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Business Ethics final report

Business Ethics final report

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INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

The Ethics of Job Discrimination
Term Report
SUBMITTED BY MUHAMMAD ASAD KHAN MUHAMMAD ADEEL MUSTAFA HENA TABASSUM

for giving us support and providing us with resources to complete this report. according to the requirements and in due time. He showed us the way to achieve our target and give us the guidelines for this report. effort and knowledge through our entire semester with him. we would also like to pay gratitude to our family and friends for their support. 2|P ag e . we are also very thankful to Institute of Business Management. He helped us with his time. We would like to thank our instructor Asad Shehzad for his guidance throughout this report. Moreover.Institute of Business Management ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank Almighty Allah for giving us courage and will to achieve our objective for completing this report.

. Gender discrimination .............................................. 6 Damaging Employee Interest ....................................... 10 Discriminatory practices in Pakistan ...................................................................... 11 2....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Inequality in salaries .................................................................................... 9 Discharging based on discriminatory factors .......................................... 5 Prejudicial Actions ........ 8 Justice .................................................................................... 6 Why This Discrimination? ......................................... 7 Rights ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 Job discrimination Practices ..................Institute of Business Management Table of Contents Nature of Job Discrimination ................................................................................................................................... 12 3|P ag e .... 10 Average income comparison ..................................... 5 Socio-Political-Economic Discrimination ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Lowest Income Group Comparisons .................................................................................................................... 10 Desirable Occupation Comparisons ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Forms of Discrimination ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Utilitarian Argument ........................................................................... 11 3..................................... 10 Types of comparisons provide discriminatory evidence ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Killing Merit ......... 9 Discrimination in recruitment..................................................... 10 1.......................................................................... 5 Discrimination and Employment .................... 7 Criticism of Utilitarian arguments .............................................................................. 6 Biased Attitude ................ Ethnic/Racial discriminations ........... 7 The Glass Ceiling Concept...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Discrimination in promotion ................................................................................................ 5 DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT................................................................................. 9 Discrimination in screening........................................................................................................................................................................................... Religious discrimination ....................................

...................................................... 15 An Instrument for Achieving Utilitarian Goals .............................................................................................Institute of Business Management 4........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Preventing Discrimination at the Individual Level ......................... 16 4|P ag e .................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Preventing Discrimination at the Macro Level ................................................................... 16 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................................ 14 Affirmative Action.................. 16 Preventing Discrimination at the Micro Level ....................................... 14 Affirmative Action as Compensation .. Disability discrimination ..................

DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT y Any person willing to find work and unable to find work is considered to be unemployed. a morally neutral and not necessarily wrongful activity. y If a person works at a level above what he/she is capable of working at and consequently earns higher wages is called over employed. political. Prejudicial Actions To discriminate in employment is to make an adverse decision against employees who belong to a certain class because of morally unjustified prejudice towards members of that class. religious. Socio-Political-Economic Discrimination Whenever the principles of liberty. equality and fraternity amounted to the act of discrimination and that was unethical. However. cultural.Institute of Business Management Nature of Job Discrimination The core meaning of the term discriminate is ³to differentiate one object from another´. it is intended to refer to the wrongful act of distinguishing. in modern usage. y If a person works at a level below what he/she is capable of working at and consequently earns less wages is called under-employed. equality and fraternity were violated the conditions for socio-political-economic discrimination arose. Any violation of liberty. not on the basis of individual merit but on the basis of prejudice. the term is not morally neutral. economic and ideological forces at play that encourage discrimination. 5|P ag e . There are usually social.

Educational qualifications and job performance ratings.g. Killing Merit A decision toward one or more (prospective) employees that is not based on individual merit.Institute of Business Management Discrimination and Employment Principally there are three elements that define discrimination in employment and need to be consciously considered. Biased Attitude That derives from some morally unjustified attitude such as racial or sexual prejudice or false stereotypes Damaging Employee Interest That has a harmful or negative impact on the interests of the employees. Seniority and experience. e. e... by costing them jobs promotions and pay. Forms of Discrimination: Intentional and Institutional Aspects 6|P ag e .g.

There is no countervailing power to prevent this abuse of power. The Glass Ceiling Concept When these three conditions occur the under-privileged worker faces a glass ceiling i. Utilitarian Argument The underlying theme of utilitarianism is that any action or policy should be evaluated on the basis of costs or benefits that action has for society as a whole. if jobs assigned on the basis of job-related qualifications to advance public welfare. then the utilitarian would have to hold that in those situations jobs should not be assigned on the basis of job related qualifications. The larger civil society remains a mute spectator to this condition. Discrimination based on anything else is counter to utility.. and if public welfare is advanced to greater degree by assigning jobs on basis of other factor not related to job performance. 3. it might be true that society as a whole would benefit by having some group discriminated against. 2. but on the basis of that other factor. It is a kind of roadblock to upward progress in an organization. Moral actions are those that will produce the most utility for the majority. Criticism of Utilitarian arguments: Two criticisms: First. Second. 7|P ag e .Institute of Business Management Why This Discrimination? 1. The utilitarian argument against discrimination maintains that society¶s productivity will be highest when jobs are awarded based on competence. This discrimination basically arises because those who have the power to enforce decisions are unaccountable for their prejudices.e. something he/she can see but cannot surpass.

discrimination is wrong because it violates people's rights to be treated as equals. Discrimination based on anything else is counter to utility. 2) Secondly discrimination places members of discriminated group in lower economic and social positions where by opportunities are considerably less than their counterparts. Individual has right not to be discriminated against their organizational life and that others have a duty to provide an individual with that right. Therefore. Discrimination violate it in two ways 1) Based on one group is inferior to other for example older workers are less competent as compared to younger workers or women are less ambitious to men such stereotypes can undermine the self esteem of such groups and therefore violate their right to be treated as equal. Rights Non utilitarian argument against discrimination maintains that society¶s productivity will be highest when jobs are awarded based on competence.Institute of Business Management For example: women are child bearer of society it makes sense in terms of society¶s productivity because she is responsible for bringing up their families for future rather than attempting to have an active role in labor market. Another argument sees it as a form of injustice because individuals who are equal in all relevant respects cannot be treated differently just because they differ in other. 8|P ag e . this again contravenes the right to be treated as a free and equal person. non-relevant respects. Justice A third group of arguments against discrimination views it as unjust. such discrimination is legitimate. Kant says that humans should be treated as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end. Rawls argues that it is unjust to give some people more opportunity than others.

g women. Inequality in salaries Many organization follow discriminatory practices in giving unequal salaries and wages to different group of workers who are essentially doing the same work. For example paying low salary to a female worker as compare to the salary of a male. demanding a certain level of education for very low-level jobs. 9|P ag e .g whites prefer to recruit white candidates. Muslim majority prefer Muslim candidates etc. religious minorities and disabled people. Common examples include. Discrimination in screening Discrimination also happens in screening of the candidates for a job. concepts & social situations in the aptitude & intelligence tests Discrimination in promotion Discrimination in promotion takes place when minorities are kept away from promoting to senior positions e. despite of doing the same work. Disqualifying minority class who are unfamiliar with the language.Institute of Business Management Job discrimination Practices There are five recognized categories of discriminatory practices: Discrimination in recruitment This type of discrimination takes place when a particular group holds dominant position in the organization and practice recruitment on the word-of-mouth referrals of present employees representing that group e.

or layoff policies that rely solely on seniority Types of comparisons provide discriminatory evidence Three types of comparisons provide discriminatory evidence: Average income comparison It is the comparison of average benefits given to various groups. Comparisons of incomes can be exercised between males and females. Statistics showed that black average family income remains about 65% that of whites. Lowest Income Group Comparisons It is comparison of the proportion of a group found in the lowest income levels of the institution. and different ethnic groups.Institute of Business Management Discharging based on discriminatory factors Another discriminatory practice is to fire the employees with no valid grounds but due to discriminatory biasness. Desirable Occupation Comparisons It is the comparison of the proportion of a group found in the most advantageous positions in the institution. white and blacks. Females and blacks usually earn less as compare to white males. religious minorities and disabled people lies in this category which gives discriminatory evidence. Discharging an employee based on race or gender. History reveals that most desirable positions are held by white males whereas women. blacks and minorities are restricted to be promoted to high income positions Discriminatory practices in Pakistan Now we will take a brief look at some of the discriminatory practices exercised in Pakistan. 10 | P a g e . In most cases women.

y Pay inequality of women against men for the same work. Pakistan is composed of 96% Muslims and 4% non Muslims which include Christians. Gender discrimination Gender discrimination is very commonly exercised in different institutions in Pakistan. 2. The resistance also comes from the staff as male workers feel degrade to follow the orders of female head. Following are some of the major practices. y Denial to follow equal opportunity employment y Companies hesitate to assign technical jobs to women. y Managers hesitate to promote women on top level positions. Women workers in private sector work 12 to 16 hours a day and still get 40% less wages as compared to men workers. Survey showed that 40 to 70 pct women face harassment at workplace. The nurse was seriously injured and regained consciousness after several days of incident. Even high profile institutions are involved in such discrimination act. and other nonMuslims. The culprit was continuously pressuring the nurse not to speak up against him. Case of sexual harassment at Jinnah Hospital Karachi: A doctor named Dr. Women are victims of gender discrimination as most of the high earning positions are occupied by men.Institute of Business Management 1. Religious discrimination Religious discrimination involves treating a person (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because of his or her religious beliefs. y Unsecure environment at the workplace is another discriminatory practice against women. a medico-legal officer at Jinnah hospital. The doctor was sacked and faced hearing in the court. Hindus. Jabbar Memon . raped a trainee nurse in Jinnah hospital Karachi. The incident became a top issue in world wide media and the government eventually took action against the doctor. Nearly 3 million women are working as domestic servants and get anything between 500 to 2. 11 | P a g e .000 rupees per month. These are the some discriminatory practices against women y Sexual harassment against women. Religious discrimination is one of the major discriminatory practices in Pakistan.

Pashtun. Sometime later. Days later. Sindhi. However. A particular ethnic group is 12 | P a g e . Ms. (The Los Angeles Times. The management said he was let go for performance deficiencies. Julia Austin. Ethnic/Racial discriminations This type of discrimination is performed when favoring a particular race or ethnic group in hiring and promotion decisions. a Muslim woman allegedly known for her hatred for Christians.Institute of Business Management y Teasing fellow non-Muslim colleges at the work place create hurdles for them and avoid them to occupy higher positions y Firing non-Muslim employees without any proper reason and without providing proper compensation Case on Discrimination against Ms Julia Austin Ms.S A Muslim high school senior working at a fast-food restaurant was the repeated target of bias jokes from both his coworkers and his manager. Ambreen pretended that Ms. the manager joked. Pakistan has many ethnic groups such as Punjabi. a private educational institute in Lahore. Balochi and migrates. Austin was called in the principal s office and was dismissed without warning. asking why his cousins destroyed the World Trade Center. y Hindus and Christians continue to face discrimination in government departments. 32. Austin when she became HOD and one day Ms. coworkers taunted him. She has been teaching mathematics for 11 years and has been employed at Bahria Town School. Austin s results at the annual examination were not sufficient and that she did not properly prepare her classes. we re going to have to check you for bombs. he was fired after he accidentally threw away a paper cup that the manager was using. At first. as they are mostly being allotted low-level jobs such as that of a sweeper y employers who would otherwise consider hiring talented non-Muslims refrain from doing so for fear of angering the majority-Muslim workforce y If we consider outside from Pakistan. Austin s students obtained the highest scores of the school. repeatedly abused Ms. often in front of other employees. the results published by Agha Khan Examination Board show that Ms. Ms. comes from an educated Christian family of Lahore and studied Applied Mathematics and Computer Science. Muslims are being discriminated in jobs greatly in west after 9/11 Case on Religious discrimination in U. Hey. his manager began teasing him as well. 10 February 2002) 3. Ambreen.

The vacancies were reserved under Balochistan quota for Engineers from Balochistan.Institute of Business Management favored against the other. Motorway Police Job Form gives a true picture of ethnic discrimination in Pakistan as only Sindh is divided in Sindh urban and rural in the domicile listings. 13 | P a g e .This is to discriminate against Sindh urban or rural people y Sindh urban have only 2% job quota in government jobs which is very little as compared to the population which is above 18 million and comprised of most educated people.baloch. Following are some ethnic discriminatory practices in Pakistan y Avoiding considering citizens of a particular region or province. A government from a particular ethnic group will prefer candidates from those ethnic groups. The director clearly refused and said there was no candidate from Balochistan so those positions were filled by local Engineers. No other province is divided in urban and rural areas. Balochis are being less advantageous people historically as compared to other ethnic groups Case of ethnic discrimination H. y There is also a number of cases in which favorism for one ethnic group is done to another. The director was a local somewhere from punjab . For e. a civil engineer from Balochistan was rejected by the director of the ministry of telecomunication in Islamabad. This is mostly exercised in government jobs due to political influences in hiring and promotion decisions.g.

They are considered as workless people although a lot of disabled people have proved them as they can work as equal as normal people. If the analysis shows that women or minorities are underutilized. They often work in low-level jobs. despite it was civilian office work job. It is a ³utilization analysis" of the major job classifications in an organization. Disability discrimination Disabled people are suffering enormous discrimination in our society. 14 | P a g e . frequently work part-time or move between jobs and inand-out of the labor market. Affirmative Action Affirmative action programs call for positive steps designed to eliminate the effects of past discrimination. then the firm must establish practices to correct these deficiencies. a disabled candidate from Karachi. He achieved top position in 200 hundred participators in written and oral test but in the last he was rejected due to physical disability (polio affected leg). Disabled people suffered great difficulty to get jobs in labor force. Case of disability discrimination by PAF recruitment Imtiaz. There are certain cases in Pakistan in which candidates are rejected to hire even in the sitting jobs in which their disability does not mattered.Institute of Business Management 4. Most of the disabled people are jobless in our society. The government has allotted 2% job quota for disabled people in government jobs but this is also not properly followed. The employer takes false advantage of their disability and paid them lower for the same effort work as for a normal people. Despite the good intentions. applied in Air force for a civil position which was related to office work like on computer automation works. their income levels are low. Affirmative action has failed to accomplish what was intended.

affirmative action is justified.e. 2. An Instrument for Achieving Utilitarian Goals The second way of justifying affirmative action sees it as an instrument for social change.Institute of Business Management Affirmative Action as Compensation Difficulty Just because person A¶s ancestors endured hardship at the hand of person B¶s ancestors. There must be greater socio-political awareness created by ethical politicians. 15 | P a g e . Social workers must create pressure groups to force legislation against discrimination (positive or negative). Since reducing this need is consistent with utilitarian principles (as it will increase total utility). 3. Difficulty Lesser-qualified individuals are performing critical and sensitive jobs (i. Such arguments maintain that race and gender provide an indicator of need. and scientists) Preventing Discrimination at the Macro Level 1. nor does it mean person B did something wrong. lawyers.: surgeons. (Press and TV) must highlight cases of discrimination without fear or favor. it does not necessarily mean that person A deserves to be compensated.

CONCLUSION Discrimination in all forms (especially in employment) is morally disgusting and socially intolerable. class. Top management must not only be ethical but also be seen to be ethical by those who observe their actions. the organization or the society is the lesser is the level of discrimination. The H R Department must operate as the organizational conscience keeper by enforcing ethics and governance. religion and ideology. 2. Ensuring that the manager acts fairly at all times and is transparent in these actions irrespective of who is involved. Ensuring that one does to others what one would have others done to one at all times. Ensuring that the individual is ruled by his / her morality and conscience which rises above petty considerations of race. The Employee Collectivity (trade unions) must boldly and fairly take up all cases of employee discrimination (positive or negative). 3. The more developed the person. 3. Preventing Discrimination at the Micro Level 1.Institute of Business Management Preventing Discrimination at the Individual Level 1. 16 | P a g e . 2.

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