Foreword The golden apple snail, popularly known as "golden kuhol'' [Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck], is one of the major

pest problems in rice production. In 1989, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that yield tosses owing to this pest ranged from 1% to 40% of the planted area in the Philippines, resulting in huge production loss. To control this pest, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings. This primer was prepared to present additional alternatives and information on golden apple snail management. It contains many new information to reduce the misuse of molluscicides. Discussed here are details of the biology of golden apple snail, including several management options that farmers could use to manage this pest in their farms. A new recipe for golden apple snail is now available. The product is a chicharon (cracker) that is devoid of water, has no offensive odor, with longer shelf-life, and can be readily used as an ingredient in other recipes. We hope that this primer wilt help our agricultural technicians, extension workers, and farmers better understand the nature, spread, and management options for golden apple snail.

Introduction The golden apple snail, popularly known as "golden kuhol" [Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck], was introduced into the Philippines between 1982 and 1984. It came from South America (Brazil and Argentina) via Taiwan. Its high nutritive value as food for human beings and farm animals generated interest among both public and private sectors to propagate the production of this organism. However, a few years after its introduction, the golden apple snail became a major pest of rice. Of the 3 million (M) hectares of rice lands in the Philippines, 1.2-1.6M hectares are infested with golden apple snail. In 1990, P212M was spent to control this pest. The first account that it had become a major pest was recorded in 1986 when about 300 hectares of irrigated rice farms in Region 2 (Cagayan Valley) were heavily damaged. Since then, rice area infested with this pest has been increasing until it became a national menace.

Characteristics of adult golden apple snails The golden apple snail lives for 2-6 years with high fertility. Shell is tight brown; flesh is creamy white to golden pinkish or orange. Size depends on the availability of food.

Most destructive stage is when the length of the shell is from 10 mm (about the size of a corn seed) to 40 mm (about the size of a pingpong ball). They can even consume the young plants in a whole paddy overnight. the male shell (b2) curves outward. The shell of the female adult snail (b1) curves inward. from 4 days to 30 days after sowing for direct-seeded rice. Missing hills Floating cut leaves on the water surface. y y y .* Female golden apple snail operculum (a1) is concave white it is convex in male (a2). RC Joshi. Golden apple snails devour the base of young seedlings. Mode and signs of damage y Newly-transplanted rice seedlings up to 15 days after transplanting are vulnerable to golden apple snail damage. and AR Martin.* Based on the study conducted by MS Dela Cruz.

y y Hatchlings and adults y y Hatchlings grow and mature fast. canals and water-togged areas.Life cycle Eggs y Eggs are [aid at night on any vegetation. y . y Where they live y y Ponds. then become active again when the soil is flooded. irrigated fields. Egg masses are bright pinkish-red and turn light pink when about to hatch. They are voracious feeders. levees. and objects (e. Eggs hatch in 714 days. egg destruction is a very effective control strategy. They can survive harsh environmental conditions such as pollutants in the water or low oxygen levels. They can lay 1000-1200 eggs in a month. swamps. stones. etc. Golden apple snails reproduce rapidly.g. Thus. Adults mate for 3-4 hours anytime of the day among crowded plants where there is continuous water supply throughout the year. stakes. They bury themselves in moist soil during the dry season.) above the water surface. They can aestivate for 6 months. twigs.

and other succulent leafy plants.Feeding habits and host range y Golden apple snails feed on a wide range of plants such as algae. sambong (leaves) [Blumea balsamifera]. azolla. Examples are gugo (bark) [Entada phaseikaudes K Meer]. rice seedlings. Field rats bite on the shell and eat the flesh. tuba-tuba (leaves). y y Naturally occurring biological control agents y y y y Red ants feed on the eggs. tubli (roots). duck weed. Ducks eat the flesh and young snails. handpick golden apple snails from rice paddies in the morning and afternoon when they are most active and easy to find. makabuhay (leaves) [Tinospora rumphii Boerl]. and red pepper (fruit). y . tobacco (leaves) [Nicotiana tabacum L]. calamansi (leaves) [Citrus microcarpa Bunge]. Human beings eat the flesh when it is property cooked. tubangkamisa (leaves). gabihan (leaves) [Monochoria vaginalis]. They also feed on any decomposing organic matter. They prefer young plant parts that are soft because it feeds by scraping plant surface with its rough tongue. water hyacinth. Management options During land preparation y Before the final harrowing. Use plants that contain toxic substances against golden apple snails.

banana [Musa paradisiaca L. where the golden apple snails will seek refuge if water level is critical.15 m distance between strips. make collection easier. . During the last harrowing. Provide 10. trumpet flower. construct deep strips (at Least 25 cm wide and 5 cm deep) in the paddies by pulling a sack containing a heavy object. construct small canals (25 cm wide and 5 cm deep) along the edges of rice paddies. neem tree (leaves) [Azadirachta indica]. These are highly recommended before transplanting rice.].]. Simply construct small canals to confine the golden apple snalts and right there place the leaves of the said plants. and asyang [Mikania cordata] contain substances that can kill golden apple snails. Use attractants such as leaves of gabi [Colocasia esculenta]. y y Small canals.y Other reported plants include starflower (leaves) [Calatropis giganta]. Likewise. papaya [Carica papaya L. and old newspapers for easy collection of golden apple snails.

If golden apple snail is a big problem. Maintain shatlow paddy water level (2-3 cm shallow) starting 3 days after transplanting. During transplanting y y Follow the standard seeding rate and distance so that the plants will have sturdy stems. This also facilitates collection of trapped golden apple snails. transplant 25-30-day-old seedlings of earlymaturing varieties. Drain the field occasionally to limit snail mobility and feeding activity. y y y . Put bamboo stakes on water-logged areas in the paddies or near canals to attract adults for egg laying. use 30-35-day-old seedlings of late-maturing varieties. This makes collection and crushing of the egg masses easy. Screens on the water inlet reduce entry of golden snails to the paddy. In the rice areas of the Cordillera highlands.y Place a wire or woven bamboo screen on the main irrigation water inlet and outlet to prevent the entry of hatchlings and adults.

use of plant attractants. Collection is easier by using attractants such as leaves of gabi. Integrated management scheme based on rice growth stages PrePost Crop establishment establishment production Land Preparation Vegetative Reproductive Maturity After harvesting A B and C D E A = Duck pasturing. papaya. staking. Rc38.Draining the field occasionally will limit snail mobility and feeding activity. dry Land preparation . Handpicking is recommended for large adult golden snails as these are not fed upon by ducks. Herd them again 30-35 days after transplanting (DAT) earlymaturing varieties and 40-45 DAT late-maturing varieties. handpicking. cook. and trumpet flower. duck pasturing. Rc40. then eat the golden apple snails. and Rc68. handpicking. use of plant attractants and destruction of egg masses B = Handpicking. and destruction of egg masses C = Water management. and destruction of egg masses D = Sustain handpicking and destruction of adults and eggs E = Duck pasturing. screen trapping. constructing canalets. or crush and feed them to ducks and pigs. y After harvesting y Herd ducks in rice paddies immediately after harvest up to the last harrowing for the succeeding crop. Use varieties that are high-tittering and least preferred by the golden apple snails such as PSB Rc36. y Collect.

Gather 4-6 kg adult golden apple snail. from which some 1 kg flesh wilt be extracted. Marinate for 24 hours. . RC Joshi. Remove them. Extract then clean the flesh of golden apple snail. and AR Martin from 1999 to 2000 at PhilRice Maligaya found the following: y Varieties that are least preferred by the golden apple snails are PSB Rc36. 2.New information A study conducted by researchers MS Dela Cruz. Those that float are dead. 4. Rc40. Their efficacy tasted 2-3 days. and Rc68. Niclosamide 250EC at half the label recommendation (0. Basal application of complete fertilizer and urea incorporated with the soil at recommended rate during the last harrowing reduced golden apple snail population up to 54%. Ingredients 1 kg of golden apple snail flesh 1 cup vegetable cooking oil 1/2 cup cornstarch or flour 1 tsp black pepper 1/4 cup soy sauce 3 tbsp vinegar 3 cloves garlic 1-2 red chili 1/2 tsp alum (tawas) 1 egg y y y Procedure: 1 .5 li/ha) killed about 80% of the golden apple snails that were sprayed on. Mix all spices with the golden apple snail. Soak the golden apple snail with shell in tap water for 24 hours to remove undigested food. The Chicharon (cracker) golden apple snail recipe* was improved. Rinse the flesh with alum (tawas) to remove the unpleasant odor. Rc38. Molluscicides may no longer kill golden apple snails that will emerge to the soil surface after aestivating and those that would reenter the treated fields. 3. Commercial molluscicides (niclosamide and metaldehyde) were effective against golden apple snails that are directly hit. 5. Bolt the golden apple snail in a big kettle for 20-30 minutes. Nictosamide kills more native snails than metaldehyde formulations.

July-August 2000.Ash 3.2 g . Baler. Source: SEAFDEC Asian Agriculture.Niacin 1.Sodium 40 mg . Dela Cruz and Ravindra C. For final cooking.Food energy 83 calories . Metaldehyde 60 g/kg 4 6% Pellets 4-8 kg/ha Corp.Phosphorus 61 mg . 8.Category Company Name tration bination * Agchem Metabait 2-4 kg/ha Mftg.4 g .Fat 0. C.Potassium 17 mg .2 g . 9. zinc.. Nutritive value of golden apple snail Nutritive value of golden apple snail flesh per 100g .Riboflavin 12 mg .6. copper. Sun-dry the marinated golden apple snail for 2-3 days. Optional: Roll the flesh of the golden apple snail in batter (cornstarch or flour with egg mixture) before final cooking. and iodine List of Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority-registered molluscicides as of 31 March 2000 Formulation Active type Ingredient P F WP Label Toxicity Product ConcenRecom. PhilRice. deep-fry again for 5 minutes or until it is crispy.Carbohydrates 6. Pasion. Corazon M. Vol. page 12. 22 No. Aurora. Air-dry the prepared golden apple snail for 3 days. Deep-fry in vegetable oil for 2 minutes. *Based on the "Kibit" recipe of Ms.Protein 12. Crop Protection Division. 16-20 tbps Metaldehyde Meta Flo 300 g/L 2 /16L water 10 Porsnail Metaldehyde 750 g/kg tbsp/16L 74 WP water .Other food values: Vit. or place in oven at 40°C for 48 hours.8 mg . Joshi. manganese. 4. modified by Mario S. 7.6 g . Let cool before serving. 124 St.

. Inc. Nichimen Corp.. EC Moluxide Niclosamide 250g/L 250 EC 4 . Jardine Davies. Sterols. Inc.. Inc.V. Novartis Agro Phils. Leads Agri Product Corp.. Dow Agro Sciences B. Glycosides. Transworld Trdg. Aldiz Inc. Bayer Phils. Phils. Inc.. Inc.G Metaldehyde Rescue 10 G 100 g/kg P F EC WP EC 2-4 kg/ha(T) SnailKil Metaldehyde 60 g/kg 4-8 6% P kg/ha(DS) Chlorothalonil Shield 500 g/L 7-14 Bayluscide Niclosamide 250 g/L tbsp/16L 250 EC water Bayluscide 700 g/kg 70 WP 7-14 Niclosamide Hit 250 EC 250 g/L tbsp/16L water Niclosamide Trap 70 35 g/16L 700 g/kg WP water 2-4 Bayonet kg/ha(T) 60g/kg 6% Pellets 4-8 kg/ha(DS) 2-4 Stop 6% kg/ha(T) 60 g/kg Pellets 4-8 kg/ha(DS) Archer 500 g/kg 50WP 2-4 Ciba Meta kg/ha(T) 60 g/kg Bait 4-8 kg/ha(DS) 16-20 Meta Flo 300 g/L tbsp/16L 600 FL water Kuhol P 245 g/kg 20 kg/ha 7-14 tbsp/16L water 4 4 4 4 4 Cropking Chem. WP 4 PEL Metaldehyde 4 PEL Metaldehyde 4 WP Niclosamide 4 PEL Metaldehyde 4 F Metaldehyde Tannins. and Flavanoids 2 P 4 Pro Green Phils.

This likewise reduces the need for imported fishmeal feeds and save the country¶s foreign exchange. Opportunities abound. It destroys farms. locally known as golden kuhol. was first introduced into Philippine farms in 1983 with the hope of providing additional protein source for dietary improvement of many poor families. The snail meat provides protein and energy-giving fat while the shell contains calcium.moderately hazardous. 4 unlikely to present acute hazard in normal case The golden apple snail (Pomacea Tcanalicuta). a lot of farmers do not see these golden kuhol as a threat to the fields but rather an opportunity to improve their livelihood. by converting the snails into feed supplements the farmers spend less for expensive feeds for their livestock and poultry. Marife L. tbsp . and minerals. There are times when animals are fed with pure golden apple snail straight from the fields. livelihood. mixed with raw rice bran. and has become a burden to rice production. G . Ducks fed with snail meal can attain more or less than 70% increase in egg production rate. many farmers are (again) looking at the golden kuhol at a different perspective.Flowable. PEL .Granule. It also gives opportunity for farmers to culture golden kuhol in one specific area mainly for feed supplement. farmers have discovered it to be a good source of supplementary feed for livestock and poultry.Transplanted. vitamins. voraciously feeding on any succulent greens that include newly transplanted rice seedlings. T .Pellet. P . But as R&D continues to find solution to farmers¶ problem. The opportunity of converting golden kuhol into useful feeds also saves a lot of money for our farmers. but farmers continue to ignore them due to the laborious and timeconsuming task of manually crushing the snails. DS . Now.EC . classification by hazards: 2 . Although considered a threat in rice production. as they do not have to buy expensive molluscicide to control it. researchers from the Department of Engineering and Technology of the Camarines Sur State Agricultural College led by Engr.Emulsiflable Concentrate. It grows and increases rapidly. and then fed right away to the animals.tablespoon.Powder. The golden kuhol being remarkably nutritious and easy to digest. phosphorous. snail meal could replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets. . *Based on World Health Organization. But its promising potential turned into a menace for farmers when the golden apple snail became a prolific pest on rice fields. F . WP Wettable Powder. making it environmentfriendly. It stimulates fast growth and reproduction. This machine does not only minimize laborious work of crushing but it also saves time from manually picking the snails from the fields and different farm locations. Further. Studies showed that healthier and heavier livestock are produced using this feeding scheme. Golden kuhol are collected from the fields.Direct Seeded. crushed. due to its high nutrition. Pesino designed and developed a mechanically operated golden kuhol grinder-crusher. Likewise.

and lower rotor housing assembly. Its rotor assembly consists of a swinging and rotating hammer blades that crush and grind golden kuhol through a replaceable perforated screen. etc.e. The golden kuhol crusher-grinder has seven main parts: mainframe assembly. The design and concept of the crusher-grinder was based on the existing hammer mill machines used in efficiently reducing sizes of feed materials but is comparably more efficient. fruit loader. tractor. water pump. But with the new kuhol crusher-grinder. hopper assembly. Performance tests showed that the machine could efficiently and perfectly crush and grind golden kuhol when operated at 1500 rpm and 2070 rpm. crushing and grinding are no longer tedious as before. The design of the golden kuhol crusher-grinder is not only economical and environment-friendly but more important. farm equipment and machineries i.. which was designed and conceptualized by a lady engineer. making it easy to transport. thresher. the machine is gender-friendly. with the desired particle size recommended for optimum feed digestibility.Generally. Women and children who also work in the farm use machines that are laborious and strenuous to operate. respectively. The machine is mobile. .. upper rotor housing assembly. The machine is low-cost and affordable as it is made from indigenous materials. are never gender-friendly.

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