M1 explain physical properties of pure substances and solutions in terms of bonding and intermolecular forces explain variation in rates of reaction as a function of concentration. geometric and optical isomers from models. particle size and temperature explain how varying the conditions will shift equilibrium D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the enthalpy changes associated with the formation and breakage of chemical bonds M2 P2 describe the effect on the rates of reactions of changes in concentration.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass criteria. the rate constants and orders of reaction D4 research and explain an example of the dependence of enzyme activity on pH in terms of the chemical formula of the enzyme and the nature of the binding site and substrate. the learner is able to: analyse the influence of electronegativity and size on the bonding and intermolecular forces in pure substances and solutions analyse the quality of data on enthalpy changes and rates of reaction obtained experimentally D3 determine reaction rate equations for three reactions. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. particle size. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. relate the reactions of organic molecules to the properties of their functional groups. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. 194 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

Living organisms are mainly composed of water. allowing an understanding of the behaviour of water and solutes to be developed. They should also be able to make and test predictions based on changes in concentration. The learner is likely to have investigated diffusion practically in other classes or on other courses. facilitated learning and practical assignment work. It is important for the learner to understand how concentration is calculated. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. and the separate space for computers. This should be linked as much as possible to practical work.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. although this may be appropriate for some learners. The concept of polarity is central to understanding solubility. For learning outcome 2. but even in many chemistry ones). it is not necessary to describe details of a range of reactions catalysed by enzymes. the learner should become familiar with theories of bonding. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. Learners must be able to calculate the mass of substance needed to make a given volume at a given concentration of solution. This unit sets out some of the basic chemistry used by living organisms. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. Practical work on diffusion may be carried out to allow a clearer understanding of the drive towards equilibrium. The learning outcomes should be delivered through a programme of tuition. as should the behaviour of buffer solutions. This will be covered elsewhere. Gas pressure is relevant to the uptake of gases in the blood. The effects of hydrogen bonding on the properties of water underpins the behaviour of cells and biological control mechanisms. particle size. temperature and the use of a catalyst. There is no requirement for detailed calculations based on Hess’s law. Although it is important for learners to understand that enzymes are biological catalysts. Biological technicians frequently have to make up solutions and perform dilutions. it is important for learners to carry out experimental investigations on the factors affecting rate of reaction. the concept of strength of acids and bases should be investigated practically. In learning outcome 1. and in terms of the energy required to overcome physical attractive forces or the energy released when physical attraction takes place. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. If this is not possible for all learners. For learning outcome 3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 195 . Enthalpy changes should be discussed in terms of bonds made and broken.

which is reduced to another water soluble ion. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Physical properties such as solubility should be explored. aldehydes. The pass criteria are met mainly through practical activities. for example. For P4. learners are required to obtain results from practical experiments on the effect of changes of concentration. learners should be given sufficient information to be able to extract the data needed to demonstrate the required relationship. P3 could be achieved simply by explanation of data. particle size. alkenes. such as alkanes. Where learners are familiar with osmosis experiments. In cases where it is difficult to carry out practical experiments. The biological significance of reactions should be explained (eg oxidation of reducing sugars. Learners should practically investigate the oxidation of alcohols. learners could demonstrate a basic understanding of the IUPAC system of nomenclature for organic compounds by writing full structural formula for a few classes of compounds. The learner should understand that the size of E0 and its sign is related to the size of the equilibrium constant. such as manganate (VII) MnO4. and should understand the concept of a functional group. High positive value means reaction effectively goes to completion. such as measurement of the enthalpy of solution or combustion of substances. should be explored. This allows extension to biological species which may be in solution. ketones carboxylic acids and amines. learners would benefit from carrying out a simple experiment. It is important that learners are made aware that more than one functional group may be present in a molecule of biological significance. They could carry out an experiment. temperature and presence of a catalyst. it is important that the learner should be able to recognise different types of isomers. They must formulate a simple explanation in terms of particles having differing numbers of collisions per unit time. learners must describe the changes in enthalpy that occur in a system. Learners should be presented with models of organic compounds and be able to identify isomers. Since certain aspects of biological activity depend on isomerism. and having sufficient energy to react. For P1. Positive means the equilibrium constant is greater than 1 (effectively more products than reactants at equilibrium) and negative means equilibrium constant is less than 1 (effectively more reactants than products at equilibrium). formation of amide linkages in proteins). aldehydes and esterification.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS The concept of electron transfer is easily investigated through the reactions of metals and metal ion solutions. They should be aware of those listed in the content. learners should know that there are many classes of organic compound. They should explain results in terms of diffusion. as appropriate to the needs of the learner. when chemical bonds are broken and when they are made. Learners must appreciate that particles in a given experimental sample do not all have the same kinetic energy. alcohols. 196 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Mn2+. For learning outcome 4. For P3. Redox systems involving ions. on loss and uptake of water by vegetable pieces in sugar solutions of different concentrations. For P2. fats as examples of esters.

constructing formulae and equations and carrying out straightforward quantitative calculations. other BTEC units. The learning outcomes in this unit can be integrated and delivered with other units. For M2. and other chemistry units such as: Practical work for this unit could also be used in the delivery of: BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 197 . learners must present data that are clear and unambiguous. Each learner must then. The associations between rate and condition varied should be clearly explained. simple bonding theories. individually. Links to National Occupational Standards. For M4 learners can access secondary data to explain how functional groups affect the behaviour of organic molecules. They must also be able to explain how pH affects the chemical nature of the enzyme and hence. learners must explore and discuss the reliability and sources of error on data from experiments on rates of reaction and on enthalpy changes. Note that analysis of the quality of experimental data on enthalpy changes is included in D2. learners must understand the mode of action of a particular enzyme in terms of substrate and binding site. the nature of the binding site and the extent of catalytic activity. The data can be found by the learner or presented to the learner. For D2.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS M1 and D1 involve interpretation of more data. M3 and D3 would be best investigated experimentally: different learners or groups could change different conditions and report back to the class. explain how the changes affected the equilibrium in each investigation. Concepts in this unit are built on in the following specialist units: • • • • • • • • • • • Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry. For D4. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links with Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science in which learners look at the structure of atoms. Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques.

Library access to a range of general chemistry and biology/human biology books at Level 3 standard is expected. Content in the unit is related to GCE in Biology syllabi. 1998) ISBN 0697360873 Fry M and Page E — Catch Up Chemistry: For the Life and Medical Sciences (Scion Publishing. 1996) ISBN 0719571464 Sackheim G I — An Introduction to Chemistry for Biology Students (Benjamin Cummings.chemguide.co. 2005) ISBN 1904842100 Rockett B and Sutton R — Chemistry for Biologists at Advanced Level (John Murray. Essential resources All learners will need access to appropriate laboratory facilities and library and information technology resources.uk chemguide 198 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . 2001) ISBN 0805330755 Website www. The unit has strong links with the content of the 2006 GCSE Science core and the following BTEC First units: • • • Unit 1: Scientific Principles Unit 3: Chemistry Applications Unit 5: Biological Systems. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Chapman C — Basic Chemistry for Biology (William C Brown.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS This unit builds on concepts covered in the Key Stage 4 mandatory criteria.

mode. median. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.1 N3. present your findings and justify your methods. eg titrimetry or colorimetry calculating masses and volumes required to make solutions determining required dilutions comparing the quality of their own experimental data with data obtained by other learners. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. by calculating statistical quantities such as mean.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. range using formulae such as the equation of the straight line from a calibration graph and the formula for standard deviation constructing flowcharts for planning exercises constructing histograms of results based on appropriate class intervals constructing calibration graphs for colorimetry constructing graphs related to rate of reaction generating conclusions from experimental results. standard deviation. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning a rate investigation. N3. • • • • • • • • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 199 .3 Interpret the results of your calculations. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.

1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. C3. enzyme activity and osmosis presenting information researched from books and internet sources on reactions of organic compounds. organic compounds. C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion. • • • • 200 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.3 Write two different types of documents. enzymes or intermolecular forces describing an experiment.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • • • discussing factors affecting rate of reaction discussing planning of an analysis discussing chemical properties presenting experimental data from a rate of reaction investigation presenting research on properties of compounds reading material and synthesising information about intermolecular forces. C3. One document must be at least 1000 words long.

2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. Take responsibility for your learning.UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching information from books and internet sources on intermolecular forces.1 Search for information. • • • • • • • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning how assignment tasks will be performed demonstrating responsibility in executing a work schedule reflecting on their performance and areas for improvement.3 Present combined information such as text with image.2 • LP3. text with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. ICT3. image with number. analysis and rates of reaction selecting data or text displaying results in an appropriate format entering information from books exploring information from the internet producing PowerPoint presentations on selected topics presenting details of investigations presenting reports of internet research.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 201 . Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. using different sources. reactions of organic compounds. • LP3.

UNIT 16: CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY TECHNICIANS Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • making hypotheses about factors affecting rate of reaction and making initial plans of the sort of experiments needed to explore them undertaking a rates of reaction investigation evaluating whether the results agree with the initial hypothesis. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.2 PS3. • • 202 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. WO3. • • PS3. problems experienced and strategies for avoiding such problems in the future. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.1 Plan work with others.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • • carrying out a group investigation working in pairs as part of the group investigation discussing what is to be achieved and setting objectives discussing progress at intervals reflecting on what has been achieved.

the use of circuit safety devices. Learners will look at the main transducer types and measurement devices in use in most laboratories and technical work places. the nature of current. the variations in the way electricity is used and its bewildering array of applications have increased at a staggering rate. and look at their practical uses. the operation of other general circuit components. and health and safety issues for both ac and dc current are also explored. and classification of materials for use in the electrical industry. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know fundamental electrical terms. fundamental electrical principles still form the basis of sustained electrical and electronic development in industry and research. health or modern research laboratories must frequently demonstrate a clear understanding of electrical concepts and feel confident in the use of instruments and measuring devices. education. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 203 . They will take measurements of essential quantities in general circuits and more advanced types which use various electronic components. terms used and relationships of electrical quantities. This unit covers electrical and electronic components. They will become familiar with electronic displays and the operation of instruments and other electronic components and their suitability for purpose. Learners will assemble series and parallel circuits. It deals with the units of electrical measurements. Aspects of mains electricity.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Unit 17: NQF Level 3: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Electricity is without doubt an essential form of energy in use in the world today. Since the early days of pioneering electrical experiments. This unit will provide learners with the knowledge and skills necessary to undertake essential tasks related to electrical circuits and their components. quantities and relationships Be able to assemble series and parallel circuits and carry out essential electrical measurements Understand the differences between ac and dc circuits and their health and safety aspects Know the uses and characteristics of both transducer types and fundamental measurement devices. electrical charge. Construction and use of electrical circuits is developed by means of practical study. Science technicians working in industry. Despite the complexities of modern electronic devices.

internal resistance and EMF with use of E = I (R + r) 204 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . electrical power (watt). use of semiconductors 2 Be able to assemble series and parallel circuits and carry out essential electrical measurements Circuit characteristics: correct assembly of series and parallel resistive circuits using up to three resistors in series. use of ammeters and voltmeters (digital and analogue types for simple comparison). insulators and conductors. EMF as measure of ratio of energy supplied per unit charge. resistance (ohm). charge Q = It. charging and discharging. conductance G = 1 ρl . potential difference (volt).UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Unit content 1 Know fundamental electrical terms. 1 1 1 = + for parallel circuits and R1 R2 RT similarly for conductance). units of capacitance (Farad and sub-units). calculation of resistance and conductance (RT = R1 + R2 … for series circuits. calculations of capacitances (CT = C1 + C2 … for parallel capacitors. resistivity R = R A Capacitors: charge stored by capacitors Q = CV in operation as a reservoir. P = I2R. Kirchoff’s laws. nature of voltage drop across components as the energy dissipated per unit charge by a resistor (where the energy dissipated is transferred from electricity into heat). parallel and series — parallel combination. power P = IV. potential divider circuits and potential divider calculation. conductance and resistance in relation to density of mobile charge carriers Electrical relationships: energy supplied W = VIt. quantities and relationships Terminology and units: current (ampere). electrical charge (coulomb). definition of current in terms of rate of flow of mobile charge carriers. use of Ohm’s law V = IR. conductance (seimen). Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors. use of capacitors as a filter in ac circuits. 1 1 1 = + … for series capacitors) C1 C2 CT Electrical properties of materials: eg conductivity and resistivity.

lifting gear. residual current and earth leakage circuit breakers (rccb and elcb) Human physiology and electricity: typical resistance values for current pathways in the body. railways). peak and peak-to-peak voltages. earthing. skin resistance and changes of environment eg moisture levels of the skin. automatic cameras.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 3 Understand the differences between ac and dc circuits and their health and safety aspects Mains electricity: domestic ring main circuit. piezoelectric devices and fundamental principles. heart responses to electric shock. data logging devices as those which sense and store information from physical sources for use with visual/audio display and processing eg pH meters. understanding of the need for signal amplification for these devices Measurement devices: uses of oscilloscopes for voltage measurement and ac/dc display. light sensors BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 205 . contact with the ground. eg operation and structure of a thermocouple. alarm systems. significance of double insulation. reed switch. multimeters and range of measurements. fuses. root mean square (rms). nature of ac voltage as changing polarity with instantaneous values varying sinusoidally eg mains frequency. Wheatstone bridge arrangement and potential divider circuits Active transducers: production of EMF by conversion of energy from external physical source. strain gauge. thermistors. eg light dependant resistor (LDR) and their practical uses eg lightmeters. moisture sensors. electrolysis. ac current eg induction furnace 4 Know the uses and characteristics of both transducer types and fundamental measurement devices Passive transducers: definition as devices which change the electrical characteristics within a circuit by the influence of external physical sources (sensors). safe levels of dc voltage Industrial applications: dc current eg transport (trams. temperature sensors.

the use of electrical quantities and relationships calculate current. 206 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe fundamental electrical terms. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. by calculation and graphical representation. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: analyse.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. by calculation. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. potential differences and resistances in series and parallel circuits and compare to measured values explain the operations of electrical safety devices in use and practices or strategies used to minimise risk detail the mode of operation and function of one transducer and measurement device. the learner is able to: M1 show. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. fundamental electrical relationships and quantities assess the calculations of quantities in series and parallel circuits in terms of accuracy and circuit operation D3 evaluate the effectiveness of electrical safety devices and safety practices and suggest valid improvements D4 analyse the suitability of one measurement device for a given purpose. quantities and relationships M2 P2 assemble series and parallel electrical circuits and carry out essential electrical measurements M3 P3 outline the essential differences between ac and dc circuits and their health and safety aspects M4 P4 describe the main uses and characteristics of both transducer types and fundamental measurement devices.

The splitting and adding of current in parallel circuits and voltage dropped across resistances can be explained following introduction to Kirchoff’s laws. formal lectures. research and guest invitations of industrial speakers. The differences between series and parallel circuits should be explored practically and learners should develop a clear understanding of the nature of current ‘flow’ in these circuits. Understanding the ideas of ‘conservation of charge’ and ‘conservation of energy’ in electrical circuits may be sufficient and the tutor can address potential difference using a simple voltage (pd)/circuit position model. Emphasis should be placed on calculations using Ohm’s law. Competency in practical circuit building and understanding of how and where to measure voltage. Knowledge of conductors. Construction of simple circuits and regular circuit measurement should be incorporated. using up to three resistors in a variety of configurations in series and parallel circuits. etc. presentations.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Learners should be given the opportunity to study this unit using a hands-on approach and as much access to practical laboratory equipment as possible. workplace visits. Tutors should take advantage of advances made in the production and uses of modern circuit components and measuring devices. for example. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 207 . Learning outcomes 1 and 2 are very closely linked allowing tutors to demonstrate particular electrical relationships using practical activity. in television servicing and repair. Delivery can include discussion. but further analysis of these is not necessary. Learners should become familiar with electrical materials and their uses. and ensure easy access to the most essential. A varied structure is highly recommended and should help to stimulate and enthuse learners. practical circuit activities. timers. Use of voltmeters and ammeters can be extensive and continued practice in practical application will help to reinforce understanding of these relationships. The exponential rise and fall characteristics can then be discussed with possible display on a CRO and an appreciation of the link with capacitor sizes. current and resistance should be developed quickly and pose no problems throughout the unit. Tutors can demonstrate the charging and discharging of capacitors by choosing suitably sized components connected in a simple circuit across a low voltage filament lamp. Energy stored and remaining after supply disconnection can be briefly addressed as a safety issue. insulators and dimensional characteristics of electrical conductors should be introduced with the relationship R= ρl A . Understanding the operation of capacitors and capacitance in circuits is needed because of their extensive application in electronic devices such as sensors.

real transducers (eg thermocouple. The emphasis should be placed on usage rather than academic understanding of the equipment’s workings. If possible. Tutors should also explain that circuit resistance (and body resistance). double insulation. peak voltages and the nature of ac as a sinusoidal waveform. 208 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learning outcome 4 should be delivered using the practical techniques used throughout the unit. residual current circuit breakers. This shows that in a conductor. Transducers in general should be explained in terms of accepted electrical and physical characteristics. fuses. piezoelectric) produce their own EMF. This unit can explain the conditions that allow the body to conduct electricity. These will include: earthing. Brief mention can be made of the use of medical equipment that monitors heartbeat. Tutors should discuss the systems put into place to reduce risk from mains electricity. thermistors and strain gauges do not and can be more properly referred to as sensors. Various circuits can be constructed to show the uses of components within a potential divider network and variations of resistances recorded by multimeter. and earth leakage circuit breakers. General understanding of wave period and frequency can be included for learners to recognise the significance of mains ac frequency. A demonstration of fuse blowing can be set up using a 12V supply. but simple reference to these might help to explain why semiconductors are used. exact composition and ‘doping’ of semiconductors is not necessary. the resistance increases linearly with increase in temperature. Complex calculations need not be carried out.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS The distinction between conductors and semiconductors can be made by heating various suitable components using an external source within a circuit. In a semiconductor. or defibrillators designed to readjust the heart phase following cardiac arrest. including sweating and contact with the ground or moisture. Different effects on the heart of ac and dc should be emphasised. Elementary safety precautions can be introduced by use of suitable videos or DVDs — possibly inspiring learners to make their own filmed documentary on electrical safety. 5A fuse line and rheostat set at maximum. Knowledge of the passage of current. current and time are the important elements that determine the extent of electric shock. circuits may be demonstrated to show the conditions that cause the safety device to operate — but care must be taken and a full risk assessment carried out. It is essential that learners have direct experience of measuring devices. Tutors should explain RMS values and dc equivalence. The confusion of ‘passive’ or ‘active’ depending on text used can be eliminated by attention to usage rather than energy conversion. These will include thermistors and LDRs. Some local electrical distributors may be prepared to visit your establishment and provide a more elaborate or dramatic demonstration. The knowledge gained from learning outcomes 1 and 2 can be reinforced by viewing the Wheatstone bridge arrangement and the balancing of potential difference involved. in particular multimeters. Generally. The Wheatstone bridge arrangement of resistors can be demonstrated to indicate the way in which sensitivity of the transducers in these circuits can be increased. Learning outcome 3 focuses on differences between ac and dc. the resistance falls exponentially with increase in temperature. oscilloscopes and data logging devices. LDRs. The physiological effects can be studied in tandem with other related units in the program. such as Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems.

On completion of this unit. but brief mention could be made of its use to study non-electrical effects which are converted to voltages by transducers. For P1. This should familiarise them with data collection. Emphasise the large impedance a CRO has which makes it suitable as a voltmeter. which could be developed as part of a classroom display. Alternatively. the exact uses of devices can be written as a brief technical glossary. it is unlikely that all electrical relationships can be demonstrated in this way. Practical work can be incorporated to provide evidence of electrical quantities and some relationships. Additional characteristics of a CRO need not be addressed. There is no need for the poster to present detailed sections concerning ac and dc. For P3. using up to three resistors in a variety of configurations. If placements are used. As often as possible. a video presentation or classroom ‘lecture’ can be produced which would help learners to incorporate the academics of this topic and develop presentation skills. For P2. For P4. learners should be able to obtain measurements of voltage. The uses to which these devices are put can be clearly contextualised and evidence for this section could be from a work placement. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 209 . learners must provide evidence of practical electrical circuit construction and measurements. giving a brief description of each.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Oscilloscopes and uses for voltage measurement of ac and dc waveform displays can be well demonstrated. learners should use data logging devices taking information from physical changes. and draw circuits clearly. but tutors should ensure that they are varied and constructed by the learners. There is no specific number of circuits required. learners must provide general descriptions of various transducers commonly in operation. There is no need to explain particular functions in detail — learners should appreciate their usefulness as measurement devices. However. but the essential elements must be displayed. This criterion can also be linked with circuit measurement for P2 and the uses of measurement devices could be suitably demonstrated. For a merit grade. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. processing and display. current and resistance in series and parallel circuits. Further written descriptions of these may be necessary. learners must comprehensively list all the electrical terms studied in the contents section. This may be done by simply designing a definition catalogue or poster. The effects of both ac and dc on the body can be illustrated by artistic work or a simple report. Information concerning standard methods of circuit protection must be shown. They must show competence in circuit construction and measurement. learners could show the characteristics of ac and dc by production of a large poster.

These should be used to explain relationships within the circuit operation. all the pass. 210 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . or learners can choose a circuit on which they can provide an in-depth analysis. Information should also be included as to how organisations maintain health and safety in relation to hazards posed by use of electrical equipment.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS For M1. learners must provide a study of a measurement device. For M4. Learners can also make use of various order catalogues from equipment manufacturers. A large poster. A suitable circuit should be provided from a range of texts. Tutors can provide formulae sheets which can incorporate many or all examples of standard suitable calculations which can be performed by the learners and assessed. power. Both series and parallel circuit construction must be used as evidence. This assesses the learners’ ability to research information correctly. These predicted values can then be compared to measured values obtained. but values obtained must be verified by the tutor or research text. for example. and fully explain their operation and characteristics. Multimeters. Each device studied must be described with the aid of clearly labelled diagrams and precise explanatory notes on how the device is activated within its circuit. voltage and resistance at various points in circuits by calculation. learners should be able to predict values of current. learners must demonstrate the ability to use correct electrical relationships and calculate values of electrical quantities. can provide enough evidence to meet the criterion for this task. current and resistance. Putting example questions in context is recommended. This must include detailed diagrams of its position within a measurement system (a block diagram may be suitable if sufficiently annotated) and the purpose to which it is best suited. General workplace procedures and guidelines should be sufficient. For M2. charge). learners must provide a detailed analysis of a more complex circuit. Similarly. learners are required to choose one transducer and one measurement device from those studied. by encouraging learners to thoroughly research the formulae and provide guidance on the use of scientific calculations. Suitable transducers are thermocouples. For D1. they must perform unaided calculations of essential electrical quantities using studied relationships in order to meet this criterion. For M3. For a distinction grade. learners can use the values obtained in the evidence provided for P2 and make accurate circuit calculations using data. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. In addition. Learners might best meet this criterion by presenting their evidence in the form of a health and safety information booklet or continuation of a video presentation for P3. referring to levels of potential difference. Practical circuit investigation of the device can also provide this evidence. but learners can be prompted to highlight one effect of electricity on the body and describe preventative measures. have a range of uses within electrical circuits with a number of adjustable settings. learners must give detailed explanations of how specific safety devices reduce risk from electricity. with enough attention to detail. As many graphical representations for electrical relationships should be produced as necessary (eg resistance. thermistors and LDRs. Care must be taken to eliminate an arbitrary pass score based on a test exercise. Learners can produce circuit diagrams of the transducer chosen and provide a full explanation of its functions. However.

The style of critique is unimportant but the emphasis must be on the overall quality and depth of material provided. For D3. In addition. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with the following optional units: • • Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation. Any discrepancies between these values can be explained by example calculations and circuit understanding. Links to National Occupational Standards. learners must show an ability to critically analyse electrical safety devices and safety practices to help reduce or eliminate specific risks. Learners can provide a report or general account of the operation of a suitable circuit and the measured and calculated values obtained. for example. Measurement devices: • voltmeters and ammeters multimeters high impedance oscilloscopes (single or dual trace) signal generator microphones and suitable speakers. For D4. learners must use data gathered from circuit construction and calculations in M2 to fully assess the comparison made of measured and calculated values. learners may wish to compare specified digital devices and their analogue counterparts in an attempt to determine the suitability of measurement devices and the difficulties involved in some recording activities.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS For D2. can be a factor in many cases. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 211 . improvements of electrical devices used and the validity of the practices put in place by organisations to deal with risk. Equipment used for measurement can be analysed in this section and some aspects of operation may be used as part of evidence for D4. for example. This must be a device from those studied. Internal resistance. learners must produce an analytical account of the suitability of a chosen measurement device. The uses of transducers and their importance are not a specific requirement. low voltage and mains ac. other BTEC units. Essential resources • • • • Electrical circuit boards or equivalent. Learners’ evidence can take the form of. a written report or a video production. Power supplies (12V dc). Videos on safety and electrical transmission. The report must show a clear understanding of the electrical safety devices’ operation. Full range of essential electronic and electrical components (including resistors and capacitors). Learners must explain the need to use transducers as a means to provide essential information for the measurement. or even circuit wiring and connections.

Data logging devices (eg Phillips range). 2000) ISBN 074875296X Milward et al — Revise AS Physics for Salters Horners (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. Tutors should be well qualified in electrical or similar disciplines and fully conversant with components and electrical measurement.uk www. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Breithaupt J — New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level: Core Book AND Course Study Guide (New Understanding Physics) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. Access to ICT facility. 1997) ISBN 0719574137 Ellse M and Honeywill C — Electricity and Thermal Physics (Nelson Advanced Science: Physics) (Nelson Thornes Ltd.com www.org.uk www.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS • • • • • Access to local medical establishments. Various conductive wires. 2006) ISBN 0435582089 Journal New Scientist Websites www. 2005) ISBN 043558345X Milward et al — Revise A2 Physics for Salters Horners (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.studentconsult. 2000) ISBN 0748743162 Duncan T — Electronics for Today and Tomorrow (Hodder Murray.physicsweb.com Electrical Engineers National Grid The Institute of Physics Students’ research site 212 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .iee.nationalgrid.org. 2005) ISBN 074877663X Johnson K et al — Advanced Physics for You (Nelson Thornes Ltd. Rheostats and variable resistor packs.

Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.1a Take part in a group discussion.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • engaging in practical circuit assembly and measurement of electrical quantities compiling research concerning transducers and measurement devices.1 N3. N3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 213 .2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • using measured values to explain electrical relationships.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • carrying out essential circuit assembly measuring electrical quantities and using values to predict circuit behaviour They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. present your findings and justify your methods. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • C3.

3 214 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.2 PS3. • Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • constructing and assessing circuit operation and measurement changing component values and types for circuit analysis assembling electrical circuits and developing a report on circuit operation and effectiveness. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • • PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. ICT3.1 Search for information. text with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.UNIT 17: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching transducers and other devices presenting an electrical health and safety document or video production.3 Present combined information such as text with image. using different sources. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. image with number.

in screening for diseases and in searching for cures. Scientists must also recognise the broader implications of their work. This unit is designed to show how chemicals make up living organisms. We now have the tools and the knowledge to manipulate the blueprints to create ‘novel’ organisms. Environmental applications allow us to map migration of species and populations. The cutting edge of genetics is moving forward at an extraordinary rate. Agriculture is finding applications of genetics in the form of modified crops and the development of defences against pests and disease. transforming cells and amplifying DNA using the polymerase chain reaction. geneticists can do far more than explain. The ever-growing biotechnology industry depends heavily on the work of geneticists to provide them with both new products and the means to mass-produce them. social and ethical impact of these applications. and to identify animals illegally taken from the wild. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 215 .UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Unit 18: NQF Level 3: Genetics and Genetic Engineering BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract To study genetics is to study the basis of life itself. learners will develop an understanding of the techniques at the heart of modern genetics — extracting DNA. and how the mechanisms for DNA replication (copying) lead to complex patterns of inheritance and evolution. leaving in its wake an enormous potential for applications. in epidemiology. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the processes of cell division and the principles of classical genetics Be able to apply basic techniques of DNA technology Know how gene expression can be controlled Know how genetic engineering can be applied and the possible commercial. society and the ethical values of individuals and organisations. Genetics can no longer be considered a discipline in its own right: it has an impact in a huge range of other fields and industries. and current research is moving towards gene therapies that may be able to correct genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. In this unit. DNA fingerprinting. With the massive developments in DNA technology over the last 20 years. Geneticists can be found in many fields of forensic work. Learners are required to examine the impact of selected examples of genetic technology on industry.

homologous chromosomes. chromatids. centromere. principle of independent assortment. co-dominance (inheritance of blood groups). moral dilemmas. Huntington’s chorea. simple breeding experiment to demonstrate monohybrid inheritance 2 Be able to apply basic techniques of DNA technology DNA extraction: as chromosomes or plasmids Gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments: use of restriction enzymes. use of marker genes. centrioles. social and ethical impact of these applications Examples of genetic engineering: GM crops. chiasmata. pedigree analysis and counselling Gene induction: operons in prokaryotes 4 Know how genetic engineering can be applied and the possible commercial. incomplete dominance eg sickle cell anaemia. multiple alleles. chromosome structure.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Unit content 1 Understand the processes of cell division and the principles of classical genetics Cell division: stages of mitosis and meiosis. normal/abnormal karyotypes Demonstrate: root tip squash to demonstrate mitosis. gene and chromosome mutation. sex-linkage eg haemophilia. diploid/haploid numbers. screening to identify transformed cells Amplification of DNA: polymerase chain reaction 3 Know how gene expression can be controlled Simple medical genetics: monohybrid inheritance eg cystic fibrosis. responses from religious organisations and political parties 216 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . cytokinesis (in animal cell) Principles of classical genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance. possible benefits or risks Ethical impact: environmental consequences. principles of electrophoresis Transformation of cells: use of vectors. sex determination. gene therapy Commercial impact: possible market Social impact: group of people affected. interpretation of phenotypic ratios from practical investigation Structure and function of the human chromosome: genes.

in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the learner is able to: M1 D1 explain how the behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis leads to variation and correctly apply principles of classical genetics to account for the pattern of dihybrid inheritance shown in practical investigation for each of the basic techniques of DNA technology. where appropriate.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Grading grid In order to pass this unit. D2 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria. suggest practical limitations and. the learner is able to: explain how mutations lead to evolutionary change and analyse the correlation between observed pattern of dihybrid inheritance and the pattern expected for each of the basic techniques in DNA technology. explain the reasons for key steps explain how expression of a prokaryotic gene is controlled explain the commercial. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. social and ethical concerns regarding selected examples of genetic engineering. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 identify the stages of meiosis and mitosis and carry out a practical investigation into patterns of dihybrid inheritance P2 describe the basic techniques of DNA technology M2 P3 conduct and report on a practical investigation into the control of expression of a prokaryotic gene M4 M3 P4 describe two different examples of current applications of genetic engineering and in the production of crops and medicines. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 217 . Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. suggest how these may be overcome D3 explain the use of prokaryotes in preference to eukaryotes in gene technology D4 evaluate application of genetic engineering in terms of potential benefits and drawbacks.

For learning outcome 1. While this is a laborious process. gel electrophoresis. For learning outcome 2. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. giving a good opportunity to sample reactions of interested groups. and should have the opportunity to carry out a practical examination of at least one form of cell division. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. They need to collect data on the observed frequency of each stage in order to be able to attempt D1. 218 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . where possible. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Learners should use current and. but even in many chemistry ones). This unit is intended to have a strong practical element. and Bio-Rad. Electronic simulations can be found on CD ROM or by online subscriptions to facilities such as Virtual FlyLab. Tutors should explain how these steps are put together in the industrial and research worlds to facilitate processes such as the manufacture of human insulin by genetically modified bacteria. topical examples of genetic engineering. The polymerase chain reaction can be carried out manually using water baths. Mitosis in a garlic or onion tip would be a straightforward practical. it would be preferable for learners to complement practical activities with electronic simulations. the basic techniques of DNA technology are now quite easy to demonstrate in simplified form in the laboratory. If this is not possible for all learners. and do not require any specialist equipment beyond an incubator. but there is still the opportunity to contextualise. with the locust testis squash for the more adventurous.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. which involves the study of inheritance. cell transformation and β-galactosidase induction can be obtained from sources such as the National Centre for Biotechnology Education at the University of Reading. and learners are expected to be able to carry out practical work in both Mendelian and molecular genetics. Chi-squared analysis can be carried out using an Excel spreadsheet if desired. so tutors should have prepared slides available to ensure all learners are able to gather data. Learners are expected to be able to use microscopes competently. enough data to allow a chi-squared analysis can be gathered from counts using sources such as corn cob sets. These protocols are designed to be affordable within the resources of schools and colleges. Learning outcome 3 requires learners to follow clear protocols. Inheritance in Drosophila melanogaster can be investigated using quite affordable kits form suppliers such as Philip Harris. it gives the learners a clearer picture of the steps involved in the process than a PCR machine does. and the separate space for computers. Protocols for DNA or plasmid extraction. If that is deemed impractical.

learners could expand their work for P4 to explain the commercial. For M4. and give presentations of their opinions supported by evidence. the use of images and the correct acknowledgment of resources. social and ethical concerns of genetic engineering and medicine production. learners must carry out and correctly interpret the chi-squared test. learners must expand their portfolio produced for P2. photographs) where possible. learners could use their investigation for P1 to explain the behaviour of chromosomes and classical genetics. For P4.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING For learning outcome 4. For example. These reports must be based on the learners’ own activities. For D1. learners must describe two examples of genetic engineering. Learners could do this by.coli to observe β–galactosidase induction. explaining promoter and operator regions of lac operon. but must ensure that they do cover all three concerns. learners must carry out research into different examples of genetic engineering and present their findings to each other. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 219 . Their investigations could involve use of a root tip squash. learners must explain the mechanisms that control gene expression in prokaryotes. They must also perform a practical investigation into patterns of dihybrid inheritance. learners must produce a portfolio of basic DNA technology. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For M1. and the other must be a medicine. transcription and translation. learners should discuss relevant genetic engineering topics. For P2. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. For a merit grade. but learners should be encouraged to use visuals (eg diagrams. Tutors should ensure that the selected topics allow the opportunity for learners to consider commercial. and the ethical aspects of medicine production. the commercial and social aspects of crop production. to show their understanding of the processes involved in DNA technology. They could emphasise one aspect for each application. For P3. social and ethical implications. all the pass. This should take the format of a formal report. learners must identify the stages of meiosis and mitosis. but they must show a correct understanding of the resulting chi-squared value and draw appropriate conclusions from it. for example. Learners may wish to present their work as a poster or information leaflet. One must be an example from crop production. Learners should be given guidance on the approximate length of presentation. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. It is acceptable for them to use an Excel spreadsheet. Assessment Assessment should be based on learners’ portfolio of practical activities and their understanding of the underpinning science. For M2. Drosophila or E. For M3. For P1. For a distinction grade.

culture bottles etc will all be required. spreaders. for example. Micropipettes and autoclavable tips are recommended. Links to National Occupational Standards. media. autoclave. such as a poster or information leaflet. This should include all usual glassware. pipettes. and quantitative observation (desirable. but the quality of evidence and argument. Since most of the DNA manipulation techniques are either designed to be performed using basic equipment or come in kit form. limitations to the purity of extracted DNA. they have relatively few essential requirements. Micropipettes are useful. they may wish to present this as a separate piece of work. microscopes etc. although simple forms are provided with many kits. They should also have access to the internet. as well as journals and newspapers in paper or electronic form. microbiological loops. Learners are expected to have access to a library containing Level 3 biology texts. The laboratory should have bench surfaces suitable for topical sterilisation. social and ethical implications and present a case either for or against an example of genetic engineering. Resources for the aseptic handling and disposal of bacteria will also be necessary. learners must explain the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in order to explain the preference for the use of the former in gene technology. learners must consider the commercial. learners could discuss. and availability of suitable RNA primers for PCR. Pre-irradiated plastic petri dishes and pipettes.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING For D2. For D3. For D4. Essential resources Access to normal school or college laboratory facilities is expected. water baths. other BTEC units. This may form part of their work for P3 and M3. qualitative is acceptable) of β-galactosidase induction requires a colorimeter. An incubator will be required for incubation of bacteria and Drosophila. difficulties in differentiating between bands of DNA in electrophoresis. problems in finding an effective vector for many types of cell. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links well with: • • • Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 15: Microbiological Techniques. Use of laminar flow cabinets is desirable but not essential. Alternatively. though not essential. The tutor does not need to assess their decision. 220 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

abpischools. 2004) ISBN 0748774920 Giddings G.org/index www.asp www.org.org. Jones N and Karp A — The Essentials of Genetics (Hodder Murray.uk/resources/posterseries/genome/tryseq.abpischools.org/ddnalc/resources/shockwave/ dnadetectives www.dnai.asp www.com/flylab_login www.biologylab.uk/resources/posterseries/geneng/geanim.nodak. Larkcom E and Miller R — Genetics.dnalc.uk/resources/posterseries/pcr/pcranim.ncbe.ac. 2001) ISBN 0719586119 Journals Biological Science Review New Scientist Scientific American Websites www.vcell. translation and lac operon) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 221 . Larkcom E and Miller R — Molecules and Cells (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. Evolution and Biodiversity (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd.uk/menu www.abpischools.edu/~christjo/vcell/ animationSite/index Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry animation of genetic engineering Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry animation of PCR Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry animation of DNA sequencing Virtual FlyLab DNA interactive (by Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory) Gene Almanac DNA animations (by Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory) DNA detective (by Cold Spring Harbour laboratory) National Centre for Biotechnology Education Virtual Cell Animations (including transcription.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Adds J.awlonline.org.asp www.reading.ndsu.dnalc. 2003) ISBN 074877484X Adds J.org/ddnalc/resources/animations www.

• N3. present your findings and justify your methods. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Interpret the results of your calculations.N3.3 squared calculations and evaluating investigation into dihybrid inheritance. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. • drawing conclusions from chi. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.2 222 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out a practical investigation into patterns of dihybrid inheritance carrying out chi-squared calculations They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.

1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. using different sources.3 Present combined information such as text with image. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.2 • C3.1a Take part in a group discussion. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.3 Write two different types of documents. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects.UNIT 18: GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Communication Level 3 When learners are: • explaining the commercial. social and ethical concerns over genetic engineering writing an evaluation on the potential benefits and drawbacks of genetic engineering. social and ethical concerns over selected examples of genetic engineering doing a presentation of their experimental findings on the control of gene expression in prokaryotes reading about the commercial. One document must be at least 1000 words long. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching presentations on applications of genetics engineering making a presentation on applications of genetic engineering. image with number. • C3. text with number. ICT3. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 223 .1 Search for information.

224 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

analytical procedures utilise complex electronic equipment and computer-aided interpretation of results. Chemical analysis has many applications in manufacturing. analysing a variety of body fluids for microscopic traces of illegal substances. estimating error limits. food. These values were determined using analytical chemistry techniques and represent just a small area where aspects of analytical chemistry contribute to our lives. together with aspects of volumetric analysis necessary to produce calibrated sample and reference solutions. calcium and vitamin A. It is also a key component in health care (in the diagnosis of disease). separation and isolation of components. particularly in product quality control. air quality. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 Be able to prepare and standardise solutions of specified concentrations Understand the design and operating principles of selected spectroscopic instruments and be able to use spectroscopic methods to analyse chemical substances Understand the principles of chromatographic separation of components and be able to use chromatographic methods to separate and analyse chemical substances Understand how an industrial or commercial laboratory operates. monitoring of production processes and drug development processes in the pharmaceutical industry. data manipulation and interpretation and communication of results. including the quantities per 100g of protein. The analytical process is contextualised by exploring the range and application of analytical procedures within a commercial or industrial analytical laboratory.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Unit 19: NQF Level 3: Practical Chemical Analysis BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The nutritional information panel on a box of baby formula lists information for more than 15 chemical components. Increasingly. fat. In this unit spectroscopic and chromatographic methods are investigated. For all major sporting events a team of analytical chemists is active behind the scenes. water quality and monitoring industrial waste). and public health (testing drugs. 3 4 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 225 . forensic science (analysing substances found at crime scenes). The analytical process encompasses a range of skills including sampling techniques.

1H NMR spectroscopy. dilution of stock solutions to give a series of related standard solutions 2 Understand the design and operating principles of selected spectroscopic instruments and be able to use spectroscopic methods to analyse chemical substances Spectroscopic instruments: eg ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. calculation of concentration including use of dilution factors necessary to produce a range of standard solutions from a given stock solution of known concentration Standard solutions: preparation of solutions of fixed concentration. atomic spectroscopy. calibration curves and internal standards. appropriate titrations to determine concentration or standardise given solutions. ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Unit content 1 Be able to prepare and standardise solutions of specified concentrations Molarity: calculations involving molar quantities. block diagrams showing key components. infrared spectroscopy. mass spectrometry. determination of molar absorption coefficients. criteria for method selection. 1H NMR spectroscopy. correlation charts. spin-spin splitting. detectors Spectroscopic techniques: eg infrared spectroscopy. basic principles of operation eg energy sources. identification of organic functional groups. measurement of absorbance. magnets. measurement of relative molecular mass. conditions for NMR activity. construction of calibration curves. applications of absorption and emission spectroscopy. mass spectrometry. integration traces. use in quantitative analysis. TMS as internal standard. optics. measurement of concentration. examples of other NMR active nuclei in addition to H. origin and uses of the fingerprint region. Beer-Lambert law. absorption bands and correlation charts. simple fragmentation patterns 226 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . atomic spectroscopy. identification of simple organic compounds from 1H NMR spectra.

Rf values. adsorption (liquidsolid) chromatography. Ponceau 4R and Tartrazine) 4 Understand how an industrial or commercial laboratory operates Laboratory type: any multifunctional laboratory eg hospital clinical chemistry. security. data presentation. liquid-liquid chromatography. column. Brilliant Black BN. visualisation/detection of fractions. Fast Red E. data recording and manipulation. GLC. accreditation. quality assurance. basic instrumentation (where appropriate) Chromatographic methods: eg practical applications of chromatographic separations eg paper. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). industrial quality control laboratory Processes: range of analytical procedures. quantitative and qualitative uses. Naphthol Red S. ion exchange. ion exchange chromatography.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 3 Understand the principles of chromatographic separation of components and be able to use chromatographic methods to separate and analyse chemical substances Chromatographic principles: stationary and mobile phases. gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). thin layer. molecular exclusion (gel permeation) chromatography Chemical substances: simple mixtures eg glucose-maltose mixture. seven food dye mixture dissolved in water (Erythrosin. government public health. Yellow Orange S. documentation of standard operating procedures BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 227 .

the learner is able to: M1 perform calculations and use volumetric techniques to determine concentrations of solutions interpret spectroscopic data from individual sources D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. evaluate the practical analyses undertaken and explain how the accuracy of the results is quality assured. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria. 228 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the learner is able to: evaluate the reliability of the calculations and techniques used to determine concentrations of solutions collate spectroscopic and other data from a variety of techniques to identify unknown compounds D3 use either GLC or HPLC data to measure components of a mixture and compare the results of the two techniques D4 select two analytical procedures. select two analytical procedures. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 calculate amounts and use volumetric methods to prepare a range of solutions of known concentration M2 P2 use and explain the principles of operation of selected spectroscopic techniques to accurately measure unknown concentrations M3 explain the results of separation including any possible sources of error P3 use and explain the principles of operation of selected chromatographic techniques to accurately separate simple mixtures M4 P4 describe the range of analytical procedures and data recording methods in an industrial or commercial analytical laboratory. describe the format of the data for the end user and explain how the raw data is transformed into this format. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

They should be competent in the volumetric techniques necessary to accurately prepare a range of stock solutions for calibration curves. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. As a minimum. justification for choice of technique.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. Wherever possible. Emphasis should be placed on the appropriate selection of techniques. so sample spectra and analyses may need to be supplied for interpretation purposes. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. manipulation of data to suit an end-user and the ability to bring together a variety of spectra data to confirm the identity of unknown compounds. and the separate space for computers. The main focus of learning outcome 1 is to ensure that learners are confident with calculations and manipulation of data relating to molar quantities and concentrations. This should be a mainly practical unit and the appropriate laboratory facilities and equipment are essential. assessment should involve practical work. and to determine concentrations of unknown solutions by titration. It is expected that learners will have hands-on experience of as many techniques as possible. If this is not possible for all learners. infrared spectroscopy or atomic spectroscopy. Safety aspects should be paramount throughout the unit. learners should have hands-on experience of at least two of the techniques of ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. block diagrams should be used to explain operating details and principles of techniques. rather than generating data themselves. correct manipulation of data and appropriate analyses. learners will have to use secondary data. Where possible. These should provide clear descriptions of techniques. accurate recording and presentation of results. Where this is not possible. discussion of results and limitations of techniques. including at least two of the instrumental methods listed in learning outcome 2 and either GLC or HPLC. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Throughout the unit experimental reports should be used to confirm the use of practical techniques. Not all centres will have access to the entire range of spectroscopic equipment. In learning outcome 2 the object is to enable learners to understand all the listed techniques without over-burdening them with excessive theoretical detail. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 229 . accuracy of use within defined limits. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. but even in many chemistry ones).

Accuracy is very important to employers.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A similar approach should be taken for learning outcome 3. As a minimum. relating to their areas of study in learning outcomes 2 and 3. Again. The quantitative use of chromatography and appropriate internal and external standards should be covered. For P4. They could produce either annotated block diagrams and/or simple descriptions and statements. These topics should then be investigated during the visit. how the data is transformed and presented for the end-user. a literature search or case study relating to the work of a hospital clinical chemistry or other suitable analytical laboratory should be undertaken. preferably by means of a group visit. They should also comment on the data recording methods for each of the analytical procedures covered. learners must demonstrate a basic understanding of the principles of operation of the spectroscopic techniques covered in this unit. including any necessary safety and security considerations. Prior to the visit. and from these a range of related calibrated solutions by dilution. They must also show the ability to use volumetric techniques to prepare stock solutions. Emphasis should be placed on data measurement. They must consider the practical techniques used by the analyst and how these might differ from their own experiences in the laboratory. learners should have hands-on experience of TLC and paper chromatography. Learners should practise and repeat techniques until they have a reasonably accurate result to present for assessment. which are practiced in an analytical laboratory. two non-instrumental column processes and either GLC or HPLC. the range of analytical procedures undertaken by the laboratory should be considered. this time relating to chromatographic techniques. Learning outcome 4 should allow learners to appreciate how a multifunctional analytical laboratory operates. The various types of stationary and mobile phases should be covered and related to the differing listed chromatographic procedures. safety and security aspects. and how the results are quality assured. learners must perform accurate calculations to determine the number of grams of a substance necessary to make up a specified volume of a solution of given concentration. but may require considerable guidance. 230 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . learners must describe the range of analytical procedures. For P2. For P1. They could produce annotated block diagrams and/or simple descriptions and statements. They must use chromatographic procedures safely and competently but may require considerable guidance and not always produce results where a separation is fully effected. They must demonstrate safe and competent use of the techniques. Calculations and final results must be accurate. Two procedures should be selected by an individual learner for detailed study. tutors should give learners a basic explanation of all the listed chromatographic techniques with a minimum of theoretical complexity. a practical approach is expected wherever possible. As with learning outcome 2. For P3. If this is not possible. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. learners must demonstrate a basic understanding of the principles of operation of selected chromatographic techniques.

with limited guidance. etc. etc. although some guidance from the tutor may be necessary. and identification of molecular fragments from NMR. learners must be capable of working independently in all areas. eg absorbance measurements. For M1. eg steps necessary to convert an absorbance reading for an unknown solution into a concentration reading for an end-user. learners must be able to confidently use chromatographic procedures to separate simple mixtures without guidance. Learners must also be able to standardise a given solution using titrimetry by following a given procedure. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 231 . learners must be able to independently select and use chromatographic techniques. infrared. NMR. All sections of reports must be detailed with no deficient areas. learners must be able to use spectroscopic techniques to measure the concentrations of unknown solutions within stated acceptable limits of accuracy. and some comment offered on the transformations that have been undertaken to produce this type of output. The final form in which the data is produced for the end-user must be considered. Accounts of compound identification should be accompanied by clear explanation and reason. learners must demonstrate knowledge of the effects of varying the stationary and mobile phases. The reasons for a particular type of presentation must be explained. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. eg print out in concentration units. bar charts. They must be able to prepare stock solutions repeatedly within stated acceptable limits of accuracy. eg identification of functional groups using infrared. For D3. Reports must be detailed and mainly error free. They must perform related calculations with minimum assistance. The results must show clear separations. learners must select two appropriate analytical procedures and describe for each the form in which the raw data is initially produced. For a distinction grade. For D1. be able to use either GLC or HPLC to separate and determine the concentration of the components of a mixture using suitable internal/external reference standards as appropriate. In reporting.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS For a merit grade. out of range results highlighted. Learners must also. NMR chemical shifts and coupling patterns. mass spectrometry fragment patterns. For M2. They must be able to collate data from a variety of spectroscopic sources (eg uv/visible. They must be capable of interpreting spectroscopic data. eg infrared bands. learners must independently perform correct and error-free calculations for preparing stock solutions. all the pass. For D2. parts per million. graphical display. Reports must be detailed with no deficient areas. Similarly for a given simple organic compound they should be able to predict the type of spectroscopic data that would be necessary to confirm identity. For M4. recognition of fragmentation patterns from mass spectrometry. mass spectrometry) to identify a simple unknown organic compound. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For M3. or integration traces. learners must be capable of working consistently within specified accuracy limits and be able to independently perform all necessary calculations and tasks.

Where it is not possible to provide hands-on experience centres should use data from libraries of spectra and/or literature on experimental sources. possible error sources. The absolute minimum requirement. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with the following optional units: • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry. mass spectrometry or 1H NMR spectroscopy and either HPLC or GLC. is that learners should have hands-on experience of two techniques from uv/visible spectroscopy. etc. learners must produce a full evaluation of two analytical procedures. sensitivity of techniques. Learners will not be able to pass this unit without some hands-on experience. Links to National Occupational Standards. security issues. atomic spectroscopy. eg appropriateness of the technique.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS For D4. Essential resources This is essentially a practical unit and access to a well-equipped analytical laboratory is essential. 232 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . They must explain in detail the methods used in the laboratory to assure the quality of the results. error limits. infrared spectroscopy. other BTEC units. in terms of analytical instrumentation.

1998) ISBN 0471967629 Dean J R (editor) — Atomic Absorption and Plasma Spectroscopy (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons. 2001) ISBN 0174483074 Lajunen L H and Peramaki P — Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission. 1995) ISBN 0471954683 Hanai T — HPLC: A Practical Guide (RSC Chromatography Monographs) (Royal Society of Chemistry.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Barker J — Mass Spectrometry (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons. 2004) ISBN 0854046097 Fowlis I A — Gas Chromatography (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons.org BBC The RSC’s Chemical Science Network BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 233 . 2000) ISBN 0471972541 Downard K — Mass Spectrometry: A Foundation Course (Royal Society of Chemistry. 2nd Edition (Royal Society of Chemistry. 2002) ISBN 0854049290 Lindsay S — High Performance Liquid Chromatography (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons. 2005) ISBN 0854046240 Levinson R — More Modern Chemical Techniques (Royal Society of Chemistry.bbc.chemsoc. 1996) ISBN 0471967432 CD ROMs Practical Chemistry for Schools & Colleges (Royal Society of Chemistry) Spectroscopy for Schools & Colleges (Royal Society of Chemistry) Websites www. 1999) ISBN 0854045155 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context: Laboratory Manual and Student Guide (Chemistry in Context) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. 1987) ISBN 0471913715 Stuart B H — Modern Infrared Spectroscopy (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons. 1992) ISBN 0471931152 Sewell P A and Clarke B — Chromatographic Separations (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons. 1995) ISBN 0471959170 Thomas M J K — Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy (Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning Series) (John Wiley & Sons.co.uk/science www.

1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • producing a written or verbal report on the use of a spectroscopic technique to measure a solution of unknown concentration. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.2 Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing and collating spectroscopic and other data to identify unknown compounds describing the operating principles of an instrument. • N3. N3.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. present your findings and justify your methods. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • following a laboratory protocol involving use of numbers calculating amounts of material for preparing solutions of known concentration They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. • C3. 234 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

• • Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • planning the chromatographic separation of a given mixture of compounds carrying out the practical investigation evaluating the results of the chromatographic separation.2 PS3.1 Plan work with others. ICT3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.1 Search for information. • • PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. ICT3. text with number. • WO3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning an investigation on the range of procedures and data-recording methods in a commercial laboratory carrying out an investigation on the range of procedures and data-recording methods in a commercial laboratory identifying ways to improve their investigation on the range of procedures and data-recording methods in a commercial laboratory.UNIT 19: PRACTICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching analytical procedures in a public health laboratory using software to produce graphs and tables from experimental data writing reports of practical investigations.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 235 .3 Present combined information such as text with image. using different sources.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. image with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. • WO3.

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Surgery today is faster. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know atomic structure and the physical principles of ionising radiation and ultrasound Understand the use. a germ-free environment where surgery is conducted remotely by robotic arms inside advanced MRI machines. at the cellular level it will permit diagnosis before symptoms even appear. painless and non-invasive. less invasive and more effective than ever — thanks in part to improvements in medical imaging technology. One day soon. production and detection of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging Understand the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging Understand the importance of radiation safety to the treatment of malignant disease with radiotherapy. The future prospects are even more exciting. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 237 . but preserve healthy tissue. patients will be all alone in the operating theatre. Researchers are testing the use of high-intensity ultrasound to destroy tumours identified and targeted while the patient lies in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. It will be powered by medical imaging systems that focus on the disease and use energy to destroy the target. Medical imaging is extending human vision into the very nature of disease. It aims to deliver the underpinning knowledge of several of the fundamental techniques and provide a basic introduction to the more complicated theory of magnetic resonance imaging. This unit introduces learners to some of the established practices in medical physics imaging. Surgery in the future will be bloodless. Imaging gives the doctor a clearer understanding of the patient’s condition so treatment can be planned more effectively and therapy delivered more precisely.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Unit 20: NQF Level 3: Medical Physics Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Diagnostic medicine has come a long way since the time when the best diagnosis occurred during the post-mortem examination.

tube current. function as a detector 3 Understand the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging Nuclear magnetic resonance: industrial applications. eg pulse echo technique. head and spine. intensity I = I 0 e − μx and half value thickness x 1 = 2 ln 2 μ Ultrasound: industrial applications. measurement of blood flow using Doppler ultrasound 2 Understand the use. advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging The gamma camera: operating principles of main components. proton spin. interaction of X-rays with matter. gradient field coils. characteristics of alpha. specific acoustic impedance. sterility and apyrogenicity. production of ultrasound and basic principles ⎡ (z 2 − z1 )2 ⎤ and refraction. attenuation. beta (β+ and β-) and gamma radiations. scattering and absorption. patient tolerance and quenching 238 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . radio frequency coils MRI applications and safety: eg abnormal body water. relaxation. random nature of radioactive decay. halflife t 1 . A = λN 2 X-rays: industrial applications eg production of X-rays from a target. of. factors influencing signal intensity. atomic structure. resonance. sonar principle and ultrasonic scanning ie A-scan. absorption and scattering. joints. target material and filtration. production and detection of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging Radionuclides: industrial applications eg radionuclides. decay constant λ and activity A = A0 e − λt . Doppler effect. overview of process ie block diagram. X-ray spectrum and effect of tube voltage. reflection ⎢α = ⎥ (z 2 + z1 )2 ⎦ ⎣ interaction with tissue. instruments and equipment. intensity measurement in decibels. abdomen. energy levels and precession.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Know atomic structure and the physical principles of ionising radiation and ultrasound Radioactivity: industrial applications. inverse square law. B-scan and M-scan. the need for quality control. radionuclide generators and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. contrast and resolution Instrumentation and equipment: eg magnets. implants.

linear accelerator. absorbed and effective doses Radiotherapy: eg megavoltage and superficial therapy. multiple and rotational beams. outline of the need for legislative requirements and dose limits. wedges and compensators. beam characteristics.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES 4 Understand the importance of radiation safety to the treatment of malignant disease with radiotherapy Effect of X-rays: effect on cells and tissue in relation to malignant disease. procedures for reducing radiation hazards BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 239 . industrial applications Radiation safety: major effects of ionising radiation on the body. use of film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. and the production of X-rays and ultrasound M2 P2 describe the production and detection of radiopharmaceuticals and the operating principles of the gamma camera M3 P3 outline the process of magnetic resonance imaging. the learner is able to: analyse the effect of the operation and design of the tube/head on a typical Xray spectrum evaluate the choice of radiopharmaceuticals for a range of clinical imaging requirements D3 compare and evaluate the appearance of bone and soft tissue in an MRI scan and a conventional X-ray D4 evaluate a range of therapy techniques. radioactivity. types of radiation available and the equipment used. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: M1 explain the random nature of decay and how it relates to half-life compare the desirable biological properties and radiological properties of radionuclides used for imaging explain the factors influencing signal intensity in MRI explain how excessive exposure to radiation can cause harm. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. 240 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and the instrumentation and equipment used M4 P4 explain the principles and effects of radiation therapy and the equipment used. in addition to the pass criteria. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe atomic structure. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit.

Therefore. If learners will be working in hospital departments it may be possible for additional practical investigations to be undertaken in the workplace. target material and filters are examined. M1 and D1 could be aided by the learner having practical experience of radioactive sources. Lectures. and summarise the information. learners must carry out some background research on the subject of radiopharmaceuticals. As the cost of keeping these sources and the safety issues concerned can be prohibitive. It is suggested that each area of medical imaging be followed through the criteria. it should be a rewarding experience for all concerned. learners must explain the types of spectrum before the effects of voltage. current. This is a complex subject and care should be taken not to exceed the level of the course. Every day.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Each learning outcome has a significant amount of underpinning knowledge. group work and directed reading would also be appropriate in this unit. The criteria are structured for independent learning and M2 and D2 are clearly differentiated tasks. where possible. to support learning outcome 1. The practical opportunities are limited in this unit but work should be developed. we ingest and inhale radionuclides in our air and food and the water. tutors should use video recordings. The more inventive the methods of assessment. For example. learners could produce a poster or similar graphic assignment. The assessment of P1. the better. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. visits to hospital medical physics departments and guest speakers. nuclear medicine begins with basic principles in learning outcome 1. but the safety procedures and sterility required when dealing with radionuclides for medical uses should be stressed. If the tutor can convey the necessary enthusiasm for what is a remarkable area of science and actively work to engage learners through different methods of delivery. techniques examined in learning outcome 2. It is unlikely that centres will have the facilities for learners to carry out practical work for the remaining learning outcomes. For P2. tutors should make use of one of the excellent virtual experiments available on the web. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 241 . In addition for D1. especially with the section on MRI which should only be dealt with qualitatively. computer simulations. For M2 and D2. and safety addressed in learning outcome 4. Learners should be made aware that our world is radioactive and has been since it was formed. and is best delivered by starting with the industrial applications.

Library access to a range of physics books at Level 3 standard is expected. 2003) ISBN 0748776605 Pope J — Medical Physics: Imaging (Heinemann Advanced Science) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 5th Edition (Hodder Murray.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES For P3. learners must compare the appearance of bone and soft tissue in an MRI scan with that produced by X-ray.tre.health. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked to: • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation. 2000) ISBN 0748743162 Duncan T — Advanced Physics. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Breithaupt J — New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level: Core Book AND Course Study Guide (New Understanding Physics) (Nelson Thornes Ltd. For D3. Essential resources All learners will need access to appropriate laboratory facilities and ICT resources. 2000) ISBN 0719576695 Ellse M and Honeywill C — Mechanics and Radioactivity (Nelson Thornes.html www. 1999) ISBN 0435570943 Websites www. learners must explain the factors influencing signal intensity in MRI. They could do this by making a safety leaflet. They could do this by writing a brief report. For P4 and D4. other BTEC units.goingfora.ngfl.com/radiology/index. learners must explain how excessive exposure to radiation can cause harm. learners could write a report on radiotherapy.htm The Royal College of Radiologists How Stuff Works Teacher Resource Exchange Body Teaching Files 242 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .com/x-ray2.howstuffworks.com/ctarc.htm www. learners must outline the process of MRI and have an understanding of the equipment used. They could produce two simple block diagrams of the process and equipment in a PowerPoint presentation. For M3. For M4.uk www.gov. Links to National Occupational Standards.uhrad.

Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. N3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. • generating conclusions from results of calculations. present your findings and justify your methods. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • using formulae in calculation of reflection of ultrasound They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 243 .

1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the suitability of radiopharmaceuticals for applications producing and detecting ultrasound reading material and synthesising information on radionuclides They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. 244 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 • • producing a safety leaflet for radiotherapy reporting on radionuclides and identifying the quality control mechanisms necessary in the preparation of a radiopharmaceutical with a comparison of the desirable biological and radiological properties of radionuclides used for imaging.1a Take part in a group discussion. • C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. • C3. One document must be at least 1000 words long.3 Write two different types of documents.

Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.2 • LP3. Take responsibility for your learning. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. • LP3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 245 .1 Search for information. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. • • • • • • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning how assignment tasks will be achieved demonstrating responsibility in executing a work schedule reflecting on their performance and areas for improvement. ICT3.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. ICT3. image with number.UNIT 20: MEDICAL PHYSICS TECHNIQUES Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching information from books and internet sources on methods of heat transfer selecting data or text displaying results in appropriate format entering information from internet sources producing PowerPoint presentations on selected topics presenting details of investigations presenting reports of internet research. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. using different sources.3 Present combined information such as text with image. text with number.

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Understanding normal bodily functions makes it easier to understand abnormalities. learners can appreciate the complexity of life. Mechanisms used to control such organisms inside and outside of the body will be examined. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 247 . Learners will be expected to complete the practical requirement of this unit in order to develop important skills necessary for working in various applied science workplaces — particularly those in the health sector. including immunological methods of defence. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the structure and characteristics of major groups of organisms of medical importance Understand how the body defends itself against infection Know how the principles of blood transfusion science relate to the study of haematology Understand cell pathology and the working of groups of cells (tissues and organs) in clinical biochemistry. This unit then develops learners’ understanding of topics such as cellular pathology.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Unit 21: NQF Level 3: Biomedical Science Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Biomedical science is a fascinating field that primarily looks at the basic molecular structure of the human body. haematology and transfusion science. clinical chemistry. Through exploring the molecular composition of the human body and the mechanisms by which cells divide. the mechanisms by which the body functions. It also explains the ways in which they are spread throughout the population. how the body is able to deal with ‘invaders’ and what happens during attack by invaders and other disease processes. Practical applications will be used throughout this unit to reinforce theoretical aspects of biomedical science. This unit introduces learners to microbiology and explores the major groups of organisms of medical importance.

immune cell migration to site 248 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . cocci. fungi Concepts of parasitism: symbiosis. cell membrane. vehicle. auxiliary cells (basophils. large granular lymphocytes). commensalisms. cell wall. capsule. pathogenicity Sources of infection: human reservoirs. bacilli. disinfection.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Understand the structure and characteristics of major groups of organisms of medical importance Structure and characteristics of the major groups of organisms of medical importance: bacteria (circular DNA. mast cells. pilli. envelope. antiviral agents. non-specific cellular defences (phagocytes. non-living reservoirs Routes of transmission: contact. increased capillary permeability. sterilisation. capsomere. platelets). DNA or RNA nucleic acid. practically demonstrate asepsis and disinfection 2 Understand how the body defends itself against infection Non-specific defences: barriers (skin. mucous membranes. antibiotics. antifungal agents Demonstrate: preparation and observation of heat fixed smears of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial samples. flagella. cell-mediated immunity Cells of the immune system and their functions: leucocytes. tears. use of photomicrographs to view structure). capsid. determination of antibiotic sensitivity. body fluids Antimicrobials: asepsis. lymphocytes (Blymphocytes/cells. neutrophils. vectors Routes of entry into the body: orifices. eosinophils). droplets. animal reservoirs. reaction to eradicate antigen Mechanism of inflammation: increased blood supply. commensals). viruses (obligate intracellular parasites. phagocytes (mononuclear phagocytes. T-lymphocytes/cells. inflammation) Specific defences: humoral immunity. others (tissue cells) Process of immune responses: antigen recognition. spikes. Gram stain).

pretransfusion and transfusion procedures including screening. output. intensive care. human parvovirus (B19). thrombocytes. sickle cell anaemia Leucocytes/white blood cells: antibody production. AIDS Platelets: use in treatment of diseases eg haemophilia Haemostasis and thrombosis: definitions. clinical use of blood products eg in surgery. confirm diagnosis. red blood cell count. storage and temperature. blood volumes Erythrocytes: associated diseases eg anaemia. allergic drug reactions. neuromuscular diseases. immunoglobulins. cytomegalovirus (CMV). structure and functions. neoplasia in identifying underlying disease eg cancer cells in sputum. blood gases. disorders associated with leucocytes eg lymphocytosis. evaluate prognosis. foliate deficiency. defence eg immunoglobulins. kidney and liver functions Cell pathology: cell injury. malaria. metabolic errors. their role in immunity. platelet counts. aspiration (use of fine needle to remove cells) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 249 . drugs. haemophilia. reversible and irreversible.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES 3 Know how the principles of blood transfusion science relate to the study of haematology Components of blood: erythrocytes. lipid and lipoproteins. haemolytic disease of newborn infants. origins Diagnostic techniques: eg blood smears. T-lymphocytes. control systems eg genetic. aplastic anaemia. urine. anaemia. monitor disease progress Biochemistry systems: input eg nutrition. screening of blood products 4 Understand cell pathology and the working of groups of cells (tissues and organs) in clinical biochemistry Clinical biochemistry: uses eg assist diagnosis. lymphomas eg Hodgkins. Kawasaki disease Transmissable infections by transfusion: eg hepatitis. B-lymphocytes. leukaemias. megaloblastic anaemia. types of cell collection used for analysis eg pap smear (cervical cancer or any surface cells. Chagas’ diseases. water and electrolytic metabolism. significance to the human body Associated blood diseases: bone marrow failure. causes of cell injury. obstetrics. screen for latent disease. cell ageing. digestion. fluids in chest and abdomen. identification of skin lesions eg melanocytic lesions. non-Hodgkins disease Transfusions: production of blood products. eg acid-base balance. inflammatory lesions eg Lupus. myasthemia gravis. processing eg enzymes. coagulation. vitamin B12 deficiency. control of calcium and carbohydrates. endocrinology. thalassaemia. reticulocyte count. plasma proteins. red cell compatability. tests for abnormal haemoglobin. analysis for iron deficiency. mean corpuscular volume. leucocytes. infectious mononucleosis.

how a knowledge of cell pathology and biochemistry can help in following the course of a disease. the learner is able to: assess the effectiveness of antimicrobials To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 demonstrate and describe the structure and characteristics of major groups of organisms of medical importance M2 P2 understand how the body defends itself against infection M3 compare and contrast the effectiveness and efficiency of non-specific defences with specific defences D3 explain why blood products are screened and discuss the effectiveness of the process for one transmissible disease D4 discuss the link between a biochemistry system and the disease caused when it malfunctions. its use in identifying underlying diseases. routes of transmission and entry into the human body of microorganisms of medical importance explain how the cells of the immune system allow an immune response to be evoked and maintained explain the clinical uses of three different blood products used in transfusions explain. P3 list three diagnostic techniques used in blood analysis and describe what abnormality each technique could identify M4 P4 define cell pathology and describe. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: M1 explain the sources of infection. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. giving examples.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. using examples. 250 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. in addition to the pass criteria.

Wherever possible. For P1. Learners should be encouraged to develop skills in primary and secondary research. practical work and learner-centred activities. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. Tutors should ensure that learners use scientific terminology correctly and consistently. but even in many chemistry ones). and the separate space for computers. learners must carry out smears of Gram-positive and Gram-negative samples and describe the structure and characteristics of the range of organisms stated in the content. Distinction criteria will develop learners’ knowledge and understanding further. and the procedures that identify abnormalities. The tutor should make sure this overlap is pointed out and used to show the links between sections. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 251 . For further guidance refer to page 497. There is some overlap between topics in learning outcomes 2.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. This should include exercises in data interpretation and problem solving. The medical relevance of the unit content should be emphasised to make these topics applicable to the vocational background of the learners. provided that the science is clearly communicated. If this is not possible for all learners. The fundamental concepts of this unit should be delivered through tuition. guided learning. learners should be encouraged to work independently for D1 and D2. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. 3 and 4 but this is indicated so repetition can be avoided. It is not intended that learners should have detailed knowledge of the contents of learning outcomes 3 and 4. Wherever possible. Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. This may be presented as a poster. The intention is to make the learners aware of the range of systems and procedures involved in understanding how the human body functions normally. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. leaflet or similar. A risk assessment must be carried out. the theoretical aspects of this unit should be related to the learners’ work-based training and experiences. desks etc that learners may not be aware of.

learners must explain how the cells of the immune system evoke and maintain an immune response. nonliving reservoirs. and learners explain the immunological principles involved. entry via droplet. entry via oral cavity. For a merit grade. learners must explain the link between biochemistry and cell functions. Again.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES For P2. verbal presentation or a poster. contact transmission. For P3. it might be necessary to give a scenario detailing a disease. personal experiences of blood use can be included here. Learners could produce a written assignment. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. disinfectants. Learners must complete practical activities on the determination of antibiotic sensitivity. It may be necessary for the tutor to provide a scenario that outlines a specific disorder. For M3. and entry of microorganisms into the human body. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. The results generated should allow learners to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. all the pass. learners must provide an assessment of the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. For M2. and depending on the learner’s work area. learners must write a scientific practical report. demonstration of asepsis and disinfection using various chemical media (eg bleach. antibacterial spray. For D2. sterilising solutions). animal reservoirs. learners require knowledge of a number of diagnostic techniques used in blood analysis. vehicle transmission. learners must identify the mechanisms by which the human body can defend itself against infection. 252 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . For M1. All non-specific and specific defences listed in the unit content must be considered. For a distinction grade. Learners must present their ideas logically and clearly. routes of transmission of microorganisms. for the learners to show how biochemistry and cell pathology work together in tracking the progress of the disease. Learners must use their own experience of this area of work whenever possible. Learners must show how these diagnostic techniques identify a specific abnormality. They must ensure that the following key terms are explained: human reservoirs. For P4. For D1. The tutor must ensure that the learners generate evidence that clearly identifies non-specific defences and specific defences. and entry via body fluids. learners must show their understanding of the importance of cell pathology as a diagnostic tool. It is accepted that learners may not have practical experience of carrying out the diagnostic techniques. learners must explain the role of blood products used in treatment. Three blood products must be used in the explanation. After completing this practical work. vector transmission. but they should observe them whenever possible. depending on the learner’s work area. learners must explain sources of infection. learners must compare and contrast the effectiveness and efficiency of nonspecific immune defences with specific immune defences. For M4.

other BTEC units. Grease spot test equipment. Photomicrographs showing cell organelles. Prepared microscope slides of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Hodgkins disease could be an example: learners can discuss the normal functions of the lymph nodes to show what happens when uncontrolled cell division causes a malignant tumour of the lymph glands.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES For D3. eg blood clotting and haemophilia. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked with: • • • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction Unit 18: Genetics and Genetic Engineering Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation. the screening procedures used and then evaluate the effectiveness of the screening process in relation to one transmissible disease. Flame test equipment. then take an example of where the system goes wrong and examine the consequences. Fat emulsion test equipment. Links to National Occupational Standards. Light microscopes with oil immersion objective lens. Electron micrographs of viruses showing cellular components. Benedict’s test reagents. Iodine test reagents. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 253 . Appropriate plant species or insect species to perform simple monohybrid inheritance. in general terms. learners must consider the safety of the products used in blood transfusions. Biuret test reagents. Prepared microscope slides of fungi spores. For D4. Allium species seedlings for performing root tip squash. They must discuss. learners must understand the biochemistry of a normal functioning cell. Essential resources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Basic laboratory glassware and general laboratory equipment.

2005) ISBN 0805377522 Journals Biomedical Scientist Journal of Epidemiology New Scientist Nursing Times Website www.uk BBC 254 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES • • • • • • • • Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures. Microscope slides and cover slips. Petri dishes. Nutrient agar. 7th Edition (The Stationery Office. Antibiotic sensitivity testing kit. 2004) ISBN 0198526520 Tortora G J — Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (John Wiley & Sons. Hospital departments often have their own small library of reference material which is also worth consulting. 2005) ISBN 1405126663 Luxton R — Clinical Biochemistry (Scion Publishing. 2003) ISBN 0470844752 Hoffbrand V and Mehta A B — Haematology at a Glance (Blackwell Publishing. Sterile swabs and apparatus for aseptic techniques. The medical libraries in hospital centres are available to hospital staff and contain a complete range of specialist journals. 2005) ISBN 0471718718 Tortora G J. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Crocker J C — Molecular Biology in Cellular Pathology (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005) ISBN 0117033715 Provan D et al — Oxford Handbook of Clinical Haematology (Oxford University Press. Inoculating loops. 2005) ISBN 0750628782 Murphy M F et al — Practical Transfusion Medicine (Blackwell Science. 2000) ISBN 0632051140 National Blood Service — Guidelines for the Blood Transfusion Services in the United Kingdom. Gram stain practical apparatus.bbc. Funke B R and Case C L — Microbiology: An Introduction (Benjamin Cummings.co.

N3. • N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • acquiring and interpreting data from methods appropriate to a practical investigation. present your findings and justify your methods. and planning and undertaking a programme of work to provide relevant data from the investigation using appropriate methods to process primary data from practical work undertaken They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 255 . Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. • drawing and presenting conclusions drawn from processed practical investigatory data.

UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about a complex. 256 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . C3. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.3 Write two different types of documents. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. image with number. Mendelian inheritance or the structure and characteristics of microorganisms of medical importance presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation about a complex subject researching a complex subject They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. using different sources.1 Search for information.3 Present combined information such as text with image. • C3. • C3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. One document must be at least 1000 words long. abstract scientific subject such as the structure and function of biological molecules. text with number. • ICT3. developing. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning and carrying out a search for experimental methods appropriate to a scientific investigation to be undertaken exploring.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. each one giving different information about complex subjects. exchanging and deriving information for the above purposes presenting the information appropriately. • ICT3.2 • preparing a document about a complex subject as above.

3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 257 . They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. on the basis of the results and conclusions produced.UNIT 21: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE TECHNIQUES Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan for a scientific practical investigation and consulting and gaining the agreement of the tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.2 Take responsibility for your learning. • LP3. and deciding on the approach to be adopted evaluating the plan continuously during the investigation. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • formulating a plan with a range of options for a scientific practical investigation identifying and evaluating alternative methods of approach to the investigation.2 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • LP3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.3 Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. • PS3. • PS3.

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 259 . and possibly get the chance to use it.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Unit 22: NQF Level 3: Chemical Laboratory Techniques BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Whether it is in enforcing environmental standards and targets. finding new medicines to combat cancer. This unit is designed to enable learners to acquire and develop a range of highly sought-after practical skills. In purifying and analysing these products. Chemists must also be able to interpret and follow instructions and communicate what they have done and found out. During this unit. carefully and accurately. learners will develop manipulative skills and find that more sophisticated apparatus requires a similar approach. In using this equipment carefully and safely. As they become more experienced. monitor and control the reactions that they use to produce compounds. learners will develop confidence in handling chemicals safely and the ability to set up equipment. However. Learners will use a variety of analytical techniques to assess the quality of their products. Chemists make new substances by chemical reactions. During this unit learners will find out about some of this equipment. all chemists started with basic equipment. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to prepare compounds Be able to isolate and purify compounds Be able to analyse compounds Be able to carry out calculations of percentage yield and percentage purity. Learners should also improve the reliability of their analytical measurements and observations. workers with good chemical laboratory skills are vital. they will refine their practical skills to achieve greater percentage yields and higher purity more quickly. Chemists working in industry use many techniques that involve very expensive apparatus. designing new materials to replace worn-out knee joints or helping to detect and convict criminals. it is essential to work safely.

evaporation. distillation (simple and fractional). percentage yield Techniques: procedures for safe dispensing of chemicals eg use of reagent bottles and Winchesters for eg concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. hydrocarbon solvents. actual yield. steam bath. filtration (gravity and reduced pressure). anti-bumping granules Procedures for the control and monitoring of reactions: temperature. extraction of plasticisers from PVC clingfilm by reflux with cyclohexane Yield: theoretical yield.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Unit content 1 Be able to prepare compounds Preparation: one inorganic compound. maintaining homogeneity (manual and magnetic stirrer) 2 Be able to isolate and purify compounds Heating and boiling under reflux: appropriate use of different heating methods eg Bunsen burner. sharps and broken glassware Isolation and purification: eg solvent extraction. thin layer chromatography Procedures for safe disposal of substances: eg concentrated sulphuric acid. acidified potassium dichromate (VI) Procedures for the avoidance of contamination of reagents: eg efflorescent or deliquescent solids. thermostatically controlled water bath. pH. cleanliness of apparatus such as teat pipettes Procedures for mixing chemicals safely: eg concentrated sulphuric acid. water bath. addition of any reactant likely to cause significant exothermic change. salicylic acid from willow bark or oil of wintergreen. heating mantle. other flammable solvents. paper and thin layer chromatography 260 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . one organic compound. one substance extracted from a natural or synthetic material eg a sample of calcium carbonate by re-precipitation from limestone or chalk.

K+. NO3-. Ba2+. moles = mass/relative molecular mass Molar solutions: concentrations of solutions in moles per decimetre3 (molarity). % purity = mass of pure substance present in sample/mass of sample Molar quantities: the mole. use of colorimeter 4 Be able to carry out calculations of percentage yield and percentage purity Percentage purity: use of equation. SO32-. Cu2+. redox) for eg vinegar.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 3 Be able to analyse compounds Qualitative analysis of inorganic substances: tests for anions. brass. tests for cations. eg Cl-. identification of aldehydes and ketones from melting points of derivatives Quantitative analysis — volumetric: preparation of solutions of known concentrations. amines. iodine/sodium thiosulphate. relative molecular mass. Br-. eg Na+. aspirin. calculations using equation. Fe2+. where M and V represent the molarities and volumes of solutions used in titrations and x and y are appropriate quantities obtained from the balanced chemical equations BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 261 . aldehydes. I-. CO32-. appropriate titrations to analyse commercially available substances eg acid/base. bleach. Al3+. SO42-. iron supplement tablets Qualitative analysis — recording H+ concentration: use of pH meter. calculations using: number of moles in given solution = molarity (mol dm-3) x volume (cm3)/1000. determination of concentration of unknown solutions using: xM1V1 = yM2V2. Ca2+. carboxylic acids. basic operating principles and calibration. Mg2+. primary and secondary alcohols. Fe3+. Zn2+. ketones. Ni2+ Qualitative analysis of organic substances: tests for eg alkenes.

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 prepare and report on one organic and one inorganic substance P2 isolate and report on one substance from a natural material and one from a synthetic material M3 M2 P3 carry out and report volumetric analysis and instrumental analysis to identify cations. in addition to the pass criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: evaluate the impact of the sources of error. explain the application in industry of percentage yield and percentage purity. how they could be maximised. and propose modifications to the procedure designed to minimise their impact analyse the choice of techniques and apparatus used to carry out a separation D3 evaluate the effectiveness of instrumental methods of analysis compared with chemical tests to identify organic compounds D4 explain the factors that affect yield and purity in the extraction carried out using appropriate scientific ideas. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. P2 and P3. and suggest. 262 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . with justification. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. anions and simple organic functional groups M4 P4 carry out calculations and report on percentage yield and percentage purity for P1. the learner is able to: M1 select appropriate apparatus and techniques to prepare inorganic and organic compounds explain the principles of each stage in the isolation of one substance explain the chemical principles underpinning the analytical tests used D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that.

This approach can be enhanced by asking learners to demonstrate procedures to other group members. If this is not possible for all learners. and they should be encouraged to ask for observation records and/or witness statements to be provided as evidence. Activities that provide access to merit and distinction grades. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 263 . then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. unless it arises naturally from procedures in which the learners are engaged. Formal teaching is unlikely to be an effective strategy in this context. The importance of working to agreed protocols could be emphasised if learners are asked to write simple protocols for colleagues (or even the tutor) and then observe the way in which the instructions are carried out. Learners could be encouraged to generate observation checklists so that they can assess the safety and accuracy of their colleagues’ work. This unit is designed for learners to develop a range of practical skills. it is important that tutors stress the necessity of safe and careful working and accurate reporting. In many cases. Learning outcomes 1. but even in many chemistry ones). Learners and supervisors must be made aware of the requirements of this unit prior to any work-related activities. Site visits or inputs from practicing scientists may help to do this. should arise naturally from practical activities wherever possible. Work placements (if used) should be monitored regularly to ensure the quality of the learning experience. The unit should be based on vocational applications and each new topic should be introduced by considering a relevant practical problem and looking at the techniques that are available to address it. which require understanding of how the techniques work. learners may have the opportunity to use a rotary evaporator or Soxhlet extractor when purifying a product. tutors will find it much easier to discuss the principles of boiling under reflux if learners are engaged in the activity at the time of the discussion. desks etc that learners may not be aware of.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. and the separate space for computers. this will raise questions about the limitations of techniques used and how they might be modified. For example. or different methods used in the vocational context. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. Whichever delivery methods are used. Learners should carry out their practical work with an understanding of how the techniques they are performing might be used in industry. so that evidence can be collected during routine work. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. although ‘practical examinations’ are unlikely to be appropriate. For instance. 2 and 3 require that learners practice the techniques before they are assessed. Guidance on the use of observation and witness statements is provided on the Edexcel website. who are required to provide constructive feedback.

Again. a learner who achieves merit will demonstrate that they can make and explain decisions about the apparatus and techniques they will use. Learners may be assessed for P4 alongside P1. They may be assisted to carry out some procedures with which they are less familiar. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For a merit grade. reports must show an attempt to state what has been learned from the investigation. Learners may be assisted to make sense of their results to enable them to make conclusions. Learners could either isolate a natural product from a biological source. For inorganic compounds. volumetric analysis may be appropriate. Learners must appreciate the importance of accurate recording of results. This can only be achieved if there is agreement over the meaning of instructions. They will be able to work with less guidance. Instructions may be presented in a variety of forms — written. diagrammatic or verbal. It is essential that results are recorded fully. and calculations are required. This should be typical of the degree of supervision of a trainee technician working in an industrial laboratory. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Learning outcome 4 can be introduced by use of a scenario that learners will understand. it is essential that learners are aware that the procedures they carry out need to be reproducible. P2 or P3. For P4. All practical work should be reported in a standard format. an exercise to discover the quantity of star anise required to produce 1 kg of Tamiflu could be a useful way of introducing the major principles. The complexity of calculations of percentage purity depends on the analytical methods used to estimate purity. learners will develop the skill of carrying out the calculations through practice. Equally. This can be set in an economic context. It is expected that learners conform to the requirements of local laboratory rules at all times. or a metal ore from a mixture of the ore and ganque. For instance. samples can be supplied or they may be invited to enter their experimental results in a spreadsheet. Alternatively they could recover a pure substance from a man-made mixture of which it is a component. Thus. Learners must work safely and carefully. Some preliminary teaching will need to have taken place so that learners are aware of the importance of a balanced equation and have a functional awareness of the mole concept. learners must comment on the purity and yield in any synthesis. P2 and P3. so they must be recorded accurately and according to conventions. when the importance of high yield and purity become obvious. accurately and clearly in a suitable supplied format. Relevant information on yields is sometimes available on the internet. 264 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and follow detailed instructions to prepare and analyse substances. There is no point carrying out an investigation if the results cannot be conveyed to others. Work must be carried out safely and learners must be supervised. learners must follow instructions to prepare and assess the purity of two products. For P1. Purity may be assessed by melting or boiling point for organic compounds. Broadly. A range of possibilities may be considered. Where calculations are concerned.

UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES For M1. the learner will need to refer to the data supplied and how they used it to make decisions. For D2. It may not always be the most cost effective to have a high percentage yield. and working out what volume of solution this might be. the percentage purity required depends on the use of the product. For M4. compared to more traditional methods. All calculations must be carried out correctly. For D1. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 265 . a round-bottomed or pear-shaped flask for its size. Alternatively. etc. In doing so. This could be set in a vocational context. density and solubility. Learners must provide qualitative explanations of errors. all the pass. For a distinction grade. considering the volume of reagents it is to hold. Appropriate data would include melting and boiling points. M2 and M3. quantities and concentrations. learners must explain their choice of techniques and apparatus for carrying out a preparation and a separation. Equally. They are not expected to quantify the errors. they must demonstrate an understanding of chemical principles such as factors affecting rate and yield. They should be able to set this against the slow and inefficient process of the sort of chemical tests that they have been able to carry out for themselves. except in cases where this is essential for safety reasons (eg boiling for 30 minutes under reflux using a heating mantle). The protocol should not specify the apparatus or how the process is to be carried out. estimating how close to the graduation mark the user can reasonably adjust the meniscus. because of the requirement for high pressure or high temperatures. for instance. For D3. they may justify the choice of apparatus in terms of its fitness for purpose in relation to the operation required. learners must use their knowledge of percentage yields and percentage purity to comment on industrial situations. Learners must work carefully and safely. learners must research into techniques such as infrared spectrophotometry. learners must be able to work from an outline protocol that describes the process to be followed. mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. and take steps to minimise errors and achieve consistent results. for example. the speed at which they can supply it and the quantities of materials that can be used. The learner should demonstrate an understanding of the information these methods of analysis can supply. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. the use of in-line testing using infrared to achieve more rapid responses in the production of tablets in the pharmaceutical industry. transfer losses and failure to avoid contamination by appropriate rinsing. based on their experience of practical work. For example. They must be able to identify parallax errors in the reading of a burette. They could do this by measuring the inside diameter of a pipette. learners must make quantitative estimates of errors. For separations. a pipette could be used to transfer water to a beaker on an appropriately calibrated balance to make an estimate of the error empirically. a conical flask to enable ease of swirling without loss of contents. In preparation. A learner who achieves distinction will demonstrate a deeper awareness of the importance of chemical principles and safe working in an industrial context.

Links to National Occupational Standards. learners could consider the effects of varying the sequence of processes in the work-up stage of an organic preparation. Essential resources Facilities required for this unit are fully equipped chemistry laboratories with fume cupboards suitable for the teaching of chemistry at Level 3. 2001) ISBN 0854049290 MacDonald K — Getting the Message Across: Key Skills for Scientists. 1905) ISBN 1870343190 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context (Nelson Thornes. 3rd Edition (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2004) ISBN 0174481918 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context: Laboratory Manual and Student Guide (Nelson Thornes. 2000) ISBN 0582411270 Faust C B — Modern Chemical Techniques (The Royal Society of Chemistry. other BTEC units. 2001) ISSN 14717166 page 12 Ramsden E N — Calculations for A-Level Chemistry (Nelson Thornes.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES For D4. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The learning outcomes associated with this unit are closely linked with: • • • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 26: Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry. 2001) ISBN 0748758399 Useful resources for tutors Burton G — Salters’ Advanced Chemistry: Teacher’s Guide (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2004) ISBN 0340886722 Levinson R — More Modern Chemical Techniques (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2001) ISBN 0174483074 Hunt A — Advanced Level Practical Work for Chemistry (Hodder Murray. 2001) ISBN 0435631225 266 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Simulations based on the concentration of minerals in extractive industries could be considered. or leaving out a step altogether. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Clark J — Calculations in AS/A Level Chemistry (Longman.

org/ciec_home.ac.com/help_with_chemistry/ index.physsci.htm Royal Society of Chemistry — aspirin activities How to read Material Safety Data Sheets — University of Bristol — site also contains links to major manufacturers’ information Chemical Industries Association Creative Chemistry website (A-level practical work) Physical Sciences Educational Reviews Royal Society of Chemistry Practical techniques Chemical Industry Education Centre www.uyseg.uk/Publications/ Journal/journ3_2.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Websites www.geocities.pdf www.uk/safety/msds.org/PDF/LearnNet/rsc/ Aspirin_full.htm www.cia.ac.heacademy.org.bris.org.chm.pdf www.html www.uk/alevel/ practical.chemsoc.rsc.uk/newsite www.htm BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 267 .creative-chemistry.org www.uk.

2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.2 • C3. N3. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • C3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. present your findings and justify your methods. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • providing feedback to each other about the quality of their practical work demonstrating a technique that they have carried out to each other or to a different audience putting together information from hazard data sheets about risks of their practical work preparing reports or explaining the precautions that would be necessary when scaling-up procedures.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.3 Write two different types of documents. each one giving different information about complex subjects. • C3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. One document must be at least 1000 words long. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • calculating the results of quantitative procedures They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. 268 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • interpreting the results of quantitative procedures.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.1a Take part in a group discussion.

using different sources.1 Search for information. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 269 . ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.UNIT 22: CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • collecting information on hazards from manufacturers’ data sheets compiling their own risk assessments. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • evaluating their ability to carry out practical work. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.

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This unit looks at the atmosphere and explores our present understanding of climate and energy transfers through the various atmospheric levels. and looks specifically at photosynthesis in plants and respiration in animals. This unit covers the changes in the atmospheric conditions and the processes that have sculptured the Earth’s surface and brought about the rise and fall of plant and animal species over millions of years. Learners will explore the importance of water and its physical and chemical properties. This unit introduces the fundamental biological processes essential to all plant and animal life. It deals with aspects of climate and the effect of human activity on the atmospheric composition. Environmental workers need to have a good understanding of these processes in order to closely monitor the changes that may occur as a result of environmental imbalances. Learners will develop field work skills and use scientific methods to identify rocks and soils. its dynamic character and delicate balances. Learners will explore the issues of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Unit 23: NQF Level 3: Science for Environmental Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Understanding the environment. Learners will then discuss the issues and processes involved in the use of natural resources in the production of energy and in manufacturing. is probably more important today than ever before. The origins and characteristics of major rock types and soil formation. and the processes of weathering and erosion will also be explored. They will consider recycling and the industrial use of minerals and rocks. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 271 . It deals with organisms which adapt to a variety of conditions. Learners will develop their knowledge by means of useful projects on ‘green’ themes and begin to appreciate the importance of careful waste disposal and the complexity of the issues. together with the issues raised by water pollution. Industrial management of water and related issues will also be examined. Learners will be able to contextualise the subject material in this part with a study of the Environment Agency.

UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to investigate soil and rock formation and understand the processes influencing their formation and those associated with the Earth’s atmosphere Understand the processes involved with the water cycle and our management of water Understand the factors associated with plant and animal energy usage and natural environmental balance Understand the uses and management of raw materials. 272 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

precipitation. infiltration. historical atmospheric composition and changes (early atmosphere). humification. layered structure of whole atmosphere. orbital path. water table variations. reflection and albedo of surface. industrial pollution and problems associated with thermal. pollution monitoring. surface run-off. ozone protection in the stratosphere. major rock types. human influence on composition of atmosphere. demand and availability of water. ocean currents eg El Niño. the greenhouse effect. calcification and gleying. brown earth. through-flow. leaching. temperature and pressure changes. water quality and control measures Water pollution: chemical analysis. processes of soil formation. gley and peat Physical and chemical processes associated with rock formation: rock cycle. groundwater and storage. work of the Environment Agency BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 273 . temperature variations of oceans and consequent air circulation. energy and energy transfers. abstraction.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Be able to investigate soil and rock formation and understand the processes influencing their formation and those associated with the Earth’s atmosphere Composition and structure of the atmosphere: gaseous composition of troposphere and stratosphere. structure. organic and countryside management. water treatment and distribution. weathering and erosion 2 Understand the processes involved with the water cycle and our management of water The water cycle: processes in the water cycle. general climate of the UK Physical and chemical processes association with soils formation: soil properties including texture. podsol. pollution causes and effects. acidity. podsolisation. moisture. interception. mesosphere and ionosphere Solar energy and energy in the atmosphere: absorption and scattering of radiation. the Earth’s tilt and variation of global climate. air movement over land and in the atmosphere. essential use of water for life Water management: eg water supplies. transpiration. rendzina. the ozone layer in the stratosphere. aquifer storage. first and second laws of thermodynamics. typical soil types. convection zones and coriolis forces Seasonal variations and weather: rotation of the earth on its axis (day and night) and its effects. organic content and cation exchange. evaporation.

separating of hydrocarbons by fractional distillation. production of ammonia by decomposition. hydro-electric. oil and gas. yield and plant production or growth. solar power and biomass. steel manufacture from raw materials Recycling and re-use of materials: products which can be recycled to form new items eg aluminium. plastics. waves. plant adaptation to environmental change eg temperature. quantitative analysis of domestic and industrial waste 274 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . limiting factors. absorption and assimilation of food by animal’s energy transfers Carbon and nitrogen cycles: balance of both cycles and importance to environment of sustaining the balance. steel. re-use of materials eg textiles. processes used and resources necessary for glass making. water and light levels Respiration and energy transfer: aerobic and anaerobic respiration. use of fossil fuels. tidal. forest cultivation for paper and pulp. paper. glass.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS 3 Understand the factors associated with plant and animal energy usage and natural environmental balance Photosynthesis and energy transfer: investigative approach to factors affecting photosynthesis rates. renewable resources eg wind. glass Waste management: problems eg of site availability for landfill. use of oil fractions for plastics (polymer) production. mineral and organics: eg concentration on extraction of aluminium. production of nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria 4 Understand the uses and management of raw materials Energy resources: non-renewable energy resources and environmental impact eg coal. human activity and carbon dioxide emissions. development of nuclear power stations Soils: the effect of human activity on soil formation and management eg deforestation Rocks: extraction of minerals and rocks for industrial use to include limestone and rock salt Metals.

in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the learner is able to: M1 explain seasonal variations in the UK weather explain the problems in maintaining adequate water supplies in the UK explain the effects of human activity on carbon dioxide emissions D2 D3 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: explain the effects of energy transfers within the Earth’s atmosphere analyse the causes and effects of water pollution and monitoring techniques used explain the importance of sustaining a balance of carbon and nitrogen and describe how this balance can be disrupted D4 analyse the issues involved in management of industrial and domestic waste. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. in addition to the pass criteria.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 275 . To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the influences on the Earth’s atmosphere and carry out investigations into soil and rock formation M2 M3 P2 describe the water cycle and how demands for water are met in the UK P3 describe energy transfers associated with plants and animals and relate them to the carbon cycle M4 P4 describe the uses of Earth’s raw materials and the importance of recycling. explain the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources in relation to their environmental impact. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.

Learners should appreciate the heat balance that occurs in the atmosphere and understand that the earth and its atmosphere are reflecting and re-radiating the same amount of energy as they are receiving. The climate of the UK can be used as a ‘case study’ and can follow studies of climate which should be introduced on a global scale. Consideration should be given to the differential energy amounts received at various places on earth. Ocean currents. Tutors need to emphasise the sun as the ultimate driving force and the energy transfers which take place within the lower atmosphere as a direct result. especially when undertaking soil and water sampling. and tutors should identify areas of concern in relation to these prior to contacting the sites. project development and field work can all be used to further motivate learners and to maintain their interest.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors must deliver this unit using a wide range of techniques to enthuse and stimulate learners to produce work of good quality. A visit to a limestone quarry may be organised. The processes involved in the rock cycle can be studied together with surface erosion and deposition. sea and atmosphere. Practical study can be incorporated into this topic to good effect. Most quarries will arrange guided tours and information but an agenda prior to the visit should be discussed with the quarry’s human resources department. or within small groups focussing on one energy source per group. Studies of human intervention in the natural atmospheric balance can look at the greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in particular. Industrial experience in the form of visits or guest lectures can be used. and develop a clear understanding of the many natural processes of the world around them. Visits to waste and water management sites will also need careful planning. either covering the comprehensive list within the context. concerning rock types and formation can be reiterated and expanded upon. Discussion. such as El Niño effect and air currents can be observed by suitable video presentations. Learners can be guided to produce a project on the benefits and problems faced with alternative energy resources. This can be demonstrated using a globe in a darkened room and a torch showing the areas covered by the beam at equatorial and polar regions. Health and safety must be considered at all times. research study. Health and safety issues must be addressed by tutors concerning outdoor aspects of this unit. and literature on these topics is vast. Field studies of soil types and profiles in the UK are an essential means of enhancing knowledge and understanding gained in the lecture room. presentation. Information at Level 2 standard. 276 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Tutors should organise field trips to study these surface processes and incorporate elementary geological identification as a means to fulfilling criteria within an assignment. Learning outcome 1 should be delivered in the context of providing ‘the whole picture’ in relation to the role of the earth and the complex relationships of the land. practical assignment.

with tutor guidance and essential equipment supplied. Learning outcome 2 can be delivered by formal lecture. Both the carbon and nitrogen cycles can be explained effectively by lecture. This section allows learning through directed site visits to local reservoirs and water treatment works. The processes of raw-material extraction and subsequent transfer into useful products can be delivered with discussion and lecture. can be accompanied with a visit to a local authority landfill site. Tutors may also wish to arrange a guest visit from the Environment Agency and local water company. There is an abundance of video footage available on plant adaptation and growth. This aspect can also be represented by a project on industrial pollution hotspots within the UK and a survey carried out to compare water quality data and characteristics. for example. Learning outcome 4 is an opportunity for tutors to deliver an essential component of the environmental sciences in a positive and modern way. An investigation into the work of the Environment Agency concerning water quality monitoring and pollution control can also lead to practical experience of sample taking and laboratory analysis. Biological processes and the balance of nature are topics which can be well developed through a series of videos and lectures in learning outcome 3. Landfill and availability of waste sites can be studied for its local implications but can also address national and global issues. The balance of gases in the atmosphere and storage of carbon can be addressed and linked to the other sections of this unit that deal with atmosphere and rocks. Photosynthesis and growth-limiting factors can be investigated practically and then compared with industrial crop production. can produce a range of data which can be analysed and processed to provide essential evidence for assignment. recycled products and wasted elements in the public and industrial sectors of modern life. Continued human activity discussed in learning outcome 1 can illustrate the interdependence of the water cycle with energy transfer. The effect of human activity on soil formation and retention can be studied using case studies of regions around the world suffering the most serious effects of deforestation. This can be integrated into the recycling section and. discussion and a welldesigned research programme. This project will form the basis of an assignment detailing the list of products that can be re-used or recycled. and for which the economics of the system can be analysed. Recycling issues can best be addressed with an in-depth research project and associated lectures on present-day recycling trends. Tutors should focus on the energy transfers and ecological links between plants and animals and can help learners to appreciate the delicate balance which exists. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 277 . A visit to a local plastics manufacturer or packaging company can provide an extra dimension to studies. again. Learners can provide valuable independent research notes on such topics using a variety of sources. for example. Problems associated with water supply can be linked with issues within the water cycle and the fluctuations in climate. where most of the content of the topic can be explored and developed. including permeability investigation. Tutors can draw on local government resources and data tables to inform learners of the materials used.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Soil examination.

For P1. For P3. Learners must focus on the reasons why sufficient rainfall in the west of the UK is not mirrored in the east of the country. A poster of water cycle processes can be used to complete P2 criteria and can be associated with detail of individual aspects of water properties by learners. describe its properties that can be utilised.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Alternatively. leakage and other important points. For M3. They can present their findings in similar ways to those for M3. physical and chemical breakdown of rocks and possible field study of soils in an attempt to produce a classification table. Learners can provide data on transfer of water costs. Learners can explore the issues in a number of ways. contact with the Environment Agency or water companies. learners must describe the main factors associated with plant energy use. animal biological processes and natural environmental balance. learners must identify and describe the essential principles listed in the unit content of learning outcome 1. For M2. for example. learners must study and analyse the effects of human activity on global climate and attempt to ascertain whether the effects are conclusive. For M1. learners must give a detailed explanation of the UK’s seasons. Learners could present the evidence in a report or do a presentation. For P2. Learners must consider the natural balance of gases between plants and animals and the importance of plants in the production and maintenance of atmospheric gases. and provide a comprehensive list of re-usable or recyclable items. evidence could be presented in the form of a completed report highlighting soil formation from rocks and organic matter. The importance of recycling can be emphasised using photographs of landfill sites. and how its products are recycled. 278 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. research on the internet. and may be assessed directly by the tutor during practical activities. they may wish to investigate the effects of water acidity on simple carbonate rocks. This may be presented in a poster format but learners must demonstrate their understanding of the underlying science. Carbon dioxide levels and increases in eustatic sea levels or temperatures are possible areas of study to follow. A project or lecture room presentation can provide the relevant form of evidence if video is used. Learners may wish to incorporate all the processes within a single informative poster display. maintenance. fly tipping or other visual representation of industrial and domestic waste. clean water supply in the UK. learners must produce an in-depth report or account of the problems associated with maintaining a regular. They must focus on current research. for example. For a merit grade. and use data from at least the last 50 years. or a series of pictorial presentations with adequate notes. by discussing aspects of orographic rainfall. This may also take the form of experimental investigation such as pH testing or hardness. learners must describe the uses of raw materials as studied in the unit content. Initially. For P4. learners must show their knowledge of both physical and chemical properties of water. Learners could produce a poster or report to identify a raw material.

information leaflet or model. Industrial extractor of raw materials and manufacturer of usable products — limestone quarry and packaging company. For D1. The evidence could take the form of a short report. photographed and annotated. For D2. Learners can highlight the problems unique to industrial waste and those common to domestic waste. and learners can highlight this in their documents. and tutors should emphasise that the final presentation needs to show comprehensive study. plant and animal life and human consumption. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with the following optional units: • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 24: Principles of Plant and Soil Science. Linked with environmental consideration. If a report is produced. learners must demonstrate a clear understanding of the transfer of energy within the atmosphere and its effects. Tutors can assess directly from practical investigation certain aspects of the analysis and should carefully consider the validity of the monitoring techniques used. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 279 . learners could carry out a case study of a known landfill site and its associated issues. For D4. other BTEC units. Learners must produce detailed explanations of complex issues regarding waste management. Learners can present key pollution issues by local observations or analytical investigation using techniques in operation by regulating bodies. all the pass. For a distinction grade. Water treatment and reservoir access by permission of local water authority. For D3. learners must clearly identify the primary causes of water contamination in respect to significant pollution agents and illustrate the effects these have on water.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS For M4. Local authorities have to justify their recycling programs in terms of cost effectiveness. Essential resources • • • Access to local authority waste disposal and landfill sites. a comprehensive appraisal of monitoring techniques must be given. The evidence might be best presented as a short report. PowerPoint presentation. a table providing specific advantages and disadvantages of each can provide enough evidence. They must discuss how this delicate balance is maintained and the importance of doing so. provided the learners are able to demonstrate their scientific understanding. learners must show a clear understanding of both the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Links to National Occupational Standards. The detail and arguments addressed must be well researched and explained. learners must carefully itemise and explain the issues involved with renewable and non-renewable energy resources. although more creative formats would be appropriate. Evidence can be presented as a film-style documentary or a generalised magazine article. how they are related and how human activity affects these cycles. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met.

Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Boeker E and Van Grondelle R — Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2000) ISBN 017444706X Waugh D — Geography — An Integrated Approach: Supplement (Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2000) ISBN 0003266524 Journal New Scientist 280 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS • • • • • • Access to forestry commission grounds with guidance provided. First-aid kit. National parkland access to follow geological and soil surveys. 2005) ISBN 074879462X Waugh D — The New Wider World (Nelson Thornes. 2001) ISBN 0199141975 Waugh D — Geography: An Integrated Approach (Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2001) ISBN 0471495778 Jones A et al — Practical Skills in Environmental Sciences (Longman. Tutors should be suitably qualified and have experience of environmental and chemical studies. 2000) ISBN 0199141959 Pickering W R — Advanced Biology Through Diagrams (Oxford University Press. 1999) ISBN 058232873X Kent M — Advanced Biology (Oxford University Press. 2004) ISBN 0748773762 Woodfield J — Ecosystems and Human Activity (A-level Geography Series) (Collins Educational. Access to ICT facility. Various natural history videos of suitable quality and focus. Essential laboratory equipment for chemical analysis including BDH soil testing kit and centrifuge.

gov.environmentagency.utk.phys.com/links/eu/directives.dwi.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Websites www.gov.letsrecycle.dti.edu/astr161/lect/earth/atmosphere www.uk/environment/waste www.org.gov.wasteguide.uk www.uk www.sustainable-development.org www.uk Atmosphere Agricultural waste Government statistics for renewable energy Water quality Environment Agency Green-Alliance Recycling of waste Renewable technology Government environment policy Waste BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 281 .defra.gov.gov.csep10.org.uk www.uk www.uk/energy/inform/energy-stats-overview www.green-alliance.jsp www.neweconomics.

One document must be at least 1000 words long. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. • C3.1b Take part in a group discussion. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.3 Write two different types of documents.1a C3. present your findings and justify your methods. • comparing and justifying costs of production and recycling. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • highlighting waste landfill problems and water pollution. C3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.2 282 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • evaluating effectiveness of recycling producing a report on plant and animal adaptation researching deforestation They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.1 N3. N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • investigating soil formation and characteristics researching product manufacture from oil and recycling aspects They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. each one giving different information about complex subjects.

1 Plan work with others.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. WO3. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • investigating chemical and physical processes of soil formation analysing landfill sites investigating human activity on global climate and evaluating the impact.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.1 Search for information. Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • analysing and investigating soil formation. using different sources. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • evaluating the factors that affect soil formation and planning to carry out suitable investigations. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. • • WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.UNIT 23: SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICIANS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching information on climate change. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 283 .

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Plants are dependent on a medium for providing essential elements for life such as nutrients and an anchorage. directly or indirectly. particularly those enterprises which are primarily plant-focused. Understanding plant processes is essential for learners wishing to become involved in the land-based or applied science industries. Basic soil science will also be studied. their properties and the implications of these properties for plant growth. Learners will then look at how plants grow and develop. and plant life cycles. In this unit learners will develop an understanding of plant structures. the different types of soil. They will investigate plant structure and function in the context of the plants commonly used within the relevant land-based and/or applied science industries. This will be linked to plant nutrition. Learners will study the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. important life processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 285 . They will study plant life cycles and reproduction. They will then learn about the structure and function of soil. this medium is soil. Learners will explore the function of internal and external plant structures and their role in plant physiology. with the emphasis on relationships between the soil and plant development and nutrition. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the function of plant structures Understand the main processes of plant physiology Understand plant growth and development Know the principles of soil science.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Unit 24: NQF Level 3: Principles of Plant and Soil Science BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract All land-based sectors and many applied science industries are dependent. In the vast majority of cases. on plants. and learners will consider the role of major and micronutrients in plant growth.

lenticels. molybdenum. cell expansion. deficiency symptoms of minor nutrients and trace elements eg sodium. shoots. leaves and tillers. transpiration. structure and function of chloroplasts. cotyledons. function of major plant nutrients and deficiency symptoms (nitrogen. humidity. atmospheric and plant factors 3 Understand plant growth and development Plant growth and development: life cycle types (ephemeral. seasonal growth. genetic modification Respiration: definition of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. cobalt. biennial. seed production. cambium). seeds). rhizomes. cytoplasm. function of minor nutrients and trace elements.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Unit content 1 Understand the function of plant structures Function of plant structures: external structures (roots. equation for aerobic respiration. water availability. copper. definition of monocotyledon and dicotyledon and examples of plant species in both. pollination and fertilisation. endodermis. effects of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive growth. translocation. liming and the effects of pH 286 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . storage organs). asexual and vegetative reproduction. climate control. apical meristems. perennial). formation of roots. stem. hypogeal. specialised cells. iron. leaves. controlled growing environments Water uptake. dormancy. plasmolysis. magnesium. phosphorus. types of germination eg epigeal. potassium. function of pigments eg chlorophyll. factors influencing the rate of respiration eg temperature. manipulation of limiting factors to enhance plant performance eg weed control. fruit formation. drainage. diffusion. factors influencing rates of uptake and loss eg soil conditions. zinc. internal structures (cell structure. light intensity. carbon dioxide enrichment. structure and function of mitochondria. water availability. cell division. flower structures. irrigation. process and stages of germination. position within the canopy. stolons. fruits. phloem tissue. dispersal. organelles. factors influencing the rate of photosynthesis eg temperature. buds. lateral meristems. shoots. boron. tissues and organs (pericycle. manipulation of respiration eg control in crop storage. collenchyma. xylem tissue. manganese. flowers. sclerenchyma. buds. parenchyma. use of plants related to their structures 2 Understand the main processes of plant physiology Photosynthesis: equation for photosynthesis. annual. compensation points. sulphur). movement and loss: osmosis.

sands. pH.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE 4 Know the principles of soil science Soil science: types (loams. micropores. electrical charges. sand. aggregate sizes. drainage. effects of soil structure on plants eg rooting depth. other types of media eg gels. organic matter. nutrient solutions. properties of soil particles eg clay. waterlogging. stability. aeration. organic soils). silts. availability of plant nutrients. cation exchange capacity. effects of cultivation BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 287 . macropores. soil formation. silt. plough pans. water holding capacity. soil structure definition eg crumb structure. clays.

D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. 288 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the learner is able to: M1 explain the function of the major specialist cells. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: discuss how the function of internal and external structures of plants dictates their use in a selected industry discuss the manipulation of plant physiology to enhance plant performance in a selected industry D3 D4 discuss the relationships between plant nutrition and development discuss the effects of the physical and chemical components of a selected soil on plant nutrition.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. tissues and organs of selected plants explain how water uptake can be affected in selected plant species in given situations explain how plant development processes relate to their life cycles explain the relationships between plant nutrition and soil. in addition to the pass criteria. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 identify the major internal and external structures of selected plants and explain their functions M2 P2 explain the main processes of plant physiology M3 M4 P3 explain the life cycles of selected plants P4 carry out physical and chemical investigations to describe the characteristics of selected soils.

Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) must be provided and used following the production of suitable risk assessments. learners may have the opportunity to use methods of modifying plant environments. Work placements should be monitored regularly to ensure the quality of the learning experience. For example. Health and safety issues relating to working with soil and plant materials must be stressed and regularly reinforced. discussions. Guidance on the use of observation records and witness statements is provided on the Edexcel website. laboratory experiments and field investigations are essential to deliver this learning outcome effectively. Learning outcome 4 considers the principles of soil science and the relationship between plant nutrition and soil science. Lectures. site visits. it is essential that tutors stress the importance of sound environmental management. discussion. Visiting expert speakers could add to the relevance of the subject for the learner. practicals. motivate. the effects of cultivations and detecting areas of compaction. research using the internet and/or library resources and the use of personal and/or industrial experience would all be suitable. private study and assessment relating to this unit with any other relevant units and assessment instruments the learners are taking.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors delivering this unit have the opportunity to use as wide a range of techniques as possible. Learners will become aware of the structure. Experiments could include determining pH. supervised laboratory and field practicals. Learning outcome 3 covers plant life cycles. function and physiology of appropriately selected plants. plant growth and development. although visits arranged principally to cover other topics will also provide useful information. measuring infiltration rates and determining particle size distribution. Tutors should ensure that they have access to a suitable range of plants that can be studied at appropriate development stages. Delivery should stimulate. Whichever delivery methods are used. Learners and supervisors must be made aware of the requirements of this unit before doing any work-related activities. and risk assessments must be undertaken prior to practical activities. practicals. seminar presentations. a plant breeder or agronomist could talk about their work. Learning outcomes 1 and 2 are directly linked. site visits. They should be encouraged to ask for observation records and/or witness statements to be provided as evidence. educate and enthuse learners. for example. the situations they face and the methods they use. discussion. These are likely to be delivered by formal lectures. Field studies could include interpretation of soil pits. and independent learner research. As with BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 289 . Health and safety issues must be addressed before learners undertake any field or laboratory work. Learning outcome 3 is likely to be delivered by a combination of formal lectures. As well as formal lectures. so that evidence can be collected. Tutors should consider integrating the delivery. Tutors can tailor the actual species to the sector and/or local environment. site visits. and independent learner research.

For P1. For P2. Evidence for this could take the form of a pictorial presentation with notes (possibly using appropriate software or OHPs). learners must provide evidence for three different species of plant. Alternatively. Visiting expert speakers. and could describe practical aspects of managing soil structure and plant nutrition. or project. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. For a merit grade. For P3. Where possible. centres must ensure that appropriate PPE is provided and risk assessments undertaken before any practical work or site visits. learners must carry out physical and chemical investigations to describe the characteristics of selected soils.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE other learning outcomes. Where possible. The species studied could include weed species. For M1. respiration and water uptake. As a minimum. tissues and organs of selected plants. leaflet. As a minimum. learners must provide evidence that covers three species of plant with different life strategies. learners must identify the major internal and external structures of selected plants and explain their functions. an annotated poster or leaflet. These may be the same species as those used for other grading criteria. the size and complexity of the plants should be the same for all learners to ensure the fairness of assessment. Tutors should identify the selected plants. Evidence may be linked and in the same form as for P1. learners must explain the function of the major specialist cells. or agree them in discussion with the learner. Alternatively. These may be the same plants as those used to provide evidence for other grading criteria. observation records would be suitable evidence from guided activities. Tutors should identify the selected plants. learners could provide evidence taken from field notes and laboratory books. could again be useful. For P4. or project. such as soil scientists or agronomists. learners must explain the main processes of plant physiology. witness statements should be provided by a suitable representative and verified by the tutor. the size and complexity of the plants should be the same for each learner to ensure the fairness of assessment. Learners could include annotated diagrams showing the botanical features involved at each stage. These should be completed by the learners and the tutor and accompanied by appropriate worklogs or other relevant learner notes. As a minimum. Centres should endeavour to make this criterion as relevant as possible to the endorsed title the learners are studying. This criterion could be assessed directly by the tutor during practical activities. As a minimum. Evidence for this could take the form of a pictorial presentation with notes (possibly using appropriate software or OHPs). evidence could take the form of a pictorial presentation with notes (possibly using appropriate software or OHPs). If assessed during a placement. If this format is used. or a project. learners must provide evidence relating to photosynthesis. or agree them in discussion with the learner. an annotated poster. As a minimum. 290 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . leaflet. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. an annotated poster. learners must provide evidence for three different species of plant. learners must explain the life cycles of selected plants. learners must provide evidence for three distinctly different soils. movement and loss.

Learners must consider all of the important stages in the life cycle of plants. They could select an industry that relates to their primary learning goal. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 291 . For D2. They must include both major and minor nutrients in their evidence. For example. For D3. Evidence may be presented in the same form as for P3. Evidence for this criterion may be linked to that for others. Evidence may be in the same form as for P4. the effects that plants can have on soils. Learners’ evidence must be contextualised giving examples of manipulation undertaken in a selected industry. laboratory book or project. Learners could use examples of plants at various stages of growth and development that they have worked with during the delivery of this unit. all the pass. the irrigation of crops or ventilation. etc. learners must explain how plant development processes relate to their life cycles. learners must explain the relationships between plant nutrition and soil. for example. Learners must also explain the effects that nutrient deficiency and excess can have on plants. Evidence may be in the same form as for P1. learners must discuss how the function of internal and external structures of plants relates to their use in a selected industry. They must also explain the relationships between the physical characteristics of soil and plant growth. learners are required to discuss the manipulation of plant physiology to enhance plant performance in a selected industry. Evidence may be presented in the same form as for P3. This may be the same as that used to provide evidence for other grading criteria. Evidence may be presented in the same form as for M1. and may be linked to the assessment of P1 and P2. for root development and anchorage. eg P3 and P4. Tutors should identify the selected plants and the situations. For M4. Where possible. possibly citing examples that they have worked with or used as evidence for other grading criteria. For M2.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE This could take the form of a pictorial presentation with notes (possibly using appropriate software or OHPs). the size and complexity of the plants and the situations should be the same for each learner to ensure the fairness of assessment. These may be the same plants as those used to provide evidence for other grading criteria. organic matter. an annotated poster. by adding nutrients (legumes). merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. As a minimum. leaflet. for example. They must explain the influences that soil structure and chemical composition have on plant growth and development. learners must explain how water uptake can be affected in selected plant species in given situations. or the use of controlled environments for crop storage. Evidence may be presented in the same form as for P1. learners must provide evidence for three different species of plant. learners are required to discuss the relationships between plant nutrition and development. For a distinction grade. For D1. or agree them in discussion with the learners. They may link the evidence for this criterion with that for others. such as M3 and M4. For M3. learners may look at the manipulation of woodland canopies to create clearings.

There should be access to light microscopes to study cell structures. Learners should have access to current health and safety regulations and equipment. farmers and growers will enable access to a range of soil types and growing regimes. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked with: • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 2: Working in the Science Industry Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 23: Science for Environmental Technicians. transpiration. 292 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . for example. Links with. Evidence may be presented in the same form as for P3. learners are required to discuss the effects of the physical and chemical components of a selected soil on plant nutrition.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE For D4. photosynthesis. Therefore there should be access to adequate field and laboratory facilities for the investigation of plant structures. For example. Essential resources There are many opportunities for practical and experimental work in this unit. they could include the effects of soil pH on the availability of nutrients and the effects of soil compaction on root growth. Learners could contextualise their evidence to the industry that is their primary learning goal. other BTEC units. germination. soil textures and structures. Learners should be given access to computers for research and presentation of assignments. osmosis. A suitable range of plants and plant material should be available for learners to study. Links to National Occupational Standards.

Reiss M and Monger G — Biology: Principles and Processes (Nelson Thornes Ltd. Botha T and Stevenson D — Plant Anatomy: An Applied Approach (Blackwell Publishing. 2007) ISBN 1405126795 Davies B. Johnson G. Singer S and Losos J — Biology. 7th Edition (McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2002) ISBN 0852365594 Graham I — Soil (Earth’s Precious Resources Series) (Heinemann Library. 2004) ISBN 0431115540 Green N P O. 1993) ISBN 0080420036 Raven P. 2004) ISBN 0071111832 Ridge I — Plants (Oxford University Press. 1994) ISBN 0340600993 Cutler D. 2002) ISBN 0199255482 Roberts M. 1981) ISBN 0632006994 Hill-Cottingham P and Hill-Cottingham D — Plant Science (Biology Advanced Studies Series) (Blackie Schools. 1992) ISBN 0216930316 Lockhart J A R et al — Lockhart and Wiseman’s Introduction to Crop Husbandry. 20th Edition (Blackwell Science. Stout G W and Taylor D J — Biological Science 1 and 2. 2003) ISBN 0632058293 Stern K — Introductory Plant Biology. 3rd Edition (Cambridge University Press. 2004) ISBN 0174481764 Soffe R — The Agricultural Notebook. 9th Edition (McGraw-Hill Education. 7th Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Eagle D and Finney B — Soil (Resource Management Series) (Farming Press. 2002) ISBN 0071199004 Journals Arable Farming Crops Crop Science Landwards BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 293 .UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Barnes C and Poore N — Plant Science in Action (Hodder Arnold. 1997) ISBN 0521561787 Hay R K M — Chemistry for Agriculture and Ecology (Blackwell Science.

ac.ac.sebiology.uk www.hse.bbsrc.uk www.co. Food and Rural Affairs Health and Safety Executive Botanical Society of America Online Image Collection Lantra Rothamsted Research S-cool The Science and Plants for Schools Website The Society for Experimental Biology 294 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .rothamsted.s-cool.ac.uk www.defra.botany.ac.uk www.saps.org AgriFor Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Department for Environment.images.uk www.lantra.uk www.gov.gov.uk www.org www.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Websites www.uk www.cam.plantsci.co.agrifor.

BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 295 . and multiple search criteria in at least one case. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.1a Take part in a group discussion. tissues and organs of selected plants. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. using different sources.UNIT 24: PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • explaining the function of the major specialist cells. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the effects of the physical and chemical components of a selected soil on plant nutrition.1 Search for information.

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and essential circuit theory. and the functions of basic logic gates are described. The concept of analogue and digital electronics is introduced. learners will have the opportunity to learn about test equipment and how to use it. uses and schematic symbols of circuit components Be able to use test equipment to make measurements on circuits and test circuits Be able to design and build circuits using integrated circuits Be able to construct and test analogue and digital circuits safely. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know essential circuit theory and the properties. While building circuits. Initially the unit deals with the basic range of discrete electronic components available. explaining component identification and operating parameters. It will also develop their ability to select components and assemble them to produce electronic circuits incorporating standard integrated circuits.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit 25: NQF Level 3: Electronics for Science Technicians BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract This unit is designed to give learners an understanding of essential circuit theory. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 297 . Finally the unit deals with the practical skills involved in constructing electronic circuits. The function and operation of common analogue and digital integrated circuits are then covered.

frequency counters. NAND. period (ms. inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. zener diodes Transducers: eg thermistor. gain. logic probe Measurements: potential difference (voltage) (V. mA. electrolytic (polarity)) Diode: characteristic curve. Kirchoff’s laws applied to series and parallel circuits. uses and schematic symbols of circuit components Basic components: resistors (colour code. photo diode Bipolar transistor: identification of leads. OR. combinational logic circuits and truth tables Digital sequential systems: flip-flop (from NAND gates. 555 timer (astable. block diagrams. light emitting diode LED). monostable). light dependent resistor (LDR). checking connections. seven segment displays 298 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . voltage rating. transistor circuits (amplifier and switch. signal generator. MHz) Testing: set up test equipment. uA). maximum forward current. symbols. astable) Circuit theory: Ohm’s law. oscilloscope. decoders. capacitors (charge and energy storage. NOT. peak inverse voltage (PIV). kHz. feedback.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Unit content 1 Know essential circuit theory and the properties. small signal current gain (hFE). half-wave and full-wave rectification. potential dividers. s). importance of correct polarity. colour code. type eg ceramic. calculating component values Digital integrated circuits: logic gates eg AND. mV). current (amperes) (A. power rating). forward and reverse biasing. expected test values/signals 3 Be able to design and build circuits using integrated circuits Analogue circuits: operational amplifier eg use as a differential amplifier (comparator). biasing. use for device protection eg relays. frequency (Hz. binary counters. NOR. D-type). simple RC charge/discharge circuits and the time constant T=RC 2 Be able to use test equipment to make measurements on circuits and test circuits Test equipment: eg multimeter.

logical layout of components. good soldered joints.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS 4 Be able to construct and test analogue and digital circuits safely Construction: eg stripboard. avoiding excess solder. correct polarity of components Soldering techniques: anti-static handling techniques. overheating and dry joints BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 299 . printed circuit board (PCB) Layout design: translate circuit diagram into layout diagram.

the learner is able to: explain the advantages and disadvantages of using integrated circuits compared with discrete components compare the actual performance of the circuits designed to their expected performance D3 D4 justify the choice of components for the electronic circuit rectify faults in one analogue and one digital circuit. the learner is able to: M1 explain the operation of analogue and digital electronic circuits design. in addition to the pass criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. build and test one digital electronic circuit and one analogue electronic circuit explain the function and operation of test equipment identify faults in one analogue and one digital circuit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. 300 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the function of electronic components M2 P2 build and test analogue and digital electronic circuits from given circuit diagrams M3 M4 P3 carry out tests on electronic circuits using appropriate test equipment P4 assemble components to construct one analogue and one digital circuit that include integrated circuits. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.

eg a clock. and Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws. The time constant should be discussed at this stage. it is an integral part of all practical work and therefore should be used where appropriate throughout the course. After measuring the hFE of a transistor and calculating the values of the resistors needed to bias it. The multimeter should also be introduced at this stage. When exploring transistor switching circuits. Learners can then progress to the transistor.6V for a (silicon) transistor to switch on. and check their truth tables by building and testing the circuits on a suitable breadboard. Learners are not expected to explore semiconductor theory. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 301 . transistors. Integrated circuits should be introduced next. A large multistage circuit. They should build circuits using values that they have calculated and then test their designs. learners should be aware that the topical voltage between the base and emitter needs to be about 0. If they use an ac input signal to measure its gain. comparing actual performance with expected performance. Some transducers may be introduced for use with transistor switching circuits. Although the use of test equipment is identified as one learning outcome. This will lead to building circuits using D-type flip flop integrated circuits. Learners should be introduced to this unit by building and testing direct current (dc) series and parallel circuits using resistors and a breadboard while learning about Ohm’s law. After introducing block diagrams. operational amplifiers and the 555 timer. The increasingly important role of digital technology could be discussed before basic logic gates are introduced to learners. decoders and seven segment displays to build simple counting circuits.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit is best taught from a practical point of view. Learners may then progress to simple circuits using capacitors and do practical work to obtain charging/discharging graphs (learners are not required to use exponential functions to describe the curves). learners should build and test their transistor amplifier. other transducers may be introduced at a later stage. Learners should refer to manufacturers’ data sheets for information on diodes. They should be able to calculate the values of resistors needed for the simple biasing of a transistor amplifier. NAND gates may be used to build and test a SR flip flop. Learners should learn how to calculate component values for circuits that use an operational amplifier and the 555 timer. learners should be able to use D-type flip flops. Diodes and alternating current (ac) can then be introduced together with the oscilloscope and signal generator. who should be able to predict the output of combinational logic circuits using truth tables. they could acquire experience of using a signal generator and oscilloscope. could be produced if each learner contributes a different part to the overall system.

learners could include a brief description of how each circuit works in their practical books. The circuits used for this criterion could be taken from those used to achieve P3 or from the circuits that are designed by the learners for M2. Although it is sufficient to build a circuit that uses one 555 timer. For P4. is desirable. Supplied circuit diagrams could vary in complexity so that more able learners have the opportunity to build more complex circuits. For example. a context should be given for each circuit. After gaining experience in designing and building circuits. They could check that the voltage at the collector of a common emitter amplifier is half that of the supply voltage in the absence of an input signal. Learners must build and test a range of analogue and digital circuits to gain experience of using a wide range of components. the output of a 555 astable can be heard through a loudspeaker and seen on an oscilloscope. or use an oscilloscope to measure the frequency output of a 555 astable circuit. learners could produce a table in which they briefly describe the function of the electronic components listed in the content section. to safeguard both themselves and circuit components from harm. They could compare that with a bistable on a chip. showing the layout of components for some circuits. Measurements made must be recorded with the correct units. problems that arose and how these were solved. Learners should take precautions when soldering components on the board. learners should construct a circuit on stripboard or PCB and test it. For P2. 302 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . including the circuit diagram and details of tests carried out. using appropriate test equipment. A witness statement from the tutor should confirm that the learner successfully built and tested circuits in the practical books. For M1. Achievement of P2 may be evidenced through a practical book that contains details of work done.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS When building circuits learners should be encouraged to use test equipment. For P1. Soldering components is not required in order to achieve this criterion. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. learners must test some circuits that were built to achieve P2. Some circuit diagrams provided to learners could include deliberate faults that learners can track down using test equipment and rectify themselves. For P3. Their practical book must include brief details of the tests. For a merit grade. learners must construct one analogue and one digital electronic circuit that works on either a stripboard or a PCB. Some photographic evidence. more able learners could build circuits using two 555 timers to produce a range of different sound effects. Learners should be shown how to use test equipment to locate faults in their circuits. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Learners might compare estable circuits using transistors with an estable using a 555 timer chip and also consider building a transistor bistable circuit. Where possible. learners must build and test circuits from supplied circuit diagrams.

build and tested the circuit themselves. build and test one digital electronic circuit and one analogue electronic circuit. The tutor should produce a signed statement to the effect that the learner had designed. or they could give a practical demonstration of the function and operation of the equipment evidenced by a video recording or a witness statement from the tutor. type of capacitor. For D2. and whether it would do the job for which it had been designed. all the pass. Learners must correct the faults to achieve D4. power ratings of resistors. leaflet or orally. calculations of components used. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 303 . learners must justify the choice of components used for the electronic circuits they designed. For D1. details of how the circuit was tested. having used test equipment on several circuits. A photograph of the completed circuits is recommended. For a distinction grade. they could comment on whether the gain of an inverting amplifier circuit met expectations. For example. a description of how the circuit operates. learners must understand the difference. other BTEC units. learners must design. This may include why a particular integrated circuit or transistor was chosen. explain how test equipment functions and how it is operated to investigate circuits. For M3. For D3. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked to: • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 30: Medical Instrumentation. learners need to compare the actual performance of circuits that they designed with the expected performance. The tutors could set up the faults for the learners to identify. working voltages of capacitors. or whether a temperature operated switch activated or deactivated an output at the required temperatures. Learners should be given the opportunity to design circuits of their own choice. faults located and how these were corrected. benefits and drawbacks of an integrated circuit as opposed to a circuit built with discrete components. etc. This can be done through building the circuits and explaining the advantages and disadvantages of each in a report. For M4. Links to National Occupational Standards. For D4. Learners could produce an instruction leaflet for each piece of test equipment. learners must identify faults in circuits. learners must. This can be evidenced by a report that includes a schematic circuit diagram. Suggestions for improving the performance of the circuit should be included where appropriate. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS For M2. learners must rectify faults in one analogue and one digital circuit. This could be achieved as a piece of written work.

library facilities and the internet. 2003) ISBN 0750658452 Duncan T — Electronics for Today and Tomorrow (Hodder Murray. 2004) ISBN 0131140809 Websites www.tpub. 2003) ISBN 0750665505 Bishop O — Electronics: Circuits and Systems (Newnes. soldering facilities. test equipment (multimeter.science-campus. signal generator.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Essential resources Learners need access to bread boards.com/neets The Science Campus Electrical Engineering Training Series by Integrated Publishing 304 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .com www. 1997) ISBN 0719574137 Floyd T L — Electronic Devices: Conventional Flow Version (Prentice Hall. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Bird J — Electrical and Electronic Principles and Technology (Newnes. oscilloscope. circuit components. logic probe).

• analysing and evaluating the performance of circuits. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. calculating component values N3. N3.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.2 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 305 . Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. present your findings and justify your methods. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.1 in circuits they have designed carrying out calculations when designing and testing circuits N3.

each one giving different information about complex subjects. image with number.1 Search for information. C3. text with number. • C3.1a C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. built and tested. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • collecting information on electronic devices and circuits drawing a circuit diagram of one analogue and one digital circuit that include integrated circuits. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. One document must be at least 1000 words long. using different sources.3 Present combined information such as text with image. ICT3.1b Take part in a group discussion. • writing a report on circuits that they have designed.2 • 306 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .3 Write two different types of documents. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • explaining the function of electronic components giving a presentation on the choice of components for the electronic circuit they designed researching circuits on the internet They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

UNIT 25: ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE TECHNICIANS

Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • setting interim targets for unit assignment work researching ideas for gaining a better understanding of circuit configurations for designing a circuit reviewing interim deadlines and modifying the plan to respond to priorities and availability of resources. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. Take responsibility for your learning, using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.

LP3.2

LP3.3

Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • producing circuit design and component layouts for a simple circuit building the circuit design and component layout testing the circuit. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.

• •

PS3.2 PS3.3

Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning group laboratory work to examine the function of components and circuits carrying out group laboratory work to examine the function of components and circuits reviewing laboratory work, discussing actual outcomes against expected outcomes, and identifying improvements in experimental methods. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Plan work with others.

WO3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.

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UNIT 26: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Unit 26:
NQF Level 3:

Industrial Applications of Chemical Reactions
BTEC National

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
The chemical industry produces a vast range of chemicals, from bulk chemicals such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and ammonia to medicines and chemicals used in the electronics industry. Whatever the product, it is important to produce it in the most economic way. This can be achieved through an understanding of the factors that control a chemical reaction. These are the focus of study in this unit. Energy, usually in the form of heat, may need to be supplied to a chemical reaction, or the reaction itself may release energy. Such energy changes have economic and safety consequences, if not controlled. These energy changes and their implications are studied in the first part of this unit. It is important to consider how much product a reaction will produce — they seldom, if ever, give 100% of the desired substance. Learners will then study how far a chemical reaction goes and the factors that affect this. Not only do we need to consider how much of a product a reaction gives and what the energy costs are, but we need to know how quickly it can be produced — time is money. In the final part of this unit learners will study chemical kinetics — how quickly reactions occur and the factors affecting this. During this unit learners will apply the principles studied to examples of industrial processes.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the influence of enthalpy changes on industrial chemical reactions Understand the principles of chemical equilibrium as applied to industrial chemical reactions Be able to apply the principles of acid-base and redox equilibrium to industrial chemical reactions Understand rates of chemical reactions and the factors that influence them.

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Unit content

1

Understand the influence of enthalpy changes on industrial chemical reactions Enthalpy change: definition and units of enthalpy change; standard molar enthalpy change of reaction; enthalpy change of formation, combustion, atomisation and neutralisation; sign convention; exothermic and endothermic reactions Principle of conservation of energy: law of conservation of energy; Hess’s law Experimental investigation: eg measurement of standard molar enthalpy change for a reaction; calculation of standard molar enthalpy change for a reaction from supplied data Enthalpy changes in industrial processes: examples of enthalpy changes in industrial processes; implications for process design and operating conditions

2

Understand the principles of chemical equilibrium as applied to industrial chemical reactions Principles of chemical equilibrium: eg reversible processes; equilibrium law, Kc; effects of changes in concentration, pressure and temperature on equilibrium position (Le Chatelier’s principle); effects of changes in concentration, pressure and temperature on Kc; catalysts and equilibrium Experimental investigation of chemical equilibrium: determination of Kc for a reaction in aqueous solution Chemical equilibrium in industrial processes: examples of industrial processes involving chemical equilibria; use of pressure and temperature to drive equilibria; reasons for operation under non-equilibrium conditions

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3

Be able to apply the principles of acid-base and redox equilibrium to industrial chemical reactions Proton transfer in aqueous solution: pH scale and definition of pH; sources of H3O+ and OH- ions; Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases, conjugate acids and bases; dissociation of water, Kw and pKw; calculation of pH of strong acid and base solutions; acid/base strength, Ka, pKa; calculation of pH from Ka; acid-base indicators; pH titration curves; choice of indicator; buffer mixtures; calculation of pH of buffer mixtures Electron transfer processes: definitions of oxidation and reduction; equilibrium nature of electron transfer, oxidising and reducing agents; half-cell (electrode) reactions; standard electrode potentials, Eo; standard hydrogen electrode, standard conditions; electrochemical cells, cell reactions and calculation of cell emf; relative strengths of oxidising and reducing agents from Eo values; electrolysis Experimental investigations: eg measurement of pH; relationship of pH to concentration; pH titrations; determination of Ka and pKa of a weak acid; redox titrations; measurement of cell emf Industrial applications of proton and electron transfer: pH control in processes and products; extraction of metals from ores; chlor-alkali industry (electrolysis of brine); corrosion control

4

Understand rates of chemical reactions and the factors that influence them Rate of reaction: definition of reaction rate; effect of concentration and temperature on rate; rate equations; order of reaction; rate constants; units of rate constant; measurement of rate; method of initial rates and its use to determine reaction order and rate constant; activation energy; Arrhenius equation; definition of catalyst; influence of catalysts on rate; modes of action of catalysts Experimental investigations: measurement of rate and rate constant for a first order reaction; determination of order of reaction and rate equations from experimental data Reaction rate in industrial processes: continuous and batch processes; process design to maximise rate; examples of industrial catalysis

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Grading grid

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: M1 D1 calculate from given data standard molar enthalpy change for reactions, the pH of strong acid and base solutions, the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions of given pH and the emf of cells and explain the industrial applications calculate from given data the value of Kc for reactions, explain how its value varies with temperature and explain the industrial applications experimentally determine pH titration curves and devise how to use them to determine Ka for a weak acid and explain the industrial applications explain the use of equilibrium principles in the control or prevention of corrosion. D2 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to: predict the direction of redox reactions from given standard electrode potential values and assess, with examples, the limitations of their industrial use for such predictions evaluate the effects of the conditions chosen for two industrial processes

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

P1

state definitions for standard enthalpy change, equilibrium process, pH, standard electrode potential, rate of reaction, order of reaction and activation energy and relate these to industrial applications M2

P2

predict the effects of concentration, pressure, temperature and use of a catalyst on the position of equilibria and relate these to industrial applications M3

P3

identify acids and bases and their conjugate acids and bases and relate these to industrial applications M4

D3

explain the mode of action of buffer mixtures and explain their industrial use in a chosen group of products D4 evaluate the reasons for the use of nonequilibrium conditions in two industrial processes.

P4

measure the molar enthalpy change for a reaction, determine molar concentrations in acid-base and redox titrations, determine the order of a reaction and relate these to industrial applications.

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery This unit may be delivered using a wide variety of learning situations, including lectures, discussions, presentations, data interpretation and calculation exercises as well as laboratory practical work and research using the internet and/or other library resources. Throughout the delivery of this unit it is important that industrial applications are stressed, and these could be reinforced with visits to local chemical plants. Where this is not possible, video clips of important industrial processes could be used. The delivery should motivate and stimulate the learners. Learning outcome 1 may be delivered through formal lectures, discussions, laboratory practicals and calculations involving Hess’s law. The measurement of standard molar enthalpy change for a reaction could be for a displacement, neutralisation or combustion reaction. The industrial importance of temperature control, the economics of heat exchange and their influence on process and plant design should be covered in relation to specific examples, eg Haber process, or contact process. Learning outcomes 2 and 3 both relate to aspects of equilibrium. They may be delivered through formal lectures, discussions, presentations, laboratory practicals, data interpretation and calculation exercises. Learners should determine Kc for a reaction. Ester formation or hydrolysis could be used, and learners should experience redox titrations such as manganate(VII)/Fe2+, manganate(VII)/ethanedioate(oxalate), and iodine/thiosulphate. Several interactive programs illustrate the effects of changing conditions on the equilibrium position, and these would be useful to learners. Learners should be encouraged to research the industrial importance of chemical, acid-base and redox equilibria in specific industrial processes, such as the Haber process, contact process, oxidation of ammonia, use of buffers in biochemical processes, stabilisers in food and pharmaceutical products. Learning outcome 4 can be delivered mainly through laboratory practical work and data interpretation exercises. Learners should carry out a practical investigation of the kinetics of a first order reaction, eg bromine and methanoic acid under pseudo first order conditions. The influences of temperature and catalysts on reaction rates should be emphasised. Learners should explore the economics of the choice of conditions for an industrial process such as the Haber process, contact process, or nitric acid manufacture. At this stage learners should bring together aspects of each learning outcome to appreciate that compromise of choice of conditions between those giving high equilibrium yield and those giving rapid rate of formation is often necessary for maximum economic benefit.

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Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Where a criterion requires calculation of a quantity, the learners’ evidence must clearly show the steps of the calculation accurately and with correct use of units. For P1, learners must be able to state correctly a number of given key definitions used throughout the unit. This could be assessed through the use of a carefully constructed matching exercise with suitable distractors. Learners must get all answers correct. They must be able to relate these measurements and processes to industrial applications. For P2, learners must correctly predict the effects of pressure, concentration and temperature change, and the use of catalysts, on the position of chemical equilibria. This must be approached with reference to Le Chatelier’s principle, the equilibrium law and activation energies, and relate to how these are applied in industry. For P3, learners must identify acids, bases, and their conjugates in acid/base equilibria. Tutors can use a selection of acid/base equilibria equations, some of which should be unfamiliar to the learners, and ask the learners to identify the acid/base conjugate pairs. Learners must relate their knowledge to industrial applications. For P4, learners must correctly and safely carry out a number of stated key laboratory practicals. Practical reports and laboratory observations should be used as evidence for this criterion, with a section relating these procedures to those used in industry. For a merit grade, all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For M1, learners must demonstrate that they can calculate correctly a number of stated quantities from given data. The examples and data chosen should require more than trivial calculations. For instance, learners should be asked to calculate the pH of a 0.023 mol.dm-3 solution of a strong acid rather than a 1x10-2mol.dm-3 solution. For M2, learners must calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Kc, for a reaction from given data. The data given should require learners to calculate equilibrium concentrations of all the reactants from the stoichiometric equation for the reaction, the initial concentrations of reactants and the concentration of one substance at equilibrium. From given data on the enthalpy change of the reaction, learners must explain how the value of Kc varies with temperature change. This explanation must consider the energies involved in bond making and breaking processes in the reaction, how the increased availability of heat energy affects the equilibrium position and then how this affects Kc. For M3, learners need to carry out pH titrations for a strong acid/strong base, strong acid/weak base, weak acid/strong base, and weak acid/weak base. Learners then need to devise how to obtain the Ka value of the weak acid from these data. The evidence presented by learners should be in the form of a laboratory practical report.

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For M4, learners must explain how the principles of redox equilibrium are used to prevent or control corrosion. Learners must consider coatings, sacrificial anodes and the impressed current methods. Explanations should include the use of emf and Eo values for specific examples, where appropriate. For a distinction grade, all the pass, merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. For D1, learners must predict the direction of a redox reaction using given Eo values. Learners are required to do this for a number of unfamiliar examples. Learners are also required to explain why the redox reaction predicted using Eo values may not actually occur. This needs to be illustrated with specific examples. For D2, learners must evaluate the chosen conditions for industrial processes. The influences of the temperatures, pressures and concentrations used on the product yield in a variety of industrial processes must be considered and suggestions made on how, in theory, these yields might be improved. For D3, learners need to explain the mode of action of buffer mixtures and their use in a group of products. Here learners must explain how a buffer mixture can have small amounts of strong acid or base added to it and yet maintain an approximately constant pH. The capacity of a buffer mixture must be mentioned. Learners must research a group of products that incorporate a buffer, and explain the reasons for its incorporation. For D4, learners must evaluate the reasons for the use of non-equilibrium conditions in industrial processes. This should be approached in terms of the economics of the process and should consider rate of reaction, cost of plant, recycling of reactants, energy requirements and energy recovery. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The learning outcomes in this unit are linked with: • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques.

This unit develops some of the topics encountered in Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science and together with: • • Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry

provides a coherent study of chemistry at this level.

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Laboratory investigations used in this unit could be chosen to also fulfil learning outcomes for the industrial applications of: • • • • • Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications Unit 28: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry. Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques.

Laboratory investigations may be designed to provide evidence for:

The mathematical content relates to Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians. Essential resources Learners should have access to laboratory facilities equipped with pH meters, colorimeters and potentiometers. Learners will need library facilities, including internet access, and audio-visual facilities for viewing video clips. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Freemantle M H — Chemistry in Action (Thomson Learning, 1995) ISBN 1861527128 Fullick A and Fullick P — Chemistry: Evaluation Pack (Heinemann Advanced Science) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division, 2000) ISBN 043557096X Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context (Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 0174481918 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context: Laboratory Manual and Student Guide (Nelson Thornes, 2001) ISBN 0174483074 Lewis E and Berry M — AS and A Level Chemistry (Longman, 2000) ISBN 058233733X Lewis R and Evans W — Chemistry, 3rd Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) ISBN 0230000118 Ramsden E N — A-level Chemistry: AND Answers Key (Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 074875301X Journals Education in Chemistry Royal Society of Chemistry Magazine Allan P — Chemistry Review, eg: • • Vol 6(4), March 1997 — Energy issues in industrial chemistry Vol 6(5), May 1997 — Cost issues in industrial chemistry.

Video Industrial Chemistry for Schools and Colleges (The Royal Society of Chemistry)

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

chemdex.org BBC The Sheffield Chemdex Chemical Industries Association Physical Sciences Information Gateway Royal Society of Chemistry BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 317 .UNIT 26: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Other publications Controlling Chemical Reactions — A Case Study (The Chemical Industry Education Centre.co.uk www.uk/science www.bbc.psigate.uk www. University of York) Industrial Chemical Case Studies (The Royal Society of Chemistry) Websites www.cia. University of York) Cash and Chemicals (The Chemical Industry Education Centre.org.ac.org www.rsc.

• C3. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • considering the optimum conditions for a given industrial process describing a given industrial process researching a given industrial process They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. One document must be at least 1000 words long. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical investigation.2 • presenting a report of a laboratory investigation and presenting a report on an industrial process. • C3.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. 318 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .1a Take part in a group discussion. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. each one giving different information about complex subjects.UNIT 26: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.3 Write two different types of documents. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. C3.

3 Present combined information such as text with image. using different sources.UNIT 26: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching a given industrial process investigating a given industrial process reporting on a given industrial process.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 319 . ICT3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. Take responsibility for your learning. • • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical investigation carrying out a practical investigation reporting on a practical investigation.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • devising an experiment to determine Ka for a weak acid from pH titration curves performing an experiment to determine Ka for a weak acid from pH titration curves checking results obtained with given data. image with number. ICT3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. text with number.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. • LP3.2 • PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.2 • LP3.1 Search for information. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. • PS3. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.UNIT 26: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical investigation on molar enthalpy change for a reaction carrying out a practical investigation on molar enthalpy change for a reaction reporting on a practical investigation on molar enthalpy change for a reaction. 320 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • WO3.1 Plan work with others. • WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.

Any study of science would be incomplete if it failed to recognise the importance of the chemical sector to the economy and the variety of exciting career opportunities it provides. mechanical. Learners will recognise where these are being used and will begin to have an appreciation of the underlying chemistry. illustrating the physical and chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds Understand how the physical and chemical properties of substances influence their production and uses. and in building reactors. paints. fertiliser. construction. We are surrounded by materials made using inorganic substances. the learner will be applying inorganic chemistry. dyes. collate and process information. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 321 . aerospace.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Unit 27: NQF Level 3: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Society is increasingly reliant on the work of chemists. structural and environmental engineers must appreciate the properties of inorganic chemistry. buildings and cars. By working in certain industries. It is used in treating drinking water and effluent. It is also involved in power generation and transmission. The concepts are extended to allow learners to explain the uses of inorganic substances in a variety of important applications. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know how physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds are indicated by the position of the element in the periodic table Be able to demonstrate the physical and chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds Be able to identify. environmental. to name just a few. Process workers and chemical. Analysts use inorganic chemistry in the food. aircraft. One of the main purposes of this unit is to give learners the opportunity to learn how inorganic chemistry is used commercially. metals and chemical process industries. Inorganic chemistry contributes to the manufacture of soaps and detergents. water treatment. This unit allows learners to explore the physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds in relation to the periodic table.

heating metal carbonates. magnesium. precipitation reactions 2 Be able to demonstrate the physical and chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds Practical work on physical properties: comparison of the thermal and electrical conductivity of a range of metals Practical work on chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds: reactions of metals with oxygen. type of bonding in the element. calcium. displacement of a metal in aqueous solution by another. precipitation reactions. p. water. dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid eg potassium. electronegativity. variable oxidation states of transition metal ions. water and dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acid. precipitation 322 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . atomic radius. reaction of solution of transition metal ions eg Co3+. lithium. products and reactivity of common metals with oxygen. electron affinity. complexometric. with hydroxide and ammonia.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Unit content 1 Know how physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds are indicated by the position of the element in the periodic table Physical properties: electronic arrangement (s. measurement of pH of the solution of a range of oxides in aqueous solution. oxidation. melting point and boiling point Period: periods 1. reactions of period 2 chlorides with water. gold. trends Chemical properties of elements: products and reactivity of all period 2 and 3 elements with oxygen. ionic radius. reduction. displacement reactions between metals and solutions of metal salts. redox. 2. at least three types of titration eg acid/base. water solubility and basic character of group I and group II and first transition series metal oxides. first ionisation energy. lead. 3 and 4. copper. position of metals in the reactivity series in relation to position in the periodic table. formation of simple complexes eg with water molecules and ethylenediammine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as ligands. aluminium. tin. solubility of a range of oxides from as many groups as possible. iron. ease of decomposition of carbonates and nitrates of metals in relation to the reactivity series of metals. sodium. displacement of one halogen in aqueous solution by another Chemical reactions of compounds of elements: water solubility and acid/base character of period 2 and 3 oxides. d). silver. exploring the acidic/basic character of solutions of hydrogen chloride and ammonia. zinc.

chloride content of salted snacks. sodium chlorite in water treatment products. bonding in period chlorides. commercial application of titrimetry or other analytical techniques involving inorganic substances in an industrial context eg determination of free acid content of oils and fats. transition metal compounds in pottery glazes. gravimetry. nitric acid. in formulations such as titanium dioxide in sunscreens. aluminium from alumina. peroxide value of fats. hardness of water eg ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. construction of oil platforms. sulphuric acid. in electronics. in electroplating. EDTA in toiletries. extraction eg iron from iron ore. cooling nuclear reactors. power transmission. reactions of chlorides of period 3 elements with water. as catalysts. manufacture eg ammonia. chemical reactivities BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 323 . titanium from its ore. atomic absorption. reduction of metal oxides by hydrogen and carbon. illustrating the physical and chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds Physical and chemical behaviour: thermal and electrical conductivities of elements. decomposition of metal nitrates. displacement reactions of halogens. making reactor vessels. use of ion-selective electrodes Properties: physical. costs. abundance Uses: eg acidic effluent treatment. chlorite content of water treatment formulations. building. hydrogen and chlorine. solubility of ions in solution to predict outcome of a precipitation reaction 4 Understand how the physical and chemical properties of substances influence their production and uses Production of substances: purification eg alumina from bauxite. electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide. silica in glass. collate and process information.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 3 Be able to identify.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria. 324 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . P3 report on the physical and chemical properties of two inorganic substances M4 M3 P4 describe one industrial process and one commercial analytical procedure involving an inorganic substance. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: predict and justify the positions of two unidentified elements in the periodic table To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the physical and chemical properties of elements and period 2 chlorides and the state and acid/base character of three oxides in relation to the position of the element in the periodic table M2 P2 describe physical and chemical behaviour of metals and their compounds use knowledge of chemical behaviour of metals to design a safe and detailed reaction scheme for placing five unknown metals in order of decreasing reactivity D3 explain how the properties of their compounds influence their industrial manufacture D4 relate the use of an inorganic substance in an industrial process and commercial analytical procedure to the positions of its elements in the periodic table.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 investigate and explain trends in physical and chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds in relation to the position of the element in the periodic table present the results of investigations of the physical and chemical behaviour of metals and their compounds and draw conclusions from the information explain the properties of inorganic elements and their compounds explain why an inorganic substance is used in a particular industrial process and a commercial analytical procedure.

Learners should be able to interpret data on the chemical and physical properties of unidentified elements in terms of the position of the elements in the periodic table. but the tutor would need to check the safety aspects of their proposals. Learners should also be able to write a safe. Ideally. They should collate data on melting point. as should the thermal decomposition of a range of metal carbonates. ionic radius. Learners should carry out practical investigations of the acid/base character of a range of oxides. The reaction of the metals with water. contract analytical companies. They could be given the opportunity to try out their scheme and refine it. boiling point. Learners should be encouraged to describe trends. They should compare the reaction of approximately seven metals. learners should be given the opportunity to visit industrial sites that use inorganic chemistry. and electronegativity could also be studied. This is investigated. Processes and reactions described could be in relation to those experienced on visits. oxygen and solutions of metal ions should be studied be means of practical experiments. state of elements at room temperature. Learners should be given the opportunity to consolidate their understanding of the properties of metals and their compounds. electron affinity. Other properties such as atomic radius. possible to meet the related criteria through use of textbooks and websites. dilute acid. bonding in elements and first ionisation energy of elements. These could be manufacturing sites. and be able to justify the reactivity series in terms of the information collected. Learners should investigate and study data on electrical and thermal conductivity of metals. Learners should be encouraged to present the material they have found in an interesting way. however.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Learners will look at examples of reactions. using posters or PowerPoint presentation. Learners should also collect information on the state of the period 2 chlorides and the reaction of these chlorides with water. and to explain the trends in properties in terms of the position of elements in the periodic table. and hence their electronic arrangement. Textbooks and internet sources should be used to research the decomposition of metal nitrates and the reduction of metal oxides by hydrogen and carbon. oxidation and reduction. unidentified metals. practical scheme for determining the reactivity series for five. Learners should be able to write simple oxidation and reduction equations. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 325 . or sites that use inorganic chemicals in routine analysis connected with a process. They should be able to provide a reactivity series for the metals studied. Learners should use books and internet sources to collect information. eg acid base. It is. precipitation. Some industrial processes that make use of inorganic reactions are explored. The chemical behaviour of inorganic substances determines how they are extracted and purified.

Graphs or charts could be inserted as appropriate. boiling point and state and reaction of the chlorides with water should be investigated and described. Physical properties of elements to be investigated must include first ionisation energy.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Learners should be encouraged to describe industrial manufacturing and purification processes in various ways. melting point. For example. choice of transition metal catalysts depends on the ability to catalyse the reaction and on the ease of desorption of the products from the surface to the catalyst — this depends on its position in the periodic table. The investigation must involve some practical work. including by using flow diagrams. Information on the state and the acid/base character of the period 2 oxides. Many analytical procedures used industrially involve titration. For the period 2 chlorides. as posters or PowerPoint presentations. For P1. period 3 oxides. 326 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . The learners should describe an industrial analytical procedure. and explain the choice of the substance. group II oxides and first transition series oxides should be collected. Learners should study industrial process where the inorganic substance is not the product of the reaction but a reagent or catalyst. it could be a manufacturing process where a metal is chosen and processed for a particular purpose. Other analytical techniques could be covered (eg use of atomic absorption spectroscopy or visible spectroscopy to find the concentration of chromium or nickel in a plating solution). eg electrolysis of brine or formation of calcium sulphate from the reaction of calcium oxide with sulphuric acid. learners must investigate physical and chemical properties of elements. Learners should be given the chance to use at least one of these in the laboratory (eg use of titration with sodium hydroxide to find free fatty acid content in new and used cooking oils. Learners must identify trends in each property in relation to the position of the elements in the periodic table. in relation to the solubility and acid/base character of oxides. boiling and melting point and hence state of the element at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. or use of silver nitrate titration to find the concentration of chloride in butter). Small-scale simulations can be used in the laboratory to illustrate the industrial processes. They should also comment on the reasons for the choice of substance in relation to the position of the elements involved in the periodic table. Presentation could be in the form of tables with supporting text. It must involve collation of information from textbooks and internet sources. period 2 chlorides and a range of oxides. Alternatively. They should justify the choice of the inorganic substance in the industrial process and in the industrial analytical technique. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. albeit with an autotitrator. group I oxides.

For M2. use of aluminium oxide as an abrasive in toothpastes. For M1. For P3. all the pass. They must state the reason for carrying out the process. For M3. the metal from the list which reacts most readily with water is. reduction and redox equations for the reactions of metals with acid and with metal ion solutions. They must also describe a commercial method of analysis which involves the use of an inorganic substance. websites and CD ROMs. use of sodium hydroxide in the manufacture of soaps. ideally from their own investigations. websites. For a merit grade. They should also write at least three oxidation. oxygen and acid. For M4. CD ROMs or an industrial visit. For each assignment. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. on the properties of inorganic elements and their compounds. learners should provide evidence of consultation of books. it is not advisable to investigate the decomposition of nitrates practically. The investigations must involve practical work in relation to measurement of electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of metals and the reactions of metals with water. use of nickel as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. They must draw at least one conclusion from each set of data presented. This can be combined with P3 and presented in the same report.. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. use of redox titration or of atomic absorption or ICP analysis of chromium in a plating bath to see whether there is still enough chromium for the bath to perform satisfactorily. learners must describe one industrial process which involves the use of an inorganic substance. Learners should state the reactivity series for the metals studied. Further investigation should involve analysis of information from textbooks. eg use of titration with sodium hydroxide in determining the free fatty acid content of oils and fats (in nuts or in manufacture of spreads or soaps). oxygen and solutions of metal ions. eg the metal from the list with the highest conductivity is. For a distinction grade. For safety reasons.. learners must investigate and explain the trends identified in the properties investigated for P1. learners must explain the behaviour of inorganic elements and their compounds. Generalisations must also be made regarding reactivity of metals and their position in the periodic table. acid. learners must investigate the electrical and thermal conductivities and melting points of a range of common metals. For P4. eg the use of copper in the manufacture of electrical cables. and the reactions of common metals with water. use of calcium oxide or calcium carbonate in fuel gas desulphurisation.. use of transition metal compounds as pigments in paints. logically and neatly.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS For P2. electronic arrangement. They must study displacement reactions and thermal decomposition reactions of carbonates and nitrates. learners must organise and present each set of information collated for P2. use of aluminium oxide in cracking of hydrocarbons. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 327 . of elements and their compounds in terms of position in the periodic table and hence.. learners must produce a report.. learners must explain why an inorganic substance is suitable for the particular purpose of an industrial process and a commercial analytical procedure.

learners can describe the extraction of a metal from its ore. Learners should show evidence of having consulted textbooks. has stable compounds. websites or CD ROMs. This unit builds on concepts covered in the Key Stage 4 mandatory criteria. Tutors should check that there is suitable information that can be found easily. other BTEC units. eg chlorine. in an industrial process and a commercial analytic procedure. eg manufacture of hydrogen fluoride or hydrogen bromide may be compared with manufacture of hydrogen chloride because fluoride. extraction of cobalt from its or may be compared with extraction of iron from its ore because the elements are adjacent in the first transition series. The learner should justify why that element or compound can be compared with the element or compound selected for P3 and M3. For D4. and justify their predictions. Learners must predict the likely positions of the elements in the periodic table. being a reactive element. For D2. The unit has strong links with the content of the 2006 GCSE Science core and BTEC First units: • • Unit 1: Scientific Principles Unit 3: Chemistry Applications. learners must provide a reaction scheme or flowchart for placing five metals in order of decreasing reactivity. To allow learners to meet this criterion. For instance. hydrochloric acid or ammonia. tutors must be careful in selecting the tasks for P3 and M3. to its position in the periodic table. The elements in question should not belong to the list investigated. sulphuric acid. 328 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Effectively no further guidance should be given apart from guidance on the nature of the most reactive metal because that will inform the recommended safety precautions. or the manufacture of a substance. Links to National Occupational Standards. bromine and chlorine are all in group VII of the periodic table. There should be some justification of aspects of the process.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS For D1. the need to extract aluminium from its ore using large amounts of electrical energy because aluminium. learners might need to explain the dependence of the purification of alumina on its amphoteric nature. the purification of a mineral (eg aluminium oxide) from its ore. nitric acid. the extraction of chlorine from salt because of the large quantities of salt available. sodium hydroxide. For D3. learners must relate the use of an inorganic element or its compound. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The practical work and delivery of some of the topics in this unit could be integrated with the delivery of units such as: • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques. Safety must be built into the scheme. The learner should find information on the manufacture of the other substance and then explain any differences or similarities in the processes. learners should be presented with data on the physical and chemical properties of at least two elements and their chlorides and oxides.

UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Content in the unit is related to units in Advanced GCE in Chemistry syllabi. Library access to a range of general chemistry books at Level 3 standard is expected.uk www. Quantitative Equilibria and Functional Group Chemistry (Nelson Advanced Science: Chemistry) (Nelson Thornes.chemguide. 1995) ISBN 0719553598 Ramsden E N — A-level Chemistry: AND Answers Key (Nelson Thornes. University of York. Quantitative Kinetics and Applied Organic Chemistry (Nelson Advanced Science: Chemistry) (Nelson Thornes. Beavon R and Jarvis A — Structure Bonding and Main Group Chemistry (Nelson Advanced Science: Chemistry) (Nelson Thornes. 2001) ISBN 0174483074 Hubbard E (editor) — Essential Chemical Industry (Chemical Industry Education Centre.org/viselements www.webelements. 2004) ISBN 074875301X Websites www. 2003) ISBN 0748776575 Chapman B — Transition Metals.chemsoc. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Beavon R and Jarvis A — Periodicity. 2004) ISBN 0748776559 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context (Nelson Thornes. Essential resources All learners will need access to appropriate laboratory facilities and library and information technology resources.co. 4. eg Units 1. 5 and 6 of Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry.htm www. 2004) ISBN 0174481918 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context: Laboratory Manual and Student Guide (Nelson Thornes.uyseg. 2001) ISBN 0174482922 Chapman B. 2000) ISBN 085404924X Maple J — Advanced Chemistry: An Enquiry-based Approach (John Murray. 3.com chemguide Royal Society of Chemistry’s chemical science network University of York and Chemical Industries Association WebElements BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 329 .org/ciec_home. 1995) ISBN 1853425567 Lister T — Industrial Chemistry Case Studies: Industrial Processes in the 1990s (Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999) ISBN 0854049258 Lister T and Osborne C — Sodium Carbonate: A Versatile Material (Royal Society of Chemistry.

3 Interpret the results of your calculations. present your findings and justify your methods.1 N3. median. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. N3.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. mode. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning a titrimetric procedure calculating masses and volumes required to make solutions determining required dilutions comparing the quality of their own experimental data with data obtained by other learners. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. standard deviation and range using formulae such as the formula for standard deviation constructing flowcharts for planning exercise constructing histograms of results based on appropriate class intervals constructing graphs related to rate of reaction generating conclusions from experimental results.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. by calculating statistical quantities such as mean. • • • • • • • 330 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. chlorides and metals presenting research on extraction of substances presenting research on industrial uses of substances carrying out research on oxides. One document must be at least 1000 words long. C3. oxides and chlorides. chlorides.1a C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. metals. metals. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.3 Write two different types of documents. extraction of substances or uses of substances. C3.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • • • • discussing quality of experimental results presenting research on oxides. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 331 .1b Take part in a group discussion. extraction of substances or uses of substances writing about titrations. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.

using different sources.3 332 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • LP3. ICT3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.1 Search for information.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. industrial uses of substances and titrimetric procedures entering information from books or internet sources performing calculations on experimental data performing statistical analysis of results from titrations constructing databases on the properties of inorganic substances writing queries for databases on inorganic substances preparing PowerPoint presentations writing reports preparing reports from databases. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. text with number. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.2 • LP3.3 Present combined information such as text with image. image with number. • • • • • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning how assignment tasks will be achieved demonstrating responsibility in executing a work schedule reflecting on their performance and areas for improvement. • • • ICT3. extraction of substances. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. Take responsibility for your learning.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching books or the internet for information on properties of inorganic substances.

3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • collaborating with class members in collecting information for assignment tasks determining group and individual responsibilities discussing progress at intervals reflecting on what has been achieved. • • • WO3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 333 .1 Plan work with others. • PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.UNIT 27: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • determining the sort of information needed to satisfy the requirements of an assignment task carrying out the identified stages of one way of tackling the assignment task getting feedback from peer review and tutors reflecting on how the assignment task was tackled. problems experienced and strategies for avoiding such problems in the future.2 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. • • PS3. WO3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.

334 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

or contain. The number of known organic compounds is enormous and growing. This latter aspect allows the synthesis of organic compounds with particular structures. shape. fitting them for specific commercial uses. can form molecules consisting of chains and rings of atoms that enable it to bond with itself and other elements. nomenclature and reaction types of organic compounds Understand the reactions and industrial applications of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and how these relate to bonding and structure Understand the reactions and industrial applications of halogenoalkanes. dyes. This study will include their properties. In this unit. organic compounds. soaps and detergents. reactions and how they can be converted into one another. fuels for our transport vehicles. perfumes and liquid crystal display materials are just a few of the many organic substances that are manufactured on an industrial scale for us all to use. The classes of organic compounds. amines and alcohols and how these relate to bonding and structure Understand the reactions and industrial applications of carbonyl compounds and how these relate to bonding and structure. synthetic fibres for our clothes such as nylon and polyesters. Learners will study these and their industrially useful reactions. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know the bonding.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Unit 28: NQF Level 3: Industrial Applications of Organic Chemistry BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The majority of the substances we use every day are. their naming and their ability to form different arrangements of the same atoms (isomerism) are studied in the first part of this unit. Pharmaceuticals such as aspirin and paracetamol. learners will develop knowledge of the key classes of organic compounds that are industrially important and their chemistry which makes them useful to us. Learners will then look at five commercially important groups of organic compounds. flavourings. The simplest of all organic compounds are the hydrocarbons. This is because carbon. the basis of organic compounds. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 335 .

commercial uses Alcohols: oxidation of primary. geometric e-z (cis-/trans-). amines. e-z (cis/trans-) nomenclature of geometric isomers. aldehydes. commercial uses 3 Understand the reactions and industrial applications of halogenoalkanes. displayed and skeletal formulae. (+). electrophilic addition (H2O. reduction 2 Understand the reactions and industrial applications of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and how these relate to bonding and structure Alkanes: crude oil as the source of hydrocarbons. polymerisation. eg sigma and pibonding in alkanes and alkenes and their relative strengths. NH3. carboxylic acids. (-) nomenclature of optical isomers Isomerism: structural isomers.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Unit content 1 Know the bonding. secondary and tertiary alcohols. halogenoalkanes. dehydration to give alkenes and ethers. alcohols. addition-elimination (condensation) oxidation. enantiomers. substitution versus elimination. 3D representations using wedge/dashed line diagrams. alkenes (unsaturated). commercial uses Alkenes: electrophiles. racemic mixtures. HBr. substituted benzenes. mechanism of radical substitution. Br2) to symmetrical alkenes. importance of molecular shape in commercial products Reaction types: substitution. formation of salts. optical isomers. optical rotation. elimination. mechanism of nucleophilic substitution limited to simple SN2 mechanism. nomenclature and reaction types of organic compounds Structure representations and bonding: linear. addition. structural. delocalised pibonding in benzene. nucleophilic substitution (OH—. amines and alcohols and how these relate to bonding and structure Halogenoalkanes: nucleophiles. primary. commercial uses Aromatic compounds: electrophilic substitution (nitration only) of benzene. stabilities of intermediate carbocations. amines as nucleophiles. direction of addition to asymmetric alkenes. radical substitution (chlorination) of methane. esters and amides. isomers of alkenes. commercial uses 336 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . primary amines) of halogenoalkanes. elimination reactions. combustion of alkanes. shape. ketones. amines as bases. commercial uses Amines: aromatic amines from reduction of nitro compounds. secondary and tertiary groups Nomenclature: systematic naming of structural isomers of alkanes (saturated). acid chlorides.

formation of proteins. LiAlH4).4dinitrophenylhydrazine) in aldehydes and ketones. reduction of carboxylic acids and esters. reduction of aldehydes and ketones (NaBH4. disaccharides (sucrose) and polysaccharides (starches and cellulose). amides. open chain and ring forms of sugars. reducing and non-reducing sugars. commercial uses Carboxylic acids and derivatives: structures of carboxylic acids. commercial uses BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 337 . formation of amides from carboxylic acids and acid chlorides. oxidation of aldehydes. structure of amino acids.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 4 Understand the reactions and industrial applications of carbonyl compounds and how these relate to bonding and structure Aldehydes and ketones: nucleophilic addition (HCN) and addition-elimination (2. esterification of carboxylic acids and acid chlorides. commercial uses Sugars: aldehyde and ketone sugars (glucose and fructose). acid chlorides and esters.

the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. evaluate the influence of molecular shape on the commercial uses of selected organic compounds. P3 write balanced chemical equations and give reaction conditions for the selected industrial organic reactions listed in the content M4 P4 describe the commercial uses and reactions of the classes of organic compounds listed in the content. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. 338 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the learner is able to: evaluate the commercial importance of being able to change the reaction conditions To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 name and draw appropriate representations to correctly show the shape of organic compounds. identifying the type of isomerism and possible involvement in types of reaction as listed in the content M2 explain the influence of bonding on the conditions and type of selected organic reactions predict the products of selected industrial organic reactions D2 P2 describe the bonding in simple compounds in terms of sigma and pi bonding M3 evaluate the influence of structure and bonding on the course of selected organic reactions D3 write and justify the reaction mechanisms for selected industrial organic reactions from given evidence D4 evaluate the need to separate isomers of organic compounds before their use. the learner is able to: M1 explain how reactions and conditions may influence the molecular structure and shape of the products D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that.

industrial applications and importance should be stressed. Throughout the delivery of the unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 339 . initiating the reaction with a bright light. the production of ethanol and ethanoic acid via the hydration of ethane. but the nitration of methylbenzene or methyl benzoate can be used to illustrate the reaction. Learning outcome 1 provides the essential foundations for the study of industrial organic chemical reactions. the effect of shape on flavour and fragrance (eg (+) and (-)-carvone and (+) and (-)-limonene). the environmental effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). phenylethene can be polymerised using benzoylperoxide as the initiator (a reaction used in some plastic wood fillers). The nitration of benzene must not be carried out in the laboratory for safety reasons. Where this is not possible. radical substitution of an alkane can be performed using bromine solution and a liquid alkane such as hexane.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit offers many opportunities to approach delivery of the content through individual and group practical work. This could include the ease of biodegradation of linear and branched chain alkylbenzene sulphonate detergents. The delivery should educate. Learning outcome 2 applies the principles of bonding and structure to the chemistry of the hydrocarbons. Learners should use models to help them understand structure and isomerism. and the production and uses of nitro-aromatic compounds as explosives. Many of the reactions of the hydrocarbons can be experienced by learners as test tube reactions. These could be reinforced with visits to local organic or pharmaceutical chemical plants. All learning outcomes should start with applications and lead to the chemistry through explanation of processes. thalidomide) and the importance of e-z (cis. They could use a simple molecular modelling package such as ACD ChemSketch. stimulate and motivate learners.and trans-) retinal in the process of vision. Learners could investigate the influence of molecular shape of alkanes on their octane rating in fuels. discussions. Electrophilic addition to alkenes can be performed using bromine solution and a liquid alkene. practical demonstrations and should be supported by lectures. Thus. the production of addition polymers. Learners should be encouraged to draw diagrams of structures and take digital photographs of models to record molecular shapes. video clips of organic industrial processes could be used. Learners could use the internet to search for information on how molecular shape affects the use of compounds. the effect of shape on physiological activity (eg (+) and (-)-adrenaline. eg hex-1-ene. presentations and research using the internet and/or library resources.

Instead. and cellulose acetate production. the oxidation of alcohols (with warm acidified potassium dichromate solution). Industrial applications of these functional group compounds could include aromatic amines as starting materials of dyes. nylon production. These should be used to show and identify structural. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. [O] and [H] can be used with the necessary stoichiometry for a balanced equation. For P3. learners must demonstrate the ability to write balanced equations for each of the reactions given in the unit content. halogenoalkanes. investigating reducing sugars. geometric and optical isomerism in compounds. learners must be able to describe sigma and pi-bonding in simple organic compounds. For P4. solid salt formation with concentrated hydrochloric acid). oxidation of aldehydes (Tollens’s and Fehling’s tests). The reactivity of acid chlorides and the preparation of nylon (nylon rope trick) could be demonstrated. This is best achieved through the drawing of clear diagrams of the sigma and pi molecular orbitals resulting from the overlapping of appropriate atomic orbitals. Test tube reactions can also be used to show the reaction of amines as bases (dissolution in dilute hydrochloric acid. learners must be able to name organic compounds using IUPAC systematic nomenclature. Learners can research the information using the internet and/or other library resources. For a merit grade. learners must describe the commercial uses and reactions of each of the given classes of organic compounds (hydrocarbons. prepare an azo dye and use it to dye cotton cloth. Laboratory preparations and processes should be compared with their industrial equivalents. Learners could prepare 1-bromobutane from butan-1-ol. soap manufacture. alcohols as starting material for esters and as solvents. They must also be able to draw linear. alcohols and carbonyl compounds). For P1. For P2. and make a sample of soap by alkaline hydrolysis of olive oil.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone formation of aldehydes and ketones. paracetamol. prepare aspirin and/or paracetamol. aspirin and novocaine synthesis.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Learning outcomes 3 and 4 cover the reactions and industrial applications of the major classes of functional group compounds. and quote typical reaction conditions for them. and the formation of esters. In redox reactions. Test tube reactions can be used to illustrate the relative ease of nucleophilic substitution of chloro-. and iodoalkanes (using dilute silver nitrate solution) leading to discussion of the SN2 mechanism. 2. The directional characteristics of these bonds should be shown. 340 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . amines. bromo-. structural and skeletal formulae for organic compounds. showing structures in three-dimensional representations where appropriate. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. learners are not expected to show the oxidising or reducing agent in the balanced equation. reduce benzophenone (diphenylmethanone) with sodium borohydride.

This may be a research task using the internet and/or other library resources. while the stability of the benzene ring will favour electrophilic substitution but will require more vigorous conditions and/or a catalyst. For M2. or elimination under harsher conditions. learners must evaluate the influence of molecular shape on the commercial uses of compounds. substitution versus elimination in halogenoalkanes. Evidence produced should include the influences of structural isomerism (linear and branched). merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners must evaluate the reaction conditions that produce different isomers for a given molecular formula. learners must explain how reactions and conditions might affect the structure and shape of the products. learners must explain how the bonding in an organic molecule affects the reaction conditions and reaction type. geometric and optical isomerism but these need not all be possible for one given molecular formula.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY For M1. molecules containing polarised sigma bonds will generally favour nucleophilic substitution under fairly mild conditions. For M3. dehydration of alcohols and nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds. electrophilic substitution of an arene. and optical isomerism. oxidation products of alcohols and aldehydes. Learners must demonstrate that they can write correct mechanisms for these reactions with unfamiliar substances. learners must evaluate the influence of structure and bonding on the course of reactions. This must include the direction of addition to asymmetric alkenes. For M4. electrophilic addition to an alkene. and whether substitution or elimination is favoured under given conditions in the reactions of halogenoalkanes and alcohols. Learners must be able to explain that where molecules contain only unpolarised sigma bonds. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 341 . reduction products of carbonyl compounds. why alkanes undergo radical reactions. Learners must evaluate the commercial importance of being able to produce different isomers. For D3. nucleophilic substitution of a halogenoalkane (SN2 mechanism only). Learners should be able to do this with familiar and unfamiliar substances. For D1. For a distinction grade. Examples chosen should include the possibility of structural. the reactions will require high energy conditions and will involve radical substitution. The object is for learners to demonstrate an understanding of the reactions rather than to reproduce examples they have already encountered. This should include prediction of major and minor products in additions to asymmetric alkenes. These must include radical substitution of alkanes. geometric. For D2. relative reactivities of halogenoalkanes towards nucleophilic substitution and relative reactivities of carboxylic acids and acid chlorides towards esterification. all the pass. dehydration of alcohols and nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds. each illustrated with appropriate specific examples. learners must be able to predict the products of reactions where both familiar and unfamiliar substances are involved. They should explain how molecules containing simple pi-bonds will undergo addition reactions under low energy conditions. learners must write and justify appropriate mechanisms for reactions given the reaction conditions. They must explain why alkenes undergo electrophilic addition whereas benzene undergoes electrophilic substitution.

and audio-visual facilities for viewing video clips. They will also need library facilities including internet access. Unit 13: Biochemical Techniques Unit 16: Chemistry for Biology Technicians Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY For D4. flavourings and pharmaceutical industries. 2001) ISBN 0174483074 Lewis E and Berry M — AS and A Level Chemistry (Longman. This unit may be useful to learners taking: Essential resources Learners should have access to laboratory facilities fitted with fume cupboards. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The learning outcomes associated with this unit are linked with: • • • • • • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 22: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit 27: Chemical Periodicity and its Applications. 2000) ISBN 043557096X Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context (Nelson Thornes. learners must consider how the isomers may be separated and the costs involved. Examples of these may be found in the perfumery. other BTEC units. 2000) ISBN 058233733X Journals Education in Chemistry Royal Society of Chemistry 342 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Fullick A and Fullick P — Chemistry: Evaluation Pack (Heinemann Advanced Science) (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division. 2004) ISBN 0174481918 Hill G and Holman J — Chemistry in Context: Laboratory Manual and Student Guide (Nelson Thornes. In doing this. This must be related to the need for a single isomer product or whether the presence of more than one isomer will significantly affect the performance of the product. learners must evaluate the need to separate isomers of organic compounds before they are used. Links to National Occupational Standards.

psigate.co.uk/science www.uk www.uk www.org BBC Chemical Industries Association Physical Sciences Information Gateway Royal Society of Chemistry BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 343 .bbc.rsc.org.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Magazines Chemistry World Royal Society of Chemistry Websites www.cia.ac.

Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • considering the effect of molecular shape on uses presenting the commercial uses of a given class of organic compounds researching the commercial uses of a given class of organic compounds They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical investigation. • producing a laboratory report on the preparation of an organic compound producing a report on the commercial uses of a given class of organic compounds.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. each one giving different information about complex subjects. C3. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. One document must be at least 1000 words long. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. • C3.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.2 • 344 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.3 Write two different types of documents.1a C3.1b Take part in a group discussion.

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. • LP3. text with number. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. ICT3. including images of molecular shapes. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. Take responsibility for your learning. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.1 Search for information.2 • PS3.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • constructing models of e-z isomers to visualise the difference in structure naming and drawing structures of an organic compound checking the structures of e-z isomers.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching the influence of molecular shape on uses using a molecular modelling package to obtain molecular shape reporting on the influence of molecular shape on uses. image with number.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.3 Present combined information such as text with image. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 345 . • • Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical investigation carrying out a practical investigation reporting on a practical investigation. • PS3.2 • LP3. ICT3. using different sources.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.

2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. and identifying areas of improvement.UNIT 28: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • planning a group practical investigation carrying out a group practical investigation and communicating progress to each other evaluating the effectiveness of their group work in conducting a practical investigation.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Plan work with others. 346 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . WO3. • WO3.

BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 347 .UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Unit 29: NQF Level 3: Physiological Investigations BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The human body is the most complex machine one will ever posses and lots of different things can go wrong. cytology. audiology and neurology. haematology. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know a range of physiological measurement tests and the normal results expected from healthy subjects Know the profile of abnormal results from physiological measurements and relate them to clinical conditions Be able to plan for and carry out two clinical investigations Be able to analyse the findings of clinical investigations. Learners will be able to relate the results of clinical investigations to specific conditions. and understand the impact on the patient’s life and what changes they may have to make. Learners will become familiar with how to carry out techniques. It is essential that technicians working in the area of physiological measurements have knowledge and understanding of the range of symptoms that need to be investigated and how they might relate to each other. Contact with patients will develop learners’ interpersonal skills as well as their specialist skills. The role of the physiological measurement technician is to carry out a range of techniques that can be used as part of the diagnostic process when the body is not functioning correctly. and understand what a normal result is and what is not. Learners will use physiological measurement testing equipment and work with patients. The range of techniques available is always increasing so this unit focuses on some of the most commonly used techniques. This unit will introduce learners to the more common physiological measurement techniques. Learners will carry out clinical investigations from a range of disciplines: cardiology. respiratory.

haemophilia Cardiology: coronary heart disease. pure tone audiometry. demyelination Respiratory physiology: airflow obstruction. echocardiography Neurophysiology: electroencephalogram (EEG). malignant and benign breast tumours Haematology: leukaemia. arrhythmias Neurophysiology: epilepsy. neuropathy. sleep studies 348 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . sickle cell anaemia. static lung volumes. nerve conduction velocity (NCV). myopathy. skin. restrictive defects. evoked potentials (EP). single-breath transfer factor.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Unit content 1 Know a range of physiological measurement tests and the normal results expected from healthy subjects Audiology: congenital or acquired hearing loss. pernicious anaemia. plasma proteins Cardiology: electrocardiogram (ECG). acoustic trauma Cytology: cervical cancer. ambulatory ECG and blood pressure. stress ECG. speech audiometry. congenital heart disease. platelets. white cell count. conductive hearing loss. hearing aid issue Cytology: histological study of a range of tissues eg cervical. electromyogram (EMG) Respiratory physiology: dynamic lung volumes. sensory hearing loss. tympanometry tuning fork tests. asthma. flow-volume curve. breast Haematology: red cell count. sleep disorders. obstructive sleep apnoea 2 Know the profile of abnormal results from physiological measurements and relate them to clinical conditions Audiology: otoscopic examination. malignant and benign skin conditions.

written patient details Interpersonal skills: put patient at ease. arrhythmias Neurophysiology: epilepsy. cardiology. haemophilia Cardiology: coronary heart disease. sickle cell anaemia. maintenance. restrictive defects. weight. verbal answering of patient questions. politeness. height. cardiology. timekeeping. pernicious anaemia. myopathy. respiratory physiology BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 349 .UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 3 Be able to plan for and carry out two clinical investigations Patient history: age. sleep disorders. neurophysiology. private. benign and malignant skin conditions. neurophysiology. asthma. congenital heart disease. malignant and benign breast tumours Haematology: leukaemia. acoustic trauma Cytology: cervical cancer. confidential Equipment: safety. gender. calibration Audiology: congenital or acquired hearing loss. haemotology. cytology. empathy Environment: appropriate. sensory hearing loss. conductive hearing loss. health history Communications: verbal questioning of patient. neuropathy. cytology. demyelination Respiratory physiology: airflow obstruction. respiratory physiology Abnormal results: do not fall within the normal range for the relevant tests eg audiology. obstructive sleep apnoea 4 Be able to analyse the findings of clinical investigations Normal results: fall within the normal range for the relevant tests eg audiology. disability. haemotology.

The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. M4 350 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the learner is able to: evaluate the reliability and accuracy of each physiological measurement technique described. in addition to the pass criteria.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. P2 identify abnormal results from three different physiological measurement techniques and list the clinical conditions causing the abnormal results M3 P3 plan and successfully carry out two clinical investigations P4 report and explain the findings of each of your investigations. the learner is able to: M1 explain each physiological measurement technique identified and the meaning of ‘normal variation’ D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 identify common physiological measurement techniques and state the normal test results from such measurements in three different disciplines M2 describe each common clinical condition identified and discuss the significance of each result to a patient’s condition assess the factors to be considered prior to carrying out the clinical investigations and explain the procedures carried out during the clinical investigations compare and discuss the significance of the findings of each investigation for those with normal results. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. including an explanation of the factors that produce variations in normal test results D2 evaluate each clinical condition indicated by the abnormal results in terms of its impact upon the patient D3 evaluate your plan and comment critically on the procedures involved in clinical investigations D4 evaluate your conclusions in terms of reliability in relation to any possible condition identified.

It would be helpful to learners if they have previously studied units covering practical techniques in science and scientific methods. and the importance of the interpersonal skills needed to put their patients’ minds at rest. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. A risk assessment must be carried out. Learners will plan the investigation. The correct supervision of learners is essential for the successful completion of the unit. starting with the initial history of the subject so that the correct investigation can be planned. carry it out and prepare a full written report. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. It is essential that learners are aware of such changes and whenever possible use the most up-to-date physiological testing techniques. Learners could also share their experiences through class discussions or presentations. Ideally. Learners will carry out and be assessed on a minimum of two clinical investigations. For further guidance refer to page 497. but even in many chemistry ones). It is important that learners understand the confidential nature of the clinical investigations being carried out. learners should have access to patients and hospital testing equipment.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. and the separate space for computers. giving learners the opportunity to develop the skills necessary for employment in this area. Learners should be encouraged to study a range of techniques and investigate new developments and research in the area of physiological measurement techniques. The techniques used to take physiological measurements are constantly being updated. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 351 . Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). The practical techniques involved in the unit will vary according to the opportunities available to learners. This assessment is based on real-life situations. Therefore. Learners should have the opportunity to use techniques a number of times. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. If this is not possible for all learners. The unit delivery would benefit from the practice of as many techniques as possible. Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. It may not be possible for learners to use all techniques or have access to all stated equipment. the list of possible techniques is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive.

For D1. ‘Procedures’ are the tests and manipulations that are carried out. The use of results that are not from the learner’s own investigations is not acceptable: they must use their own results. eg applying electrodes. etc. They must also be able to make critical judgments on the accuracy and reliability of such techniques. learners must show their understanding of how physiological measurement techniques work and how to interpret the data in terms of normal and abnormal results. ‘Tests’ refers to the investigative techniques. armed forces. P3 and P4. Therefore. learners must clearly demonstrate the link between results and clinical diagnosis of certain conditions. D3 and D4. the planning. it is essential that learners take into account all aspects of such investigations and not just the actual testing. For P1. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. 352 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . For M1. all the pass. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to: • • • • • Unit 1: Fundamentals of Science Unit 3: Scientific Investigation Unit 4: Scientific Practical Techniques Unit 11: Physiology of Human Body Systems Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Assessment Assessment is through real or simulated situations. For a distinction grade. For a merit grade. P2. M3 and M4. Essential resources This unit should ideally be delivered with access to physiological measurement equipment and to patients within the NHS. D2. other BTEC units. and learners must carry out two clinical investigations. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. Some analysis of the findings of the investigations is required at this level. private health care practices. M2. eg how the ECG captures and displays data. Links to National Occupational Standards. accurate recording and presentation of results and interpretation of results is just as important as being able to perform the test.

2001) ISBN 0683045482 Koss L G and Melamed M R — Koss’ Diagnostic Cytology and its Histopathologic Bases (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.com www.org. 1999) ISBN 0953689808 Hughes J M B and Pride N B — Lung Function Tests: Physiological Principles and Clinical Applications (W B Saunders.pdf American Heart Association Association for Respiratory Technology and Physiology British Medical Journal Health and Safety Executive guidance for employers and employees on blood-borne viruses in the workplace Human Anatomy Online www. 2005) ISBN 0781719283 Marriott H J L — Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Newall C and England P — Practical Handbook of Respiratory Function Testing (Association for Respiratory Technology and Physiology. 2003) ISBN 0781740622 Websites www.uk www.artp.hse.gov.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Binnie C D et al — Clinical Neurophysiology: Electromyography.com BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 353 .uk/pubns/indg342. 2000) ISBN 0683307460 West J B — Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.innerbody.bmj.americanheart.org www. 1995) ISBN 0750611839 Colman R W et al — Hemostasis and Thrombosis (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2005) ISBN 0781749964 Hill S L. Nerve Conduction and Evoked Potentials (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 1999) ISBN 0702023507 Katz J — Handbook of Clinical Audiology (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. present your findings and justify your methods.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning two clinical investigations carrying out calculations on normal and abnormal test results They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. 354 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • analysing and evaluating the results. N3.1 N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. and justifying the methods used. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.

Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching for relevant information on clinical investigations processing the information and developing new ideas presenting the information in a suitable format. • C3. ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. • C3.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • contributing to a discussion on a relevant clinical investigation or clinical condition making a presentation about the findings of one or both clinical investigations reading and synthesising information from two extended documents on clinical investigations writing two different documents about clinical conditions. image with number. using different sources.3 Write two different types of documents. ICT3. • • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 355 . One document must be at least 1000 words long.1 Search for information. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.3 Present combined information such as text with image. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.1a Take part in a group discussion.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.2 • C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. text with number.

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. • LP3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.1 Plan work with others.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.UNIT 29: PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning the clinical investigations including timescales. • PS3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • • planning clinical investigations identifying alternative methods of doing a clinical investigation evaluating the methods to ensure results are achieved. and having the plan checked with their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it as necessary reviewing and evaluating the plan to draw conclusions. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • working as a team to plan clinical investigations checking the plan constantly to ensure all objectives are being met evaluating the team work involved in the clinical investigations.2 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.1 PS3. Take responsibility for your learning.2 • LP3. WO3. and agreeing improvements. • 356 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. WO3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.

analogue to digital conversion. Finally. It then considers the signal conditioning and processing of the electrical signals produced by the transducers. Learners will then investigate the different types of display devices used in medical instrumentation. this unit covers calibration procedures including the calibration of test equipment and the use of digital technology to correct the deviation of real transducers from their ideal characteristics.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Unit 30: NQF Level 3: Medical Instrumentation BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract This unit will give learners a basic understanding of the principles and techniques applied in medical instrumentation. sensors and input circuits that are used in the measurement of physiological signals. The emphasis of this unit should be on the application of instrumentation in medical science using realistic examples from the work environment. This unit also covers electrical safety and the electrical isolation circuits that are used to protect the patient from any electrical hazards presented by the medical instrumentation system. considering advantages and disadvantages of different types. It initially deals with the different types of transducers. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 357 . eg amplification. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand that transducers and sensors are used to take physiological measurements Understand processing used in medical instrumentation Understand the operation of display and recording units used in medical instrumentation circuits Understand maintenance and calibration procedures for medical instrumentation circuits.

UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Unit content 1 Understand that transducers and sensors are used to take physiological measurements Types of transducers: transducers for measuring eg pressure. oxygen sensors Input circuits: measurement eg potential divider. isolating amplifiers 2 Understand processing used in medical instrumentation Conditioning/processing circuits: eg filter circuits. moving coil meters. quality assurance Recording: accurate. responsible personnel. bar graph. checklists Calibration: procedures. gas flow. pre-test. response characteristics 3 Understand the operation of display and recording units used in medical instrumentation circuits Displays: pen plotters. effects on muscle contraction. electrical conductivity. nervous system. fluid flow. electrical burns. analogue to digital conversion. sample and hold circuits. integrators and differentiators. voltage amplifier Electrical safety and isolation: levels of electric shock. digital recording systems eg computer hard disk. procedures. gas measurement eg oximeters/pulse oximeters. test equipment. flash memory 4 Understand maintenance and calibration procedures for medical instrumentation circuits Maintenance: location of measuring systems. national standards 358 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . errors. human error. detailed. patients tested. magnetic tape. different types of LED eg numerical. use of stored offsets. data recorded eg serial numbers of parts fitted. heart regulation. LCD. CRT Display systems: central station monitoring systems Recording: pen plotters. isolation circuits eg opto-isolators. op-amps as comparators. faults. temperature. Wheatstone bridge. dialysis machines Sensors: electrodes eg ECG monitors. bloodgas analysers. isolating transformers. used in eg ventilators.

the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. and explain the operation of the sensors explain the operation of processing circuits D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. including documentation of these procedures. the learner is able to: M1 explain how transducers are used in physiological measurements. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 359 . P4 describe maintenance and calibration procedures carried out on medical instrumentation systems. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. including invasive and non-invasive techniques compare the use of analogue and digital processing circuits To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the seven input transducers and sensors used in medical instrumentation. and identify in which physiological measurements they are used M2 P2 describe the purpose of processing circuits used in medical instrumentation and explain the risks from electric shock and the operation of isolation circuits M3 explain the operation of display units used in medical instrumentation and describe a central station monitoring system explain the principles and the need for calibration including that of the test equipment used. the learner is able to: evaluate the use of different transducers to take physiological measurements. maintenance procedures and periods and importance of documentation. P3 describe the types of display units used in medical instrumentation and state what is meant by central station monitoring systems M4 D3 compare and contrast the use of display and recording units on different medical devices and in different clinical environments D4 evaluate calibration procedures.

They should understand the need for calibration of test equipment and describe how equipment calibration is carried out. along with the effects of electric shock on the human body. measurement circuits. as stated in the unit content. For learning outcome 2. Learners must appreciate the need for clear maintenance procedures and checklists to minimise these risks. records of patients on whom the equipment is used. test equipment calibration records traceable to national standards. serial numbers of all test equipment used. learners need to understand the need for regular maintenance and appreciate the risk of faults being introduced during maintenance due to human error. Learners should understand the principle of calibration and be able to describe calibration procedures for transducers. The emphasis should be on the function of the signal conditioning circuits in context with the relevant medical equipment. serial numbers of any parts fitted. Therefore. laboratory practicals could be used to investigate most of the sensors and transducers covered in this section. meters and displays in medical instrumentation systems. Tutors must emphasise the increased risk of electric shock that patient connected equipment poses. service and calibration manuals which could be very useful in delivering the unit content. laboratory practicals can also be used to deliver some of the content of this section. display operation etc should be delivered in context with the medical device in which they are incorporated. eg blockages or leaks in flow measurement channels. The risk of electric shock from patient-connected equipment should be emphasised. For learning outcome 1. A range of devices should be covered. Learners should understand that measuring systems are often located in mechanical systems and that faults in these systems can produce errors in measurement. Practical work should be used to deliver content wherever possible. including the patient condition and treatment which may impair or disable the patient’s ability to respond to the danger. Learners should also understand the need for accurate and detailed records including: who carried out the test. It is also important to take into account the practicality of using particular sensors and their impact on the patient. The advantages of digital technology to correct imperfections in transducers’ characteristics must be emphasised. Manufacturers of electrical equipment produce a range of educational literature. Learning outcome 3 can be delivered using case studies to investigate different display systems and considering their merits and limitations for their particular applications.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Essential guidance for tutors Delivery All principles of transducer. 360 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . circuit.

For P2. a simple database could be developed by the learners using Microsoft Access. learners must demonstrate an understanding of the function of transducers and their input circuits. learners need to understand the function of signal conditioning and processing circuits in the context of a medical device. learners must explain calibration procedures for medical devices and test equipment. learners must describe a range of display units used on medical devices and explain what a central station monitoring system is. The first three learning outcomes are based on components of medical equipment and can be assessed by a single report on different types of medical equipment. learners must explain the operation of the transducers and sensors in terms of the underlying scientific principles. including analogue to digital conversion and the use of stored offset information to correct the input from transducers. Learners should be aware of the general principles of calibration. including the conversion of analogue signals to digital signals for input to a digital control system. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Educational material and manufacturers’ service manuals would be particularly useful to illustrate the section content with specific examples. precision and accuracy and be able to apply this to specific case studies of medical equipment. all the pass. They must also explain the operation of input and isolation circuits. learners must describe the operation of signal conditioning and processing circuits. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. For M2. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 361 . learners must describe the construction and explain the operation of display units including central monitoring systems. This evidence could be based on laboratory practicals and case studies of medical equipment. learners must know procedures of planned maintenance and records and describe calibration procedures. Learning outcome 4 could be assessed through a separate report focusing on maintenance and calibration procedures and medical equipment management systems. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. As part of the delivery of the equipment records section. For M1. For a merit grade. For a distinction grade. For M3. For P3. For M4. For P4.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Case studies are an effective way of dealing with learning outcome 4. For P1. Evidence for this section could also be generated with a combination of laboratory practicals and case studies of medical equipment.

Nokes L D M. learners must evaluate maintenance and calibration procedures in terms of risk of introducing human errors. For D2. etc with simulated electrical signals or signals derived from real physiological parameters (eg using a fixed value resistor to simulate the response of a thermistor or placing the actual thermistor in a known temperature. other BTEC units. For D4. for example. to facilitate tracing replacement components in the event of manufacturers recall. For D3. resolution. clarity. 2000) ISBN 0130104922 Jennings D. Turton B C H and Flint T — Introduction to Medical Electronics Applications (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. to identify any devices effected by the use of faulty test equipment. in infection control. when investigating accidents. learners must compare the use of analogue and digital representation of physiological signals.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION For D1. The learners must also compare traditional methods of recording physiological measurements with modern digital methods. learners must evaluate the use of transducers and sensors to measure physiological signals in terms of accuracy. comparison of calibrating amplifiers. eg warm water). 1995) ISBN 0340614579 Journal British Medical Journal 362 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . learners must evaluate the suitability of different display types for displaying the physiological measurements in terms of response time. risk/discomfort to patients. range. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Carr J J and Brown J M — Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology (Prentice Hall. learners should compare alternative methods of measuring physiological signals. Essential resources Learners need access to a medical library and the internet. Where relevant. resolution. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is closely related to: • • • • • Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians Unit 17: Electrical Circuits and their Industrial Applications Unit 20: Medical Physics Techniques Unit 21: Biomedical Science Techniques Unit 25: Electronics for Science Technicians. costs. The learner must also describe the importance of keeping accurate records. to trace calibration of transducers back to national standards. etc. Links to National Occupational Standards. costs. etc.

uk www.artp.innerbody.org www.com www.americanheart.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Websites www.com American Heart Association Association for Respiratory Technology and Physiology British Medical Journal Human Anatomy Online The Science Campus BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 363 .com www.org.bmj.science-campus.

recording data from the practical calculating electrical parameters’ analysis of response. calculating deviation from standard response They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • drawing conclusions on the accuracy of transducer-based measurements. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. 364 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning a practical to determine the characteristic of a transducer.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. compared with standard response. • N3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. present your findings and justify your methods.

UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Communication Level 3 When learners are: • contributing to a discussion about the role of technologists in patient care making a presentation about a medical device highlighting the instrumentation systems reading and synthesising information from two extended documents on the specifications of the same types of instrument producing a calibration manual for a medical device and a report on different types of transducers. ICT3.1a Take part in a group discussion. • • ICT3. • C3.3 Write two different types of documents. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 365 .2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. processing circuits and display units. • C3. using different sources. One document must be at least 1000 words long.2 • C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1 Search for information. text with number. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • carrying out internet research on medical devices describing generic calibration procedures from analysing specific procedures for medical devices producing a report on transducers’ signal. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.3 Present combined information such as text with image. image with number.

2 PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.3 Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • considering different ways of measuring physiological signals describing suitable medical instrumentation systems evaluating solutions and making comparisons with alternative methods. 366 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.1 Plan work with others.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. • WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. • WO3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.UNIT 30: MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • planning assignment work and setting interim deadlines for criteria analysing criteria to determine actions required reviewing progress and independently seeking advice.2 • LP3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.3 Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • planning practical work on obtaining transducer characteristics with others allocating individual tasks within the practical and checking each other’s progress evaluating practical activity and individual contributions to success. Take responsibility for your learning. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. • LP3. • • PS3.

and as a result will consider types of crime and criminals that rarely feature in the media. This unit will look at how these and other such crime prevention approaches have been based on criminological explanations. By looking at historical changes. Learners will look at the different criminologies that explain crime in different ways. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand competing criminological explanations of crime and how they are applied to the study of crime Know about the contested nature of crime and be able to explain how the two main statistical measures can provide very different crime figures Understand the arguments about crime control policies Understand why the aims of state punishment may change over time. The unit will also explore how changes in criminological theory have influenced the treatment of offenders by the courts. especially in urban areas. learners will be encouraged to ask whether the new policies to control crime are indeed new. Learners will explore how the data are collected and why the official Home Office statistics and the British Crime Survey data provide different pictures of the crime situation. CCTV cameras are all around us. Criminology is the study of crime. When crimes are committed many clues are left as to the identity of the person who has committed the crime. Much of the work involved in catching a suspect has its base in science. This unit will explore reasons why this is the case. and organisations involved in helping to solve crimes employ many scientists and science technicians.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Unit 31: NQF Level 3: Criminology BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Crime has a high profile in our society. and will come to understand how such changes are related to criminology. and there have been high profile political campaigns on ‘zero tolerance’ policing and the use of anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs). BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 367 . there are heated arguments about the statistical data. When the extent of crime is discussed in the media or in Parliament. This unit gives learners an introduction to criminology.

social construct Measurement: Home Office statistics (police discretion. influence of interactionism and labelling theories. neighbourhood watch. individual positivism. moral panics. CCTV.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Unit content 1 Understand competing criminological explanations of crime and how they are applied to the study of crime Criminological explanations: positivist criminology. reported and recorded crime). British Crime Survey (self-reported crime). role of the media 3 Understand the arguments about crime control policies Crime prevention measures aimed at the individual: zero tolerance. hidden crime. violation of moral codes. how policies link to criminological explanations 4 Understand why the aims of state punishment may change over time Review of penal policy: historical survey from 19th century deterrence to rehabilitation and back to deterrence Influence of criminological theory on penal policy: ‘prison works’ individual positivism rehabilitation of offenders 368 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . emergence of realist explanations. ASBOs Crime prevention measures aimed at the community: ‘Broken Windows’ theory. determinism and voluntarism 2 Know about the contested nature of crime and be able to explain how the two main statistical measures can provide very different crime figures Definitions: legal. genetic and psychological explanations.

in addition to the pass and merit criteria. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: explain how realist criminology achieved dominance and how this influenced explanation of criminal behaviour give reasons why crime definitions and the extent of crime are contested D3 analyse the differences between individual and social crime control policies D4 outline contemporary competing penal policies and evaluate the strengths of their theoretical explanations. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe competing criminological explanations of criminal behaviour M2 P2 describe the arguments about the nature and extent of crime M3 P3 describe a range of policies intended to control crime M4 P4 describe the main changes in penal policy from 1850. in addition to the pass criteria. the learner is able to: M1 explain how explanations of criminal behaviour come from different theoretical positions explain how different definitions of crime have influenced the nature and measurement of crime explain how different crime control policies are claimed to work explain how changes in penal policy are influenced by criminological explanations of crime.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Grading grid In order to pass this unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 369 .

These show very different measurements for the same categories of crime over the same time period. practical use of recorded crime data from Home Office websites. While the underpinning knowledge may be delivered by formal input. Quantitative material is available from government websites on both the official Home Office statistics and the British Crime Survey data. The subject of this unit is always in the news. The focus of learning outcome 3 moves from explanations of crime and its definition and measurement to initiatives by the state to control crime. not only to provide theoretical input but also to allow learners to collect and use both quantitative and qualitative data. In their daily lives. and that the legal definition is used by the agencies of the criminal justice system (CJS). learners will see evidence of crime control strategies such as CCTV cameras and media reports on the use of ASBOs. practical compilation of self-reported crime measurements using either simulated data or data from websites. Formal lectures. The role of the media is of interest in this learning outcome as the definition of crime as a social construct links to media moral panics. Learning outcome 4 provides an insight into historical developments in the treatment of offenders and should draw out linkages between criminological theory. They should provide the opportunity to demonstrate differences in the aims of crime control. 370 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and research using library resources. Many television programmes also highlight crime: either actual crime (eg Crimewatch) or fictional crime (eg The Bill). this learning outcome should enable learners to appreciate that criminology is not merely abstract theory but influences political developments and the aims and operation of the CJS. as learners need to appreciate that the concept of crime is contested. The three aspects of content are themselves linked to the theoretical positions set out in learning outcome 1. To cover learning outcome 1 the theoretical positions of positivism. In particular. Debates and presentations would be appropriate to investigate why this is the case. group discussions. realism and interactionism should be explained.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors delivering this unit have the opportunity to use a wide range of techniques. presentations. Therefore the delivery of this unit should not only educate learners (by making them aware of the fear and fascination of crime) but also motivate them and encourage a critical approach to the populist and common sense views of crime and ‘criminals’. newspapers and/or television would all be suitable. internet. Learning outcome 2 lends itself to a variety of approaches. The different levels of understanding in order to achieve grading criteria are set out in the Assessment guidance. site visits. policy and penal regimes. there are also opportunities for debates about the competing theories which set out to explain crime. input from community police officers.

For P1. For M1. poster. Learners could do this in written format and must clearly differentiate between the determinist and voluntarist views of criminal behaviour held by positivists and realists. There is a clear timeline of different approaches. realist theory and interactionist theory. as described for P1. essays. but a poster presentation supported by explanatory notes may also be suitable. For a merit grade. For M4. learners must present evidence of crime control strategies. learners must describe how the range of criminological theories in the unit content explain criminal behaviour. Posters or presentations supported by written notes would be appropriate for this unit. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. A poster or presentation supported by written notes would be appropriate. leaflet or presentation supported by written material. learners must describe the legal definition of crime and the social construct definition of crime. ideally in their local area. These options are not exclusive. For P3. essay. This can be in the form of a report. For P2. learners must move on from identifying crime control methods to distinguish between the methods aimed at the individual and those aimed at the social environment. all the pass. This should give coverage of measures aimed at both the individual (zero tolerance. presentation or leaflet format. learners must describe positivist theories in relation to genetic and psychological explanations. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. For a distinction grade. but other methods are not excluded. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 371 . learners must explain how the legal definition of crime and the social construct definition have influenced what is seen as crime and criminal behaviour. Here a report or essay format would be suitable but this is not intended to be exclusive. The evidence here could be in report.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Assessment The unit can be assessed by a variety of strategies including reports. They must also explain the key differences between quantitative data used in Home Office official statistics and qualitative data used in the British Crime Survey reports. For M3. or any combination of these methods. For M2. ASBOs) and the community (CCTV. although other methods could also be used. A variety of presentation methods could be used. They must use data from both Home Office official statistics on recorded crime and British Crime Survey data on self-reported crime. learners must describe changes in penal policy over the last century. learners must explain why penal policy has changed over the last century and consider why there have been radically different approaches in relation to the debates about determinism and voluntarism in criminal behaviour. Evidence is best presented in written format. Broken Windows). presentations and posters. Other methodologies could be used to meet local needs. For P4.

Learners should present this as a written report in order to achieve an appropriate level of detail.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY For D1. Essential resources The unit requires learners to have access to: a library or learning resource centre. and then explain the linkages between theory and policy. and link these differences to types of crime and criminal. going on to explain the influence of criminological theories on the changes in policy. 1997) ISBN 0684836351 Kelling L and Coles C M — Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities (Simon and Schuster Inc. Evidence is likely to be in written format to achieve the analysis and explanatory aspects of this criterion. books and journals on crime. For D2. 1998) ISBN 0684852667 372 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . learners must clearly demonstrate the differences between the legal and social construct definitions of crime. and a combination of written and visual (posters. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The unit links with: • • Unit 34: Criminal Psychology Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. graphs. newspapers including tabloids. For the measurement of crime there should be a clear appreciation of the link between quantitative and qualitative evidence and how this is influenced by definitions of crime. learners must link crime control strategies to their individual or social bases and their underpinning theoretical bases. charts) may be appropriate here. 2001) ISBN 0761969713 Wilson J Q and Herrnstein R J — Crime Human Nature: The Definitive Study of the Causes of Crime (Free Press. other BTEC units. For D4. learners must outline competing penal policies and indicate changes over the last century. A range of presentation methodologies could be used. and the internet (eg to government statistical data Home Office and British Crime Survey). Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Becker H S — Outsiders: Studies in Sociology of Deviance (Simon & Schuster Ltd. 1998) ISBN 0684837382 Matthews R and Young J — Rethinking Criminology: The Realist Debate (Sage Contemporary Criminology Series) (Sage Publications Ltd. learners must explain the emergence and success of realist criminology in relation to the political changes at the end of the 1970s. For D3. 1992) ISBN 0803986211 Muncie J and McLaughlin E (editors) — The Problem of Crime (Sage Publications Ltd. Links to National Occupational Standards. and give some critique of the previously dominant positivist criminological theory.

uk www.org.com/windows_theory. The 1998 British Crime Survey Websites www.org www.oxfordjournals.gov.criminology. 1998.crimestatistics.uk www.uk/rds/bcs1.edu/crimtheory www.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Journals British Journal of Criminology 1980 volume 20: pages 136-147 Clarke RVG — ‘Situational’ Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice British Society of Criminology Civil Liberties Review.civitas. Mirrlees-Black et al.html www.homeoffice. issue 21/98.brokenwindows.bjc. number 3 pages 23-35. ‘Giving criminals their just deserts’ Home Office Statistical Bulletin. Von Hirsch A. 1976.gov.homeoffice.html The British Journal of Criminology Broken Windows Theory The Institute for the Study of Civil Society Crime Statistics for England and Wales Criminological Theory (Florida State University) The Home Office The British Crime Survey BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 373 .uk www. London HMSO.org.fsu.

2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. text with number. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. • 374 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the different explanations for criminal behaviour presenting their findings from a study on how different definitions of crime have influenced the nature and measurement of crime reading criminology journals and newspapers about the extent of crime in society They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • producing a report on the changes in penalties for criminal behaviour since 1850.3 Present combined information such as text with image. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1a Take part in a group discussion. • C3. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.1 Search for information. each one giving different information about complex subjects. • C3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. C3.3 Write two different types of documents. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching the nature and extent of crime using the internet and electronic criminology journals presenting statistics on the extent of crime in society. One document must be at least 1000 words long. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. image with number. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. using different sources. ICT3.

• WO3.1 Plan work with others.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.UNIT 31: CRIMINOLOGY Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • gathering ideas for one side of a debate about how realist criminology gained dominance. • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 375 . WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. and how this influenced explanation of criminal behaviour working together to support an argument for one side of a debate identifying areas of weakness and working on strengthening their arguments. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.

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Different methods of presentation are explored — written. It is important to acquire the skills involved in gathering evidence.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Unit 32: NQF Level 3: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract A forensic scientist’s major aspect of work is to examine samples of evidence from a crime scene. photography and imaging. thereby enhancing understanding and skills. This unit gives learners the opportunity to practise these and to develop an understanding of the importance of being objective in their approach to the evidence. In this unit learners can explore the science that supports these techniques and how they are carried out. electronic devices. verbal and visual — and learners are given the opportunity to make their own presentations in an appropriate manner for a forensic scientist. fingerprint analysis. the forensic scientist must also be able to present the results of the examination of evidence. Learners have the opportunity to experience the use of some sophisticated equipment and techniques such as spectrophotometers. This unit is a practical approach to a very important aspect of forensic investigation. chromatography. including. As well as gaining the skills involved in using these scientific techniques. DNA testing and tissue typing. Learners will experience and develop their knowledge and skills firsthand by taking part in a simulated crime scene investigation. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to gather ‘forensic’ evidence from a simulated crime scene using appropriate methods and present the results Understand the chemical techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene Understand the physical techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene Understand the biological techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene. In this unit learners can practically explore much of the science that supports these techniques and learn how they are carried out. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 377 . microscopes. The investigation of crime scene samples frequently involves the use of biology and its applications. This unit provides an opportunity to learn more about some topical issues such as DNA analysis and its use in profiling.

thin layer (TLC). mass spectrometry. restriction of access. storing and distributing data by electronic means Evidence: targeting and recovery of trace materials. disposable protective clothing Preservation of scene and sampling: observation and recording of the scene. security. packaging and labelling. high quality record of exhibits eg taking devices apart Ballistics: interior and exterior ballistics. marks and impressions Health and safety: eg Health and Safety Act 1974. eg Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. discharge. storage and transmission to laboratory Analysis and evaluation: prevention of contamination. colorimetry Chromatography: separation of mixtures eg paper. recording. records. search for material of potential evidential value. cartridges. antidotes 3 Understand the physical techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene Audiometry: instrumental methods of recording sound information Photography: images of traffic. characterisation and comparison. cameras. gasliquid (GLC). surveillance. firearms. effects. ultraviolet. public order offences. infrared. eg COSHH Regulations 1996. support team at major incidents. high performance liquid (HPLC) Toxicology: science of poisons. full documentation of procedures and methods 2 Understand the chemical techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene Spectrometry: instrumental techniques.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Unit content 1 Be able to gather ‘forensic’ evidence from a simulated crime scene using appropriate methods and present the results Documentation: collecting. enhancement techniques to improve photography and video. calibre. alarms Metrology: study of weights and measures 378 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . residue Electronics: electronic imaging. detection. column. television monitors.

entomology. genetic fingerprints) Histology: study of tissues and tissue types.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 4 Understand the biological techniques used in the analysis of evidence from a crime scene Analysis: paper. blood group analysis Skeleton and anthropology: physiology of bone and skeleton Microscopy: measurement and comparative microscopy BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 379 . genetics (DNA sequencing. fingerprints (four basic patterns).

The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 describe fully the procedures used to gather evidence from a crime scene D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: justify the procedures used to gather evidence from a crime scene and show how a systematic application of procedures can minimise the risk of missing forensic evidence D2 evaluate the techniques used in the analysis of forensic evidence and identify the types of evidence or circumstances in which each might be appropriate D3 draw valid conclusions based upon the evidence from their forensic examination of a crime scene and present the results appropriately D4 evaluate how the information could be communicated more clearly. physical and biological forensic examination. physical and chemical evidence that they have gathered M4 explain and justify the techniques they have used in the analysis of the forensic evidence they have gathered defend the conclusions drawn in the report. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 carry out a forensic examination of a simulated crime scene and gather biological. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. physical and chemical evidence using appropriate methods M2 describe fully the main techniques used in the analysis of forensic evidence P2 outline the main techniques used for analysing biological.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. physical and chemical evidence M3 P3 plan and carry out practical work to analyse biological. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. 380 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . including aspects of probability. in addition to the pass criteria. P4 report the results and conclusions of a chemical.

Such differences include the clear demarcation of ‘clean’ and ‘contaminated’ areas (not only in biological and animal laboratories. This would give tutors an appreciation of the differences between industrial laboratories and centre-based laboratories to enable them to better deliver the unit. The hands-on crime scene investigation should allow learners to demonstrate chemical. biology and physical science in respect to its applications to forensic investigations. The emphasis should be on the scientific investigation of evidence and the techniques involved. If this is not possible for all learners. The assessment will follow this example. and could usefully be presented to the class by those learners. then tutors are strongly advised to take any opportunity to visit one themselves. desks etc that learners may not be aware of. Wherever possible the content should be reinforced with practical work and scientific analytical techniques used to develop the learners’ skills and understanding. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 381 . physical and biological forensic examination techniques. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. rather than merely evidence gathering. Learning outcome 3 should enable learners to understand the physical background and procedures used in forensic analysis. The theoretical aspects should always be delivered along with the practical applications. Recent advances in methods and applications can be investigated by learners during the course. Learning outcome 1 introduces learners to the processes of evidence gathering from a physical viewpoint. and develops the objective and rigorous skills needed for the presentation of evidence by report. The theoretical aspects should always be delivered along with the practical applications. The theoretical aspects should always be delivered along with the practical applications. It is important that the learners are given every opportunity to practise the gathering of evidence themselves in the context of chemical and physical science. This unit is intended to develop the learners’ understanding of chemistry. The practical aspects of this should be emphasised and focused on the practical topics developed in this unit. Learning outcome 4 enables learners to understand the biological background and procedures used in forensic analysis. and the separate space for computers.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery A visit to an industrial state-of-the-art laboratory is strongly recommended. This deals with the crime scene in its completeness rather than by artificially dividing up the type of evidence collected. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit. video or verbally. but even in many chemistry ones). Learning outcome 2 should introduce the basics of chemistry and enable learners to understand the chemical background and procedures used in forensic analysis.

There should be sufficient detail to cover all the main points of each type of method. They must show the main methods used in the analysis of evidence. For pass criteria any numerical values should have the correct units of measurement correctly quoted. This should be given as part of the presentation. learners must show a clear understanding of the techniques that may be used by an investigator in relation to gathering evidence for a scientific investigation or a crime scene. the assignment work produced by the learners should also meet this high standard. For M1. learners must show their understanding and clear justification for the choice of appropriate chemical. learners must plan the practical work required to analyse the biological. learners must accurately describe the major chemical. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Their results must be presented accurately. As crime scene evidence should be fully and clearly documented and presented. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. There should be evidence of successful use of molecular formulae and masses. For P1. Assessment It is essential that this unit is delivered in close relationship with practical chemical and physical science. learners must report the results and conclusions of a practical scientific investigation in the appropriate manner. 382 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . A risk assessment must be carried out. For P2. For P3. physical and biological techniques used in the analysis of evidence. M2 and M3. For a merit grade. learners must give a clear and logical justification for the conclusions drawn from the evidence collected during the forensic examination. which should be of high quality reflecting the objective nature of forensic or any scientific work. For P4. physical and biological procedures to collect evidence. Learners must show confidence with basic chemical calculations and simple analytical techniques.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Studying blood and other bodily substances is not a banned activity (unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity). chemical and physics evidence that they have gathered. and with the same level of objectivity and clarity as appropriate to the presentation of investigational results in a forensic or scientific situation. For M4. For further guidance refer to page 497. and when each would be used. moles and a basic acid/base titration. Learners may select their chosen method of presentation.

all the pass. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit reinforces learners’ awareness of evidence collection. Learners should have ample opportunity to practise and develop their skills in these areas.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS For a distinction grade. learners must produce an evaluation of the techniques used to carry out the investigation. learners must objectively justify the procedures used to collect evidence from a simulated crime scene. They must support their conclusions with evidence and reasoning. They must also consider probability in terms of possible. It is important to introduce learners to the rigorous nature of scientific investigations and the objective reporting of results. For D4. This unit is very closely linked to: • • • Unit 36: Forensic Fire Investigation Unit 37: Forensic Science Informatics Unit 38: Traffic Accident Investigation. and present the results in an appropriate format. analysis and evaluation as well as developing practical skills. probable. Essential resources This unit aims to develop learners’ skills in chemical and physical techniques in the context of practical science. It is therefore important that the learners have access to facilities to carry out practical scientific work for demonstration and practice. other BTEC units. They must also indicate what other types of evidence or situations would require use of these techniques. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 383 . merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. The presentation of the investigation in whatever form chosen must be of high quality. likely and how probability can be described quantitatively. For D1. They must consider clarity of explanations of results and conclusions. Links to National Occupational Standards. learners must evaluate their results. For D2. For D3. ensuring that they are not ambiguous. They must also show how the correct application of these procedures can minimise risk of overlooking evidence. learners must provide a conclusion from the analysis of results.

gov.biozone. 2004) ISBN 0854046569 Journals Biological Sciences Review Chemistry Review Chemistry World New Scientist Physics Review Websites Access to the internet will open up many items of interest related to this unit. 2005) ISBN 0335214908 White P C — Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials of Forensic Science (The Royal Society of Chemistry.gov.uk www.uk www. 2004) ISBN 190307035X Pepper I K — Crime Scene Investigation: Methods and Procedures (Open University Press.pdf biology resources for learners and tutors Royal Society of Chemistry the Forensic Science Service the Forensic Science Society Health and Safety Executive guidance for employers and employees on blood-borne viruses in the workplace Institute of Physics www.uk/pubns/indg342.iop.org www.hse.uk www.org. 1996) ISBN 0849381010 Moore P — The Forensics Handbook (Eye Books.forensic.co.UNIT 32: FORENSIC EVIDENCE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Forensic Science (Prentice Hall.forensic-science-society. www. 2005) ISBN 0131144006 Eckert W G — Introduction to Forensic Sciences (CRC Press Inc.chemsoc.org 384 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • contributing to a discussion about chemical or physical analysis of evidence making a presentation about the results and conclusions of an investigation involving the chemistry or physics of materials using a poster or slides reading and synthesising information from two extended documents to develop complex material for an assignment writing two different documents about chemical or physical techniques used in analysing evidence. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion.

C3.1b

Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.

C3.2

Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.

C3.3

Write two different types of documents, each one giving different information about complex subjects. One document must be at least 1000 words long.

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Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching for and selecting information for a presentation or document on chemical or physical techniques using and extending the information gathered in the investigation to derive new information making a presentation or document for the reporting of results and conclusions of an investigation using a poster, slides or text and image. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Search for information, using different sources, and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

ICT3.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.

ICT3.3 Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing a plan and targets for an investigation with consultation and agreement from their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with conclusions reached. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. Take responsibility for your learning, using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.

LP3.2

LP3.3

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Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • formulating a plan with several options for tackling the investigation identifying and evaluating alternative methods of approach to an investigation, deciding on the option to be followed evaluating the plan continuously during the investigation, reviewing the approach on the basis of the results and conclusions reached. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.

PS3.2

PS3.3

Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.

Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • planning an approach to an investigation as a group monitoring and discussing results from an investigation and modifying the approach in accordance with them evaluating the plan continuously during the investigation with the group, reviewing the joint approach on the basis of the results and conclusions. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Plan work with others. WO3.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.

WO3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.

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Unit 33:
NQF Level 3:

Forensic Photography
BTEC National

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit introduces learners to the practices of photography, the use of photographic evidence in forensic work and the development of a portfolio of photographic work and its use in the criminal justice system (CJS). This unit covers both traditional silver-based photography and the use of modern digital imaging technology, and gives learners the opportunity to compare and contrast the suitability of 35 mm film and digital imaging for use in the CJS. Much of the crime scene photography is taken by camera-competent officers, such as scene of crime officers. Anyone interested in pursuing a career in this field should possess good photography skills. Despite the move towards digital photography in the field of forensics, learners should possess fundamental wet photography skills before developing digital photography skills. Moreover, maintaining the chain of continuity with digital photography is an important challenge and learners should learn measures needed to meet the demands of the CJS.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to select and use appropriate equipment and conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes Know the theoretical principles behind the selection and use of conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes Understand the use of photography in the CJS Be able to produce a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes.

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Unit content

1

Be able to select and use appropriate equipment and conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes Cameras: SLR; TLR; view compact; range finder; digital Lenses: primary; zoom; macro; catadioptric; compound; normal; fish-eye; wide angle; convertibles; telephoto; diverging; human eye; mirror; covering power; focal length; hood; shape Filters: contrast; colour correction; polarising; tone modification; skylight; ultraviolet; special effects; neutral density Lighting: sources eg tungsten, tungsten-halogen, vapour release, ambient; colour; contrast; direction; for macro-photography; for texture; accessories eg light meter Flash: manual; automatic; dedicated fill-in; guns (electronic); metering; long peaking; practical technique; repetitive; self-regulating; sensors Films: monochrome; colour-negative-slide; infrared; APS; processing; speed; speed conversion; size; roll; sheet; storage Darkroom: health and safety; film processing; contact printing and enlarging; protocols Other equipment: tripod; remote shutter release; measuring tape; notebook and pen

2

Know the theoretical principles behind the selection and use of conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes Aesthetic principles: colour; patterns; textures; composition; format; symmetry Technical theory: camera (digital, non-digital, shutter speed, aperture); film (speed, type); lighting (absorption, diffraction, dispersion, reflection, refraction, inverse square law)

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3

Understand the use of photography in the CJS Presentation: image reduction; bleach-out; toning; tinting; mounting methods; spotting; style of presentation, conformation with legislation Digital imaging: scanner; computer; internet; digital imaging software eg CorelDraw, PhotoShop, PageMaker Film: eg analogue, digital; moving and still images Ethics: codes of practice of professional institutes eg Royal Photographic Society; professionalism; equal opportunities; chain of continuity; evidence preservation Laws: civil; criminal; eg Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984, eg Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005

4

Be able to produce a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes Scenes: eg, burglary; murder; rape; domestic violence victims; grievous bodily harm; actual bodily harm; road traffic accidents; burnt-out vehicles; arson; damaged building and its furniture Images inside and outside premises: confined spaces eg retail stores, factories, houses, flats, cars, vehicle, person in motion; open spaces eg farms, fields Evidence: eg fingerprints; ear prints; trace evidence on firearm; drugs; forged documents; blood spatter; footprint casts; footprint impressions; hairs; fibres; condoms; excreta; glass; bodily bruising; bite marks; face of victim; toolmarks; serial numbers Selection of conditions: depth of field; sharpness; composition to provide an image useable as evidence; variation of conditions according to subject

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Grading grid

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: M1 select and explain the equipment and conditions to be used for three given different situations explain the theoretical principles behind the selection and use of photographic conditions for forensic purposes describe the reasons for preferential use of 35 mm film or digital photography for use in the CJS explain the role played by forensic photographic evidence and its significance. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to: compare and contrast various cameras on the market for forensic use

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

P1

select and use equipment and conditions to make a photographic record to the standard required for use as forensic evidence M2

P2

identify the theoretical principles behind the selection and use of photographic conditions for forensic purposes M3

evaluate the choice of photographic conditions and techniques for a forensic investigation D3 analyse the advantages and disadvantages of digital photography for use in the CJS D4 explain the content and implications of the images in their portfolio, justifying why they are included.

P3

identify the use of 35 mm film and digital photography for use in the CJS M4

P4

produce a forensic photographic portfolio of a crime scene to the standard required for use as forensic evidence.

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Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Tutors delivering this unit have the opportunity to use a wide range of techniques. These include practicals, lectures, discussions, seminars, site visits, guest speakers, darkroom work, internet research, use of library resources, suitable workplace experience and photographic gallery visits. The aim should be to stimulate and educate learners so they will be in a position to understand the main concepts of 35 mm and digital photography and its uses in the CJS. This understanding enables learners to see the range of job opportunities available at every level, and the range of courses that higher education can offer. Work placements, if used, should be monitored regularly to ensure learners are benefiting from the experience. Prior to any placement, the learner and workplace supervisor must be aware of the requirements of the unit and how the placement can contribute to the evidence required. Learners may have the opportunity, for example, to work in a photographic film development centre. If suitably observed and recorded, this could contribute towards the requirements of this unit and others. Tutors should be aware of the integration of some subject matter with other units within the qualification. Learners will find it difficult to gain work experience with a police force or forensic company due to the, eg Official Secrets Act 1989 restrictions. However, this should not discourage learners from trying to obtain non-forensic photographic work experience. Health and safety issues relating to laboratory work, either in the centre or in the workplace, must be emphasised. Risk assessments, the use of COSHH and other regulations in place in any laboratories must be adhered to. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit, it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. Learning outcome 1 covers the selection and use of appropriate equipment and conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes. This learning outcome should involve formal lectures and learner research. Learners should have access to 35 mm SLR or digital cameras, and other material which will help learners undertake photographic tasks. Ideally, crime scenes should be recreated for learners to produce their portfolio (learning outcome 4). Documentaries and case studies could provide additional sources of material. Learning outcome 2 covers the theoretical principles behind the selection and use of conditions to make a photographic portfolio for forensic purposes. This should mainly involve formal lectures and learner research. Learners should be encouraged to evaluate their photographic practical work to understand the principles involved in its creation.

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Learning outcome 3 covers the use of 35 mm and digital photography in the field of forensics, for use in the CJS. Learners should be encouraged to research the application of 35 mm and digital photography in forensic settings and develop an understanding of when each method would be most suitable. Input from tutors and possibly specialist speakers is recommended, and some areas can be covered by learner research. Learners should be encouraged to compare the chain of continuity between 35 mm and digital photography. Learning outcome 4 ties in with learning outcomes 1 and 2 and depends on the learners’ ability to use either 35 mm or digital photography and understand the principles involved. Learners should produce a range of photographs that include close-up, mid-range and general overview images. They should preferably present their photography in a presentation folder for future employers. Learners need to be given an opportunity to access a variety of crime scenes so that they can develop their photography skills. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. For P1, learners must, with guidance, select the appropriate camera (either 35 mm SLR or digital SLR) and lens to produce correctly exposed and focused evidential photographs. Learners will need to consider the lighting requirements of the scene and select the correct flash or illumination technique. They should use a light meter to evaluate the lighting conditions. In low light conditions learners should use a tripod to obtain the correct exposure. If available, learners would benefit from selecting the appropriate equipment to develop their negatives in a darkroom. Learners could be assessed for Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis in explaining how darkroom chemistry works and the chemical reactions involved. If photographs are taken of fingerprints, learners should use a macro lens to obtain sufficient ridge detail. For P2, learners must identify how a camera works. It is important that learners can identify how an image is created on a negative. They must appreciate how varying the shutter speed will affect image blur, how changing aperture size will affect depth of field and how both of these factors affect image exposure. Learners must identify the relationship between focal length and the angle of view and image magnification. They should identify the need to consider the film speed, and its effect on the graininess of the image. Although it is recommended that learners are taught the theoretical principles of light, it is not important that the learner is assessed independently on these. Reference can be made to these in the assessment of how a photographic image is produced. For P3, learners must identify real-life examples where digital photography is used in forensic situations for use in the CJS. They must provide a reason why these are used.

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For P4, learners must, with guidance, produce a portfolio of photographs of a crime scene including general overview, mid-range and close-up images to a standard required for use as forensic evidence. The portfolio should include descriptions of the scene including: alleged crime, victim/loser’s details, date, time, weather and lighting conditions. It is recommended that the learner use a commercial presentation folder to display their photographs. The quality of the final presentation folder is crucial. Attention to fine detail and overall quality will decide whether the learner meets this criterion. For a merit grade, all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For M1, the tutor must present the learner with three different situations of a crime scene. Learners must describe the equipment and conditions they would select for forensic photography, and justify their reasons. This can be done verbally or by presentation, but learners must present evidence for moderation purposes. For M2, learners must give descriptions of the content of P2, not simply identify the concepts. For M3, learners must explain why either digital or 35 mm photography was chosen in real-life examples. For M4, learners must justify the use of forensic photography in crime investigations. This may take the format of a short report or presentation. For a distinction grade, all the pass, merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. For D1, learners need to research the availability of cameras for forensic use, and compare items. This may be through review of the literature. Learners are not expected to carry out a practical comparison, although it is encouraged. For D2, learners must give an evaluation of the content of P2, rather than identify or describe the concepts and theories. For D3, learners must analyse the advantages and disadvantages of digital photography over 33 mm film for use in the CJS. This analysis will depend on the depth of answer for M3. Learners should produce evidence for these two grading criteria in the same report. For D4, learners must justify why they have taken the photos they have. They must explain what the images show and any implications that can be drawn. This may be done as a presentation, or learners may wish to annotate their portfolios. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is closely linked with Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis. It is advisable to teach both units in the same year. This would give learners an opportunity to photograph a variety of crime scenes for their portfolio. Tutors are recommended to design assignments that integrate these units and enhance the development of the use of photography in the criminal investigation. Tutors should encourage learners to take photographs of crime scenes and evidence for use in their portfolio.

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This unit also links with: • • Unit 36: Forensic Fire Investigation Unit 38: Traffic Accident Investigation.

This unit is also linked with wider curriculum issues in the CJS. Essential resources Learners should have access to SLR, digital, and compact video cameras and associated equipment, multigrade filters, processing chemicals, negative sleeves, cleaning brushes, cutting and mounting equipment, finishing equipment (dyes and brushes), vc photographic paper, negative cleaning equipment, processing tanks and light meters. They also need simulated crime scenes, various sources of artificial light, a fully equipped darkroom and apparatus, and a forensic science laboratory. Additionally, they need access to a learning resources centre equipped with photographic books, periodicals, journals, CD ROMs, ICT facilities, scanners, printers and software. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Hicks R and Schultz F — Darkroom Basics and Beyond (Collins & Brown, 2003) ISBN 1843400480 Langford M — Basic Photography (Focal Press, 2000) ISBN 0240515927 Redsicker DR — The Practical Methodology of Forensic Photography (CRC Press Inc, 2000) ISBN 0849320046 Stone J and London B — A Short Course in Photography: An Introduction to Photographic Technique, 6th Edition (Prentice Hall, 2005) ISBN 0131933809 Stroebel L — View Camera Technique (Focal Press, 1999) ISBN 0240803450 Stroebel L et al — Basic Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal Press, 2000) ISBN 0240804058 Websites www.aophoto.co.uk www.crime-scene-investigator www.crime-scene-investigator.net/ digitalphotography-fried www.ephotozine.com/techniques www.photo.net www.photonhead.com/beginners The Association of Photographers Forensic Photography for the Crime Scene Technician Analysis of forensic digital photography general photography techniques, tips and advice Photo-Net The Beginner’s Guide To Photography

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UNIT 33: FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY

Useful contacts Affiliation of Honourable Photographers 66 Barcombe Road, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9JR Telephone: 01273 606 067 Email: ukphotoashp@aol.com Association of High Speed Photography Dera Pendine, Camarthen, Camarthenshire SA33 4UA The Association of Photographers 81 Leonard Street, London EC2A 4QS Telephone: 020 7739 6669 Email: aop@dircon.co.uk The British Institute of Professional Photography Amwell End, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 9HN Telephone: 01920 487 056 The British Photographic and Imaging Association Ambassador House, Brigstock Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey CR7 7JG Telephone: 020 8665 6181 Email: bpia@admin.co.uk The Royal Photographic Society Octagon Galleries, Milsom Street, Bath, Avon BA1 1DN

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UNIT 33: FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning and interpreting information from forensic science information data sources carrying out calculations from a forensic science information data source They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.

N3.2

Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.

interpreting the results of the calculations and presenting the findings in a report, justifying their methods.

N3.3

Interpret the results of your calculations, present your findings and justify your methods.

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BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008

UNIT 33: FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY

Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about the use of imaging techniques and the presentation of photographs for evidence presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation into the use of imaging techniques and the presentation of photographs for evidence reading and synthesising the information from two extended documents about forensic science data preparing a report and a poster about the above investigation. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3.1a Take part in a group discussion.

C3.1b

Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.

C3.2

Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.

C3.3

Write two different types of documents, each one giving different information about complex subjects. One document must be at least 1000 words long.

Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning and carrying out a search for information about the use of imaging techniques and the presentation of photographs for evidence exploring, developing, exchanging and deriving information for the above purposes presenting the information above to audiences. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Search for information, using different sources, and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

ICT3.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.

ICT3.3 Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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2 PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. WO3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. • 400 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. Take responsibility for your learning.UNIT 33: FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the portfolio plan for the investigation and consulting and gaining the agreement of their tutor implementing the portfolio plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the portfolio plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached. • LP3. identifying areas of weaknesses and ways of overcoming them producing a strategic plan to overcome their weaknesses reviewing their work to assess whether the weaknesses identified are still apparent. • • PS3.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • evaluating their portfolio plan. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • developing a plan for the portfolio carrying out the practical work necessary for their portfolio reviewing the practical work for their portfolio. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. WO3.1 Plan work with others.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.2 • LP3.

Learners will examine how different psychological perspectives have been applied to explain criminal behaviour and aspects of victims’ and others’ perceptions of crime. To begin with. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand how psychological perspectives have been used to explain criminal behaviour Be able to use research methods to undertake a psychological study into a crime issue Understand how psychology theories have been applied to different issues within the CJS Understand the influence psychological research has had on aspects of the CJS. Learners will examine the research methods employed. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 401 . jury deliberation and the treatment of offenders. This unit provides an introduction to the application of psychology to the issues of crime in society. The unit also explores the influence psychological studies have had on our understanding of behaviour in the CJS including eyewitness testimony. It forms the foundation for exploring forensic psychology and criminology. as well as those who have the responsibility for preventing and investigating crime and dealing with those who break the law. courtroom behaviour. But why do some people commit crime while others do not. and what are the effects of crime on victims and the wider community? These are the kinds of questions that are of concern to those involved in criminal psychology. including the ethical issues involved. and have the opportunity to apply these research methods to aspects of crime. This unit examines the way in which psychology helps us to understand criminal behaviour and how it may be applied to aspects of the criminal justice system (CJS).UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Unit 34: NQF Level 3: Criminal Psychology BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Crime and its consequences is a continuing social issue that affects everyone. learners will consider what psychology is and explore some of the approaches used in applying it to the study of crime and criminals.

forensic. support for victims Mental health issues: mental disorder and crime. confessions Victims of crime: fear of crime. cognitive approaches. hypothesis. memory. personality theories. body types.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Unit content 1 Understand how psychological perspectives have been used to explain criminal behaviour Psychology and crime: psychology as the study of human behaviour. interview. survey. group dynamics Treating crime: anger management. criminological and legal psychology. criminal. conclusions 3 Understand how psychology theories have been applied to different issues within the CJS Eyewitness testimony: attention. cognitive interview Social influence: social identity theory. differences and similarities. social science compared with natural sciences Psychological perspectives: biological. case study Results: statistical analysis Evaluation: interpretation of analysis. social skills training 4 Understand the influence psychological research has had on aspects of the CJS Psychology in the courtroom: sentencing. treatment of offenders 402 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . jury decision-making Investigative interviewing: vulnerable witnesses. mental illness eg schizophrenia. treatment. ethical issues Methods: experiment. observation. perception. social theories and factors Psychopathology: psychopaths. mental health issues 2 Be able to use research methods to undertake a psychological study into a crime issue Experimental design: aims. conformity. intention and responsibility Penal system: rehabilitation.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Grading grid In order to pass this unit. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: M1 compare and contrast psychological perspectives used to explain criminal behaviour explain how the results of the psychological study contribute to the understanding of a crime issue demonstrate the application of psychological theories to issues in the CJS explain in detail how psychological research has influenced aspects of the CJS. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. in addition to the pass criteria. comparing the results and conclusions with other reports D3 appraise the application of psychological theories to aspects of the CJS D4 evaluate the influence of psychological research on aspects of the CJS. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 403 . the learner is able to: evaluate the usefulness of psychological perspectives in explaining criminal behaviour evaluate the psychological study. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe how three psychological perspectives have been used to explain criminal behaviour M2 P2 plan and carry out a psychological study into a crime issue and produce a written report M3 P3 describe how psychology theories have been applied to different issues in the CJS M4 P4 describe the influence psychological research has had on aspects of the CJS.

Learners might research an issue and hold a debate in which two sides present their arguments. and some of the studies that support their theories. particularly between criminal and forensic psychology. An issue such as the level of fear of crime in the local community is a possible example of this approach. administer it to a sample of people. It is important that learners have an appreciation of the research methods used by psychologists to explore causes of behaviour. research using the internet and library resources. how it is applied to the study of criminal behaviour and responses to it. Understanding why people are antisocial or commit crime is a key aspect of criminal psychology. Learners need to consider the strengths and limitations of these approaches. it should be delivered early in the course and should be considered as a foundation to Unit 35: Forensic Psychology. As an introductory unit. 404 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Reading journal articles about how studies were carried out and understanding how the results were interpreted is one way of considering research methods. In contrast to the natural sciences studied in other units. Learners should be encouraged to consider the similarities and differences between these. and analyse and report the results. practicals and site visits. presentations. In order to demonstrate achievement of learning outcome 2. learners need to understand that there can be several. police. Ethical issues in carrying out research are important and learners have the opportunity to consider this in designing their own studies. Criminal psychology is one label used to describe this applied area of psychology and is sometimes used interchangeably with other labels such as forensic. including lectures. As this unit may be the first time learners have encountered psychology it will be necessary to discuss what it is and the nature of psychology. Tutors have the opportunity to use a wide variety of techniques to motivate and stimulate learners. This may include trying to replicate a previous study. There are opportunities to test learners’ own skills at recall. Learners should examine how the major perspectives try to explain the causes of criminal behaviour. Examining research into crime issues such as eyewitness testimony also serves to demonstrate how psychology has been applied and has influenced the CJS. perspectives or theories about the causes of behaviour. A basic understanding of statistics will be required and this might be linked to Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians. The subject also complements issues raised and discussed in Unit 31: Criminology. often competing. group work.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit introduces learners to the discipline of psychology. Learners might roleplay an investigator and interview a witness. learners need to plan and carry out a research study. criminological and legal psychology. discussions. such as on whether gender has an impact on eyewitness testimony. concluding that the causes of criminal behaviour are complex and that perhaps a multi-perspective approach is more useful. or a survey where learners design and construct a questionnaire. This work offers opportunities for working with others to carry out research.

learners must describe how psychological research has influenced one of these aspects of the CJS. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. physical attraction. Learners may benefit from other visits. what happens in court and the treatment of offenders. There are various perspectives in psychology that have been used to explain criminal behaviour. jury selection and competence. how victim. or how theories have been applied to the treatment of offenders. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. A visit to the Crown Court offers learners the opportunity to consider psychology in the courtroom and experience first-hand how the different players involved interact in this arena. Alternatively. For a merit grade. learners must describe how theories have been applied to different aspects of the CJS. Organisations such as the Howard League for Penal Reform also conduct research in criminal psychology. The study must include consideration of any ethical issues. which should include tables and charts where appropriate. learners must compare the similarities and differences in the psychological perspectives. and learners will need to describe three of these to include research on criminal behaviour. For P1. Learners may consider what influences juries in their decision-making and examine such issues as social influence theories. and the influence they have had on the CJS (learning outcome 4). For P2. Psychological theories have often influenced criminal justice policy. speakers from agencies within the CJS or academic institutions may offer learners an insight into their work. Prison psychologists can describe some of the treatment programmes used. Learners or groups of learners could design an experiment to show males and females a short video of a crime and then test their recall abilities. learners must design. Discussion of the influence this research has had on the CJS is linked to learning outcome 4. witnesses and suspects are dealt with. such as to a police station or prison. learners must describe at least three psychological approaches to understanding criminal behaviour. Academics from universities often carry out research and may be willing to discuss their findings. For P3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 405 . Both visits and external speakers provide insight into how psychological theories have been applied to the issues in learning outcome 3. This might include how theories on memory have been applied to interviewing witnesses. carry out and write up a study on a crime issue. For M1. For P4. Psychological theories have been applied to a variety of different issues in relation to crime and criminal behaviour. They should then write a report of the study.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Reading journal articles and carrying out research are just two approaches to understanding psychological theories and how they are applied within the CJS. This might include some of the basic assumptions behind the perspectives and the methods used to study criminal behaviour. Changes have been made in the way crimes are investigated by police.

strengths and limitations of the method used. learners must evaluate how well the approaches contribute to understanding criminal behaviour. For example. For D3. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. For M4. and roles within. learners must show how these psychological theories have been applied. learners must explain in detail one aspect of psychological research and how it has influenced the administration of justice. other BTEC units. all the pass. For a distinction grade. difficulties encountered. This should include whether it supports previous research. Essential resources Learners need to research information when investigating areas of. and case studies will support and enhance delivery and assessment of this unit. For D2. learners must evaluate how influential psychological research has been and whether it has been effective in improving the CJS. For D1. 406 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Psychology practicals used in other courses and available online might be adapted to examine criminal issues. Access to organisations and practitioners. and explain their strengths and limitations. learners must explain what the findings of a psychological study indicate about the issue under investigation. For M3. learners must consider how effective the theories described and demonstrated for P3 and M3 have been when applied to crime issues.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY For M2. books and websites. Links to National Occupational Standards. learners must evaluate the psychological study carried out. For D4. the CJS and criminal psychology. how the cognitive interview is used. by way of visits and/or guest speakers. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is linked to a number of other BTEC National in Applied Science units including: • • • Unit 31: Criminology Unit 35: Forensic Psychology Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. They need access to academic journals. and what might have been done differently.

co. 2007) ISBN 0470016272 Towl G J and Crighton D A — The Handbook of Psychology for Forensic Practitioners (Routledge.uk www.internetjournalofcriminology.homeoffice.com www. 1998) ISBN 0340705566 Kapardis A — Psychology and Law: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge University Press.uk The Internet Journal of Criminology New Criminologist Online Journal The Home Office Psychology Press BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 407 .UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Brewer K — Heinemann Themes in Psychology: Psychology and Crime (Heinemann Educational Secondary Division.police.co. 2000) ISBN 043580653X Coolican H — Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (Hodder Arnold. 2004) ISBN 0340812583 Harrower J — Applying Psychology to Crime (Hodder Arnold.uk www. 2002) ISBN 0521531616 Milne R and Bull R — Investigative Interviewing: Psychology and Practice (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.gov.psypress.newcriminologist. 1996) ISBN 0415128889 Journals Law and Human Behavior Legal and Criminological Psychology Websites www.

1a Take part in a group discussion. 408 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing different psychological perspectives and theories presenting the results of a psychological study using PowerPoint or other visual aids reading criminal psychology journals and textbooks about psychological research and how it relates to the CJS producing a summary or full report on the psychological study of a named type of crime. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.3 Write two different types of documents. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • C3.1 Search for information. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • discussing ideas for planning a psychological study on a crime issue. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. • C3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.2 • C3.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. One document must be at least 1000 words long. using different sources.1 Plan work with others. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 34: CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching the internet and periodicals for case studies on criminal psychology.

This unit also examines the role of the forensic psychologist as an expert witness. This includes assisting the court to determine whether a defendant is mentally fit to understand the court process or was suffering from a mental illness. deciding on the most appropriate treatment for offenders. The unit builds on Unit 34: Criminal Psychology. and more recently the analysis of serious crimes to develop criminal profiles of suspects. Much of this unit will be delivered and assessed through literature searches and research. and the therapies used in forensic practice.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Unit 35: NQF Level 3: Forensic Psychology BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract The aim of this unit is to explore the way in which psychology can inform decisionmaking in the criminal justice system (CJS). BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 409 . Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the concept of forensic psychology and how it is applied Understand the contribution psychological research has made to understanding criminal behaviour Be able to apply psychological profiling theory and techniques to produce a criminal profile Know how psychology is used in forensic practice. Learners will study the history and development of psychological profiling and use the techniques to analyse crime and produce a profile. and examines how psychological research has influenced our understanding of criminal behaviour. They will also explore the way research has influenced the development of theories that underpin these approaches.

criminology. behavioural evidence analysis (BEA) Theories: theory of homicide. discussion. clinical. circle theory. criminal profiler. occupational and educational psychology Role of forensic psychologist: expert witness. results. typologies. introduction. case studies.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Unit content 1 Understand the concept of forensic psychology and how it is applied Definition: comparison with other areas. cognitive behavioural therapy. method. understanding discussion and conclusions 3 Be able to apply psychological profiling theory and techniques to produce a criminal profile Development of profiling: FBI approach. geographic profiling. researcher 2 Understand the contribution psychological research has made to understanding criminal behaviour Themes: quantitative and qualitative approaches. anger management programmes Risk assessment: approaches to risk assessment. interpreting results. references Evaluation: methods used. interviews. police psychology. development and evaluation of assessment instruments 410 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . criminal psychology. theory of rape. research studies of serious crimes Application: analysis of hypothetical crime(s) to produce a profile report 4 Know how psychology is used in forensic practice Types of treatment: behaviour therapy. prison psychologist. statistical. surveys Structure of academic papers: abstract. clinical. social skills training.

Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. explain the definitions and describe how it is applied M2 P2 outline how psychological research has helped in the understanding of criminal behaviour M3 P3 describe how psychological profiling theory and techniques may be used to produce a criminal profile M4 P4 outline how psychology is used in forensic practice. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: draw conclusions on the effectiveness of forensic psychology compare the psychological theories that have been used to understand one type of criminal behaviour D3 evaluate the usefulness of psychological profiling techniques in the investigation of crime D4 explain how psychology is used in one aspect of forensic practice. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 411 . D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. in addition to the pass criteria.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Grading grid In order to pass this unit. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 define forensic psychology. the learner is able to: M1 explain the contribution of a forensic psychologist to one aspect of the legal process explain how psychological research has been used to understand criminal behaviour demonstrate how psychological profiling techniques may be used to produce a criminal profile understand the risks involved and carry out a risk assessment for a given situation.

The tension between the FBI/clinical approaches and the more ‘scientific’ approaches is examined. and assessing and managing the risk this group may present is a key role for forensic practitioners. Learners must include examples of some of the different ways in which forensic psychologists work. learners use these in practical case studies. This unit is used to explore the relatively new area of psychological profiling through its modest history. evaluating its findings. This may be an aspect that learners can explore. and give a presentation to other learners on how the research was carried out. will assist in presenting this topic. Learners will see that where criminal psychology looks at the behaviour of those involved in the CJS. Learners revisit the definitions of forensic psychology and criminal psychology. Learners might select a journal article about psychological profiling. Learners will need to extend their knowledge of research methods and how to read academic journal articles critically. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. requiring two teams to research and present their arguments for and against the motion. Case studies of serial murderers and rapists. Learners examine the role of forensic psychologists. including documentary material. A key concern in society is the safety of the public from dangerous offenders.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit builds on Unit 34: Criminal Psychology. as well as research exploring the process of risk assessment of offenders. Learners may hold a debate on whether criminal profiling will ever replace traditional investigative approaches. Learners may benefit from a talk by a prison psychologist to support this work. For P1. considering the different approaches. analysing data and producing a profile. A key aspect of forensic psychological practice includes the treatment of prisoners and mentally disordered persons. extending learners’ understanding of how psychology has developed to inform decision-making in the CJS. They will need to give reasons for their choice of definition. learners must provide a definition of forensic psychology and how it fits into the legal process. This aspect may be linked to Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice and the investigation of serious crimes. Learners researching the definition will find that it varies according to different commentators and practitioners. 412 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and consider the similarities and differences. including their appearance in court as expert witnesses. forensic psychology is used to inform courts’ and other tribunals’ decision-making. as well as the development of geographic profiling. Case studies and press reports may be examined. Having considered the theoretical approaches to criminal profiling.

or the forensic psychiatrist’s contribution to the treatment of offenders. and how useful they are in practice. Alternatively. Alternatively. This might include a description of a particular role such as a prison psychologists and their work. For D4. learners may demonstrate how some approaches have used interviews with offenders. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. This may include some of the different approaches used. This might be a particular treatment used in prison such as anger management. For D1. For a distinction grade. they could consider how useful psychological profiling is to police officers investigating serious crimes. learners must consider the strengths and limitations of the techniques used and how useful they are in supporting investigations. For P4. while others have analysed archival data. For a merit grade. Learners may choose to consider the criminal profiler and examine their contribution to the investigation process. learners must describe how psychological research has developed our understanding of criminal behaviour. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 413 . For example. they may choose to consider explanations for such things as youth offending or stalking behaviour. learners must describe some of the profiling theories and techniques that have been applied to produce a criminal profile. For M2. learners may have a case study to work on and describe how one or more theories and techniques might be applied to this case. Forensic psychology entails work for the legal system and therefore psychologists from other applied areas may find themselves carrying out work for the courts. For D3. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. rapists or arsonists.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY For P2. For M3. For P3. educational or developmental psychologists may make. learners must consider the strengths and limitations of the approaches they have explained and demonstrated. For M4. the theory behind it and how it works. which would consider the type of offender. They could describe one or more historic cases used to assist in investigations. learners must focus on one aspect of forensic practice and describe it in detail. Learners may explore the contribution that occupational. learners must select a particular area of forensic psychology practice and explain its contribution to the legal process. For D2. The use of case studies will be important here. learners must show how psychological research has helped in understanding criminal behaviour. learners must write a clear description of some aspects of forensic practice. For example. learners must consider the risks involved in carrying out forensic psychology work and produce a risk assessment based on a case study. and the profiles produced. Learners will need to research and provide evidence to support their conclusions. learners must apply psychological theory and profiling techniques to a case and produce a criminal profile aimed at assisting the investigation. Learners may choose to examine psychological explanations of serial murderers. learners must consider and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the contributions psychology can make to legal decision-making. For M1. all the pass.

2001) ISBN 1903240212 Alison L — The Forensic Psychologist’s Casebook: Psychological Profiling and Criminal Investigation (Willan Publishing. 2006) ISBN 1840144955 Coolican H — Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (Hodder Arnold. (London) Ltd. Research and Practice (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005) ISBN 1843921014 Bartol C R — Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (Prentice Hall. 1992) ISBN 0631145478 Towl G J and Crighton D A — The Handbook of Psychology for Forensic Practitioners (Routledge.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Links to National Occupational Standards. 2004) ISBN 0131850490 Blackburn R — The Psychology of Criminal Conduct: Theory. and case studies will support and enhance delivery and assessment of this unit. 2002) ISBN 0127050418 414 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Some of these have been listed for tutors. 2004) ISBN 0340812583 Stephenson G M — The Psychology of Criminal Justice (Blackwell Publishers. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with: • • • • Unit 31: Criminology Unit 34: Criminal Psychology (which should be delivered before this unit) Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice. Documentary videos of cases could be useful in explaining profiling techniques. They need access to academic journals. 2001) ISBN 1928704212 Canter D and Alison L — Profiling Rape and Murder (Ashgate. Essential resources Learners need to research information when investigating areas of. other BTEC units. forensic psychology. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant. Access to organisations and practitioners. books and the internet. and roles within. 1996) ISBN 0415128889 Turvey B E — Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis (Academic Press Inc. 1995) ISBN 0471961752 Canter D — Criminal Shadows (Authorlink. Textbooks Ainsworth P — Offender Profiling and Crime Analysis (Willan Publishing. by way of visits and/or guest speakers.

com/behavior www.crimeandclues.co.profiling.uk/crime www.gov.homeoffice.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Journals Journal of Behavioral Profiling Journal of Investigative Psychology Law and Human Behavior Legal and Criminological Psychology Websites www.uk/rds www.org/journal BBC Crime and Clues The Home Office Journal of Behavioral Profiling BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 415 .bbc.

Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • • discussing how psychology is used in forensic practice presenting the research methods used in a journal article about psychological profiling and evaluating its findings reading articles in forensic psychology journals and on related websites. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. using different sources.1a C3.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. 416 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. • C3.1 Search for information.1b Take part in a group discussion. • ICT3. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • interviewing a forensic psychologist and searching the internet for the different approaches to psychological profiling producing a risk assessment on the dangers of criminal profiling. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 417 .3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.UNIT 35: FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • discussing ideas for one side of a debate on whether criminal profiling will ever replace traditional investigative approaches identifying where their arguments and supporting evidence for one side of the debate could be strengthened and presented better. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Plan work with others. • WO3.

418 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

In this unit learners will study how things burn. learners will be expected to produce reports on their investigations such as are presented in court. unravelling the mystery of what caused the incident. In preparation for possible future roles as expert witnesses. and preserve and examine the evidence. and fire spread and prevention. to the seat of the fire. Learners wishing to follow this branch of forensics will need to understand how different agencies work together to extinguish a fire. how they can be extinguished and the probable route of a fire spreading through a building.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Unit 36: NQF Level 3: Forensic Fire Investigation BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Fire investigation is a specialist branch of forensic science. make the site safe. through the damage. Learners will also study the relationship between building construction and design. treat casualties. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the chemistry of combustion and extinction Know how safety aspects of building construction and design relate to fire prevention and fire investigation Be able to investigate a fire and produce a report on it Understand the role played by other agencies. This unit explores the ways in which investigators can examine the charred remains of a building and trace back. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 419 . Fire investigators do not work alone. An understanding of the chemistry of combustion and extinction is essential for any fire investigator.

compartments. passer-bys. occupancy. reconstruction Witnesses: eg occupiers. insurance loss adjuster. heat of combustion. FDR2. limits of flammability. fire loading and calculating fire loading. transcripts of messages/phone calls to emergency services Documentation: fire reports eg FDR1. starving. flash point. solicitor 420 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . plan drawing. pathologist. presentation in court 4 Understand the role played by other agencies Other agencies: police. electricity advisor. scene of crime officer. fire walls. fire crews. convection. recording findings (contemporaneous notes). packaging and preservation of samples. burning polymers. observation. preservation. excavation. types of extinguisher Fire behaviour: probable spread of a fire. fire point. fire safety systems 3 Be able to investigate a fire and produce a report on it Fire scene: safety. toxic fumes Extinction: fire triangle (smothering. forensic scientist. gas advisor. transcripts of interviews. radiation) 2 Know how safety aspects of building construction and design relate to fire prevention and fire investigation Aspects of construction and design: types of structure eg fire doors.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Unit content 1 Understand the chemistry of combustion and extinction Combustion: flame. Health and Safety Executive. auto-ignition temperature. rate of burning. photographs. report (to include an annotated plan of the site of the fire). neighbours. collection. cooling). interviews. venting. movement of heat (conduction. fire safety documents.

and draw conclusions on how best to prevent fires evaluate how the aspects of building design and construction relate to fire prevention and/or investigation D3 evaluate the evidence from a simulated fire investigation and describe how it was (or could be) used. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the chemistry of combustion and extinction and list sources of ignition P2 outline safety aspects of building design and construction.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Grading grid In order to pass this unit. the learner is able to: M1 carry out experiments to demonstrate the chemistry of combustion and extinction. the learner is able to: assess the major causal factors involved in fire and its spread. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. and describe sources of ignition explain the methods used by an investigator to collect evidence and information explain the use of evidence obtained through fire investigation D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. in addition to the pass criteria. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 421 . explain the roles and interactions of the agencies involved in a fire investigation. including a plan drawing of a single storey building for fire investigation purposes M4 P4 list the agencies that might be involved in a fire investigation and describe their roles and how they liaise. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. and draw scientifically derived conclusions D4 evaluate the operation of the agencies involved in a fire investigation and the liaison between them. explaining how they relate to fire prevention and/or investigation M3 M2 P3 produce a report of a simulated fire investigation.

The aim should be to stimulate and educate the learners so they will be in a position to understand the main concepts in fire investigation and the roles played by different agencies at a fire scene. Local fire departments and investigators could be approached to obtain resources such as copies of photographs and/or videos for this investigation. For P1. Learning outcome 2 covers aspects of building construction and design and how they relate to fire prevention and investigation. Learners may find it difficult to attend the scene of a real fire due to health and safety issues. discussion. Learners should conduct a simulated fire investigation and produce a report based on their findings. Learning outcome 1 covers the chemistry of combustion and extinction. Documentation of fire scenes. the collection. packaging and preservation of evidence. For P2. These include practicals. Case studies and specialist speakers would be particularly useful. guest speakers. Risk assessments. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. the different forms of evidence that can be found and how this evidence may be used in the investigation process. lectures. The general principles of fire behaviour should be discussed along with the ways in which an investigator can collect information at a fire scene. Learning outcome 4 covers the role that other agencies play in a fire investigation. internet research and use of library resources. 422 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and explain how they relate to fire prevention and/or investigation. This should mainly involve formal lectures and learner research. Learning outcome 3 covers how a fire is investigated and learners are required to prepare a formal report of the investigation. Input from specialist speakers would also be useful. Health and safety issues relating to laboratory work in the centre must be emphasised and the health and safety issues encountered at a fire scene discussed. accompanied by experimental work carried out in the laboratory. site visits. This learning outcome should involve formal lectures and learner research. seminars. learners must describe the chemistry of combustion and extinction and list common ignition sources. the application of COSHH and other regulations that apply to laboratories must be adhered to. the chain of continuity and report writing must also be explained. This should mainly involve formal lectures and learner research.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors delivering this unit have opportunities to use a wide range of techniques. which is why a simulated approached should be used. This should mainly involve formal lectures and learner research. learners must outline aspects of building design such as those discussed above.

how quickly people can get out. human behaviour and risk management. alarms to warn people of fire. materials used in the construction of a building to slow fire growth. learners must demonstrate the chemistry of combustion by performing experiments in the laboratory. For M4. For M2. and describe how it could be used as part of the investigation. A number of issues must be considered when incorporating fire safety design in a building. systems for detecting fires. sprinkler systems to extinguish fires. learners need knowledge of the chemistry of combustion and extinction to assess how fire spreads and the best way to prevent fires. Positions of doors. Fire safety can be achieved by using fire engineering which is based on the principles of fire science. ensuring that information is gathered in a systematic way paying attention to all relevant details. A detailed scene examination would include descriptions of the ceilings. appliances. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 423 . how a fire might develop. heat patterns and other post-fire indicators should be described along with any identified points of origin and ignition sources (smouldering/flame). furniture and all relevant items should be recorded. Smoke. For M3. learners must conduct a simulated fire investigation. walls. the location of people in the building and their state. In doing so learners must demonstrate thorough knowledge and understanding of the chemistry of combustion and fire engineering terminology. For D2. Sketches and plans should include a key with directional information. how people will become aware of a fire and what they might do. doors. For D1. and construction to limit fire spread from one area to another. how smoke will be generated and could spread. all the pass. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners must explain how evidence is collected from a fire scene.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION For P3. learners must understand and explain the role of each agency and the part they play in investigating fire. windows and staircases within a building as well as a thorough description of the exterior of the building. For D3. For a distinction grade. measurements and scales. The purpose of fire safety design in a building is to allow people to escape before being overcome by the effects of fire. windows. learners must evaluate the evidence collected from a simulated fire scene. including fire ignition growth and spread. learners must consider the types of evidence that may be collected from a fire scene. learners must evaluate these aspects of building design and construction. fixtures. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For a merit grade. They must explain the use of such evidence and purpose in ascertaining the cause and spread of the fire. fire. floors. Fire safety design features include emergency exits. learners must describe the various agencies involved in a fire investigation and how they liaise with each other. how the smoke and fire might affect people and how the building materials will respond to a fire. For P4. For M1.

A team approach is essential and the legitimate interests of each agency need to be considered. a learning resource centre equipped with fire investigation books. 2000) ISBN 0849309115 Quintiere J G — Principles of Fire Behaviour (Delmar. other BTEC units. 2000) ISBN 0312261284 Noon R K — Forensic Engineering Investigation (CRC Press Inc.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION The role of the fire service is to fight fires and to protect people and property from fires. and other associated software. Essential resources Learners need access to simulated fire scenes. scanners. 5th Edition (Prentice Hall. periodicals. A fire investigation usually involves investigators from a number of other agencies who all have specific roles including determination of the origin and cause of the fire. learners must evaluate the role of each agency and the potential value of their contributions to the success of a fire investigation. 2007) ISBN 0849321336 424 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . US. 2002) ISBN 0130604585 DeHaan J D and Icove D J — Forensic Fire Scene Reconstruction (Prentice Hall. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to: • • • • Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice chemistry units with a content including flammable materials. CD ROMs. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks DeHaan J D — Kirk’s Fire Investigation. assessment of the effectiveness of fire safety measures and estimation of loss. Links to National Occupational Standards. journals. 1997) ISBN 0827377320 Redsicker D R — Practical Fire and Arson Investigation (CRC Press Inc. 2004) ISBN 0130942057 Faith N — Blaze: The Forensics of Fire (St Martin’s Press. collection of evidence for a criminal investigation. printers. ICT equipment. a forensic science laboratory. For D4. US.

Fire Technology — Chemistry and Combustion.firesafe.fireservicecollege.uk www.fmglobal.uk BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 425 . law enforcement and others whose duties involve arson investigation.com www.uk www.ife.gov.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Websites www.uk www. fire insurers.org www.org.arson-codes.thefpa.interfire.org.ac.com www.uk www. fire investigation safety and fire scene training The Fire Protection Association is the UK’s national fire safety organisation: Safety at Scenes of Fire and Related Incidents www.gardinerassociates.communities. Principles of Fire Investigation provides resources for fire services.com Corporate Investigative Services provide fire analysis consultation services Communities and Local Government for a copy of an FDR1 form Fire Safety Advice Centre The Fire Service College FM Global is an insurance company: Pocket Guide to Arson and Fire Investigation Gardiner Associates is a provider of interagency fire investigation training to police and fire authorities Institution of Fire Engineers: Basic Principles of Building Construction.co.

Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. • N3.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning and interpreting information from forensic science information data sources carrying out calculations from a forensic science information data source They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.3 Interpret the results of your calculations.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. 426 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . N3. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. • interpreting the results of the calculations and presenting the findings in a report justifying your methods. present your findings and justify your methods.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.

using different sources.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects.3 Present combined information such as text with image. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1 Search for information. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. text with number. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. developing.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about building construction and design and how they relate to fire prevention presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation into building construction and design and how they relate to fire prevention reading and synthesising the information from two extended documents to gain an awareness of forensic data preparing a report and poster about the above investigation. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • searching for information about methods that can be used to collect information at a fire scene exploring.1a Take part in a group discussion. • C3. • C3. ICT3. • C3. exchanging and deriving information for the above purposes presenting the information above to audiences.3 Write two different types of documents.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. • • ICT3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 427 . image with number. One document must be at least 1000 words long.

• 428 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • evaluating their investigation plan. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. WO3. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • developing a plan for the investigation carrying out the practical work necessary for their investigation reviewing the practical work for their investigation. WO3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.1 Plan work with others.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future. • LP3.UNIT 36: FORENSIC FIRE INVESTIGATION Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan and targets for a research investigation and consulting and gaining the agreement of their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached. • • PS3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.2 PS3.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives. • LP3.2 Take responsibility for your learning. identifying areas of weakness and ways of overcoming them producing a strategic plan to overcome their weaknesses reviewing their work to assess whether the weaknesses identified are still apparent.

Learners will use word processing. This is a fast-expanding area and much new legislation has been written. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Be able to use computer software to produce a forensic document Be able to use information communication technology to obtain and exchange forensic information Understand the use of the internet and crimes committed using the internet. This unit will provide learners with the opportunity to understand how the criminal community and forensic information technology crime investigators use computers. and how internet and computer misuse is policed Be able to use tools to identify internet activity and describe computer sabotage methods.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Unit 37: NQF Level 3: Forensic Science Informatics BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract This unit gives learners the opportunity to develop their ICT skills to produce an integrated document for use in forensic science. spreadsheet. image editing and webpage software. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 429 . Learners will develop the skills needed to trace. or is being considered. to cover this relatively new area of crime. track and monitor online presence and activity. They will also gain a theoretical knowledge of the use of the laws governing and the criminal activities associated with the internet and the worldwide web. database.

connecting to the internet. import/export data. export and import. file management. service providers Using the internet and intranet: download files or programme. title. uses and abuse of internet. connections eg modems. content and index. datasheet display. edit. use of scientific function.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Unit content 1 Be able to use computer software to produce a forensic document Computer systems architecture: setting up a computer system (input and output devices. internets and extranets. fonts. export and import documents and files. what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) 2 Be able to use information communication technology to obtain and exchange forensic information The internet: uses. different methods of data storage Spreadsheet packages: screen components. switching between worksheets. font size. delete. protocols (TCP/IP. word count. design. toolbars. bold. wizard. manipulation of data. insert-filegraphic. sorting and searching. file format-save. web page creation software eg Microsoft Frontpage. tables. query. online help. operating systems. keying data. opening and saving file in different formats Web page packages: HTML. data entry and edit. grammar and spelling. Textpad. root directory. online help Database packages: types of data. import and export data Graphics packages: uses eg to produce a scene of crime involving use of scanning photo/graphic/text. background colour. the worldwide web. italics. forms and reports. find tools. drawing tools. Notepad. how the web works. basic terminology eg format. moving around in worksheets. drawing tools. amendments. creating a database eg table. text box. FTP. HTTP) 430 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . POP3. adding table. SMTP. create folder. header and footer. chart wizard to different statistical graphics. colours. basic terminology. opening and closing tags eg body. computer network) Word-processing packages: toolbars. storage systems. office assistant. help menu. hyperlinks. border and shading. Macromedia Dreamweaver. word art. selection technique.

European. eg Disability of Discrimination Act 1995. method of operandi (MO) eg suspects. computer imaging 4 Be able to use tools to identify internet activity and describe computer sabotage methods Command prompt: commands (ping. criminal record number. eg Data Protection Acts (1984. Unix. trapdoor. verbal and real evidence. encryption. agency who has jurisdiction or multi agency approach (police. Trading Standards Office). white collar crime Software disablers: home-made programme. building. pinging. anti-spyware BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 431 . commercial encryption packages. public moral/decency. programme converted for the purpose. power of goods/equipment seizure Jurisdiction: local. eg Companies Act 1985. 1989. military secrets. spyware Sabotage protection: firewall. remailer. copying of the entire target computer system onto a media for examination. eg Employment Act 1963. level of security code Forensic agencies aids: Police National Computer (PNC). vehicle. international. protection of system by physical devices (locks). DVLA. methodologies of gathering evidence eg doctrine of documentary evidence. worm. Designs and Patents Act 1988.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS 3 Understand the use of the internet and crimes committed using the internet. self-destruct programme (start up of computer). common laws. logic bomb. virus. tracert) Hacking or cracking: profile of victims and offenders. storage of large data and analysis. HM Revenue and Customs. warrants eg PACE Act 1984. statistical analysis. anti-virus software. DOS. protection of files by encryption software. mapping. pop-up blockers. Serious Fraud Squad. criminal laws eg offences against minors. 1988. eg Race Relation Acts. and how internet and computer misuse is policed Laws: eg Computer Misuse Act 1990. 1988 and 1994 Guidelines). intellectual challenge. commercial loss/gain. eg Copyright. MI5. unformatting programme Hardware disablers: preserve and accurate record (exhibits) Computer sabotage: clipper chip. Trojan horse. national automated finger print identification system (NAFIS). internet boundaries Investigation of computer crimes: identification of crime. eg Sex Discrimination Act 1986. laws on torts. selling sensitive information.

database. 432 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. document formatting one edited image. in addition to the pass criteria. spreadsheet and graphic editing software to produce a forensic document containing a minimum of 500 words. describe the main UK laws of computer misuse D2 D3 D4 P2 use the web to access valid information useful to a forensic case study evaluate the limitations of UK laws in controlling computer misuse evaluate the methods used for policing the internet determine and record the route of a packet to reach five different IP addresses using the tracert command. the learner is able to: M1 use commercial software to produce an integrated forensic document containing scanned images and a short graphic file from the internet D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. P3 describe crimes committed using the internet P4 identify the registrant’s name and address of five IP addresses using the WHOIS database. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: create a web page for use by forensic scientists. imported data and an imported graph M2 M3 M4 explain how the internet is policed calculate and record the time for a packet of data to reach five different IP addresses using the ping command. including two hyperlinks To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 use word processing.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Grading grid In order to pass this unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.

For learning outcome 3 case studies would be an interesting way to learn how internet crimes are committed and investigated and whether the investigation was ultimately successful. The aim is to stimulate and educate the learners so they will be in a position to understand the main ways in which crime is committed using computers and the internet. Documentaries and case studies could be used as a basis for the forensic portfolio. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. and how to track online use. This can then be linked to stating which computer laws have been broken in the case study. Learners should be taught how to search the WHOIS database and use the ping and tracert commands. and the range of courses that higher education can offer. worldwide web and email protocols and how these ensure the correct passage of data. Learners should be encouraged to be independent and. Learning outcome 1 covers the selection and use of software packages to put together a forensic document. Tutors could use a range of techniques to deliver the unit content. This learning outcome can be covered while the learners are completing learning outcome 1. seminars. internet research and use of library resources. It is recommended that learners are fluent with the range of internet. to reflect and act critically. Tutors should use an active and investigative approach to enable learners to achieve the learning outcomes. This learning outcome should involve formal lectures showing learners how to use software packages to produce a portfolio of a forensic nature. over time. including formal lectures. Learning outcome 4 covers identifying internet activity and computer sabotage methods. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 433 . This understanding enables learners to see the range of job opportunities available. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit. discussions. Learners will then be able to undertake tasks requiring them to identify IP address registrants and test the response of hosts to the ping and tracert command. Learning outcome 2 requires the learner to use ICT equipment to obtain and exchange forensic information.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit is largely skills-based. Digital photographs of recreated crime scenes would enable learners to gain experience of editing photographs for forensic purposes.

They must also consider the difficulties encountered in policing the internet. learners must use the ping command to test the response of a host computer.dnsstuff. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. eg geographical. 434 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Graphs could be related to criminal profiling. These tools record packet details to and from the www. For M4. and in the process calculate the time taken for data to reach its destination. They must consider why this is necessary. learners must. For P4. and how far the policing can go before it infringes upon the freedom of the individuals. all the pass. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. They must describe their purpose and how they contribute to policing the internet. For M2. For P1. Learners could be given an opportunity to identify the senders IP address from an email message header and determine the ISP through a DNS WHOIS database.com website rather than from the learners’ PC.dnsstuff. For a distinction grade. They must be able to ascertain the validity of the information they find. use common commercial software to produce a forensic document. For M3. For M1. learners must define the computer sabotage terms and describe the destructive nature of the defined computer sabotage terms. For P2. enabling learners to investigate the associated grading criteria. In this case. It is recommended that the learner use the command prompt. Database activities could involve entering data relating to serial murders or other crimes. The other agencies involved (eg web providers) should be listed. with guidance. that is more advanced in design and presentation than for P1. learners must give details of the policing of the internet. For a merit grade. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. the website www. learners must gather information on the identity of IP registrants from searching the WHOIS database.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Assessment Assessment should be based on a series of practical and theoretical assignments. For P3. learners must be able to navigate their way around the internet efficiently. but firewall restrictions may prohibit this. It is important that data and a graph are imported into the document rather than added as separate sheets into the assignment. but it is a useful substitute. learners must demonstrate awareness of the legislation covering misuse of computers.com has a ping utility which can be used as a substitute. learners must use commercial software to produce an integrated forensic document. It should ideally be problem-based. They must demonstrate a higher-skill ability in compiling the forensic document.

2004) ISBN 0121631044 Jones R — Internet Forensics (O’Reilly. Installation and Maintenance (Newnes. For D2. learners must trace the route a packet of data takes from the learner computer to the destination IP address. learners must assess whether the current UK legislation is effective and sufficient in controlling computer misuse. learners must evaluate the current methods used to police the internet. and suggest more effective ways of controlling computer misuse. For D4. learners will need access to computers and the internet to access the websites shown below. This could be related to another learning outcome whereby the webpage becomes an electronic reference page that links to websites used as sources of information.com has a tracert utility which can be used as a substitute.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS For D1.com website rather than from the learners’ PC. US. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Beales R P — PC Systems. 2005) ISBN 059610006X BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 435 . The difficulties in controlling the internet should be explored and suggestions of more effective methods given. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications The unit has links with: • • • • Unit 9: Informatics Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice. Learners can edit photographs taken in Unit 33: Forensic Photography and include them in the forensic document. Learners are required to make conclusions if legislation is deficient. Links to National Occupational Standards. but it is a useful substitute.dnsstuff. other BTEC units. 2003) ISBN 0750660740 Bejtlich R et al — Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response (Addison Wesley. In this case. 2005) ISBN 0321240693 Casey E — Digital Evidence and Computer Crime (Academic Press Inc. the website www.dnsstuff. It is recommended that the learner use the command prompt. but firewall restrictions may prohibit this. These tools record packet details to and from the www. Essential resources To complete this unit. For D3. Learners should be encouraged to produce their webpage writing actual HTML tags rather than using commercial software such as Microsoft FrontPage. learners must create a HTML webpage with a minimum of two hyperlinks.

com www.org www.com www.whatis.warriorsofthe.virtuallibrarian.apnet.htcia.cops.oreilly. ping and tracert commands Legal website Forensic website High Tech Crime Investigation Association Legal website Computer books.dnsstuff.com www. conferences and online publishing Virtual Librarian Internet website IT website 436 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .lawcrawler.com www.org www.com www.com www.guidancesoftware.com www.com www.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Websites www.findlaw.net www.com IT security website Academic Press International Virtual Librarian Association of Computer Investigative Specialist WHOIS lookup.antionline.

1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 437 .3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • N3.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. N3. • interpreting the results of the calculations and presenting the findings in a report justifying your methods. present your findings and justify your methods. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning and interpreting information from forensic science information data sources carrying out calculations from a forensic science information data source They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3.

text with number. developing and exchanging information and deriving new information for investigations on the different types of computer fraud preparing the report on one of the above investigations.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. One document must be at least 1000 words long. each one giving different information about complex subjects.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about a complex subject such as computer fraud presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation on how criminals use computer and associated technologies using literature sources to read and synthesise information about a complex subject. 438 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . using different sources.2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning.3 Present combined information such as text with image.3 Write two different types of documents. • C3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • ICT3.1a preparing a document about one of the complex subjects as above. • ICT3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. image with number.1a Take part in a group discussion. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. • C3. • C3. carrying out a search and selecting information for investigations on the different types of computer fraud exploring. such as the examples in C3.1 Search for information.

3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. on the basis of the results and conclusions produced. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • • taking part in group work carrying out group work reviewing group work.2 • PS3.1 Plan work with others. • PS3. Take responsibility for your learning. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3.UNIT 37: FORENSIC SCIENCE INFORMATICS Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan for an investigation and consulting and gaining the agreement of their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached. • LP3. WO3.2 • LP3. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • formulating the plan with three options for an investigation identifying and evaluating alternative methods of approach to the investigation. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. WO3.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. and deciding on the approach to be adopted evaluating the plan continuously during the investigation.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.3 Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 439 .2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.

440 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

From this they are able to say how the accident happened. The data gained from crash investigations is used to identify the factors that cause accidents. to act as an expert witness. The unit also covers the legislation associated with road safety. this can of course include air traffic. using the laws of physics. car crashes are sadly a fact of life. This enables them. Learners will study and practice the techniques of evidence-gathering and accident reconstruction as part of the investigation process. railways. Forensic scientists investigate crash sites and gather evidence. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know the major factors that cause car crashes and injury Understand how science is used in the investigation process Be able to investigate a crash scene Know which legislation applies to crash investigations. In this unit learners will look at how and why accidents happen and what is being done to make our roads safer for everyone. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 441 . shipping and people. or to advise on ways of improving safety. to piece together the sequence of an accident. what caused it and whether anyone is to blame.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Unit 38: NQF Level 3: Traffic Accident Investigation BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract With our increasing dependence on road transport for getting around. They may be called to give evidence in court. In this unit learners will look at road safety especially. Learners will also look at the factors (human. Traffic is defined as the movement of any type of vehicle along a route at a given time. A knowledge of these factors allows cars and roads to be designed with safety in mind. This unit involves traffic accident investigations and looks primarily at road accidents. environmental and vehicle) that relate to traffic accidents.

alertness. drugs. principles of velocity. distractions. speeding. repair costs for vehicle. safety cameras. the effect of impact on vehicles. tiredness. insurance 2 Understand how science is used in the investigation process Physics of movement and collision: Newton’s laws of motion. lack of training and experience. drugs. alcohol. seat belts. education. traffic control. distribution of loads. maintenance. conservation of momentum. pedestrians. steering system. community. conservation of energy. dynamic and static forces. cognitive psychology Investigative techniques: accident reconstruction eg manual and computer models. factors affecting it eg environmental conditions. congestion. overloading. signs. hazards. comparative methods. air bags. typical damage sustained Cost: physical injury. emergency services. visibility. braking system. stress. road and property. family. driver rage. mobile phones. personal injuries. road marks and their measurement. kinetic energy. typical injuries sustained Environmental factors: weather conditions. vehicle or human rest position 442 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . documentation. coefficient of friction between road surface and tyres. defective vision or other disability. design and use of roadways Vehicle factors: type and condition of vehicle. vehicle damage. state of.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Unit content 1 Know the major factors that cause car crashes and injury Human factors: human error. Naismith’s rule. environmental. crumple zones. attitudes to drinking. alcohol. pedestrians and property Driver’s reaction: reaction time. tyres (types and defects).

bags. crime investigation aids. risk assessment. video. legal limits for alcohol in body fluids. coefficient of friction. forensic databases 4 Know which legislation applies to crash investigations Definitions: types of vehicle eg motor car. trace evidence techniques eg glass refractive index measurement (GRIM) Investigation aids: communication aids. artificial light (torches). dummies. roadside tests. expert witness. carry passengers and loads). agricultural tractor. MPV. tweezers. accident scene preservation and records (photography. scientific calculator. intoximeters (gas chromatography). ship.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 3 Be able to investigate a crash scene Investigative techniques: skid test. documentation (ages to drive. scapulas. tapings. laws of contract. sled test. magnifier and microscope. tram. claims forms. scene of crime kits. tachograph instruments. head and foot wear. scientific data manuals. other evidence at scene eg trace evidence. exhibit vials. criminal law. skid marks. laws on speeding. weight and force measuring devices. forensic science reports. casts of tyre prints). MGV. crime seal tapes. LPV. local by-laws. tachographs). measurements (tape and scales). casting tools and plaster. aircraft. data gathering (road surface data. interview. county magistrate and higher courts BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 443 . eg Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984 Criminal justice system: reports. tracing paper. tripod. health and safety (codes of practice. engineering tools. thermometer. vehicle manufacturer data manuals. metrology instruments. HGV. drug laws. eg the Road Safety Act 1967 (the Barbara Castle Act). motor bikes. alco-meters. manometer. types of road vehicle eg motor car. rail. SGV. wax crayons. caravans and trailers Road traffic acts: construction and use. packaging and labels. SPV. projectile analysis. protocols) Equipment and materials: camera. sketch plans. proper clothing. measurement. giving evidence under oath.

The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: comment critically on the relative importance of the various factors as causes of road accidents evaluate the relationship between scientific factors and road accident investigations D3 draw conclusions from the practical investigation as to the cause of the accident and evaluate the reliability of the evidence obtained D4 relate road traffic accidents to the applicable legislation. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the major factors that cause road accidents M2 P2 describe how science is used in the investigation of car crashes M3 P3 carry out investigations using given techniques P4 identify the legislation that applies to car crashes. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. M4 444 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: M1 assess the relationship between the major causal factors and road accidents explain the scientific factors associated with road accidents plan their own investigations using appropriate techniques and demonstrate these techniques comment on the effectiveness of the legislation that applies to car crashes. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. in addition to the pass criteria.

the collection. Personal protective equipment. road measurement data and exhibits from the scene could be assessed and processed in a laboratory using appropriate techniques. lectures. a crash scene could be simulated with a ‘skeleton’ of a vehicle with appropriate props. This could be achieved in a variety of ways. safety rules and the Health and Safety at Work Act and other regulations in place in any laboratory or site must be adhered to. These include practicals. presentations. site visits. risk assessments. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining a vehicle. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit. learner presentations and role playing. as well as the chain of continuity and report writing. road and vehicle safety information. drink-driving advertisements. Learners could investigate an accident and formulate a report of their work. seminars. This learning outcome should involve formal lectures and learner research. Learners could visit a vehicle site or use a vehicle to carry out their investigation. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. DVDs. Learning outcome 1 covers the knowledge of the main factors that cause car crashes and injury. discussions. packaging and preservation and transportation of evidence must be explained. local councils. guest speakers. Documentation of the scene. documentaries and case studies could provide additional sources of material. Health and safety issues relating to laboratory work at the centre or site work must be emphasised. As mentioned previously. internet research and use of library resources. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 445 . Learning outcome 2 covers how science is used in the investigation process. the use of COSHH. Education videos and resources could also be used. Approved Codes of Practice (ACoP). Additionally or alternatively. The aim is for learners to conduct an accident investigation and collect a variety of evidence at the scene using appropriate techniques. Videos.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors delivering this unit have the opportunity to use a wide range of techniques. This learning outcome will probably involve formal lectures and learner research. It could also lend itself to peer learning with group discussions. Learning outcome 3 covers the skills needed to investigate a crash scene. It also lends itself to some experimental project work. They should assess their findings and draw conclusions to the cause of the accident. role playing. whilst evaluating the reliability of the evidence. The aim should be to stimulate and educate the learners so they will be in a position to understand the main concepts in accident investigation and its importance in improving safety. and some practical/model work could be carried out in a laboratory to illustrate the science involved. health and safety issues must be strictly adhered to. This learning outcome will probably involve formal lectures and learner research.

learners must assess the relationship between major causal factors and road accidents. For M2. the environmental conditions and the reaction time of the driver. so teamwork and good communication skills are paramount. victims. For P4. However. For P2. They must conduct a simulated accident investigation ensuring that information is gathered in a systematic way paying attention to all relevant details. the surroundings. learners must describe the major factors that cause road accidents. the learners could formulate their own statements and reports to be assessed later or in a mock court situation through role play. many other agencies such as the emergency services attend. For M1. photographic documentation. Alternatively. Positions of vehicle(s). trace evidence positions and damage should all be recorded. some of these details could be worked on using data and photographic images or using a skeleton layout scene (see delivery notes) or computer/video reconstruction. measurements. debris. The learners should exhibit such skills at the scene. For example. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. Learners must produce a detailed accident investigation. analysing trace evidence such as paint or larger items such as a car headlamp or tyre. learners must describe how science is used in the investigation of car crashes. Learners must understand the concepts of appropriate scientific principles and their use in car crash investigations. report writing and role playing. Guest speakers would be particularly useful. Learning outcome 4 covers the legislation that applies to vehicles and crash investigations.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION For especially difficult evidence. including notes and descriptions of the site. learners must explain. learners must identify the legislation that applies to car crashes. Computer stimulations and videos could also be used to show scene data. For a merit grade. Photographs and videos could also be obtained. For P1. the scientific factors associated with road accidents. state of the road. If the tutor is dealing with a mainly laboratory-based investigation. measurements and scales. the coefficient of friction of a surface. in more detail. and the crash investigator’s role in the criminal justice system. This learning outcome should mainly involve formal lectures and learner research. the vehicle(s). learners are still required to carry out investigations using given techniques. 446 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . a variety of expert witness statements of this evidence from an accident could be complied as extra information for the learner’s case in order for them to assess their accident. At accident scenes. Local car pounds or local police could be approached to obtain resources. They must comment on how these factors (whether on their own or combined) can cause road accidents. It could also involve case studies. Specialist guest speakers would be particularly useful. For example. learners must conduct an investigation using given techniques. sketches and plans. Sketches and plans should include a key with directional information. For P3.

The report should be of a high standard. Learners must evaluate the role of the applicable laws and their potential value in their contribution to preventing road traffic accidents. Links to National Occupational Standards. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 447 . etc. with accurate notes. acceptable for court purposes. all the pass. The learners must assess why these laws have been formulated. For instance. learners must comment critically on relationships between major causal factors and road accidents. For M4. swabbing of biological evidence and subsequent appropriate packaging. learners must evaluate the legislation that applies to car crashes. For a distinction grade. an accident caused by overloading. laboratory analysis of glass or measurement of blood alcohol with gas chromatography. Techniques can include photographic evidence of tyre marks. For D4. plans. have the emergency services affected the evidence in any way? This could be formulated in a report format and/or expert witness statement. the speed of vehicle at impact can be calculated using known variables and scientific principles.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION For M3. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to: • • • • • • • • Unit 7: Mathematics for Science Technicians Unit 8: Statistics for Science Technicians Unit 19: Practical Chemical Analysis Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 37: Forensic Science Informatics Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice. and perform these techniques. They must evaluate their findings and assess the reliability of their evidence found. and the relative importance of each factor in causing road accidents. diagrams. learners must plan their own investigation using appropriate techniques to recover evidence from a crash scene. Techniques can be varied but appropriate for the evidence to be recovered. learners must relate road traffic accidents to the applicable legislation. For example. other BTEC units. They must use their knowledge and comment on how these factors could be avoided (if at all) or used to improve road safety. For D2. The learners should be able to classify accidents and the vehicles involved through the applicable legislation. For D3. learners must draw conclusions from the practical investigations as to the cause of the accident. learners must evaluate the relationships between scientific factors and how they can be used with scientific principles in the investigation of road accidents. For example. photographs. For D1.

US. 2002) ISBN 0849312469 Meloan C E and Saferstein R — Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science.en. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Cooper S and Orme M — Practical Road Traffic Law (Blackstone’s Practical Policing Series) (Oxford University Press.pdf www. a learning resource centre equipped with accident investigation and forensic books.gov.thinkroadsafety.hcsp www. scanners.worldbank.gov.wikipedia.com/roadsafety www.uk/stellent/groups/dft_rdsafety/doc uments/sectionhomepage/dft_rdsafety_page.orsa.rospa.hcsp www.dft. 2000) ISBN 0849320208 Websites www. 2006) ISBN 0199296839 James S H and Nordby J J (editors) — Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques (CRC Press Inc. US.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Essential resources Learners need access to simulated car crash scenes.uk/campaigns/drinkdrive/ drinkdrive01. journals. 2000s) ISBN 0849309115 Van Kirk DJ — Vehicular Accident Investigation and Reconstruction (CRC Press Inc.org/wiki/Roadrule_enforcement_camera www. US. 8th Edition (Prentice Hall. periodicals.thinkroadsafety.en.edu/hansondj/DrinkingAndDriving.org/wiki/Safety_Camera_ Partnership www.uk/stellent/groups/dft_control/d ocuments/homepage/dft_home_page.wikipedia. computers.uk/guidance/pdfs/indepth_study_ work_related_road_accidents.org.org/transport/roads/safety.gov. printers and other associated ICT equipment and software. CD ROMs. a forensic science laboratory. 2003) ISBN 0131126814 Noon R K — Forensic Engineering Investigation (CRC Press Inc.potsdam. html Department for Transport Department for Transport road safety Wikipedia definition of safety camera partnership Wikipedia definition of road-rule enforcement camera Department for Transport road safety research report The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents The THINK! Road Safety Website THINK! Drink driving factsheet The World Bank State University of New York drink driving 448 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .uk www.htm www2.gov.htm www.dft.

pepipoo.umich.htm www.uk/roadlaw.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01344.com/Road_Traffic_Acts.uk/press/2004/e04094.uk/basics/roadtrafficcrime.edu/casl/natsci/slc/slconline/GC/sld003.htm www.co.uk/schools/sci/chem/tutorials/chrom/gaschrm.co.gov.pdf www.ac.htm www.uk/examples.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Road traffic laws www.shu.org www.htm www.htm BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 449 .com/breathalyzer.com www.elucidate3d.hse.uk/resource/press_releases/19970321103543.co.lawontheweb.foe.htm www.umd.htm www.htm www.html www.lawontheweb.hse.roadpeace.howstuffworks.gov.co.traffic-answers.

• N3. present your findings and justify your methods. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. N3. 450 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • interpreting the results of the calculations and presenting the findings in a report justifying their methods. obtaining and interpreting data from forensic science information data sources carrying out calculations from a forensic science information data source They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning.2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.

3 Present combined information such as text with image. developing. • C3. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 451 . One document must be at least 1000 words long.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information.1a Take part in a group discussion.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Communication Level 3 When learners are: • taking part in group discussions about major factors that cause road accidents and how these can be prevented to improve safety on roads presenting the results and conclusions of an investigation into major factors that cause road accidents and how these can be prevented to improve safety on roads reading and synthesising the information from two extended documents They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. exchanging and deriving information for the above two purposes presenting the information above to audiences. text with number. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. • ICT3.2 Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. C3.1 Search for information. • ICT3.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. • C3. and multiple search criteria in at least one case. using different sources.3 Write two different types of documents. each one giving different information about complex subjects. • preparing a report and a poster about the above investigation. image with number. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning and carrying out a search for information about methods that can be used to collect information at an accident scene exploring. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3.

1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.3 Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem. • 452 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . WO3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.1 Plan work with others.2 PS3. Working with others Level 3 When learners are: • • developing a plan for the investigation carrying out the practical work necessary for their investigation reviewing the practical work for their investigation. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. and consulting and gaining the agreement of their tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached.UNIT 38: TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan and targets for a research investigation.2 Take responsibility for your learning. • LP3. Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: WO3. identifying areas of weakness and ways of overcoming them producing a strategic plan to overcome their weaknesses reviewing their work to assess whether the weaknesses identified are still apparent.2 Seek to develop co-operation and check progress towards your agreed objectives.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. • LP3. • • PS3.3 Review work with others and agree ways of improving collaborative work in future.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. WO3. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • evaluating their investigation plan.

anthropology. evidence and information in order to determine whether a crime has been committed.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Unit 39: NQF Level 3: Criminal Investigation Procedures BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract A criminal investigation is the thorough and systematic process of using inquiry and examination to gather facts. and unless law enforcements update their procedures regularly then the rate of crime is likely to increase rapidly. biology. including forensic science. Learners will examine the criminal justice system (CJS) and the various agencies involved in the courts and the whole legal process. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the principles of basic criminal investigation Know the aids and tools available to the criminal investigator Understand the legal framework for criminal investigation and the relationship with the CJS Know the methods of crime prevention. prosecuting. Criminality is ever present and constantly evolving. Learners will also have the opportunity to discover and describe methods of crime prevention. Criminal investigation relies on a number of different areas. and convicting perpetrators of crimes. that is. This unit will introduce learners to the various methodologies employed by criminal investigators. psychology and sociology. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 453 . It will focus on the investigation process and the aids to criminal investigations. arresting. The investigation of criminal activity is the bedrock of maintaining law and order in society. The aim of a criminal investigation is to bring someone to justice. ranging from the Home Office Large Major Enquiries System (HOLMES) to the smallest item of evidence gathered from a crime scene.

society. property. autopsy. report writing and presentation of evidence in court eg the investigation plan. covert operations eg directed surveillance. sensitive cases eg racial incidents. electronic facial ID composition programmes. probes. personal records eg telephone. National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS). Post Office Investigations. organised crime. recorded 999 calls. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) database. criminal records. bugs. Automatic Number Plate Recognition. Environment Agency. psychological and behavioural profiling Surveillance techniques: eg CCTV. models of crime investigation. child abuse. IMPACT Programme. computer crime. geographical profiling. military police. common criminal and civil offences. initial response. intrusive surveillance. the incident room. domestic violence. surveillance logs. basic and serious offences. crimes against people. Financial Service Agency. community intelligence 454 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . level and type of criminal investigation. private insurance and fraud industries Types of crime investigation: definition and classification of different crimes. identifying patterns and links. simple and complex criminal investigations. scientific support. role of other investigative agencies eg Serious and Organised Crime Agency. levels of authorisation Sources of information: eg Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO). traffic data surveillance. preliminary and follow-up investigations. investigating leads. tape and video recorded interviews and statements. interception of communication. reports eg crime. Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). scenes of crime officers (SOCOs). use of press and media.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Unit content 1 Understand the principles of basic criminal investigation Stages of the investigative process from crime scene to court: recording of crime. phone tapping. HM Revenue and Customs. profiling techniques eg crime mapping. offender profiling. standard operating procedures and regulation. forensic scientists. other CJS agencies Role and responsibilities of the investigation team: police officers. toxicology. financial. written. intelligence databases eg Police National Computer (PNC). Immigration Service. gathering and analysing facts. terrorism. communications data surveillance. cameras. process of elimination. researching and analysing intelligence systems. operational policing tools and systems eg National Intelligence Model (NIM). major incidents eg train and aeroplane hijacking 2 Know the aids and tools available to the criminal investigator Technical aids: eg scanners. crime statistics. Major Crime Squad. detectives. Home Office Large Major Enquiries System (HOLMES). NHS counter-fraud. National DNA database (NDNAD). ethics.

equipment and protocols. situational and social crime prevention models. reporting and recording of crime. Criminal Procedure Rules. victim and witness support BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 455 . rules of evidence. elements of crime (actus reus and mens rea). Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984. suspect identification methods. corpus delicti. tribunals. jurisdiction Role of CJS agencies and individuals in criminal investigation: eg national and local police forces. Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act. scene of crime examination and evidence recovery. PACE codes and rules of evidence and investigation 3 Understand the legal framework for criminal investigation and the relationship with the CJS Law: the ‘adversarial’ system. circumstantial evidence. communications service provider obligations.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Searching for evidence or persons: powers of police and levels of authorisation. warranty authorisation and laws that govern police power eg Criminal Justice Act Section 9 witness statements. neighbourhood watch. Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA). Criminal Procedures and Investigations Act (CPIA). disclosure of evidence. collateral evidence. code of practice on data retention. victim support. Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). Data Protection Act. National Probation Service. penal system and prison service. environment and other design features. appeals. Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs). premises. opportunity and displacement theory. vehicles and people. courts. search and seizure procedures. Human Rights Act. interaction with other agencies Legislation: arrest. Prosecution of Offences Act. Codes of Practice. types of evidence eg hearsay. collection of forensic evidence and other exhibits. Freedom of Information Act 4 Know the methods of crime prevention Crime prevention: manual and electronic security. NACRO. burden of proof. individual and community methods. education and campaigns. other law enforcement agencies. crimestoppers. definition of crime. direct evidence.

the learner is able to: explain how criminal investigations differ according to the type of crime being investigated evaluate the use of different types of aid used in criminal investigations D3 assess the relationship between criminal investigation and the CJS D4 analyse the positive and negative effects of crime prevention on crime and criminal investigations. stages and processes of criminal investigation M2 P2 describe the types of aid and techniques used in criminal investigations M3 P3 explain the role the CJS plays in criminal investigation M4 P4 describe methods available for crime prevention. To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the roles. 456 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . the learner is able to: M1 describe different types of crime investigations explain how different types of aids are used in criminal investigations to provide intelligence information explain how the different types of legislation govern evidence collection and the criminal investigative process describe how different types of situational and social crime prevention techniques reduce crime. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Grading grid In order to pass this unit. in addition to the pass criteria. in addition to the pass and merit criteria.

CSI. The Bill. This unit should be delivered wherever possible through a practical investigatory approach. eg reviewing current crime prevention media campaigns. eg The Bone Collector. • • • • • • BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 457 . local police station guest speakers. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit. Forensic Detectives examination and investigation of real and mock sources of information. eg Crimewatch. The material in this unit should be introduced through a programme of theory and practical activities. eg police officer from crime prevention unit of local police force. This unit is closely linked with Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice and should be integrated wherever possible. Law and Order.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Essential guidance for tutors Delivery The purpose of this unit is to develop the learners’ knowledge and understanding of the procedures. Copycat. autopsy forms use of recorded radio news broadcasts for discussion and debate criminal investigation case studies. eg the Old Bailey. guided learning and independent learner research. 999 audio recordings. eg witness statements. searching a suspect industrial visits. tuition. eg into different types of criminal investigations and investigators group verbal presentations. Silent Witness. A range of teaching and learning methods may be used including: • • • • • individual. eg differences between situational and social crime prevention models or ethics of surveillance techniques critical use of television. mobile phone crime class and group discussions. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. pair and group research investigations. and the roles and responsibilities of the agencies and individuals involved in criminal investigation. telephone and bank records. Delivery strategies should reflect the nature of the investigative work involved in the criminal investigation by setting applicable crime scenarios and case studies. eg mock investigations of current crime news role play. techniques and tools used to investigate crime. eg reviewing aids and methods used in investigating crime crime prevention case study seminars and workshops. to enable learners to develop their skills and understanding of fundamental concepts required for further development in the area of criminal investigation practices. and crime film and documentary DVDs. eg carrying out surveillance techniques. eg mini-cab rape. local criminal court.

and the different types of information these techniques provide. The different ACPO criminal investigation models should be examined to focus learners’ attention on the similarities and differences of different types of criminal investigations. production of notes/reports on activities and in the compilation of documents. from which they must draw conclusions and interpret the evidence. and related organisations. surveillance techniques and other sources of information that investigators often analyse and investigate to gather intelligence information. and could present their findings in the form of a presentation. from which they must answer short and long answer questions. Although formal lectures will form part of the delivery of this unit. learners should carry out independent research to discover the different departments and legislation. etc. An individual assignment where learners are provided with ACPO guidelines for two different types of criminal investigations. Evidence may be in the form of assignments. Learning outcome 3 explains the role of the CJS in crime investigation. It highlights the acts and legislation controlling the criminal investigation. police powers. Utilisation of these techniques allows investigators to determine whether a crime has been committed and who is responsible. rules of evidence. Learning outcome 2 identifies the range of aids and tools available to the criminal investigator to provide information and facts in a criminal investigation. methods and effects of crime prevention techniques. The following activities are possible ways of generating evidence. Learning outcome 4 outlines the crime prevention methods used to reduce crime and the theory behind these techniques. Assessment A number of different strategies can be used to assess the evidence in this unit and these should be integrated wherever possible. • • 458 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners should investigate a range of crime prevention methods. It also describes the role of individuals and agencies of the CJS in the criminal investigation process. Learners should have an understanding if the effects of prevention methods on crime and society. An individual and/or small-group assignment where learners produce an information poster describing the theory. • An individual and/or small-group assignment where learners investigate a number of sources of information in the context of a criminal case. leaflet or poster. Assessment should be by both written and practical means. It introduces a number of measures available. It discusses the different models of crime prevention and the difference between individual and community measures. Learners should have knowledge of the different stages in a criminal investigation and the different types of investigation for different types of crime.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Learning outcome 1 introduces the different types of criminal investigation. The learning outcome describes the technical and scientific aids. Learners should understand the different roles of these techniques. the processes and procedures employed to investigate crime and the role and responsibilities of the investigation team.

all the pass. and understand how they are used in a criminal investigation. For P4. They must be able to associate the roles and responsibilities of different types of investigator with each stage of the process. learners must describe a range of individual and community crime prevention measures to reduce crime. For a distinction grade. learners must demonstrate a wider knowledge of the CJS agencies and the roles they play in an investigation. For P1.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES This unit balances research and theory to apply the knowledge gained to a series of linked learning activities. For M2. describing how the techniques operate and reduce crime. Learners must summarise the steps in a logical order. Learners must have a greater understanding of the methods. learners must describe a range of different types of aids used to investigate a criminal case. Learners must investigate different techniques and examples of aids and should distinguish relevant information from irrelevant information. For M3. For M4. observed discussions. learners must describe the main stages of the criminal investigation process from crime scene to court. Criminal Procedures and Investigations Act (CPIA) and Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA). They must examine in more detail the role of the investigating team and its responsibilities. Learners must be able to explain the difference between situational and social crime prevention. an understanding of how legislation controls and limits the criminal investigation process. Learners must be familiar with a number of acts of legislation that control the investigation and evidence. The research undertaken and the products of the activities are the most likely sources of evidence for this unit. For P3. All evidence produced must be carefully assessed and validated in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of the stated learning outcomes. learners must apply theory to the different models of crime prevention. Evidence is likely to be produced at results level. formal reports. and provide examples of both. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Learners must show evidence of research into a number of different crime prevention methods and organisations. Learners must also be able to interpret information established from sources of information and other types of aids. requirements and aims of an investigation. For a merit grade. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners must describe the roles and responsibilities of the CJS agencies in the criminal investigation. Evidence of learning outcomes may be in the form of research documentation. learners must fully describe the tools and techniques used in investigations. eg Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act. but opportunities exist for covering more than one learning outcome in an assignment. verbal presentation. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 459 . learners must describe a range of criminal investigation processes with greater explanation of the principles underlying the investigatory process. appropriate role plays or a series of practical exercises. For M1. Learners must also demonstrate. with examples. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. For P2.

Links to National Occupational Standards. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links with: • • • Unit 31: Criminology Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice. 2004) ISBN 0335214908 Quinn F and Elliott C — Criminal Law (Longman. Learners are required to show knowledge of the opportunity theory and the displacement theory. For D4. They must analyse the strengths and weaknesses of different measures. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks English J and English B — Police Training Manual (Contemporary Books. and evaluate their usefulness. learners must evaluate the effectiveness of different crime prevention techniques. Learners must evaluate how the criminal investigation is carried out by individuals within the CJS. 2003) ISBN 0077107314 Milne R and Bull R — Investigative Interviewing: Psychology and Practice (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. For D2. 2007) ISBN 0470016272 Pepper I — Crime Scene Investigation: Methods and Procedures (Open University Press. a basic mugging case and a complicated terrorism charge.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES For D1. Learners must show knowledge of the different roles. resources and interactions between different agencies that come with investigating different types of crime. 2006) ISBN 1405835281 460 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners should be encouraged to visit a police station and make personal enquiries about their work. and must draw conclusions on the effectiveness of the system. They must discuss the appropriate use of different aids in different types of investigation. Learners must review the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques. learners must critically assess the role of the CJS agencies in a criminal investigation. learners must recognise and differentiate between different types of criminal investigation. other BTEC units. learners must assess the use of criminal investigation tools and techniques. For example. quoting crime statistics as reference. For D3. justifying all their arguments. Visiting the courts will enable learners to witness how evidence discovered through the criminal investigation is applied in a court case. Essential resources Learners require library resources and access to the internet.

uk/legal/section20/chapter_d.opsi.gov.ncwc. pdf http://faculty.gov. html#_Toc50351028 www.doc www.police.gov. 2002) ISBN 0113412843 Journal British Society of Criminology Websites http://cbs1.leeds.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Sampson F et al — Blackstone’s Police Investigator’s Manual (Blackstone’s Police Manuals) (Oxford University Press.com www.police.uk www.gov.uk/asp/policies/Data/Hate% 20Crime.homeoffice.police.homeoffice.gcal.htm www.gov.uk/operationalpolicing/powers-pace-codes www.pdf www.gov.ac.html www.gov.gov.acpo.htm www.angelfire.uk/crimeprevention www.uk/law/hamlyn/toc.opsi.uk/law/jbc/papers/DLeary.homeoffice.uk/legal/section16/chapter_f.cps.cjsonline.security.police.uk/security/surveillance/ types-of-surveillance www.uk/si/si2005/20050384.htm www.acpo.cps.uk/surveillance The Art of Storytelling in Police Investigation Lecture notes for criminal investigation ACPO criminal investigation guide for hate crime ACPO Investigation of Volume Crime Manual Criminal Investigation Online Course The British criminal justice system The Crown Prosecution Service Admitting Evidence Under Sections 9 And 10 Criminal Justice Act 1967 Covert surveillance information Crime scenes The Home Office types of surveillance UK Law Online The Metropolitan Police crime prevention information Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996 The Criminal Procedure Rules 2005 PACE codes and police powers The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 461 .h tml www.htm www.ac.uk/asp/policies/Data/volume_ crime_manual.uk/acts/acts1996/1996025.edu/TOConnor/315/ 315lects.met. 2005) ISBN 0199287597 The Home Office — Covert Surveillance: Code of Practice (The Stationery Office Books.crimescene.com/mi/cj243/index.

Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. • evaluating crime prevention methods in the reduction of crime. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning an investigation on the different types of crime prevention methods analysing the statistics of crime reduction They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. N3.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.2 462 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. • N3. present your findings and justify your methods.

2 • writing a report on the role of the CJS and legislation in criminal investigations. text with number. • • ICT3.3 Present combined information such as text with image. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. ICT3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.1a Take part in a group discussion.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 463 . Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching the roles of different members of an investigating team determining which stage in the criminal investigation process each member contributes to creating a poster detailing the roles and responsibilities of the investigating team at each step of the process.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material. • C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. using different sources. One document must be at least 1000 words long.1 Search for information.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the different sources of information available to the criminal investigator presenting information about different technical aids researching surveillance techniques They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • C3.3 Write two different types of documents. image with number. C3.

1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.UNIT 39: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • preparing time plans to meet assignment work submission deadlines researching information in preparation for assignment work assessing feedback from assignment work.2 • LP3. • LP3. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3.3 464 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Take responsibility for your learning.

Scientific principles underlie the discovery. We rely on law enforcement agencies and the criminal justice system (CJS) to help maintain law and order. recovery and processing of evidence found at a crime scene. and learners will discover the importance of effective presentation of that evidence at a trial. It is the practical application to the specific criminal case that determines which procedures are necessary. The presentation of this evidence in a court of law is the culmination of the criminal investigation. A criminal investigation is defined as ‘an investigation conducted by police officers with a view to it being ascertained whether a person should be charged with an offence. The principles and processes underlying any type of criminal investigation are the same. giving learners the opportunity to apply these methods in practical scenarios. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Understand the scientific principles underlying a criminal investigation Understand the theoretical and practical techniques of criminal investigation procedures and their application in a practical setting Be able to use fundamental interviewing techniques to obtain intelligence information Understand the role of the investigator and demonstrate effective investigative skills.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Unit 40: NQF Level 3: Criminal Investigation Practice BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract We don’t live in a crime-free society. This unit will build on the methodologies introduced in Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures with additional theories and practices. Learners will study and apply the interviewing techniques required to elicit this information. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 465 . Criminal investigations are essential to identify and locate crime offenders and bring them to justice. or whether a person charged with an offence is guilty of it’. and learners will discover how best to present the evidence to achieve the desired result. Learners will study these scientific principles and apply them in a practical scenario. Some of the information required by investigators can only be obtained by interviewing victims and witnesses to crime.

investigation of physical evidence eg document and handwriting analysis. investigative reasoning. preservation of the scene and evidence. drug analysis and environmental profiling. other witnesses.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Unit content 1 Understand the scientific principles underlying a criminal investigation Crime scene examination: types and variations of scene eg buildings. sketching. court case preparation and verbal presentation of evidence. objective records. crime statistics. reporting to the media. utilising appropriate resources. footprint casting and tool impressions. fingerprint powdering. health and safety precautions. suspects and offenders Analysis: investigating lines of enquiry. photographing scene and evidence. searching people and premises. footprint casting. types of forensic evidence and equipment. preventing contamination. transport and storage Laboratory examination: processing of biological and chemical forensic evidence eg fingerprinting. reviewing results. modus operandi. giving evidence 466 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . documentation of the scene and evidence eg photography. audio recordings. outdoors. crime scene search techniques and methods of exhibit collection. fibres. sources of information eg witness statements. note taking. closed circuit television (CCTV) images. primary and secondary research. first officer attending scene. CCTV analysis. imaging and digital imaging techniques 2 Understand the theoretical and practical techniques of criminal investigation procedures and their application in a practical setting Collection and preservation: initial response. forensic analysis of evidence eg DNA profiling. continual chain of evidence. body fluids. crime scene examination and evidence recovery. questioning of victims of crime. identifying patterns and drawing conclusions. accurate. expert witness role in court. evidence packaging. packaging. interviews. surveillance. eyewitness. detailed. documentation records. DNA. database records. obtaining warrants. transportation and storage. personal protective equipment (PPE). report writing. security of evidence. identification of difficulties eg weather. eg contemporaneous notes. informants. anti-contamination techniques. temperature. reporting to the police. vehicles. PACE orders. evaluation and interpretation of evidence in context of the specific criminal case Presentation: methodical.

eyewitness testimony. professional and personal responsibility. use of open and closed questions. foreign. developing and testing hypotheses. identifying links and patterns. contemporaneous note taking. models of memory. interview conduct. detecting deception 4 Understand the role of the investigator and demonstrate effective investigative skills Development of investigative skills: objectivity. cultural/social differences. inappropriate use of force. multiple choice questions. assessing evidential value. interpreting evidence Practical effectiveness: responsibility. moral and ethical behaviour. self-monitoring. written and verbal presentation skills. written reports/paper and assessment. planning. potential sources of material.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE 3 Be able to use fundamental interviewing techniques to obtain intelligence information Interviewees: victim and suspect/offender statements. professionalism. vulnerable witnesses eg elderly. false confessions. hearsay evidence Interview techniques: types of interview and interrogation techniques. giving evidence in court Investigating assessing the total situation: accurate and ethical recording of crime. unbiased. cognitive interview. eg interview models. tape recording. report writing. respectfulness Communication: non-verbal communication. video recording. corroborative. location. collation and analysis of information. professional experts Interviewer: dealing with the public. criminal investigation interview. non-verbal observation and communication skills. preparation. effective relationships. young. circumstantial. dealing with conflict and ambiguity. leading or misleading questions. disabled. social and relationship skills. verbal and effective listening. drawing conclusions. ethical use of investigative powers BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 467 .

The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. the learner is able to: evaluate the application of the scientific techniques to a criminal investigation and the importance of the various types of evidence which could be collected from scenes of crime discuss the limitations of the collection and analysis of evidence and the evidential value of the evidence in a specific criminal investigation D3 evaluate the criminal investigative interviewing techniques and accuracy of information provided by a witness to a crime D4 explain how effective investigative and communication skills aid a criminal investigation. applying scientific principles to the recovery and analysis of evidence explain the methodology employed in the collection. Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. D2 D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: M1 analyse the scientific evidence and interpret the results. in addition to the pass criteria. analysis and presentation of evidence describe the techniques used for criminal investigative interviewing. analyse and present evidence as if in the context of a specific criminal investigation M3 P3 apply the techniques of criminal investigative interviewing to gather information from a witness to a crime M4 P4 demonstrate investigative and communication skills in the context of a criminal investigation.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Grading grid In order to pass this unit. 468 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the scientific principles and demonstrate the techniques used in the recovery of evidence at a crime scene and laboratory analysis of evidence in a criminal investigation M2 P2 collect. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. providing examples of appropriate and inappropriate lines of questioning describe the role of the investigator and the skills needed to carry out an effective investigation.

techniques and tools used to investigate crime. Delivery strategies should reflect the nature of the investigative work involved in the criminal investigation by setting applicable crime scenarios and case studies. This unit should be delivered wherever possible through a practical investigatory approach. eg presenting findings from a crime scene examination seminars and workshops. can be learned and practiced to a level that can be applied to a wide variety of circumstances. eg into different types of forensic evidence or examining the crime scene group verbal presentations. giving evidence in court industrial visits. eg interviewing witnesses and victims.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Essential guidance for tutors Delivery The purpose of this unit is to develop learners’ knowledge and understanding of the practical application of the procedures. to allow learners to develop their skills and understanding of fundamental concepts required in the area of criminal investigation procedures and practices. and the examination of evidence in situ and in the laboratory. It develops learners’ knowledge and skills from Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures and the material should be cross-referenced wherever possible. The necessary skills. pair and group practical research investigations. eg the Old Bailey. tuition. Interviewing suspects and witnesses is also an essential part of a criminal investigation. A range of teaching and learning methods may be used including: • • • • • • • • • • individual. guided learning and independent learner research. eg investigation and communication skills mock court sessions where learners play the role of prosecution. defendant and witness class and group discussions. Assessment could be by both written and practical means. eg considering the types of skills and qualities a criminal investigator should possess use of recorded radio news broadcasts for discussion and debate criminal investigation case studies. The material in this unit should be introduced through a programme of theory and practical activities. eg mock investigations of current crime news role play. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered. collection of exhibits. local criminal court. local police station guest speakers. The unit will allow the learners to take part in practical activities such as fingerprinting. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 469 . eg police officer from crime prevention unit of local police force. defence. both personal and team-based. and learners will have the opportunity to demonstrate their interviewing abilities. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit.

Setting out a scene of crime. The processing of a crime scene and forensic evidence is examined in further detail. This learning outcome links closely to learning outcomes 1. This learning outcome may be taught in conjunction with learning outcome 1 and the grading criteria assessed together. Assessment A number of different assessment strategies can be used to measure the achievement of evidence in this unit and these should be integrated wherever possible. a non-scientific practical case scenario can be utilised involving a paper and internet-based investigation. Learning outcome 4 reviews the skills that the crime investigator must possess in order to carry out effective investigations. Learners should improve the crime scene and forensic practical skills introduced in Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis. Learners should gain practical experience of the techniques and processes. and use a number of different aids and techniques in the collection and analysis of information and evidence. as well as skills in interpreting forensic evidence. allowing for the collection of a variety of evidence types. using either audio or visual methods. research a variety of sources of information. The following activities are possible ways of generating evidence. production of notes or reports on activities. Learners must consider the evidence. It highlights and summarises a number of important investigation. eg from video. Learners could watch a number of different types of interview being carried out. • Small-group assignments where learners investigate a mock criminal case. 2 and 3 and the grading criteria may be assessed together. Evidence may be in the form of assignments. utilising appropriate skills and aids. It introduces the learner to the different models of criminal investigatory interview and the theory behind the methods used. including contamination and chain of continuity issues. Learning outcome 2 draws on a number of other learning outcomes in this unit and from Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. eg an aggravated burglary scene. • 470 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Learning outcome 1 builds on the learners’ knowledge of the scientific aids used to collect and analyse evidence in a criminal investigation. Learners themselves could be recorded. and the compilation of documents. Learning outcome 3 develops learners’ knowledge of the criminal investigation interview discussed in Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. draw conclusions based on the evidence and present this evidence to the police in the form of a written statement. This will allow them to review their technique. Assessment should be by both written and practical means. communication and personal skills that have been described in other learning outcomes in this unit and Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. The learners should also be given the opportunity to present their evidence to a mock court where they will take the role of the expert witness investigating the case. Learners should gain a deeper understanding of the issues involved. Alternatively. and should gain practical experience of both conducting interviews and being interviewed via role play. It requires learners to carry out a practical criminal investigation.

learners must carry out a mock criminal investigation utilising a number of types of aid and maintaining a casefile. For M1. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. For P3. The research undertaken and the products of the activities are the most likely sources of evidence for this unit. learners must carry out an investigative interview of an eyewitness to a mock crime. For M3. the criminal investigative interviewing techniques that they should have used to interview the witness. where the learners can record themselves on tape or video and assess the interview and performance. Learners must determine the line of questioning prior to the interview. and make notes during the interview. learners must use basic investigative and communication skills in the context of a specific criminal case.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE • A role play that puts into practice the techniques of interviewing. Learners must prepare their evidence to the ‘police’ in the form of a written report and a verbal presentation. drawing creative and accurate conclusions in the context of the case. Learners must also provide examples of types of questions that should not be used in this type of interview situation. Learners must analyse the scientific evidence and results of the analysis. learners must understand how scientific aids enable the investigator to suitably recover and analyse evidence. analysis and presentation that were used in the mock criminal investigation. learners must have a clear understanding of the investigator’s responsibilities and role. learners must describe. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 471 . For M2. but opportunities exist for covering more than one learning outcome in an assignment. Evidence is likely to be produced at results level. For M4. This unit balances research and theory to allow knowledge gained to be applied to a series of linked learning activities. learners are required to write a report of the interview and their findings. the techniques of collection. learners must carry out a basic examination of a mock crime scene and simple laboratory analysis. in the written report. All evidence produced must be carefully assessed and validated in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of the stated learning outcomes. observed discussions. For a merit grade. For P2. Evidence of learning outcomes may be in the form of research documentation. and compare the information they have gathered to the original television mock crime. both in the written report and while giving evidence in ‘court’. Based on the results of the practical investigation learners must determine the effective and accurate identification of a ‘suspect’. Learners must effectively recover evidence at the scene using the appropriate collection methods and packaging. verbal presentation. appropriate role plays or a series of practical exercises. For P1. Afterwards. formal reports. learners must describe fully. The evidence should then be efficiently processed in the laboratory using the correct techniques and equipment. For P4. All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit.

learners must consider the problems and constraints encountered while collecting and analysing evidence and information in a criminal investigation. and assess the value of forensic science to the criminal investigation. For D2. Links to National Occupational Standards. Learners must appreciate the relevance and value of different types of evidence. Visiting law courts will allow the learner to witness how evidence discovered through the criminal investigation is presented in a court case.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE For a distinction grade. For D1. Learners must describe psychological theory of the ‘model of memory’ to justify the use of the cognitive interview. determining the strengths and weaknesses of the case. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links with: • • • • Unit 31: Criminology Unit 32: Forensic Evidence Collection and Analysis Unit 33: Forensic Photography Unit 39: Criminal Investigation Procedures. For D3. learners must evaluate the necessity for a criminal investigator to possess very good investigative and communication skills. Learners should be encouraged to practice their photography skills prior to attempting the scenes of crime exercise. all the pass. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. learners must review the criminal investigative interviewing techniques and the advantages of these methods over others. Essential resources Learners must have access to library resources and the internet. For D4. Learners must also assess the evidence in the mock criminal investigation. 472 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . other BTEC units. learners must establish the suitability of the scientific techniques and aids used in a criminal investigation. and how a criminal investigation can rely on these skills and the ability and competence of the investigator.

2005) ISBN 0131144006 Fleisher W L and Gordon N — Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques (Academic Press Inc US.crimeandclues. 2004) ISBN 0130432512 Milne R and Bull R — Investigative Interviewing: Psychology and Practice (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.uk/archive/ 00000508 www.ac.tncrimlaw.ecs.htm www.com/testimony.crime-scene-investigator.ac.soton.co.a-levelpsychology.net www.htm Interviewing Witnesses: What Works and What Doesn’t? Enhancing the Practicality of the Cognitive Interview in Forensic Situations A-level psychology online Chapter 3: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory The Art and Science of Criminal Investigation: Testimonial Evidence Crime Scene Investigator Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation Index BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 473 .UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Dean J R et al — Practical Skills in Forensic Science (Practical Skills Series) (Prentice Hall. 2007) ISBN 0470016272 White P C — Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials of Forensic Science (The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2004) ISBN 0854046569 Journals British Society of Criminology Forensic Science International Journal of Forensic Science Websites http://psycprints.soton.ecs.com/forensic/fsbindx. 2006) ISBN 0123694906 Jackson A R W and Jackson J — Forensic Science (Prentice Hall.uk/archive/ 00000498 http://psycprints.uk/online/ as/chapter03 www.

2 • writing an essay on the underlying theory of the interview models and their applications. Communication Level 3 When learners are: • discussing the types of skills and qualities a criminal investigator should possess presenting the evidence findings in a mock criminal investigation researching different types of interview technique They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. • establishing whether there is sufficient evidence to prosecute a suspect.1 N3. C3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • • planning a crime scene examination determining the population statistics for fingerprint.1a Take part in a group discussion. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. each one giving different information about complex subjects. blood types or DNA profiles They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. present your findings and justify your methods. N3. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.3 Write two different types of documents.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. One document must be at least 1000 words long. • C3. 474 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . • C3. Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long.2 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources.1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.

• Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • preparing time plans to meet submission deadlines for assignments researching information in preparation for assignment work assessing feedback from assignments. ICT3. image with number.2 • LP3.UNIT 40: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PRACTICE Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • researching material for a mock criminal investigation presenting the evidence findings in a mock court. Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Take responsibility for your learning. using different sources. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. text with number. • LP3.3 Present combined information such as text with image. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met.1 Search for information.3 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 475 .

476 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

By examining the research methods used by journalists to make their stories newsworthy. gather information and present the finished stories to us in the form of newspaper articles. or to a wrongful conviction if the police are diverted from finding the truth because of biased material. figures. Learners will also be introduced to the facts. society and politics Be able to apply research methods to investigate the effects of the media on aggression and criminality Know the legal and social constraints on the media Understand that media bias can exist and can influence society’s attitude to crime. a dangerous criminal can be given the chance to re-offend if a news report leads to a criminal case collapsing. which influence the public’s opinion on issues relating to crimes. and there are a number of reasons why a news report might be inaccurate. media. For example.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Unit 41: NQF Level 3: Forensic Media and Crime BTEC National Guided learning hours: 60 Unit abstract Most of the public’s knowledge about crime and criminal issues in society comes from the media. News journalists research. impartial news reporting can have severe consequences. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 2 3 4 Know the relationship that exists between crime. radio broadcasts. They will learn the fundamental theory and practical scientific methods used to research crime-related issues. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 477 . In the criminal context. This unit introduces learners to some of the techniques used by the media. we can achieve some insight into how this may happen. We must take into account the possibility that the information presented to us by the media is sometimes biased. etc. documentary films. fiction and stereotyping used by the wider media. Research has shown that the way the media portrays crime and criminals affects society’s perception of them. Learners will begin to understand how crime is reported by the media and the effects on society and law.

radio. international pressures 2 Be able to apply research methods to investigate the effects of the media on aggression and criminality Research planning: types of practice/procedures. public speeches. eg HMSO publications. studies of official statistics. ultra-violence or imagined violence. posters. Law and Order. Crimestoppers. leaflets. television crime series eg The Bill.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Unit content 1 Know the relationship that exists between crime. participant and non-participant observation Evaluation and analysis: quantitative and qualitative data. political bias). hypodermic syringe model. moral panic. Charlie’s Angels Society: eg concept of multi-cultural society eg minority groups. society and politics Media in the UK and their users: newspapers (different types. analysing messages in films. tabloids and court sentencing. documentaries eg Panorama. exploiting public outrage Film: eg controversial moments in film history. advertisements. professional journals. hidden agendas in the media. primary and secondary research Research methods: eg questionnaire. physiological and psychological effects of cinema. refugees Politics: eg main and minor parties and their influence on certain media and crime issues. sexual orientation. large organisation with voluntary or statutory pressures. film. homeless. data/information from questionnaires. social groupings. meetings The printed word: history. face-to-face interview. catharsis Television: news reporting of crime. media. television. Crimewatch. crime films eg The Godfather. crime statistics 478 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . two process model. internet. interviews.

value of news reporting Legal constraints: eg court orders. ethnic. threats. representation of crime in and across a range of media. High Courts. gender and sexual orientation Types of media bias: ideology (media’s private desire to affect public opinion in a particular direction). people of different social. society’s perception and fear of crime Media bias: eg prejudice and stereotypes. reporting of different types and causes of crime. Commission for Racial Equality (CRE). Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) Social issues: patriotism. crime 4 Understand that media bias can exist and can influence society’s attitude to crime Media representation of crime: press representations of crime and criminality. media bias towards and against certain types of crime.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME 3 Know the legal and social constraints on the media Ethical issues: role of the journalist and the media. slander and defamation. trial by media BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 479 . disability commission. code of ethics. criminal and civil law. legal procedure. pleading and compensation Government and other watchdogs: Press Complaints Commission. ‘spin’ (media’s attempt to create a memorable story).

the ways in which the media demonstrates a bias. in addition to the pass and merit criteria. 480 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Grading criteria To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that. the learner is able to: M1 M2 M3 describe and explain three situations where the media have been in breach of social and/or legal constraints and the consequences of these breaches explain. M4 D4 explain why the media are so influential with respect to how they report and portray crime. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. the learner is able to: evaluate the relationship between media and crime evaluate the use of research methods used by the media to investigate crime evaluate the need for legal and social constraints on the media To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: P1 describe the relationship between the media and crime P2 describe research methods used by the media P3 describe the legal and social constraints on the media P4 describe ways in which media presentation of crime may influence society’s attitude towards crime.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Grading grid In order to pass this unit. using three examples. the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. in addition to the pass criteria. explain how the media uses research methods to investigate crime D2 D3 explain the relationship between media and crime D1 To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that.

eg journalist from local newspaper. A range of teaching and learning methods may be used including: • • • • • • • • • • • • individual. legal and political issues can be taught by didactic means. Delivery strategies should reflect the criminological and wider legal and sociological issues of the media. eg reviewing research methods used in investigating crime crime case study seminars and workshops. which should be periodically reviewed by the learner from the feedback from peers and tutors. While the sociological theory. eg debating the effect of the media on society media case study role play. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in this unit. eg on types of media bias use of recorded radio news broadcasts for discussion and debate industrial visits. The learner should be encouraged to use the concept of ‘experiential learning cycle’ and action-planning. eg local radio station guest speakers. the remainder of the unit should be based on self-directed research. guided learning and independent learner research. Appropriate case studies and past and current UK and US media examples should be used whenever possible. eg reviewing different newspaper and television coverage of current crime issues class and group discussions.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Essential guidance for tutors Delivery The purpose of this unit is to develop learners’ knowledge and understanding of the media and their portrayal of crime. eg journalist arguing against a member of the Press Complaints Commission producing posters and information leaflets. where the tutor is a facilitator for delivery of a topic. pair and group internet and/or newspaper research investigations use of ICT to produce reports and analyse results use of websites to research news articles and crime stories use of Level 3 psychology textbooks to investigate research methods group verbal presentations. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 481 . The material contained in this unit should be introduced through a programme of tuition. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered.

and many current issues in the news may be used as examples to ensure learners fully understand each side of the arguments. Learners should be guided to Home Office reports and statistics. The links between media and aggression and media and crime should be established. Albert Bandura’s social learning theory and the ‘Bobo doll’ experiment. presentations. essays. Current media topics may be used to demonstrate. Learning outcome 2 describes the research methods used to investigate crime and calculate the effect of media on crime. Discussion groups can be used to debate the issues and learners may formally present their investigations in the form of posters. Learners should have knowledge of the legislation concerning protecting the public. Learner outcome 4 is closely linked. ethnic.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Learning outcome 1 introduces the different types and the history of media and identifies the sociological and political issues and their relationship with the media. for example. and how crime is reported. and may be delivered in conjunction with. and people of different social. News on the radio and television can be recorded and used as lesson material. learners should recognise possible bias within the media and the power the media have on the law and society’s perception of crime. and the responsibilities of the media to protect society. Learners should have knowledge of the effects media have on aggression and criminality. how the same story may be reported differently by different newspapers and television news broadcasts. Psychological experiments may be reviewed. Learners should understand the consequences the media and society face when the boundaries are crossed and what ethical issues are involved. How crime is reported differently by the media should be investigated. Learners should have an understanding of research methods and design. and the analysis and interpretation of crime results. the experimental process. It describes the prejudice of the media and their bias in reporting different types of crimes committed by different sections of society. It describes the media representation of crime. how different types of crime are reported and whether they are reported fairly. and how the media may be prejudiced and biased against certain types of crime. and learners should carry out independent research to discover different types of media and the effects the media have on politics and society. for example. Learners should also have knowledge of the effect media have on society and law. as well as news reports on crime in society. Learning outcome 3 explains the social and legal constraints on the media. This learning outcome lends itself well to learner debate and role play. etc. This learning outcome should also reflect on society’s perception of crime and how the media can cause fear of crime in society. and why these limitations are necessary. learning outcome 1. Current media topics and specific criminal case studies may be used to demonstrate and examine. Formal lectures should form part of the delivery of this unit. how the same story may be portrayed differently by different newspapers and television news broadcasts. and the influence these have on the media. gender and sexual orientation backgrounds. for example. Linked closely with learning outcome 4. 482 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Learners should understand the difference between types of media.

Learners should also identify what the media do during primary and secondary research and the difference between them. any movie in which crime is featured (eg Tomorrow Never Dies. Learners should also identify the responsibilities of the journalist. personal reasons a news reporter might have for behaving unethically and the possible consequences there might be for news reporters. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 483 . interviews. media companies or the people the media write about. For P2. etc. Metro. gender and sexual orientation backgrounds. Lethal Weapon). For example. They must identify the way that the media portray crime and how this appears to affect the attitudes and behaviour of their audience. Learners should understand why some journalists may sometimes break the law in order to publish a news story. Learners should give evidence from research that supports this view. Die Hard. Learners should research a recent news item for which they can demonstrate the legal and social constraints on the media and draw examples from the item to illustrate their account. Discovery Channel.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Assessment All the pass grade criteria must be met in order for a learner to achieve this unit. and the influence that reporting can have on attitudes to crime. Learners must be able to identify the application of the Data Protection Act 1998. BBC News 24. and draw examples from them to illustrate their account. all the pass grade criteria and all the merit grade criteria must be met. Silent Witness). learners must identify different types of media and demonstrate how the media choose to report crime to their audience. any relevant factual television documentary/news programme/channel (eg Crimewatch UK. Sky News. learners must identify and outline both the legal and social constraints on the media with reference to at least one news item within the last year. Learners should have knowledge of the difference between quantitative and qualitative data. such as research into a fictional serialised television programme in which crime is featured (eg CSI. and any national or local newspaper (eg The Times. such as questionnaires. The British Crime Survey should be discussed. The Sun). For a merit grade. ethnic. They must identify prejudice against certain types of crime. both individual and collective. and people of different social. if their behaviour is not ethical. For P4. and formulate conclusions on the influence of each on attitudes to crime. For P1. They must analyse given sources and distinguish between what is fact and what is opinion. learners may refer to the news stories regarding the treatment of individuals by the media since release from prison. Horizon). Learners must identify examples of research method and the type of journalist that might use the technique. the Human Rights Act 1998 or the Race Relations Amendment Act 2003 and should demonstrate how the law protects members of the public from the actions of the media. learners must identify the different types of bias in the media when reporting crime and how the reporting influences society’s attitude towards crime. Learners must show an understanding of how crime is presented by the media. For P3. learners must identify the social survey methods the media use to research and investigate crime. studies of official statistics. The legal and social constraints discussed must be relevant to UK law. and of the influence that it has on attitudes to crime. They must show an appreciation of the structure of the media in Britain.

They must carry out detailed evaluation of issues of crime. Learners should have knowledge of how the code helps journalists to prevent the law from being broken. For a distinction grade. For M1. They must draw from conflicting sources and formulate and justify views on the influence of these sources on various sections of the public. Government watchdogs and the risk of retribution by the victim. The legal constraints that learners should discuss include civil and criminal legislation and penalties. The principles of the journalists’ code of practice should be identified. merit and distinction grade criteria must be met. media and legal policies when media are in breach of these constraints. whether such representations are a true or distorted reflection of social reality. and how the portrayal of crime by the media appears to affect the attitudes and behaviour of their audience. Learners should investigate two additional media case studies for reference. ideology and ‘spin’. identifying how the same issue is portrayed in various ways and formulating and justifying views on the reasons for the differences identified. 484 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . all the pass. ie those relating to relevant legal constraints as well as those that appeal to matters of ‘common decency’. Three different news items must be used as examples to highlight different biased perspectives and the effects of impartial reporting in these specific cases must be demonstrated. showing how sections of the media seek to influence public opinion through the way they present examples of crime and criminal behaviour. The social constraints that learners should discuss include risks associated with adverse publicity. They must evaluate information presented in the media and distinguish clearly between information and opinion. For M2. These views should include the existence and origin of any bias found. Examples of media research into a specific crime should be investigated and analysed. Learners should describe the hypodermic syringe model and the 2-step flow-process model. They must investigate how data from different sources are analysed and utilised by the media. learners must carry out more in-depth research and expand their discussions to provide a fuller account of the scope of legal and social constraints they have identified as relevant to their chosen scenario. learners must describe and explain different biases the media have portrayed when reporting crime. Learners must discuss the way which media portray crime. Learners must show both independence and objectivity in analysis and evaluation of the presentation of crime and criminal behaviour in the media. learners must describe different types of media and explain how the media choose to report crime to their audience. Learners should be aware of the role of the Press Complaints Commission and the reasons given by the government for setting up this watchdog should be explained. eg potential loss of popularity and/or earnings. Learners must understand how the research methods allow news reporters to carry out the responsibilities of their role. For M3. For M4. Learners should fully understand the limitations and consequences to the public.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Learners must show an understanding of the theoretical principles underlying the portrayal of crime in the media. learners must explain how research methods are used by and can be useful to journalists when investigating crime. Learners should describe with examples the difference between ideology and ‘spin’.

all daily newspapers. political leaflet advertisements. Learners should understand the effectiveness of different types of research and should clearly describe where inaccuracies and bias in reporting can occur. television. Learners must discuss how effective the media code of practice is in restraining and limiting the behaviour of the media. Learners should also have access to a learning resources centre with books on law. social norms and politics. learners must describe the extent to which the media’s portrayal of crime affects the attitudes or actions of their audience. Links to National Occupational Standards. other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit has links to: • • • Unit 34: Criminal Psychology Unit 35: Forensic Psychology Unit 40: Criminal Investigation Practice. cable and satellite television networks. For D3. Learners should indicate the benefits of using certain methods over others. crime. forensic science and crime. learners must research more broadly and present a detailed discussion to explain why it is necessary to have legal and social constraints on the media. the law and society.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME For D1. Learners should explain how effectively Government watchdogs constrain and model the media code of practice. Learners must also explain the role ideology and ‘spin’ plays in society. Statistics and specific examples must be used to clearly demonstrate the relationship between media. For D4. AM and short wave band radio. and the advantage to journalists of using specific research methods. other BTEC units. The positive and negative effect of bias on society must be discussed. Ideally. Learners should have a critical understanding of the media’s role in shaping society. the media. Learners must discuss how the fear of crime affects society. VHF. eg in the way the data are collected. learners must analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the research methods used by the media to investigate crime. Essential resources Learners need access to ICT equipment (multi-media computers). and the consequences of those retributions to the victim. and the ethics of socially sensitive research. professional journals. For D2. and how and why society’s perception of crime is affected by the media. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 485 . society and the law. analysed or portrayed to the public. learners should also analyse whether it is possible to demonstrate that media messages have a significant effect on the audience. learners must explain why the media is so powerful with respect to how it reports and portrays crime. This could include information about retribution taken by victims against unethical media practices.

2000) ISBN 081333487X Flanagan C and Russell J — Research Methods for Edexcel Psychology (Nelson Thornes Ltd.demon. Class.co.html www.htm#crime www. 2000) ISBN 1575001772 Other publications All England Report on Crime — HMSO publication Websites www.carf. 2001) ISBN 0520219783 Chambliss W J — Power. Politic and Crime (Crime and Society Series) (Westview Press Inc. Television and Popular Music Teach Us About Race.ac.dpa.uk/GCSE/Sociology/1.uk 486 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . US. 2000) ISBN 0765603373 Jacobs R N — Race. 2005) ISBN 0748794336 Hachen D — Sociology in Action: Cases for Critical and Sociological Thinking (Sage Publications Inc.courseworkhelp.co.htm www.gov. 1999) ISBN 0582317401 Best J — Damned Lies and Statistics: Untangling Numbers from the Media.or.lancs.anxietyculture.html www. 2000) ISBN 0521625785 Reeves B and Nass C — The Media Equation: How People Treat Computing.eoc. Politicians and Activists (University of California Press.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Anderson P J and Weymouth A — Insulting the Public?: British Press and the European Union (Longman.uk/feat29. 1998) ISBN 1575860538 Swann P — TV Dot Com: The Future of Interactive Television (TV Books. Gender and Social Orientation (M E Sharpe.com/rantarchive.uk/media/guidetj. Television and New Media Like Real People and Places (University of Chicago Press.uk/summary.htm Anxiety Culture web magazine The Campaign against Racism and Fascism (CARF) examines the statistical relationship between ethnicity and the likelihood of committing a crime The Commission for Racial Equality summary of the Data Protection Act The Equal Opportunities Commission www.cre. Media and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to Rodney King (Cambridge University Press. 2001) ISBN 0761986634 Holtzman L — Media Messages: What Film.

irr.html#questionnaire www.statistics.rethink.homeoffice.gov.uk/enforce/enforcementguide/court /reporting/defamation.ac.org.ofcom.html www.mediawise.uk/index2.org.gov.php?id=708 www.uk www.asp?id=267 Rethink Organisation official national statistics example of crime statistics BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 487 .UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME www.gov.humanrights.org.longroadmedia.htm The Home Office ‘British Crime Survey’ explanation of laws relating to libel and slander The Department for Constitutional Affairs: justice rights and democracy The Independent Race and Refugee News Network description of primary research methods used by the media The Media-wise Trust: towards better journalism OFCOM: the official regulator of the media Press Complaints Commission (PCC) the role of the journalist www.statistics.org.com/yr13_primary_research .uk/about/245532/foiindex/foi_ act_pub_scheme/?a=87101 www.uk/rds/index.gov.gov.hse.uk/2003/march/ak000003.pcc.uk/cms/ShowPage/Home_ page/Explore_types_of_jobs/Types_of_Job/ p!eipaL?state=showocc&idno=433 www.htm www.htm www.prospects.uk/cci/nugget.html www.uk/display_page.htm www.org/news+campaigns/Full%20Media %20Survey.uk/guidlist.

N3. tolerance and errors They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: N3. Application of number Level 3 When learners are: • planning and interpreting information from two different sources about a case study on crime statistics carrying out calculations on statistics to find mean.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Key skills Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of Level 3 key skill evidence are given here. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications. present your findings and justify your methods. • N3. median.3 Interpret the results of your calculations. • analysing and evaluating the results. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. mode.1 Plan an activity and get relevant information from relevant sources. 488 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .2 Use this information to carry out multistage calculations to do with: a amounts or sizes b scales or proportion c handling statistics d using formulae. presenting the information on a poster and justifying the methods used.

1b Make a formal presentation of at least eight minutes using an image or other support material.UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Communication Level 3 When learners are: • contributing to a discussion about social and ethical issues and the influence of the media making a presentation about aspects of discrimination and the media reading and synthesising information from two extended documents on crime statistics and the influence of the media writing two different documents about social and ethical issues and the influence of the media.2 • C3. each one giving different information about complex subjects. using different sources.1a Take part in a group discussion. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: ICT3. Each document must be a minimum of 1000 words long. exchanging and deriving new information to meet the two purposes presenting the above information from different sources for the two purposes. and multiple search criteria in at least one case.3 Present combined information such as text with image. developing. Information and communication technology Level 3 When learners are: • planning to search for and select information required for two purposes. • C3. • ICT3.1 Search for information. text with number.2 Enter and develop the information and derive new information. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 489 . • C3. • ICT3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: C3. One document must be at least 1000 words long.3 Write two different types of documents. image with number. Read and synthesise information from at least two documents about the same subject. such as types of media and their influence on crime statistics exploring.

UNIT 41: FORENSIC MEDIA AND CRIME Improving own learning and performance Level 3 When learners are: • developing the plan and targets for an investigation of a case study and consulting and gaining the agreement of your tutor implementing the plan and modifying it in accordance with results obtained and constraints and problems encountered evaluating the plan at frequent intervals and refining it in accordance with the conclusions reached.1 Set targets using information from appropriate people and plan how these will be met. on the basis of the results and conclusions produced.3 Review progress and establish evidence of your achievements. Reviewing the approach to the investigation. 490 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . and deciding on the approach and option to be adopted evaluating the plan continuously during a case study investigation. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: LP3. • LP3. • LP3. They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence: PS3.3 Check if the problem has been solved and review your approach to problem solving. • PS3.2 Take responsibility for your learning. Problem solving Level 3 When learners are: • formulating the plan with three options for a complex investigation of a case study identifying and evaluating alternative methods of approach to a case study investigation.1 Explore a problem and identify different ways of tackling it. Plan and implement at least one way of solving the problem.2 • PS3. using your plan to help meet targets and improve your performance.

and should build on the application of the grading criteria. these calculations are correct. and making maximum use of practical activities and work experience. for a pass grade (and consequently a merit and distinction). There are four BTEC National grading domains which underpin the grading criteria: • • • • application of knowledge and understanding development of practical and technical skills personal development for occupational roles application of generic and key skills. otherwise the tutor would have stopped that learner from continuing. but merely incorporating material (eg from the web) is rarely sufficient to provide evidence of having met a criterion: the criteria usually require the learner to demonstrate what they can do. It is advisable that criteria are clearly indicated on each assignment to provide a clear focus for learners and to assist with internal verification and standardisation processes. or by a series of assignments.Assessment and grading The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning has taken place. Centres are encouraged to look across the units’ grading grids to identify common topics. All of the criteria listed in the grading grid for each unit must be covered by one assignment. This will also help to ensure that feedback is specific to the criteria. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to learners’ achievement and their importance cannot be over-emphasised. Assignments constructed by centres should be reliable and fit for purpose. including case studies. When learners present calculations for assessment it is assumed that. along with projects. learners must work safely. assignments and work-based assessments. providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt. Learners must be encouraged to read and research for their assignments. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 491 . When reading the grading grids and designing assignments. All practical assessments assume that the learner is working safely. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods. Tasks and activities should enable learners to produce evidence that relates directly to the specified criteria. Grading domains The grading criteria are developed in relation to grading domains which provide for the assessment of the learning outcomes of the unit. centres should note that for learners to achieve a merit/distinction grade they will be required to provide evidence that is qualitative. When working in a laboratory situation. or equivalent. performance observation and time-constrained assessments. in its nature. the appropriate units of measurement have been quoted and that the figures are presented with an appropriate degree of significance (eg two decimal places). Centres are encouraged to emphasise the practical application of the grading criteria. not quantitative.

Edexcel operates an independent. It achieves this through the following activities. Each unit has specified criteria which are to be used for grading. Quality assurance Edexcel’s qualification specifications set out the standard to be achieved by each learner in order to be awarded the qualification. Approval Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications will first need to apply for. external quality assurance process which is designed to ensure that these standards are maintained by all internal verifiers and external verifiers. When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter into an approvals agreement. A summative unit grade can be awarded at pass. Sanctions and tariffs may be applied if centres do not comply with the agreement.The qualitative nature of the merit and distinction grading criteria is based on indicative characteristics of the evidence to fulfil the higher grades. This is covered in the statement of learning outcomes and grading criteria in each unit. In Edexcel BTEC Nationals all units are internally assessed. Ultimately. and be granted. merit and distinction is applied to all units. All assessment for BTEC Nationals is criterion referenced. Learners who complete the unit but who do not meet all the pass criteria are graded ‘unclassified’. this could result in the suspension of certification or withdrawal of approval. A grading scale of pass. The approvals agreement is a formal commitment by the head or principal of a centre to meet all the requirements of the specification and any linked codes or regulations. 492 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Centres wishing to offer a vocational area for the first time will need to apply for approval to offer the programme. centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme. deliverers and assessors and to provide for a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery and assessment. This section is designed to provide additional guidance and amplification related to the unit to support tutors. Please refer to Annexe B. Further guidance on delivery and assessment is given in the Essential guidance for tutors section in each unit. merit or distinction: • • • to achieve a ‘pass’ a learner must have satisfied all the pass criteria to achieve a ‘merit’ a learner must additionally have satisfied all the merit criteria to achieve a ‘distinction’ a learner must additionally have satisfied all the distinction criteria. based on the achievement of specified learning outcomes.

Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook (updated annually).edexcel. External verification Edexcel will sample assessors’ decisions using sector-specialist external verifiers. This updated information can also be found on our website.org.uk then click on ‘Services for Centres’ and then ‘FE Colleges & Schools’. go to www. at least 50 per cent of submitted work must be internally verified. This information can also be found on our website www. This ensures that they are correctly interpreting and applying the standards set out in the specifications.org.edexcel. Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook (updated annually). Additionally. Internal verification Centres are required to have processes in place that review each assessor’s decisions. For BTEC Nationals this process will follow the National Standards Sampling (NSS) protocol.Centres will be allowed ‘accelerated approval’ for a new programme where the centre already has approval for a programme that is being replaced by the new programme. This profile helps to determine how the programme will be externally verified and will also be used to initiate other quality control measures by Edexcel. Risk assessment Edexcel has an approval process which creates a quality profile of each qualification programme in each centre and for the centre as a whole.uk then click on ‘Services for Centres’ and then ‘FE Colleges & Schools’. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 493 . Learners’ work must be internally assessed. The system used to do this is a matter for individual centres and Edexcel fully supports the use of the centre’s own quality assurance systems where they ensure robust internal standardisation.

The number of points available will be dependent on the unit grade achieved and the size of the unit as determined by the stipulated guided learning hours. For the calculation of a qualification grade for a BTEC National a learner must: • • complete all designated units achieve a minimum points score of • 36 points for a National Award 72 points for a National Certificate 108 points for a National Diploma 300 guided learning hours for a National Award 600 guided learning hours for a National Certificate 900 guided learning hours for a National Diploma.Calculation of the qualification grade Awarding a qualification grade The qualification grade will be calculated through the aggregation of points achieved through the successful achievement of individual units. achieve a pass (or above) grade for units with a combined total of - 494 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

Unit points Size of unit (GLH) 10 30 60 90 120 Pass grade 1 3 6 9 12 Merit grade 2 6 12 18 24 Distinction grade 3 9 18 27 36 Grade boundaries and UCAS points (as of 1st January 2007) Grade boundaries BTEC National Award 36–59 60–83 84–108 Overall grade BTEC National Award Pass Merit Distinction P M D 40 80 120 UCAS points Grade boundaries BTEC National Certificate 72–95 96–119 120–143 144–167 168–216 Overall grade BTEC National Certificate PP MP MM DM DD UCAS points 80 120 160 200 240 Grade boundaries BTEC National Diploma 108–131 132–155 156–179 180–203 204–227 228–251 252–324 Overall grade BTEC National Diploma PPP MPP MMP MMM DMM DDM DDD UCAS points 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 495 .

This is particularly important for learners studying for the qualification through open or distance learning. Required combinations of specialist units are set out clearly in relation to each qualification in the defined qualification structures in this document. where appropriate. in the assessment linking with company-based/workplace training programmes making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the programme. Learners studying for the qualification on a part-time basis bring with them a wealth of experience that should be utilised to maximum effect by tutors and assessors. together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. Assessment evidence drawn from learners’ work environments should be encouraged. 90 or 120 guided learning hours (GLH).Programme design and delivery BTEC National qualifications consist of core units (which are mandatory) and specialist units. Tutors need to be aware of the integration of some subject matter with other units within the qualification: this is highlighted in the ‘links’ section of each unit. Specialist units are designed to provide a specific focus to the qualification. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Mode of delivery Edexcel does not define the mode of study for BTEC Nationals. centres must ensure that learners have appropriate access to the resources identified in the specification and to the subject specialists delivering the units. In BTEC Nationals each unit is 30. 60. distance learning or a combination of the three. Centres are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets their learner’s needs. 496 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Whichever mode of delivery used. Those planning the programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the qualification by: • • • • • liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to learners’ specific needs accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from learners’ workplaces including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and. The GLH includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification. Where specific acts and regulations are referred to in the units. instruction and assessment. This may be through traditional classroom teaching. open learning. it is the latest versions of these that should always be considered.

Centres will need to meet any specialist resource requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel. Centres are responsible for the overall risk assessment of experimental work undertaken by learners.gov. Studying blood is not a banned activity. Where specific resources are required these have been indicated in individual units under the Essential resources section. unless an employer has provided written instructions restricting the activity. Attention is drawn to the need for safe practice when learners carry out laboratory experiments or observe demonstrations. www.pdf) CLEAPSS Laboratory Handbook (from CLEAPSS School Science Service. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the proper assessment of the learning outcomes. learners should only use their own samples to prevent cross-infection. CLEAPSS would wish to encourage the study of blood whether it is from humans or other animals.hse. January 2001) ISBN 0863573169. Particular attention is drawn to the possible hazards associated with electrical equipment. Relevant advice can be obtained from the following publications: • • • • • • Blood-borne viruses in the workplace: Guidance for employers and employees (from Health and Safety Executive. Strict precautions are also required to protect others (tutors. Risk assessment is the fundamental tool to enable a tutor to decide whether it is safe to proceed with an activity with a particular group of learners.Resources BTEC Nationals are designed to prepare learners for employment in specific occupational sectors. third Edition (ASE. Reference must be made to COSHH regulations and any specific local authority restrictions.uk) CLEAPSS Laboratory Handbook Section 14 and supplementary leaflet PS11 for guidance on working with blood Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (HSE. bodily substances and ionising radiation. Strict aseptic techniques should be used when undertaking practical work. technicians) when clearing up after blood sampling activities. the handling of microorganisms. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 497 .cleapss. Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice and standards in the sector concerned. what might be attempted safely with one set would be unwise with another.uk/pubns/indg342.org. Where human blood sampling is concerned. www. Some local authorities have done this but many have not. 2005) ISBN 0717629813 Hazcards (2004 update available from CLEAPSS School Science Service) Topics in Safety. and should therefore normally be of industry standard.

Centres will need strong evidence of the local need and the reasons why our standard units are inappropriate. Assessors should map this evidence against the grading criteria in the specification and make this evidence available to the external verifier.uk then click on ‘About Us’ and then ‘Policies for Centres’.org. As with all evidence. This requires the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector. There may be exceptional circumstances where even this flexibility does not meet a particular local need. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and practical application and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. and the local skills and training needs identified by organisations such as the Regional Development Agency and the local Learning and Skills Council. centres can seek permission from Edexcel to develop a unit with us to meet this need. particularly the Sector Skills Councils or the Standards Setting Bodies for the relevant sector. Specifications give a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements. Learners may have evidence that has been generated during previous study or in their previous or current employment or whilst undertaking voluntary work that relates to one or more of the units in the qualification. assessors should be satisfied about the authenticity and currency of the material when considering whether or not the learning outcomes of the unit have been met. Maximum use should be made of the learner’s experience. some of which can be theoretical in nature. Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) Edexcel encourages centres to recognise learners’ previous achievements and experiences through APL. In this situation. There are very few cases where this will be allowed. 498 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Centres will need to justify the need for importing units from other specifications and Edexcel will ensure that the vocational focus of the qualification has not been diluted. Full guidance on Edexcel’s policy on APL is provided on our website. centres can seek approval from Edexcel to make use of units from other standard NQF BTEC National specifications. The units are designed to meet the skill needs of the sector and the specialist units allow coverage of the full range of employment. units in this specification might not allow centres to meet a local need.edexcel. Units that have externally set assignments cannot be imported into other qualifications. Edexcel will need to submit these units for accreditation by QCA. Centres should make maximum use of the choice available to them within the specialist units in these specifications to meet the needs of their learners. Meeting local needs Centres should note that the qualifications set out in these specifications have been developed in consultation with centres and employers. go to www.Delivery approach It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the specialist vocational nature of BTEC National qualifications. In certain circumstances. In this case.

Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. the profile is likely to include one of the following: • • • • • a BTEC First qualification in Applied Science or a related vocational area an Intermediate GNVQ in an appropriate vocational area a GCSE equivalent to four passes at grade C other related Level 2 qualifications related work experience. Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity.Limitations on variations from standard specifications The flexibility to import standard units from other BTEC Nationals and/or develop unique units is limited to a total of: • • • four 60 GLH units (or equivalent) in a BTEC National Diploma qualification two 60 GLH units (or equivalent) in a BTEC National Certificate qualification one 60 GLH unit (or equivalent) in a BTEC National Award qualification. The use of these units cannot be at the expense of the core units in any qualification. Access and recruitment Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications is that: • • • they should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standards they should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications. More mature learners may present a more varied profile of achievement that is likely to include experience of paid and/or unpaid employment. For learners who have recently been in education. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 499 . This will include ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres will need to review the profile of qualifications and/or experience held by applicants. considering whether this profile shows an ability to progress to a Level 3 qualification. This assessment will need to take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcel’s policy on learners with particular requirements.

Learners aged 15 and under cannot be registered for a BTEC National qualification. which is on the Edexcel website (www. Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals are listed on the DfES funding lists Section 96 and Section 97. Further details are given in the policy ‘Access Arrangements and Special Considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ Qualifications’. understanding or competence. knowledge. This policy replaces the previous Edexcel policy (Assessment of Vocationally Related Qualification: Regulations and Guidance Relating to Learners with Special Requirements. 2002) concerning learners with particular requirements.edexcel. care or education are likely to be subject to police checks. Access arrangements and special considerations Edexcel’s policy on access arrangements and special considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ qualifications aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act and the amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills. for example people working in health.Restrictions on learner entry Most BTEC National qualifications are accredited on the NQF for learners aged 16 years and over.uk).org. 500 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . In particular sectors the restrictions on learner entry might also relate to any physical or legal barriers.

diagonally and horizontally.The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the science sector Progression opportunities within the framework are available vertically. BTEC full VRQ courses NQF Level General Qualifications 6 Honours degree in any science-related subject BTEC Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Applied Biology BTEC Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Applied Chemistry BTEC Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Applied Physics BTEC Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Health and Social Care BTEC Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Beauty Therapy Sciences BTEC National Awards/Certificates/Diplomas in Applied Science Foundation degree in any science-related subject 5 4 GCE Biology GCE in Health and Social Care 3 GCE Chemistry GCE in Physical Education GCE Physics GCE in Engineering BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science BTEC Introductory Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science GCE Psychology 2 GCSE Science GCSE Additional Science GCSE Biology 1 GCSE Chemistry GCSE Physics GCSE Psychology Entry Entry Level Certificate in Science BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 501 .

NB: Most of our publications are priced.uk. tutor support materials and question papers The Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England.edexcel. distributed to centres annually) key skills publications — specifications.semta.uk Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC NQF Accredited Programmes — (Edexcel.org.uk 502 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . How to obtain National Occupational Standards Paul Turnbull Project Leader Semta Head Office 14 Upton Road Watford WD18 0JT Telephone: 01923 238441 Fax: 01923 652391 Website: www. Please check the cost when you order. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Edexcel publications concerning the Quality Assurance System and the internal and external verification of vocationally related programmes can be found on the Edexcel website and in the Edexcel publications catalogue. Wales and Northern Ireland — (QCA.Further information For further information please call Customer Services on 0844 576 0026 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website at www.org. Useful publications Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from: Edexcel Publications Adamsway Mansfield Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN Telephone: 01623 467 467 Fax: 01623 450 481 Email: publications@linneydirect.edexcel.org.com Related information and publications include: • • • • • Accreditation of Prior Learning available on our website: www. 2004) the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue.

You can request customised training through the website or by contacting one of our advisers in the Professional Development and Training team via Customer Services to discuss your training needs. 0844 576 0026 0844 576 0027 0844 576 0025 0844 576 0028 0844 576 0031 Calls may be recorded for training purposes. The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on our website (www.uk/sfc/training). Our customer service numbers are: BTEC and NVQ GCSE GCE The Diploma DIDA and other qualifications The training we provide: • • • is active — ideas are developed and applied is designed to be supportive and thought provoking builds on best practice.Professional development and training Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to BTEC qualifications. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 503 .edexcel. This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training directory or through customised training at your centre. The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including: • • • • • • • planning for the delivery of a new programme planning for assessment and grading developing effective assignments building your team and teamwork skills developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches building key skills into your programme building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.org.

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Section 96 and 97 and is to be used for all qualification funding purposes. Learners need to be made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered with Edexcel.Annexe A QCA codes The QCA National Qualifications Framework (NQF) code is known as a Qualification Accreditation Number (QAN). This is the code that features in the DfES Funding Schedules. The QCA qualification and unit codes will appear on the learner’s final certification documentation. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 505 . The QANs for the qualifications in this publication are: Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Award in Applied Science Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Certificate in Applied Science Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National Diploma in Applied Science 500/1498/5 500/1497/3 500/1496/1 These qualification titles will appear on the learners’ certificates. centres are able to describe the programme of study leading to the award of the qualification in different ways to suit the medium and the target audience. Each unit within a qualification will also have a QCA NQF unit code. Providing this happens.

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Accesses and evaluates knowledge and understanding to advance complex activities/contexts. Analyses implications of application of knowledge/understanding. Responds positively to evaluation. Grading domain 1 Indicative characteristics — Merit Application of knowledge and understanding • Shows depth of knowledge and development of understanding in familiar and unfamiliar situations (eg explain why. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 507 . makes judgements based on analysis). • Applies knowledge to non-routine contexts (eg assessor selection). • Shows relationships between p criteria. research and evaluation to make recommendations and influence proposals. • Applies knowledge in often familiar and unfamiliar contexts. • (Learning outcome stem understand or know) Applies and/or selects concepts showing comprehension of often complex theories. Evaluates complex concepts/ideas/actions and makes reasoned and confident judgements.Annexe B Grading domains: Level 3 BTEC generic grading domains Indicative characteristics — Distinction • • • • • • • Synthesises knowledge and understanding across p/m criteria. Shows relationships with p/m criteria. Uses analysis. • Makes reasoned analytical judgements.

• Shows relationship between p criteria. • Modifies techniques/processes to situations. Indicative characteristics — Merit Indicative characteristics — Distinction Development of practical and technical skills • Deploys appropriate advanced techniques/processes/skills.Grading domain 2 • • • • • • • • Selects and uses successfully from a range of advanced techniques/processes/skills. (Learning outcome stem be able to) • Advances practical activities within resource constraints. Justifies application of skills/methods. Makes judgements about risks and limitations of techniques/processes. • Produces varied solutions (including non-routine). Reflects on skill acquisition and application. Applies skill(s) to achieve higher order outcome. • Applies technical skill to advance non-routine activities. Innovates or generates new techniques/processes for new situations. Shows relationship with p and m criteria. Demonstrates creativity/originality/own ideas. 508 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 .

• Reviews own development needs. Applies divergent and lateral thinking in work-related contexts. • Applies qualities related to the vocational sector. Reacts positively to changing work–related contexts Operates ethically in work-related environments. (Any learning outcome stem) • Finds and uses relevant information sources. Assesses how different work-related contexts or constraints would change performance. Manages self to achieve outcomes successfully.Grading domain 3 • • • • • • • • • • Applies initiative appropriately. Indicative characteristics — Merit Indicative characteristics — Distinction Personal development for occupational roles • Takes responsibility in planning and undertaking activities. BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 509 . Analyses and manipulates information to draw conclusions. • Acts within a given work-related context showing understanding of responsibilities. Takes decisions related to work contexts. Plans for own learning and development through the activities. • Identifies responsibilities of employers to the community and the environment. Understands interdependence. • Internalises skills/attributes (creating confidence).

Reflects on own contribution to working within a team.Grading domain 4 • • • • • • • • Identifies strategies for communication. (Any learning outcome stem) • Makes judgements in contexts with explanations. • Selects and justifies solutions for specified problems. 510 BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 . Shows innovative approaches to dealing with individuals and groups. • Makes adjustments to meet the needs/expectations of others (negotiation skills). Application of generic skills • Communicates effectively using appropriate behavioural and language registers. Produces outputs subject to time/resource constraints. Takes decisions in contexts with justifications. Indicative characteristics — Merit Indicative characteristics — Distinction Presents self and communicates information to meet the needs of a variety of audience. Generates new or alternative solutions to specified problems. Explores entrepreneurial attributes. • Explains how to contribute within a team. • Demonstrates positive contribution to team(s). • Communicates with clarity and influence.

BN018348 – Specification – Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Nationals in Applied Science – Issue 2 – March 2008 © Edexcel Limited 2008 511 .Annexe C Key skills All BTEC National qualifications include mapping and/or signposting of key skills. not just within routine tasks and functions but to help them be more effective and efficient in all they do use ICT in a range of applications to support all aspects of their role solve problems in a variety of circumstances. Key skills provide a foundation for continual learning. so that they are always ready to take on the challenges of change and diversification use number. Learners need the chance to show current and future employ