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مجلة آفاق العلم أغسطس - سبتمبر 2006

مجلة آفاق العلم أغسطس - سبتمبر 2006

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Page 8 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006























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Page 9 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006














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Page 10 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


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!#%& ') !*%,+ ./0%13/ .45%79+ :0;%<%=> ?@0%A CD%FG0HI%K
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Page 11 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


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t!L$=$f*/ @*/ ]$=)$'16 hX*/ L$;
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Page 13 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006
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Page 14 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006
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PROSPECTS
</0$Pz/ OFG *"?$8*/ JK 377 1 353
^0*0$B0; "):*/ ]`$5 x4l$F:*/ bQ$+
LF$T"9 ... cl$& a?$21E S4/#6 a9LF$5
k!"$N $Lf$QG a:$B/ 3F)$%9 a?$&/ 1
a:$BLG ... ")$:*/ *LK1 3$(G $Lf$Q*/ @=$?./
S/0f$B sl$[G .
n$*z *3F$2 *L$5 JK k!"$M*/ J$CG
H6 bQ$+ HL$;D*/ O; <L$P yL:$B 1
JK #/"$N6 s/3$5/ JK c/D*E ,Q$A?!
a93:$P6 V$(G 1 a8$C$B ... $1 L$;3f$P /D
H0$2 8!3$C*/ HL$B"K ) O; /0;3$+ O!X*/
L$+*L; ( 8;L$%*/ H"$C*/ JK $f!3:*/
C$+f; c0$5 $()$+ $Lf$G /1#"$+ x"i$P
k!"$M*/ ... $Lf$Q*/ !0$C9 /1#"$+ L;3f$P 1
<L$(*/ JK 1494 JK /163G x4lF:)*
k!"$M*/ *#L$u$5 </3$%?$B/ ... <L$(*/ JK 1
1552 $M*/ $/D$26 b$T R.L$T x ]9 3$+ k!"
()$C*/ $L$fG JK L=*L:($?B/ 1 L=$`F$`89 .

$L$fG ]F;L$g9 40$($9 o1"$(:*/ b`F$=*/
]B:G 1 ]F|$(*/ <L$&"*/ 3Q$(; ]$B:G >L$M!6
8F:9#/ F.L.0F*/ =*}/ 3Q(; <L$(*/ @*/
550 f!3; JK 4l$F:*/ b$Q+ ^0AKj
) *"$'L(:*/ LFT"9 ...( $J)$; 3Q$(:*/ HL$T
@)$P R?$p. J?*/ !D$.1"Q*/ bF\L:$?*LG
OFF.L.0F*/ QC$p*/ J.LfK ]|$P6 h3!6 .
=*/ HL$T >L!#L$u9 >L+0$B 1 >L$Ff$!4 >/3Q$(; b`F$
R$+0*/ S/Y JK ... #L$;3)* b`F$=*/ W"$(9
HL$T x*3!3$P S/"; $L$fQ*/ *4L$Pj 1
8!3$C*/ 3! @)$P LZ"$&6 <0?B0A!"U JK
<L$(*/ 401 4l$F:)* ... R$+0*/ "*Y X$f;
>/#0$u$=; b`F$=*/ 7+0; J$CG .

*3F$2 *L$5 JK k!"$M*/ J$CG <L$P yL$:?$B 1 n*z HL$;D*/ O;


R$+0*/ S/Y JK >L!#L$u9 >L+0$B 1 >L$Ff$!4 >/3Q$(; b`F$=*/ HL$T

Page 15 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006
E cL[:9 ! ^0


*+ "O#4B*+ tl"#W#9 sd#H







<L$(*/ JK ^0$!E JC!"$1}/ a$*}/ 3Q($; $Lf$G ]$9 450 bQ$+
4lF$:*/ ... ^0$!D* ]%$N cL[$:9 $L$i$./ #"$C$9 S/0f$AG "*Y 3$($G
K H0$`$F* 3Q$(:*/ b$&/4 J ... JC!"$1}/ HLf$8*/ cL$[:$?*/ R$pfG <L$+
^/3FK Pheidas .
C$+f; RG"$N J?*/ SL.L$MF8*/ 1 S/#LF$=.}/ 1 cE,D*/ RQQ$B
>/"$FQT >/#L$;4 4lF:*/ 3$(G 8;L$%*/ 1 7G/"*/ OF."C*/ JK LFQ$:F*16
cL$[:?)* 1 3Q$(:)* .
$:?*/ bC. ]9 x8;L$%*/ H"$C*/ !/3G JK H6 ,j xFfF$+f$+$AC*/ @*/ cL[
<L$(*/ JK >l;L$T 2"$F;39 JK ,Q$A9 >L:$%$N >L$C$!"$5 462 4lF$:)* .

OF SCIENCE
PROSPECTS

Page 16 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006

















PROSPECTS
OF SCIENCE
rX TD? v"#L @x#)
UI%& 6a%w0%P4G ~0%7I%A Archaeopteryx U*K o6G0b (0%A eN+ C
(0%A C6a;%,+ Q .b)3%Z+ 9%&Q,+ ';/ uwa+ .H*%& a%F eN+ Q (5;%,+
orQd :5%L%. .%<P%X> (d }03*%Z+ G0HI%K ... 4G ~0%7I%A (d rY :6aw0P%
;46 0%L+ (0%A ) ';%*+ \^ ( orQd 5L%. ;%45+ (d ') ]%ARI%@ 0P%*%Z& C .
G5%9+ ') .40%ba+ \%F 15%`d .40%7 S+ ;%45+ Ga%XQ (0%A C(5;%,+ u%9%b
}~]+ 5;^aJ Q .

0L%;+Y uwaJ \I+ :0)a*Z3+ 5%`k !#%&
meQaP+ 53<+ "45 '%K }03*%Z+
[%H+ ') E]%bd !*%i+ .
.=Q53+ "0tN+ vQd ) .h;+d 0L;3#@ \I+ (
u9b 5L%. 130 (0%A 03%/6 Q E0%K 9+d
v026]@0;P+ (0%#@T o09%&0*) .
U*%Z^ CEa;+ 0P+ ~Q5%Z3+ [%H+ 0%)d
u9b 5L%. C(a*I%_3+ =5*4 C51%A>
20 E0%K 9+d ... DJ 0) E]bd S;*%K 6a1Z+
U+ Ga%Z4 o 0;*%Z^ 8 >59b \^ E0%K ~rk .

.*;%$Q ?@0%A C(0%#@T 6a%L%. u9%b
o rQd \F 520%i%I+ U+ .;*%_+ E0#%H@0/
D2 5;9+ n=Q .,$a/ D%2 C';IP2
cGra+ Q u3%<+ "45% '%K .
GQ,3+ C0;%Xa+a%;9+ }03*%K !%#%&
0%3) U%1%@> a%F .;tN%•+ Ga3+0/
.;*%M^> 0%L;,%Z4 .
(d UP%Z3/ mq0@T .;+)HI%$ 0P%h%=d OY
0L%;^ '%i%34 \I+ ?a@> 5%Z/ g0P%F
0%@l+ u3%<+ \+0%I+0/ Q C"0%*%`T q
m6a%AN+ U+ .%X0%<+ (QG CcGra+ Q
(d (Q]%A@4 }03*%Z+ uZ%W4 N%F (B^
'%F '%A 5%L%. ') vQd .

') .@a%i%) .;*%` .%M%;9+ 0%@59I%K OY
S*%& '%i34 D4]%H+ ,%•%*+0^ m:0P;%X
.K5%#/ : o rQd \F :5%L%. .
e60%;*) U+ ?%X0I%& U%+Q> :0P%;%W+
(Ca%iJ (d u9%b E0%K " o ]%#%X " 0%LC%P%i)
0%L%#%h@ .403%& '%) Q .A5%<+ ') .
!%#%& ]%H^ m.;3*%K :0%<45%*J 5%`k
:0P%;%W+ ?%b5%•%I%$ 3 :60%;*)
.%X0%X]+ U+ vawa+ u9%b 9%*@ Q .
o 0%3%I%& .;%P%;%W+ :5%h,+ (d 0%3%/ Q
va%H+ '%i%34 m.%M;9+ \^ u*%<I$
n=a/ E0%b eN+ (a;%<+ (d .%H1/
'%i4 D+ Co0wa%w ?#%H^ \I+ .%M;9+
.X0%XG .
ry#'g*+ <? /#:3#L{+
*+ r63#d*+ <? B#*U
*+ rtG#J*+ <? K#0
|+ rmQ4"d(O#f*+ <? A"#H4
*+ r/L"#LB*+ <? /$#Od
D+ (0%#@T C6a%,I+ Q }a%7P+ .45%x@ !#%&
\%K]4 03%A e,%@093;%7+ '%K R%7P4
(Q5%;1%i+ .
(B^ C}03*%Z*+ c5%^aI%3+ :0%)a*%Z%3+ !%#%&
]%Z/ 5%L%. Ea%;+ S^5%Z@ eN+ e,%@093;%7+
.*4a% .;P%)j c5%Ih/ (0%#@T .
cG5%H+ ) 0L%P) oG5^ e,@093;%7+ u%i%74 \I+ (
@ 0;%H45%^d "5%7 .H%,P) \^ :6a%,J Q :R%7
\^ oGa%Xa) (0%A (0%#@T (d ';%& \^
c60%H+ ') .;b5%7+ .H%,P3+ .

www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006 Page 16

Page 17 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006








OF SCIENCE
PROSPECTS
r<UG#`*+ ,#\ "#)
/'g#=3*+
/dp+g(*+
!"d-#i|+
}O3#•-*+
B'B#:-* l"#IU*+ @) B'B#`*+ u]g#L B#pD P"*U#& @) ;*"#`*+ ;##5 X"#(#l+C A"#H4|+ _D"#&
Vv+Q#L? #E ,5 AU#J*+ gO#I ;#J#:. ,-*+ @O4+U#0*+ D 7"O#YO#J*+ ... mn*+ uUG#I$* Z#1#9? D
I+ ~B##*+ M*o Z*+ _U#bU*+ /#O4"#J#)+ "#b+U#i 6-d#q? ;G#`*+ ;# ... <UG#`*+ Z*+ #bU-*+ #dp
/#0S"#H*+ tO*"#I{+ #E #f5 6d#q B#p A"E P<U#O*+ "5g#`4 mn*+ "##GJ#fS .


Page 18 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


r<UG#`*+ ,#\ "#)






+ r .%$]%H) 60%i%^d U+ CU,%$a+ (Q5%H+ \^ .;%<;%#3+ :]%HI%Z3
0%L;*%K e]%ZI+ ]%&> ja%W4 .
\^ Q 60%i%^> f*%J U*%K y0%h%<+ \^ "5%Z+ }0%3*%Z+ D%L%$d
:r0%W3+ ') 5;%1%i+ \^ 0%F54a%,J .


]/> U+ 653I%$T n%ba+ N%L+ u;%<I%#3+ ') (0%A .
L%x+ (0%A \^ Q c]4]%X "a%/d 8%I^ \^ E0%F 6QG .%K09%,+ 6a%
5;i%hI+ =a3%#%3+ ') '%i%4 D+ c]4]%X 60%i^d Q }6k 5%7@ u;%L%#J
o0%H/0%$ 0%L/ .
E0%Z+ \^ }0%X 5;9%i+5;%•%I+ 1543 era%i;@ ]%Ad 0%)]P%K
S/0I%A \^ za%i%;@5/a%A De Revolutionibus Orbium
Coelestium 66> (d 3;+ Q 33%7+ va%& 6Q]%J \%I+ \%F
a,%$6R/ >0%_+ f*%h+ D*%K 3%$d f+N/ o04]%<I) m3%i%Z+ .

S;%Xa%I/ E0%b eN+ \*;+0%X a;*;+0%X }0%X C5;%*b ?%ba/ f+O ]%Z/
a%,%$6d 60%i^d U+ .;%=0%H+ ./5%M+ ... 3%$d a;*;+0%X n%=Q
%Z+ !%FN3+ }0%7@B/ f+O Q .14]%<+ Ea*%Z+ 83%$ eN+ \3*
./5%WI+ Q c]%F0%73+ "45% '%K .+a9%H) Dt0%I@ U+ va%wa+0/ .
"t0H%& U+ u%waI+ \^ Cc5%) vQ> C"a%i%#*%I+ a;*;+0%X E]%_I%$
za%i;@5/a%A 60%i^d ?%3%KG ... (0%A 0P%+ a;*;+0%X S%)]b 0%) D%Fd
c]%&Q c5%i^ " : .;%=046 .%•*/ ./aI%i) .Z;9%,+ ..." {N%F DJ c5%ih+

OF SCIENCE
PROSPECTS
.%*s%$d 0%L*%A E(a%i+ d]%/ 9;%A Q E0P%s%X '%4d '%) E'%<@ '%)
+ N%P) (0%#%@T 0%L%&5% .4]%9 ... S;*%K ]%3I%K eN+ "a*%$>
.%;P%4]+ :]%HI%Z3+ "45% '%K 0%)Y (0%A (0%#@T ) (0%34T ed
(0%4G> SI%)]%b 0%) .%<%*/ "*%,3+ ( 5;%ih%I+ "45% '%K Qd
U*%K .;P9%) Dt0I%@ U+ U+ S+a%wQ \^ ]3I%Z4 eN+ \H%,%P3+
5%Fa%x*+ .9%b53+ Qd c]%F0%73+ (a%i+ \^ .h*I%_3+ .
U*%K c]%3I%Z3+ .;@0%#@T .^5%Z3+ \%F C.;%$0%$d c6a%*/ CEa*%Z+
c]%F0%73+ "45% '%K 0%L%;+Y va%wa+ D%I4 .;%Ka=a) "t0H%&
:0/0%#%<+ Qd ./5%WI+0/ S%$0%;b '%i%3%4 eN+ \H,%P3+ u%;+]+ Q
.;%=045+ .
UI%&Q C5%7%K n/0%#+ (5%H+ UI%& ?@0%A C\*;+0%X a;*;+0%X '%)j
'4]+0/ ]%;Q u%i%7/ .%,9J5) Ea*%Z+ .
.;@0%i)B/ Q Ea%WP+ .%A5%</ .@aI%h%) .3%4]%H+ "a%Z%7+ ?@0%A
:O :0%WI%P) U+ va%wa+ u%Xd ') .;Z;9% 5%w0P%Z/ !%K)%I+
.;9% Qd .;*3%K ]%ta%^ .
<@d n;3%X \^ .%34]%H+ "a%Z%7+ ?@0%A N%L+ 66> }0% ) ')
5%*) U+ ';%*+ ( f*%h+0%A muHI%#) u%i%7/ Ea*%Z+ :6a% ]%b
}0;%3;%_+ Q !%,+ Q ... }0%)]%H+ 0%L/ '%)k \I+ :5;%#%hI+ '%i+
u)0%i+0/ .%;P%4G ?@0%A ... F)%K (0%A Co )%1) .;@a%K5%h+ 5%*) \^
Q6> G5% !%;+0%$R/ Q N4Q0%Z%I+0/ DI%4 65%)> G0%HI%KT (> =
}N%4Y \^ !9%#+ \%F c545%7+ =Q6> (d a%F o]t0%$ (0%A eN+
(0%#%@T .<%w .
.%#3%` ') 51%Ad u%9b 6a%,I+ \^ :d]/ \I+ C:0;%=0%45+ UI%&
0%L%J6]%H/ ]%&d ]%HI%Z4 D+ ';%& .4,%)6 .%3;b :O ?@0%A CE0%K ~rk
(a%i+ D%L^ \^ 0PJ]%K0%#) U*%K ... 5%ih+ cG0%b C"45%7T UI%&
\^ ';*%*hP) ';+0%W) U*%K (Q]%3I%Z4 a@0%A C%460%I+ \^ \3*%Z+
c]%F0%73+ a%F \@0%1+ Q cG5%W3+ :0;%=045+ a%F vQ> mDL%H%,P)
.%;945%WJ Dt0%KG )/ ?@0%A \I+ .

a%,%$6d u%Mh/ 9;P%*I+ Q c]%F0%73+ "a*%$d !*%•J C.40%LP+ \^
v,%4 r u)a%K !#%& SP%)j \^ .;%<+ :0P%t0%i+ u%A 9P%w eN+
Ea%;+ UI%& E]%_I%#) 0%L%M%Z/ ... [%H^ N%F 3%;+ '%i%3J u%/ C
\@)%H%K E0%x@ 60%Y \^ .Z;9%,+ n%=Q ') o0%M4d a,%$6d
9%#4 D+ f%$03%I) ]%&d S%;+Y S%H ... U*%K c5%,;%#) {A6k ?;%H/ N%L+
\^ C?+a%<J UI%& C'%),+ ') ';I%;%h+d ') 51%A> D+0%Z+ \^ 5i%h+

;!#L$?*/ bQ$+ L:$FK ")$8*/ ])$P :
C$+f; JK :$%$M*/ rF)$<:*/ #L$u$56 Callanish *"!D$2 JK
Lewis F.L+!"Q*/ ... Fy/3$G F$`)K o#L$(; 40$21 RQ$[9 L=$(+/0; x O$`*
$pF$p' 3F$(Q*/ J$NL$:*/ JK x .
Z*+ g#:#H*+ @#) ... /O(G#`*+ u!"#W-*+
!U%#*+ /O(G#`*+

Page 19 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


r<UG#`*+ ,#\ "#)





OF SCIENCE
PROSPECTS
E0%Z+ \^ D+0%Z*+ E]%b eN+ '%Ja;@ "%<%$ u%Mh/ 0%F54a%,J 1687 S/0I%A
5;%L%7+ Principia Matematica }04,;%h+ 3%$d U*%K 1aI%& eN+
.;/O0%W+ ';@a%H+ Q .4];*%HI+ 0%i;@0%i;%3*+ '3%M%I3+ .14]%<+ .
5;9%A 5%2d :O '%Ja;@ ';@a%b ?@0%A .+G%A (a%i+ U+ 5%xP+ U+ }0%3*%Z+0/ 1Gd
.;t04,%;^ Q .;%=046 ';@a%b !#%& 6Q]J ... \^ u%M^ S+ (0%A 5%2> N%F Q
!%,+ Q 0;%Xa+a;9+0%A 15%`d Ea*%K 54a%,J .
(a%i+ U%+ }03*%Z+ 0%L/ 5%x@ \I+ .H45%,+ ,%F eN%+ D;%x%Z+ v,+,+
\^ }0%X .Z;9%,+ Q '45%7%Z+ (5%H+ .%4]/ ... :59+d '%i3J C.%L%X '3%^
03%L^ m';*%*hP) ';*)0%K 0#%;+ '%),+ Q }0%Mh+ (d .P%F5/ ') ';I%7P4k
.K5%$ Q nba) U*%K 03%L/0#%& \^ (]3I%Z4Q 5%Z9+ 03%L%M%Z9/ (0%,9J5)
0%^0%#3+ H%_4 0%) \^ '%Ja;@ ';%@a%b 60;%L@ U+ 1Gd 0%3) C!%b53+ :
o]%X .3;x%Z+ (0)j> Q ... \I+ D%i+ 0i%;@0i%;) :}0%X C15%`d .%L%X '%) Q
0%) D;#%X nba) (d U*%K ?P%F5/ ) \/ai$Q5%i;3+ D+0%Z%+ \^ ( .;P%)j .%,%H@ \^
.H%&r .;P%)j .%,%H@ \^ [%H^ SI%^5%Z) '%i34 .P;%Z) ... ') CS@d \P%Z4 0%3)
I%#4 C.45%xP+ .;%&0%P+ .Z;9%,+ S%XQd u%A .^5%Z) u;%< ... U+ 1Gd N%F u%A
c5%i^ 60;%L@ " .+k (a%i+ ."



]%H^ f+N%A C.;^5%Z3+ va%H%<+ n;3%X \^ o]%X 5;9%A ui%7/ Ea*%Z+ :6a%,J
\%^ {]%&Q u3%Z4 eN+ D+0%Z+ c6a%*^ m\%3*%Z+ u3%Z+ "a*%$d o0%M4d 5;%•J
Ga%XQ 0%L+ ]%Z4 D%+ {59%I%_) ... G5%^d c]%K ') .%@a%i%) #5%^ ]%Xa%J CEa%;+
eR%/ .H*%Z%I) Dt0%I@ U+ va%wa+ UI%& o0%Z) a%@Q0%Z%I4 Q a*3%Z4 (d !%W4
'%</ ... 0%F5;%7 Q !%,+ Q :0P;%W+ Q }0%Mh+ v0%W) \^ u3%Z%J #5%^ g0%P%F .
83%$ Q \3*%K }0%KG u%A ') "H%<I+0/ 83%$ \Xa+aP%iI+ 6a%,I+ 5%7P/ o0%M4d

8$F*L$( o0$A)F$8*/ – ^4L$A*/ H"$C*/ JK
@*1z/ 8$Bz/ 7$N1 4lF$:*/ b$Q+
"*Y 3$(G >/"F[$T S#0$+9 J?*/ SLF$NL!")*
^3F:$&#6 1 ^3F)$+j 3$! @)$P .





0$+$B#6 ) 384 – 322 4lF$:*/ bQ+ ( -
"$'Lf$P b$T b:$d >L;L$P >/#L$(j 7$N1
$(FQ$+*/ 3$BL$f?; JC$+f; <L$|. JK . =L$P
<L$P J$8$*6 O; "[$T6 <L$|f*/ /X$Z .
D$T"$; J$Z W#z/ H6 0$+$B#6 3$C?$P/
H0$`*/ .





^0$`F."G0$T h,0$`F. ) 1473 – 1543 ( –
> /3$T$; 0$+$B#6 <L$|. ]$2L$Z O; c16 HL$T
8:$i*/ c0$5 #13$9 J?*/ J$Z W#z/ H6
8$`$(*/ 8$F* 1 .






2 J)F*L$2 0F)F*L$ ) 1564 – 1642 ( – @)$P
c16 HL$T a$.z [!3$p*/ <0)$(*/ S_$i. a$!3!
J:)$(*/ #LQ?$&}/ <L$|. <3$+ O; ... >/4L$:?$P/
GL?$T O; O$90F. O$`:9 xa$T"9 L; @)$P
FGYL$u*/ 1 L$`F.L$`F:*/ OF./0+ .





b!0G S"G1# ) 1627 – 1691 ( – R.L$T
)$P b:$(9 $LF$:F$%*/ ^0C$+*/ 1 "$p$A*/ @
,$ZX$:*/ 3Q$( 1 b$!0G $L$uK xF.L$51"*/
])$P "*XG >LA$B$; L$=F)$P *"; c1z J:)$(*/
r!3$p*/ $LF$:F$`*/ .


2000 7+R"#W4|+ @) <"#9

JK @*1z/ a?G"$u9 3$(G >"Qf90$2
PLQ+*/ ... "$i. JK $PLQ+*/ R:ZL$B
]*L$(*/ JK <0)$(*/ c4LQ9 bF=$A9 1 .

9 G B#a*+ <U

Page 20 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


r<UG#`*+ ,#\ "#)





OF SCIENCE
PROSPECTS
o0;%3*%K ?9%1%4 0%) u%A .
60;*) ') },%X S3%W%& 03%;^ 6a%_+0/ f+N%A 0P%+ 83%$ \%Xa+aP%i%I+ 6a%,I+
5I%3+ ') 60;*) ) 5%•%*+ \^ \F0PI%3+ ( :5I%)a*;%i+ :60;*) S3%W%& 03%;^ Q
) .)0%_%M+ \^ \F0PI3+ ...( c,%L%&d Ea%;+ ]%XaJ C.H;%bG :0/0%#%& }GR/ E0;%H*+
5Ja;93%A ... cG5%W) .;3*%K ?%#;+ :r0%W) \^ va%`]+ \^ :d]%/ :0;%=045+ Q
0;%Xa+a%;9+ Q G0%*I%bT0A .
?+a%<J .*s%$> U+ .;%)a3%K 5%1%A> ut0%#3+ ') C'%),+ 6Q5%3/ C
.;s%;9+ Q .;%b)%`> c5%xP+ U+ .;h%#*h+ c5%xP+ '%) Q CHt0%*%_+ ...
u9HI%#3+ Ea*%K 0%P+ 0%L%)]HI%$ 0%L;+Y va%wa+ \^ !%75@ \I+ :0/0%XT u%A .





S;^ '%<%9J eN+ v0%W3+ !%#%& .hP%*) Ea%;+ Ea*%Z+ .)0%K Ea*%K ]%Xa%J r m
a%,%$6d '%)j \^ v0%<+ (0%A 03%A (a%i+ \^ }\%8 u%A \^ '%<9J ... (d rY
\^ n3I%WJ c]%&Q .;1%</ 3%$d U*%K 0%L*3%K \^ "h%IJ 0%L*%A .;3*%Z+ va%H%<+
0%) .^5%Z) U+ u%wa%I+0/ 0P%+ 83%#4 eN+ \3*%Z+ !%FN3+0/ SI;3%#J 0PP%i34 0%)
J '%i34 r Ed \H;H%& D*%Z%A Sh;P%* ... \%F 0%) .)a*%Z) (d va%H%+ ') '%i3%IP+
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0%L%M^6 '%i33+ 5;%7 '%) Q .%<;%<%w 0%L%@d C15%`> .
*/ Q$+/"$: .x%&)3+ Qd c]%F07%3+ Qd ... > ca%,%_+ \%F Q U+Q . 97%i+ ]P%K
c5%809) .9%b5) .;*3%K D;%xPJ DI%4 C.;945%WJ .*%MZ) '%K ) .9H+ ]w5%A
.4Q03%#+ ( .;*3%Z) 609I%` .;*3%K Qd ) 8,$ U*%K .4,@Q5/ :5A #)BA
ut0%) ...( :QGd "45% '%K Qd .45%79+ za%<+ E]%_I%$0/ D%IJ ]%b .%9b53+

,(G#`*+ t#\n(*+
$( O$P H1"?$`*}/ n$i?$T/ H0$AQ$;0$\ n!E0$2 SLf$p$d #/3$'j 3!"
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$(FQ$+*/ JK *40$20$; .
O$!1#/4 D*#L$i9 ) 1809 – 1882 ( – <L$+
>/4L$:?$P/ $L$C$9#}/ 1 $0$if*/ !"$|. 7$N0G
7nFf$g?*/ 1 0L?$f?$B}/ 1 |$5l:*/ @)$P
>L$F+$(; >LF$:)$P >/3$(G !"$|f)* .






#0?$BLG 8$!0* ) 1822 – 1895 ( – <L$+
3:?$(! O`$! ]* hX*/ ,$+)* !0$+ ($K4 ]!3C$?G
3$(G p$N/1 8$B6 @)$P ... 8$B6
$PLf$:*/ bC$5 1 LF$20*0!"F?$`Q*/ .






c3fF$; #0$u!"$2 ) 1822 – 1884 ( –
])$P 8$B6 1 \/#0*/ OF./0+ n$i?$T/
F$u*/ SLf ... O$; aKLi?$T/ ]9 h10f*/ V:$p*/
JK H0$A9/1 8:F$2 1 "!"T 8F$A./"K bQ$+
<L$(*/ 1953 .





OF?$i$f!{ S"Q*6 ) 1879 – 1955 ( – 7N1
'L$%*/ FQ$Af*/ J?!"$|. ) 1905 (
;L$(*/ FQ$Af*/ 1 ) 1916 ( L9"F$1 HL$?)*/ 1
Lf:$=K -0)$B6 1 O$;D*/ 1 $L$M8*/ ]FZL$8;
)* b`$T H0$` .





>"Q$.D!L$Z "$."$!1 ) 1901 – 1971 ( – 7;
8$B6 7$N1 xOFFyL!DF8*/ O; 2"F$1
]$`*/ L$`F.L$`F; .




Page 21 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


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.P;Z) c5F0. .

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:G%X0h3+ ... *%K .*%1)> ') z04,P;/ a@6k ]%W@ f+O U Arno
Penzias (a%#*4Q :5/Q6 Q Rober Wilson )%*%& (N*+
E0%Z*+ }04,;h+ \^ u/a@ c,t0%X U*%K 1978 :0K0%Z%8 03L^07I%AT
D;xZ+ 60%Wh@T 0%F6]%*) (0%A \I+ .;h*%_+ 94QQ5%i;3+ ... }0%X
09%754 0) u%A (0%A ]%H^ m.^]%*+0/ ~07I%AT N%F SI%$6G \^ (
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5%/a/ v60%A Ea*%Z+ ~a%#*;^ va%H4 Karl Popper " 0PP%i34 r
.P;%Z) .;3*%K .45%x@ .%<%w ') '4]%ARI%) (a%i@ (d o]%/d ... U*%K
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OF SCIENCE
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*0$+$%*/ 1
F)T JK LF$20*0FG ]*L$P Imperial
College b$:$(! H3$f$* J$K
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Page 22 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006














OF SCIENCE
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]B#W*+ 7"#YbD

'(#`#G* /Y#bD M.B#W* B#LU' P/'BH#L /G#J#f) D? v+C J*
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/Od#1*+ 7"#YbU*+ Vn##* ["#I? B#LU' #\ " /O#*Q3(*+ " r


Page 23 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


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"%& U*%K fJ]%X mf%8 ed ]%Xa%4 r C0P%F . :09%2 DJ
v)%` ') .;w0%_+ {N%F
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Page 24 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006


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Page 25 www.sci-prospects.com August-September 2006





PROSPECTS
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