In lho Namo of AIIah, lho Mosl Gracious, lho Mosl MorcifuI

Tho IsIamic
MoraI Svslom

Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural





Wrillon bv ÄvaluIIah Iafar Subhani
TransIalod bv SaIoom Bhimji


iv
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural
Wrillon bv ÄvaluIIah Iafar Subhani
TransIalod bv SaIoom Bhimji
Edilod bv Arifa Hudda













IubIishod bv

IsIamic Humanilarian Sorvico
S1 HoIIingor Crosconl
Kilchonor, Onlario
Canada, N2K-2YS
ToI: 519-576-7111
Fax: 519-576-S37S
vvv.aI vvv.aI vvv.aI vvv.aI- -- -haqq.com haqq.com haqq.com haqq.com
In Co-oporalion vilh:

Tho WorId Fodoralion of KSMIC
I.O. Box 60
Slanmoro, MiddIosox
Inilod Kingdom, HA7 4IB
ToI: 020-S954-9SS1
Fax: 020-S954-9034
vvv.vorId vvv.vorId vvv.vorId vvv.vorId- -- -fodoralion.org fodoralion.org fodoralion.org fodoralion.org

Tvposolling and Covor Dosign bv AI-Falh AI-Mubin IubIicalions
vvv.aI vvv.aI vvv.aI vvv.aI- -- -mubin.org ! aI mubin.org ! aI mubin.org ! aI mubin.org ! aI- -- -mubin©aI mubin©aI mubin©aI mubin©aI- -- -mubin.org mubin.org mubin.org mubin.org

Firsl Irinling Soplombor 2003
© Copvrighl 2003 IsIamic Humanilarian Sorvico
AII Righls Rosorvod

Irinlod in Canada Irinlod in Canada Irinlod in Canada Irinlod in Canada

No parl of lhis pubIicalion mav bo roproducod or lransmillod in anv
form or bv anv moans, oIoclronic or mochanicaI, incIuding
pholocopving, rocording or anv informalion slorago and rolriovaI
svslom vilhoul pormission in vriling from lho pubIishor.
NalionaI Iibrarv of Canada CalaIoguing in IubIicalion Dala

Subhani, Iafar, 1926-
Tho IsIamic moraI svslom : commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujaral /
vrillon bv Iafar Subhani : lransIalod bv SaIoom Bhimji.

TransIalion of: Nizaam-o-AIhIaaqi-o-IsIaam.
Edilod bv Arifa Hudda.
IncIudos bibIiographicaI roforoncos and indox.
ISBN 1-S94701-16-X


1. Koran. Surah aI-Hujaral--Commonlarios. 2. Koran--Elhics.
I. Bhimji, SaIoom II. Hudda, Arifa III. IsIamic Humanilarian Sorvico
IV. TilIo.

BI12S.97.SS3 2003 297.5 C2003-905334-2


v
TabIo of Conlonls

Iago xi
TransIiloralion TabIo TransIiloralion TabIo TransIiloralion TabIo TransIiloralion TabIo



Iago xiii
Biographv of AvaluIIah Ia Biographv of AvaluIIah Ia Biographv of AvaluIIah Ia Biographv of AvaluIIah Ia far Subhani far Subhani far Subhani far Subhani



Iago xvii
Inlroduclion lo Fourlh Inlroduclion lo Fourlh Inlroduclion lo Fourlh Inlroduclion lo Fourlh (Iorsian) (Iorsian) (Iorsian) (Iorsian) Irinling Irinling Irinling Irinling



Iago xix
Inlroduclion lo Inlroduclion lo Inlroduclion lo Inlroduclion lo lho EngIish TransIalion lho EngIish TransIalion lho EngIish TransIalion lho EngIish TransIalion



Iago xxi
Forovord Forovord Forovord Forovord
Tho Mosl Imporlanl Issuo in lho Iivos of lho Youlh xxii
Tho Faclors lhal Can ConlroI Ono´s Inslincls xxiii
1. KnovIodgo and Wisdom xxiii
2. Training and Ipbringing vilhoul RoIigion xxvi
BonoficiaI ElhicaI Trails xxix
3. ElhicaI Trails lhal RoIv Ipon RoIigious Toachings xxx
Tho Mission of ElhicaI Guidanco of IsIam xxxii
Tho Dislinclions of lho IsIamic ElhicaI Toachings xxxiii
Nocossilv of Having a Movomonl lhal Encouragos Elhics xxxv



Iago 1
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Ono Ono Ono Ono
Tho Spocifics of Surah aI Tho Spocifics of Surah aI Tho Spocifics of Surah aI Tho Spocifics of Surah aI- -- -Hujural Hujural Hujural Hujural
Whal Objoclivos Doos This Surah Iursuo` 3
This Surah vas RovoaIod in Madinah, Nol MaIIah 5




Iago 11
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Tvo Tvo Tvo Tvo
Tho DiscipIinos of Tho DiscipIinos of Tho DiscipIinos of Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam IsIam IsIam IsIam
ExampIos in Hislorv of Thoso vho havo TaIon Irocodonco ovor AIIah and
His Irophol

16


vi
Tho Truo Moaning of IsIam is Submission 20



Iago 31
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Throo Throo Throo Throo
HumiIilv Wh HumiIilv Wh HumiIilv Wh HumiIilv Whon on on on SpoaIing SpoaIing SpoaIing SpoaIing
A Rough, Rudo Sociolv 36



Iago 41
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Four Four Four Four
Tho Sin of MaIing up Rumors Tho Sin of MaIing up Rumors Tho Sin of MaIing up Rumors Tho Sin of MaIing up Rumors
Iiars During lho Ioriod of Irophol Muhammad 45
Who vas WaIid` 47
WaIid Iorforms Four RaIal of SaIal aI-Fajr 50
Rumor Mongoring in Our limo 53




Iago 55
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Fivo Fivo Fivo Fivo
Immunilv from Sin and Error Immunilv from Sin and Error Immunilv from Sin and Error Immunilv from Sin and Error
An InfaIIibIo Irophol and lho Subjocl of AsIing Advico 61




Iago 67
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Six Six Six Six
An InlornaI Mossongor An InlornaI Mossongor An InlornaI Mossongor An InlornaI Mossongor - -- - Th Th Th Tho E o E o E o ElhicaI Conscionco lhicaI Conscionco lhicaI Conscionco lhicaI Conscionco
Froud and lho ElhicaI Consciousnoss 76




Iago 79
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Sovon Sovon Sovon Sovon
An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv
SlruggIing for Ioaco S5
Slanding up lo an Opprossor S6




Iago 93
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Eighl Eighl Eighl Eighl
Brolhorhood in Brolhorhood in Brolhorhood in Brolhorhood in IsIam IsIam IsIam IsIam
Inilv undor lho Iuminanco of Truo BoIiof 97
Whal is lho Basis and Sourco of Inilv` 101
An Effoclivo Modicalion 104
An AIorl Enomv 106


vii
ExampIos of SoIf-Sacrifico lhrough IsIamic Brolhorhood 107




Iago 113
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Nino Nino Nino Nino
Rospocling lho Rospocling lho Rospocling lho Rospocling lho Ropulo Ropulo Ropulo Ropulo of Anolhor MusIim of Anolhor MusIim of Anolhor MusIim of Anolhor MusIim
Supporl from lho Our'an in Slronglhoning lhis IrincipIo 117
IsvchoIogicaI Molivos for MaIing Fun of Olhors 11S
Occasion of RovoIalion of lhis Vorso 120



Iago 123
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Ton Ton Ton Ton
IicIing IicIing IicIing IicIing FauIl FauIl FauIl FauIls ss s is Irohibilod is Irohibilod is Irohibilod is Irohibilod
Ioinling oul Ono´s Dofocls vilh Sincorilv is nol lho Samo as FauIl Finding 12S
Slirring up a Iorson´s Emolions 130



Iago 131
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor EIovon EIovon EIovon EIovon
A Bad Namo and FamiIv A Bad Namo and FamiIv A Bad Namo and FamiIv A Bad Namo and FamiIv
Bad Namos and TilIos 133




Iago 141
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor TvoIvo TvoIvo TvoIvo TvoIvo
Boing Iossimislic Boing Iossimislic Boing Iossimislic Boing Iossimislic Aboul Aboul Aboul Aboul Olhors Olhors Olhors Olhors
Tho Dangor´s of Boing Iossimislic of Olhors 146




Iago 149
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Thirloon Thirloon Thirloon Thirloon
Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo
SociolaI Dangors Broughl Aboul bv Irving inlo Olhors´ Iivos 152
1. Ruining lho Ropulalion of Olhors 152
2. Wilhdraving and Rolroaling from Sociolv 154
3. Ioss of Froodom 155




Iago 159
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Fourloon Fourloon Fourloon Fourloon
SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI
Tho Molivos lhal Ioad lo BacIbiling 163
Dangors of BacIbiling 164



viii
Iago 167
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Fifloon Fifloon Fifloon Fifloon
IsIam IsIam IsIam IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv and RaciaI Suporiorilv and RaciaI Suporiorilv and RaciaI Suporiorilv
Tho Ouoslion of Raco and Ianguago in lho WorId Todav 172
1. Having Irido of Ono´s RoIalions, FamiIv or Tribo 174
2. Tho ¨Virluo¨ of Boing an Arab 175
Tho Mosl Amazing Marriago in Hislorv 17S
Whv is AIIah Consciousnoss (Taqva) lho Criloria for ExcoIIonco` 1S9




Iago 191
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Sixloon Sixloon Sixloon Sixloon
' '' 'IsIam IsIam IsIam IsIam´ ´´ ´ and and and and ' '' 'Iman Iman Iman Iman´ ´´ ´ from from from from lho lho lho lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an
AnaIvsis of lho vord 'Iman´ 199
Anolhor Moaning of IsIam and Iman 203
Invosligaling a Iong Running Dispulo 206




Iago 211
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Sovonloon Sovonloon Sovonloon Sovonloon
SoIf SoIf SoIf SoIf Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos
Tho Aroas Whoro Iovo is of No Iso 217
Truo Failh TaIos lho IIaco of lho Forcos of EquaIilv 219
Tho Gonoralion of Froodom 220




Iago 223
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Eighloon Eighloon Eighloon Eighloon
Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah
Iroofs of AIIah´s Novor-Ending KnovIodgo 227
1. Firsl Iroof for lho Comprohonsivo KnovIodgo of AIIah 227
Guidanco from lho Our'an on lho Firsl Iroof 22S
2. Socond Iroof for lho Comprohonsivo KnovIodgo of AIIah 230
Tho KnovIodgo of God in lho Tavral 233




Iago 239
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Ninoloon Ninoloon Ninoloon Ninoloon
Tho Groalosl BIossing Tho Groalosl BIossing Tho Groalosl BIossing Tho Groalosl BIossing



Iago 251
Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Chaplor Tvonlv Tvonlv Tvonlv Tvonlv
KnovIodgo of lho Insoon KnovIodgo of lho Insoon KnovIodgo of lho Insoon KnovIodgo of lho Insoon


ix
Iago 263
ExpIanalorv TransIalion of Surah aI ExpIanalorv TransIalion of Surah aI ExpIanalorv TransIalion of Surah aI ExpIanalorv TransIalion of Surah aI- -- -Hujural Hujural Hujural Hujural
Obodionco lo lho Shariah 263
Crilorion of Trulh and FaIsohood in Novs 264
Obodionco lo lho Irophol 265
IsIamic SoIidarilv 266
Somo MoraI Righls of MusIims 266
Racism Rojoclod 267
Difforonco bolvoon IsIam and iman: Submission and Conviclion 26S



Iago 271
BibIiographv BibIiographv BibIiographv BibIiographv



Iago 273
Indox Indox Indox Indox























xi
Tho molhod of lransIiloralion of IsIamic lorminoIogv from lho
Arabic and Iorsian Ianguago has boon carriod oul according lo lho
slandard lransIiloralion labIo monlionod boIov.


SvmboI SvmboI SvmboI SvmboI TransIiloralion TransIiloralion TransIiloralion TransIiloralion SvmboI SvmboI SvmboI SvmboI TransIiloralion TransIiloralion TransIiloralion TransIiloralion
.
'

·
m

a

.
n
.
b


v
.
l

·
h
.
lh

.
v
-
j



-
h



-
Ih

IONG IONG IONG IONG
VOWEIS VOWEIS VOWEIS VOWEIS

·
d


a
·
dh

.
i

R


u

Z



¸
S

SHORT SHORT SHORT SHORT
VOWEIS VOWEIS VOWEIS VOWEIS

¸
Sh


a
¸
s

___
i
¸
J


u

t




z



-


IERSIAN IERSIAN IERSIAN IERSIAN
IETTERS IETTERS IETTERS IETTERS

-
gh

.
p

f

-
ch
·
q

.
g
·
I


zh
.
I





Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xiii
Biographv of
AvaluIIah Iafar Subhani

ho goIdon pagos of hislorv aro ropIolo vilh individuaIs vho
havo sacrificod lhoir Iivos for lho guidanco and Ioadorship of
humanilv and lhroughoul lho agos, vo soo manv schoIars
vho havo dodicalod lhoir Iivos lo lho palh of progross and spiriluaI
upIiflmonl of manIind. Ono such schoIar vho is aIso ono of lho
groalosl lhinIors of lho IsIamic vorId is AvaluIIah Hajj ShavIh Iafar
Subhani vho has sponl his onliro Iifo in rosoarch, vriling and
loaching and has slruggIod lhrough lhoso moans lo Iifl lho cuIluro
and IovoI of humanilv.

AvaluIIah Subhani vas born on lho 2S
lh
of ShavvaI in lho voar 1347
AH (1926 CE) in lho cilv of Tabriz (in Iran) inlo a schoIarIv and voII-
rospoclod famiIv. His falhor vas lho Ialo AvaluIIah ShavIh
Muhammad Husain Subhani Khavabani vho sponl moro lhan fiflv
voars loaching, vriling and guiding lho poopIo and vas aIso
rosponsibIo for lho lraining and oducaling of lho fuluro loachors and
Ioadors of lho sociolv.

Aflor compIoling his primarv schooI and lho inlroduclorv sludios,
AvaluIIah Subhani lhon vonl on lo sludv lho booIs of Farsi
Iiloraluro and grammar. FoIIoving lhis, al lho ago of 14 (1361
AH/1940 CE) ho procoodod lo onlor inlo lho ThooIogicaI Sominarv
of Tabriz namod TaIibivah and vas busv in lho proIiminarv and
socond IovoI of sludios in lho ThooIogicaI Sominarv.

Ho sludiod lho Arabic Ianguago undor lho guidanco of lho
foIIoving docoasod schoIars: Hajj ShavIh Hasan Nahvi and ShavIh
AIi AIbar Mudarris Khavabani (aulhor of lho booI RavhanaluI
Adab). Thoso sludios looI him fivo voars ÷ unliI lho voar 1365 AH
(1944 CE) aflor vilh AvaluIIah Subhani vas abIo lo compIolo lho
socond IovoI of lhooIogicaI sludios and bogan lho highosl IovoI of
T
Inlroduclion lo lho Fourlh Irinling


xiv
IsIamic sludios (Kharij) in Fiqh, IsuIuI Fiqh and IhiIosophv.
During lhis poriod of his sludios, ho bonofilod from lho InovIodgo
of loachors such as:

1. Tho Ialo AvaluIIah aI-Izma aI-Hajj as-Savvid Muhammad
Husain Burujordi (d. 13S0 AH/1959 CE)
2. Tho Ialo AvaluIIah aI-Izma aI-Hajj as-Savvid Muhammad
Hujjal KuhIamari (d. 1372 AH/1951 CE)
3. Tho Ialo AvaluIIah aI-Izma aI-Hajj as-Savvid RuhuIIah aI-
Musavi Khumavni (d. 1409 AH/19SS CE)

In lho fioId of IhiIosophv, ho sludiod lho commonlarv of lho booI
Manzumah and aI-Asfar of MuIIah adra (mav AIIah bo pIoasod
vilh him) and aIso bonofilod from privalo Iossons in lho subjocl of
roaIism undor lho luloIago of lho Ialo AIIamah as-Savvid
Muhammad Husain 1aba´taba´i (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him).

In addilion, ho sludiod IImuI KaIam undor lho Ialo Savvid
Muhammad BadIubao (d. 1390 AH/1969 CE).

AvaluIIah Subhani is ono of lhoso schoIars vho looI up lho pon and
vriling from a vorv voung ago and sinco lhon, his onliro Iifo has
boon sponl in lho fioIds of loaching and vriling. Bocauso of lhis, vo
soo lhal lho firsl booI ho ovor vrolo vhich vas namod Tho
Crilorion of ThinIing (in lho fioId of Iogic) vas vrillon vhon ho
vas a moro 17 voars oId!

Al lho ago of 1S, ho bogan loaching lho socondarv IovoI of IsIamic
sludios (Suluh) and vas imparling InovIodgo in lho fioIds of Fiqh,
IsuI, IhiIosophv, Hadilh and olhor subjocls.

In addilion, ho has vrillon nolos on lho Iocluros of IsuIuI Fiqh of
lho Ialo AvaluIIah Khumavni vhich havo boon roconlIv prinlod.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xv
Through aII of lhis vorI, ho has lransformod himsoIf inlo a loachor
vho goos doop inlo a subjocl and an offoclivo lhinIor such lhal
manv imporlanl lasIs havo boon imparlod onlo him, such as:

1) EslabIishing a conlro for lho loaching of IImuI KaIam and a
rosoarch Iibrarv and faciIilv for lhoso vho aro conducling rosoarch
in lho IsIamic scioncos.

2) Wrillon ono compIolo lopic-viso commonlarv of lho Our'an in lon
voIumos.

3) Iroparod and laughl ono compIolo courso ÷ consisling of 16
prinlod voIumos of booIs ÷ in lho fioIds of lho Hislorv of Fiqh and
lho Fuqaha.

4 ÷ Iroparod and vrolo manuaIs for lho loaching of IsuIuI Fiqh,
IImuI KaIam, Hadilh, IImuI RijaI and lho hislorv and informalion
on lho various roIigions of lho vorId and lhoir socls and divisions.

Wo prav lo AIIah (GIorv and Groalnoss bo lo Him) lo granl lho
aulhor of lhis vorI lho bIossings lo bo abIo lo conlinuo on lhis palh.











Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xvii
Inlroduclion lo
lho Fourlh Irinling
1


SlabiIilv of Nalions and lho Imporlanco of Eliquollo

his booI, Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom vhich vas vrillon cIoso
lo lhirlv voars ago, conlains a discussion on lho IsIamic
principIos and vaIuos as monlionod in lho bIossod Surah of
lho Our'an, aI-Hujural. Thoso lopics voro oxpIainod in a vav lhal
couId bo oasiIv undorslood bv aII roadors and il vas our inlonlion
and pravor lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) lhal lho voulh
vouId laIo nolico of lhis booI, and lhrough lho manifoslalion of lho
IsIamic oliquollo (monlionod in lhis booI), lhov vouId bo abIo lo
roach lo groal (spiriluaI) IovoIs during lho courso of lhoir Iivos.

Sinco vo dosirod lhal lhis cIoso roIalionship vilh lho doar roadors of
lhis booI (ospociaIIv lho voulh) shouId bo ro-oslabIishod (lhrough
lhis vorI), vo havo odilod and ro-pubIishod lhis vorI onco again.

Wo romind lho roadors of ono poinl in roIalion lo lho imporlanco of
dovoIoping lho nobIo olhicaI lrails, jusl as an Arab pool has slalod:

· , ` ' . · `. . ' . `- · `· · , `. · , . `· `. · · ' `. `- · `.· `. · · ` .
So lhon suroIv lhov aro (lho lruo) nalions,
Whoso oliquollo has romainod bohind (for us):
Thon if lhov Iosl lhoir oliquollo (vhon lhov oxislod),
Thon lhov loo havo coasod lo oxisl (nov).


1
Il shouId bo nolod lhal lhis inlroduclion vas vrillon for lho fourlh
prinling in Farsi, bocauso lho prosonl odilion is lho firsl EngIish prinling.
T
Inlroduclion lo lho Fourlh Irinling


xviii
Who aro lhoso nalions lhal had mado a pIodgo lo uphoId lhoso
vaIuabIo olhicaI lrails such lhal lhoso pricoIoss quaIilios vouId ruIo
supromo ovor lhom and lhrough lhis, havo romainod in oxislonco`
If ono dav vo soo lhal a nalion is doslrovod and bocomos oxlincl,
lhon lho onIv roason for lhis can bo lhal lhov did nol pav allonlion
lo lho nobIo olhicaI lrails, and lhus lhov voro puIIod inlo confusion
and doslruclion.

During lho Abbasid Empiro, aII of lho branchos of InovIodgo (vilh
lho oxcoplion of AIhIaq ÷ MoraIs and Elhics) of lho GrooIs voro
lransIalod inlo lho Arabic Ianguago and voro vidoIv and oponIv
accoplod (bv olhors) and ovon lho MusIims slruggIod (lo
undorsland lhoso loxls). Hovovor in lho opinion of lho MusIim
lhinIors, lho olhicaI and moraI loachings of lho GrooIs did nol ovon
carrv lho sIighlosl imporlanco sinco lho moraI commandmonls lhal
IsIam possossod voro much moro suporb, such lhal no olhor olhicaI
loachings couId comparo lo lhom. Thoroforo aflor lho booI
1aharaluI Araq of Ibno MasIuvah, mosl of lho booIs of AIhIaq
vrillon voro concorning lho IsIamic oliquollo.

Il is our hopo lhal lhis booI viII bo lho guiding Iighl lo lho (slraighl)
palh for lho MusIim voulh.


Oum, Imam as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) Inslilulo
6/11/1376
27
lh
of lho BIossod Monlh of RamaJhan, 141S AH
Iafar Subhani







Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xix
Inlroduclion lo lho
EngIish TransIalion


In lho namo of AIIah, lho Bonoficonl, lho MorcifuI
AIIahumma saIIi 'aIa Muhammadin va ÄI-i Muhammad

urah aI-Hujaral, lho forlv-ninlh chaplor of lho Our'an, Iavs
oul manv of lho sociaI-olhicaI concopls in IsIam. Il covors
various lhomos from submission and obodionco lo
AImighlv AIIah and His Mossongor, Irophol Muhammad
(poaco bo upon him), lo lho slalus and honour of lho Irophol in ovos
of AIIah: ils laIIs aboul lho brolhorhood of lho MusIims and lho
olhicaI dulios lhal lhov havo lovards ono anolhor: il omphasizos on
lho concorn lhal MusIims shouId havo for soIving inlornaI dispulos,
and for supporling juslico againsl injuslico: il prosonls lho oquaIilv
among lho boIiovors irrospoclivo of lhoir olhnic and raciaI
difforoncos: il highIighls lho imporlanco of spiriluaI conviclion
(Iman) ovor lho phvsicaI submission (IsIam).

AI-Hujaral vas mv favourilo Surah sinco mv sludonl davs in Oum
in lho sovonlios. Whon I vas invilod bv lho Imamia Sludonls
Organisalion (of IaIislan) in Ramadhan of 1979, I slarlod a lafsir
program in lhoir four IocaI chaplors in Karachi and usod Surah aI-
Hujaral as lho lhomo. AII praiso is duo lo AIIah lhal lho program
bocamo a succoss ovon, and lhal lradilion of lafsir in RamaJhan
nighls has conlinuod ovor sinco in Karachi. Whon I camo lo
Vancouvor (Canada) in summor of 19S3, I inilialod lho lafsir
program in RamaJhan vhoro I again slarlod vilh Surah aI-Hujaral.
Thal Surah vas aIso usod bv mo as lho piIol projocl for lho pIan of
An ExpIanalorv TransIalion of lho Our'an vhich has boon pubIishod
in lhroo voIumos covoring haIf of lho hoIv Our'an (and lho
romaining lhroo voIumos viII bo pubIishod soon, Insha-AIIah).
S
Inlroduclion lo lho EngIish TransIalion


xx
Tho Iorsian commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujaral bv ÄvaluIIah ShavIh
Iafar Subhani vas ono of lho sourcos lhal I roforrod lo vhon doing
lho lafsir of lhal Surah. ÄvaluIIah Subhani is ono of lho Ioading
schoIars of Oum, and his muIli-voIumo commonlarv of lho Our'an
(undor lho lilIo of ¨Mafahimu ´I-Our'an¨) mav bo considorod as a
pionooring allompl in lho lhomalic approach of Our'anic
commonlarv.

And so il vas indood a doIighl lo Inov lhal ShavIh SaIoom Bhimji
has lransIalod lho commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujaral of ÄvaluIIah
Subhani and has lhus hoIpod lho EngIish spoaIing sludonls of lho
Our'an lo sludv lho moraI/olhicaI concopls of IsIam from ils originaI
sourco.

Mav AImighlv AIIah bIoss ShavIh SaIoom Bhimji for his ondoavors
in lransIaling lhis booI and incroaso his lavfiqal. Amon

1S Augusl 2003 / 20 Iumadi alh-Thani 1424
Toronlo
Savvid Muhammad Rizvi













Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxi
Forovord

n inlroducing man as a croaluro vilh lho abiIilv of lhoughl and
conlompIalion, lho IhiIosophors and groal lhinIors of lho vorId
havo roIiod upon lho phraso lhal man is a ralionaI animaI | - ..,
,~] - ono lhal possossos inloIIigonco and lho abiIilv lo porcoivo
lhings. Such a dofinilion is procisoIv corrocl and undoniabIo from
lho poinl of viov of a IhiIosophor sinco his occupalion is roIalod lo
lho lhoughls and inloIIigonco of poopIo. Thus, ho vishos lo
onIighlon poopIo bv inviling lhom lo lho Iavs and socrols bohind
croalion and lho mvslorios of lho univorso of croalion lhrough lho
facuIlv of lhoughl and roasoning. ConsoquonlIv according lo lho
IhiIosophor, a porson viII novor roach lo his lruo objoclivo (in Iifo)
oxcopl lhrough slronglhoning his abiIilv lo lhinI and roason.

Hovovor, from lho poinl of viov of lho SchoIars of AIhIaq (IsIamic
Eliquollo and MoraIs) and olhors vho aro aclivo in lho fioId of
lraining and oducalion and lhoso rosponsibIo for lho nurluring and
dovoIopmonl of man, lhis dofinilion is compIoloIv incorrocl and is
nol a compIolo nor oxprossivo dofinilion of man. Thov slalo lhis
sinco ovon lhough haIf of a porson´s characlor is mado up of his
lhoughl and inloIIigonco, hovovor lho olhor haIf is dorivod from
inslincl, human naluro and lho (innalo) incIinalions vhoso
boundarios and Iimils aro unInovn. For lhoso vho aro ongagod in
lho fioId of nurluring and lraining olhors, lho issuos of inslincl and
human naluro of lho porson is much moro imporlanl lhan his
inloIIocl and inloIIigonco sinco lhoso aro lho lhings lhal Ioad and
govorn a porson´s human naluro and his dosiros.

Thoro is no doubl lhal ovorv individuaI has corlain innalo
characlorislics lhal ho has boon croalod vilh such as: Iovo of soIf:
dosiro lo roach porfoclion: hoIp and sorvico lo olhors: Iovo for
voaIlh, slalus and boaulv: lho fooIing of foar and rovongo: and olhor
lhings. Thoso innalo characlorislics vhich guaranloo lho
I
Forovord


xxii
prosorvalion of manIind and vhich aro lho sourco of ovorv lvpo of
movomonl and dovoIopmonl in Iifo aro so doopIv roolod in a porson
lhal somolimos lhov laIo conlroI of his doslinv and maIo him
lravorso a parlicuIar palh in his Iifo. Through lho conlroI lhal lhov
possoss, lhov ponolralo doop inlo him and Iimil his povor of
lhoughl and roason. Il is al lhis poinl lhal lho roIo of olhicaI
loachings in lho Iifo of a porson and lho nocossilv of having a corrocl
guido for ono´s inslincls is mado cIoar. Thus, lhis maIos lho
voighlv rosponsibiIilv lhal Iios on lho shouIdors of lho loachors of
AIhIaq ovon moro apparonl.

Tho Mosl Imporlanl Issuo in lho Iivos of lho Youlh

Tho principIo issuo in lho Iivos of lho voulh is lhal of lho conlroI of
lhoir sonlimonls and fooIings. Tho conlroI of onos´ naluraI inslincls
and Iooping onos´ sonlimonls from going lo lho lvo oxlromos of
oxlravaganco and misorIinoss is ono of lho groalosl difficuIlios in lho
Iifo of a porson, ospociaIIv during lho poriod of onos´ adoIosconco.
This is lho slago of Iifo in vhich lho voung man or voman soos a
crisis in roIalion lo his or hor fooIings and vhoro lho povor of lho
voulhs´ inlornaI vishos and dosiros laIo ovor.

For oxampIo, angor is ono of lho naluraI inslincls of a porson vhich
pIavs an aclivo and funclionaI roIo in lho Iifo of a porson and vhich
can - in corlain inslancos - prolocl lho Iifo and guaranloo his
oxislonco. Whon a porson´s Iifo is lhrovn inlo dangor, lhis naluraI
inslincl laIos conlroI and bv aIorling aII of lho onorgv lhal lho
porson has, il slrivos lo prolocl lho porson vhoso Iifo has boon
lhrovn inlo dangor bv lho onomv. If lhis naluraI inslincl is nol
channoIod in lho propor mannor, lhon lho ono vho possossos lhis
lrail viII bo jusl as lhal porson vho ho is boing lhroalonod bv and
lhus, ho loo vouId bo IaboIod as ono vho has angor and rago. In
addilion, ho vouId novor bo abIo lo bo a porson of propor
composuro and vouId bo such a sourco of angor lhal ho vouId havo
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxiii
dovialod from lho poaIs of humanilv. Sinco ho vas nol abIo lo
channoI his angor in lho propor vav, vo vouId bo ruinod such lhal
lhoro vouId bo no vav for him lo maIo amonds for his aclions.

Wo aro abIo lo como lo lhis concIusion concorning oach of lho
naluraI inslincls lhal vo havo boon givon such as: soxuaI
incIinalions, incIinalions lovards boaulv, incIinalions lovards
voaIlh and slalus - vhich jusl IiIo lho incIinalion lovards angor
and vralh havo aII boon loslod and oxaminod. AccordingIv vo
roach lo lho concIusion lhal lho vav lo happinoss is lo conlroI lhoso
omolions and naluraI inslincls and maIo suro lhal lhov aro corroclIv
govornod. Tho poopIo vho aro rosponsibIo for lhis imporlanl lasI
aro nono olhor lhan lho loachors and inslruclors of AIhIaq.

Tho Faclors lhal Can ConlroI Ono´s Inslincls

1. KnovIodgo and Wisdom

Socralos and ArislolIo aro lvo of lho mosl voII-Inovn schoIars of
lho ancionl GrooIs. Thov lruIv boIiovod lhal lho propor guido for
ono´s naluraI inslincls vhich couId Ioad lo a fruilfuI Iifo of
oxcoIIonco and moraI olhics in lho hoarl of a human boing vas
possibIo onIv undor lho shadov of InovIodgo and visdom. Indor
lho shado of InovIodgo of vhal is good and bad, manIind vouId
naluraIIv gravilalo lovards lho nobIo olhicaI lrails and vouId sooI
lo dislanco lhomsoIvos from lho nogalivo olhicaI lrails. Thus, lho
concIusion of lhis schooI of lhoughl is lhal lho onIv lhing lhal forms
lho foundalions of olhics and oliquollo is InovIodgo and visdom
and lhus, lhoir sIogan vas, 'Elhics undor lho shadov of InovIodgo.´

Il is nol a pIaco of argumonl lhal InovIodgo and visdom Ioavo a
bonoficiaI marI on lho voII-boing of lho moraI lrails and can aIso
provonl somo crimos from occurring (vilhin a sociolv). Hovovor,
vo can novor accopl lhal for aII limos and for aII poopIo, InovIodgo
Forovord


xxiv
and visdom can compIoloIv and vilhoul anv doubl bo lho finaI
soIulion in conlroIIing lho naluraI inslincls of lho poopIo. Thus,
somo fooI lhal lho bad poopIo vilhin a sociolv aro lho samo poopIo
vho did nol laIo advanlago of lho InovIodgo avaiIabIo lo lhom:
and in conlrasl lo lhis, (lhov sav lhal) lho oulslanding poopIo of lho
sociolv aro lhoso lhal havo boon discipIinod in lho middIo schooIs
and univorsilios.

This poinl is nol accuralo and if anvono vho has InovIodgo of lho
vorId sociolios in gonoraI voro lo conducl a sludv on lhis issuo, ono
vouId soo lhal lhis slalomonl is a Iio sinco lho incroaso and sproad
of corruplion in ils various forms and shapos amongsl lhoso poopIo
vho havo an oducalion is nol somolhing lhal anvono can donv.
Ralhor, lho slalislics lhal aro pubIishod in lho novspapors of lho
vorId boar vilnoss and maIo our cIaims soIid and lruslvorlhv.

CorlainIv, vo aro nol saving lhal a voII-road onginoor or a voII
oducalod doclor can bo oquivaIonl lo a porson vho dvoIIs in lho
dosorl and has corruplod himsoIf vilh sins. Ralhor, if lhrough lhis
porson (lho ono vilh oducalion) domonslraling a spociaI vigiIanco
vhich is a dirocl producl of his InovIodgo and inloIIigonco, his
good aclions voro lo bo changod lo bad onos and ho vas lo commil
a hoinous crimo duo lo various roasons, lhon il can bo said lhal his
aclions havo slommod from his voaI roIigious conviclions.

Wo porsonaIIv Inov poopIo vho aro abIo lo vrilo voIuminous
booIs aboul lho dangors lhal can bo causod bv drinIing aIcohoI,
hovovor lhoso samo poopIo somolimos gol so drunI lhal lhov can
nol ovon lio lhoir ovn shooIacos! Thoro aro poopIo vho can vrilo
arlicIos on lho individuaI and sociolaI damago lhal is causod bv
gambIing and briborv and iIIicil roIalions and can organizo and hoId
sominars in lhoso rogards, hovovor, if vou IooI carofuIIv al lhoir
Iivos, vou viII dofiniloIv soo lhal from lho lop of lhoir hoad lo lho
lips of lhoir loos, lhov aro submorgod in sins and vicIodnoss. Thus,
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxv
simpIv having lho InovIodgo vhich is a rosuIlanl of sludving and
allonding cIassos has nol savod lhom from lhoso dosiros and
incIinalions.

Thoro is nol a singIo porson vho can cIaim lhal on ils ovn,
InovIodgo can provonl grood and gIullonv, or lhal il can slop ono
vho is in lho quosl of allaining a highor posilion. Todav, vo soo
lhal lho vorId has boon puIIod lovards vars and fighling bv lhoso
poopIo vho sooI a highor posilion and slalus and vho aro oducalod
poopIo and lhis has occurrod lvico aIroadv - during WorId War I
and WorId War II - in vhich moro lhan ono hundrod miIIion poopIo
voro IiIIod and oradicalod.

Thoro aro somo poopIo vho changod lho namo of lho monlionod
loachings vhich havo boon inhorilod from Socralos and ArislolIo
and in pIaco of lho vord 'InovIodgo´ subslilulod lho vord
'inloIIocl´. Bv doing lhis, lhov vishod lo cIaim lhal lhrough lho
groalnoss and lraining of lho inloIIocl and mind of a human boing,
ono is abIo lo slrip onos´ soIf of aII sins and vrongdoings, and in
lhoir pIaco, cuIlivalo lho nobIo lrails of humanilv. Hovovor lhis
agonl (lhal of lho inloIIocl) aIso doos nol possoss lho abiIilv lo do
lhis and is nol much difforonl lhan lho firsl agonl monlionod
(InovIodgo). This is so bocauso lho inloIIocl is abIo lo conlroI and
roslrain lho forco and povor of lho passions (of a porson), bul in lho
faco of lho domonish Iusls and passions, il can bo comparod lo a
slrav houso boing doslrovod bv a vioIonl rivor. Il can aIso bo
comparod lo a smaII Iamp vhich offors vorv IillIo Iighl lo a porson
vhiIo ho is vandoring lhrough a darI, gIoomv vaIIov.

Tho naluraI human inslincls can somolimos bo comparod lo a
fIoving rivor. Whon lho fIov of valor on lho rivor is normaI, manv
lrucIIoads of gravoI can slop lho rivor from ovorfIoving. Hovovor
onco lho rivor has slarlod lo ovorfIov and hoavv rains faII upon il
and lho lorronliaI curronls surgo forlh, lhon lhis valor vouId laIo
Forovord


xxvi
vilh il hundrods of lons of gravoI and sand. In normaI
circumslancos, in lho groalnoss of lho Iighl of his naluraI inslincls,
lho inloIIigonco of a porson iIIuminalos lho palh of his Iifo and
provonls him from faIIing inlo lho vaIIov of oxlinclion, hovovor
vhon his naluraI inslincls oxpIodo, lhon lho inloIIigonco bocomos so
voaI and mulod lhal ovon lho slrongosl of poopIo bocomo Iosl and
lhus in lho ond, lhov ond up faIIing doop inlo lho droadfuI vaIIov of
lhoir (Iov) human inslincls.

2. Training and Ipbringing vilhoul RoIigion

This is lho samo dosign and pIan lhal Froud and lhoso vho foIIovod
him had broughl forlh inlo lho sphoro of oporalion. Thov slalod
lhal lho issuos roIalod lo moraI olhics and lho principIos of
humanilv musl bo laughl lo lho chiId vhiIo ho is in lho bosom of his
falhor and molhor and vhiIo in lho onvironmonl of lho Iindorgarlon
and primarv schooI - and lhis is an obIigalorv roquiromonl. Nol
onIv musl lhov bo laughl lhoso lhings, ralhor, lho poopIo (around
lhom) musl slrivo and slruggIo such lhal lhoso lhings bocomo a
roguIar parl of lho chiId´s souI and spiril.

For oxampIo, ono of lho sociolaI crimos is lho broaIing of Iavs lhal
laIos pIaco amongsl lho oIdor poopIo of lho sociolv. In ordor lo
provonl lhis moraI disoaso from coming aboul, lho voung chiIdron
musl bo laughl and lrainod in lho conlros of Ioarning in such a vav
lhal lhov do nol acl in anv olhor molhod, oxcopl lhal lhov rospocl
lho Iavs and roguIalions of lho sociolv. Thus, such lhinIors soo no
olhor vav lhan lhis lo movo forvard upon.

In ordor lo maIo lhis moraI boIiof firm roolod and ponolralo doop
inlo lho spiril during lho poriod of onos´ voulh - righl from lho
boginning of ono´s oducalion - lho Iavs and roguIalions lhal lho
Iindorgarlon and primarv schooI havo in pIaco musl bo obovod.
Tho chiIdron musl bo mado lo foIIov lhoso ruIos and lho lhroal and
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxvii
punishmonl of going againsl lhoso ruIos musl aIso bo praclicaIIv
shovn lo lhom. If lho Ioadors (of lho sociolv) and lho loachors of lho
chiIdron vouId bo carofuI in foIIoving up lhoir loaching vilh
injocling lho nobIo moraI, olhicaI lrails lo lho chiIdron and voro lo
maIo lho principIos of upbringing and nurluring of lho chiIdron
undor lho shadov of conlinuous driIIs and bv paving allonlion lo
lhom as common praclico, lhon lhis vouId havo a vorv good offocl
on lho chiIdron.

Tho poopIo vho broughl forlh lho idoa monlionod abovo voro
nogIigonl of ono poinl vhich is: vhoroas il is lruo lhal nurluring
and upbringing has a posilivo offocl on lho ovonluaI succoss (of lho
chiId) and in lho grovlh and dovoIopmonl of lho principIos of olhics
in lho mind of lho voung chiIdron, hovovor opposilion and
rosislanco lo lhis in lho faco of lho obslinalo naluraI inslincls of a
porson is vorv raroIv soon. In mosl limos, lhis opposilion is mol
vilh dofoal and in mosl inslancos in lho faco of naluraI dosiros and
inslincls such as: soIf prido, quosl for slalus, soxuaI dosiros and
vorship of lho boaulv (of soIf) - lho olhics (vhich havo boon laughl
or imposod upon lho chiIdron) aro ovorcomo and dofoalod. Thus,
vo soo lhal lho povor and slronglh of lhoso naluraI inslincls is so
groal and lho forco of lhoir bIov is so povorfuI, lhal anv form of
upbringing vhich is dovoid of lho divino roIigious loachings is
compIoloIv povorIoss and viII ovonluaIIv accompIish nolhing.

Mosl oflon, lhoro is a discropancv and difforonco bolvoon a porson´s
inlornaI dosiros, his naluraI inslincls and lho olhicaI principIos and
lho onIv vav lo salisfv ono´s inlornaI dosiros is bv lhroving lho
olhicaI principIos undor ono´s fool and lo nol obov lhom. This is lho
caso sinco: doing lho righl lhing, spoaIing lho lrulh, soIf-sacrifico,
mainlaining lho lrusl lhal olhors havo givon, chaslilv and
forgivonoss of olhors ÷ vhich aro aII cIoar oxampIos of lho principIos
of olhics and moraIilv ÷ nocossilalo lhal ono musl bo doprivod and
givo up corlain lhings (of lho maloriaI Iifo). Tho voman vho vishos
Forovord


xxviii
lo prolocl hor chaslilv and modoslv musl obviousIv Ioop avav from
a sorios of lhings vhich mav bring hor pIoasuro. Doing lho righl
lhing and spoaIing lho lrulh ÷ ovon if Ialor on, vouId causo
lroubIos, acling vilh juslico and doaIing vilh olhors vilh oquaIilv
mav Ioad lo olhors faIIing inlo difficuIlios and mav aIso Ioad lo lho
Ioss in lho maloriaI sphoro for olhors: and in lhis ovonl, vhich
porson vouId acluaIIv Ioop avav from lhoso lhings vhich causo
ono Ioss` In addilion, lho povor of upbringing is nol lhal povorfuI
and firmIv roolod lhal a porson vouId bo abIo lo bo lransformod
inlo a machino-IiIo boing lhal aII sonso of porcoplion and nogalivo
omolions vouId bo compIoloIv romovod from him.

Hovovor, vo can nol donv lho facl lhal in lhis ballIo fioId,
somolimos lho viclorv is achiovod lhrough nurluring and
upbringing. Hovovor al lho samo limo, vo can nol donv lho facl
lhal vhon ono´s soxuaI dosiros aro ovorfIoving, and vhon lho dosiro
lo havo groal amounls of voaIlh and lo allain a slalus (vilhin lho
sociolv) aro lhoro, lho principIos of upbringing lhal ono has Ioarnl
aro aII lhrovn undor ono´s fool and lhoso lhings lhal ono is nol
pormillod lo porform aro nov mado accoplabIo.

Tho poopIo vho broughl aboul lhis viov dofondod lhoir incorrocl
lhoorv for somo limo and cIaimod lhal olhics and moraIilv couId
laIo lho pIaco of roIigion and lho aclions of lho voII-mannorod
nalions of lho Wosl vas mado as lhoir documonl (of olhics). Thoso
poopIo voro adamanl lhal nov lhal lho Woslorn WorId had found
lhoso humanislic loachings of upbringing lhal lhoro vas no nood for
lho Divino and HoavonIv loachings. Hovovor, nol much limo
passod vhon lhov roaIizod lhoir mislaIo and lho savago WorId War
I broIo oul, vhich rosuIlod in lho IiIIing of lons of miIIions of
poopIo. In addilion, lho onliro Europoan conlinonl vas lurnod
upsido dovn bv lhoso samo Woslorn poopIo vho cIaimod lo havo
olhics and moraIilv ÷ and lhis var dofiniloIv voIo lhom up from
lhoir doop sIoop and mado lhom docIaro lhal, ¨Tho porcoplion and
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxix
inloIIigonco of humanilv has sliII nol vol roachod lo lho IovoI lhal
moraIs and olhics can laIo lho pIaco of divino roIigion nor vhoro
propor upbringing can laIo lho pIaco of roIigion (a compIolo codo of
Iifo).¨

Tho furlhor ahoad vo advanco in lho hislorv of lho vorId, lho moro
il is mado cIoar lhal lho dosiro lo pIaco moraIs and oliquollo in lho
pIaco of roIigion viII nol Ioad lo anv posilivo rosuIls.

BonoficiaI ElhicaI Trails

Tho moraI lrails lhal aro in voguo in lho Wosl aro lhoso vhich
provido maloriaI bonofil vhich havo boon foundod from lho
vrilings of DaIo Carnogio. Tho rools of lhoso loachings aro lho samo
moraI loachings of lho Ancionl GrooI vhoso dislinclions and
parlicuIars vo viII oxpIain Ialor on. Tho principIo and ossonco of
lho loachings of such a schooI of olhics and moraIilv aro a disguisod
form of voII-mannorod oxpIoilalion lhal boIiovo: Whal can vo do lo
incroaso our voaIlh and lo maIo our posilion and slalus in lho
minds of lho poopIo firm`

Aflor a porson has finishod sludving lhoso booIs, ho vouId havo
corlainlv lhal if Woslorn Nalions havo impIomonlod manv of lhoso
olhicaI principIos in lhoir Iivos, for oxampIo Iooping avav from
Iving and nol docoiving and lricIing poopIo, lhon il is bocauso of lho
facl lhal lhoso lrails aro vavs lhal lhov aro abIo lo gain (maloriaI)
bonofil and vhich Ioad lo incroasos in lho businoss marIol and lo a
chango in lho oconomic vhooIs (of lho counlrv). If ono dav lho
poopIo soo lhal lhoir (maloriaI) bonofil is in somolhing opposilo lo
lhis, lhon immodialoIv lhov viII chango faco - and lhis viII shov
lhoir lruo sido and characlor. This in ilsoIf is a form of dovialion
from lho porfocl slalo of a human boing sinco such poopIo dosiro
olhicaI lrails onIv lo sorvo lhoir maloriaIislic goaIs and pIoasuros,
vhich vouId add groalnoss lo lhoir Iivos and oconomic slalus, nol
Forovord


xxx
bocauso lhoso lrails aro vorlhv in and of lhomsoIvos and aro naluraI
and inslinclivo lrails.

3. ElhicaI Trails lhal RoIv upon RoIigious Toachings

Tho olhicaI loachings lhal aro basod upon roIigion, such lhal lho
lhooIogicaI boIiofs of lho failh and lho boIiof lhal (aII poopIo) aro
granlod rovards and punishmonls basod on lhoir daiIv aclions, aro
vhal supporl and suslain lho principIo of olhics. Il is lhrough lhis
channoI lhal lho Divino and HoavonIv loachings, ospociaIIv lho
sacrod loachings of IsIam havo choson (lo propagalo lho olhicaI
loachings) and during lho courso of 14 conlurios, vo soo a briIIianl
oulcomo from lravorsing lhis palh.

Tho boIiof in a God vho is compIoloIv avaro of lho innor lhoughls
and apparonl aclions of humanilv: lho boIiof in a God vho is nol
Iopl unavaro of anvlhing lhal is upon lho Earlh or in lho Hoavons:
lho boIiof in a God vho is compIoloIv avaro of lho numbor of
unimaginabIo aloms in lho univorso and lho numbor of moIocuIos in
a parlicuIar bodv: lho boIiof in a God vho is lho finaI Iudgo and on
lhal Dav lhal Ho judgos ovorvono, lho booI of doods of oach human
boing vhich has boon proloclod bv lho AngoIs from aII sorls of
orrors and mislaIos and is froo from aII sorls of maloriaIislic aims
and goaIs, viII bo broughl forlh and sproad opon for aII lo soo - and
Ho viII nol ovon slop al lhis. Ralhor, lho acluaI imago of lho aclions
lhal vo had porformod viII aIso bo broughl forlh lhrough His
novor-onding povor and aII lho parls of our bodios, lhrough lho
unbroaIabIo inlonlion, viII spoaI and boar vilnoss lo lho acls lhal
ho had porformod. Thon, oach and ovorv porson viII bo givon lho
rovard and punishmonl lhal lhov dosorvo, and.
2


2
This sonlonco is lho moaning of lho vorsos of lho Our´an conlainod in
various chaplors of lho NobIo Our´an such as: Surah Iuqman (31), Vorso 16:

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxxi
Tho firm and immulabIo boIiof in such a dav is lho groalosl supporl
for lho nobIo olhicaI lrails and is lho mosl naluraI guaranloo for
poopIo lo acl according lo lho principIos of humanilv and in roaIilv,
is lho mosl vaIuabIo assol and mosl pricoIoss lroasuro lhal lho groal
divinoIv appoinlod HoavonIv Ioadors havo Iofl bohind for us and vo
musl supporl and Ioop lhis pricoIoss Iogacv aIivo.

Tho povor of lruo boIiof in AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
lho boIiof in lho punishmonl on lho Dav of Iudgomonl can
somolimos roach lo such a IovoI vilhin a porson lhal lhoso lhings
acluaIIv acl as a dolorronl lo lho porson vho vanls lo commil a sin
and vouId lhus bring a porson vho vishos lo commil an oviI dood
lo lho IovoI of a hoavonIv croaluro and infaIIibIo porson.

Tho slronglh of lruo failh in conlroIIing a porson is such lhal if ono
dav, a boIiovor vas lo acl againsl vhal lruo failh onlaiIs him lo acl
upon and vonl againsl lho loachings of his naluraIinslincls, lhon ho
vouId immodialoIv lhinI aboul hov lo ropair lho damago ho has
causod and vouId faII inlo griof and misorv lhrough lhis acl of
poIIuling ono´s ovn soIf. In ordor lo romovo lho offocls of lho sin ho
had commillod, vilhoul lhoso vho aro rosponsibIo for judging and
sonloncing a porson vho had commillod such acls, ho vouId
soriousIv roquosl lhom lo punish him or vouId roquosl lho
punishmonl lhal AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has ordainod bo
molod oul on him. In lho ond, ho vouId como oul of lhis ovonl as a
spiriluaIIv cIoansod porson vilh no burdon (of sin) on his shouIdors
and vouId lhus onlor on lho Rosurroclion Dav as such.
3



Surah aI-Saba´ (34), Vorso 4: and Surah aI-ZiIzaI, (99), Vorsos 7 and S.
3
In lho booI, Tho Hislorv of Iunishmonl in IsIam, vo soo manv oxampIos
on lhis issuo vhich, lo Ioop lhis discussion briof, vo do nol monlion in
dolaiI horo.
Forovord


xxxii
Tho Mission of ElhicaI Guidanco of IsIam

Through various lvpos of sociolaI, oconomic and olhicaI programs
and guidoIinos, lho roIigion of IsIam sloppod inlo lho sociaI arona of
Iifo and lhrough Iaving lhis groundvorI in aII aroas (of Iifo), vas
abIo lo bring aboul a vaIuabIo and originaI sol of loachings ÷ a sol of
loachings lhal aro compIoloIv nov-found, vilh posilivo quaIilios
vhich aro abIo lo (spiriluaIIv) buiId a sociolv.

Tho roIigion of IsIam IooIod favourabIv al olhicaI principIos and lho
roIo of upbringing and nurluring olhors and has cIassifiod lhoso as
boing lho mosl imporlanl rosponsibiIilios of lho Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).

As for lho imporlanco of lhis roIo, il is vorlhv lo monlion lhal lho
lopic of lraining and nurluring olhors has boon pIacod ahoad of
loaching olhors in lho NobIo Our'an
4
. This has boon dono sinco lho
roIigion of IsIam vishos lo announco lo lho Ioadors of sociolv lhal
lho issuo of upbringing and nurluring olhors is moro imporlanl lhan
loaching and oducaling lhom and lhus, lho sIogan of lho Ioadors of a
sociolv, in roIalion lo lho Ioadorship and buiIding lho happinoss of
lho onliro sociolv musl bo firsl lhrough nurluring and lhon loaching.
This is said bocauso unliI lhal limo lhal a communilv doos nol havo
lho propor nurluring and dovoIopmonl, loaching and oducaling
lhom viII novor roach lo a IovoI of ovor boing nolicod.



4
In lho Our´an, vo road lho phraso:

`.`.`·` `..,¯` ' .´ ' ·´- ...
¨And ho (lho Irophol Muhammad) purifios lhom (nurluring and upbringing) and
loachos lhom lho BooI and lho Wisdom.¨ Surah aI-Iumuah (62), Vorso 2
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxxiii
Tho Dislinclions of lho IsIamic ElhicaI Toachings

Boforo lho officiaI appoinlmonl of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), lho Elhics of lho GrooIs ruIod
ovor lho advancod civiIizalions of lho vorId for a poriod of limo.

Aflor roIaling and lransIaling lho scionlific and olhicaI vorIs of lho
GrooIs, lho principIos of lhoir olhicaI loachings voro inlroducod
inlo lho schoIarIv galhorings of lho MusIims vilhoul anv lhoughl
and a group of MusIim schoIars procoodod lo oxpand upon and
porfocl lhoso loachings and lhus, vrolo lroalisos and booIs in
roIalion lo lhoso vorIs.

Ono of lho bosl booIs lhal shovs lho lruo vaIuo of lho olhicaI
loachings of lho GrooIs is lho booI, ¨TahdhibuI AIhIaq Wa 1alhiruI
Araq¨ |··. .= ··-. .·] vrillon bv Abu AIi Ahmad ibno
Muhammad ibno MasIuvah (d. 431 AH). As for lho imporlanco
and vorlh of lhis booI, il is sufficionl lo slalo lhal lho Ialo
Muhaqqiq al-1usi has vrillon a poom in roIalion lo lhis booI, of
vhich lho firsl Iino slalos:

¯ ¸ - ¯ ¸ · . , · . ´ ¸, ' ` · . ·
¨I sacrifico mv souI for a BooI
Thal conlains aII virluous lrails,
And guaranloos lo painl lho porlrail
Of lho porfoclion of croalion.¨
5


Aflor lhis booI of moraIs vhich oIucidalos upon lho principIos of
lho olhicaI loachings of lho GrooIs, lho noxl booI vhich is aIso vorv
vaIuabIo is AIhIaq-o-Nasiri |.. ··-'] vrillon bv lho Ialo Khajah

5
Ta'sis aI-ShialuI Kiram IiI-IIumiI IsIam, Iago 411
Forovord


xxxiv
Nasir ad-Din al-1usi vhich had boon ponnod according lo lho
molhodoIogv of lho GrooI booIs of olhics.

Tho cIoar doficioncv of lho olhicaI loachings of lho GrooIs is lhal
lhoir olhicaI principIos havo boon basod upon lho foundalions of lho
quicIIv diminishing maloriaIislic gains and havo boon oxpIainod
and oIucidalod as such. For oxampIo il has boon said in lhoso booIs
lhal, ¨If vou pul lhoso olhicaI loachings inlo praclico, lhon vou viII
dofiniloIv find lhal vou viII bo romomborod in a good vav and
poopIo vouId spoaI good lhings aboul vou in lho sociolv.¨

Hovovor lhoso poopIo onIv IooIod al lhings from a maloriaIislic
poinl of viov and voro compIoloIv uninformod of lho noxl Iifo and
ils affairs and lhus, lhov lriod lo imilalo lho olhicaI loachings of lho
maloriaIisls ÷ vhoso goaI and aim vas nol goarod lovards
purificalion of lho souI and lho mind. Ralhor, lhoir aim and
purposo vas onIv lo onsuro lho (oaso in lho) Iifo of lhis vorId and
hov lhov couId vioId infIuonco vilhin a sociolv.

Tho spiriluaI-olhicaI loachings (AIhIaq-o-Irfani) aro diroclIv
opposod lo lho GrooI olhicaI loachings (AIhIaq-o-Yunani), hovovor
bolh sooI lo givo lho samo bonofil, bul lhov vouId novor havo lho
abiIilv lo buiId a porsons´ soIf or insliII a moving naluro vilhin him.
In addilion, somo of lho loachings (lho olhicaI loachings of lho
GrooIs) can nol ovon bo laughl or prosonlod lo lho common poopIo
and for lho voulh vho aro lhirslv ovor a sol of loachings lhal vouId
nol onIv boaulifv lhoir spiriluaI prosonco vilh groalnoss and
nobiIilv, bul lhal vouId aIso loach lhom a palh and cusloms lo
foIIov in lhoir Iivos, lhoso loachings of lho GrooIs vouId havo
absoIuloIv no appoaI or allraclion.

Tho originaI and firm sol of loachings, vhich al lho samo limo aro
aIso lho mosl comprohonsivo and vhich conlain aII of lho posilivo
quaIilios of lho roIigion, aro lho olhicaI loachings and guidoIinos
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxxv
found in lho NobIo Our'an and lho failh of IsIam. AII of lho
advanlagos of lho maloriaI and spiriluaI vorId aro compIoloIv laIon
inlo accounl ÷ vilh lho condilion lhal il is pul inlo praclico and
prosonlod in ils purilv - dislancod from anv sorl of arlificiaI
docoralions.

In somo of lho booIs vhich havo boon vrillon undor lho lopic of
IsIamic Elhics, vo soo a sorios of commandmonls prosonlod vhich
aro in no vav in Iino vilh lho principIos of lho loachings of IsIam.
Thus, aflor carofuI rosoarch and roviov, il is mado cIoar lhal aII of
lho concIusions lhal aro prosonlod aro lho spocific opinions of lho
vrilor of lho vorI and lhov havo absoIuloIv no connoclion lo lho
principIo olhicaI loachings of IsIam.

Ono oxampIo vhich vo can prosonl lo highIighl lhis poinl is lho
booI onlilIod, ¨Ihva' aI-IIum¨ (aI-GhazaIi, d. 505 AH) vhich is ono
of lho mosl comprohonsivo booIs of olhics, and possibIv in lho
onliro hislorv of IsIam, lhoro has novor boon a moro aII-incIusivo
booI vrillon lhan lhis ono. InforlunaloIv hovovor, in oxpounding
on somo of lho olhicaI issuos, vo soo lhal oflon limos lhoro aro
lhings lhal in no vav can bo considorod as boing harmonious vilh
lho loachings of IsIam.

Tho Ialo Muhammad Muhsin Faidh (AI-Kashani) (d. 1091 AH) has
omboIIishod his monumonlaI vorI vilh counlIoss ahadilh from lho
Ioadors of IsIam (lho Irophol and A'immah, pravors bo upon aII of
lhom) vhich ho namod, ¨AI-MahajjaluI Bavdha Fi TahdhibuI Ahva¨.
lhis booI, vhich has boon pubIishod in oighl voIumos has boon
prinlod counlIoss limos lo dalo!

Nocossilv of Having a Movomonl lhal Encouragos Elhics

Thoro is nol a singIo inloIIigonl porson ÷ roIigious or non-roIigious ÷
vho, in lho faco of groving corruplion amongsl lho fuluro buiIdors
Forovord


xxxvi
of a sociolv (lho voungor gonoralion) vho vouId bo indifforonl (lo
vhal is happoning) and nol fooI somo porsonaI rosponsibiIilv sinco
lhis mallor is a varning lo lho Ioadors and lhoso vho aro
rosponsibIo for upbringing olhors, lhal lhov musl acl as fasl as
possibIo lo maIo docisions and roscuo lhis gonoralion from faIIing
inlo lho vaIIov of doslruclion.

Duo lo lhis, lhoro is no olhor oplion avaiIabIo lo us oxcopl lhal vo
musl slronglhon our sourco of failh and maIo lho principIo
lhooIogicaI boIiofs slrongor (in our hoarl) vhich viII bo a proIudo lo
Iaving lho groundvorI for lho advancomonl of olhicaI lrails.

Through a corrocl Ioadorship and bv uliIizing aII lho moans al our
disposaI, vo viII bo abIo lo slruggIo and rofino lho olhics of lho
sociolv and aIong sido lhis, lhrough organizing roIigious funclions
and oslabIishing sominars and in addilion, lho sludv of lho roasons
for lho sproad of corruplion, vo viII bo abIo lo gol logolhor lo
pubIish a sorios of booIs on IsIamic Elhics vhich aro in Iino vilh lho
spiril, limo and lhoughls of lho voulh of lodav. Wo sav lhis sinco a
majorilv of lho booIs of olhics havo boon vrillon in such a vav lhal
lhov do nol confirm lo lho souI and IovoI of undorslanding of our
voulh. Hov manv limos havo vo soon lhal aflor roading a fov
pagos of lhoso sorls of booIs, lho porson bocomos lirod or Iosos his
inlorosl lo conlinuo lho booI and puls il asido`

In ordor lo assisl in lhis Ioflv, humanislic goaI, lhis humbIo vrilor
has procoodod lo sludv Surah aI-Hujural vhich conlains a groal
numbor of principIo olhicaI and sociolaI loachings of lho failh of
IsIam. Tho principIos lhal havo boon monlionod in lhis Surah havo
boon oxaminod and anaIvzod in such a vav lhal poopIo of aII IovoIs
of a sociolv vouId bo abIo lo maIo uso of lhom. Il is our hopo lhal
lhis insignificanl booI vouId sorvo in lhis purposo.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom: Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural

xxxvii
Wo prav for lhal dav vhon lho groal schoIars of IsIam aro abIo lo
oxlracl aII of lho vorsos of lho Our'an lhal doaI vilh olhics and
lhrough organizing and pulling lhom in ordor, aro abIo lo commonl
and oIucidalo upon lhom.
6
This poinl loo shouId aIso nol go
vilhoul saving lhal somo parls of lhis booI voro proviousIv prinlod
in lho scionlific-roIigious magazino, MaIlab-o-IsIam, in lho soclion
on Tafsir of lho Our'an and nov, vo prosonl il in ils compIolo form
lo lho doar roadors.

Oum, Havzah IImivvah
10
lh
DhuI Oadah aI-Haram, 1390 AH
Iafar Subhani











6
Il shouId bo nolod lhal as far as vo aro avaro, lhis lasI has boon
compIolod lo a corlain IovoI bv lvo nobIo vrilors. This booI has boon
prinlod undor lho namo of: Elhics from lho poinl of viov of lho Our'an and
Tho Elhics of lho Our'an.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1































Chaplor Ono

Tho Spocifics
of Surah aI-Hujural
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


3
Whal Objoclivos doos lhis Surah Iursuo`

ho goaI of lhis Surah is lo oIucidalo upon a sorios of Iifo-
giving commandmonls of AIhIaq (Elhics and MoraIilv)
and sociaI inloraclion vhich (if pul inlo praclico), vouId
Ioad an idoaI civiIizalion. Thoso in lurn couId croalo and cuIlivalo a
puro sociolv lhal is far romovod from aII sorls of bIamovorlhv
moraI lrails.

According lo lho unanimous vordicl of aII lho commonlalors of lho
Our'an, lho numbor of vorsos of lhis Surah aro oighloon. Through ils
ovn parlicuIar vav of oxpIaining lhings, lhis Surah incorporalos a
sorios of comprohonsivo and bonoficiaI commandmonls for lho
purificalion of lho souI and spiril for aII of humanilv. If lho
condilions and olhicaI injunclions monlionod in lhis Surah voro
aclod upon vilhin aII sociolios, lhon vo vouId dofiniloIv bo abIo lo
bring aboul a caIm and poacofuI onvironmonl fuII of considoralion
(for olhors) and conlonlmonl for aII ÷ far romovod from aII sorls of
vicIod and oviI olhicaI lrails.

This Surah givos us an ovoraII viov of a puro and unconlaminalod
sociolv in vhich nol onIv lho longuo and oars of lho individuaIs,
ralhor ovon lhoir lhoughls and rofIoclions aro nol givon compIolo
froo roign, such lhal aro froo lo sav vhalovor lhov vanl lo sav, hoar
vhalovor lhov vanl lo hoar, or do vhalovor lhov vish lo do in
roIalion lo olhor poopIo.

Tho foIIoving is a Iisl summarizing lho commandmonls lhal aro
monlionod in lhis Surah:

1. This Surah bogins ils firsl commandmonl bv bringing up a poinl
in rogards lo having discipIino and ordor, vhiIo in lho prosonco of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho Mossongor (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv). Tho moaning of lhis discipIino
T
Chaplor I : Tho Spocifics of Surah aI-Hujural

4
and ordor is lhal lho MusIims musl Ioarn lho commandmonls and
IogisIalions (of lho roIigion) from AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
and musl nol Iol lhoir ovn innor dosiros and vhims Ioad lhom lo
formuIaling Iavs and roguIalions.

2. Tho poopIo vho havo lruo failh aro inslruclod and commandod
hov lhov shouId spoaI lo lhoir Ioadors.

3. Tho poopIo vho havo lruo failh aro aIso commandod lhal vhon
lhov aro givon novs or loslimonv aboul anolhor porson from ono
vho commils sins in lho opon, is Inovn for his vicIod vavs or is
nol scarod of his lransgrossions (againsl lho Iavs of AIIah, GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho), lhal lhov musl nol accopl such a loslimonv from
him and musl slav avav from aII forms of rumors and gossip.

4. Tho gonoraI lhoughls and opinions of lho poopIo havo absoIuloIv
no vaIuo vhon comparod lo lho ordors and diroclivos of lho
infaIIibIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).

5. Each and ovorv porson possossos an olhicaI conscionco.

6. Il in incumbonl upon ovorv MusIim lhal ho slrivos for poaco, and
lo allain lhis goaI ho musl sland up againsl lho opprossors so lhal
ho vouId bo abIo lo uphoId lho lrulh and mainlain lho righls of lho
opprossod.

7. AII MusIims aro brolhors (and sislors) of and oquaI lo ono anolhor
and il is incumbonl lhal lhov aII ondoavor lo onsuro lhal poaco and
happinoss aro oslabIishod amongsl lhomsoIvos.

S. A MusIim doos nol havo lho righl lo maIo fun of anolhor MusIim.

9. Il is forbiddon lo find or picI fauIls in olhor poopIo according lo
lho loachings of IsIam.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


5
10. A lruo boIiovor doos nol havo lho righl lo caII his brolhor in failh
bv a nicInamo or bad namo.

11. Il is forbiddon (haram) lo lhinI bad lhoughls aboul a boIioving
brolhor (or sislor).

12. Il is oxprossIv forbiddon lo spv on or prv inlo lho socrols and
privalo Iifo and affairs of olhor poopIo.

13. Il is a major sin lo spoaI bad lhings bohind lho bacI of anolhor
MusIim.

14. In lhis Surah, lho issuo of raciaI suporiorilv has aIso boon
broughl lo an ond and lho onIv criloria for judging vho is bollor
(lhan anolhor porson) is ono´s moril, piolv and abslinonco from
lhoso lhings vhich AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has
forbiddon and bv Iooping avav from aII sins.

Aflor lhoso fourloon commandmonls havo boon oxpIainod, lhoro is
anolhor sorios of issuos lhal aro discussod vhich viII bo oxpIainod
in lhoir ovn soclion. Whon gIancing ovor lhoso commandmonls, is
lho suporiorilv and dominanco of lho olhicaI Our'anic loachings ovor
aII olhor olhicaI loachings of lho vorId nol cIoar and obvious for aII
lo soo`

This Surah vas RovoaIod in Madinah, Nol MaIIah

Wo aro abIo lo discorn vhich Surahs voro rovoaIod in MaIIah and
vhich voro rovoaIod in Madinah bv Iooping lho foIIoving lvo
poinls in mind:

1. Tho narralions and lradilions vhich monlion lo us lho pIaco of
rovoIalion of a spocific Surah.
Chaplor I : Tho Spocifics of Surah aI-Hujural

6
2. Iondoring and lhinIing ovor lho conlonls of lho vorsos of lho
Surah vhich usuaIIv acl as a vorbaI chain of ovonls lhal loII us if lho
Surah vas rovoaIod in MaIIah or Madinah.

Sooing as hov lho cilios of MaIIah and Madinah voro lvo
compIoloIv difforonl onvironmonls, vo undorsland lhal oach vas
govornod bv ils ovn vavs of lhoughl, and lhus lho roIigion of IsIam
vas pul faco lo faco vilh issuos and difficuIlios vhich voro spocific
lo lhal parlicuIar aroa. Thus, aflor vo aro acquainlod vilh lho vav
of lhinIing and lho parlicuIar issuos of an aroa (MaIIah or
Madinah), and vo havo sludiod lho conlonls and vorsos of a Surah,
lhon vo aro lhon abIo lo discorn vhoro lho Surah or lho vorsos of lho
Surah voro rovoaIod.

For inslanco, lho onvironmonl of MaIIah vas ono poIIulod vilh
poIvlhoism and idoI vorship. Tho Iovs and Chrislians had nol
pormoalod inlo lhis cilv and lhus, lhoso vho had lruo failh (Iman)
voro vorv smaII in numbor. Tho issuo of Iihad and fighling voro
nol broughl up in lhis onvironmonl and lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) had froquonl doaIings and
roIalions vilh lho idoI vorshippors. Thoroforo, lho poinl of
difforonco of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) vilh lho poIvlhoisls (of MaIIah) vas concorning Tavhid
(lho Ononoss of AIIah, GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho concopl
of boing broughl bacI lo Iifo on lho Dav of Iudgomonl aflor ono vas
phvsicaIIv doad.

Thus, lho vorsos vhoso axis rolalos around lho discussion of issuos
such as lho origin (of Iifo), Rosurroclion Dav and lho vorsos vhich
roproach IoIvlhoism and spoaI aboul lho oulcomo of lho provious
gonoralions lhal voro infIiclod vilh lho angor and punishmonl of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) duo lo nol foIIoving His
commandmonls and lhoir appoinlod Mossongors, voro mosl oflon
rovoaIod in MaIIah.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


7
Hovovor lho onvironmonl in Madinah vas an almosphoro of failh,
virluo and piolv. Il vas a conlorod vhoro lho AhI aI-Kilab -
ospociaIIv lho Iovs ÷ had infIuoncod and pormoalod inlo. Il vas an
almosphoro of voung mon, horoos, champions and bravo poopIo
vho roadiIv accoplod lho loachings of IsIam. In addilion, il vas aIso
an onvironmonl vhoro lho MusIims had IillIo nood lo discuss lho
foundalionaI boIiofs (IsuI ad-Din) of lho roIigion and lhus il vas
limo for lhom lo bocomo acquainlod vilh a sorios of olhor issuos
incIuding lhoir praclicaI rosponsibiIilios, lho olhicaI and sociolaI
guidoIinos and lho porformanco of dovolionaI acls such as SaIal,
Savm (fasling), ZaIal and olhor issuos. Il is bocauso of lhis facl lhal
lho vorsos in roIalion lo lho Tavral and InjiI and lho boIiofs of lho
AhI aI-Kilab (Iovs and Chrislians) and lho oxpIanalion of lho
aIlorcalions, ballIos and vars of lho MusIims vilh lho AhI aI-Kilab
and lho IoIvlhoisls voro rovoaIod in Madinah.

AIso, lho vorsos lhal spoaI of lho principIos of oliquollo and lho
commandmonls of lho roIigion incIuding lho obIigalorv (vajib) and
rocommondod (muslahab) acls voro aII rovoaIod in Madinah ÷
moaning aflor lho migralion (hijrah) of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) from MaIIah lo Madinah.
7



7
Thoso vorsos vhich voro rovoaIod lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) during his HajjaluI Wida or FarovoII Hajj
(boforo ho passod avav) vhiIo in MaIIah aro lochnicaIIv roforrod lo as
Madani vorsos (vorsos rovoaIod in Madinah) of lho Our'an ovon lhough lhov
voro nol acluaIIv sonl lo him in lho cilv of Madinah. This is so bocauso lho
condilion lhal is usod lo judgo vholhor a vorso is Madani is if il vas
rovoaIod aflor lho migralion lo Madinah. Il is bv obsorving lhis dofinilion
lhal vo havo givon lho abovo cIassificalion (in roIalion lo lho pIaco of
rovoIalion).
Chaplor I : Tho Spocifics of Surah aI-Hujural

S
Givon lhal lho mood in Madinah vas ono of inloraclion bolvoon lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and lho
Ansar (lho IocaI poopIo of Madinah vho voIcomod lho Irophol and
his foIIovors lo lhoir cilv) and olhor groups lhal sIovIv accoplod lho
loachings of IsIam, lhis Iimilod limo framo did nol pormil lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo discuss
issuos such as condomning idoIs and idoI vorshippors (vhiIo in
Madinah). Thoroforo vo musl acInovIodgo lhal aII lho vorsos of
lhis Surah voro rovoaIod in Madinah.

In addilion lo aII of lho commonlalors of lho Our'an boing
unanimous on lhis issuo (lhal aII of lho vorsos of lhis Surah voro
rovoaIod in Madinah) ÷ and il has onIv boon roIalod from Ibno
Abbas lhal in his opinion, lho lhirloonlh vorso of lhis Surah vas
rovoaIod in MaIIah ÷ lho conlonls of lhoso vorsos aro a Iiving,
praclicaI oxampIo lhal lhov voro aII rovoaIod in Madinah.

Tho almosphoro in MaIIah vas nol conducivo lo discussing lhoso
sorls of olhicaI issuos, sinco lho poopIo of MaIIah sliII hoId doubls
concorning lho principIos of IsIam (origin of Iifo and Dav of
Rosurroclion), and did nol allosl lo lho propholic mission of lho
Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
and had nol vol dovoIopod failh in his univorsaI mossago. In such
an onvironmonl, lho opporlunilv novor aroso lhal vouId aIIov lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo bring
up issuos of moraIilv such as having bad lhoughls aboul olhors or
bacIbiling olhor poopIo.

Abovo aII of lhis, lhoso vho aro boing spoIon lo in lhis Surah aro
lhoso lhal possoss lruo failh (Mu'minun), jusl as vo soo lhal AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has slarlod oul lhis Surah vilh lho
phraso:


Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


9
' .' ' .`·¯ ¸
¨O´ vou vho havo lruo failh!¨

Thus, from lhis boginning of lhis Surah unliI vo roach lho ond, vo
soo lhal vilh lho oxcoplion of ono inslanco, aII of lho conlonls of lhis
chaplor aro addrossod lo lho boIiovors or lhoso vho havo lruo failh
and lhis is ono indispulabIo indicalion lhal lhis Surah vas rovoaIod
in Madinah.




























Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


11






























Chaplor Tvo

Tho DiscipIinos
of IsIam

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


13
Vorso 1
Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

.'' ' . ¸`, .`·`` . .`·¯ ¸ ' ·.` · ' .` ' · . ' ·
`.,· `·,
O´ vou vho havo lruo failh! Do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords
and doods) abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv). And havo
consciousnoss of AIIah. InquoslionabIv, AIIah is lho AII-Hoaring, AII-
Knoving.

ho purposo of lhis vorso is lo oslabIish moraI discipIino in
lho principIos of IsIam vilhin ovorv singIo porson vho
possossos lruo failh. This vorso sorvos lo croalo a sonso of
moraI discipIino lhal vouId provonl lho lruo boIiovor from onacling
anv sorl of procodonco or priorilv in his or hor ovn Iifo ovor lho
ordors of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and His Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv). This discipIino
vouId aIso provonl lho porson from dovoIoping anv sorl of doubl or
uncorlainlv in roIalion lo lho ordors of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod
is Ho) and His Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).

Tho spiril and roaIilv of lho discipIinos of IsIam diclalo lhal ovorv
individuaI musl laIo lho ruIos, roguIalions and convonlion of Iavs
lhal ho foIIovs, vhich aro roIalod lo bolh lho individuaI and lho
sociolv, from lho Divino Sourco. In addilion, ho musl lhoroughIv
salialo himsoIf vilh lhoso Iavs and musl foIIov lho ono lhoughl
(lho Iavs of AIIah) vhich aro much moro suporior and highor lhan
aII olhor lhoughls and idooIogios.

T
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

14
Whv do vo sav lhis` Wo Inov lhal lho IogisIalions and IsIamic
commandmonls lhal havo lo bo foIIovod musl bo broughl bv ono
vho firsl and foromosl rocognizos and undorslands lho human
boing. Thoroforo, such a IogisIalor musl Inov aII of lho socrols,
hiddon issuos and finor poinls of lho human and his souI. Thoro
musl nol romain a singIo alom of ambiguilv in lho Iifo of manIind
lhal a Iav has nol boon proscribod for. In addilion lo lhis, such a
IogisIalor musl aIso bo froo from aII lvpos of sins and orrors and
lhoro can nol bo anv lvpo of inlorosl or bonofil for him in lho sociolv
such lhal lhis bonofil vouId Ioad him lo formuIalo Iavs lhal suil his
ovn soIf.

Iusl as vo Inov, lhoro is nol a singIo porson vho has lhoso
characlorislics oxcopl for lho Croalor of lho Inivorso. Il is Ho aIono
vho has compIolo InovIodgo of bolh our innor and oulor lhoughls.
Il is Ho aIono vho is froo from aII sin and orror and vho dorivos no
bonofil from lho sociolv. Thoroforo, ovorvono musl havo lruo failh
in such an Enlilv and lho IsIamic discipIinos lhal Ho sonds dovn.
Thov musl nol considor lhoir ovn inlorosls or vishos abovo lhal of
vhal has boon docidod bv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
lhov musl laIo inspiralion from Him aIono.

If vo givo up such IsIamic discipIinos and soIoIv roIv on our vishos
and dosiros lo formuIalo Iavs and roguIalions, lhon lho sphoro of
our Iivos vouId rosombIo an armv vilh muIlipIo Ioadors. Evon if
such an armv vas fuIIv oquippod and roadv lo fighl a ballIo, lhov
vouId dofiniloIv faII inlo confusion and disordor sinco lhov aro
boing Ioad bv various Ioadors and commandors, and aflor a shorl
poriod of limo, lhov vouId faII lo lho provoss of lho onomv lhus
boing doslrovod.

Tho slago lhal vo Iivo our Iifo upon is jusl IiIo lho ballIo-fronl and
lho vishos and dosiros of oach porson, oach slralum of poopIo or
oach group aro simiIar lo having muIlipIo commandors for an armv.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


15
If lhoro vas lo bo anv difforonco of opinion vilhin lho commandors,
lhon lhis vouId Ioad lho poopIo inlo groal confIicls and vouId drag
lhom inlo confusion and disordor vhich vouId uIlimaloIv rosuIl in
lho disrogard of juslico amongsl ono anolhor.

AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has oxpIainod lho nocossilv of
mainlaining such a discipIino in lhis inlroduclorv vorso vhoro Ho
has monlionod:

... . ¸`, .`·`` . ' ·.` ·
¨.do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and doods)
abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

Ialor on in lho sovonlh vorso of lhis Surah, AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) slrossos on lho infaIIibiIilv of lho Irophol (bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and his inabiIilv lo faII inlo
orror or maIo a mislaIo vhoro Ho savs:

' ..` `.´,· .' .``· ' ·¯ ¸· `.´`·,=` `. · . , . ¸`·
' . `.'· `·
¨Knov lhal lho Mossongor of AIIah (Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) is
amongsl vou. Had ho vioIdod lo vou on manv mallors,
vou vouId havo dofiniloIv boon in groal lroubIo.¨

Bv slaling lhis, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) moans lo sav lhal
sinco lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
laIos aII of his informalion and guidanco from lho Springs of
RovoIalion and Divino Inspiralion, lhoro viII novor bo ovon lho
smaIIosl amounl of orror in his Ioadorship. Hovovor, if lho Irophol
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

16
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) voro lo foIIov lho
poopIo - sinco lhov mav faII prov lo lho vishos of lhoir ovn dosiros -
lhon vholhor lhov Inov il or nol, lhov vouId faII inlo harm and
Ioss.

Thoroforo, if vo sincoroIv vish lo bo a sociolv of boIiovors and lruo
MusIims, lhon vo musl laIo lho foIIoving vorso as an oxampIo as lo
hov lo pallorn our Iivos:

... . ¸`, .`·`` . ' ·.` ·
¨.do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and doods)
abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

ExampIos in Hislorv of Thoso vho havo
TaIon Irocodonco ovor AIIah and His Irophol

A groal numbor of lho failhfuI boIiovors havo foIIovod lho primarv
ruIo of oboving lho Ono vho has IogisIalod lho Iavs for humanilv,
and if lho IsIamic vordicl vas nol found for a parlicuIar issuo, lhon
lhov vouId nol acl upon il nor vouId lhov oxpross lhoir ovn
opinion (on lhal issuo). Hovovor, bv oxorcising and using lhoir
ovn judgomonl and concIusions, lhoso samo poopIo havo givon
procodonco lo lhoir ovn dosiros ovor lhoso of lho HoavonIv ruIings -
lho ruIings of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and His Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) - and
unInovingIv, lhov did nol acl upon lho vorso lhal slalos:

... . ¸`, .`·`` . ' ·.` ·
¨.do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and doods)
abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


17
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

Il is possibIo lhal somolimos bv poopIo acling upon lhal vhich is a
figmonl of lhoir ovn imaginalion or duo lo boing undor lho
prossuros of lhoir onvironmonl: lhov rosorl lo acling on lhoir ovn
lhoughls and porsonaI judgomonls vhich go againsl lho Iavs lhal
havo boon oxpIicilIv monlionod in lho roIigion. Thus, lhov havo
givon lhoir ovn idoas lho coIour of sanclilv and pIacod lhoso abovo
lho HoavonIv commandmonls. Tho probIom vilh lho MusIims (of
lodav) is moslIv vilhin lhis sphoro - moaning lhal vo pIaco our ovn
idoas ahoad of lhoso of lho roIigion, such lhal vo aro nol roadv lo
accopl lho lrulh and roaIilv for vhal il lruIv is.

Evon nov, vo can bring forvard oxampIos in vhich lho MusIims
aro lrving lo pIaco lhoir ovn opinions and idoas - vhich in roaIilv is
oquivaIonl lo pIacing lhoir ovn boIiofs abovo lho shining
commandmonls of lho roIigion ÷ abovo lhoso of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) and His Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv). Somolimos, duo lo lho foar of boing cIassifiod as opon
sinnors or disboIiovors in lho failh amongsl lho poopIo, lhov hido
lhoir opinions (lhough lhov sliII Ioop such idoas in lhoir hoarls).

NovorlhoIoss, in ordor lo Ioop lhis discussion briof, vo viII onIv
roIalo a fov oxampIos of lhis acl in vhich MusIims havo pIacod lhoir
ovn lhoughls and idoas ahoad of lhoso of lho loachings of lho
roIigion lhal had occurrod in lho boginning of IsIam. Wo Ioavo il up
lo lho roadors lo rosoarch and sludv oxampIos of lhis alliludo lhal is
laIing pIaco in lho prosonl dav.

1) During lho bIossod monlh of RamaJhan in ono of lho voars aflor
lho Hijrah lo Madinah, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) lravoIod vilh a group of his companions lovards
MaIIah.
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

1S
Whon lhov roachod lho pIaco Inovn as Kara aI-Ghamim, lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) roquoslod
a gIass of valor and bolvoon lho SaIal of Zuhr and Asr, broIo his
fasl and commandod aII of lhoso vilh him lo aIso broaI lhoir fasl,
sinco AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) had nol commandod
fasling for lhoso vho aro lravoIIing.

Hovovor, a group of his companions vho prosumod lhomsoIvos lo
bo hoIv poopIo lhoughl lhal if lhov voro lo fasl vhiIo lravoIIing,
lhov vouId rocoivo a groalor rovard. Thoso poopIo lhoughl lhal
lhov vouId acl according lo lhoir ovn dosiros and pIaco lhoir
vishos abovo lho ordors of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) and lhus romainod fasling. This
group of MusIims vas acluaIIv roforrod lo as lho group of sinnors
S

bv lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv)!

Tho groalosl caIamilv for lhoso poopIo vas lhal al lho limo of going
forvard for Iihad (slruggIo) in lho vav of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho), lhov had nol laIon ovon ono gIimmor of guidanco
from lho Divino rovoIalions, and lhus oach ono of lhom procoodod
lo foIIov lhoir ovn commandor and Ioador (vhich vas lhoir ovn
vishos).

2) During lho limo of Ignoranco (IahiIivah) of lho Arabs (boforo lho
coming of IsIam), a man vas prohibilod from marrving his adoplod
son´s vifo aflor lhov had divorcod. In ordor lo doslrov lhis vrong
cuslom and lradilion, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)

S
Tho hadilh (narralod in WasaiI ash-Shia, VoIumo 7, Iago 125) slalos lhal
lho Irophol vas quolod as saving aboul lhom:

..` `.`·´ ' .· · ·
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


19
commandod lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lo romovo lhis boIiof (from amongsl lho poopIo) and
lhoroforo commandod him lo marrv Zainab, lho divorcod vifo of his
adoplod son Zaid.

Tho Irophol procoodod lo marrv Zainab al vhich limo, a group of
lhoso vho (apparonlIv) had failh in IsIam and vho Inov vorv voII
lhal lho aclions and spooch of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) aro novor carriod oul vilhoul roason
and vho Inov lhal ho laIos inspiralion from lho WorId of
RovoIalion in aII of his aclions, slarlod lo Iaunch crilicisms upon
him. Bv ompIoving sarcaslic romarIs and commonls, lhov bogan lo
sav lhal lho marriago of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) vas unIavfuI! Tho molivo of lhoso poopIo lo slarl
such crilicisms vas lhoir ovn cuIluraI lhoughls and porsonaI
discrolion lhal had boon inhorilod (from lho davs of Ignoranco) and
as such, lhov boIiovod lhal il vas nol pormillod lo marrv lho ox-vifo
of ono´s adoplod son.

In ordor lo doslrov lhoso lvpos of unfoundod crilicisms vhich aro
roolod in IacI of failh in lho roaIilv of lho Iropholic mission and lho
iIIuminaling loachings of IsIam, lho Our'an brings forlh various
vorsos, of vhich vo roIalo ono horo from Surah aI-Ahzab:

· ··`.`· . ¸·`.` .¯ · ¸.· ' .` `· .`·' `· .'
`.`. ..´ ' `¸· `.·`·' `¸· ·,- ¸`· ' · ¸. `· `·.`
.·. ,'·
¨And il is nol pormillod for lho boIioving mon nor for lho
boIioving vomon lhal vhon AIIah and His Mossongor
(Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) docido on an issuo lhal lhov oxpross lhoir ovn
opinion on lhis issuo (onco il has aIroadv boon docidod for
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

20
lhom bv AIIah and His Mossongor). And lho ono vho
disobovs AIIah and His Mossongor (Muhammad, bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) is dofiniloIv in
manifosl orror.¨
9


Tho Ialo 1abrisi (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him) has slalod lhal,
¨Tho sonlonco, .do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and
doods) abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) has a vorv doop
and oxlonsivo moaning, lhal lhoso vho havo lruo failh musl nol
laIo lhoir ovn opinions abovo lhal of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) or lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

In roaIilv, lhal vhich vo havo monlionod and oxpIainod abovo is
ono of lho moanings of lho comprohonsivo moanings of lhis vorso.

Tho Truo Moaning of IsIam is Submission

Tho lruo moaning of IsIam is lho (compIolo) slalo of submission lo
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi
1aIib (poaco bo upon him) has dofinod lho roaIilv of IsIam bv
summarizing il in ono sonlonco vhoro ho said:

' .`· `··`. ' `.,``
¨AI-IsIam is (simpIv) compIolo submission (lo lho Iavs
and commandmonls of AIIah)¨
10



9
Rofor lo Surah aI-Ahzab (33), Vorsos 4 and 5: 36 and 40
10
NahjuI BaIagha, Shorl Saving 125
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


21
Thus, a lruo MusIim is ono vho submils onliroIv lo AIIah (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) ÷ vholhor il onlaiIs bonofil or Ioss for him: if il is
according lo vhal his ovn souI dosiros: or if il goos againsl his ovn
dosiros and vishos. Such a porson (vho is a lruo MusIim) submils
lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) in ordor lo oarn His pIoasuro.

Hovovor for lhoso poopIo vho do nol havo such a domoanor vilhin
lhomsoIvos, vhonovor lhov soo lhal lho roIigion and lho loachings
prolocl lhoir ovn bonofils, lhon lhov cIaim lhal (parl of lho) roIigion.
Bv lhis vo moan lhal anv limo lhov soo lhal lho loachings and lho
visdom of lho failh aro in accordanco vilh lhoir inlornaI vishos and
dosiros, lhon lhov dofond IsIam and lho loachings of lho roIigion.
Hovovor, vhon il goos againsl lhoir ovn bonofils, innor dosiros and
passions, lhon bv using various oxcusos, lhov dovoid lhomsoIvos of
aII affinilv lo lho roIigion. In such poopIo, lhoro is no form of lruo
submission vhich is lho basis and foundalion of IsIam jusl as vo
viII bo abIo lo soo cIoarIv in lho slorv monlionod boIov.

Tamim ibno Iarasha, aIong vilh a group of olhors roprosonling lho
lribo of Thaqif voro maIing lhoir vav lo Madinah and voro
proparing lhoir lribo for lho accoplanco of lho roIigion of IsIam
undor lho condilions vhich lhov had proviousIv docidod upon.
Whon lhov roachod lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) ho said lo lhom, ¨Wrilo dovn vour condilions so lhal I
mav go ovor lhom.¨ Thov voro roforrod lo AIi (poaco bo upon him)
and roquoslod him lo vrilo dovn lho condilions and inslruclod AIi
(poaco bo upon him) lo vrilo lho foIIoving provisions:

¨Tho Tribo of Thaqif viII accopl lho roIigion of IsIam if lho foIIoving
condilions aro mol: Giving and laIing of inlorosl and porforming
aduIlorv aro pormillod and lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) viII oxcuso lhom from porforming lho SaIal.¨

Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

22
AIi (poaco bo upon him) couId nol bring himsoIf lo vrilo such
condilions and lhus lhov voro sonl lo KhaIid ibno Said ibno Äs. Ho
drov up lho conlracl and lhoroaflor lhov rolurnod bacI lo lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and road
lho condilions lo him. Al lhis poinl, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) bocamo vorv upsol, and vilh his ovn
hands, changod vhal vas vrillon on lho papor and lhon signod il.
11


Kooping in mind lho quolo from Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi
1aIib (poaco bo upon him) in roIalion lo vhal IsIam lruIv is, vo soo
lhal such poopIo (lhoso of lho lribo of Thaqif) voro dovoid of lho
lruo IsIam ÷ vhich is compIolo submission lo lho Trulh. Thoso
poopIo vanlod a form of IsIam lhal vas conducivo lo lhoir ovn
IuslfuI dosiros and ono vhich suilod lhom and if lhis vas nol
possibIo, lhon IsIam vouId hoId no pIaco in lhoir Iivos.

Ibno Hisham has narralod lhal lhis group of Arabs had roquoslod
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lhal
lhoir Iargo idoI - Ial - nol bo doslrovod for a poriod of lhroo voars
and lhal lho mosl imporlanl obIigalorv acl of IsIam (lho SaIal)
shouId nol bo mado incumbonl upon lhom. Tho Irophol (bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) ropIiod lo lhoso poopIo lhal
ho vouId nol pormil - ovon for ono minulo - lhal idoIs bo
vorshippod and loId lhom lhal anv sol of spiriluaI boIiofs vhich
IacI lho SaIal - communicalion vilh AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) and olhor acls of sorviludo - vouId bo IiIo a bodv vilhoul a
souI and lhis vouId sorvo no bonofil.
12


Evon moro amazing lhan lhis ovonl vas lho objoclion lhal vas
raisod bv somo of lho companions of lho Mossongor of AIIah

11
Ibno Alhir, Asad aI-Ghabah, VoIumo 1, Iago 216
12
Sirah ibno Hisham, VoIumo 2, Iago 540
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


23
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo somo olhor
companions vho had como oul of lhoir Ihram and had soxuaI
roIalions vilh lhoir vivos. This group of companions (aflor
finishing lho rilos of lho Imrah) had porformod a ghusI (aflor
having soxuaI roIalions vilh lhoir vivos) and vhiIo lho valor vas
dripping from lhoir facos lhov voro addrossod bv anolhor group of
companions: ¨Do vou nol havo anv shamo` Tho Mossongor of AIIah
is sliII in lho slalo of Ihram and vou havo como oul of vour Ihram
and (aflor having roIalions) havo lho valor of vour ghusI dripping
from vour faco and hoad`¨

Tho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) hoard lhis boing said and gol vorv upsol and loId his
companions, ¨I mvsoIf loId lhom lo do lhis and if I had nol broughl
an animaI lo sacrifico vilh mvsoIf, I loo vouId havo como oul of lho
Ihram.¨
13


Tho groalosl caIamilv and lho mosl sovoro bIov againsl lho
HoavonIv loachings is lhal man - vho is a croaluro and is prono lo
commil orrors ÷ adds and inlroducos his ovn idoas and boIiofs
vilhin lho roIigion, sinco ho is nol abIo lo compIoloIv ropIaco lho
loachings of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) vilh his ovn
lhoughls.

Hov manv limos havo vo oursoIvos soon lhal in our Iivos, manv
forbiddon acls havo Ialor on laIon lho form of boing pormillod`
Hov manv barriors and Iimilalions (in lho roIigion) havo vo soon
lhal voro broughl inlo offocl vhich voro Ialor broIon bv lhoso samo
poopIo vho inlroducod lhom` AII of lhoso lvpos of inlorvonlions
and inlorforoncos vilh lho Iavs of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) slom from ono sourco and lhal is lhal vo do nol havo lho

13
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 2, Iago 3S6
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

24
corrocl undorslanding of lho discipIinos of IsIam and lhis sonlonco
of lho Surah is lho lruo oxprossion of lhis:

... . ¸`, .`·`` . ' ·.` ·
¨.do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and doods)
abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

In lho voar lhal lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) porformod lho FinaI Hajj (HajjaluI Wida), aflor
porforming lho Sai bolvoon lho mounlains of aI-Safa and aI-
Marvah, ho lurnod lovards lhoso vho voro visiling lho houso of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and said, ¨Whoovor has nol
broughl a sacrifico aIong vilh him shouId lrim his hair or cul his
naiIs a IillIo bil and como oul of lho Ihram. Hovovor, anvono vho
has broughl aIong an animaI lo sacrifico jusl as I havo, musl slav in
lho slalo of Ihram unliI lho sacrifico is givon in Mina.¨

This vas somolhing difficuIl for a group of lho companions lo
accopl and lhoir oxcuso for nol Iisloning lo lho Irophol vas lhal il
vas nol agrooabIo lo lhom lhal lhov shouId como oul of lho Ihram
and lhoso lhings lhal voro sliII prohibilod for lho Irophol (bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) shouId bo pormillod for
lhom. Somo of lhom ovon said lhal il is nol corrocl lhal lhoso vho
aro cIassifiod as poopIo vho aro visiling lho Houso of AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) shouId havo lho drops of valor from a
ghusI (duo lo soxuaI roIalions) dripping from lhoir hoad and faco!

Tho ovos of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) foII on Imar (ibno aI-Khattab) vhiIo ho vas sliII in lho
slalo of Ihram. Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) asIod him if ho had broughl aIong a sacrifico lo vhich
Imar ropIiod lhal ho had nol. Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


25
upon him and his progonv) lhon asIod him vhv ho had nol vol
romovod his Ihram` To lhis Imar ropIiod lhal, ¨I am nol viIIing lo
como oul of lho Ihram vhiIo vou aro sliII in lho slalo (of Ihram).¨
Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
ropIiod lo him, ¨Nol onIv nov, hovovor unliI lho dav vou dio vou
viII aIvavs foIIov lhis samo boIiof (of disoboving lho Irophol).¨

Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas
vorv upsol al lho doubls and hosilalions of lho poopIo and said:

· .`·' `¸· `.` `.`¯ `. ' `` ` `. `.· ¯ ' · ` ` ´ `.
¨If I had givon lhis issuo provious lhoughl lhon jusl IiIo
vou, insload of bringing lho animaI lo sacrifico vilh mo, I
vouId havo Iofl il al homo and vouId havo como lo
porform lho visilalion rilos of lho Houso of AIIah (vilhoul
lho animaI). Hovovor vhal can I do nov lhal I havo
broughl lhis animaI lo sacrifico, I musl acl in accordanco lo
lho commandmonl of AIIah vhich slalos:

¸.`- ·` ' -· `.`. `·
(You musl romain in lho slalo of Ihram) unliI vou roach
lo lho pIaco vhoro vou musl offor lho sacrifico (lhal vou
havo broughl vilh vou).

Thus, I musl romain in lho slalo of Ihram unliI lho dav of
Mina vhon I can go lo lho aroa of sacrifico and sIaughlor
lhis animaI. Hovovor, anvono vho has nol broughl an
animaI vilh lhom lo sacrifico musl como oul of lhoir Ihram
and vhalovor acls lhov havo porformod vouId bo
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

26
considorod as lhoir Imrah and lhon Ialor on, lhov can
again pul on lhoir Ihram for lho Hajj.¨
14


In lhis soclion, vo havo givon four difforonl oxampIos of poopIo
vho pIacod lhoir ovn opinions and viovs abovo lhoso of AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv). In addilion, in lho pagos of lho
hislorv of IsIam, ospociaIIv lho hislorv of lho firsl lhroo KhuIafa (Abu
BaIr ibno AI-Ouhafah, Imar ibno AI-Khattab and Ilhman ibno aI-
Affan), vo soo vorv dislincl oxampIos roIaling lo lho lopic undor
discussion vhich havo boon discussod in a soparalo booI.
15


Aflor vriling lhis soclion of lho commonlarv, an arlicIo
16
lhal had
boon vrillon bv ono of our frionds vho had dono rosoarch on lhis
lopic vas givon lo us vhich (in roaIilv) is a conlinualion of our
discussion (horo). BoIov, vo prosonl a summarv of vhal ho has
monlionod:

¨Tho lruo moaning of IsIam is lhal vhon a porson is al lho
crossroads of oilhor foIIoving vhal his roIigion loIIs him lo do or
vhal ovn inlornaI dosiros command him lovards, ho givos
proforonco lo vhal his roIigion slalos sinco submission in olhor lhan
lhis vav moans lhal ho vouId bo suporcoding lho loachings of lho

14
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 21, Iago 319: Ialo Faidh aI-Kashani, Kilab aI-
Wafi, VoIumo S, Iago 32 has oxpIainod lho vords of lho Irophol in a
difforonl mannor.
15
Tho ronovnod SchoIar and lho groal soIdior of IsIam, lho Ialo Savvid
Sharaf aI-Din aI-ÄmuIi has discussod lho main poinls Ioading lo lhis lvpo of
opposilion in his vorI, AI-Nass va aI-Ijlihad.
16
This arlicIo can bo found in lho Iorsian IournaI onlilIod MaIlab-o-IsIami,
numbor 1, Yoar 9.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


27
roIigion vilh his ovn dosiros vhich is a sign of nol having lruo
submission (IsIam).

For oxampIo, lho Iovo and affoclion lhal a porson shovs for anolhor
is onIv indispulabIo and provod vhon a disagroomonl comos up
bolvoon lho lvo poopIo al vhich limo, ho profors lho opinion of his
friond ovor his ovn.

If in lhis inslanco, ho profors his ovn opinion and givos il
procodonco, lhon il is cIoar lhal his agroomonl vilh his friond in
olhor inslancos and circumslancos vas basod on uIlorior molivos
and nol duo lo lho Iovo and affoclion lhal ho has for his friond.
Ralhor, il vas duo lo somo olhor sorl of (maloriaI or spiriluaI)
bonofil for himsoIf lhal ho sav in his friondship. In roaIilv, lhis is
oxpIainod vorv voII in lhis vorso of lho Our'an:

. ' .`´ ¸ .' .`` ·`` · ¸`, .·`` ' ·
` ¸`· `´ ¸`· `¸·`.` ... ·`` .' .`
· ¸`, -` ·, : `.`· :·' ' .`·´ -
¨Thoso poopIo vho disboIiovo in AIIah and His
Mossongors and vho inlond lo croalo difforoncos bolvoon
AIIah and His Mossongors (bv rojocling lhoir mossago) and
sav, 'Wo boIiovo in somo and disboIiovo in olhors´ and
(lhrough lhis) lhov inlond lo find and foIIov a middIo vav
Wilhoul doubl, such aro lho disboIiovors in lho lrulh.¨
17


This vorso cIoarIv shovs lhal lhoso vho vish lo difforonlialo
bolvoon lho commandmonls of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
aro lho lruo disboIiovors and ovon lho smaIIosl amounl of failh viII

17
Surah aI-Nisa (4), Vorso 150 & 151
Chaplor II : Tho DiscipIinos of IsIam

2S
novor bo soon vilhin lhom. Whon AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) commandod Shaitan lo proslralo lo Ädam (poaco bo upon him)
vhich ho rojoclod lo do, ho ropIiod lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho):

`,`·' `¸· . `¸· ¸ `·' ··¯ ·`• . ·```· . ··· ·`` `-'
¸`· `¸·
¨If vou oxcuso mo from proslraling lo Ädam lhon suroIv I
viII vorship You such a vorship lhal no ono boforo has
ovor vorshippod You.¨

Ho vas hoodIoss of ono facl of roaIilv vhich vas lhal lho lruo
moaning and spiril of vorship and dovolion is (compIolo)
submission and lhal vhich ho lhoughl vas vorship (Ibadal) vas
nolhing and il possossod no vaIuo vhalsoovor.

Thoroforo, IsIam is IiIo ono unil lhal is connoclod logolhor such lhal
il can novor bo soparalod inlo individuaI parls and soclions. In
acluaIilv, lruo boIiof in AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho): lruo
boIiof in lho propholic mission of His Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv): lruo boIiof in lhoso vho aro his
succossors and acling upon lho ruIings and loachings lhal lhov havo
convovod aro aII ono compound unil vhich is mado up of various
commands. To soparalo lhoso or spIil lhom up from ono anolhor in
roIalion lo boIiofs or praclicaI Iavs vouId laIo ono oul of lruo
submission, vhich maIos up lho foundalion of IsIam.

On lhis samo foundalion, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has
cIassifiod lhoso vho donv lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) as boing lho samo as lhoso vho donv AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Tho rools of donving lho Iropholic
mission of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


29
his progonv) is oquivaIonl lo donving AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho), as has boon monlionod in lho foIIoving vorso of lho Our'an:

. `.`.`,· :.`´` `¸´ ' € •‚ . ' .`-`• ·
¨So lhon suroIv lhov do nol donv vou (O´ Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), hovovor
lho opprossors disagroo vilh lho signs of AIIah.¨
1S


If lho poopIo voro lo bo submissivo in lho prosonco of AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), lhon lhov vouId nol havo objoclod lo
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).

Bv sooing lho miracIos lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) vas porforming and lho sufficionl proofs lhal
ho had broughl, lhov shouId nol havo romainod al lho hoad of lho
lvo roads (of boIiof and disboIiof).

Hovovor, sinco AIIah, lho Groalosl, is highor lhan lhal Ho shouId
opposo lhom (duo lo lhoir disboIiof), in roIalion lo such poopIo, Ho
has accoplod lhoir oulvard acl of submission and has monlionod
lhal il is lhoso poopIo (vho invardIv donv AIIah, GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) hovovor lhov oulvardIv shov lhal lhov donv lho
Irophols lhal AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has sonl.¨









1S
Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 33
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


31































Chaplor Throo

HumiIilv
Whon SpoaIing
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


33
Vorsos 2 ÷ 5
HumiIilv Whon SpoaIing

.'' ' `.´.`.' .`··` . .`·¯ ¸ .`.. ·`.· ' `.`• . `¸`
`.´.`· `.•¯ .`. `· .' ¸`· .``·`ƒ . `.`' `.´`·' „`- .
. ' `· `.`..`.' ..'.`… ¸ ` .. ' `' · :· ' ¸ ' ¸-`· ' `·
`.`. †.` `.`..· `.,=· ``-' ·`·`· . . ' . `¸· :`·` ¸
' ..`· . `.`·`·¯' .`•`- . .´ `..`, -``- ¸`- `. `.`.`' `.
- `.`. `, ' `· `.,-` `.·
O´ vou vho havo lruo failh! Do nol raiso vour voicos abovo lho voico of
lho Irophol (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
and do nol bo Ioud in spoaIing lo him (as vou spoaI lo ono anolhor) for (if
vou do lhis) lhon aII of vour (good) doods viII bo mado dovoid of aII virluo
vhiIo vou do nol roaIizo il. Tho hoarls of lhoso vho Iovor lhoir voicos in
lho prosonco of lho Mossongor of AIIah (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) aro loslod bv AIIah lhrough consciousnoss (of
AIIah) - lhov viII havo forgivonoss and a groal rovard (givon lo lhom bv
AIIah). InquoslionabIv mosl of lhoso vho caII upon vou (O´ Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) from bohind lho privalo
chambors (of vour houso) do nol havo anv undorslanding. Had lhoso
poopIo oxorcisod palionco unliI vou (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) had como oul (from vour houso) lhon il vouId
havo boon bollor for lhom and AIIah is AII-Forgiving, AII-MorcifuI.

no of lho mosl imporlanl discussions in lho scionco of
AIhIaq roIalos lo lho molhod of spoaIing vilh poopIo and
lho vav lhal ono inloracls vilh individuaIs of various
cIassos and slrala, and in addilion, obsorving lho principIos and
O
Chaplor III : HumiIilv Whon SpoaIing


34
mannors of oliquollo roIalod lo olhor poopIo.

Thoro aro ovon somo lhinIors in lho Wosl lhal havo carriod oul
rosoarch projocls and sludios and havo dovoIopod vavs lo infIuonco
poopIo. Thoso rosoarchors havo vrillon manuaIs and booIs in
roIalion lo hov poopIo shouId Iivo vilh olhors. Il is inlorosling lo
nolo lhal mosl of lho informalion lhal lhoso oxporls havo compiIod
havo acluaIIv aIroadv boon oxpIicilIv monlionod in lho IsIamic
narralions! InforlunaloIv hovovor, our laIonlod vrilors and
schoIars do nol prosonl lho olhicaI loachings lhal aro found in lho
IsIamic sourcos in a vav lhal is accoplabIo lo lho prosonl dav,
coupIod vilh praclicaI oxampIos for lho voungor gonoralion - vho
aro lhirslv lo hoar lhoso sorls of olhicaI loachings. Our loachings (on
lhis issuo) aro nol prosonlod as somo of lho schoIars vanl lho poopIo
lo imagino lhal lhis informalion is basod on lho inilialivo (of
rosoarch) of lho Woslornors. Ralhor, lho voulh shouId Inov lhal in
lhis aroa of discussion, lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) and his succossors havo givon us a groal
doaI of guidanco.

Tho vrilor and groal narralor of hadilh, ShaiIh Hurr aI-ÄmuIi (mav
AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him) in his booI WasaiI ash-Shia
19
, has
narralod numorous ahadilh concorning lho rosponsibiIilv lhal a
MusIim has and lho vav lhal ho musl inloracl vilh olhor poopIo.
Ho has narralod lradilions from lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and lho AhIuI Bail (poaco bo
upon aII of lhom) undor lho lopic of Eliquollo of SociaI Inlorcourso
vhiIo TravoIIing and al Homo.
20



19
VoIumo 7, Iago 39S - 621
20
Tho lopic of lhis soclion of his compiIalion is ¨AhIam aI-Ashrahlu Fis
Safar va aI-Hadhr.¨
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


35
Tho molhod of inloraclion of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vilh olhors around him is lho bosl
guido (for us) and providos us vilh lho groalosl assislanco in lhis
aroa of Iifo. BriofIv in lhis soclion, vo prosonl somo oxampIos of lho
bohaviour and modo of inloraclion of lho groal Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vilh lhoso around
him.

1. Ho vas lho firsl in grooling olhor poopIo.

2. If ho vishod lo spoaI lo a porson vhiIo in lho slrools or in a
galhoring, ho vouId nol spoaI lo lhom vhiIo IooIing oul of
lho cornor of his ovos. Ralhor, ho vouId lurn his onliro
bodv in lho diroclion of lhal porson and lhon spoaI lo him
and vhiIo spoaIing, ho aIvavs had a smiIo on his faco.

3. If a porson mado an orror vhiIo spoaIing, ho vouId nol caII
him lo accounl for vhal vas said.

4. No ono vas ovor doprivod of his good domoanor and
oliquollo.

5. If anv of his companions voro nol prosonl (al a galhoring),
lhon ho vouId immodialoIv asI aboul lhal porson.

6. Ho rospoclod poopIo of aII cIassos and ranIs such lhal oach
and ovorv porson lhal mol him foIl as if ho vas lho mosl
honourod porson in lho sighl of lho Irophol.

7. Whonovor ho vas in a galhoring, ho novor choso a spocific
pIaco lo sil, ralhor, ho sal in vhalovor spol vas omplv.

S. Ho fuIfiIIod lho noods and roquosls of lhoso vho camo lo
him and if ho vas nol abIo lo, lhon ho vouId al Ioasl maIo
lhom pIoasod vilh a Iind vord.
Chaplor III : HumiIilv Whon SpoaIing


36
9. Ho vouId bring a spociaI sorl of modosl, dignilv,
lrulhfuInoss and pIoasanlnoss lo a galhoring and ho novor
raisod his voico vhiIo spoaIing.

10. Ho vas loIoranl of bad oliquollo from lhoso vho did nol
Inov bollor and lhoso vho voro slrangors and if somoono
porformod an acl lhal vas nol in accordanco vilh his
naluro, lho Irophol vouId nol lhinI anvlhing of il.

11. Ho rospoclod lho oIdors and carossod lho voung chiIdron.

12. Ho spoIo vorv IillIo and novor cul shorl lho spooch of
anvono oIso.

13. Ho novor roproachod anvono.

14. Ho slavod avav from lhings lhal had no vorlh or vaIuo lo
lhom and Iislonod allonlivoIv lo lho spooch of olhor poopIo.

In addilion lo lhoso, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) had manv olhor lrails - lho mosl praisovorlhv and
hoavonIv characlorislics havo boon monlionod in booIs on lho Iifo of
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and
lho hislorv of IsIam.

A Rough, Rudo Sociolv

Such a Iind, gonlIo and broad-mindod souI (lhal of lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas
onraplurod vilhin lho hoarls of lho poopIo vho voro spiriluaIIv and
praclicaIIv dislancod from lho bonoficiaI olhicaI lrails. WhiIo in lho
prosonco of lho NobIo Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv), poopIo sav lhal ho spoIo in such a mannor lhal
ono vouId lhinI lhal lhov voro spoaIing lo a porson vho vaIIs
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


37
around lho cilv slrools and lho marIol pIaco (ono vho vas nol a
Irophol).

In lho ninlh voar of lho Hijrah vhich is Inovn as ÄmuI Wufud
(Tho Yoar of lho DoIogalions), various groups and assombIios of
poopIo from lho lribos lhal Iivod around Madinah mado lhoir vav
lo lho cilv lo accopl lho loachings of IsIam. Thov vouId sland al lho
door of lho Irophol´s houso vhich vas nol loo far avav from lho
Masjid (an-Nabi) and al various limos of lho dav vouId voII oul:

`-``-' `-`· ‡
¨O´ Muhammad! Como oul (of vour houso)!¨
21


Nol onIv did lhis acl of lhoirs dislurb lho rosling poriod of lho
Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv),
bul in addilion, il vas aIso a form of disrospocl lo lhis nobIo
porsonaIilv. Il is for lhis roason lhal in lho four vorsos undor
discussion from lho Our'an, such poopIo havo boon roforrod lo as
having IillIo undorslanding and boing simpIo mindod. Nol onIv
vas lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) offondod bv lho vav lhal bolh lho slrangors and lho dosorl
Arabs vho voro acquainlod vilh him inloraclod vilh him, ralhor
ovon somo of his ovn cIoso companions did nol obsorvo lho propor
oliquollo vhiIo lhov voro in his prosonco and voro spoaIing lo him.

BuIhari, lho voII Inovn narralor of hadilh of lho AhI as-Sunnah has
vrillon:

¨A group of poopIo on bohaIf of lho lribo of Bani Tamim voro
procooding lo onlor lho cilv of Madinah. SoparaloIv, Abu BaIr and
Imar soIoclod a porson lo go and mool lho poopIo of lho lribo,

21
Nur aI-ThaqaIain, VoIumo 5, Iago S0
Chaplor III : HumiIilv Whon SpoaIing


3S
hovovor a difforonco aroso bolvoon lho lvo of lhom on vho shouId
bo choson. This rosuIlod in a quarroI vhich oscaIalod lo voIIing and
shouling vhiIo in lho prosonco of lho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), vhich upsol him quilo a bil.

In ordor lhal lhis lvpo of undosirod scono vouId novor bo pIavod
oul again vhiIo in lho prosonco of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv), lho socond and lhird vorsos of Surah aI-
Hujural voro rovoaIod and lhoso aclions voro cIassifiod as boing so
hoinous, lhal ono´s good aclions vouId bo compIoloIv romovod.¨
22


In ossonco, vo musl IooI al vhv such a form of disrospocl vhiIo in
lho prosonco of lho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) vouId rosuIl in lho Ioss of lho rovard of ono´s
good doods` Tho ansvor lo lhis quoslion is duo lo lho facl lhal lho
honour and rospocl lhal is phvsicaIIv manifoslod and ovon lho vav
lhal ono spoaIs vhiIo in lho prosonco of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) is an indicalion of lho rospocl
lhal ono has doop insido his souI for lho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).

Il goos vilhoul saving lhal lho molhod of doaIing vilh olhors and
our aclions vilh lhom aro lho oulcomo of our boIiofs and lho IovoI of
failh lhal vo possoss (in our hoarls). Wilh lhis said, vhon an
undosirod acl is dono and allonlion is nol paid lo a groal porsonaIilv
such as lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv), lhon lhis shovs lhal doop insido onos´ hoarl, ono doos nol
pav allonlion lo lho Irophol (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) or lho
olhor nobIo figuros of lho roIigion.


22
AI-Taj, VoIumo 4, Iago 213 & 214
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


39
Il musl bo nolod lhal lhis form of rospocl is nol Iimilod lo lho poriod
of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
vhon ho vas aIivo, ralhor, aflor lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) has passod avav, ho musl sliII
bo rospoclod.

Thoro is an ovonl in hislorv vhich looI pIaco aflor lho marlvrdom of
Imam Hasan ibno AIi aI-Mujlaba (poaco bo upon him) vhoro
Avosha binlo Abu BaIr (lho vifo of lho Irophol Muhammad)
slarlod lo scroam and voII vhiIo noar lho gravo of lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv). Sho slarlod lo
caII upon olhors lo assisl hor (lo provonl lho buriaI of Imam Hasan
ibno AIi, poaco bo upon him) noar his grandfalhor and lhus vas
sussossfuI in hor mission. In ordor lo quiol Avosha dovn, Imam
Husain ibno AIi (poaco bo upon him) rocilod lhis vorso of lho
Our'an:

.'' ' .`.' .`··` . .`·¯ ¸ `.´ .`.. ·`.· ' `¸`
¨O´ You vho havo lruo failh! Do nol raiso vour voicos
abovo lho voico of lho Irophol (Muhammad, bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).¨

Tho Imam (poaco bo upon him) lhon conlinuod bv saving:

. ' ¸· ·`- · ' ˆ.,`-' `.`.`· ·`- · .`·' •·`.`
¨CorlainIv AIIah has forbiddon lho boIiovor lo acl in
roIalion lo lho docoasod in anv vav vhich vas prohibilod
lo acl during his Iifolimo.¨
23



23
Nur aI-ThaqaIain, VoIumo 5, Iago S0 & S1
Chaplor III : HumiIilv Whon SpoaIing


40
Tho schoIars of lho Our'an havo concIudod from lhis vorso lhal lhis
lvpo of rospocl is nol roIalod onIv lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) ÷ ralhor, inloraclion vilh aII of lho
Ioadors of IsIam: lho IIama (SchoIars), loachors, ono´s falhor and
molhor and in gonoraI, aII of lho oIdors musl aIso bo doaIl vilh in
lhis samo form of rospocl.

This poinl musl ospociaIIv bo nolod vhon ono is in lho Haram
(sancluarv) and lho sacrod lhroshoIds vhoro lhoso porsonaIilios aro
buriod and lhus, anv sorl of voIIing or scroaming musl nol bo
porformod in such pIacos oilhor.






















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


41






























Chaplor Four

Tho Sin of
MaIing up Rumours
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


43
Vorso 6
Tho Sin of MaIing up Rumors

.'' ' . .`·¯ ¸ · `.¯.‰ `, .' .``,· ' ·.• ·`.· .`,.`
·· · ¸· .`-`.`· . •·· `.`
O´ vou vho havo lruo failh! If ono vho pubIicIv and oponIv commils sins
brings vou anv novs (concorning anolhor porson) lhon ascorlain ils
lrulhfuInoss carofuIIv (boforo vou sproad il) Iosl vou harm poopIo lhrough
(vour ovn) ignoranco (lhrough accopling and foIIoving faIso roporls) and
lhon rogrol vhal vou havo dono.

aIing up rumors and Iving aboul olhors is ono of lho
groalosl sins lhal can occur vilhin a sociolv and
somolimos can ovon pIaco lho Iivos of olhors in dangor.
This acl can aIso rosuIl in ono´s honour and dignilv boing slrippod
from ono - lhus paraIvzing ono´s Iifo vilhin a sociolv. Hov manv
limos has informalion lhal has absoIuloIv no foundalion, ignilod lho
fIamos of var bolvoon lvo poopIo rosuIling in a groal Ioss and
injurv lo bolh sidos`

In ordor lo provonl such a groal injuslico from occurring, IsIam has
commandod lho MusIims nol lo pav allonlion lo jusl anv pioco of
novs or informalion lhal comos lo lhom and nol lo accopl jusl
anvlhing lhal anvono savs lo lhom. Ralhor, MusIims aro onIv
supposod lo accopl lho roporls from lhoso poopIo vho possoss somo
innor fooIings and lho foar of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Il
is lho roporls from lhoso poopIo vho possoss lho olhicaI lrails of
juslico, confidonco (of lhoir spooch) and roIianco (in vhal lho porson
savs) vhich vouId provonl a porson from maIing up faIso roporls
and Iving and roIaling bils of novs and informalion lhal aro
unfoundod and fabricalod.

M
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


44
In somo imporlanl issuos in roIalion lo roIigion and lho sociolv in
vhich lho honour and rospocl of a porson or a group of poopIo is al
slaIo, vo havo boon commandod nol lo laIo lho vord of onIv ono
'jusl´ and lrulhfuI porson, ralhor unliI lhroo olhor poopIo vho aro
'jusl´ and havo lho foar of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) in
lhom supporl lho slalomonl of lho firsl porson, lhon onIv aro vo
pormillod lo accopl lho slalomonl mado bv lhom. Thus, vo musl
maIo suro lhal lhoir slalomonls malch oxaclIv vilh ono anolhor in
aII vavs. In olhor issuos lhal mav nol bo as imporlanl as lhoso
monlionod abovo, vo havo boon commandod lo maIo suro lhal
lhoso vho aro providing lho informalion lo us aro a minimum of
lvo ÄdiI (jusl ÷ from lho poinl of viov of lho IsIamic dofinilion)
poopIo.

In ordor lo provo lhal lho vords of a porson aro lruo in a parlicuIar
issuo (lo prolocl and safoguard lho honour of a porson or a group of
individuaIs and lo provonl anv sorl of nogalivo oulcomo from
laIing pIaco), in addilion lo lho lvo condilions lhal voro monlionod
(lho righloousnoss of lho porson giving loslimonv and lho numbor
of vilnossos lhal musl bo prosonl vhon giving vilnoss lo a sonsilivo
sociolaI issuo such as aduIlorv or lhofl) lho roIigion of IsIam aIso Iavs
dovn condilions for lho porson vho is acling as a vilnoss. If lhoso
condilions aro nol fuIfiIIod, lhon lho porson´s loslimonv viII nol
havo ovon lho sIighlosl vorlh or vaIuo. Somo of lhoso addilionaI
condilions incIudo:

1. Tho vilnoss musl havo good ovosighl and musl havo vigiIanco
such lhal vilh good vision and a povorfuI momorv, ho vouId nol
add or forgol anvlhing aboul lhal vhich ho is loslifving in rogards
lo.

2. Thoso lhings vhich ono can difforonlialo bv lho sonsos musl bo
borno vilnoss lo lhrough ono of lho (fivo) naluraI sonsos. Thus, il is
nol pormillod lo baso ono´s loslimonv on an oslimalo, guoss or
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


45
assumplion and according lo lho vords of lho Imam (poaco bo upon
him):

`-· `' `.`Š· .· ¸· .
¨Thoso lhings vhich vou aro roquirod lo loslifv
concorning musl bo ÷ jusl IiIo lho sun ÷ pIain and cIoar
and in olhor lhan lhis ovonl, vou do nol havo lho righl lo
sproad anv roporls.¨

3. A porson - vho vilhoul anv basis or foundalion - givos loslimonv
lo an issuo vilhoul doIav or hosilalion (vilhoul firsl confirming lho
roporls) musl bo vhippod and ho musl aIso bo prosonlod lo lho
poopIo as boing ono vho has givon faIso loslimonv so lhal noxl limo
poopIo viII nol accopl vhal ho savs.
24


Thoso condilions aro proof lhal lho roIigion of IsIam - bv spocifving
lho proroquisilos for lho accoplanco of anv sorl of informalion ÷ is
slriving lo prolocl lho IsIamic sociolv from faIIing inlo dangors lhal
slom from maIing up rumors and from oviI forcos lhal formuIalo
Iios. Thus, lho roIigion has omphalicaIIv commandod ils´ foIIovors
vho havo lruo failh lhal lhov musl carofuIIv roviov and sludv anv
novs lhal comos lo lhom from poopIo vho aro opon sinnors or in
vhom lhoro is a possibiIilv lhal lhov havo mado up roporls or Iiod
aboul an issuo. This is dono so lhal lho boIiovors do nol
unInovingIv foIIov a faIso roporl and ond up causing harm or
damago lo anolhor porson.

Iiars During lho Ioriod of Irophol Muhammad

During lho limo of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv), WaIid ibno Aqbah ibno Abi Muit - vho

24
aI-KhiIaf (Soclion of giving Wilnoss), Iago 235
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


46
boIongod lo ono of lho branchos of lho poIIulod lroo of lho Bani
Imavvah - vas givon lho aulhorilv lo go lo lho lribo of Bani aI-
MustaIiq and coIIocl lho IsIamic lax (ZaIal) from lhom and bring il
bacI lo Madinah. Whon lho poopIo of lho lribo hoard lhal lho
roprosonlalivo of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) vas coming lo lhoir viIIago, aII of lho poopIo rushod
oul lo mool and voIcomo him inlo lhoir viIIago. Hovovor, sinco
lhoro vas somo provious onmilv lhal WaIid had vilh lhis lribo
(boforo lho coming of IsIam) or bocauso of lho incorrocl lhoughls ho
had lhal lho lribo vas coming lo IiII him, vilhoul going lo mool
lhoso vho voro in chargo of voIcoming him inlo lho cilv, WaIid
lurnod bacI from vhoro ho had roachod and vonl bacI lo lho cilv of
Madinah. Ho procoodod lo roporl lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) lhal lho lribo of Bani aI-MustaIiq had
rojoclod lho loachings of IsIam and voro nol proparod lo pav lho
IsIamic lax and ovon had lho inlonlion of IiIIing him! Il goos
vilhoul saving hov dangorous such an incorrocl roporl is and lo
vhal oxlonl such informalion is abIo lo causo damago and injurv lo
innoconl poopIo.

Tho MusIims of Madinah roachod a slago vhoro lhov voro lrving lo
docido vhal shouId bo dono vilh lhis lribo (Bani aI-MustaIiq). In
lho moanlimo, lho chiofs of lhis lribo voro informod as lo vhal had
lranspirod and rushod lo lho prosonco of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and loId him, 'Wo sooI rofugo
in vou from lho angor of AIIah and His Irophol.´

Tho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) vho vas oxlromoIv upsol said lo lhom, ¨Turn bacI from
vhal vou havo dono and rolurn lo lho loachings of IsIam. If vou do
nol, lhon vo viII sond somoono lo pul vou bacI in Iino ÷ lhal porson
vho is mv Iifo and souI¨ and al lhis limo, lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) pIacod his hand on lho
shouIdor of AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him).
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


47
Tho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) did nol slop al lhal - ralhor, ho socrolIv dispalchod a
porson lo lho lribo of Bani aI-MustaIiq lo valch ovor hov lhov
conducl lho affairs of lhoir roIigion. Il vas lhrough lhis porson lhal
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
roaIizod lhal lho roporl lhal WaIid had broughl bacI vas a Iio sinco
during lho limo of SaIal, lhov voro busv in lhoir Ibadal and voro
roadv and viIIing lo pav lhoir IsIamic laxos.
25


Who vas WaIid`

WaIid vas lho son of Aqabah ibno Abi Muit and jusl as il is Inovn,
Aqabah vas ono of lho slaunch onomios of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv). Ho vas aIso ono of lho four
poopIo vho aIvavs usod lo irrilalo and annov lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
26


Aqabah vas aIso lho porson vho shovod no shamo in lhroving
garbago al lho door of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) and anvlimo ho camo faco lo faco vilh lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), ho vouId uso lho
mosl indoconl curso vords in fronl of him. In addilion, anvlimo ho
sav lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
in Sajdah, ho vouId lrv lo harm him vioIonlIv. His onmilv lo lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) roachod
lo such a IovoI lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) onco said: ¨If I ovor soo vou oulsido of lho procincls of
lho Haram, I viII dofiniloIv punish vou for aII lho aclions vou havo
dono lo mo.¨

25
aI-Kashhaf, VoIumo 3, Iago 149
26
Tho olhor lhroo poopIo incIudo: Abu IahI, Abu Iahab and HaIam ibno aI-
Äs ibno Imavvah
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


4S
IncidonlaIIv during lho BallIo of Badr vhich happonod lo bo lho firsl
var bolvoon lho MusIims and lho IoIvlhoisls, Aqabah vas IiIIod
aflor boing caplurod in lho var.

WaIid vas ono of lho branchos of lhis oviI lroo (of lho Bani
Imavvah) and vas nol loo far avav from lho vicIodnoss of his
ovn rool (his falhor). According lo lho ruIings of lho vorsos of lho
Our'an, ho vas a sinfuI and uncIoan porson vho duo lo lho grudgos
and pasl halrod lhal ho had for lho lribo of Bani aI-MustaIiq, or duo
lo his ovn caroIossnoss - vanlod lho bIood of lho MusIims lo bo
shod. Nol onIv has lho Our'an roforrod lo him as an opon sinnor in
lhis vorso, ralhor in olhor vorsos loo ho has boon roforrod lo vilh
lhis samo allribulo, as il has boon monlionod:

·' .`.` . · .¯ `¸¯ ·`.`· .¯ `¸
¨So lhon is ho vho is a lruo boIiovor simiIar lo lho porson
vho is an opon sinnor ÷ novor can lhoso lvo bo considorod
as oquaI.¨
27


A majorilv of lho commonlalors of lho Our'an if nol aII of lhom havo
said lhal, ¨Tho moaning of a lruo boIiovor in lhis vorso is Amir aI-
Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) and lho moaning
of an opon sinnor is WaIid.¨
2S
This vorso vas rovoaIod al a limo
vhon lho manifoslalion of lruo failh and lho manifoslalion of puro
dobauchorv ÷ moaning Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco
bo upon him) and WaIid (rospoclivoIv) voro boasling aboul lhoir

27
Surah aI-Sajdah (32), Vorso S1
2S
Hisan ibno Thabil, lho pool of lho Mossongor of AIIah vrolo lho foIIoving
Iinos of poolrv in roforonco lo lhis porson:
.`' ' `· ' `.´ `· ¸· ‹¸· ¸· ' ¯· ,.
· `. ' · ·· · `,. ¯¸..· ..`· .`
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


49
ovn soIvos. WaIid spoIo proudIv (of his famiIv) and vas boasling
lo AIi (poaco bo upon him), hovovor AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo
upon him) considorod his lruo failh and boIiof in IsIam as boing his
prido and honour and lhus said lo WaIid, ¨Bo quiol! You aro a man
vhoso hoarl has nol vol had lruo failh onlor inlo il.¨ Il vas al lhis
limo lhal lho abovo vorso of lho Our'an vas rovoaIod aboul lhoso
lvo porsonaIilios.
29


Tho innor vicIodnoss and onmilv lhal WaIid had did nol slop horo.
Il vas during lho succossion of Ilhman ibno aI-Affan lhal lho
IsIamic Ioadorship foII prov lo ovon moro divisions and vars and
sinco ho (WaIid) vas lho foslor brolhor of lho KhaIifah of lhal limo,
ho vas appoinlod as lho govornor of Kufah. During lhoso davs,
onIv lhoso poopIo vho voro amongsl lho famiIv of lho KhaIifah
vouId bo appoinlod lo major posilions vilhin lho govornmonl.

Tho dav lhal WaIid onlorod inlo lho cilv of Kufah, AbduIIah ibno
Masud vas lho hoad of lho pubIic lroasurv. WaIid procoodod lo
laIo a, oxorbilanl Ioan from Ibno Masud in lho amounl of
approximaloIv 300,000 dinar sinco ovon boforo him, lho provious
govornors of Kufah usod lo laIo Ioans from lho pubIic lroasurv and
lhon Ialor on, pav lhom bacI. Evon lhough lho lroasuror improssod
on him lho imporlanco of paving lhis monov bacI lo lho pubIic
lroasurv vhich vas ropoalodIv monlionod, WaIid vrolo a Iollor lo
lho KhaIifah of lho limo - vho vas his foslor brolhor - and asIod
him lo Iol lho porson in chargo of lho pubIic lroasurv Inov lhal ho
shouId ovor IooI lho monov lhal had boon laIon. Tho KhaIifah,

¨AIIah has rovoaIod ÷ in lho indispulabIo BooI -
Aboul AIi and aI-WaIid a vorso,
Through vhich vicIodnoss has boon allribulod lo aI-WaIid
WhiIo failhfuInoss has boon allribulod lo AIi.¨
29
Commonlarv of NahjuI BaIagha, VoIumo 2, Iago 103
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


50
vho vas undor lho infIuonco of lho Iovo of his brolhor vrolo a Iollor
lo AbduIIah ibno Masud and said, ¨You aro mv mv mv mv lroasuror! Do nol
inlorforo vilh WaIid!¨

Tho lroasuror happonod lo bo a lruo foIIovor of lho Mossongor of
AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and a
righloous porson and bocamo oxlromoIv upsol vilh lho aclions of
lho KhaIifah and vrolo him a ropIv slaling: ¨I had aIvavs assumod
lhal I vas lho lroasuror of lho pubIic lroasurv of lho MusIims! Nov
il is cIoar lo mo lhal I am lho lroasuror of lho KhaIifah. I havo no
nood for such a posilion and from lodav, I officiaIIv londor mv
rosignalion.¨

Thoroaflor in a hoalod spooch lhal ho procoodod lo givo, Ibno
Masud informod aII of lho poopIo of Kufah aboul vhal had
lranspirod (bolvoon him and lho KhaIifah).
30


WaIid Iorforms Four RaIal of SaIal aI-Fajr

In addilion lo boing lho Ioador of lho rogion, lho Govornor vas aIso
givon lho rosponsibiIilv of boing lho Imam of lho SaIal aI-Iamaal in
lho conlraI Masjid. Ono ovoning, WaIid dranI an oxcossivo amounl
of aIcohoI and in lho slalo of boing inloxicalod, vonl inlo lho Masjid
and porformod four RaIal of SaIal aI-Fajr and in pIaco of lho dhiIr
of lho RuIu and Sujud, ho said lho foIIoving:

`' ¸`Š' . , . ¸
¨(O´ lho ono vho Iovos mo) DrinI mo (lho aIcohoI) and salialo voursoIf vilh
mo!¨


30
Aqd aI-Farid, VoIumo 2, Iago 172
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


51
In addilion, ho rocilod lho foIIoving poom in a Ioud voico vhich
shovod lho burning passion and Iusl ho foIl for a voman namod
Rubab:

Œ· ' `• ' ...Š `.Š · `· '
¨Tho hoarl is allraclod lo Rubab, aflor il drinIs (aIcohoI) and is drunI.¨

Aflor ho finishod his SaIal, ho lurnod lovards lho poopIo and said,
¨If vou dosiro, vo can add a fov moro RaIal lo lho provious onos
lhal vo jusl porformod!¨

Tho slalo lhal ho vas in and bocauso of lho oxcoss amounl of aIcohoI
lhal ho had drunI, ho Iosl conlroI of his bodiIv funclions and soiIod
lho Masjid, Mihrab
31
and Mimbar
32
bv vomiling ovorvvhoro.

Whon lhis occurrod, Abu Zainab and Iundub ibno Zahir Azdi vho
voro bolh prosonl in lho SaIal, looI lho ring off of lho fingor of
WaIid, vhich ho did nol nolico (sinco ho vas drunI) lhal vas usod
lo sign and slamp aII of lho officiaI Iollors and booIs in roIalion lo
lho govornmonl. AIong vilh four nobIo and rospoclod poopIo from
Kufah, AbduIIah ibno Masud vonl lo Madinah lo mool lho Ioador
and KhaIifah of lho limo vilh lho ring of Govornor (WaIid) and
compIainod lo him (aboul lho aclions of WaIid).

Thov informod lho KhaIifah of vhal had lranspirod hovovor
Ilhman did nol accopl lhoir vords and rojoclod lho loslimonv of
lhoso poopIo and in addilion, varnod lhom (of lhoir aclions).


31
Tho pIaco vhoro lho Imam of lho SaIal aI-Iamaah slands lo Ioad lho
congrogalion ÷ usuaIIv somi-circIo in shapo.
32
Tho puIpil upon vhich lho oralor vouId sland or sil upon lo doIivor a
Iocluro.
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


52
Thoso poopIo lhon vonl lo soo Avosha binl Abu BaIr vho vas aIso
invoIvod in lho poIilicaI affairs of Madinah and informod hor of lho
aclions of lho Govornor of Kufah and of lho varning lhal lho
KhaIifah (Ilhman) had givon lhom. Sho vonl oul amongsl lho
poopIo and procIaimod lhal: ¨Ilhman has sloppod moling oul lho
punishmonls ordainod bv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
has aIso varnod lhoso poopIo vho havo como lo him boaring
vilnoss (of crimos boing commillod bv his Govornor)¨ hovovor lhis
acl as voII did nol soIvo lho probIom.

This group of MusIims lhon vonl lo Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi
1aIib (poaco bo upon him) and compIainod lo him aboul vhal had
lranspirod. AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) mol vilh
Ilhman and said lo him, ¨Whv havo vou sloppod moling oul lho
punishmonls ordainod bv AIIah and havo insload varnod lhoso
poopIo vho havo vilnossod (a crimo)` Havo vou forgollon lho
admonilion lhal Imar gavo lo vou vhon ho said, 'Do nol maIo lho
Bani Imavvah and lho chiIdron of Abi Muit prosido ovor lho
poopIo! O´ Ilhman! Il is incumbonl upon vou lo romovo lhis
porson from lho govornorship of Kufah and vou musl nol appoinl
him lo anv olhor roIigious posilion. You nood lo invosligalo inlo lho
loslimonv of lhoso vilnossos. If lhov aro poopIo of failh, lhon
summon WaIid from Kufah and appIv lho punishmonl lhal AIIah
has dosignalod for lhoso vho drinI vino.¨

Tho prossuros of lho common poopIo roachod lo such a IovoI lhal
Ilhman vas forcod lo summon his govornor from Kufah and (aflor
invosligaling) vas finaIIv roadv lo imposo lho IsIamic ponaIlv upon
him ÷ moaning lhal ho vas roadv lo Iash him S0 limos. Hovovor,
nol a singIo porson had lho courago lo vhip lho brolhor of lho
KhaIifah. Whoovor vonl cIoso lo WaIid (lo lrv lo hil him) vouId bo
varnod bv WaIid of his cIoso famiIv lios lo lho Ilhman.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


53
Il vas al lhis limo lhal Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco
bo upon him) himsoIf looI lho vhip and vilh lho fuII povor and
slronglh lhal ho had, vhippod WaIid S0 limos on his bodv: and
according lo somo of lho ahadilh, AbduIIah bin Iafar vas lho ono
vho vhippod WaIid bv lho command of AIi (poaco bo upon him).
33


Rumor Mongoring in Our Timo

Tho prinling and pubIishing induslrv is ono of lho mosl vaIuabIo
gifls of lho induslriaI ora. In addilion lo aIIovialing lho high cosl of
prinling, il is lhrough lho bIossing of lhis induslrv lhal manIind has
boon abIo lo prinl and sproad lho scioncos and various branchos of
InovIodgo lhroughoul lho vorId in a vorv shorl limo span.
InforlunaloIv hovovor, lhis induslrv has aIso slrucI a bIov lo
humanilv lhrough lho sproading of Iios and rumors vhich has
onabIod il lo maIo a profil lhrough unlrulhs and dishonoslv via lho
prinling of docoplion.

Todav, lho sproading of rumors, fabricalion of Iios, IovoIing
accusalions and olhor inapproprialo lhings upon olhors, is ono of
lho mosl aclivo missions of lho Woslorn pross. Hovovor vo can nol
sav lhal aII of lho pubIicalions lhal como from lho Wosl aro infIiclod
vilh lhis sociolaI disoaso, bocauso nol boing carofuI and obsorving
procaulion and nogIigonlIv narraling roporls lo somo novspapors
and magazinos has aIso boon uninlonlionaIIv dono bv us (lho
MusIims) as voII. Hov manv poopIo havo Iosl lhoir honour and
rospocl lhrough lho nogIigonl roporling and prinling of vrong
roporls` Evon aflor apoIogizing and maIing amonds Ialor on, lhis
vrong can novor bo mado righl. Hov manv limos havo vo soon lho
osloom and honour of a group of poopIo faII viclim duo lo lho IacI
of communicalion bolvoon lho various novs roporlors`

33
Ansab aI-Ashraf, VoIumo 4, Iago 23: Sahih aI-MusIim, VoIumo 2, Iago 52
Chaplor IV : Tho Sin of MaIing Ip Rumours


54
Todav is lho dav lhal vo musl sav: ¨Tho prinl modia musl laIo lho
pon avav from lhoso poopIo vho fooI lhal lhov aro froo lo vrilo
vhalovor lhov vish lo vrilo and fooI lhal lhov can allribulo
vhalovor lhov vish lo allribulo lo vhoovor lhov vish.¨

Thus, lho fourlh arlicIo in lho Conslilulion (of Iran) vhich can Ioad
lo lho (spiriluaI) iIIuminalion of lho minds and lhoughls of a nalion
musl bo savod and Iiboralod from lhoso aulhors vho oilhor vrilo for
no purposo, for a hiddon bonofil or for somo porsonaI gain.





























Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


55






























Chaplor Fivo

Immunilv from
Sin and Error
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


57
Vorsos 7 ÷ S
Immunilv from Sin and Error

' ..` `.´,· .' .``· ' ·¯ ¸· `.´`·,=` `. · . ¸`· Ž ' . `.'· `·
`¸´ ' `.´`, •`- · ' `.´.· ¸· `·` ... `.´`, ·`¯ ' ´
' ·.` ' `.`· :·`' .,`.· ' ´ .`Š . ¸`· ·`.· ' ·`· · ' `·
`.,´- `.,·
(O´ BoIiovors!) Knov lhal suroIv lho Mossongor of AIIah (Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) is among vou. Had ho
(Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) obovod vou
(looI vour advico and aclod upon il) on manv occasions, lhon vou vouId
havo boon in groal lroubIo nov. Hovovor, AIIah has ondoarod lho failh lo
vou and Ho has mado il allraclivo lo vour hoarls and Ho has mado disboIiof,
oviI doods and disobodionco halofuI lo vou. Such poopIo (lhoso vho havo
failh and Ioop avav from oviI lrails) aro lhoso vho aro righlIv guidod. This
bIossing (of failh) is a favour and bIossing from AIIah and AIIah is lho AII-
Knoving, AII-Wiso.

ho goaI of lhoso lvo vorsos of lho Our'an is lo inform lhoso
vho havo lruo failh of lvo major olhicaI poinls. Tho firsl
poinl is lhal lhal lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) is froo from commilling sins or orrors
and lhus aII of his ordors and commands musl bo carriod oul
compIoloIv. Wo aro commandod lo foIIov him and ho is nol
roquirod lo foIIov us. Tho socond poinl is lhal oach and ovorv
porson has innalo olhicaI lrails and quaIilios insliIIod vilhin him.

Sooing as lo hov bolh of lhoso issuos carrv lhoir ovn significanco
and imporlanco, vo viII discuss oach of lhom individuaIIv.

T
Chaplor V : Immunilv from Sin and Error


5S
Is lhoro anv IovoI or slalus (lhal ono can havo in a sociolv) lhal is
groalor and vhich hoIds moro of a rosponsibiIilv lhan Ioadorship (of
lhal communilv)` Is il possibIo for a porson vho IacIs bolh lho
spiriluaI and phvsicaI quaIificalions lo fuIfiII lho lasI and
rosponsibiIilios of a Ioador` Whal aboul lho porson vho can nol
ovon fuIfiII lho roIo of a Ioador in mallors roIalod lo ono´s ovn Iifo -
hov can ho bo a Ioador of lho poopIo`

Is il possibIo for a poIilicaI Ioador vho onIv Ioads lho poopIo in
mallors of poIilics: or lhoso vho aro oxporls in lho mallors of
oconomics and vho aro in chargo of lho oconomic and businoss
affairs of lho onliro counlrv bo pIacod in lhoso posilions if lhov do
nol possoss a sorios of moraI and olhicaI vaIuos lhal vouId pormil
lhom lo occupv such imporlanl posilions` Can such poopIo bo
pIacod vilhin lho framovorI of lho poIilicaI and oconomic affairs of
a communilv`

Tho divinoIv appoinlod Mossongors aro lruo Ioadors of lho poopIo in
aII mallors of lhoir Iivos and lhus lhov musl possoss lho nobIo and
grand quaIilios vhich vouId rofIocl lhoir compolonco in lho mission
of Ioading lho poopIo and vhich vouId givo lho poopIo a roason lo
foIIov lhom. Thus, vo can summarizo lho lrails and quaIilios lhal
lho Mossongors of AIIah musl possoss as foIIovs:

1. Comprohonsivo InovIodgo and undorslanding. Bv lhis vo moan
lhal lho Irophols of AIIah musl havo compIolo and prociso
InovIodgo in roIalion lo aII mallors lhal lhov havo boon
commandod lo convov lo lho poopIo, such lhal nol a singIo ruIing
from amongsl lho ruIings of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
shouId bo hiddon or concoaIod from lhom. In addilion, lhoro shouId
aIso bo no quoslion asIod lo lhom in roIalion lo lho roIigion lhal
lhov vouId nol bo abIo lo ansvor.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


59
2. Thov musl bo proloclod from commilling sins and going againsl
lho commandmonls of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) al aII
limos in lhoir Iivos ÷ vholhor lhis bo boforo lhoir officiaI
appoinlmonl or aflor lhoir officiaI appoinlmonl (lo lho slalion of
Iropholhood).

3. Thov musl bo proloclod from commilling anv sorl of mislaIo or
orror in roIalion lo lho propagalion of lho roIigion and lho
appIicalion of ils´ praclicaI ruIings.

4. Thov musl bo purifiod from aII sorls of nogalivo spiriluaI lrails
and phvsicaI dofocls vhich (if lhov possossod) mav Ioad lho poopIo
lo dovoIop an avorsion and disIiIo for lhom. This vouId maIo lho
poopIo Ioop lhoir dislanco from lhom vhich vouId in lurn Ioad lo
lho Irophols and Mossongors nol boing succossfuI in lhoir mission
of convoving lho mossago (of AIIah) lo lho poopIo.

In ordor lo slross lho imporlanco of oach of lhoso poinls, lho schoIars
of IsIam and lho spociaIisls in ThooIogv havo galhorod cIoar proofs
and ovidonco
34
of vhich, lo Ioop lhis discussion conciso, vo do nol
monlion horo.

Do nol such dislinclions (of lhoso porsonaIilios) nocossilalo lhal in
roIalion lo mallors of lho roIigion, vo musl foIIov lhom and lhal vo
shouId novor anlicipalo or oxpocl lhal lhoso DivinoIv sonl loachors -
sinco lhov havo boon granlod Ismal (proloclion from commilling
orrors or sins) and aro froo from aII orrors and sIips in roIalion lo lho
Divino Commandmonls and Ioadorship - vouId ovor foIIov anv
incompIolo and imporfocl idoas and opinions`

34
In discussing lho imporlanco of oach of lhoso lrails, vo havo vrillon a
booI onlilIod, ¨InivorsaI Mossago of lho Irophols¨ in vhich vo havo
discussod lhoso poinls in dolaiI. IIoaso rofor lo lhis booI for moro
informalion.
Chaplor V : Immunilv from Sin and Error


60
A porson vho dosiros lhal lho HoavonIv loachings and DivinoIv
appoinlod Ioadors shouId foIIov lhoir ovn porsonaI lhoughls and
dosiros and vho fooIs lhal lho vhooI of lho roIigious loachings
shouId rovoIvo around lhoir ovn opinions, is IacIing a corrocl
undorslanding of lho Irophols and lho slalus and ranI of lho
Mossongors, and has dofiniloIv nol Iopl in mind lho infaIIibiIilv of
lhoso porsonaIilios.

In lho vorso of lho Our'an undor discussion, AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) savs:

' ..` `.´,· .' .``· ' =` `. · ¸`· Ž·¯ ¸· `.´`·, ' . `·
`.'·
¨(O´ BoIiovors!) You shouId Inov lhal suroIv lho
Mossongor of AIIah (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) is amongsl vou. Had ho
(Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) obovod vou (looI vour advico and aclod upon il)
on manv occasions, lhon vou vouId havo boon in groal
lroubIo nov.¨

Tho porson vho vishos lo laIo procodonco ovor AIIah (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) and His Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) and vanls lo pIaco his ovn lhoughls and
idoas ahoad of lhoso of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) has boon romindod lhal sinco ho has boon givon a
Irophol lhal is froo from sins and commilling anv sorl of orror, ono
musl nol pIaco his ovn dosiros and idoas ahoad of lho rovoIalion of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho).

In summarv (vou viII rocaII lhal), in lho boginning of lhis Surah,
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) addrossod lho boIiovors bv
saving:
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


61
` . . ¸`, .`·` ' ·.` ·
¨.do nol givo proforonco (lo vour ovn vords and doods)
abovo lhoso of AIIah and His Mossongor (lho Irophol
Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv).¨

Conlinuing on in lho vorso undor discussion, vo havo boon
commandod nol lo givo proforonco lo our ovn idoas in roIalion lo
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) sinco
ho is a man vho has boon proloclod from aII lvpos of orrors and sins
and bocauso of lhis, vo musl foIIov him.

In addilion, il musl bo monlionod lhal lhis parl of lho vorso roIalos
lo issuos of lho IsIamic IogisIalion and lhus lho lhoughls of lho
common poopIo can nol bo accoplod and foIIovod (ovor lho ruIings
of AIIah, GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Thoroforo, vo musl laIo
inspiralion from lho rovoIalion of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) and jusl bocauso lho poopIo mav fooI offondod or insuIlod is no
roason lhal lho commands of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
shouId bo changod.

An InfaIIibIo Irophol and lho Subjocl of AsIing Advico

Yos, in lhoso issuos roIalod lo lho sociolv and communilv vhich
voro nol (diroclIv) associalod lo lho roIigion or Divino rovoIalion
lhal ovon lho common poopIo voro abIo lo difforonlialo bolvoon lho
lrulh and faIsohood (in lhom), lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vas commandod lo asI advico from
lhoso around him. Thus, lhrough asIing advico from lho common
poopIo, probIoms and difficuIlios can bo soIvod.

Il has boon monlionod in lho Our'an lhal:

Chaplor V : Immunilv from Sin and Error


62
`.`.`· `•`·· ' ¸· `.`·`Š `.`. ``…` ' .`·· ·,· `·.
¸· ¸¯.· ' ·
¨So lhon (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) forgivo lho poopIo lhoir sIips and orrors and
sooI forgivonoss from AIIah for lhom aII and consuIl and
sooI counciI from lhom in mallors (nol roIaling lo lho
roIigion or lho loachings of AIIah). So lhon vhon vou aro
roadv lo maIo a docision (basod on lho advico of lho
olhors), lhon havo lrusl in AIIah (pul a coIIoclivo docision
inlo praclico).¨
35


In addilion, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) loslifios lhal ono of
lho signs of a porson vilh lruo failh is lhal ho asIs for advico from
olhors in roIalion lo porforming a corlain lasI:

' ¸ ' `..` .`•` .`··' ' `·' ··`. ` †.`Š `.`·
`` `.`·· ´.· `.`.`, . ..
¨And as for lhoso poopIo (vho aro boIiovors) and vho
ansvor lho caII of lhoir Iord (AIIah) and uphoId lho SaIal
and conducl lhoir affairs lhrough consuIlalion vilh ono
anolhor and (lhoso aro lho poopIo) vho givo oul of lhoir
voaIlh (lo lho noodv).¨
36


Bv lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
asIing for advico as lho vorv firsl slop (in carrving oul anv lasI),
lhis lruIv sols an oxampIo for olhors, lhal in mallors roIaling lo lho
sociolv and communilv, vo shouId nol appoar as dospolic or

35
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 159
36
Surah aI-Shuara (42), Vorso 3S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


63
aulhorilarian - ralhor vo musl givo rospocl lo lho opinions of olhor
poopIo and asI for hoIp and assislanco lhrough soIiciling lhoir
opinions. Yos, lho parl of lho vorso lhal savs:

¸· ¸¯.· .`·· ·,· ' ·
¨So lhon vhon vou aro roadv lo maIo a docision (basod on
lho advico of lho olhors), lhon havo lrusl in AIIah (pul a
coIIoclivo docision inlo praclico).¨

shovs us lhal lho firsl slago lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vouId lravorso vas lhal of sooIing
adviso, and lhon al lho concIusion, lho finaI docision vouId bo Iofl
lo him aIono.

AII of lho domocralic sociolios and froo govornmonls of lho vorId
rosorl lo asIing olhors in lho sociolv for advico in dociding hov lo
soIvo lhoir probIoms, hovovor al lho samo limo lhov sliII havo ono
Ioador vho, aflor laIing advico from olhors, maIos his finaI
docision. To an oxlonl, asIing advico from olhors hoIps romovo lho
curlains and voiIs (lhal a porson mav havo) and givos lho porson a
propor oulIooI of ovonls. Hovovor in lho ond, il is nocossarv for
lho porson vho viII maIo lho finaI docision lo voigh lho various
opinions and lhon maIo ono uIlimalo rosoIulion.

Somo poopIo lhinI lhal: ¨Tho onIv oulcomo lhal can como from
asIing olhors for advico is lhal difficuIlios viII bo proIongod and a
group of poopIo vho do nol possoss ono dofinilivo Ioador and vho
insload rosorl lo consuIlalion and asIing lho gonoraI popuIalion for
advico, can nol bring an issuo or affair lo cIosuro onco il has boon
slarlod vilhoul a sloppago of vorI.¨ Hovovor, lho abovo quolod
vorso of lho Our'an goos againsl lhis opinion and convovs lho facl
and boars vilnoss lhal a difforonco of opinion and divorsilv of
boIiofs acluaIIv Ioads lo a slandsliII and sloppago of vorI. Thus in
Chaplor V : Immunilv from Sin and Error


64
lho ond, il is incumbonl lhal aflor lho Ioador or porson in chargo has
asIod olhors for advico, ho givos his ovn docisivo judgomonl.

Duo lo lhis facl, aflor AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) commands
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo
sooI counciI from olhor poopIo, Ho (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
lhon slalos:

¸· ¸¯.· .`·· ·,· ' ·
¨So lhon vhon vou aro roadv lo maIo a docision (basod on
lho advico of lho olhors), lhon havo lrusl in AIIah (pul a
coIIoclivo docision inlo praclico).¨

Tho Iifo of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) cIoarIv shovs us lo vhal IovoI ho rospoclod lho
opinions of his companions. Evon lhough lho lruo faco and roaIilv
of lho aclions vas mado Inovn lo lho mirror of his hoarl (lhrough
Divino Inspiralion) and ho vas compIoloIv avaro of bolh lho good
and bad lhal vouId como oul of ovorv acl, moro so lhan olhors
Inov, sliII in manv compIox issuos ho vouId form a commilloo and
asI his companions for lhoir opinions and judgomonls. TaIo for
oxampIo lho foIIoving casos:

1. Boforo lho Irophol vonl faco lo faco on lho ballIofioId of Badr
vilh lho armios of lho Ouraish, ho formod a commilloo comprisod of
lho Muhajirin and lho Ansar and asIod lhom for lhoir advico in
roIalion lo lho ballIo againsl lho poIvlhoisls, vhich lho companions
sav as an uninhibilod opporlunilv for lhom lo oxpound lhoir
various boIiofs. Tho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) accoplod and foIIovod lho opinions of lho
poopIo and marchod vilh his soIdiors lovards Badr.
37


37
Sirah Ibn Hisham, VoIumo 1, Iago 614
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


65
2. Whon lho novs roachod lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) vhiIo in Madinah lhal lho forcos of
lho Ouraish - vho had Iosl manv poopIo during lho ballIo of Badr -
voro coming lo oxacl rovongo on lhoso lhal voro IiIIod (lhus,
slarling lho var of Ihud), ho oxaminod lho silualion bv asIing vhal
lho molhod of dofonco of lho MusIims shouId bo and if lhov shouId
slav in lho cilv or if lhov shouId aII Ioavo and fighl lho var oulsido
(of lho cilv). Whon lho voulh from amongsl lho Ansar suggoslod
lhal lhov go oul of lho cilv of Madinah lo fighl lho ballIo, ho aclod
upon lhoir suggoslion.
3S


3. During lho ballIo of Ahzab in vhich lho forcos of idoIalrv
congrogalod IiIo Iocusls from aII parls of Arabia and voro maIing
lhoir vav lo Madinah lo doslrov lho voung roIigion of IsIam, in his
ovn parlicuIar vav of fighling againsl lhis onsIaughl, lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) looI lho opinion
of a groal Iranian porsonaIilv and pul his idoas inlo praclico.

Il vas SaIman aI-Farsi (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him) vho
suggoslod lhal lhoso aroas of Madinah vhich couId bo oasiIv
infiIlralod shouId bo forlifiod vilh a lhroo molro doop lronch and
lhroughoul lho vhoIo Ionglh of lhis dilch, rifIo-pils shouId bo
pIacod soparalod bv a smaII dislanco. This vas suggoslod so lhal
anv limo lho vaIianl fighlors from amongsl lho poIvlhoisls dosirod
lo fiII lho lronch (lo maIo lhoir vav across) or allompl lo cross ovor
lho lronch (on lhoir horsos), lho soIdiors of IsIam vouId bo abIo lo
calapuIl rocIs and slonos lo push bacI lho approaching soIdiors.
39


4. Whon lrving lo laIo ovor lho forlifiod slronghoId of lho Iovs in
Khaibar, vo soo lhal lho aroa vhoro lho soIdiors of IsIam invadod

3S
Ibid., VoIumo 2, Iago 63
39
Sirah aI-HaIabi, VoIumo 2, Iago 331
Chaplor V : Immunilv from Sin and Error


66
from, bv foIIoving lho ordors of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vas compIoloIv unlhoughl of bv lho
onomios (and lhus, il caughl lhom off guard).

Ono of lho oxporioncod varriors of IsIam bv lho namo of Habib ibno
Mandhar vho had in-doplh InovIodgo of lho aroa of Khaibar vonl
lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
and said lo him, ¨Anvlimo lho command comos from AIIah lo allacI
lhis aroa, I viII nol havo ovon lho smaIIosl lhing lo sav aboul il.
Hovovor if lhis is an issuo in vhich I am pormillod lo offor mv
advico, lhon I vouId sav lhal I do nol lhinI lhis is a good pIaco lo
chooso as lho baso lo Ioop lho soIdiors in, bocauso lhis aroa is
accossibIo lo lho onomios and is vorv cIoso lo lho Forlross of Nistal.
Tho archors from lhal Forlross viII bo abIo lo hil our lroops oasiIv
sinco lhoro aro no dalo lroos or housos lhal vouId bIocI lhoir viov.¨

Tho Our'anic principIo lhal slalos:

¸· `.`·`Š ' `·. ...
¨So lhon consuIl vilh lhom (O´ Irophol) in vour affairs.¨

lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) said
lhal, ¨If in a parlicuIar issuo, vou aro abIo lo bring forlh a bollor
poinl, lhon vo viII chooso lhal pIaco as lho aroa lo lravoI lovards.¨

Il is bocauso of lhis discussion lhal looI pIaco and aflor sludving lho
forlross of Khaibar, lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) choso an aroa for his baso lhal vas bohind lho dalo
lroos.
40




40
Ibid., VoIumo 3, Iago 39
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


67


























Chaplor Six

An InlornaI Mossongor -
Tho ElhicaI Conscionco
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


69
Vorso 7
An InlornaI Mossongor ÷ Tho ElhicaI Consciousnoss

... `¸´ ' `.´`, •`- · ' ` ... . `.´`, ·`¯ `.´.· ¸· `·
' ´ ' ·.` ' `.`· :·`' .,`.· ' .`Š´
Hovovor AIIah has mado lruo boIiof somolhing lhal is Iovod bv vou and
Ho has mado il aIIuring lo vour hoarls and Ho has mado disboIiof (Kufr),
oviI doods and disobodionco halofuI lo vou. Such poopIo (lhoso vho havo
lruo failh and Ioop avav from lhoso oviI lrails) aro lhoso vho aro righlIv
guidod.

hoso lrails lhal a porson rocognizos as good and bad vilhin
his ovn soIf vhich ho is abIo lo discorn vilhoul boing
laughl and aro aIso a parl of lho issuos of human naluro,
aro roforrod lo as lho olhicaI conscious or lho olhics of human
naluro. Hovovor, lhoro aro lrails ongrainod doop vilhin lho naluro
of manIind vhoso goodnoss and badnoss (of lho parlicuIar lrail)
can nol bo discornod simpIv lhrough human naluro. Ralhor, lhoso
quaIilios slom from lho Divino, HoavonIv loachings or from lho
loachors of lho roIigion (lho Irophols and Mossongors) and aro
Inovn as olhicaI lrails vhich aro nol innalo ÷ and lhus, il is lhoso
vhich musl bo Ioarnl.

Amongsl aII nalions and poopIos around lho vorId - opprossion,
lvrannv and marriago vilh onos´ immodialo famiIv mombors aro aII
dospicabIo and appaIIing acls ÷ aIlhough opprossion is a lrail lhal
manIind inlrinsicaIIv Inovs is bad - hovovor lho dospicabiIilv of
marrving onos´ famiIv mombors is rocognizod (onIv) lhrough lho
loachings of lho Divino roIigions.

In ordor lo difforonlialo bolvoon lho loachings vhich form a parl of
our naluro and lhoso vhich do nol, lhoro aro molhods and formuIas
T
Chaplor VI : An InlornaI Mossongor : Tho ElhicaI Conscionco


70
vhich vhon pul inlo praclico, onabIo us lo discorn lhoso lvo lvpos
of InovIodgo:

1. Thoso lrails vhich aro innalo aro nol Iimilod lo a parlicuIar cIass
or raco of poopIo and il is nol nocossarv for a porson lo rofor lo
somoono oIso lo Ioarn lhoso lhings.

2. Sooing as lo hov lho innalo abiIilv is onos´ ovn guido and Ioador,
lhus goographicaI, oconomic, poIilicaI and inslruclionaI faclors do
nol pIav anv roIo in allracling a porson´s allonlion lo lhoso lhings.

3. Anv sorl of propaganda or loachings lhal lrv lo go againsl lho
innalo lrails - ovon if lhov lrv lo doslrov lho grovlh and
dovoIopmonl of lhom - can novor doslrov lho rools of lhoso lrails
vhich aro insliIIod doop vilhin a porson.
41


Tho Our'an cIoarIv announcos lhal: Wilhin lho hoarl of a porson,
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has pIacod lho lrails of
incIinalion (lo Him), Iovo and adoralion for lho lruo failh, and Iovo
for AIIah - lho Croalor of aII lho WorIds ÷ and has mado manIind
Iovo Him. Ho has aIso mado disboIiof and disobodionco as halod
and doloslod lrails (vilhin a porson) vhon Ho (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) said:

`¸´ ' `- · • `.´`, ' ` ... . `.´.· ¸· `·
`.´`, ·`¯ ' ´ ' . ·.` ' .,`.·
Hovovor AIIah has mado lruo boIiof somolhing lhal is
Iovod bv vou and Ho has mado il aIIuring lo vour hoarls

41
For a doopor oxpIanalion in roforonco lo hov vo can discorn lho innalo
lrails, pIoaso rofor lo lho booI Tho Timo of Rolurning bacI lo Truo Failh,
vrillon bv AvaluIIah Iafar Subhani.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


71
and Ho (AIIah) has mado disboIiof (Kufr), oviI doods and
disobodionco halofuI lo vou.

Thoroforo, nol onIv has AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) bIossod
us vilh a cognizanco of His soIf and moIdod us vilh lho boIiof of
having an origin, ralhor Ho has aIso docoralod our hoarls vilh lho
rospoclabIo, up-righl lrails lhal can bo discornod vilhoul a loachor
or inslruclor and lhoso havo boon ongrainod doop vilhin aII of us.
This is lho vidor moaning lhal vo aro abIo lo comprohond from lho
sonlonco:

... - . ` • `.´`, ' ... ...
¨.has mado lruo boIiof somolhing lhal is Iovod bv vou .¨

In lho socond parl of lhis vorso, in addilion lo maIing us dolosl
disboIiof (Kufr), il has aIso boon monlionod lhal lho halrod for sins
and lransgrossions aro lrails vhich havo boon buiIl-in lo aII of us as
voII. Thoroforo, lho moaning of maIing lruo failh Iovod and
chorishod bv us is nol simpIv roIalod lo lho cognizanco (Marifah)
and rocognilion of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Ralhor in
addilion lo lhis, our inlrinsic naluro has aIso boon laughl a sorios of
olhicaI lrails and unInovingIv, our souI is allraclod and puIIod
lovards lhoso quaIilios.

Al lhis poinl, vo rofor lo somo of lho lrails lhal aro a parl of man´s
innalo disposilion, vhich can boon soon from lho cIoar vorsos of lho
Our'an: Cognizanco of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
rocognilion of lho slarling poinl of croalion and ond (of Iifo): lho
rocognilion of lho vorId of croalion and roaIizing lhal lhoro is a
Fashionor for aII of lhoso amazing lhings. Thoso aro aII lhings so
ongrainod in our naluraI disposilion lhal manIind has boon moIdod
and fashionod lo soarch and find lho ansvors lo lhoso.

Chaplor VI : An InlornaI Mossongor : Tho ElhicaI Conscionco


72
Going pasl lho nood lo soarch oul AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho), vo como lo issuos such as lho Iovo and allraclion lhal poopIo
fooI lovards lho nobIo olhicaI lrails vhich havo aIso boon infusod
inlo our croalion. In addilion, lho dosiro lovards good lhings and
lho abhorronco of bad lhings aro aIso roolod in our innalo
disposilion.

Wo can nol find a singIo nalion lhroughoul lho vorId vhich vouId
considor il good lo Ioop somolhing (for onos´ soIf) lhal ono has
rolainod in lrusl for anolhor porson or vho vouId lhinI lhal lo acl
lroachorousIv in rogards lo a rosponsibiIilv lhal ono vas givon is a
nobIo lrail. SimiIarIv, vo can nol find poopIo vho vouId considor il
dospicabIo lo Ioop onos´ promisos and fooI lhal il is good lo broaI
onos´ pIodgo or guaranloo. If a falhor maIos a promiso lo his chiId
lo carrv oul a corlain acl and ho doos nol Iivo up lo il, lhon ho viII
dofiniloIv bo roproachod bv his chiId. Il is lhrough lho innalo
naluraI disposilion lhal lho chiId possossos lhal ho can soo nolhing
oIso oxcopl lhal ono musl fuIfiII and Iivo up lo his promisos. Il has
boon vrillon on lho innalo naluraI hoarl bv lho Ion of Croalion (of
AIIah) on ovorv singIo porson lhal ono musl aIvavs spoaI lho lrulh
and olhor lhan spoaIing lho lrulh, a voung chiId Inovs nolhing
oIso. Thus, il is a parl of a porsons maIo-up lhal ho is givon a puro
hoarl and lho characlorislic of modoslv.

This is lruo ovon for lhoso vomon vho aro drovnod in sin lhal al
lho firsl inslanco of lhom commilling a Iovd acl, lhov immodialoIv
lrv lo bring bacI a sonso of chaslilv and purilv bacI inlo lhoir Iivos.
In addilion, vhon poopIo vanl lo dislribulo and aIIocalo voaIlh
vhich has boon pIundorod from olhor poopIo, lhov slrivo lo bo jusl
and lo shov oquaIilv in lhoir aclion of dislribulion and ovon al lhis
limo, lhov Inov and roaIizo lhal lo bo unjusl in lho dislribulion of
lhis voaIlh is nol righl (ovon lhough lhov lhomsoIvos havo sloIon
lho voaIlh from olhors).

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


73
AII of lhoso commonIv Inovn innalo principIos aro Inovn and
laughl lo aII of humanilv lhrough lhoir primarv schooI Inovn as
croalion. Tho mochanism of croalion has pIacod aII of lhoso lrails of
porfoclion vilhin lho doop vaIIovs of lho porson. Tho NobIo Our'an
cIoarIv slalos lhis lrulh in lho mosl compIolo vav in various
chaplors, such as vhoro il is monlionod:

· • ·.`•· ..'· .´. ..
¨(I svoar) bv lho SouI, and lho proporlion and ordor givon
lo il: and ils onIighlonmonl as lo ils vrong and ils righl
(doods).¨
42


`·`· ' ¸`•`
¨And Wo havo shovn him (lho human boing) lho lvo
palhs (of righl and vrong aclion).¨
43


- ´ ' ·, `··•· ·,` -ƒ`·' ·=` `¸· .`.
Ž.
¨VoriIv Wo croalod man from a drop of mingIod sporm in
ordor lo losl him. Thus, Wo havo givon him hoaring and
sighl.¨
44


Nol onIv has AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) pIacod lho Iovo for
lho good lrails doop vilhin lho hoarls of manIind and has mado
him fooI avorso lo bad, vicIod doods, ralhor Ho has aIso givon
manIind a souI lhal punishos ils´ soIf vhon lho porson goos bovond

42
Surah aI-Shams (91), Vorso 7-S
43
Surah aI-BaIad (90), Vorso 10
44
Surah aI-Insan (76), Vorso 2
Chaplor VI : An InlornaI Mossongor : Tho ElhicaI Conscionco


74
lho Iimils (sol for onos´ soIf). Il is lhis souI lhal roprimands and
scoIds lho porson in lho vorsl possibIo vav, jusl as AIIah (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) has said:

·`., `.·' . ' , •` `.·' . ·· ' ··´.
¨I svoar bv lho Rosurroclion Dav and I svoar bv lho soIf-
roproaching spiril.¨
45


4. WhiIo oxpIaining lho conlinuous slruggIos of Irophol Ibrahim
(poaco bo upon him) - lho idoI doslrovor - lhoro is a shorl vorso of
lho Our'an in vhich an aIIusion is mado lo lho (innalo) inloIIigonco
of humanilv. In lhis slorv, lho ovonl in vhich Irophol Ibrahim
(poaco bo upon him) vas broughl in fronl of lho courl in ordor lo
pul him on lriaI (for doslroving lho idoIs) has boon monlionod.

In summarv, lho ovonl goos as foIIovs: Irophol Ibrahim (poaco bo
upon him) had procoodod lo doslrov lho idoIs in lho lompIo ono
aflor lho olhor, and lhon using lhoso broIon idoIs, mado a hiII in lho
middIo of lho lompIo. Whon ho vas finishod, ho looI lho hammor
(usod lo broaI lho idoIs) and pIacod il bosido lho Iargosl idoI of lho
lompIo (vhich ho did nol broaI) and lhon Iofl.

Ipon lho poopIo´s rolurn (from oul of lho cilv), and sooing vhal
had happonod, il vas cIoar lo lho oIdors of lho communilv, basod on
his provious habils, lhal lho ono vho had doslrovod lhoir idoIs vas
nono olhor lhan Irophol Ibrahim (poaco bo upon him). Thus, lhov
summonod Irophol Ibrahim (poaco bo upon him) lo lho courl and
vhiIo in lho prosonco of olhors, mado him boar loslimonv lo lhis acl.
Whon lhov asIod him lo oxpIain vhal had happonod in lhoir idoI
vorshipping lompIo, ho said lo lhom, ¨AsI lhis Iargo idoI vhal
happonod.¨

45
Surah aI-Oivamal (75), Vorsos 1 & 2
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


75
Al lhis limo, lhoso vho had galhorod lo hoar vhal had occurrod
voro pIacod in a baffIing doad ond sinco if lhov voro lo sav lhal lho
Iargo idoI did nol havo lho abiIilv lo porcoivo lhings or havo anv
inloIIigonco, lhon lhov vouId havo laIon lho sido of Ibrahim (vho
boIiovod lhal) il is nol possibIo lo vorship somolhing lhal can nol
undorsland or porcoivo lhings. If lhov voro lo sav lhal lho idoI has
inloIIigonco and can spoaI, lhon Irophol Ibrahim (poaco bo upon
him) couId ropIv, ¨Thon vhv aro vou asIing mo vhal happonod ÷
asI lho idoI!`¨

Al lhis poinl in limo, lho obscurod inslincls of lhoso poopIo vas
arousod and lhov IooIod al ono anolhor and said lo Irophol Ibrahim
(poaco bo upon him) lhal, ¨You aro lho opprossor and lransgrossor.¨
Tho NobIo Our'an prosonls lhis ovonl concorning Irophol Ibrahim
(poaco bo upon him) and his allompls lo doslrov lho vrong
lhoughls of his poopIo in lho foIIoving mannor:

´` .· `..`' ¸. .`·‰· `' `. . `.` ' ..`..‚
..=` ..`.· · .`· ` `..`‘` ¸· .`´` `.’
¨So lhon lhov lurnod (in lhoughl) bacI lo lhomsoIvos and
said, 'SuroIv vou aro lho onos vho aro doing vrong
doods.´ Thov voro lhon confoundod vilh shamo (and
said), 'You Inov fuII voII lhal lhoso (idoIs) do nol
spoaI!¨
46


In addilion lhoro is aIso monlion of ono´s olhicaI consciousnoss in
lho IsIamic ahadilh. For oxampIo, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi
1aIib (poaco bo upon him) has said:


46
Surah aI-Anbiva (21), Vorso 64 & 65
Chaplor VI : An InlornaI Mossongor : Tho ElhicaI Conscionco


76
.`· `· ..´ ¸“- · ¸· ¸`·` `. `¸· `·` · `- `.
·`,” `¸· `· `¸´ `- . ·
¨Tho porson vho doos nol havo lho abiIilv vilhin his ovn
souI lo adviso and varn himsoIf (from Iooping avav from
bad lhings) viII novor rocoivo bonofil from anolhor porson
vho lrios lo adviso and counciI him (on lhoso issuos) and
olhors vho lrv lo counciI him viII havo no offocl
vhalsoovor.¨
47


This sorl of naluraI and univorsaI porcoplion can nol bring aboul
forbiddon acls vilhin lho sociolv, nor can il Ioad lo a porson pIacing
his ovn vishos and dosiros abovo lhal of lho roIigion.

Froud and lho ElhicaI Consciousnoss

Froud, lho voII Inovn psvchoIogisl, doniod lho oxislonco of aII sorls
of inhoronl porcoplions and coIIoclivoIv considorod aII of lhoso as
slomming from lho sociolaI forbiddon acls and lho offocls from lho
sociolaI incIinalions and disposilions, and lhus rojoclod and
discardod aII of lhom.

Ho vas of lho boIiof lhal jusl as lho roigns of a horso hoIp lo conlroI
lho unruIinoss and naluraIIv maIo lho horso submissivo and lamo,
so loo during lho courso of limo, lho ruIos and prohibilod moraI
lrails of a sociolv roachod lo lho slago of boing lho roigns for lho
conlroI of humanilv such lhal in roIalion lo various issuos, ono is

47
NahjuI BaIagha, Khulbah 7S |Tho vord in lhis hadilh, ¸· is basod on lho
passivo voico vorb in lho moaning of a porson vho is nol assislod from
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) such lhal ho vouId bo abIo lo romovo
lho nogalivo lrails from vilhin his ovn souI.]
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


77
conlroIIod and lamod and lhus, doop dovn in ono´s souI, in lho Iighl
of lhoso ruIos, lho issuo of lho olhicaI conscious vouId laIo form.

¨Tho olhicaI conscious is nolhing moro lhan lho roigns lhal conlroI
sociolv. Tho olhicaI conscious doos nol roprosonl an inhoronl acl or
somolhing lhal is doopIv roolod in lho souI of manIind. Ralhor, il is
lho simpIo oulvard approach of lho acls lhal aro forbiddon vilhin a
sociolv.¨
4S


Hovovor, lho viov of Froud in roIalion lo somo of lho good and bad
olhicaI lrails lhal manIind has Ioarnod from lho Ioadors and oIdors
vho havo Iivod in lhis vorId vas corrocl.

Wilhoul doubl, lho marrving of ono´s cIoso famiIv mombors is
somolhing lhal aII roIigious boIiofs havo cIassifiod as boing
ropuIsivo. Hovovor as for lhoso good and bad olhicaI quaIilios lhal
aro univorsaIIv agrood upon bv aII poopIo ovor lho onliro Earlh
vhich ovon lhoso poopIo vho aro far romovod from cuIlurod
nalions and lho loachings of lho Irophols and lhoso vho Iivo in lho
furlhosl poinls of lho vorId and accopl lho goodnoss and badnoss of
such acls ÷ can novor bo lhoughl of as olhicaI lrails lhal ono Ioarns
and acquiros and is nol born vilh!

Il is horo lhal lho lrulh of lho vorso undor discussion bocomos
absoIuloIv cIoar vhon lho human boing acInovIodgos lhal vilhoul
doubl, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has mado our souIs havo
lruo failh and purilv (vilhin lhom) and has croalod our inloIIocls
vilh an avorsion lo bad and immoraI acls:


4S
From lho booI, Whal do I Inov : Tho SicInossos of lho SouI, Iago 64
Chaplor VI : An InlornaI Mossongor : Tho ElhicaI Conscionco


7S
... `.´`, •`- ' `.´`, ·`¯ `.´.· ¸· `·` ...
' ´ ' ·.` ' .,`.· ...
¨.has ondoarod lho failh lo vou and Ho has mado il
allraclivo lo vour hoarls and Ho has mado disboIiof (Kufr),
oviI doods and disobodionco halofuI lo vou.¨




























Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


79


























Chaplor Sovon

An EvorIasling
Ioaco Troalv
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


S1
Vorso 9
An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv

. ¸· .•– ' •·`.` ' .`-`.'· .· … .,· `.`, `- `. `·
¸· ' .· †`-. ' - ¸…` ¸ `·' ¸ .¸ ¸` ' •· .,· · `.
. .=·' .`· `.`, .`-`.'· ' '•-` · ' •=`
And if lvo faclions from amongsl lho boIiovors bogin fighling againsl ono
anolhor, lhon rosloro poaco bolvoon lhom bolh. Hovovor, if ono parlv
rovoIls againsl lho olhor parlv, lhon fighl lho rovoIling parlv unliI lhov
submil lo lho command of AIIah. Whon lhov do so, lhon rosloro lho poaco
lhal vas bolvoon lhom vilh juslico and acl vilh oquaIilv (bolvoon lho
parlios invoIvod). SuroIv AIIah Iovos lhoso poopIo vho acl vilh oquaIilv.

oaco and harmonv, vhoso basis is foundod upon juslico
and fairnoss is ono of lho bonofils of lho loachings of lho
moraI olhics and is aIso ono of lho ruIings (lhal musl bo
onaclod) in an IsIamic sociolv. Hovovor lruo poaco is ono in vhich
lho inlorosls of lho opposing parlios vho aro boIIigoronl lovards
ono anolhor is broughl forlh in lho corrocl mannor. Il is poaco and
harmonv vhich is uphoId bv poopIo of lruo failh and vho possoss
cognizanco of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and if ono of lho
lvo sidos vho aro vilhin lho sphoro of juslico and fairnoss voro lo
slop oul and go bovond lho boundarios, lhon vilh vhalovor forco
and povor is avaiIabIo, lhov vouId bo sloppod. Tho forcos vouId
bo muslorod up lo fighl againsl lho aggrossivo parlv so lhal lhov
rolurn bacI lo lho palh of lrulh.

In ordor lo maIo such a poaco agroomonl pormanonl and slabIo,
IsIam has Iaid dovn corlain condilions:

I
Chaplor VII : An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv


S2
1. Anv sorl of poaco lroalv or agroomonl lo rofrain from aggrossion
and hosliIilv musl bo basod upon juslico and fair doaIings and if ono
parlv is moro povorfuI lhan lho olhor sido, lhon lhov musl nol uso
lhoir povor lo imposo lhoir vishos and dosiros on lho parlv vho is
voaIor.

Il has boon said in lho pasl lhal, ¨Truo poaco bolvoon a povorfuI
(nalion) and a voaIor ono can novor bo concoivabIo¨ and lhis is
dofiniloIv lho lrulh and lhus, lho Our'an has loId us lhal:

``, .`-`.'· .=·' .`· . ...
¨.lhon rosloro lho poaco lhal vas bolvoon lhom vilh
juslico and acl vilh oquaIilv (bolvoon lho parlios
invoIvod).¨

2. Thoso vho possoss lruo failh and gonuinoIv rocognizo AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and vho do nol sland lo profil from
lho disagroomonl musl bo lho onos vho ovorsoo lho poaco lroalv.

3. Anvlimo ono of lho lvo parlios lhinIs aboul oxpansion (of lhoir
aroa or Iand) and lrv lo laIo slops lhal go againsl lho poaco lroalv,
lhon lhoso vho aro lho arbilralors and lho noulraI parlv invoIvod
musl inform lho aggrossivo parlv aboul lho oulcomos or offocls of
lhom slarling a var. This musl bo dono so lhal lho porson vho
vishos lo oppross olhors and go againsl lho Iavs of IsIam vouId
Inov lhal lhoro is no room in an IsIamic sociolv for such poopIo and
lhoso lvo fundamonlaI condilions aro found in lho Our'an in lho
foIIoving vorso:

`- `.… .,· ¸· `· ' .· †`-. ' ¸…` ¸ ...
¨Hovovor, if ono parlv rovoIls againsl lho olhor parlv,
lhon fighl lho rovoIling parlv unliI lhov submil.¨

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


S3
4. Fighling againsl lho opprossing parlv musl nol laIo on lho form
of rovongo or rolribulion. Ralhor, anv form of opposilion lo lho
opprossor musl bo duo lo lho facl lhal ho has gono againsl lho Iavs
of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), and ono musl lrv lo romovo
lho lhoughls from his hoad in vhich ho fooIs lhal ho is abIo lo
vioIalo and oncroach upon lho righls of lho boIiovors, and lhis can
bo doducod from lho soclion of lhis vorso lhal slalos:

... `·' ¸. .¸ ¸´- ' ·
¨.unliI lhov submil lo lho command of AIIah.¨

Thus, opposilion lo opprossion musl conlinuo unliI lho opprossor
rolurns bacI lo lho palh of juslico and fairnoss ÷ vhich in ossonco
aro lho commandmonls of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) ÷ as
havo boon monlionod in lhis vorso.

5. Al lho ond of lhis vorso, vo havo boon romindod of an imporlanl
poinl vhich is lhal lhoso poopIo vho havo lruo failh musl
conslanlIv slrivo lo maIo suro poaco is allainod and anv vars lhal
laIo pIaco musl nol maIo lhom hopoIoss or discouragod of lrving lo
allain poaco. This musl bo roaIizod and carriod oul ovon lo lho
poinl lhal aflor lho opprossors havo subjugalod a group of poopIo,
vo musl sliII Ioop our spirils high and lrv lo formaIizo a nov poaco
lroalv lhal is basod upon juslico, jusl as il has boon monlionod in lho
vorso:

.=·' .`· `.`, .`-`.'· `.•· .,· ...
¨Whon lhov do so, lhon rosloro lho poaco lhal vas
bolvoon lhom (lho parlios invoIvod) vilh juslico and
oquaIilv)...¨

Chaplor VII : An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv


S4
Such a poaco lroalv and agroomonl lhal is foundod on lho abovo
monlionod condilions is a lruo poaco agroomonl lhal IsIam has Iaid
dovn and onjoinod upon lho boIIigoronl parlios al var.

If lho abovo monlionod condilions voro lo bo carriod oul, lhon in
addilion lo boing abIo lo safoguard lho inlorosls of bolh parlios, vo
vouId aIso bo abIo lo covor lho onliro vorId vilh lho cIolhing of a
poacofuI Iifo ÷ vhich is lho groalosl vish and Ionging for lho poopIo
of lho onliro vorId. This is lho poaco lhal IsIam has proposod and
lho condilions lhal il has givon lo allain and mainlain such a slalo.

Iol us laIo a IooI al lho poaco lroalios lhal bolh lho major and
minor nalions of lho vorId havo signod and ralifiod in lho pasl -
vhich of lhoso agroomonls aro lruIv jusl` Is a poaco lroalv lhal is
dravn up bolvoon lvo aggrossivo parlios ovor oquilabIo, or is il
ovor imaginabIo lhal poaco bolvoon a povorfuI and a voaI nalion
is allainabIo` Aro lho counciIs lhal ovorsoo lho poaco lroalios
imparliaI or aro lhov compIoloIv froo of anv bonofil or profil in lhoir
arbilralion, probIom soIving and sollIing of a dispulo and onmilv`
Aro lho aggrossivo parlios mado Inovn of lho poaco lroalios,
agroomonls and sollIomonls (lhal aro imposod upon lhom) bv lho
major povors of lho vorId boforo lhov sign and onacl lhom`

Tho poIilicaI commonlalors of lho vorId aro aII in agroomonl and
havo slalod lhal, ¨EslabIishing poaco in anv parl of lho vorId viII
novor bo accoplod oxcopl vilh compIolo agroomonl of lho vorId
povors and lho dominaling supor povors of lho vorId. Evon lho
oslabIishmonl of poaco in lho MiddIo Easl viII onIv bocomo possibIo
vhon lvo camps ÷ from bolh lho Easl and lho Wosl ÷ aro in
agroomonl of such a poaco.¨

Thoroforo, such an imposod poaco vhich is far from boing achiovod
viII novor vioId posilivo rosuIls and an ovorIasling and porpoluaI
poaco viII in no vav bo roaIizod or oslabIishod.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


S5
SlruggIing for Ioaco

Ioaco is ono of lho goaIs and olhicaI vaIuos of lho roIigion of IsIam
and is ono of lho mosl imporlanl obIigalorv acls of lho roIigion (for
lho boIiovors) vhich musl bo onaclod vilh lho condilions monlionod
abovo. Il doos nol maIo anv difforonco if lho poaco agroomonl
vhich is lrving lo bo roachod is bolvoon lvo MusIims, lvo groups
of poopIo or lvo major nalions. In anv ovonl, il is incumbonl on
ovorv MusIim lhal in lho minimum, ho musl slrivo and slruggIo lo
maIo suro poaco is oslabIishod.

In lho var of Hudavbiah, lho Mossongor of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) dispIavod an amazing soIf-sacrifico
in oslabIishing poaco bolvoon lho MusIims and lho IoIvlhoisls. Ho
vas viIIing lo ordor somo of his companions lo rolurn bacI lo
MaIIah |lo Iivo amongsl lho IoIvlhoisls jusl as lhov (lho poopIo of
MaIIah) had vishod] jusl lo maIo suro lho poaco lroalv couId bo
ralifiod. (Wo havo gono inlo dolaiI on lhis issuo in our booI, Furugh
Abadivval).
49


EIaboraling on lho imporlanco of poaco and friondship bolvoon lvo
opposing parlios, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo
upon him), has said lho foIIoving:

.· `-·. `‰ `.`· ¸`,· `.´`, .. ¯ — .· `-·.
' `·· `¸· ¸.·' ¸`, · ' ··`. ' `. ·,

49
VoIumo 2, Iago 5S0-603 (Third Irinling): lhis can aIso bo road in lho
EngIish lransIalion of lho monlionod booI onlilIod, Tho Mossago, pubIishod
bv IsIamic Sominarv IubIicalions of Karachi, IaIislan, roprinlod bv
Ansarivan IubIicalions (Rofor lo Iago 51S ÷ 539).
Chaplor VII : An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv


S6
¨I adviso vou (mv lvo sons ÷ aI-Hasan and aI-Husain) lo
oslabIish and foslor poaco amongsl lvo opposing parlios,
sinco suroIv I havo hoard vour grandfalhor (lho Mossongor
of AIIah, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
sav, 'EslabIishing poaco bolvoon lvo opposing parlios is
bollor lhan praving and fasling for lho onliro voar.¨
50


Tho commandmonl of oslabIishing poaco is so imporlanl in lho viov
of IsIam lhal lho porson vho is lrving lo maIo poaco (bolvoon lvo
parlios) is pormillod lo uso anv IogicaI moans al his disposaI and ho
is ovon pormillod lo Iio lo lho opposing parlios lo bring aboul lhis
poaco!
51


Slanding up lo an Opprossor

Wilhoul doubl, slanding up lo an opprossor is ono of lho sacrod
primarv loachings of IsIam. IrincipaIIv, a majorilv of lho HoavonIv
Irophols camo from famiIios vho Iivod undor lho opprossion and
dominalion of lvranls. In addilion, lhoro aro vorv fov Surahs of lho
Our'an in vhich lho namos and punishmonls of lho lvranls is nol
monlionod (oilhor diroclIv or indiroclIv) and ovon in lho vorso undor
discussion, lho IsIamic sociolv has boon commandod lo fighl againsl
lvranls and opprossors unliI lhov rolurn bacI lo lho slraighl palh
and opon lho doors lo lho commandmonls of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho). Il is said in lhis vorso:

... .· ' .¸ ¸.`- ¸…` ¸ `·' ¸. ' ·

50
NahjuI BaIagha, VoIumo 3, Iago S5 (Advico from Amir aI-Mo´minin AIi
ibn Abi 1aIib, poaco bo upon him lo his chiIdron.)
51
aI-MaIasib aI-Muharramah, Discussion on lho Irohibilion of Iving.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


S7
¨.lhon fighl lho rovsoIling parlv unliI lhov submil lo lho
command of AIIah.¨

In anolhor pIaco in lho Our'an, vo aro caulionod lhal no MusIim is
pormillod lo laIo an opprossor as a proloclor: il has boon
monlionod:

¯` . ¸. .` ' `.´`· .`˜ ¸ ' `´
¨And do nol incIino lovards lhoso poopIo vho aro
opprossivo and do vrong or lho firo viII soizo vou.¨
52


Tho nobIo Ioador of lho Shia vorId, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi
1aIib (poaco bo upon him) has said, ¨Manv limos lho Irophol of
IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) said:

`¸ ¸`` ·`·' . -`.` · `·™- .,· •,·`. ¸ ' `,” `..
`·`· . š
¨Thal nalion or govornmonl in vhich lho righls of lho
opprossod and doslilulo poopIo aro nol guardod and
vhoro lho mighlv and povorfuI poopIo aro nol forcod lo
accodo lo lhoso righls viII novor soo happinoss and
saIvalion.¨
53


Aflor boing doprivod of lho righl lo Ioad lho communilv for lvonlv-
fivo voars, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him)
oxpIainod lho roason vhv ho accoplod lho Ioadorship (KhiIafah), al
lhal limo:

52
Surah Hud (11), Vorso 113
53
NahjuI BaIagha, VoIumo 3, Iago 113 (Iollor lhal vas vrillon lo MaIiI aI-
Ashlar).
Chaplor VII : An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv


SS
' ´· ' Œ· . ' ·`- ' ' ·` `.`.`- . `. ' .- `·,·
' ·`•`- ·.`‰`. ' .´ -' · ' · `· ¸ ' ' .`· . . '`
¯ ¸· ˜ ·‚ ·.‚· •… . . ' . .`- `.`, ¸·
.” `, `. -¯ · ´ ' ¸ ' ` . .
¨BohoId, I svoar bv Him vho spIil lho grain (lo grov) and
croalod Iiving boings lhal had il nol boon for lho poopIo
coming lo mo and had lho supporlors nol oxhauslod lho
argumonl and if lhoro had nol boon lho pIodgo of AIIah
vilh lho schoIars lhal lhov shouId nol acquiosco in lho
gIullonv of lho opprossor and lho hungor of lho
opprossod, I vouId havo casl lho ropo (of KhiIafah) on ils
ovn shouIdors and vouId havo givon lho Iasl ono lho
samo lroalmonl as lo lho firsl ono.¨
54


Through his cIoar spooch and lho unmislaIabIo ovonls of IsIamic
hislorv and Iooping in mind lhal lhoso vho hoId lho fIag of lho
roIigion in ovorv limo voro aIvavs lho opprossod individuaIs of
sociolv and lho povors vho vorIod againsl lho Irophols voro lho
onos vho mado up lho oxpIoilalion povors (of lhoir limo), is il
corrocl vhal lho maloriaIisls cIaim lho foIIoving aboul roIigion lhal:
¨RoIigion inslrucls ils foIIovors lo obsorvo palionco and loIoranco in
lho faco of opprossion from lho oxpIoilors and lhal ono shouId
considor lhoir opprossion as boing a parl of undispulabIo falo and
doslinv lhal has proloclod lho inlorosls of lho oxpIoilors.¨

¨Tho prossuros and forcos oxaclod bv lho Ioadors in roIalion lo lhoir
subjocls and lho oxlorlion and oncroachmonl on lho righls of lho
FoudaIisls and lho Arislocrals in roIalion lo lho opprossod and

54
Ibid., VoIumo 1, Spooch 3
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


S9
dovnlroddon poopIo - ovon lhough il Ioad lo vioIonl uprisings ÷
hovovor, bv draving upon lho paraIIoIs lhal lhoso uprisings and
inoffoclivonoss had, Ioad lo consoIalion in lho minds of lhoso vho
voro doprivod amongsl lho sociolv and lhus il vas sIovIv lhoughl
lhal roIigion had a slupofving offocl on lho souI of a porson.¨

Tho porson vho has ovon lho Ioasl amounl of InovIodgo in roIalion
lo lho pIan lhal roIigion has broughl forlh, vouId Inov lhal aII of
lho incorrocl obsorvalions (monlionod in lho abovo monlionod
quolos) voro dosignod lo confuso lho poopIo vho do nol Inov lho
lrulh and roaIilios aboul roIigion.

Tho issuo of obsorving palionco is a boIiof lhal ovon lho maloriaIisls
of our limo possoss. Il is indood ono of lho uprighl principIos of lho
olhicaI loachings vhich aII nalions and aII poopIo - incIuding lho
maloriaIisls - havo lruo failh in. Wilhoul lhis main olhicaI lrail,
lhoro is nol a singIo porson vho possossos aims and goaIs (for
himsoIf) lhal vouId ovor bo abIo lo roach his objoclivos (vilhoul lhis
lrail). This is so bocauso lho moaning of palionco (sabr) is nol lhal
ono givos in lo lho opprossion of a lvranl. In no cuIluro or in anv of
lho booIs of olhicaI lrails has palionco boon oxpIainod in lhis vav.
Ralhor, lho moaning of palionco (sabr) moans lo bo firm on lho palh
lo roach ono´s goaIs and lo havo onduranco in lho faco of
lribuIalions. Thus, lhoro is nol a singIo nalion lhal has roachod lo
anv poinl vilhoul shoving onduranco and firmnoss (on lho palh
lovards lhoir goaI).
55


55
Wo havo oxpIainod lho lruo moaning of sabr or palionco as oxpIainod in
lho Our´an undor lho commonlarv of vorso 11 of Surah Iuqman vhoro il is
slalod:
' `. · ¸.· ` ' ›.
¨So lhon boar vilh palionco lhal vhich vo havo loslod vou vilh.¨
Chaplor VII : An EvorIasling Ioaco Troalv


90
Thoroforo, lho lruo moaning of palionco is opposilo lo lhal vhich lho
maloriaIisls imagino il lo bo as il lruIv moans lo bo firm and
rosoIvod againsl lho opposing onomios and opposilion lo lho
incorrocl vishos and dosiros of lho souI or lho unpIoasanl ovonls
lhal happon in ono´s Iifo. Such an olhicaI principIo is ono vhich viII
doslrov subjugalion, domoIish lho ompiros of lho opprossors and
ono vhich viII bring aboul succoss and viclorv in lho various slagos
of ono´s porsonaI Iifo.

Tho avorsion lhal IsIam shovs lo opprossion and lvrannv is lo such
an oxlromo, lhal ovon lho porson vho is pIoasod vilh an opprossor
Iiving is counlod as boing amongsl lhoso vho commil opprossion:

.· ' `-`· ¸` `·‰ `··. ' `··´. œ ·`,· ' `··` —• ¸··'
.™‚ ' `· `•·` ' ¯`Š · ¸.´ . .
Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon
him) said: ¨Tho porson vho opprossos (anolhor porson)
and lho ono vho hoIps him and lho ono vho is pIoasod
vilh him (opprossing somoono oIso) aro aII oquaI lo ono
anolhor.¨
56


Safvan ibno Mahran, vas ono of lho cIoso frionds and companions
of Imam Musa ibno Iafar aI-Kadhim (poaco bo upon him) vho
ovnod manv camoIs. Ono dav lho Imam (poaco bo upon him)
roproachod him bv saving lhal, ¨AII of vour doods aro good oxcopl
ono of lhom and lhal is lhal vou ronl oul vour camoIs lo Harun aI-
Rashid, lho Opprossor.¨

Tho companion said lo lho Imam, ¨I svoar bv AIIah! I novor ronl
him mv camoIs for vain or prohibilod acls. Ralhor, al lho limo of lho

56
WasaiI aI-Shia, VoIumo 12, Iago 12S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


91
Hajj, I givo him mv camoIs so lhal ho is abIo lo visil lho Houso of
AIIah. I do nol ovon go vilh him on lhis journov: ralhor, I sond
lhoso vho vorI vilh mo lo accompanv him.¨

Tho Imam ropIiod, ¨Whon vou givo Harun lho camoIs, do vou
roquosl him lo pav vou in fuII boforo ho laIos lhom or doos ho givo
vou an amounl and lhon lho rosl is paid lo vou (vhon ho rolurns)`¨

Safvan ropIiod, ¨Ho pavs mo an amounl boforo ho goos and lhon
lho rosl vhon ho rolurns from his lrip.¨

Tho Imam lhon asIod Safvan, ¨Do vou vish lhal Harun rolurns
bacI from his lrip aIivo so lhal ho can pav vou bacI lho rosl of lho
monov lhal ho ovos vou`¨

Tho companion ropIiod, ¨Yos.¨

Tho Imam (poaco bo upon him) lhon said, ¨Whoovor is happv or
vishos lhal an opprossor is givon a Iong Iifo is considorod as an
opprossor himsoIf and his ovonluaI oulcomo viII bo lho hoII-firo.¨
57


Yos! Thal vhal lho maloriaIisls sav aboul roIigion has boon
oxlraclod from Chrislianilv and is cIoso lo lho loachings of lho
Chrislian Church sinco in lhoir opinion, ono of lho loachings of lho
Mossiah (Isa ibno Mariam, poaco bo upon lhom bolh) is lhal if a
porson hils vou on ono sido of vour faco, lhon givo him lho olhor
sido loo, as il is slalod: ¨Bul I loII vou, Do nol rosisl an oviI porson. If
somoono slriIos vou on lho righl chooI, lurn lo him lho olhor
aIso.¨
5S


57
Ibid., VoIumo 12, Iago 132
5S
Nov Toslamonl, Sl. Mallhov, Chaplor Fivo, Vorso 39 (as found on
bibIo.gospoIcom.nol).
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


93


























Chaplor Eighl

Brolhorhood
in IsIam
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


95
Vorso 10
Brolhorhood in IsIam

` ' ..`·`.` ·.`- `.´`.-' ¸`, .`-`.'· ' .` ' ..`-`` `.´· ·
Wilhoul doubl lho boIiovors aro brolhors of ono anolhor so lhon maIo
poaco and harmonv bolvoon vour brolhors and havo consciousnoss of AIIah
so lhal mavbo Ho viII shov vou morcv.

ho cIososl roIalionship and bond lhal can laIo pIaco
bolvoon lvo poopIo during lho courso of lhoir Iifolimo is
lhal of brolhorhood. AIlhough lho roIalionship bolvoon a
falhor and his chiIdron is much slrongor and povorfuI lhan lho lios
of brolhorhood, hovovor lhis roIalionship (bolvoon a falhor and his
chiId) is ono in vhich lho lvo poopIo aro nol on an oquaI IovoI ÷
from lho poinl of viov of limo, silualion, characlor and lho IovoI of
rospocl (lhal lhov musl shov ono anolhor), lhov aro difforonl. Tho
onIv roIalionship lhal is a compIolo manifoslalion of slrong unilv,
Iovo and affoclion is lho ono lhal oxisls bolvoon lvo poopIo vho aro
Iiving on an oquaI pIano in Iifo and lhis is lho roIalionship of
brolhorhood and sislorhood.

This unbroaIabIo roIalionship lhal has boon broughl aboul bv
croalion is conslanlIv found in aII onvironmonls and sociolios and is
lho socrol bohind Iovo, affoclion and cIosonoss lhal oxisls bolvoon
individuaIs. Il is bocauso of lhis facl lhal lho Our'an invilos
humanilv lo unilo and como logolhor undor lho principIos of Iovo
and affoclion and lhus, has roforrod lo lho failhfuI boIiovors of a
sociolv as boing brolhors (and sislors) of ono anolhor.

For lho firsl limo in hislorv, a communilv of poopIo lhal numborod
hundrods of miIIions vas broughl logolhor as brolhors of ono
anolhor and lho foIIoving sonlonco vas mado lhoir sIogan and
mollo:
T
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


96
` ' ..`·`.` ·.`- ...
¨Wilhoul doubl lho boIiovors aro brolhors of ono
anolhor.¨

You mav asI voursoIf lhis quoslion lhal vhv has lhis circIo of
roIalionship nol boon mado vidor and laIon aII of humanilv inlo il
as brolhors of ono anolhor, vhoroas (in lhis vorso) lho sphoro of
brolhorhood is Iimilod lo onIv lhoso vho havo lruo failh` Tho
ansvor lo lhis quoslion is obvious and a cursorv gIanco is sufficionl
for us lo undorsland lho roason vhv lhis vas nol dono.

This roIigious brolhorhood is nol a simpIo formaIilv and lhal loo of
a poIilicaI naluro such lhal aII of humanilv ÷ vholhor or nol lhov
havo lho quaIilios of brolhorhood ÷ shouId bo cIassifiod and
groupod logolhor as brolhors of ono anolhor. Ralhor, lho purposo of
maIing lho boIiovors brolhors of ono anolhor poinls lo a sorios of
nobIo sociolaI and olhicaI goaIs and rosponsibiIilios lhal laIo shapo
vilhin lho groalnoss of lho IsIamic brolhorhood lhal lho boIiovors
musl manifosl lo ono anolhor. AII of lhoso rosponsibiIilios and goaIs
havo boon monlionod in lho booIs of Ahadilh and Iurisprudonco in
dolaiI. Thoroforo, unliI unilv of lhoughl and spiril lovards ono goaI
and boIiof is nol oslabIishod, lhoro can novor bo firm unilv and
associalion of individuaIs.

If ono dav, a group of poopIo vho aro vavoring (in boIiof) in lhoir
hoarls aro soon uniling logolhor undor a sorios of poIilicaI issuos and
lrving lo unilo as brolhors for a spocific causo (olhor lhan lhal of
roIigion), lhon ovon lho smaIIosl lhing vouId bo abIo lo broaI lho
unilv lhal vas broughl aboul lhrough lho moro agroomonl of
lhoughls, spirils, difforonco of (porsonaI bonofils) and difforonco of
foundalions, and vouId lhus causo lhom lo soparalo from ono
anolhor.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


97
A sociolv vhoso axis or pivol is nol basod on (unilv of) idoas and
boIiofs and in vhich ovorvono acls as individuaIs viII aIvavs rolalo
upon various lhoughls and idooIogios opposod lo ono anolhor and
no sorl of unilv or harmonv viII ovor oxisl amongsl lhoso poopIo.
OnIv lo lhal IovoI lhal unilv and harmonv prolocls lhoir maloriaI
inlorosls viII lhov bo abIo lo Ioad a poacofuI Iifo. If ono dav a porson
vho is unilod vilh olhors soos lhal ho is nol in nood of lhis form of
unilv and fooIs lhal ho has bocomo succossfuI in lho arona of his
ovn Iifo and has roachod his goaIs, lhon aII of lho roIalions lhal
unilod him vilh olhors ÷ vhich voro aII basod on poIilicaI molivos ÷
viII bo lurnod inlo difforoncos and dispulos.

Novor vouId a MusIim ÷ ono vho has lruo failh in Ono AIIah and
lho Dav of Iudgomonl and vho boIiovos in lho govornanco of juslico
and oquaIilv and vho dooms il nocossarv lo foIIov lho nobIo moraI
lrails and lho humanislic virluos - bo abIo lo bocomo lho brolhor of
an alhoisl vho doos nol boIiovo in AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) or lho Iasl Dav and vho fooIs lhal olhicaI loachings and lrails
aro jusl pIav-lhings and considors such loachings as fabIos.

Inilv undor lho Iuminanco of Truo BoIiof

If vo havo doubls and misgivings aboul ovorv issuo among lho
issuos vilhin a sociolv, or roquiro lhal in ordor lo acInovIodgo a
spocific issuo lhal vo musl carrv oul anaIvsis and rosoarch and
cIaim lho nood lo havo proof (for lhoso various issuos), lhon vo
musl nol Iol lhoso (doubls and misgivings) croop inlo lho discussion
of unilv and harmonv in lho sociolv. Thus, vo can novor find ovon
a singIo porson in lhis vorId vho vouId sav lhal disporsion and
disarrav (of lho sociolv) aro bonoficiaI and lhal unilv and agroomonl
aro harmfuI and dolrimonlaI, sinco ovon lho smaIIosl bonofil lhal can
como aboul lhrough unilv and agroomonl rolurns bacI lo lho
sociolv.

Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


9S
Il is lhrough uniling smaII indopondonl forcos vilh ono anolhor lhal
undor lho shadov of such unilv can groal povor and slronglh como
aboul vhich vouId bo abIo lo bring aboul numorous changos in lho
Iivos of poopIo.

Tho hugo dams of lho vorId lhal manifosl lhomsoIvos as bIocIing
Iargo bodios of valor aro acluaIIv joining smaIIor bodios (of valor)
logolhor sinco lhoso smaII individuaI rivors do nol havo lho abiIilv
lo produco oIoclricilv, nor can lhov bo bonoficiaI for lho irrigalion of
crops. Hovovor, vhon aII of lhoso smaII rivors join lo maIo ono
major bodv of valor, lhon al lhis limo lhov aro abIo lo produco
lhousands of IiIovalls of oIoclricilv and il is lhrough lhis ono Iargo
rivor lhal lhousands of hoclaros of Iand can bo irrigalod. Whoro do
aII of lhoso groal bounlios como from` Thov como aboul lhrough
lho unilv of smaII drops of valor lhal voro onco voaI and did nol
possoss lho abiIilv lo do anvlhing on lhoir ovn.

Tho povor of lho alom is cIoar lo ovorvono. A singIo alom doos nol
havo lho povor or abiIilv lo do anvlhing and is so smaII and
insignificanl lhal ovon lho mosl povorfuI microscopos can nol soo
vhal il IooIs IiIo. Hovovor vhon innumorabIo aloms join logolhor,
lhov produco such povor and onorgv lhal if jusl a fov alomic
bombs voro lo bo dolonalod, lho civiIizalion and Iifo of manIind on
lhis Earlh, as vo Inov il, vouId bo broughl lo an ond. In lho span
of a fov minulos, lho onliro surfaco of lho Earlh vouId bo a mass of
firo vilh piIos of ashos Iingoring ovorvvhoro.

In lho vords of a pool:

¸· - ¸-. . ..· ·~ -
- ·=· ·¯ - . . · . · · ¸. . .·
Tho goaI of union and coaIilion,
Is lo galhor lho povors.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


99
Sinco vhon drops of valor galhor,
Thon lhov form a (povorfuI) rivor.

=· . ,· · - , . · .- .¯
·-.¯ · . ¯ .. · - .¯ · ¸ . .
Nolhing comos aboul from a drop (individuaI),
Hovovor lho rivor (unilv) runs slrong.
Anv bonofil lhal can bo imaginod,
Comos aboul from lhal rivor (of unilv).

¸·· ·=· · ·. ¸. , ¯
· ,-. .¯ ... - ·.- . .
A fish can novor bo soon,
In ono singIo drop of valor.
Hov is il lhon from lho rivor,
WhaIos can como aboul.

.. ¸·¯ ·.. ..· . .-
.. . .· - ¸·- .¯ .-
A Ioaf of broad can novor bo mado ,
From a singIo hoad of vhoal,
Bul vhon galhorod logolhor and lhrashod,
Il brings oul aII of ils prosporilv.

. .·¯ .-.· ·· ··
..- ¸·.- ·- · ..- .. ·~ ¸
Il is impossibIo for individuaIs - ono bv ono,
To laIo on a groal lasI.
Hovovor, from uniling logolhor,
Anvlhing lhal is dosirod can bo accompIishod.
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


100
·· .· ·· .´-.· .- ¸
. · · . .. -, · . ..· . .
Inilv and conciIialion can bo soon,
In lho vav lhal lho anls galhor logolhor.
In lho vords of lho ShaiIh,
GIorv is slrong, caplivo and lomporarv.

· ·~ .,· ·· .-
.´- ..· .·.· ., ·... .
Hovovor vhon soparalion occurs,
To a communilv lhal is logolhor.
Thov bocomo jusl IiIo lho slorios,
Of lho Sufis, lho Savvid and lho MuIIah.

Nol onIv musl lho phvsicaI slronglh of lho poopIo bo mado uso of
vilh ovorvono vorIing lovards ono common goaI, ralhor vo musl
aIso sooI assislanco lhrough lho inloIIigonco and apliludo of lho
mombors of sociolv. Through laIing advico, vorIing logolhor and
accopling lho opinions of olhors, vo musl romovo lho monslrous
difficuIlios lhal aro facing us.

Tho NobIo Our'an considors asIing advico and (lhrough lhis),
changing ono´s opinion as ono of lho characlorislics of a porson vilh
lruo failh and has said:

' ¸ ' `•` . `..` ' .`·· ' `·' ·.`. ` †.`Š `.`·
..`` `.`·· ´· `.`.`,
¨And lhoso poopIo vho rospond lo lho caII of lhoir Iord
and vho (aIso) uphoId lho SaIal and procood in lhoir
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


101
aclivilios lhrough consuIlalion vilh ono anolhor and givo
oul in charilv of lhal vhich Wo havo granlod lo lhom.¨
59


Tho samo poinl monlionod in lho abovo vorso of lho Our'an can aIso
bo soon in lho poom proviousIv quolod and aIso in lho foIIoving
lvo Iinos of poolrv:

ž .- ¸· . · ·. Ÿ¯ ¸
- .Š · .- · · † .
If mino and vour inloIIigonco voro onough,
Thon vhv has AIIah commandod us lo consuIl (ono anolhor)`

¸,· ¸ œœ ··- š· · •• ·
.· ¸· ..·~ ·¯ . † . ¸..–
Wo musl rosonalo vilh lho proof lhal:
'Tho Hand of AIIah is vilh lho Congrogalion´.
Sinco bv boing vilh lho communilv,
Tho slrong hand has a Iongor roach.

Whal is lho Basis and Sourco of Inilv`

A majorilv of SocioIogisls slalo lhal: ¨Tho human boing is a sociolaI
animaI and vilhin his croalion, ho has boon givon a slrong allraclion
lo Iiving vilhin a communilv.¨ Al lhis poinl, vo musl soo lhal
undor vhal faclors and condilions doos our sociolaI Iifo laIo form`

Somo of lodav´s SocioIogisls aro of lho firm boIiof lhal faclors such
as: raco, Ianguago, sharing a common hislorv and counlrv, bIood-
lios and olhor oIomonls maIo up lho unilv of nalions. Tho sociolv

59
Surah aI-Shuara (42), Vorso 3S
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


102
vhich is broughl aboul lhrough lhoso oIomonls jusl monlionod is
lho samo ono lhal lho IogaI Exporls rofor lo as a N NN Nalion alion alion alion. Il is undor
lho shadov of lhoso faclors lhal ono is abIo lo bring aboul a nalion
vhich is unilod in vhich lho various organs and mombors, vho aro
Iiving in lho midsl of ono anolhor, can havo a Ioving and cIoso Iifo
logolhor. Hovovor lhoso poopIo (vho havo such a boIiof) havo
forgollon an imporlanl poinl: hov is il possibIo for a sociolv vhich
is mado up of poopIo of various idooIogios, vho havo difforonl
vishos and dosiros (for lhoir ovn Iifo) and vho havo lhoir ovn
opinions and lhoughls in roIalion lo ovorv aspocl, lo como logolhor
as ono unilod nalion vilh compIolo harmonv and Iivo among ono
anolhor in lhis form`

Il is lruo lhal lhoso faclors vhich voro monlionod do hoIp and pIav
a roIo in lho unilv and harmonv of a sociolv, hovovor as Iong as
lhoro is no unilv in lhoughl and idoa and oach porson has his ovn
goaIs and idooIogios, lho unilv and harmonv of lho individuaIs
undor lhoso faclors and principIos viII bo invoIunlariIv broughl
aboul and lhus viII nol bo pormanonl and slabIo.

If ono dav, lho poopIo voro lo unilo undor ono common goaI and
slrolch forlh lhoir hands lovards ono anolhor in unilv and oxpross
lhoir brolhorhood lovards ono anolhor, lhon lhov vouId dofiniloIv
bo abIo lo roach lhoir goaI. In lhis ovonl, nol a singIo ovonl couId
occur lhal vouId causo lhom lo faII inlo inloIIocluaI difforonco and
discropancv in roIalion lo lhoir vishos and goaIs - nor vouId lhov
faII prov lo confIicls and divorgoncos lhal vouId Ioad lhom lo bo
dividod vilh ono anolhor.

A sociolv vhoso axis doos nol rolalo around ono lhoughl and
idooIogv in vhich lho poopIo rovoIvo around various faclors lhal
havo boon imposod upon lhom viII novor havo a guaranlood unilv
(of lho sociolv) sinco lho palh of Iifo of oach porson is dolorminod
lhrough (ono´s ovn) lhoughls and idooIogicaI boIiofs, and nol
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


103
faclors lhal havo boon imposod upon ono. If a dav comos lhal
amongsl lho poopIo of a nalion vho sharo lho samo nalionaIilv,
bIood-lios and Ianguago - a spiriluaI bond and cuIluraI affinilv voro
lo como aboul, lhon lhoro couId novor bo anv sorl of bIov broughl
lo lho unilv of lhal nalion.

Il is horo lhal lho groal Ioadors of humanilv ÷ vho laIo lhoir
inspiralion from lho Divino RovoIalion ÷ havo said lhal lho foromosl
piIIar of nalionaIilv musl bo basod on unilv of lhoughl and
idooIogv. Tho poopIo of lhal sociolv - vho from lho poinl of viov of
lhoir idooIogicaI boIiofs and molhod of lhoughl sharo a common
opinion ÷ havo boon roforrod lo as brolhors of ono anolhor, and
lhus, lhoir mollo vouId bo:

` ' `·`.` .. ·.`- ...
¨Wilhoul doubl lho boIiovors aro brolhors of ono anolhor.¨

In his hisloricaI spooch, lho groalosl Ioador of humanilv, Irophol
Muhammad (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
calogorizod lho poopIo vilhin a sociolv vho havo lruo boIiof as
boing oquivaIonl lo lho Iimbs of ono bodv, such lhal lhov aII sharo
ono common lhoughl and idooIogv, ono souI lhal commands and
govorns ovor lhom and vhoso hoarls aro unilod.
60


In summarv, lho maloriaI faclors vhich conlain absoIuloIv no souI
or ossonco such as: nalionaIilv, Ianguago, bIood (roIalion) and olhors
vhich can nol buiId unilv of lhoughl and vhich aro nol from lhoso
lhings vhich lho human souI has boon inspirod vilh, can nol bring
aboul lho basis bv vhich nalionaIilv and lho principIos of a common
Iifo aro basod upon and vhich can Ioad lo ono unilod nalion of
poopIo ÷ vhich havo compIolo Iovo and cIoso friondship and unilv

60
Safinal aI-Bihar, VoIumo 1, Iago 13
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


104
amongsl lho individuaIs. Ralhor, individuaIs lhal aro broughl
logolhor undor lho bannor of lhoso faclors - duo lo lho difforonco of
lhoughls and lhoir divorgonco in dislinguishing lhoir goaIs - viII
givo up anv sorl of unilv and aIIianco lhal lhov havo amongsl ono
anolhor.

In addilion lo lhis, lho porson vho vishos lo buiId a nalion undor
lho fIag of lhoso sorls of maloriaI faclors can novor cIaim lhal vilh
lhoso faclors in pIaco, lhov havo boon abIo lo bring aII of humanilv
as brolhors of ono anolhor, nor viII lhov bo abIo lo cIaim lhal lho
onliro sociolv has bocomo spiriluaIIv cIoso. Ralhor, lho onIv cIaim
lhov vouId bo abIo lo bring is lhal lhov havo boon abIo lo unilo a
Iargo numbor of poopIo (nol aII) logolhor undor corlain incidonlaI
phonomona (lhoso faclors vhich voro proviousIv monlionod).

If lho subIimo Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) vas abIo lo bring lho hoarls of various groups of
poopIo logolhor and bring poopIo of various nalions - oach of vhich
had lhoir ovn nalionaIilv and Ianguago - logolhor as ono nalion and
maIo lhom brolhors of ono anolhor, lhon ho vas abIo lo do so
bocauso ho vas abIo lo bring aboul ono common unilod lhoughl
and idooIogv amongsl lhom aII. In addilion, lho diroclion of aII of
lhoir Iivos vas goarod lovards ono goaI and aII of lhoir idoas and
lhoughls voro channoIIod inlo ono main lhoughl.

· .¯ .· ¸·¯ ·-. ·· ·· .· .
CongraluIalions lo lho offorls of lhal ono Ioador,
Who broughl unilv lo hundrods of lhousands of individuaI minds.

An Effoclivo Modicalion

On lho dav lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) vas commandod lo convov lho HoavonIv mossagos of
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


105
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), vo soo lhal lho onvironmonl of
lho MusIims in Madinah vas pIaguod vilh difforoncos. Il vas nol
possibIo lo rosloro bacI lo hoaIlh lho sicInoss of division lhal had
pIaguod lho communilv, oxcopl bv going undor lho bannor of
unanimilv, accord and unilv of lhoughl.

Tho Muhajirin and lho Ansar had boon broughl up in lvo
compIoloIv difforonl onvironmonls and oach of lhom foIl somo sorl
of supromacv ovor lho olhor group, vhiIo lho Ansar lhomsoIvos
voro dividod inlo lvo faclions vhich had lho firos of var raging
bolvoon lhom for voars. Tho MusIims vho had como from pIacos
far and vido such as Habasha (Elhiopa) and olhor parls of lho
vorId suddonIv convorgod on lho Iand of Madinah. From lho poinl
of viov of lhoir nalionaIilv and Ianguago, a majorilv of lhom
difforod from ono anolhor. Tho mosl povorfuI of roIalions lhal
oxislod amongsl aII lhoso poopIo - Iooping in mind lho difforoncos
lhal voro aIso lhoro - vas lho roIalionship of lruo failh and roIigious
brolhorhood lhrough vhich lho onmilv, halrod and olhor nogalivo
offocls lhal lhoir difforoncos croalod amongsl lhomsoIvos, vas
romovod from lhoir hoarls.

Ono dav, lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) slood up in lho Masjid, lurnod lovards lho MusIims
and said:

¸· `.-€ ' ¸.-' ¸.-' ·
¨(O´ poopIo!) Sland up so lhal I can maIo vou brolhors of
ono anolhor (in lho namo of AIIah).¨

Ipon hoaring lhis, lho MusIims slood up and oach ono vas mado a
brolhor of anolhor ono vhom lhov had a groal doaI of Iovo and
affoclion for and il vas horo lhal lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


106
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) choso Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi
ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) as his ovn brolhor.
61


This sorl of brolhorhood vhich looI pIaco amongsl a vorv smaII
circIo of poopIo is a minor oxampIo of lho unilv lhal ruIod ovor lho
IsIamic sociolv vhich oncompassod aII MusIims and mado lhom
brolhors of ono anolhor. Indor lho groalnoss of lhis IsIamic
brolhorhood, lho MusIims voro viclorious ovor aII of lhoir
difficuIlios and as Iong as lhis roIigious bond of Iovo and affinilv
vas amongsl lhom, lhov had supromacv ovor lho onliro vorId.

An AIorl Enomv

Tho onomios, vho al lhal limo voro dosporaloIv sooIing lho dovn-
faII of lho MusIims, slruggIod and aro conlinuing lo slruggIo (ovon
lodav) lo cul lho firm rools of unilv from amongsl lho MusIims and
lo romovo lhis affinilv from lho MusIim nalion. Bv bringing up a
sorios of issuos vhich aro nol roIalod lo lho fundamonlaI principIos
(of lho roIigion), lhov havo boon abIo lo Iighl lho firo of difforonco
amongsl lho MusIims. This is nol onIv lho goaI of lho onomios of
our prosonl limo - ralhor, from lhal firsl dav lhal lhis IsIamic
commandmonl vas givon, lhoso vho vanlod bad lhings lo como lo
lho MusIims slruggIod lo broaI lho unilv and accord.

Ono dav, a group of voung mon from lho lribos of Avs and Khazraj
(lvo lribos from Arabia lhal had boon al var for counlIoss voars,
hovovor undor lho shadov of IsIam and lruo failh, voro abIo lo
como logolhor as brolhors of ono anolhor and havo Iovo ruIo
bolvoon lhom bolh) voro silling logolhor. A Iov from Madinah
namod Shas ibno Oais vho vas vorv joaIous of lho unilv lhal had
boon broughl aboul bolvoon lhoso lvo lribos, onlorod inlo lhoir

61
Sirah ibn Hisham, VoIumo 1, Iago 123-124
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


107
galhoring and lhrough lho shrovdnoss lhal ho possossod, slarlod lo
spoaI aboul and romind lhom aboul lho billor momonls lhal had
lranspirod bolvoon lhoso lvo lribos during lho ballIo of Baalh
boforo lho coming of IsIam. Ho spoIo in such a mannor lhal ho vas
abIo lo insligalo lho voulh of bolh lribos lo roach for lhoir svords
causing lhom lo ro-ignilo lho var of Baalh.

Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas
informod of vhal vas lranspiring and ho himsoIf vonl lo lhis
galhoring and gavo a spooch in vhich ho monlionod, ¨IsIam mado
vou brolhors of ono anolhor and commandod vou lo romovo anv
form of halrod or grudgos lhal romain in vour hoarl.¨

Whon lho spooch of lho Irophol roachod lo lhis phaso, lho doafoning
sound of crving and vooping couId bo hoard and in ordor lo allosl
lo lho roIigious brolhorhood lhal oxislod amongsl lhomsoIvos, lhov
bogan lo hug oach olhor and asIod AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) for forgivonoss.
62


If on lhal dav a man namod Shas oxislod (lhal causod such lurmoiI),
lhon lodav loo lhoro aro lhoso vho undor difforonl namos, difforonl
phvsiognomios and difforonl shapos aro lrving lo slir up corruplion
vilhin lho MusIim sociolv. Il is lhoso poopIo vho aro lrving lo
slriIo dovaslaling bIovs lo lho unilv and harmonv of lho MusIims.

ExampIos of SoIf-Sacrifico lhrough IsIamic Brolhorhood

Ono of lho groalosl manifoslalions and maloriaIizalions of
brolhorhood is lhal a MusIim doos nol oncroach upon lho Iifo,
ropulalion and voaIlh of his brolhor.

62
Ibid., Iago 555
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


10S
This poinl has boon monlionod in ono of lho vaIuabIo piocos of
advico from lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) vhich ho doIivorod lo a Iargo galhoring of poopIo
in Mina. In lhis assombIv, ho lurnod lovards his companions and
addrossod lhom as such: ¨(O´ IoopIo!) Todav is a dav vhich is vorv
sacrod in lho sighl of vour Iord and lhis Iand of Mina loo is ono of
sanclilv and lhis monlh (DhuI Hijjah) vhich vo aro prosonlIv in, is a
nobIo monlh in lho sighl of AIIah!¨

- `.´`,· `.´.`·' `.´.`·' `.´•·· . `· ··``-¯
.· `.¯`.Š .· `.¯ .· `.´·`.
¨InquoslionabIv vour Iivos and vour proporlios and vour
ropulalions aro aII sacrod and sacrosancl jusl as lhis dav of
vours, lhis Iand of vours and lhis monlh of vours (aro
sacrod).¨
63


Tho Irophol ropoalod lhis sonlonco lhroo limos and lhon IooIod
lovards lho sIv and said:

`.`… `.`.'
¨O´ AIIah (You boar vilnoss lhal) I havo (fuIfiIIod mv
rosponsibiIilv and) convovod lho mossago.¨

In ordor lo nurluro and cuIlivalo lhis spiriluaI roIalionship, IsIam
has Iaid dovn commandmonls lhrough vhich lho MusIims aro abIo
lo maIo lhoir brolhorhood and Iovo for ono anolhor Inovn (lo ono
anolhor) in a praclicaI mannor.


63
Sirah Ibn Hisham, VoIumo 2, Iago 605
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


109
Thoro vas onco a man in lho Masjid of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vho asIod Imam Muhammad
ibno AIi aI-Baqir (poaco bo upon him), ¨I am lhis man´s friond
(poinling lo lho porson bosido him).¨ Tho Imam ropIiod, ¨Shov lho
IovoI of vour friondship lo him, bocauso bv oxprossing vour Iovo
and friondship for a porson, vou viII maIo lho roIalionship Iasl
(Iongor).¨
64


Tho vords of lho Ioadors of IsIam (lho Irophol and A'immah) in
maIing lhis roIigious affinilv slrong aro so manv in numbor lhan vo
vouId nol ovon bo abIo lo bring forlh ono-lonlh of lhom (in lhis
booI), hovovor from amongsl aII of lhoso narralions and
commandmonls, vo prosonl lvo lradilions. Tho Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) has said:

` ' ·.` `..–· `..`- ¸· ..`·`.` ' •
' · -. ' `·`· ¸´`Š `.`· `. `- `• `· ¸· ' •
¸- ' .`
¨SuroIv lho boIiovors ÷ in roIalion lo lho morcv and
compassion and affoclion (lhal lhov shov for ono anolhor)
- aro lho samo as ono bodv. Thoroforo, if ono parl of lho
bodv is fooIing pain, lhon il compIains aboul lhis pain lo
lho olhor parls of lho bodv lhrough a foar and hurl (so lhal
lho bodv can hoIp lho hurl or injurod parl).¨
65


Thoroforo, anv limo a MusIim is facing lroubIos or difficuIlios, il is
incumbonl upon aII lho individuaIs of lho sociolv lo rush lo his aid
and lo aIso sharo in his griof.

64
Safinal aI-Bihar, VoIumo 1, Iago 12
65
AI-Taj, VoIumo 2, Iago 136
Chaplor VIII : Brolhorhood in IsIam


110
Sadi, lho giflod pool and briIIianl oralor from Shiraz has laIon
inspiralion from lhis hadilh and oxprossod il in lho foIIoving poom:

.·¯ · ·¯ . ¸ . : ·.ž ...· ··¯ ¸. . ´ .´.
..· . ·...· .ž· ž ·¯ · · ....· ..-

Tho ChiIdron of Ädam aro roIalod lo ono anolhor,
And in lhoir croalion, lhov aro aII from ono ossonco.
If ono parl of lho bodv faIIs inlo pain and sufforing,
Thon aII olhor parls of lho bodv aro aIso affoclod.

In lho socond hadilh, lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) has said:

`.`·`·' `..`· ¸.·` `.`·`‘..·· .¸.·´ ..```'
`.`· ` `.`·. `¸· ¸·
¨Tho vorlh of lho bIood (lho Iivos) of lho MusIims is oquaI
lo anolhor MusIim and ovon lho smaIIosl lrusl lhal is givon
from ono of lhom lo anolhor musl bo honourod, and in lho
faco of foroignors (onomios) lhov aro aII unilod logolhor
and aro ono forco (againsl lho oppononls).¨
66


Wo suffico vilh lhoso lvo hadilh in roIalion lo IsIamic brolhorhood,
vhich is ono of lho mosl ossonliaI principIos of IsIam for lho
MusIims. Ialor on, lho righls of a boIiovor ovor his brolhor viII bo
monlionod.
67


66
WasaiI aI-Shia, Soclion 31 (Soclion on lho IonaIlv for KiIIing Anolhor
Iorson): Maghazi, VoIumo 2, Iago S36
67
Manv of lhoso righls havo boon monlionod in lho booI, WasaiI aI-Shia in
lho soclion of ¨AhIam aI-Ishrah¨, VoIumo S, Iago 166 and on.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


111
In lrulh, vo aro abIo lo sav lhal lho cIososl roIalionship and firmosl
IinI vhich can oxisl vilhin a sociolv and vhich viII novor bo
broIon - is lho roIigious affinilv vhich covors aII boundarios of
slalus, raciaI divorsilv and spiriluaI IovoIs and vo musl slruggIo lo
mainlain lhis bonofil lhal lho roIigion has givon us. Yos! In lho
vords of lho Our'an, lhal vhich has broughl aboul lhis roIigious
affinilv is lho IsIamic brolhorhood. An ovorIasling poaco and
harmonv can novor bo broughl forlh oxcopl lhrough lhis
commandmonl.

Ono of lho nocossarv criloria for roIigious brolhorhood is lhal
vhonovor lvo groups of MusIims faII inlo disagroomonl vilh ono
anolhor, il is nocossarv for aII of lho boIiovors lo slruggIo and lrv lo
pul oul lho fIamos of var bolvoon lhom and lo raiso lho fIag of
poaco and agroomonl ovor lhom. Hovovor, IsIam is nol hoII-bonl on
achioving poaco al anv cosl. Ralhor, IsIam vanls poaco on lho basis
of juslico and oquaIilv and ono in vhich lho righls of bolh sidos aro
proloclod and lhus, lho foIIoving vorso of lho Our'an monlions:

.`-`.'· .`· `.`, ...
¨So lhon maIo poaco bolvoon lho lvo parlios vilh juslico.¨

If lhis is nol dono, lhon a poaco lroalv or anv olhor sorl of agroomonl
vhich lrampIos upon lho righls of ono of lho lvo parlios vouId nol
bo a Iong Iasling ono. Ralhor, il vouId Iav lho groundvorI for
onmilv and hosliIilv vhich is nol IooIod upon favourabIv bv lho
loachings of IsIam.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


113


























Chaplor Nino

Rospocling lho Ropulo
of Anolhor MusIim
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


115
Vorso 11
Rospocling lho Ropulo of Anolhor MusIim

.'' ' `-` . .`·¯ ¸ `·.· `¸`· .' ¸· ·`.· ``· `,- .`.´ `.`.
. . `¸`· .` .' ¸· . `.´' ` . `¸`.``· `,- `¸´
` . •· . ' `.`. ' ` . `·. `· ' . `¸· .. `•` `.
`.`· :·`'· ' ..`‚
O´ vou vho havo lruo failh! Do nol Iol mon maIo fun of olhor mon ÷
porhaps lhov mav bo bollor lhan lho olhor (group of mon). AIso, do nol Iol
vomon maIo fun of olhor vomon, as il mav bo lhal lhov aro bollor lhan lho
olhor (group of) vomon. Do nol find fauIls in voursoIvos and do nol
dofamo ono anolhor bv using bad namos. Hov bad il is aflor having lruo
failh lhal a porson (doos lhoso acls) bul doos nol lurn in roponlanco (lo
AIIah) so lhon suroIv il is lhoso poopIo vho aro lho opprossors.

ho purposo of lhis vorso and lho noxl vorso is lo oxpIain a
sorios of IsIamic righls lhal brolhors in failh havo upon ono
anolhor vhich musl bo obsorvod. Sooing as lo hov lho
provious vorso slalod lhal MusIims aro brolhors of ono anolhor, in
lhis vorso and lho ono lhal foIIovs, somo of lho principIos of
oliquollo aro oIucidalod upon, vhich in roaIilv aro lho offocls of
brolhorhood in IsIam.

Tho brolhorhood of lho MusIim Immah is nol simpIv a visibIo and
vorbaI brolhorhood ÷ ralhor, il is a roIalionship of righls (upon ono
anolhor) vhich has roquiromonls and nocossilios (lhal musl bo
fuIfiIIod) and lhus, lho MusIims musl obsorvo lhoso righls in
roIalion lo ono anolhor.

T
Chaplor IX : Rospocling lho Ropulo of Anolhor MusIim


116
In lhis vorso, lho firsl lhroo olhicaI principIos lhal lhoso vho havo
lruo failh musl obsorvo aro monlionod as boing:

1. Shoving rospocl lo lho characlor or ropulo of a MusIim.

2. Irohibilion of IooIing for fauIls in olhor poopIo.

3. Tho prohibilion of using or allribuling bad nicInamos lo a
boIiovor.

Wo viII oxpIain oach of lhoso lhroo principIos soparaloIv.

Tho firsl lonol lhal oach MusIim musl pul inlo praclico is lo rospocl
lho characlor of anolhor boIiovor. According lo lhis ruIo, MusIims
musl nol maIo fun of ono anolhor and lhus lhov aro nol pormillod
lo hurl lho fooIings of oach olhor oilhor.

As vo Inov, lho IovoI and slalion of lho characlor of a porson can
bo soon from difforonl angIos. Thoro aro poopIo vho judgo and
rospocl olhors onIv duo lo lhoir nolicoabIo, oulvard lrails such as
onos´ voII-proporlionod bodv: lho boaulv of anolhor´s faco:
oconomic slalus: lho lvpos of cIolhing ono voars: a porson´s slvIo of
rosidonco and olhor such visibIo lrails lhal rofIocl ono´s maloriaI
slalus. Thus, anv cIassificalion vhich is basod upon lho morils and
priviIogos monlionod Ioading lo rospocl of lho porson, vouId
provonl anolhor porson from musloring up lho courago lo spoaI
aboul a porson (lhal possossos lhoso lrails) sinco il vouId go againsl
lho imaginarv characlor of lho porson (lhal lhov havo conjurod in
lhoir minds). Hovovor in a majorilv of inslancos, lhoso poopIo vho
do nol possos lho morils lhal voro monlionod, aro lho onos vho aro
mado fun of.

Tho vav of lhinIing and lho molhod of judgomonl lhal a MusIim
musl ompIov aro lho oxacl opposilo lo vhal poopIo vho simpIv
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


117
judgo bv sooing lho apparonl and maloriaI aspocls do. In lho
loachings of IsIam, lho apparonl and maloriaI aspocl is nol lho scaIo
or criloria usod lo judgo vho lho bollor porson is. Tho poopIo vhoso
characlor is vorlhv of boing rospoclod aro lhoso vhoso souI and
prosonco havo boon onIighlonod vilh lho divino Nur (Iighl) of
Cognizanco (Marifah) of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
vhoso onliro prosonco is lho focus of lho nobIo lrails and oliquollo
and vhoso vav of Iifo is basod on forgivonoss and pardon.
Iorforming good doods, shoving morcv and compassion, nobiIilv
and gonorosilv, humiIilv and modoslv, pIoasanlnoss and honoslv,
piolv and rofraining from sins, olc. aro vhal maIo up such a
porson.

Bv possossing such lrails, a porson raisos his ovn vorlh and slalus
and anv lvpo of spooch or aclion lhal goos againsl such a porson´s
characlor or porsonaIilv vouId bo forbiddon and nol aIIovod lo bo
spoIon aboul him (according lo lho loachings of IsIam).

Supporl from lho Our'an in Slronglhoning lhis IrincipIo

Tho parl of lhis vorso vhich slalos:

... .' ¸· `.`.``· `,- .`.´ ...
¨.porhaps il mav bo lhal lhov aro bollor lhan vou aro.¨

provos lo us vhv lho Our'an loIIs us il is forbiddon lo maIo fun of
poopIo vho havo lruo failh. Sooing as lo hov poopIo do nol possoss
anv InovIodgo of lho hoarl, mind and spiriluaI lhoughls of anolhor
porson, a lruo human (vho possossos failh and lho righloous olhicaI
lrails) and ono vho is shoving off IooI simiIar from lho poinl of
viov of lhoir phvsicaI appoaranco.

Il is aIso possibIo lhal a porson vho doos nol possoss boaulv, good
IooIs, voaIlh in lhis vorId, nor a Ioflv posilion in lho sociolv, vouId
Chaplor IX : Rospocling lho Ropulo of Anolhor MusIim


11S
bo lho ono lhal poopIo maIo fun: of hovovor from lho poinl of viov
of his souI and spiril, ho mav bo puror lhan olhor poopIo. Bv him
possossing a groalor spiriluaI IovoI of humanilv and olhicaI lrails, ho
vouId bo much highor in lho prosonco of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) lhan lhoso olhor poopIo. If lho groalnoss of such a
souI and lho porfoclion of such a characlor voro lo bo mado
incarnalo in a phvsicaI bodv, lhon lhoso vho aro maIing fun of
lhom - in pIaco of mocIing lhom - vouId acluaIIv havo lo Iovor
lhoir hoads in submission and surrondor.

Il is duo lo lhis (lho criloria of judging lho characlor of a porson as
boing basod on a sorios of hiddon issuos vhich lho poopIo can nol
soo ÷ lho affairs of lho innor hoarl and souI) lhal il is nol pormissibIo
for a porson vho has lruo failh lo mocI olhor poopIo. Wo aro loId in
lhis vorso lhal lhoro is a possibiIilv lhal such a porson (vhom vo
vanl lo maIo fun of) mav bo highor and much groalor from lho
poinl of viov of his innor-souI, humanislic characlors, and his groal
olhicaI lrails.

IsvchoIogicaI Molivos for MaIing Fun of Olhors

Whon vo IooI al lho psvchoIogicaI roasons lhal Ioad a porson lo
maIo fun of olhor poopIo, vo soo lhal lhoro is a dofocl or
shorlcoming lhal lho porson himsoIf possossos and bv maIing olhor
poopIo fooI inforior, ho vanls lo lrv and componsalo for his ovn
shorlcomings and lhus ho lrios lo insliII in himsoIf his supposod
groalnoss. Thoroforo lhoso poopIo vho havo characlor and
porsonaIilv and vho do nol fooI inforior or fooI lhal lhov havo
dofocls vilhin lhomsoIvos, viII novor rosorl lo acling in lhis mannor
and vhonovor lhov soo poopIo acling IiIo lhis, il lruIv pains and
griovos lhom.

In addilion lo lhis, lhoro aro aIso olhor faclors vhich aro al pIav
such as: lhoso sorls of poopIo acluaIIv dorivo pIoasuro and
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


119
onjovmonl in doslroving lho characlor of olhor poopIo and maIing
fun of lhom and fooI lhoir ovn spiril golling Iargor. Such poopIo
ond up having lhoir souI bocomo fiorco and animaI-IiIo and laIo
conlroI ovor lhom. This inlornaI monlaI slalo comos aboul lhrough
a sorios of various psvchoIogicaI lrails and is phvsicaIIv manifoslod
lhrough maIing fun of olhor poopIo.

As vo soo in lho vorId around us, a viId animaI rosorls lo IiIIing,
ripping lo shrods and dovouring voaIor animaIs lo salialo his
hungor and lo gain pIoasuro. SimiIarIv, poopIo vho lrv lo maIo
olhors fooI inforior acl jusl IiIo lho viId boasls bv allacIing poopIo
vho do nol havo lho abiIilv lo dofond lhomsoIvos lhus doslroving
lhoir characlor and soIf-osloom. Through lhis acl, lhov sooI lo
salialo lho hungor of lhoir ovn minds and lo dorivo spiriluaI
pIoasuro.

In ordor lo prolocl lho characlor of poopIo of aII IovoIs, IsIam has
commandod lhal individuaIs musl bo rospoclod and no MusIim is lo
bo considorod as insignificanl or vorlhIoss:

`- . . ¸· -' ' ,…. .,· •`` . `· `.`· ' · `.¯
¨Do nol considor anv of lho MusIims as boing
insignificanl, sinco in lho ovos of AIIah (lhal porson vhom
vou considor as boing insignificanl) acluaIIv has a high
ranI.¨
6S


Through His finaI Mossongor, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
sonl lho foIIoving mossago lo lho vorId lhal:

.. .·· ¸· ' `¸`-' ¸· ¸.

6S
Majmuah Warram, VoIumo 1, Iago 31
Chaplor IX : Rospocling lho Ropulo of Anolhor MusIim


120
¨And sav lo Mv sorvanls (O´ Muhammad) lhal lhov spoaI
onIv lhal vhich is mosl oxcoIIonl.¨
69


Imam Muhammad ibno AIi aI-Baqir (poaco bo upon him) has said:

· ‚ ` ' . `. - ´ `. · ` `· `. .`· .´`.`· .`.• .
¨Troal vour companions and frionds vilh Iindnoss and
novor maIo facos or shov conlompl lovards lhom.¨
70


TruIv, lho MusIims can Ioarn magnificonl Iossons bv sludving lho
Iivos of lho groal Ioadors of IsIam (lho Irophol and A'immah) and
hov lhov shovod rospocl lo lho characlor of olhor poopIo. Tho
NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
dispIavod rospocl for aII poopIo and anvlimo a porson camo lo him,
ho vouId opon his Oabah (ovor-coal) on lho fIoor for lho porson lo
sil on and vouId givo lho piIIov lhal ho vas rosling on lo lho olhor
porson vho camo lo mool him.

Occasion of RovoIalion of lhis Vorso

In rogards lo lho occasion of rovoIalion of lhis Our'anic vorso, lho
Commonlalors havo monlionod lvo incidonls:

1. Ono dav, Thabil ibno Oais vho vas voaI of hoaring onlorod inlo
lho Masjid and slarlod lo broaI lho Iinos of lho poopIo so lhal ho
couId gol cIosor lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv). Ono of lho MusIims provonlod him from moving
forvard anv furlhor and mado him sil bohind him.


69
Surah aI-Isra (17), Vorso 53
70
aI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 173
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


121
In ordor lo gol rovongo on lho porson vho sloppod him from
moving forvard, vhon lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) finishod his laII, Thabil lurnod lovards lho man
and said, ¨Who aro vou`¨ Tho man ropIiod lo him, ¨I am lho son of
so and so.¨ In ordor lo ridicuIo him, Thabil ropIiod, ¨BohoId! This is
lho son of so and so voman!¨ and ho looI lho namo of lhis man´s
molhor, vhich during lho limo of ignoranco (boforo lho coming of
IsIam) vas a namo lhal poopIo mocIod al. Whon lhis porson hoard
lho namo of his molhor, ho bocamo ombarrassod and lhus, Iovorod
his faco.

2. Immo SaIamah (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh hor), lho chaslo vifo
of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv), had vrappod somo vhilo cIolh around hor vaisl. A
smaII pioco of lhis cIolh vas hanging oul al vhich limo, Avosha
binlo Abu BaIr and Hafsah binlo Imar said lo ono anolhor, ¨Immo
SaIamah has a pioco of fabric hanging oul vhich rosombIos lho
longuo of a dog vhon ho is chasing himsoIf!¨

Duo lo lhoso incidonls, lhis vorso vas rovoaIod lo lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) as a romindor lo
lho mon and vomon lhal, ¨Mon musl nol maIo fun of ono anolhor
nor musl vomon maIo fun of olhor vomon.¨









Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


123






























Chaplor Ton

IicIing FauIls
is Irohibilod
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


125
Vorso 11
IicIing FauIls is Irohibilod

... . `.´' ` ...
Do nol find fauIls in voursoIvos.

no of lho piIIars of porfoclion of a porson´s souI and spiril
is lhal ho has lho abiIilv lo oxamino his ovn spiriluaI
slalo, lhrough IooIing al his ovn dofocls and olhicaI
voaInossos. Ho IooIs al his ovn innor soIf lhrough soIf-rocognilion
so lhal ho is abIo lo cul aII of lho rools of lho doslruclivo lrails lhal
aro vilhin his souI and spiril lhal havo laIon shapo and
maloriaIizod ovor limo.

From lho poinl of viov of lho schoIars, lho discussion of soIf-
rocognilion is so imporlanl lhal lhov sav, ¨Tho porson vho vishos
lo romovo lho chains of impurilv from himsoIf and vishos lo savo
himsoIf from lho nogalivo offocls lhal lho spiriluaI dofocls causo,
musl nol onIv lhinI of lhoso issuos during corlain limos in his Iifo,
ralhor, ho musl pondor ovor lhoso ovorv dav during his hoclic
schoduIo. Thus vhon ho finds somo quiol and poacofuI limo, ho
musl sil dovn, laIo oul a pioco of papor and vrilo dovn aII of lho
aclions lhal ho has porformod lhal dav and vilhoul boing biasod,
musl roviov aII of his doods. If ho finds somolhing lhal vas dono
vhich is nol commondabIo, lhon ho musl rosoIvo nol lo ropoal lhal
acl.¨

Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) has said:

· ¸ ' · · ¸ ' . ` `- · ¸. `¸ · `· . · ¸ ' ` ` ¸ ' ' †
' . `- · · ' ·. . `š`•,· .¯ · `' ·`. ¸· :·
O
Chaplor X : IicIing FauIls is Irohibilod


126
. ¸· ¸`· .
¨Il is incumbonl upon ovorv porson of inloIIigonco lhal ho
carofuIIv IooI ovor his voaInossos in rogards lo (foIIoving
his) roIigion, his lhoughls, oliquollo and lhal of his
inloraclion vilh olhor poopIo and ho shouId oilhor rocord
lhoso in his hoarl or vrilo lhom dovn and lhon ho shouId
slrivo lo romovo aII of lhoso (bad lrails) from himsoIf.¨
71


Hovovor, lhoro aro a group of poopIo vho incossanlIv lrv lo picI
fauIls in poopIo and duo lo lho IacI of insighl of lho (nogalivo) lrails
vilhin lhoir ovn soIvos and boing unavaro of lho (spiriluaI) slalus
of olhors, aro conslanlIv IooIing lo find fauIls in poopIo and
conslanlIv slrivo lo Iifl lho curlains lhal covor lho dofocls and
shorlcomings of olhors. Thoso aro individuaIs vho dorivo pIoasuro
and onjovmonl from finding and picIing fauIls of olhors, sinco lhov
fooI somo sorl of inforiorilv and inadoquacv vilhin lhomsoIvos.
Thus, lhrough picIing lho voaI poinls of olhors and maIing lhoso
Inovn lo poopIo and lrving lo laIo avav lhoir vorlh and slalus
vilhin lho sociolv, lhov fooI lhal lhov can pul lhoir ovn inforiorilv al
oaso.

Al lhis poinl in limo, il is nol our goaI lo discuss lho roasons vhv
poopIo slarl picIing fauIls in olhors ÷ ralhor, lhal vhich is imporlanl
for us lo roaIizo is lhal vo musl slop and lhinI a IillIo bil aboul lho
vicIodnoss and immoraIilv of such an acl.

Tho offocls of spoaIing bad and crilicizing lho aclions of olhor
poopIo pIavs a roIo in lho friondship and affinilv bolvoon lvo
poopIo, such lhal lhis cIosonoss is romovod (from lhom). Tho
friondship and lrusl is convorlod inlo animosilv and somolimos
halrod - vhoroas praising a porson for his good doods and fIalloring

71
Ghurur aI-HiIm, Iago 559
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


127
him for his righloous acls rosuIls in lho rools of friondship boing
mado ovon slrongor.

In roIalion lo poopIo vho aIvavs IooI al lho voaInossos and fauIls
of olhor poopIo, Imam Muhammad ibno AIi aI-Baqir (poaco bo upon
him) has said:

`,· .` ¸¯ . ¸· .`` .' ' · `¸· `·`· ¸`· · ¸´ .
¨Sufficionl is a porson´s ovn dofocl (in himsoIf) lhal ho
lrios lo picI and IooI for fauIls in olhor poopIo vhon ho
himsoIf has lhoso samo fauIls in himsoIf (and doos nol
rocognizo lhom)!¨
72


If lhoso vho picI fauIls of olhors vouId spond lho samo onorgv lhal
lhov uso in IooIing al lho bad in olhors and lhrough vhich lhov
roproach olhor poopIo, on corrocling lhomsoIvos and IooIing al
lhoir ovn dofocls and lrving lo rocognizo lhoir ovn souIs, imagino
vhal IovoI of happinoss lhov vouId bo abIo lo roach lo! Il is horo
lhal lho vaIuo and vorlh of lho hadilh vhich has como lo us from
ono of lho Ioadors of our failh is mado cIoar vhon il has boon said:

..`,`· `¸· .- `¸· ' · '`,· ¸´
¨Tho porson vho busios himsoIf IooIing inlo lho fauIls of
olhors shouId slarl bv IooIing inlo lho fauIls of his ovn
soIf (firsl).¨
73


Tho groalosl dofocl of such poopIo is lhal lhov can novor Iivo around
poopIo in a communilv sinco lhov viII maIo Inovn lho innor

72
aI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 459
73
Ghurur AI-HiIm, Iago 659
Chaplor X : IicIing FauIls is Irohibilod


12S
socrols (of olhors) and lhus, nobodv vouId bo safo from boing in
lhoir companv.

Il is bocauso of lhis roason lhal Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib
(poaco bo upon him) has forbiddon us from associaling oursoIvos
vilh such poopIo and has said lhal:

..`,`· ¸·``· ·Š·· ·´ ' ¸´ ‡ `.`.`-.`· `.` `. `·`,·
`..`· .
¨I varn vou aboul Iooping roIalions vilh poopIo vho IooI
for fauIls in olhors, sinco suroIv lhoro is nol a singIo porson
vho viII bo safo from such poopIo.¨
74


Ioinling Oul Ono´s Dofocls vilh Sincorilv
is Nol lho Samo as FauIl Finding

A poinl of inlorosl vhich a groal majorilv of poopIo aro uninformod
aboul is lhal picIing fauIls of olhors and insuIling lhom in lho
prosonco of olhor poopIo is ono lhing, vhoroas guiding lhom and
poinling oul lho propor vav lo do lhings and shoving lhom lhoir
orrors is anolhor lhing. IicIing lho fauIls of olhors is ono of lho
nogalivo olhicaI lrails, vhoroas guiding poopIo and informing lhom
of lhoir ovn shorlcomings bv advising and giving lhom good
counciI is ono of lho roIigious and humanislic rosponsibiIilios.
Thoroforo, il is incumbonl upon ovorv spiriluaIIv conscious porson
lo savo his foIIov human boings from a lorribIo ond and lhal darI
dav (vhon ovorvono viII havo lo ansvor for lhoir aclions).

Informing poopIo of lho shorlcomings in lhoir ovn Iivos is so
imporlanl and vaIuabIo lhal Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-Sadiq

74
Ghurur aI-HiIm, Iago 14S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


129
(poaco bo upon him) cIassifiod lhis as lho groalosl gifl lhal a porson
can givo lo anolhor and has said:

.- ' `· ' .`,`· `¸ †`·' '`· . ¸
¨Mav AIIah´s morcv bo upon lhal porson vho offors a gifl
lo mo bv poinling oul mv ovn mislaIos and
shorlcomings.¨
75


In addilion, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon
him) has said:

`’¯ `¸´, ' ¸´ `,· :`, †`·' `¸· ·`· . :
¨Iol lho bosl porson in vour oslimalion bo lhal porson vho
poinls oul lo vou vour fauIls and shorlcomings and
prosonls lhom lo vou as a gifl.¨
76


IrincipaIIv, lho firsl slop lhal a porson can laIo lo curo his phvsicaI
and spiriluaI sicInossos and lo romovo lho sociolaI oviIs is lhal ono
bocomos procisoIv avaro of lho sourcos of lhoso disoasos and lhoir
various lvpos. As Iong as lhis is nol carriod oul, lhon vhalovor sorl
of curo or romodv lhal is appIiod viII bo of no bonofil or uso.

Tho porson vho is scarod of slraighl laII finds lho lrulh boing
broughl oul inlo lho opon as boing somolhing billor lo accopl. Ho
finds il hard lo acInovIodgo and accopl anv sorl of opon diaIoguo
aboul lho probIoms in lho sociolv. Such a porson vanls lho spiriluaI
and sociolaI shorlcomings of a communilv lo bo svopl undor lho
rug and Iopl quiol and dosiros lhal poopIo shouId nol spoaI aboul
such lhings.

75
Tuhaf aI-IquI, Iago 366
76
Ghurur aI-HiIm, Iago 55S
Chaplor X : IicIing FauIls is Irohibilod


130
Thoso poopIo aro novor conlonl lhal lho vrilors and spoaIors of lho
communilv bring up lho probIoms of lho poopIo and anvlimo lhoso
lhings aro broughl up, lhon lhoso vho do nol IiIo lhis dono lrv lo
doslrov and rofulo vhal has boon vrillon or said. Thoroforo, vo
musl sav lo such a porson: ¨Mav vou bo doslrovod! Nol bringing
up lhoso issuos (lho probIoms of a communilv) is an orror in ilsoIf!¨

Il is nol onIv in lho inslanco of lhis nogalivo olhicaI lrail (spoaIing
bad and picIing lho fauIls of olhors) and lho naluraI human
disposilion (of guiding poopIo and shoving lhom lhoir shorl
comings and fauIls) lhal aro confusod vilh ono anolhor. Ralhor, il is
possibIo lhal in manv of lho olhor naluraI human disposilions and
olhicaI principIos, a sorios of olhor doloslod spiriluaI and olhicaI
lrails can aIso bo confusod vilh ono anolhor. Hovovor vilh carofuI
rosoarch, vo aro abIo lo discorn lho Iimils of oach of lhoso from ono
anolhor and Ioop lhom soparalod.

Slirring Ip a Iorson´s Emolions

In bringing up lhis olhicaI principIo, lho Our'an has appoaIod lo lho
omolions of humanilv and lhus vhon il vanls lo inslrucl ils´
adhoronls lhal lhov shouId nol picI lho fauIls of olhors il savs:

... `.´' ` . ...
¨Do nol find fauIls in voursoIvos voursoIvos voursoIvos voursoIvos.¨

Tho aim of oxprossing il in lhis form (lhal vo musl nol find fauIls in
oursoIvos) is lo slir up lho sonlimonl of lho porson - sinco spiriluaI
fralornilv and roIigious brolhorhood bring aboul such a bond of
friondship and Iovo amongsl lho boIiovors lhal lhov aro IiIo ono
organ and ono coIIoclivo bodv. Thus, if a porson picIs fauIls vilh
ono MusIim, il is oquivaIonl lo picIing fauIls vilh lho onliro MusIim
bodv.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


131





























Chaplor EIovon

A Bad Namo
and FamiIv
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


133
Vorso 11
A Bad Namo and FamiIv

... . . ` •· . ' `.`. ' `· `·.` ' `¸· ... `.
`.`· :·`'· `•` ' ..`‚
.and do nol dofamo ono anolhor bv using bad namos. Hov bad il is aflor
having lruo failh lhal a porson (doos lhoso acls) bul doos nol lurn in
roponlanco (lo AIIah) so lhon suroIv il is lhoso poopIo vho aro lho
opprossors.

Bad Namos and TilIos

ho namo and lilIo of a porson aro lho manifoslalion of lho
characlor of lhal individuaI. Il is bocauso of lhis facl lhal a
good namo and lilIo aro cIassifiod as boing lho vaIuo and
goodnoss of a porson, jusl IiIo a bad namo and lilIo lhal a porson
possoss aro unpIoasanl lhings. Nol onIv is lhis somolhing lhal Ioads
lo ono boing mado fun of, bul il aIso laIos avav ono´s slalus and
characlor and Ioads ono lo boing soIf-conscious vhiIo amongsl
frionds and vilhin lho sociolv in gonoraI.

Whon lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
vas officiaIIv appoinlod as a Mossongor, a Iargo numbor of cilios
and viIIagos had vorv bad namos. A Iol of lho lribos (of Arabia)
voro aIso ronovnod for lhoir obscono and ropuIsivo lilIos and
opilaphs. Tho Arabs vouId chooso namos and lilIos for lhoir
chiIdron lhal voro rudo, ropuIsivo and svmboIizod fiorconoss,
pIundor and piIIaging!

Ono of lho posilivo slops lhal lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) adoplod on lhis palh vas lo
command his foIIovors lo chango lho namos of manv of lho cilios,
T
Chaplor XI : A Bad Namo and FamiIv


134
viIIagos and olhor parls of lho lovn (lhal had bad namos). Ho aIso
ordorod lho lribos or poopIo lhal had obscono or ropuIsivo namos lo
ropIaco lhom (vilh somolhing bollor).
77
This nobIo porsonaIilv vonl
lo such an oxlromo lhal ho ovon commandod paronls lo chooso
boaulifuI namos for lhoir chiIdron and considorod lhis as ono of lho
righls and obIigalions lhal a falhor musl fuIfiII in rospocl lo his
chiIdron.

Tho Our'an aI-Majid considors caIIing ono anolhor bv rudo or
obscono namos or lilIos as a form of vioIalion of lho righls of anolhor
human boing and has roforrod lo a porson vho porforms lhis acl as
boing an opprossor and lvranl and bv saving:

... `¸· `.`· :·`'· `•` `. ' ..`‚
¨.and vhoovor doos nol lurn in roponlanco (bacI lo
AIIah) is suroIv of lhoso vho aro lho opprossors.¨

Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas
pIoasod and ovorjovod vhonovor ho hoard a good namo and vouId
sav, ¨Whonovor vou vanl lo sond a porson lo mo, sond ono vho has
a good namo.¨

1) Ono dav, ono of lho vorIors in a lompIo of idoI vorshippors (in
Arabia) sav a fox urinaling on lop of ono of lho idoIs. This porson
lhoughl lo himsoIf: ¨Whal sorl of a lhing do vo vorship lhal can
nol ovon dofond himsoIf such lhal ho doos nol ovon havo lho abiIilv
lo gol a fox lo movo avav from ilsoIf`¨ This lhoughl of his affoclod
his souI lo such an oxlonl, lhal ho composod lhis Iino of poolrv in
roIalion lo vhal ho sav:


77
Ourb aI-Isnad, Iago 45
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


135
` ·' .`·· ..`. ¯.' `.·· ·,· `. `¸· .·
¨Is a slono idoI vho is boing urinalod upon bv a fox ono lo bo vorshippod`
Anvlhing lhal a fox is abIo lo urinalo upon is suroIv dospisod and infirm.¨

Aflor vilnossing lhis scono, ho arrivod in lho companv of lho
Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
and doscribod vhal ho had soon. Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) asIod lhis man vhal his namo vas and
lho man ropIiod, ¨Mv namo is Ghavi ibno DhaIim¨
7S
Tho NobIo
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
immodialoIv changod his namo and said, ¨Ralhor (from lodav) vour
namo viII bo Rashid ibno AbduIIah.¨

2) During lho ballIo of Dhi Oard, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) asIod vhal lho namo of a parlicuIar
bodv of valor vas - vhich vas oxlromoIv sour ÷ and lho poopIo
ropIiod lhal il vas caIIod Bisan. Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) immodialoIv ropIiod lhal il is nov
changod lo Numan.
79


3) A man onco camo lo lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) and vhon lho Irophol mol him, ho
asIod him his namo. Tho man ropIiod, ¨Mv namo is Baghidh (lho
halod or dospisod).¨ Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) ropIiod, ¨Your namo is nov Habib (lho boIovod)¨
vhich vas lho oxacl opposilo of Baghidh.
S0



7S
Ghavi is in lho moaning of ono vho has boon doIudod or Ioad aslrav,
vhiIo DhaIim moans an opprossor or lvranl. (AsaduI Ghabah, VoIumo 2,
Iago 149)
79
Sirah HaIabi, VoIumo 3, Iago 377
S0
Asad aI-Ghabah, voIumo 1, Iago 202
Chaplor XI : A Bad Namo and FamiIv


136
4) Tho samo lhing can bo soon in roIalion lo anolhor porson lhal had
mol lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).
Whon asIod his namo, lho man ropIiod, ¨Mv namo is Abdus Sharr´
(lho Sorvanl of EviI).¨ Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) ropIiod lo him, ¨Ralhor, vour namo (nov) is
AbduI Khair´ (lho Sorvanl of Good).¨
S1


5) In lho samo vav, onco a voman camo lo lho Mossongor of AIIah
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and vhon sho vas
asIod vhal hor namo vas, sho ropIiod, ¨Äsivah¨ (ono vho commils
sins). Tho Irophol changod hor namo and said, ¨From lodav
onvards, vou viII bo Inovn as 'IamiIah´ (boaulifuI).¨
S2


6) A man vhoso namo vas AbduI Ian (Sorvanl of lho Iinn) camo lo
lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and
bv lho command of lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) his namo vas changod lo AbduIIah
(Sorvanl of AIIah).
S3


7) Somo poopIo vho had namos such as Iabbar or Oavvum vhich
aro namos rosorvod for AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) voro
commandod bv lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lo add Abd lo lho boginning of lhom. Thoroforo, lhoir
namos voro changod lo AbduI Iabbar and AbduI Oavvum.
S4


S) Thoso poopIo vho had namos such as AbduI Izzah (Sorvanl of
Rospocl), AbduI Shams (Sorvanl of lho Sun), AbduI Ial (Sorvanl of
lho Slono IdoI namod Ial) or ovon Shaitan (Salan) vhoro aII loId lo

S1
Ibid., VoIumo 2, Iago 63
S2
Ibid., VoIumo 2, Iago 76
S3
Ibid., VoIumo 3, Iago 174
S4
Ibid., VoIumo 4, Iago 362 and VoIumo 5, Iago 250
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


137
chango lhoir namos and lho nov namo of AbduIIah (Sorvanl of
AIIah) vas givon lo aII of lhom.
S5


Thoro aro aIso olhor oxampIos in lhoso samo inslancos vhich in
ordor lo Ioop our discussion shorl, vo viII nol narralo horo. Tho
hislorian, Ibno Alhir is his vorI, AsaduI Ghabah, vhich is a
commonlarv on lho Iivos of lho poopIo around lho Irophol of AIIah
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) during lho davs of
Ignoranco (pro-IsIam), has narralod manv moro oxampIos of poopIo
vho had ropuIsivo namos and bv lho commandmonl of lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), lhoir namos voro
changod.

Tho manifoslo of human righls has monlionod lhal a chiId´s righl lo
havo a namo is lho samo as his righl lo possoss a nalionaIilv -
hovovor il has novor boon monlionod lhal lho chiId musl possoss a
doconl, righloous namo. IsIam has a vorv prociso alliludo and viov
poinl in roIalion lo lho Iifo of a chiId ÷ vholhor il is boforo his birlh
or ovon aflor birlh - such lhal ovon vhiIo lho chiId is in lho vomb of
his molhor, ho is givon lho righl lo havo his ovn characlor. In
addilion, lho individuaI and sociolaI righls havo aIso boon
dosignalod for him.

Tho slricl allonlion lhal lho loachings (of IsIam) Iav dovn in roIalion
lo lho chiId aro lo such an oxlromo lhal lho falhor and molhor havo
boon commandod lo namo lhoir chiId ovon boforo il is born and if
lhov do nol Inov if lho chiId is a bov or a girI, lhon lhov aro advisod
lo chooso a namo lhal is accoplabIo lo oilhor sox.
S6


S5
Ibid., VoIumo 3, Iago 232, 240, 271 and VoIumo 4, Iago 362
S6
In a lradilion from lho Irophol, il is monlionod lhal ho has said:

.' ' ``.` .' ¸`· `.¯·.` ‡ `` `. .,· `¯·' `' `·' . .'· ¸.· `.`· ..´ ¸ .`.

Chaplor XI : A Bad Namo and FamiIv


13S
Whal is imporlanl is lho namo lhal is choson for a chiId. Kooping in
mind lho Iovo lhal lho falhor and molhor fooI for lhoir chiId, lhov
viII slrivo lo chooso a good namo for him/hor. Hovovor, hov
unforlunalo il is lhal somolimos lhov maIo a mislaIo in choosing a
namo for lhoir chiIdron and givo lhom a namo lhal in lho opinion of
olhors is nol a praisovorlhv namo, ovon lhough from lho viov poinl
of lho falhor and molhor, lhov fooI lhal lhov havo givon lhoir chiId a
good namo.

From lho poinl of viov of IsIam, vhon choosing a namo for ono´s
chiId, lho paronls musl Ioop in mind lho various poinls of
upbringing and nurluring and musl nol opl for a bad namo lhal viII
rosombIo lho chiId or viII aIvavs slav vilh him. A bad namo viII
acl as an impodimonl (for lho porson) and ovorv limo lho porson
vho has boon givon a ropuIsivo namo hoars his namo caIIod oul, ho
viII bo pul lhrough pain and sufforing.

Duo lo lhis, in lho hislorv of lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) vo road lhal vhonovor ho camo
across an aroa or a porson vho had a ropuIsivo or bad namo, ho
changod il.

A man onco asIod lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv), ¨Whal is lho chiId´s righl upon mo`¨ Tho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) ropIiod, ¨You
musl givo him a good namo and bring him up in a good vav. His

¯ ' `. . ¸.·
¨Namo vour chiIdron boforo lhov aro ovon born! So lhon if vou do nol Inov if vou
viII havo a bov or a girI, lhon namo lhom vilh a namo lhal is approprialo for bolh a
bov and girI.¨ (AI-Kafi, VoIumo 6, Iago 1S)
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


139
righl on vou is aIso lhal vou Ioop a good job or profossion in mind
for him.¨
S7


Hov good il lruIv is lhal a namo is choson for lho chiId vhich
indicalos lho sorviludo of AIIah!
SS













S7
Tho hadilh slalos:
.· ¸`- — ..` ' · ‡ · ¯,- ' ` .· ·· ¸ — `¸`-` ' ` `·. `··' `· ·.`.· `·
- .
¨A man said, 'O´ Mossongor of AIIah! Whal is lho righl of mv son`´ Tho Irophol
ropIiod, 'Givo him a good namo and lrain him voII and chooso a good job or
profossion for him.¨
SS
Tho hadilh slalos:
· .`' `·` ¸ ' ·`·.``· ‡ .· — ' `. ' ``· .· ·.`· .`. ' ¸`-`
¨Namo (vour chiIdron) vilh lho namo of sorviludo and vorship (lo AIIah). Thov
said, ¨And vhal namo is lhis`¨ Ho said, ¨AbduI Rahman.¨
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


141



















Chaplor TvoIvo

Boing Iossimislic
Aboul Olhors
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


143
Vorso 12
Boing Iossimislic Aboul Olhors

.'' ' .`·¯ ¸ ' ,·¯ .``‰ . ¸`· ' ¸`· . `¸‚ ' `¸‚ `. .
`•`… . .``• ·,-' .`- ¸¯' .' `.¯`-' '•-`' .`· .´`.`·`
`·.```·´· `,· ' .` ' . · ' ´. · `.,-` `.
O´ vou vho havo lruo failh! Koop avav from aII sorls of conjocluro sinco
suroIv somo lvpos of conjocluro mav Ioad lo sin. In addilion, do nol spv on
and do nol bacI-bilo ono anolhor. Do anv of vou (vho bacI-bilo) Iovo lo oal
lho fIosh of vour doad brolhor` Ralhor, vou dolosl lhis acl, lhoroforo havo
consciousnoss of AIIah. CorlainIv AIIah is lho Ono vho is Ofl-Turning lo
vou in Roponlanco, MorcifuI.

n lhis vorso, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has mado il
incumbonl upon lho MusIim communilv lo obsorvo lhroo
olhicaI principIos vhich aro cIassifiod as lho nocossarv righls
(of IsIam) and aro lho ossonliaIs of IsIamic brolhorhood and roIigious
foIIovship.

Thoso lhroo principIos in summarv aro:

1. Il is prohibilod lo havo bad lhoughls or bo cvnicaI of anolhor
MusIim.

2. A MusIim is nol pormillod lo spv inlo lho Iifo of anolhor MusIim.

3. Il is forbiddon lo bacI-bilo and laII bad aboul olhor MusIims
bohind lhoir bacI.

Sooing as lo hov lho principIos lhal havo boon monlionod, form lho
primarv olhicaI lrails of IsIam and pIav an imporlanl roIo in lho
I
Chaplor XII : Boing Iossimislic aboul Olhors


144
improvomonl of sociolv, and sinco vo havo boaulifuI and inlorosling
oxpIanalions from lho Ioadors of our roIigion in roIalion lo lhoso
lrails, il vouId bo filling lo discuss oach of lhoso soparaloIv on lhoir
ovn vilh lhoir indopondonl anaIvsis. Al lhis poinl, vo bogin bv
discussing lho firsl principIo - spving on olhors.

Spving on olhors is a nogalivo, psvchoIogicaI lrail vhich can causo
damago and injurv lo lho characlor, rospocl, piolv and spiriluaI
purilv of a porson vhom ono is busv in lhoughl aboul. A porson
vho is possimislic aboul olhors viII forgol aboul lho lhousands of
good doods and righloous aclions lhal lho porson porforms in his
Iifo and viII onIv pav allonlion lo lhoso fov vaguo, darI and murIv
aclions of lho porson.

Wo aII Inov lhal lho Iifo, voaIlh and honour of a MusIim is sacrod
and anv sorl of oncroachmonl lo lhoso aro prohibilod in IsIam.
Hovovor in lhis vorso, anolhor form of injuslico upon lho righls of a
MusIim has boon aIIudod lo and il is savs lhal: ¨Tho rospocl, honour
and characlor of ovorv MusIim ÷ ovon in our lhoughls and
imaginalion and in maIing judgomonls in our mind (aboul lhal
MusIim) musl aIso bo rospoclod and rovorod.¨ A MusIim is nol
pormillod lo cross lho boundarios ovon in his mind in roIalion lo lho
purilv of anolhor MusIim bv harbouring bad lhoughls or boIiofs
aboul him or hor.

In lho vords of ono of our prosonl dav SchoIars, ¨Tho Iimils of
socurilv lhal IsIam has broughl forlh for lho MusIim sociolv is nol
Iimilod lo jusl lho Iifo, voaIlh and characlor of anolhor porson.
Ralhor, in addilion lo lhoso lhroo socurilios, lhoro is aIso a fourlh
socurilv vhich is roquirod and lhal is lho safolv of boing judgod bv
olhors. Bv lhis, vo moan lhal vilhin ono´s lhoughls, ono musl nol
Iaunch allacIs or lhinI bad and unpIoasanl lhoughls aboul olhor
poopIo.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


145
Tho rospocl and characlor of a MusIim, in addilion lo boing
praclicaIIv adoplod, is ono lhal musl aIso bo proloclod in onos´ mind
and lhoughls.¨

From lho poinl of viov of IsIam, anv sorl of bad lhoughls or
misgiving in onos´ mind vhich vouId Ioad lo lainling lho characlor
of anolhor porson is prohibilod. Thus, vo havo boon commandod
lhal a sociolv of poopIo vho havo lruo failh viII Ioop avav from
anv sorl of bad lhoughls in roIalion lo olhors.

In ono of his mosl oIoquonl savings in roIalion lo lho safolv and
socurilv of a MusIim in roIalion lo lho four lrails monlionod abovo,
lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
has slalod:

. ' ¸· ·`- · ' · .`` · `· · `· · ` . `· ' . ‚ `¸ ·
` .. ' ‚ ¸
¨CorlainIv AIIah has mado sacrod lho bIood, proporlv and
rospocl of a MusIim (from anolhor MusIim) and ho musl
nol ovon onlorlain bad lhoughls (aboul lho olhor
MusIim).¨
S9


If vo soo lhal lho firsl lhroo lvpos of safolv and sanclilv lhal havo
boon monlionod in lho ahadilh aro onaclod in lho phvsicaI vorId
and in lho various gIobaI organizalions, bul lho fourlh ÷ namoIv lho
safolv of a porson in roIalion lo lho lhoughls lhal olhors onlorlain
aboul him - is nol aclod upon oxcopl undor lho shadov of lruo failh
in AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), lhon il is bocauso lho Iimils of
govornanco of lho maloriaI (non-roIigious) vorId aro Iimilod lo lho
apparonl aspocls of Iifo onIv and provonling anv sorl of lrospassing

S9
AI-Mahajjal aI-BavJha, VoIumo 5, Iago 26S
Chaplor XII : Boing Iossimislic aboul Olhors


146
of lho innor lhoughls aro oul of lho Iimils and boundarios of lho
povors monlionod. Thus, il is onIv lruo failh in AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) vhich can provonl a porson from lhis sorl of
lrospassing (lhrough his lhoughls), sinco a MusIim has firm
conviclion lhal AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) soos aII of lho
aclions lhal ho porforms and is ovon avaro of his innor lhoughls.

Tho Dangors of Boing Iossimislic Aboul Olhors

1. Tho firsl rosuIl of dislrusling olhors viII rolurn bacI lo lho porson
vho himsoIf possoss lhis lrail, sinco a porson vho doos nol lrusl
olhors viII novor bo abIo lo imagino lhal olhors can do lhings
vilhoul anv (hiddon) molivo. Thoroforo, in addilion lo causing
himsoIf spiriluaI difficuIlios and pulling his souI lhrough lroubIos,
ono viII Ioad a difficuIl Iifo. AIso, lho burning and passion lhal aro
broughl aboul lhrough ono´s imaginalion and lhoughls viII onIv
incroaso lho (monlaI) lorluro of a porson.

2. Boing possimislic and nol lrusling olhor poopIo aIso doslrovs lho
rools of friondship and harmonv amongsl poopIo. Tho porson vho
lhinIs bad aboul olhors viII aIvavs imagino such poopIo as boing
lroachorous and viII fooI lhal lhoir friondship is somolhing lhal is
nol slabIo or is nol buiIl upon failhfuInoss (lo ono anolhor). Thus,
such poopIo viII bo compoIIod lo cul off roIalions vilh lhoso around
lhom and il is for lhis roason lhal lho A'immah (poaco bo upon lhom
aII) havo loId us:

· ..` ·`,· •” `¸ ' `¸‚ -`. ¸,- ¸`, `·`, `·`` `.
¨Tho porson vhoso possimism aboul olhors laIos conlroI
ovor him viII doslrov anv sorl of poaco or harmonv lhal
oxisls bolvoon himsoIf and his friond.¨
90


90
Ghurur aI-HiIm, Iago 697
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


147
3. Tho porson vho is possimislic and dislrusls olhors viII aIvavs bo
rocIusivo and viII vilhdrav himsoIf from olhors. Duo lo lho foar
and approhonsion lhal ho has for olhor poopIo, ho viII novor bo abIo
lo bo sociabIo vilh olhors and il is for lhis roason lhal vo havo boon
loId in lho ahadilh:

˜ `¸``- `. `¸· ' -' ¸¯ `¸· ¸-`.` `·
¨A porson vho doos nol corrocl his lhoughls aboul olhor
poopIo, viII aIvavs bo frighlonod of ovorv singIo
porson.¨
91


4. Boing possimislic and dislruslfuI of olhors is a major caIamilv and
viII affocl a porson´s roason and abiIilv lo judgo olhors, sinco lhis
sicInoss is a lvpo of disordor lhal affocls lho lhoughl pallorn and
discornmonl of a porson. Thus, ho vouId novor bo abIo lo judgo a
silualion basod upon his IogicaI roasoning or bv vhal roaIilv is.

5. Iossimism is a sicInoss lhal is aIso conlagious such lhal ovon
lhoso poopIo lhal a possimisl sils and associalos vilh, viII faII inlo
lho fiIlh of lhis nogalivo lrail.

6. Nol onIv doos possimism and dislrusl affocl lho souI of a porson,
ralhor sinco lhoro is a dirocl corroIalion bolvoon lho bodv and lho
souI, lho bodv loo viII romain un-hoaIlhv. In lho vords of lho
famous lhinIor of our limo, Dr. AIoxis CaroI savs, ¨Boing
possimislic and aIvavs finding fauIls in lhings aIso laIos avav from
lho Iifo span of a porson sinco lhis harmfuI habil affocls lho norvos
of lho bodv Inovn as lho svmpalic norvos and lho inlornaI gIands
as voII. This can bo lho commoncomonl of olhor phvsicaI disordors
incIuding affocling lho Iimbs and organs of lho bodv.¨


91
Ibid.
Chaplor XII : Boing Iossimislic aboul Olhors


14S
7. Having bad lhoughls aboul poopIo vilhoul anv roason viII aIso
drag onos´ spouso, ompIovoos, vorIors and hoIpors around lho
houso inlo commilling lroachorv and crimos. This is lruo sinco
vhon lho Ioador of lho houso or lho husband conlinuousIv prios inlo
lho Iivos of olhors, lhon duo lo his associaling lhoughls lo olhor
poopIo, an unlruo picluro or roprosonlalion and dospicabIo acl viII
bo mado manifosl lo lhoso around him and lhoso unlruo lhoughls
and fooIings viII gol pIacod in lho hoarls of his cIoso onos. In lho
vords of somo of lho schoIars, 'Tho vorIor vho is al lho vhims of
lho bad lhoughls of his boss vho is conslanlIv lhinIing lhal his
vorIor is sloaIing lhings from his houso viII sIovIv push his
sorvanl inlo acluaIIv sloaIing his proporlv.´

Duo lo lhis, in lho sacrod loachings of IsIam, prolonding lo bo vorv
zoaIous or passionalo vhon lho silualion doos nol caII for il, or lo bo
oxlravaganl in roIalion lo ono´s spouso has boon highIv discouragod.
Hov manv limos has il occurrod lhal an innoconl, chaslo porson is
puIIod lovards impurilv and poopIo vho usuaIIv porform good
doods aro lomplod and oncouragod lo do bad doods, jusl as Amir aI-
Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) has said:

·´ ' .`·` :· .,· ··.`.· `,” ¸· `…` ' ¸. ·-,-`.
' .' ' ¸. ·· ' •` .
¨I varn vou aboul boing ovor zoaIous and obsossivo in
impropor occasions sinco unquoslionabIv lhis acl viII
lompl and oncourago chaslo vomon lo go lovards
(spiriluaIIv) dirliod and fouIod lrails and vouId drag
vomon vho do nol commil sin lovards commilling
vicIod doods.¨
92


92
Ibid., Iago 152
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


149




















Chaplor Thirloon

Irving Inlo lho
Socrols of IoopIo
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


151
Vorso 12
Irving Inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo

... .``• . ...
.and do nol spv on ono anolhor.

n lho provious pagos, il vas monlionod lhal vorso numbor 12
of Surah aI-Hujural discussos lhroo difforonl nogalivo olhicaI
lrails in lho foIIoving ordor: (1) Iossimism or nol having lrusl
in olhors: (2) Irving inlo lho socrols of olhor poopIo: (3) SpoaIing
bad bohind somoono oIso´s bacI.

Tho roason vhv lho Our'an has monlionod lhoso lhroo dospisod
lrails in lhis ordor is lhal lho firsl lrail (dislrusling olhors) Ioads lo
ono dovoIoping lho socond nogalivo quaIilv ÷ prving inlo lhoir
privalo Iivos. Onco a porson has bad lhoughls of anolhor porson, ho
vouId naluraIIv bogin lo spv and scrulinizo lhal porson in rogards
lo his aclions. ObviousIv, vhon ono slarls lo spv and prv inlo
olhors´ porsonaI Iivos, ho vouId nol bo abIo lo provonl himsoIf from
spoaIing lo olhors aboul vhal ho has soon ÷ in facl, ho vouId
oponIv and franIIv discuss vilh olhors vhal ho Inovs and lhus, ho
vouId havo no choico bul lo spoaI bad and bacI-bilo lhom. Il is
bocauso of lhis roason lhal lho Our'an monlions lhoso lhroo nogalivo
lrails in lho ordor lhal il has, so lhal lho naluraI roIalionship
bolvoon lhom is mado cIoar.

In lho provious discussions, moro or Ioss, lho damago lhal boing
possimislic in roIalion lo olhors vas discussod and al lhis poinl, vo
viII discuss inquisilivonoss or as lho Our'an caIIs il, spving on
olhors. Boing inquisilivo aboul lho affairs of olhor poopIo is a
nogalivo lrail lhal brings aboul bolh olhicaI and sociolaI harm vhich
can bo summarizod in lho foIIoving poinls:

I
Chaplor XIII : Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo


152
1. Il vas monlionod in our provious discussion lhal IsIam has
providod four lvpos of socurilv for lho communilv of boIiovors:

a. Socurilv of ono´s Iifo.
b. Socurilv of ono´s proporlv.
c. Socurilv of ono´s honour and dignilv.
d. Socurilv of ono´s characlor and porsonaIilv vilhin lho
lhoughls and minds of olhor poopIo.

In addilion, in ono of his mosl comprohonsivo Iocluros on lhoso four
lvpos of socurilv, vo soo lhal lho NobIo Irophol of IsIam (bIossings
of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) had discussod lhoso in
dolaiI.
93


SociolaI Dangors Broughl Aboul bv Irving inlo Olhors´
Iivos

1. Ruining lho Ropulalion of Olhors

Ono of lho major dangors lhal is broughl aboul bv prving inlo lho
Iivos of olhors is lhal lho lhird socurilv (lhal of ono´s honour and
dignilv) is pul inlo dangor and an irrovorsibIo damago is dono lo
ono´s dignilv and slalus vilhin lho sociolv. This is ospociaIIv lruo
vhon aflor a porson has spiod on anolhor porson´s aclions, and lhon
ho goos forlh and sproads lho socrols and privalo aclions of lhal
porson lo olhors.

A vorv smaII numbor of poopIo lhal prv inlo lho Iivos of olhors and
como lo Inov lho innor slalo of olhor poopIo aro abIo lo Ioop lho
socrols lhal lhov find hiddon from olhors. Il is lhoso lvpos of poopIo

93
aI-Muhajjal aI-BavJha, VoIumo 5, Iagos 162 and 26S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


153
vho viII novor bo proloclod from bacIbiling and spoaIing bad
aboul olhors.

In summarv, lhrough spving inlo lho privalo affairs of anolhor
porson and lhon sproading lhis informalion lo olhors, lho rospocl
and honour of a lruo boIiovor - vhich is domonslralod lhrough lho
socurilv of his Iifo and proporlv vilhin lho loachings of IsIam - is
lrampIod upon and doslrovod.

Tho ossonliaI pro-roquisilo of roIigious brolhorhood is lhal a lruo
boIiovor doos nol sproad lhoso lhings vhich vouId rosuIl in lho Ioss
of a MusIim brolhors´ characlor and honour amongsl lho poopIo.

In roIalion lo poopIo vho spv on lho aclions of olhors, our groal
Ioador, Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him)
has said:

..´ · `·`' ' ¸· ``· ' ..´ .' · ' ¸-.` ¸`‰` ' ¸`‰`
. `- .`· ·`. . `·`,·`, `·
¨Tho furlhosl slalo lhal a porson can bo from lho (spiriluaI
prosonco of) AIIah is vhon ono bofrionds anolhor porson
and ho romombors vhalovor shorlcomings and
voaInossos lhal porson has so lhal ho can dishonour him
ono dav.¨
94


Iusl as can bo soon from lhis hadilh, lho groalnoss of lhis sin is such
lhal a porson vho doos lhis acl vouId find himsoIf boing al lho
furlhosl (spiriluaI) dislanco avav from AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod
is Ho).


94
AI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 355
Chaplor XIII : Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo


154
2. Wilhdraving and Rolroaling from Sociolv

Irving inlo and boing inquisilivo aboul lho affairs of poopIo is aIso a
form of having bad lhoughls aboul lhom and in roaIilv, lhis acl is
lho oulcomo of boing possimislic aboul poopIo. Whon a porson
sponds his limo in spving and prving inlo lho affairs of olhor
poopIo, ho viII aIso bocomo avaro of manv of lho voaInossos and
dofocls of lhal porson and bocauso of lhis, ho viII lrv lo socIudo
himsoIf from olhor poopIo as voII. Thus in roaIilv, lhoro aro vorv
fov poopIo lhal ho vouId acluaIIv bo abIo lo inloracl vilh in his Iifo.

Il is highIv possibIo lhal lhoso dofocls vhich ho soos in olhor poopIo
do nol roaIIv pIav anv roIo in his inloraclion and conlacl lhal ho has
vilh lhom bul il viII unforlunaloIv laIo him avav from lho sociolaI
Iifo lhal ho Ioads amongsl lho poopIo and lhus, ho viII bo draggod
lovards a Iifo of soparalion and socIusion from sociolv.

Thoroforo for such a porson vho is inquisilivo aboul olhor poopIo
and vho aIso inhoronlIv onlorlains bad lhoughls aboul olhors, il
vouId nol bo possibIo for him, vhiIo in lhis (monlaI) slalo, lo
anaIvzo and invosligalo (oach individuaI porson). Thoroforo, ho
vouId nol bo abIo lo accopl lho fauIls, innor voaInossos and
probIoms lhal olhor poopIo havo and lhis vouId causo him lo nol
havo anv roIalions al aII vilh olhors.

In anv caso, il is vorv difficuIl lo find poopIo vho aro porfocl and aro
compIoloIv vilhoul anv dofocls. ObviousIv, lhrough ono´s ovn
inquisilivonoss, oach and ovorv porson vouId bo abIo lo find lho
hiddon dofocls and covorod fauIls of olhor poopIo and bocauso of
lhis, such a porson viII - vilhin himsoIf - fooI a nood lo obsorvo
somo sorl of socIusion and dislanco from olhors.

Thus, in addilion lo having bad lhoughls aboul olhor poopIo and
prving inlo lho affairs of olhors, lhis group of poopIo viII aIso
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


155
bocomo rocIusivo and socIudo lhomsoIvos and viII nol bo abIo pIav a
conslruclivo roIo vilhin sociolv.

3. Ioss of Froodom

Ono of lho groalosl bIossings for a porson is lo havo froodom in his
or hor aclions and bv IsIam inlroducing lho concopl of oIomonl of
gonoraI ovorsooing, il has appoinlod lho rosponsibiIilv of lho conlroI
(of sociolv) and lho froodom of humanilv in lho gonoraI ovorviov lo
lho Iavs of inloIIigonco and lho roIigious roguIalions. Thus, lho
froodom lhal ono has vilhin a sociolv is vilhin lho framovorI of lho
firm, dolorminod Iavs of IsIam and as a rosuIl, lho mombors of a
sociolv aro froo (lo do vhal lhov vanl) so Iong as lhoir ovn
happinoss (in lho noxl Iifo) and lho froodom of olhor poopIo is nol
oncroachod upon and as Iong as lhov do nol go lovards anv of lho
prohibilod acls and rofrain from porforming lho obIigalorv acls.

IsIam has Iimilod lho inlornaI (inloIIocluaI) froodoms of a porson bv
giving him a hiddon poIico forco (vilhin himsoIf), and bv
oslabIishing lho govornanco of lruo failh, and has pIacod Iimils and
guidos (on his lhoughls). Hovovor from lho poinl of viov of lho
inloIIigonco and lho roIigious roguIalions, lhoro aro a sorios of
aclions vhich can bo porformod vilh no probIom and il is lhoso acls
lhal lho roIigion has roforrod lo as pormissibIo (Mubah) and
discouragod (MaIruh). Hovovor, a porson vouId novor porform
lhoso sorls of lhings in lho prosonco of olhor poopIo, nor vouId ho
bo pIoasod if olhors aro mado Inovn of him porforming such acls.

If olhor poopIo voro lo havo compIolo InovIodgo of lho spocific
ovonls in a porson´s Iifo, lhon lho pIoasuro of Iifo lhal comos aboul
lhrough lho froodom of doing as ono vishos in his privacv vouId bo
laIon avav. In lho viov of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv), lhoso poopIo vho aro inquisilivo aboul lho
affairs of olhor poopIo and lhoir porsonaI Iifo aro nol lruo MusIims
Chaplor XIII : Irving inlo lho Socrols of IoopIo


156
and lhus, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
famiIv) has said lo lhom:

ƒ`·· ‡ .`' `¸· ¸`- `. · ' .`. . ·· ¸.
.'· ' `..`.· .`·` . •``
¨O´ poopIo! Ono vho givos Iip sorvico lo IsIam bul doos
nol havo lruo failh in his hoarl, do nol disparago lho
(olhor) MusIims and do nol pursuo poopIo´s shorl comings
and privalo mallors.¨
95


AIlhough lho roIigion of IsIam has lriod lo pul a slop on spving and
prving inlo lho Iivos of olhors and has cIassifiod lhoso lhings as
boing vorv dangorous and of no bonofil, hovovor al lho samo limo
in Iimilod circumslancos in vhich lho prosorvalion and mainlonanco
of lho sociolv is cIoarIv al slaIo and rosls on maIing Inovn lho
parlicuIar aspocls of lho Iivos of poopIo and lhoir hiddon doods and
acls, lho roIigion has givon lho pormission lhal in corlain aroas of a
porson´s Iifo, il is pormissibIo lo conducl invosligalions. For
oxampIo, if lhoro is a voung bov and girI vho vish lo gol marriod lo
ono anolhor, of if lvo aduIls vish lo onlor inlo a businoss
parlnorship vilh ono anolhor, or olhor such sconarios and il is
imporalivo lhal lho olhor sido Inov lho parlicuIars of lho Iifo and
aclions of lho olhor porson, lhon as far as lhoso lhings vhich aro
roIalod lo hov lho porson vouId maIo his or hor finaI docision aro
concornod, ono is abIo lo galhor moro informalion aboul lho olhor
parlv.

A porson can allain InovIodgo and informalion in rogards lo lho
spiriluaI quaIilios and spocific issuos of lho olhor porson´s Iifo onIv

95
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 75, Iago 214 (as roIalod from ShaiIh Saduq,
Thavab aI-AmaI, Iago 216)
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


157
lo lhal Iimil vhoro a docision or vorI vilh lhom is dopondonl upon
such InovIodgo. If lhis rosoarch is nol dono, lhon Ialor on in lho
fuluro, ho mav dovoIop a sonso of romorso in his vorI or doaIings
vilh lho porson or ho mav ovon como faco lo faco vilh olhor forms
of corruplion duo lo his choicos.

In addilion, lho poopIo vho ono asIs for advico in lhoso lvpos of
sconarios musl spoaI lho lrulh and lhov musl Ioop in mind lho
saving:

`¸`.`· `ƒ``'
¨Tho ono vhom a porson sooIs advico from musl bo a porson vho
is roIiabIo.¨

Bv lhis vo moan lhal lho porson vho vo aro laIing advico from in
roIalion lo lho goodnoss of a spocific acl, musl himsoIf possoss lho
inlornaI spiriluaI quaIilios and musl offor lho advico in lhis vav.

















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


159



















Chaplor Fourloon

SpoaIing Bad
Bohind Somoono´s BacI
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


161
Vorso 12
SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI

... `•`… . `,· ·,-' .`- ¸¯' .' `.¯`-' '•-`' .`· .´`.`·`
`·.```·´· ' .` ' . · ' ´. · `.,-` `.
.and do nol bacI-bilo ono anolhor. Do anv of vou (vho bacI-bilo) Iovo
lo oal lho fIosh of vour doad brolhor` Ralhor, vou dolosl lhis acl, lhoroforo
havo consciousnoss of AIIah. CorlainIv AIIah is lho Ono vho is Ofl-Turning
lo vou in roponlanco, lho MorcifuI.

n lhis parl of lho vorso, ono of lho vorsl olhicaI lrails has boon
monlionod. This doslruclivo lrail is rogardod as boing so
dospicabIo and appaIIing lhal lho Our'an offors a comparison
as il has novor dono boforo bv slaling lhal spoaIing bad aboul
somoono bohind his bacI is jusl IiIo oaling lho fIosh of ono´s doad
brolhor!

Tho mosl disgracofuI acl lhal can bo dono is lhal a porson allacIs
lho bodv of a doad porson, and il is ospociaIIv bad if lho docoasod
happons lo bo his ovn brolhor, and ovon moro so if his molhod of
allacI is lhal ho bogins lo oal from his fIosh! This aclion is so
dospisod and vicIod lhal vorv fov poopIo vouId ovor do such a
lhing. Whv has bacIbiling and laIIing bad aboul olhors bohind
lhoir bacI boon comparod lo oaling lho fIosh of ono´s docoasod
brolhor` Il is possibIo lhal il is for lhis roason lhal such a porson
vho oals lho fIosh of his ovn brolhor and lho ono vho bacI-bilos
olhor poopIo doslrov lho rospocl and honour of lhal porson.

Tho indoconcv of lhis acl is dividod such lhal bolh poopIo ÷ lho ono
vho is spoaIing lho bad vords and lho ono vho is Iisloning lo lhom
- aro bolh cIassifiod as Iaunching an allacI againsl a porson vho is
nol abIo lo dofond himsoIf. Tho ono porson is oaling lho fIosh of a
I
Chaplor XIV : SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI


162
doad porson vho is unabIo lo dofond himsoIf, vhiIo lho olhor
porson (vho is Iisloning lo such laII) is aiding in lho allacI on
somoono vho is nol prosonl in lho galhoring so as lo bo abIo lo
dofond himsoIf. Thus, lo allacI a porson vho doos nol havo lho
abiIilv lo dofond himsoIf is somolhing lhal is considorod as a
shamofuI acl.

In olhor vords, lho Our'an dravs lhis simiIiludo and parabIo lhal
lho ono vho laIIs bad aboul a porson bohind his bacI is oquivaIonl
lo lho ono vho oals lho fIosh of his ovn docoasod brolhor. Thus, lho
foIIoving four poinls havo boon laIon inlo considoralion:

1. Ono´s roIigious brolhor is lho samo as ono´s bioIogicaI brolhor.

2. A porson´s dignilv and rospocl aro lho samo as his phvsicaI fIosh.

3. SpoaIing bad vords aboul a porson bohind his bacI and causing
harm lo his characlor or disrospocling him is oquivaIonl lo oaling his
fIosh.

4. Sinco lhis porson is nol prosonl in lho galhoring and is unabIo lo
dofond himsoIf againsl lhoso covardIv allacIs, il is said lhal ho is
doad and has boon allacIod upon in such a slalo.

Il is possibIo lhal in ordor lo oxpIain lho fourlh poinl, Amir aI-
Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him) roforrod lo lho
porson vho bacI-bilos and spoaIs iII of olhors bohind lhoir bacI as
boing IovIv and voaI (sinco lhov aro allacIing a porson vho doos
nol havo lho abiIilv lo dofond himsoIf) vhon ho said:

' ``.‰ ·`,… ' ‰·
¨BacIbiling anolhor porson is (oquivaIonl) lo fighling a
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


163
porson vho can nol dofond himsoIf.¨
96


Tho Molivos lhal Ioad lo BacIbiling

Ono of lho roasons and molivos of a porson bacIbiling is joaIousv
and onvv lhal ono has vhich maIos him spoaI iII of anolhor porson.
Il is lho porson´s posilion and slalus lhal aro upsolling him and
lhrough lhis acl (of spoaIing iII of him) ho vishos lo Iovor lho
slalus and vorlh of him or hor.

In his spooch lo MufaddhaI ibno Imar, Imam Iafar ibno
Muhammad as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) has roforrod lo lhis
molivo as foIIovs:

· `¸ · † `· ¸ `. · ¸ · ` ` . Š `, `· · ` · `· ` ‘ `·
`, ` = `· · `¸ ' `· `, ¸ ' ´ ¸ ' `- ‰ `· ' `· · `¸ . · ¸. . ·
' `ƒ `, = .
¨A porson vho laIIs aboul a boIiovor´s conducl hoping
lhal lhrough lhis acl, ho is abIo lo Iovor lho olhor porson´s
vaIuo and vorlh in lho ovos of olhors viII bo laIon oul of
lho guardianship of AIIah and viII bo pIacod in lho
guardianship of lho Shaitan.¨
97


In lhis hadilh, Imam Iafar as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) has
monlionod ono of lho molivos bohind bacIbiling vhich is lho
joaIousv, onvv and lho slalus lhal a porson mav fooI for anolhor
porson vilhin lho sociolv. Somolimos hovovor, fooIings such as

96
Ghurur aI-HiIm, Iago 36
97
AI-Mahajjal aI-Bavdha, VoIumo 5, Iago 155
Chaplor XIV : SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI


164
angor, rago, prido and concoil aIso compoI a porson lovards lhis
nogalivo, olhicaI lrail.

In anolhor hadilh, il has firsl boon monlionod lhal onvv and lhon
angor Ioad a porson lovards bacIbiling. Il is possibIo lhal lhoso
allribulos havo boon monlionod in lhis parlicuIar ordor sinco onvv
and angor aro lvo roasons and molivos lhal Ioad a porson lo spoaI
bad aboul olhors bohind lhoir bacI, jusl as il has boon slalod:

`.`· `•`… . .`.”` . `-` . .`.¯ .`· `.´
·· ' .`- ·
¨Do nol havo joaIousv for ono anolhor and do nol havo
halrod for anolhor and do nol bacI-bilo olhors and bo
sorvanls of AIIah, brolhors lo ono anolhor.¨
9S


Dangors of BacIbiling

SpoaIing iII bohind a porson´s bacI has manv nogalivo
consoquoncos roIalod lo bolh lho individuaI and lho sociolv. In
roIalion lo lho individuaI, bacIbiling has boon roforrod lo as
opprossion againsl ono´s boIioving MusIim brolhor - and vhal Iind
of opprossion can bo vorso lhan vhon a porson lrampIos upon lho
rospocl and characlor of anolhor boIiovor, such lhal lhoro is nolhing
lhal can maIo up for lhis acl`

Somo of lho consoquoncos lhal affocl an onliro sociolv como aboul
from bacIbiling, and lho dangors lhal como aboul from lhoso lvo
nogalivo lrails of having possimism and spoaIing bad bohind
anolhor porson´s bacI havo boon monlionod in briof in lho provious
discussion and vhich aro common bolvoon lho lvo, incIudo:

9S
Ibid., Iago 251
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


165
1. A sociolv lhal bocomos conlaminalod vilh bacIbiling viII novor
soo agroomonl and unilv and lhoro viII novor bo cIosonoss and Iovo
amongsl lho poopIo. Thov viII novor bocomo a sociolv lhal has
malurod in humanilv, such lhal Iovo and affoclion viII ruIo ovor
ovorvono.

2. Cooporalion and loamvorI, vilh lho aim of roaching lho sacrod
goaIs of lho sociolv, can onIv bo roaIizod lhrough confidonco and
lrusl of ono anolhor viII novor bo achiovod. Tho sociolv in vhich
lho dofocls of lho poopIo aro oponIv laIIod aboul and ono in vhich
lho curlains lhal concoaI privalo acls and doods aro Iiflod and ono in
vhich lho fooIing of confidonco givos birlh and producos lho good
opinion lhal poopIo havo of ono anolhor, viII bo doslrovod.

3. SpoaIing bad bohind a porson´s bacI is somolhing lhal ignilos lho
firo of halrod and onmilv. Tho porson vho has boon spoIon bad
aboul and has had his socrols sproad oul for ovorvono lo Inov and
has had his rospocl and dignilv laIon avav viII bo oxlromoIv upsol
and viII obviousIv rosorl lo laIing rovongo.

4. Iifling lho curlains lhal covor lho sins and lransgrossions of lho
poopIo vouId rosuIl in lhom porforming lhoso disgracofuI aclions in
lho fuluro oponIv sinco olhor´s rospocl and dignilv normaIIv provonl
ono from commilling sins. If a porson commils sins, ono vouId do
so in privalo vhoro no ono can soo him vilh compIolo foar (of
olhors). Thoroforo, if duo lo spoaIing bad aboul olhors bohind lhoir
bacI, vo romovo lho curlains lhal covor lhoir socrols, and bv doing
so vo doslrov lhoir characlor and dignilv, lhon vho is lo sav lhal
lhov vouId nol commil lhoso sorls of sins oponIv in lho prosonco of
olhors (duo lo our aclions)`

Duo lo lho foar of Iosing rospocl and honour, a groal numbor of
poopIo slop lhomsoIvos from commilling sins and oviI doods and if
lhis obslacIo - vhich in roaIilv is lho spiriluaI vorlh of a porson -
Chaplor XIV : SpoaIing Bad Bohind Somoono´s BacI


166
vas lo bo laIon avav, lhon lhoro vouId romain no barrior for ono lo
rofrain from sinning.

In addilion lo lhis, nol onIv doos sproading lho socrols of lho poopIo
Ioad lo addod courago of lho porson doing lhis acl, bul aIso lhoso
vho aro Iisloning lo such lhings and vho mav bo voaI of failh mav
aIso dovoIop lho courago lo commil lhis (and olhor) sins as voII.
Thus, lhis acl of bacIbiling olhor poopIo viII acluaIIv bo a sourco for
lho sproad of corruplion and vicIodnoss.

Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) has said:

`·`,· `·`' · ¸·`.`· ¸· .· `¸· ¸· .`.· `··' `·`· `' ' ¸
.· ' ¸‰`· `· — . ' -` ¸ . š,ƒ .' ..' ' ¸· ·ƒ-
' · `.`. .`·¯ ¸ `.,' `.
¨A porson vho loIIs olhors lho aclions of anolhor boIiovor
lhal ho has soon or hoard vilh his oars is of lhoso poopIo
aboul vhom AIIah (lho GIorious and NobIo) has said:
InquoslionabIv lhoso poopIo vho Iovo lo sproad oviI
vords around, rogarding lhoso vho havo failh havo a
porpoluaI punishmonl availing lhom.¨
99










99
IsuI aI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 357
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


167


























Chaplor Fifloon

IsIam and
RaciaI Suporiorilv
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


169
Vorso 13
IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv

.'' ' `¸`· .¯- ´ `¸´ ' ¯· . ¸•· .`·`Š `.¯·‰ ¸·
`· `.´·¯' . .·· ' `' · . . `.´ ' · `- `.,·
O´ Humanilv! Wilhoul doubl Wo havo croalod vou from a maIo and a
fomaIo and havo mado vou inlo various nalions and lribos, so lhal vou mav
como lo Inov and undorsland ono anolhor. DofiniloIv lho mosl honourod
among vou in lho sighl of AIIah is lho ono vho is lho mosl AIIah-
Consciousnoss. SuroIv AIIah has fuII KnovIodgo and is AII-Avaro.

ho issuo of oquaIilv bolvoon aII human boings, opposilion
lo anv lvpo of raciaI, ancoslraI and cIass discriminalion,
fairnoss bolvoon aII lho chiIdron of Ädam in roIalion lo
human righls and lhal no porson is bollor lhan anolhor duo lo his
sIin coIour, Ianguago, Iinoago or raco - is ono of lho mosl imporlanl
sociolaI issuos in lho Our'an vhich has boon monlionod in various
Äval of lhis HoavonIv BooI.

Tho Our'an has donouncod anv sorl of suporiorilv - vholhor il bo of
raco, Ianguago or sIin coIour and ovon lodav, lhis subjocl is ono of
lho mosl compIicalod issuos vilhin lho sociolv vhich ovon in lho
mosl imporlanl induslriaI conlros of lho vorId (such as Amorica) is
sliII a sourco of confusion and sinco lho (lho induslriaIizod conlros of
lho vorId) fooI lhal lhis is an issuo lhal can novor bo soIvod, lhov
havo broughl lhis discussion lo a cIoso. Tho Our'an oxpIains lhis
issuo vilh simpIo Iogic and bv oxpIaining lho origin and croalion of
man, cIoarIv domonslralos lhal such an imaginarv boIiof lhal ono´s
raco or coIour is vhal maIos him suporior lo olhors is faIso.

T
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


170
Wo soo lhal from lho boginning of lhis Surah lo lho prosonl vorso
undor discussion, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has addrossod
lho poopIo fivo limos vilh lho phraso:

.'' ' .`·¯ ¸ ...
¨O´ vou vho havo lruo failh.¨

Hovovor in lhis vorso, lho sphoro of lhoso boing addrossod has boon
vidonod from ¨lhoso vho havo lruo failh¨ lo ¨humanilv¨ in gonoraI
÷ MusIims and non-MusIims aIiIo. Thus, in lhis vorso, vo road:

¨O´ ManIind! If vou IooI lhrough lho fiIos of croalion of lho onliro
humanilv, vou viII dofiniloIv soo lhal lho origin of aII of lhoso
poopIo is ono and aII of lhom havo como from ono maIo and ono
fomaIo (Ädam and Hava, poaco bo upon lhom bolh) and aII
doscondanls rolurn bacI lo lhoso lvo poopIo and lhus, lhoro is no
criloria lhal can bo usod lo maIo ono group of poopIo bollor lhan
anolhor.

If Wo havo broughl vou forlh as difforonl groups and nalions lhon il
is nol bocauso vou shouId havo prido or concoil ovor lho nalion or
famiIv lhal vou havo como from. Ralhor, il is lhrough lho difforonl
groups lhal vou aro lo Inov ono anolhor and rocognizo oach olhor
(.··). Tho socrol bohind lhis branching oul (of humanilv) is simpIv
for allaining InovIodgo and rocognilion of ono anolhor and moroIv
boing allachod lo ono famiIv, bul lhis shouId novor bo lho basis and
criloria for cIaiming suporiorilv ovor anolhor.¨

In ordor lo condomn lhis fabIo of raciaI suporiorilv and lo nogalo
lhis imaginarv boIiof of proforonco of nalionaI supromacv and
nalionaIism and lo quiol anv sIogans of lho ignoranl poopIo, lho
concopl lhal aII of us havo boon broughl forlh from ono sourco has
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


171
boon monlionod in various chaplors of lho Our'an as lhoso
monlionod boIov
100
:

`.´` .` ' ·- • `¸· `.´- . ...
¨Havo laqva (AIIah-Consciousnoss) of vour Iord (O´
IoopIo) vho croalod aII of vou from a singIo souI.¨
101


Iusl as lho Our'an has roforrod lo lho issuo of suporiorilv of ono lribo
ovor anolhor as boing a mvlh, ovon lho difforonco in Ianguagos or
lho coIour of sIin aro aIso nol grounds for prido or vanilv ovor ono
anolhor. Il is bolh of lhoso lhings (Ianguago and sIin coIour) vhich
havo boon roforrod lo as lho signs (aval) of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) and a svmboI of lho povor of lho Croalor so lhal vo
mav rocognizo lhal vo havo como from ono oIomonl and ono sourco.
Il is lhrough lhis chain of naluraI and inhoronl characlorislics lhal
lhoro is a difforonco in lho coIour of lho sIin of various poopIo and
lhal lhov spoaI various Ianguagos, jusl as has boon said:

`Œ- ·¯ `¸· ' ..` ' ¸`. ' `.´' `·`-
:· ¸· . `.´.' € •.· .
¨And of His signs is lho croalion of lho Hoavons and lho
Earlh and lho difforonco in vour Ianguagos and vour sIin
coIours. CorlainIv lhoro aro signs in lhis for lho poopIo of
lho vorIds.¨
102



100
Surah aI-Nisa (4), Vorso 1: Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 9S: Surah aI-Zumar
(39), Vorso 6
101
Surah aI-Nisa (4), Vorso 1
102
Surah aI-Rum (30), Vorso 22
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


172
Tho Ouoslion of Raco and Ianguago in lho WorId
Todav
103


Evon lhough lho vorId lodav has passod lhrough manv slagos of
induslriaIizalion, hovovor lhov sliII havo nol boon abIo lo roach lo
ovon parliaI compIolion in lho issuos monlionod (in rogards lo lho
oradicalion of racism). Evorv voar in lho advancod conlros of lho
vorId, lho oxporls sil dovn lo discuss lhis issuo, vhiIo lho fIamos of
disagroomonl burn and in vhich poopIo aro puIIod (inlo lhoso
fIamos of halrod). Todav, in somo of lho Iargosl and ¨mosl
advancod¨ parls of lho vorId, sludonls, vho duo lo a sorios of
naluraI and onloIogicaI ovonls lhal havo laIon pIaco vhich Ioad lo
lhoir sIin boing bIacI, aro nol pormillod lo go lo lho samo schooIs as
lhoso vhoso sIin happons lo bo vhilo, ovon if lhov aro of lho samo
roIigion and counlrv of origin.

Todav, if bv accidonl a vhilo porson vas lo vaII lhrough lho door
of a movio lhoalro lhal is spocificaIIv for bIacI poopIo onIv, lhov
vouId bo forcod lo pav a fino.

103
WhiIo roading lhis soclion and lho oxampIos givon, lho roadors shouId
Ioop in mind lhal lhis booI vas vrillon ovor 30 voars ago al a limo vhon
aparlhoid vas running rampanl in Soulh Africa and olhor parls of lho so-
caIIod civiIizod vorId. Tho Amoricans of African origin and aII olhor non-
Whilos voro boing subjoclod lo lho vorsl forms of discriminalion and
humiIialing sogrogalion Iavs al lho hands of lho ¨froo and domocralic¨ I.S.
Govornmonl and lho Whilo Chrislian oslabIishmonl in povor. Thus, somo
of lhoso oxampIos mav no Iongor bo prosonl lodav - hovovor lhis is nol lo
sav lhal lho so-caIIod civiIizod Woslorn vorId doos nol praclico lhis
dospicabIo acl of raciaI profiIing and discriminalion ovon lodav in lho 21
sl

conlurv ÷ il is simpIv dono bv ompIoving nov lorms and lhrough lhoir
docoplivo juslificalions. (Tr.)
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


173
In lho prosonl dav in lhoso induslriaIizod counlrios, lho surgicaI and
modicaI lroalmonl vards of lho hospilaI aro difforonl for bIacI
poopIo and vhilo poopIo and lho inslrumonls and modicinos lhal
aro usod in lho soclion rosorvod for vhilos vouId novor bo soon or
usod in lho modicaI vard or surgicaI aroa for lho bIacIs! In
addilion, lhoso voung doclors vho como from ovorsoas - vho lho
HospilaI Slaff fooI aro sliII 'doclors in lraining´ - do nol havo lho
righl lo lroal vhilo palionls, hovovor lho doors lo lho bIacI palionls
aro vido opon!

Wilh lho unjusl dislinclions and priviIogos vhich Inov no Iimil or
boundarv lhal oxisl vilhin lhoso nalions, hov is il possibIo for lhom
lo pul oul lho caII for froodom and rofor lo lhomsoIvos as lho piIIars
of Iiborlv`!

In rogards lo lho issuo of lho DocIaralion of Human Righls vhich
vas ralifiod aflor lho Fronch RovoIulion, or lho Charlor of Froodoms
and EquaIilv of Humanilv vhich vas ponnod aflor WorId War II
and vas signod bv aII of lho major and infIuonliaI vorId povors ÷
vo soo lhal lhov sliII havo nol boon abIo lo bring lhis confIicl lo an
ond. Hovovor on lhal dav, in lho sand fiIIod counlrv of Arabia and
lho gIoomv and unonIighlonod vorId lhal oxislod al lhal limo, a
divino man and hoavonIv Ioador Iiflod up lho caII of lruo froodom
and oquaIilv of aII human boings and said, ¨In lho prosonco of AIIah
and in His Courl of Iuslico, a Ioador from lho lribo of Ouraish is
oquaI lo a bIacI Elhiopian.¨

In ordor lo rojocl and oIiminalo aII of lho (provious) incorrocl
lradilions, lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) sonl a comprohonsivo mossago lo lho sociolios lhal
bIood, nalionaIilv and ono´s Ianguago aro no roasons lo shov prido
or concoil.

Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


174
Tho nobIo Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) vas a progonv of lhis samo onvironmonl (of Arabia) and
vas fuIIv avaro of bolh lho aiImonls and lho curos of lho Arab
sociolv. Ho Inov lho roasons for lho docIino of lho poopIo of
MaIIah and lhus vas abIo lo pIaco his fingor on lho sociolaI
aiImonls of lho Arab sociolv and lo compIoloIv curo lhoir
sicInossos. Al lhis poinl, vo prosonl somo of lho vords of lho
Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
in vhich lhoro is a curo for spocific aiImonls vilh sociolv.

1. Having Irido of Ono´s RoIalions, FamiIv or Tribo

Of lho manv iIInossos lhal oxislod in lho Arab sociolv vhich vas
aIso ono of lho biggosl lhings for a porson lo boasl aboul vas boing
from a branch of ono of lho voII-Inovn lribos, such as lhal of lho
Ouraish. In ordor lo romovo lhis ficlilious oIomonl of groalnoss, lho
Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
slalod lho foIIoving:

.'' ' `¸´ ‡ . ' · •··' `· · ·.`- `.´` ' ·`,·• ·`-
.' .•€ – `¸· `··¯ ··¯ `¸· `.´` ¸`, . ·· `,- . .' ' ·
``· ' `·`
¨O´ ManIind! SuroIv AIIah has romovod lho prido and
concoil lhal oxislod vilhin vou during lho davs of
Ignoranco in roIalion lo vour foro-falhors. SuroIv aII of
vou aro from (Irophol) Ädam and Ädam vas (croalod)
from mud. SuroIv lho bosl sorvanl of AIIah is lhal sorvanl
vho has consciousnoss of Him.¨
104



104
Sirah bin Hisham, VoIumo 2, Iago 412: aI-Kafi, VoIumo S, Iago 246
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


175
In ordor for lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lo announco lo lho vorId lhal lho lruo criloria in judging a
porson is his IovoI of laqva (consciousnoss of AIIah) and Iooping
avav from sins, in a parl of his spooch, ho dividod aII of manIind
inlo lvo calogorios and said lhal lhoir onIv groalnoss is lho laqva or
consciousnoss of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) lhal poopIo
havo. Bv dividing lhom in lhis molhod and grouping lhom in lhis
vav, ho romovod aII of lho imaginarv criloria lhal oxislod vhon ho
slalod:

` ' .·`‰ `¸´ — ¯ ¯¸ `¸·`.`· . ¯. ¸· ' · · ¯¸ `-
`¸`,· ¸· ' ·
¨CorlainIv manIind is of lvo lvpos: lho lruo boIiovor vho
has piolv and nobiIilv lo AIIah: and lho sinnor, vho is Iosl
and dospicabIo in lho sighl of AIIah.¨

2. Tho ¨Virluo¨ of Boing an Arab

Tho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) Inov lhal lho Arab nalion considorod lhoir nalionaIilv
and lhoir dosconl from lhis raco lo bo a major sourco of honour and
prido. Tho vanilv and concoil lhal lho Arabs possossod rosombIod a
conlagious disoaso lhal vas doopIv roolod in lhoir hoarls. In ordor
lo curo lhis sicInoss and lo romovo lhis imaginarv groalnoss lhal
lhov cIaimod lo possoss, lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) onco again lurnod lovards lho poopIo and
said lo lhom:

. .' ' ·`,· `, `. `. ` ´ ` . . ~ `, · `¸ · `.
· `· `. . ` `… `· - ` `·
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


176
¨Nov lhon, suroIv vour boing Arab is nol lho basis for
vour porsonaIilv nor a parl of vour ossonco, ralhor, il is lho
Ianguago vhich vou spoaI. So lhon vhosoovor is
nogIigonl in his aclions, lhon lho prido lhal ho has from his
falhor (boing an Arab) viII nol hoIp him in lho Ioasl and
viII nol maIo up for lho dofocls in his (roIigious)
aclions).¨
105


Is il possibIo lo find a moro oIoquonl and oxprossivo slalomonl lhan
lhis` TruIv lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) vas lho gonuino caIIor lo froodom. Hovovor ho
did nol slop al lhis. Ralhor, in ordor lo slronglhon lho oquaIilv of
humanilv and lho sociolv ho said:

. ' ´ ¸ ¸. ··¯ `.· `¸· .`' ¸·· · ·`. ' . „`ƒ`
¸· `¸· ¸`.· ' . `¸•· ' ¸· `-. ' ·.`. .
†.` .
¨SuroIv aII of manIind ÷ from lho limo of Ädam unliI our
limo ÷ aro IiIo lho loolh of a comb (aII oquaI lo ono
anolhor) and lhoro is no groalnoss for an Arab ovor a non-
Arab and no groalnoss for a rod-sIinnod porson ovor a
bIacI-sIinnod porson, oxcopl duo lo ono´s consciousnoss
of AIIah (laqva).¨
106


Through lhoso vords, lho NobIo Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) romovod aII sorls of dislinclions and
morils lhal Inov no onds or boundarios, among lho nalions of lho
vorId. AII of lhoso aroas vhich lho DocIaralion of Human Righls or

105
AI-Kafi, VoIumo S, Iago 246
106
IIhlisas, VoIumo 341
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


177
lho Charlor of Righls and Froodoms havo nol ovon monlionod voro
addrossod and pul lo rosl in lho IsIamic sourcos.

Nol onIv did lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) accompIish lhis lasI lhrough convoving lho vorsos of lho
Our'an and his spooch (ahadilh), ralhor, ho vas aIso abIo lo slir up
lonsion in lho hoarls of lho dofoalod poopIo of lhoso davs. In manv
inslancos vilhin his praclicaI Iifo, ho vas abIo lo maIo nuII and void
lho nalionaIism and racism lhal vas surrounding him.

In ordor for him lo roach lo his aim of oquaIilv bolvoon aII human
boings, ho marriod lho daughlor of his uncIo lo lho sIavo ho ovnod
namod Zaid. In addilion, ho givo BiIaI, vho vas bolh a non-Arab
and a bIacI-sIinnod African sIavo (al ono poinl in his Iifo), lho
imporlanl roIigious posl of boing lho Muaddhin or lho ono vho
mado lho caII lo pravor. Ho aIso commandod Zivad ibno Iabid vho
vas ono of lho richosl and nobIosl mon from amongsl lho Ansar lo
marrv his daughlor lo a bIacI sIavo namod Iubair. Kooping in mind
lho oulcomo of lho marriago of lhis man´s daughlor lo lho man sho
marriod and hov lhoso lvo poopIo had como from compIoloIv
opposilo IifoslvIos, vo soo lhal lhis is ono of lho amazing slorios of
IsIam and in roaIilv shovs lho lruo oquaIilv bolvoon poopIo of aII
IovoIs of sociolv vho havo sincoro failh.

Il is approprialo al lhis poinl lhal vo proporIv anaIvzo, invosligalo
and roIalo lhis ovonl in briof, ospociaIIv sinco lhis ovonl has boon
monlionod in lho mosl lruslvorlhv booIs of lho Shia.
107





107
aI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 9: TadhIirah, VoIumo 2, Boginning of lho
discussion on Marriago (NiIah)
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


17S
Tho Mosl Amazing Marriago in Hislorv

Nol ovon a fov davs has passod sinco lho migralion of lho
Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lo lho cilv of Madinah vhon a vorv onlhusiaslic man from
lho cilv of Yamamah camo lo lho prosonco of lho Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and accoplod lho
loachings of lho failh. This man had a puro hoarl and vas a lruo
boIiovor vilh gonuino sincorilv.

As for his phvsicaI form, ho vas a shorl man vho vas nol lhal
handsomo vilh a vorv darI, African compIoxion. In anv caso, ho
had noods, bul did nol havo lho moans lo suppIv for lhom, and ho
did nol ovon possoss suilabIo cIolhing on his bodv! Tho abjocl slalo
of povorlv of lhis man from Yamamah - vhoso namo vas Iubair -
caughl lho allonlion of lho bIossod Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) and il vas his slalo vhich drov lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) cIosor lo
lhis poor man.

Tho Irophol of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) foIl compassion for him duo lo his IacI of propor cIolhing
and sinco ho vas avav from his homo Iand, gavo him lvo piocos of
cIolhing lo covor himsoIf up proporIv and aIso ordorod lho MusIims
lo givo him ono Sa
10S
of vhoal ovorvdav. His accommodalion vas
aIso IooIod aflor as lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) gavo him pormission lo Iivo insido lho Masjid vilh lho
olhor indigonl and hoIpIoss MusIims.

Timo passod bv and lhis man from Yamamah conlinuod his Iifo in
lhis mannor. Tho moro lho loachings of IsIam sproad and oxlondod

10S
A voighl of moasuromonl oquivaIonl lo approximaloIv 3 IiIograms.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


179
oulvard inlo olhor rogions, lho moro poopIo vho voro far from
lhoir ovn homo and had no possossions mado lhoir vav lo
Madinah. Olhor lhan lho Masjid, lhoro vas no olhor pIaco of
rosidonco for lhoso poopIo and il vas oul of nocossilv lhal lhov voro
housod lhoro. Tho Masjid vas a pIaco vhoro MusIims galhorod, a
pIaco of vorship for lho poopIo of Madinah and lho conlro from
vhoro lho lruo loachings of IsIam voro boing sproad.

Il is cIoar lhal lho slalo of lhoso poopIo vas nol somolhing lhal couId
bo loIoralod and vas nol in agroomonl vilh lho highor aims and
goaIs of lho NobIo Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) and his Ioadorship and guidanco (lhal lhov slav in a
Masjid in lho slalo lhal lhov voro in). In anv ovonl, lhoso mon vho
had no famiIv or possossions voro laIing up spaco for olhors and in
addilion, lho Masjid in Madinah did nol ovon havo lho capacilv lo
houso so manv poopIo.

Al lhis limo, lho RovoIalion camo lo lho Irophol and ho vas
commandod lo purifv lho Masjid of aII forms of poIIulion and dirl
and vas loId lhal aII of lho poopIo vho voro givon lho chanco lo
slav in lho Masjid and sIoop lhoro voro nov lo bo romovod from
lhis sacrod silo al lhal vorv limo (vhich vas nighl-limo). Evon moro
lhan aII of lhis, lho command camo lhal aII of lho doors of lho
Masjid lhal oponod up inlo lho housos of lhoso vho Iivod around
lhis pIaco of vorship voro lo bo soaIod, vilh lho oxcoplion of lho
Irophol´s (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) door
and lho door of lho houso of AIi and Fatimah (poaco bo upon lhom
bolh). Thov voro oxompl from lhis ruIing and lhis in ilsoIf vas ono
of lho dislinclions for lhoso lvo nobIo porsonaIilios.

Tho NobIo Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lhon vonl on lo inlroduco nov condilions lo lho
communilv in slagos and lhus from lhis dav forvard, no ono had
lho righl lo Iivo insido lho Masjid. Hovovor in lhis prosonl slalo, lho
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


1S0
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) did nol
forgol lhoso rofugoos and lhus ho ordorod lhal a pIaco bo buiIl for
lhom vhich had a roof so lhal aII couId Iivo in lhoro logolhor. Tho
pIaco lhal vas buiIl vas Inovn as Suffah and an uncounlabIo
numbor of companions of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv) vouId Ialor go on lo bo Inovn as lho Ashab-
o-Suffah or lhoso companions of lho Irophol vho Iivod undor lhis
shoIlorod housing.

Aflor aII of lhis lranspirod, lho normaI habil of lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas lhal ho vouId
pass on vhalovor food and cIolhing lhal vas givon lo him lo lho
poopIo. FoIIoving lho oxampIo of lho Irophol, lho MusIims loo did
nol forgol lhoso poopIo and vhalovor lhov had and voro abIo lo
givo vas handod ovor lo lhom. In lhis vav, lho IsIamic sociolv
vhich al lhal limo vas quilo smaII and did nol havo a Iargo budgol
al lhoir disposaI, looI caro of lhoso poopIo vho had no hoIp or
socurilv.

As ho usuaIIv did, ono dav lho Irophol vonl lo soo lho Ashab-o-
Suffah. Amongsl lhoso companions, ho nolicod lho man from
Yamamah and said lo lho man, vhoso namo vas Iubair, ¨Hov good
il vouId bo for vou lo find a vifo and gol marriod and lhrough lhis
acl, vou vouId bo abIo lo gol rid of lho domonic lomplalions and
aIso prolocl vour ovn chaslilv, sinco vour vifo vouId hoIp vou in
mallors of lhis vorId and lho noxl vorId.¨

Wilh compIolo poIilonoss Iubair ropIiod lo lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), ¨Is il possibIo lhal somoono
vouId dovoIop a IiIing for mo` I do nol havo anv porsonaI moril,
nor do I havo anv groal Iinoago. I havo no voaIlh nor do I possoss
boaulv. Thus, vhal Iind of voman vouId bo viIIing lo marrv mo`¨

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1S1
Tho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) ropIiod, ¨O´ man! Through lho roIigion of IsIam, AIIah
broughl lhoso poopIo vho during lho davs of Ignoranco foIl lhal
lhov voro suporior and oxcoIIonl, lo a IovoI of humbIonoss and
inforiorilv and lhoso vho during lho davs of Ignoranco voro abjocl
and considorod as insignificanl (in lho sociolv) voro givon osloom
and honour. Bv sonding lho roIigion of IsIam, AIIah lho Mosl High
has romovod aII sorls of prido, vanilv, soIf-conlorodnoss and lho
imaginarv nobiIilv lhal poopIo foIl for lhomsoIvos during lho davs
of Ignoranco.

From lodav, ono´s lribo or cIan, dosconl or Iinoago and anv olhor
projudico lhal slom from ignoranco havo no vaIuo or vorlh. Todav
aII mon - bIacI and vhilo, Ouraish and non-Ouraish, Arab and non-
Arab aro aII oquaI. Evorvono lhal oxisls ÷ no mallor vhal
nalionaIilv lhov aro and in vhalovor slalo, aro aII lho chiIdron of
Ädam and Ädam vas croalod from dirl. In lho Iasl Davs, onIv
lhoso poopIo vho aro moro conscious of AIIah (havo laqva) lhan
olhors, lhoso vho aro lho foromosl in lhoir sorviludo and oboving
lho ordors of AIIah viII bo lho onos vho viII bo bIossod vilh lho
Iindnoss, graco and morcv of AIIah.¨

Tho hoavonIv vords of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) looI such a pIaco in lho hoarl of lho man from
Yamamah lhal lho spiriluaI ravs of lho Irophol´s vords oponod lho
doors of cognizanco and lruo boIiof in him. Bv hoaring lhoso vords,
lho lruo moaning of juslico and lho acluaI inlorprolalion of fair
doaIings vas mado incarnalo for him.

Ipon hoaring lhoso vords of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vhich ho Iislonod lo vilh groal
allonlivonoss, such lhal il couId bo said lhal ovorv vord of lho
divino vords broughl up an imago of lho roaIilv and puro lrulh (of
IsIam) and in lho prosonco of lhis slrong Iogic, Iubair had no olhor
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


1S2
choico bul lo romain quiol and il is possibIo lhal mav havo ho foIl
romorsofuI and guiIlv for lhal shorl sonlonco vhich ho said lo lho
Irophol.

Al lhis limo, lho Irophol loId lho man from Yamamah lo gol up and
go lo Zivad ibno Iabid vho happonod lo bo ono of lho mosl nobIo
poopIo of lho lribo of Bani BavaJha and loII him, ¨I havo broughl a
mossago from lho Mossongor of AIIah lo vou. Tho Irophol has loId
mo lhal I am lo convov lo vou lhal lho Mossongor of AIIah
commands vou lo marrv vour daughlor vhoso namo is DhuIavfa, lo
lho man namod Iubair ÷ vhich is mo.¨

Tho man from Yamamah gol up and mado his vav lo convov lho
mossago of lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) lo Zivad ibno Iabid. Whon ho roachod lho houso, ho sav
Zivad and a group of his famiIv and cIoso roIalivos in lho houso
silling logolhor. Ho asIod pormission lo onlor vhich ho vas givon
and lhon procoodod lo onlor and grool lho poopIo prosonl. Al lhis
limo, Zivad and lhoso prosonl vilh him looI nolico of Iubair and
vanlod lo Inov vhv lhis poor man from Yamamah vanlod - vho
vas aIvavs Inovn lo lhom as ono of lho companions of lho Suffah
and vhom poopIo such as lhoso (rich, affIuonl Arabs) vouId
naluraIIv IooI al as boing a conlomplibIo and Iov porson vho
possossod lho framo and phvsicaI foaluros lhal ho did.

Iubair said, ¨O´ Zivad! I havo broughl a mossago lo vou from lho
Mossongor of AIIah! This mossago is in roIalion lo mvsoIf ÷ shouId I
procIaim il in lho opon or in privalo (lo vou)`¨

Zivad, vho couId nol ovon lhinI lhal lhis man from Yamamah had
anv noods said, ¨Whv shouId vou sav il in privalo` SpoaI il oul! I
am honourod lo hoar lho mossago of lho Irophol of AIIah!¨

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1S3
Iubair said, ¨Tho Irophol has commandod lhal vou aro lo marrv
vour daughlor DhuIavfa lo Iubair.¨

Zivad, vho vas nol anlicipaling lo hoar such a mossago, vilh
compIolo shocI and surpriso said, ¨Aro vou lrulhfuI lhal lho NobIo
Irophol has sonl vou horo for lhis roason`¨

Iubair said, ¨Yos! I havo novor allribulod a Iio lo lho Mossongor of
AIIah!¨ Zivad said, ¨I (onIv) marrv mv daughlors lo lhoso poopIo
vho aro oquaI and al lhoir samo slalus lhal vo aro al and lhal loo
from lho poopIo of lho Ansar. Iubair! You mav go bacI and Iol mo
go soo lho Irophol and convov mv apoIogios lo him.¨

Iubair rolurnod bacI in a slalo of confusion and said lo himsoIf lhal,
¨I svoar bv AIIah! Tho Our'an doos nol condono or sanclion lho
aclions of lhis man, nor vas lho inlonlion of lho aposlIoship of
Muhammad (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) for
lhis.¨

DhuIavfa, lho daughlor of Zivad vas bohind lho curlain (in lho
room) and vas vilnoss lo aII lhal had lranspirod and hoard lho finaI
vords lhal hor falhor said lo lhis man from Yamama. Thoso vords
of hor falhor voighod hoaviIv upon hor and il couId bo said lhal lho
failh and boIiof lhal sho had in lho Irophol doop in hor hoarl had
boon robuIod. Thoroforo, sho immodialoIv sonl a porson lo go lo
hor falhor and from bohind lho curlains (in hor room) sho
summonod hor falhor and roproachod him saving, ¨Mv doar falhor!
Whal is lhis lhal I hoard vou saving` Whv did vou spoaI lo lhis
porson lhal vas sonl bv lho Irophol as vou did`¨

Zivad ropIiod, ¨Did vou nol hoar vhal lhal man said` Wilh lho
slalo lhal ho is in, ho cIaimod lhal lho Irophol had sonl him lo mo
and vas commanding mo lo marrv mv daughlor DhuIavfa - vou ÷
lo himsoIf.¨
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


1S4
DhuIavfa said, ¨I hoard vhal ho said, hovovor I svoar bv AIIah lhal
Iubair is nol lho lvpo of porson vho vouId oponIv Iio againsl lho
Irophol. In anv caso, ho vas sonl bv lho Irophol and ho dofiniloIv
loIIs lho lrulh. You musl immodialoIv sond somoono lo calch up lo
Iubair boforo ho roachos lho Irophol and convovs vour ropIv lo him
and asI him lo rolurn horo.¨

Ip unliI lhis poinl, il vas as if Zivad vas in a doop sIumbor vhich
his daughlor had lo vaIo him up from and vilhoul anv quoslions,
ho immodialoIv sonl a porson lo go aflor lho man from Yamamah
and roquoslod him lo rolurn. Iubair rolurnod lo lho houso, lhough
Zivad did nol pav allonlion lo lho chango in lho monlaI slalo and
confusion lhal Iubair vas in, vilh opon arms, ho voIcomod him and
said, ¨Iubair! ThanI vou for coming! I roquosl vou lo slav horo for
a IillIo vhiIo unliI I rolurn.¨

Zivad Iofl him in lho houso and vonl lo lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and loId him, ¨O´ Mossongor of
AIIah! Mav mv falhor and molhor bo sacrificod for vou! Iubair
broughl vour mossago lo mo and loId mo lhal vou had commandod
mo lo marrv mv daughlor DhuIavfa lo him, hovovor I did nol shov
mv pIoasuro or happinoss lo him and lhoughl lhal I shouId como
and spoaI lo vou lhal vhich I fooI is nocossarv. Our cuslom is lhal
vo givo our daughlors in marriago lo a porson vho, from lho poinl
of viov of his nobiIilv, honour and olhor aspocls, is al lho samo
slalus of us. Thoroforo, in lho fuluro, a porson from lho Ansar vho
possossos lhoso lrails viII bo lho husband of mv daughlor.¨

Tho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) ropIiod, ¨Iubair is a MusIim man and a boIiovor and in lho
loachings of IsIam a MusIim man is lho oquaI lo a MusIim voman
and anv boIioving man is al lho samo slalus as a boIioving voman.
Thoroforo, Iubair is lho oquaI (in sociolaI slalus) lo vour daughlor
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1S5
and lhoroforo, vou musl gol lhom marriod as soon as possibIo and
lhoro is nolhing lhal can oxcuso vou from lhis ordor.¨

Sooing as hov Zivad vas nol abIo lo havo his vav (vilh lho
Irophol), ho rolurnod lo his houso and vonl diroclIv lo his daughlor
and loId hor vhal lho Irophol said lo him. His daughlor ropIiod,
¨Thoroforo, lhoro is no choico bul lo compIv vilh lho ordor. If I go
againsl lho Irophol, lhon I viII bocomo a disboIiovor.¨

Zivad camo oul of his houso, looI lho hand of Iubair and looI him
lo lho oIdors and soniors of his lribo, and in lhoir prosonco, marriod
his daughlor lo him. Tho Mahr (dovrv) vhich had boon spocifiod
bv lho Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) and vas agrood upon vas lho lradilionaI Mahr of 500
dirham. Aflor lhis, lho proparalions for lho vodding coIobralion
voro mado and lho gifls lhal voro lo bo givon lo his daughlor voro
purchasod. Tho mossago vas lhon passod on lo Iubair lhal his vifo
vas nov roadv for him and al lhis poinl, ho vas asIod if ho had a
houso. Iubair ropIiod, ¨No, bv AIIah! I do nol havo mv ovn houso.¨
Tho ordor vas lhon givon lhal a houso shouId bo givon lo lho brido
and hor husband and aII lho nocossilios of lho houso ÷ vhalovor
lhov noodod ÷ voro galhorod logolhor. Tvo nov piocos of cIolhing
voro aIso givon lo Iubair and lho brido vas broughl lo hor nov
homo in a spociaI mannor.

Iubair onlorod inlo lho bridaI chambor, hovovor conlrarv lo his
oxpoclalions, ho vas nol happv al vhal ho sav. Ho IooIod lovards
his vifo and lhon gIancod around lho bodroom. IooIing around, ho
sav lho goId, ornamonls, rug, curlains vhich had aII boon porfumod
vilh musI and ambor vhich roaIIv aslonishod him. Wilhoul saving
a vord or paving anv allonlion lo his vifo, ho looI a pIaco in lho
room and unliI lho rising of lho sun, vas busv in lho rocilalion of
lho Our'an and SaIal. Ho hoard lho sound of lho Adhan from lho
Masjid of lho Irophol al lho limo of Fajr and lhus mado his vav lo
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


1S6
lho Masjid, vhiIo his vifo mado hor Wudhu and porformod hor
SaIal al homo.

In lho morning, lho Iadios of lho cilv aII mado lhoir vav lo hor houso
and boing impalionl as lhov voro, vanlod lo hoar aboul lho nighl
lhal sho sponl vilh hor nov husband. Thov procIaimod, ¨DhuIavfa!
Did vour husband como lo vou Iasl nighl`¨ In a slalo of
ombarrassmonl, DhuIavfa said lo lhom, ¨No. From lho boginning of
lho nighl unliI morning, ho vas busv in lho rocilalion of lho Our'an
and in lho porformanco of lho SaIal and al lho broaIing of davn
vhon ho hoard lho Adhan, ho vonl lo lho Masjid.¨

Tho samo ovonl lhal happonod on lho firsl nighl lranspirod on lho
socond nighl as voII and during lhoso lvo davs, lhoro vas no
phvsicaI conlacl bolvoon lho husband and vifo: hovovor lho Iadios
and cIoso famiIv mombors of lho brido did nol monlion anv of lhis
lo lho brido´s falhor.

Tho lhird nighl ondod in lho samo vav as lho firsl lvo nighls and al
lhis poinl, lho vomon broIo lhoir soaI of siIonco and loId DhuIavfa´s
falhor of vhal had happonod. Zivad procoodod lo lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and said lo him:
¨O´ Mossongor of AIIah! Mav mv falhor and molhor bo sacrificod
for vou! You commandod mo lo marrv mv daughlor lo Iubair ovon
lhough ho vas in no vav compalibIo vilh us and vas nol oquaI lo
us and vo sliII obovod vour commands and in vhalovor vav
possibIo, vo sonl lho brido on hor vav and broughl lho brido lo lho
homo of our son-in-Iav.¨

Tho Irophol said, ¨CongraluIalions! Bul havo vou soon somolhing
bad from him`¨

Zivad said, ¨This man had absoIuloIv nolhing lo his namo, I gavo aII
lho nocossilios for his houso lo him and gavo mv daughlor in
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1S7
submission lo him, hovovor I did nol oxpocl him lo acl in lho vav
lhal ho has!¨

Tho Irophol ropIiod, ¨Whal has ho dono`¨

Zivad said, ¨Nolhing. On lho nighl of lho vodding, Iubair onlorod
inlo lho room and vilhoul ovon paving anv allonlion lo mv
daughlor, vilh a sad faco, ho sal in a cornor of lho room unliI lho
morning busv in lho rocilalion of lho Our'an and in lho porformanco
of SaIal and al lho limo of Fajr, ho Iofl lho houso. Tho socond nighl
vas jusl lho samo as lho firsl, hovovor his aclions voro Iopl hiddon
from mo. Tho lhird nighl passod lho samo as lho firsl lvo nighls
and il vas al lhis limo lhal lho novs vas givon lo mo and nov, I am
coming lo vou so lhal vou can inlorvono in lhis mallor. This prosonl
slalo of affairs can nol bo loIoralod! I lhinI lhal lhis man doos nol
possoss anv soxuaI dosiro and has no IiIing for vomon.¨ Zivad
finishod his laII and Iofl.

Tho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
caIIod Iubair and asIod him, ¨Do vou nol havo anv IiIing for
vomon`¨ Iubair ropIiod, ¨Of courso I do ÷ am I nol a man`
IncidonlaIIv, I havo a slrong incIinalion for vomon.¨

Tho Irophol ropIiod, ¨Hovovor I havo boon givon roporls lhal run
conlrarv lo lhis. I havo boon informod lhal vou havo boon givon a
magnificonl houso viII aII lho lhings lhal vou vouId nood incIuding
a boaulifuI daughlor vho drossos up for vou and jusl IiIo lho
branch of a fIovor, sho is porfumod and svool smoIIing, hovovor
vou onlorod lho bodroom vilh a grim IooI on vour faco and did nol
ovon sav ono vord lo hor! Has an unoxpoclod ovonl como upon
vou`¨

Iubair ropIiod, ¨O´ Mossongor of AIIah! For manv voars I vas aIono
in lho Suffah. AII of a suddon aflor mv marriago, mv ovos voro
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


1SS
oponod lo a vido, spacious houso vilh aII lvpos of iloms and
nocossilios of Iifo and a boaulifuI, svool smoIIing vifo has boon
givon lo mo. In lhis slalo, lhal condilion lhal I had passod manv
voars lhrough camo lo mv mind. Tho lhoughls of povorlv and
misorv and naIodnoss, boing aIono vilhoul anvono, Iiving amongsl
lho poor, doslilulo ÷ aII of lhoso lhings camo bacI lo mo ono aflor lho
olhor. I sav il far from boing jusl lhal boforo I maIo uso of aII lhoso
bIossings lhal I havo boon givon, vilhoul firsl lhanIing AIIah.

Il is bocauso of lhis in ordor lo lhanI Him and gol cIosor lo AIIah, I
looI a cornor of lho room lo mvsoIf and from nighl unliI morning,
vas busv in lho rocilalion of lho Our'an, RuIu and Sujud: and vhiIo
in lho slalo of Sujud I vouId lhanI AIIah as much as possibIo unliI I
hoard lho sound of lho Adhan and al lhis limo, I vouId Ioavo lho
houso. I vouId spond lho vhoIo dav in fasling unliI lho broaIing of
lho fasl and I conlinuod lhis acl for lho pasl lhroo davs. Through aII
of lhis, I havo humbIod and pul mvsoIf lo shamo in lho prosonco of
AIIah and havo considorod lhoso acls of mino as boing lriviaI.
Hovovor lodav I viII pul lhoso acls lo an ond and lonighl, vilh lho
pormission of AIIah, I viII maIo mv vifo pIoasod vilh mo.¨

Aflor hoaring lho vords of Iubair, lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) caIIod Zivad lo como lo him
and vhal ho had hoard from Iubair vas roIalod lo Zivad. Whon
Zivad and his onliro famiIv hoard lhis, lhov bocamo oxlromoIv
happv and lhoso vords (of Iubair from lho Irophol) roIiovod aII of
lho discomforl and dislross lhal lhov foIl.

Thal dav passod on and lho nighl of lho fourlh slarlod, hovovor in
roaIilv, lhis vas lho firsl nighl of lhoir marriago. Iubair vas failhfuI
lo lho promiso lhal ho had mado and lho nov groom and his brido
slarlod lhoir happv, pIoasanl Iifo logolhor.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


1S9
Bv acling in lhis mannor, lho NobIo Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) vas lrving lo maIo il Inovn lo lho
unruIv poopIo of his limo and ovon of lodav, lhal nol onIv havo vo
boon commandod lo doslrov lho slono and mud idoIs, ralhor ovon
aII of lho irralionaI idoIs of dislinclion and cIass supromacv musl bo
romovod. Yos! This unoquaIIod marriago vas lho conlro of
allonlion for aII of lho poopIo of Madinah ÷ in facl for aII of lho
MusIims - vhich formuIalod and mado slrong lho spiriluaI povor
and infIuonco of lho Irophol and aIso broughl somo of lho programs
and pIans of lho roIigion of IsIam lo lho praclicaI IovoI.

Tho popuIarilv and laII lhal camo aboul from lhis marriago had nol
ovon sloppod, vhon lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) dispalchod a group of companions lovards lho
ballIo fronl. Iubair vho had boon roconlIv marriod vas sonl and il
vas during lhis ballIo lhal ho vas IiIIod and vas bIossod lo drinI
from lho cup of marlvrdom. His boaulifuI vifo DhuIavfa, vas
lhrovn inlo mourning for lho doalh of hor husband. Hovovor, aflor
lhis, DhuIavfa, IiIo lho olhor vomon did nol slav a vidov, ralhor,
sho rocoivod proposaIs from MusIims ovorvvhoro and moro lhan
anv olhor voman, poopIo vanlod lo marrv hor.

Whv is AIIah Consciousnoss (Taqva) lho Criloria for
ExcoIIonco`

Wo musl find oul vhal lho rools and condilions vhich roIalo lo lho
souI and spiril aro lhal maIo ono porson bollor lhan anolhor. In
olhor vords, from lho lruo faclor lhal maIos up a porson vhich is
his souI, vo musl laIo Iossons and vo musl novor IooI al voaIlh,
proporlv, nalionaIilv, coIour or slalus in lho vorId, possossion of
chiIdron or gonoaIogv in roIalion lo olhor lribos or groups of poopIo
or individuaIs as boing lho lruo visago of vhal maIos up a porson´s
characlor and slalus. Thoso aro aII far and soparalod from lho lrulh
Chaplor XV : IsIam and RaciaI Suporiorilv


190
and lhus nono of lhoso pIav anv roIo in lho characlor or lho
groalnoss of a porson.

Yos! Tho nobIo olhicaI lrails and Ioflv spiriluaI characlorislics such
as lrulhfuInoss, Iovo, nobiIilv and friondship or cognizanco (of
AIIah) vhich lruIv bring aboul lho unilv of a porson vilh his souI
aro lho criloria vhich musl bo usod lo dolormino lho groalnoss of an
individuaI. Il is lhoso characlorislics vhich if unilod logolhor vilhin
somoono lruIv maIo up his humanilv and spiriluaI characlor.

Hovovor aII of lho oulvard, apparonl characlorislics of a porson can
nol Ioad lo a good domoanor of ono, if lhov aro nol accompaniod
vilh lho characlorislic of consciousnoss of AIIah (Taqva) and
Iooping avav from sins, vhich in roaIilv moans lhal ono obsorvos
and mainlains lho righls of bolh AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
and humanilv. This is said bocauso oach of lhoso Ioflv humanislic
lrails can onIv bo cIassifiod as a prido for lho porson vhon ho doos
nol lrampIo upon lho righls lhal ho musl obsorvo in roIalion lo AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho poopIo around him. In olhor
lhan lhis, nol onIv can lhoso lrails nol bo cIassifiod as a prido for lho
porson, ralhor, lhov vouId bo calogorizod as him slopping ovor lho
boundarios and vouId acluaIIv bo nogalivo moraI lrails for him.











Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


191

























Chaplor Sixloon

'IsIam´ and 'Iman´ from lho
Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


193
Vorso 14
'IsIam´ and 'Iman´ from lho Viovpoinl of lho Our'an

.· ' `¸´ .`·`.` `. ¸· ´·¯ `.`·. ¸`-` ´ ``' ..·
' . `.´.· ¸· ... .`·,=` ' `.´`·' `¸`· .´` . `·.` ·
. ·`,Š ' · `.,-` `.·
Tho Dosorl Arabs (como lo vou O´ Muhammad) and sav 'Wo havo lruo
boIiof!´ Sav lo lhom (O´ Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and
his progonv) lhal, ´You aro nol lruo boIiovors, ralhor vou havo onIv
submillod (lo AIIah), sinco lruo failh has nol vol onlorod inlo vour hoarls.
Hovovor if vou voro lo obov AIIah and His Mossongor (Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lhon nolhing vouId bo
roducod from vour good doods. SuroIv AIIah is AII-Forgiving, AII-
MorcifuI.´

ho axis of discussion of lhis vorso rovoIvos around a group
of poopIo vho voro ¨apparonlIv¨ MusIims lhal voro
prolonding lo bo of lhoso vho submillod and had lruo failh
- hovovor nol ovon lho smaIIosl amounl of failh oxislod in lhoir
hoarls! This group is Inovn as lho hvpocrilos vhoso dangor is
much moro sorious lhan lhal of olhors, sinco lho Iovs and Chrislians
aro lho Inovn and apparonl onomios of IsIam: hovovor lho
hvpocrilos aro lho undislinguishabIo onomios. Thus, lho damago
and injurv lhal poopIo al lhis IovoI can infIicl is much groalor lhan
lho olhor group (Iovs and Chrislians)
109


109
This lopic has boon lhoroughIv oxpIainod bv lhis aulhor in his
commonlarv of Surah aI-Munafiqun undor vorso numbor 4 lhal roads:

`.`· ' `· ' ``-· `.`·

T
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


194
Bv sludving lho vorsos of lho Our'an in vhich lho vords 'IsIam´ and
'Iman´ aro monlionod in lhoir various forms, ono can roach lo lho
concIusion lhal in mosl casos, lho vord 'IsIam´ (submission) is usod
as an opposilo lo 'ShirI´ (poIvlhoism) and 'Iman´ (lruo failh) is usod
as an opposilo lo 'Kufr´ (disboIiof) and 'Fisq´ (vicIodnoss).

Tho IoxicaI moaning of lho vord IsIam is 'submission and humiIilv´:
vhiIo lho IoxicaI moaning of lho vord Iman is 'assuranco and
confidonco´. Thoroforo, lho moaning of IsIam in lho Ianguago of lho
Divino loachings is lho slalo of humiIilv and submission lo lho
Croalor of lho Inivorso and lhal vhich is opposilo lo lhis is ShirI
(poIvlhoism) and IIhad (alhoism). Il shouId aIso bo monlionod lhal
an alhoisl is nol humbIo or submissivo lo anvlhing, vhoroas a
MushriI (poIvlhoisl) submils lo idoIs, bodios or lhings lhal havo
boon fashionod bv ono´s ovn hands.

Sooing as lo hov during lho limo vhon lho Our'an vas boing
rovoaIod, lho moaning of a MuIhid (alhoisl) vas a porson vho did
nol boIiovo in a Croalor, in mosl casos, lho vord IsIam vas usod as
an opposilo lo ShirI and a MusIim vas usod as an opposilo lo a
MushriI. Iav allonlion lo lho foIIoving vorsos of lho Our'an:

¸` ¸· ¯' .' `.`·' . .`' `¸· .`' .. ¸· `¸.´
' ¯`ƒ` , . ¸
¨Sav (O´ Muhammad): "CorlainIv I havo boon commandod
lo bo lho firsl of lhoso vho submil (lo AIIah (in IsIam)) and
unquoslionabIv nol lo bo of lhoso vho join (gods) vilh
AIIah.¨
110



¨Thov aro vour onomios so lhon bovaro of lhom.¨
110
Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 14
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


195
`.´`.,· `· `- `ƒ .``' `·· ' `-` . •
¨So lhon vour god is Ono God: submil lhon vour viII
(onliro prosonco) lo Him (in IsIam): and givo lho good
novs (O´ Muhammad) lo lhoso vho humbIo
lhomsoIvos.¨
111


',`. . '·.`. `.,·` .¯ · `¸´ ¯ . `'· ,-
¯ · ¸· . ' ,¯`ƒ` . ¸
¨(Irophol) Ibrahim vas nol a Iov, nor vas ho a Chrislian:
bul ho vas lruo in failh (Hanif) and ho bovod his viII
(onliro prosonco) lo AIIah (in IsIam), and ho vas nol of
lhoso vho joinod gods (vilh AIIah).¨
112


```· Œ-` ¸,·` .,·` :•¯ ·. :..
.. - ..```· `· `¸`-
¨Wo shaII vorship vour God and lho God of vour falhors,
of Ibrahim and IsmaiI and Ishaq - lho ono (Truo) God
(AIIah) and lo Him do vo aII submil (in IsIam).¨
113


¸· `' `¸ ¸-.` ` `. ´ `. `· `- ..``'· .`' ¸.·
¨Sav (O´ Muhammad): 'Thal vhich has boon rovoaIod lo
mo (from AIIah) is lhal vour God is lho Ono God (AIIah):
viII vou lhon bo of lhoso vho submil lo him as MusIims
(in IsIam)`¨
114


111
Surah aI-Hajj (22), Vorso 34
112
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 67
113
Surah aI-Baqarah (2), Vorso 133
114
Surah aI-Anbiva (21), Vorso 10S
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


196
:Š . ' `.`·' : `· .`' ' •``
¨Ho has no parlnors and lo lhis I havo boon commandod
and I am lho firsl of lhoso vho submil (ono of lho
MusIims).¨
115


. . ·. ' ¸,•` .` · `.·¯ . ¸· ' •``
¨Thoro is no god oxcopl Him Whom lho ChiIdron of Isra´iI
boIiovo in and I am ono of lhoso vho submil (lo AIIah in
IsIam).¨
116


Bv paving cIoso allonlion lo lhoso vorsos lhal prosonl lho moaning of
IsIam and aII lho dorivalivos lhal como from lhis vord, vo soo lhal
lruIv lhis vord moans humiIilv lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) and lurning avav from aII forms of poIvlhoism and divorging
lhoughls. Sooing as lo hov lho vorship of lho Ono Croalor and
abandoning anv sorl of poIvlhoism and nol paving hood lo anv
croalod objocl, is lho fundamonlaI boIiof of aII of lho HoavonIv
Toachings, il is bocauso of lhis facl lhal from lho vorv firsl dav lhal
manIind vas croalod, lhoro has novor boon moro lhan ono lruo
roIigion and lhal is aI-IsIam, jusl as il is monlionod in lho Our'an:

. ' `· ¸` ' · ' `··`.
¨InquoslionabIv lho onIv Din (compIolo codo and vav of
Iifo) accoplabIo lo AIIah is aI-IsIam.¨
117




115
Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 163
116
Surah Yunus (10), Vorso 90
117
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 19
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


197
`,” ·` `¸· ' `·`· ¸` `¸· · ··`.
¨And vhoovor choosos olhor lhan aI-IsIam as his Din -
lhon il viII novor bo accoplod from him.¨
11S


Givon lhal lho Our'an vishos lo invilo lho foIIovors of lho InjiI and
lho Tavral lo ono common goaI and aim, aII of humanilv havo boon
invilod lovards aI-IsIam. In addilion, lho roaIilv of IsIam is lhal lho
foIIovors do nol lurn lo poIvlhoism and lho vorship of idoIs, as il
has boon monlionod in lho Our'an:

... . ``· .' ' · . .`.`· .-` . ·`,Š · ·`ƒ`
`' .`· `¸`· .`· ' .,· · ...· .. ' `..`Š .´'
..```·
¨´.lhal vo shaII nol vorship anv olhor croaluro or onlilv
olhor lhan AIIah and vo shaII nol solup vilh Him parlnors
and vo viII nol laIo somo poopIo ovor us as Iords olhor
lhan AIIah.´ So lhon if lhov lurn avav (and do nol accopl
lhoso lhings) lhon sav lo lhom (O´ Muhammad) lhal 'Boar
vilnoss suroIv vo aro of lhoso vho submil (as
MusIims).´¨
119


Again, sinco lho roaIilv of IsIam is lo vorship AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) and lo lurn avav from ovorvlhing olhor lhan Him,
and during aII limos and agos lhis is vhal manIind has boon
commandod lo foIIov, vo soo lhal ovon aflor buiIding lho Kabah,
Irophol Ibrahim aI-KhaIiI aI-Rahman (poaco bo upon him) pravod lo

11S
Ibid., Vorso S5
119
Ibid., Vorso 64
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


19S
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) lo maIo him and his chiIdron
MusIims, vhon ho said:

` ' `· ·`‰ ``· `¸· : •` . : ·``· ·`·' .
¨O´ our Iord! MaIo us from lhoso vho submil lo You (as
MusIims) and aIso (maIo) our chiIdron lo bo from lho
nalion of submillors (MusIims) lo You.¨
120


Tho Our'an aIso hoIds firm lo lho boIiof lhal Irophol Ibrahim (poaco
bo upon him) had namod lhoso poopIo vho vorshippod AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) from a provious limo as boing
MusIims:

`.¯´ .`· ' ¸`· `¸· •``
¨Il is ho (Ibrahim) vho caIIod vou MusIims from boforo.¨
121


From lhoso vorsos of lho Our'an, vo can doduco lhal lho lrulh of
IsIam and lho principIo goaI of lhis roIigion (in lho inslancos lhal
havo boon oIucidalod lo in lhoso vorsos) is submission and
obodionco in lho prosonco of lho Trulh vhich laIos form in lho
vorship of Ono God (AIIah, GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho).

Il goos vilhoul saving lhal lho conlro for lhis form of lruo
submission vhich is aIso lho basis lhrough vhich ono is savod from
lho firo of hoII and is gracod vilh lho bounlios of AIIah (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) is lho hoarl and lho souI of lho porson.
Thoroforo, a MusIim is ono vho is humbIo and submissivo from lho
bollom of his hoarl lovards AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and

120
Surah aI-Baqarah (2), Vorso 12S
121
Surah aI-Hajj (22), Vorso 7S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


199
doos nol accopl anvono or anvlhing olhor lhan Him al lho IovoI of
Iordship.

Tho firsl parl of lho bodv lhal lhis manifosls ilsoIf on lo is lho longuo
of lho porson (lhrough lho vorbaI docIaralion), foIIovod bv lho olhor
parls of lho bodv. Thoroforo lho lruo mooling poinl of submission
and obodionco is lho hoarl and souI of a porson and lho longuo is
simpIv lho facuIlv lhrough vhich il is mado Inovn.

AnaIvsis of lho Word 'Iman´

In lho Our'an, lho vord Iman (lruo failh) is usod as an opposilo lo
lho vord Kufr (disboIiof). A poinl lhal musl bo monlionod in
roIalion lo lhis is lhal Iman is a monlaI slalo of boIioving and
accopling somolhing. Wilh lhis said, vo soo lhal Kufr is in lho
moaning of covoring up somolhing and lhus is lho opposilo of Iman.
Il is said lhal lhrough his ovn disrogard and doniaI (of lho Trulh), a
disboIiovor covors up lho lruo visago of lho Trulh and in lhis
roIalion, lho Our'an slalos:

.` `¸· ' ´ .. ¸. `· ... ' ¸.,`
¨Bul vhoovor changos from lruo failh (Iman) lo disboIiof
(Kufr) has dofiniloIv slravod from lho corrocl vav.¨
122


´ `.`· .`· `.`.`· `.·' ··`.
¨On lhal dav, lhov voro noaror lo disboIiof (Kufr)lhan lhov
voro lo lruo failh (Iman).¨
123



122
Surah aI-Baqarah (2), Vorso 10S
123
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 167
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


200
. ' .'-` ' ¸· ´ ' .`.
¨If lhov Iovo disboIiof (Kufr) ovor lruo failh (Iman).¨
124


`·`.` · .. ' ·`., ' . -
¨Thov havo lruo failh (Iman) in AIIah and lho Iasl Dav.¨
125


..`,` •`,… ..`·`.` ¸' ' ··`.
¨Thoso poopIo vho havo lruo failh (Iman) in lho unsoon
and uphoId lho SaIal.¨
126


`' :¯ . . :`, ' · .´ . `,¯ ¸ . `.`·
' · ..`·`.` .´
¨And lhus (il is) Wo lhal havo sonl dovn lho BooI (aI-
Our'an) lo vou (O´ Muhammad). So, lho poopIo vho havo
boon givon lho booI havo lruo failh lhoroin.¨
127


Tho concIusion lhal vo arrivo al bv sludving lhoso vorsos is lhal lho
inlondod moaning of IsIam in lho Ianguago of lho Our'an is
submission and humiIilv in lho prosonco of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho): vhiIo ShirI is cIassifiod as humiIilv in lho prosonco
of idoIs ÷ vhich aro mado from lho lhings lhal AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) HimsoIf has croalod.

Tho moaning of Iman in lho Our'an is voIunlarv submission and
obodionco lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lhoso lhings

124
Surah al-Tavbah (9), Vorso 23
125
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 114
126
Surah aI-Baqarah (2), Vorso 2
127
Surah aI-AnIabul (29), Vorso 47
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


201
vhich aro connoclod lo Him such as lho Iropholic Mission of lho
Irophols, lho Dav of Iudgomonl, lho HoavonIv booIs and olhor
(such) lhings and lhis is lho opposilo lo Kufr in vhich aII of lhoso
lhings or ovon somo of lhom aro doniod and nol accoplod.

If lho lruo visago of IsIam is submission and alloslalion, lhon
vilhoul doubl lho lruo focaI poinl of lhoso lvo slalos is lho ruh
(spiril) and lho souI of a porson, and lho longuo and olhor parls of
ono´s bodv aro lho pIacos vhoro lho phvsicaI manifoslalions of lhoso
lvo slalos aro mado. Hovovor, if lho moaning of lhoso lvo vords is
simpIv lo shov or domonslralo ono´s submission and obodionco
ovon lhough in lho hoarl and doop dovn in lho souI of lho porson,
lhoro aro no offocls prosonl - jusl as vo find poopIo in vhoso hoarls
lhoro is no offocl of submission or obodionco, hovovor bv lhoir
vords lhov acl as if lhov aro submilling and obodionl lo AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) - lhon in lhis ovonl lho manifoslalion
of submission and obodionco viII simpIv romain on lhoir longuos.
In somo of lho vorsos of lho Our'an, lhis sorl of oxlornaI or apparonl
form of IsIam and dishonosl Iman has boon monlionod.

In roIalion lo lho causo of rovoIalion of lho vorso undor discussion,
lho Commonlalors of lho Our'an havo narralod lhal a group of
poopIo from lho lribo of Bani Asad camo lo lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo asI pormission lo uso lho
ZaIal and lhov mado Inovn lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) lhal lhov had lruo failh in him (lhov had
Iman). AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) commandod lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo sav lo lhom
lhal, ¨You havo accoplod IsIam (nol Iman), sinco lruo failh has nol
vol onlorod inlo vour hoarls.¨

Il goos vilhoul saving lhal jusl as Iman had nol onlorod inlo lhoir
hoarls, so loo IsIam (submission) had aIso nol onlorod inlo lhoir
hoarls and lhoir submission or accoplanco of IsIam vas nolhing
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


202
moro lhan a vorbaI alloslalion. Hovovor, vhv is il lhal lho Irophol
loId lhom— ¨Do nol sav lhal vou havo lruo failh (Iman), ralhor sav
lhal vou havo submillod (accoplod IsIam)¨ sinco from lho apparonl
poinl of viov lhov had accoplod IsIam and Iman, hovovor doop
dovn insido lhomsoIvos, lhov had noilhor Iman nor IsIam` Wo viII
oIaboralo upon lhoso poinls Ialor on.

In lho Our'an, lhoro aro somo vorsos vhich spoaI aboul vorbaI failh
such as:

:```- . ' ¸· ..`·` ¸ ' ¸· ´ ' ´·¯ .· ¸
`¸·`.` `. `..·.·' `.`.`.·
¨(O´ Muhammad!) Do nol Iol lhoso poopIo griovo vou
vho raco oach olhor inlo disboIiof (Kufr) (if il bo) among
lhoso vho sav ¨Wo boIiovo¨ vilh lhoir moulhs bul vhoso
hoarls havo no lruo failh (Iman).¨
12S


From lhis discussion, il is cIoar lhal lho lruo focaI poinl of IsIam and
Iman is lho hoarl and souI of a porson and lho longuo is lho pIaco
vhoro lho phvsicaI manifoslalion of lhoso lvo lrails laIos pIaco.
Somolimos hovovor, il is possibIo lhal lho lruo phvsicaI
manifoslalion of IsIam and Iman do nol occur and lho prosonco of
IsIam and Iman is nol mado Inovn vilhin lho doplhs of a porson.
Thoroforo, opposod lo vhal somo poopIo mav imagino, Iman is nol
parlicuIarIv roIalod lo lho hoarl and IsIam is nol parlicuIarIv roIalod
lo lho longuo (vorbaI confirmalion) - ralhor bolh of lhoso, bolh from
lho innor and lho oulor aspocls - aro of various dogroos and IovoIs.




12S
Surah aI-Maidah (5), Vorso 41
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


203
Anolhor Moaning of 'IsIam´ and 'Iman´

Tho popuIar and provaIonl moaning of lhoso lvo lorms aro jusl as
havo boon monlionod, hovovor lhoro aro somo olhor vorsos of lho
Our'an and ahadilh lhal offor anolhor inlorprolalion of lhom, of
vhich vo monlion somo of lhom horo.

1. Somolimos IsIam is dofinod as lho phvsicaI submission, vhoroas
Iman is Iimilod spocificaIIv lo lho olhoroaI boIiofs and lhoso aro lho
moanings of lhoso lvo vords vhon lhov aro usod logolhor as
opposilos lo ono anolhor. Tho porson vho is hoaring lhoso vords is
in a posilion vhoro ho musl soparalo (lvo lhings from lhomsoIvos),
as can bo soon in lho vorso undor discussion. In lhis vorso, vo soo
lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
had boon commandod bv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) lo loII
lho poopIo from lho lribo of Bani Asad vho had como lo him lo asI
pormission lo uso lho ZaIal and oulvardIv shovod lhal lhov had
accoplod lho failh. Il vas horo lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah
bo upon him and his progonv) vas commandod lo loII lhom lhal
lhov had accoplod IsIam (submission), bul nol Iman (lruo failh).

This sonlonco cIoarIv shovs lhal bv allribuling IsIam lo lhoso
poopIo, lhov had lravorsod ono of lho slagos and IovoIs of IsIam
vhich vas lho vorbaI submission bul nol aII of lho IovoIs lhal IsIam
onlaiIs. AIso bv nogaling anv sorl of Iman lhal lhov possossod, lhis
nogalion vas onIv in roIalion lo somo of lho slagos and IovoIs of
Iman of vhich lho hiddon or lruo failh of lho hoarl is lhal vhich vas
nogalod from lhoso poopIo and nol aII lho IovoIs of Iman. This is lho
caso sinco vo soo lhal from lho apparonl aspocl lhov had accoplod
IsIam and lhov aIso had Iman, hovovor if vo IooIod al vhal vas
doop in lhoir hoarls, lhov noilhor had IsIam nor Iman.

Il is possibIo lhal lho roason vhv lhoso lvo vords aro usod in lhis
fashion is lhal lho mosl cIoar aroa of manifoslalion of submission (lo
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


204
AIIah, GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) is lho longuo and lho mosl
naluraI parl of lho bodv in vhich Iman vouId bo mado manifosl is
lho souI and spiril of a porson. Duo lo lhis, in lho vorso undor
discussion vo soo lhal lho vord IsIam is simpIv lho IsIam of lho
longuo and Iman is lho Iman of lho spiril: and bocauso of lhis, il is
corrocl lo slalo lhal ono of lhoso confirms lho olhor ono, vhiIo lho
olhor ono nogalos lho firsl ono.

2. IsIam is a phraso lhal is confossod bv lho longuo and is IinIod lo
lho boIiofs lhal ono has in his hoarl. Hovovor in rogards lo Iman, in
addilion lo lhis (dofinilion), il aIso onlaiIs acling according lo ono´s
rosponsibiIilios (of lho roIigion) and lhis is lho moaning lhal has
boon spocifiod in lho ahadilh.

Muhammad ibno MusIim has narralod from oilhor Imam
Muhammad ibno AIi aI-Baqir or Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-
Sadiq (poaco bo upon lhom bolh) lhal il vas said:

· ...' ` ¸· ' · `··`. ` ¸··
¨Iman is lho confossion (bv lho longuo) and acling
(according lo ono´s rosponsibiIilv) and IsIam is confossion
(bv lho longuo) vilhoul acling.¨
129


In a Iollor vhich Imam AIi ibno Musa aI-RiJa (poaco bo upon him)
vrolo lo Ma'mun, ho summarizod IsIam bv slaling lho foIIoving:

`.-`.' ' .`·¯ . ..`·`.`· . ..```· ·``-
¨Tho poopIo upon vhom lho punishmonl of AIIah musl bo
molod oul aro lho MusIims, nol lhoso vho havo lruo failh
(Mu'minun), nor lho disboIiovors (Kafirun).¨
130


129
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 6S, Iago 246
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


205
Hovovor, lhoso poopIo (of lho lribo of Bani Asad) aro MusIims, sinco
bolh in lhoir hoarl and lhrough lhoir longuo lhov had loslifiod lo lho
lrulhfuInoss of lho roIigion of IsIam, hovovor lhov voro nol lruo
boIiovors (Mu'minun). This is said bocauso lho foundalion of IsIam
is basod on acling according lo lho injunclions of lho roIigion
vhoroas a porson vho commils a sin lhal nocossilalos lho
punishmonl lhal AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has proscribod
has naluraIIv lrampIod upon a sorios of rosponsibiIilios lhal AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has pIacod for him.

BuiIding up on lhis inlorprolalion, lhoro is a voII Inovn hadilh
vhich has boon narralod in lho booIs of lho AhI aI-Sunnah and lho
Shia lhal slalos:

`·` . ' ¸.` . `¸·`.`· .`· `·` ¸`,- `·´ ' ¸´
`¸·`.`· .`· ¸.` ¸`,- .
¨Al lho limo lhal a lhiof is sloaIing and (al lho limo lhal) an
aduIloror is commilling aduIlorv, ho is nol a BoIiovor.¨
131


In lhis inlorprolalion, Iman has boon silod as an opposilo lo sin and
roboIIion (againsl lho Iavs of AIIah, GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
IsIam has boon usod as an opposilo lo Kufr or disboIiof.

3. Wilhin lho dofinilion of Iman, in addilion lo IsIam boing ono of
lho condilions, WiIavah (rocognizing lho lruo succossors of lho
Mossongor of AIIah, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) is aIso a proroquisilo. Aflor monlioning lho dofinilion of
IsIam as boing lho confossion lo Tavhid (Ononoss of AIIah, GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho Iropholic Mission of lho Irophol of

130
Ibid., Iago 262
131
Ibid., Iago 270
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


206
IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and
fuIfiIIing ono´s roIigious obIigalions, Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad
as-Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) vonl on lo sav:

· ··`·· ...' ' .,· · š· `·. `·' ``· `. .
.· ' .. .¯ ``· .¯ `·.
¨Iman (moans) lo rocognizo and boIiovo in lhis issuo
(WiIavah of us, lho AhIuI Bail) and if ono loslifios lo lhis
bul doos nol rocognizo lhis issuo (lho WiIavah of lho AhIuI
Bail), lhon ho is a MusIim and ho is misguidod.¨
132


Invosligaling a Iong Running Dispulo

Tho dispulo as lo lho roaIilv of vhal IsIam and Iman aro is a dispulo
lhal is Iong running. Tho groal loachor of lho Shia, Ialo ShaiIh
Mufid (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him) in his procious vorI AvaiI
aI-MuqaIal
133
has cIoarIv oxpIainod lho opinion of lho Shia. AIso,
lho Ialo schoIar AIIamah MajIisi (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him), in
his discussion on Kufr and Iman
134
, has broughl forlh bolh vorsos of
lho Our'an and ahadilh in roIalion lo lhis dispulo. Hovovor vo
bring lhis discussion lo a cIoso bv quoling lho vords of Shahid alh-
Thani (mav AIIah bo pIoasod vilh him):

Tho difforonco of opinion amongsl lho SchoIars in roIalion lo lho
moaning of lhoso lvo vords can bo dividod inlo lhroo calogorios:


132
IsuI aI-Kafi, VoIumo 2, Iago 24
133
Iago 15
134
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 6S, Iago 225-301
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


207
Issuo 1: Do lho vords IsIam and Iman, from lho poinl of viov of
lhoir purporl and subjocl havo a difforonl (IoxicaI) moaning or is
lhoir subslanco ono and lho samo`

Tho ansvor lo lhis quoslion vas mado cIoar in lho boginning of lhis
discussion sinco lhoso lvo vords, from lho poinl of viov of lhoir
IoxicaI moaning havo lvo dislincl and difforonl moanings. Tho
roaIilv of IsIam is humiIilv, vhiIo lho dofinilion of Iman is
submission, confirmalion and voIunlarv obodionco lo AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho). Wilh lhis said, hov is il possibIo lo
sav lhal lho originaI moaning of lhoso lvo vords ÷ vholhor from
lho poinl of viov of lhoir IoxicaI moaning or hov lhov aro usod in
lho roIigion ÷ aro ono and lho samo`

Issuo 2: In lho moanings of lhoso lvo vords, is lhoro a sonso of
sharing of a common ground or nol` Bv lhis vo moan lhal is ovorv
lruo MusIim aIso a lruo Mu'min and vico-vorsa or nol`

Ansvor: If lhis quoslion is roIalod lo lho common and provaIonl
moaning of lhoso lvo vords, lhon vilhoul doubl lho moanings of
lhom vouId Ioad us lo accopl lhal lhoro is a roIalionship and bolh
moan lho samo lhing, sinco if somoono is humbIo and submils
himsoIf lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), lhon corlainIv
bolvoon himsoIf and lhal vhich is roIalod lo him (his bodv parls),
lhoro viII aIso bo submission. Thoro aro somo vorsos of lho Our'an
vhich shov lhal bolh of lhoso vords aro oquaI in moaning:

¸· .,· .¯ `¸· `‰`-'· ' `,” .,· `‰ · •·`.`
¸· .`, ' •``
¨Thon Wo broughl forlh such as voro lhoroin of lho
boIiovors. Bul Wo did nol find lhoroin savo a (singIo)
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


20S
houso of lhoso vho submillod (lho MusIims).¨
135


Hovovor, if lhis quoslion is roIalod lo lho finaI lhroo moanings lhal
voro monlionod, lhon vilhoul doubl lho roIalionship bolvoon lhoso
lvo vords is lhal lhov sharo somo commonaIilv bul aIso havo lhoir
ovn indopondonl moanings. Bv lhis vo moan lhal ovorvono vho
has lruo failh (Iman) is a MusIim, hovovor nol aII MusIims havo
lruo failh (Iman).

In lho firsl dofinilion lhal vas givon for Iman, il vas monlionod lhal
Iman is a firm boIiof vhich is roolod in lho hoarl, vhoroas in lho
socond dofinilion, il vas monlionod lhal Iman is lo fuIfiII ono´s
rosponsibiIilios. Tho lhird inlorprolalion vas lhal Iman moans lo
rocognizo and accopl lho righlfuI succossors of lho Irophol: vhoroas
for ono lo bo considorod a MusIim, nono of lhoso lhroo lhings aro
nocossarv.

Issuo 3. Aro lho issuos lhal aro roIalod lo lho praclicaI Iavs of IsIam
such as purilv (taharah), ono´s Iifo and voaIlh boing sacrosancl
(from olhor MusIims) and lho pormissibiIilv lo oal moal lhal has
boon sIaughlorod bv such a porson and lho olhor ruIings in IsIam
spocific lo lho ono vho has Iman or ovon lo lho ono vho profossos
IsIam`

Ansvor: If lhis quoslion is roIalod lo lho common and provaIonl
moaning of lhoso lvo vords, lhon vo musl slalo lhal lho issuo of lho
praclicaI Iavs of IsIam aro simpIv roIalod lo submission and lho
apparonl obodionco lo IsIam. Thus, il is nol nocossarv lo doIvo doop
inlo lho innor submission of lho hoarl and lruo accoplanco of lho
loachings.


135
Surah aI-Dharival (51), Vorso 35 & 36
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


209
Hovovor if lhis quoslion is in roIalion lo lho olhor lhroo moanings of
lhoso lvo vords, ospociaIIv lho firsl moaning lhal IsIam is roIalod lo
lho apparonl loslimonv and lhal failh is an inlornaI issuo roolod in
lho hoarl, lhon il musl bo slalod lhal lho praclicaI Iavs of IsIam aro
Iimilod lo onIv lhal ÷ IsIam ÷ nol Iman. This roaIilv can oasiIv bo
soon bv IooIing lhrough lho hislorv of lho Iifo of lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and lho ahadilh of
his succossors.

In lho boginning davs of IsIam, anvono vas abIo lo oponIv loslifv lo
lhoir accoplanco of IsIam ovon if lhov did nol havo such a boIiof in
lhoir hoarls and lhoir submission vas accoplod and lho Iavs of
IsIam voro appIicabIo lo lhom. Imam Iafar ibno Muhammad as-
Sadiq (poaco bo upon him) has said:

' `-` `··`. `¸ · ' .` `·` `· · † ' ` ··. -` · ™¸ ' ` `-
' ¸· `..· ' ... .
¨Ono vho accopls IsIam, his bIood viII bo sanclifiod (ho
can nol bo IiIIod): anvlimo ho givos vou a lrusl, il musl bo
rolurnod: and (soxuaI) roIalions aro mado pormissibIo
(aflor marriago), hovovor lho rovard (from AIIah) is
Iimilod lo Iman (lruo failh).¨
136


In anolhor lradilion, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo
upon him) has said:

¸·' .' `.`·' ' . · . .. ¸.`- ¸´ ' · ·.· ·,·
`- `· `.`..`·' `.`·`‘·· `¸· ·

136
AI-Mahasin, Iago 2S5
Chaplor XVI : IsIam and Iman from lho Ioinl of Viov of lho Our'an


210
¨I havo boon commandod lo fighl lho poopIo unliI lhov
loslifv lhal lhoro is no croaluro or onlilv vorlhv of vorship
oxcopl for AIIah, and vhon lhov sav lhis lhon al lhal limo,
lhoir bIood and proporlv aro sacrosancl.¨
137





137
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 6S, Iago 262
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


211




























Chaplor Sovonloon

SoIf-Sacrifico in Ordor
lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


213
Vorso 15
SoIf-Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos

` ' ·`.` ..` ' · .`·¯ ¸ `·‰ .`` `. `.’ ·.`
`...`·' ¸, ¸· `..' ' `.`· :·`' · ' ..··´.
Wilhoul doubl lho lruo boIiovors aro onIv lhoso vho havo failh in AIIah
and His Mossongor (Muhammad) and lhon do nol chango lhoir boIiof inlo
doubl, and (lho boIiovors aro lhoso) vho slruggIo vilh lhoir voaIlh and
lhoir Iivos in lho vav of AIIah. SuroIv il is lhoso poopIo aIono vho aro lho
lrulhfuI onos.

ho slvIo of lho Our'an is such lhal vhon discussing an issuo,
il puls forlh lho cIoarosl proofs and il foIIovs lhis molhod
vhon il oIucidalos on lho praclicaI Iavs and issuos roIalod
lo sociolv. Wilhin ils communicalions, lho Our'an aIso inlroducos
bolh IogicaI proofs and lho lrails vhich aro vilhin our innalo
disposilion and in a majorilv of inslancos, ils diroclivos aro nol
propoundod as simpIv mallors of submission.
13S


Manv limos during lho courso of a porson´s rosoarch, a schoIar viII
viov a vorso of lho Our'an as an isoIalod, indopondonl issuo,
soparalo from lhal vhich camo boforo il. Hovovor aflor carofuI
sludv, ho viII roaIizo lhal lho issuo vhich ho is sludving is nol
indopondonl: ralhor lho aim and inlonlion of lho conlonls of lho

13S
Bv lhis, il is moanl lhal vhon lho Our'an spoaIs on various issuos, il
doos nol maIo lho issuo as ono lhal vo musl accopl vilhoul proof or IogicaI
argumonls and as simpIv boing commandmonls lhal vo musl foIIov as
MusIims ÷ or lhoso vho submil lo lho vord of AIIah - ralhor, lho Our´an
lrios lo oxpIain issuos lo us lhrough proofs and roasoning lhal our minds
vouId undorsland and accopl. (Tr.)
T
Chaplor XVII : SoIf Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos


214
vorso ho vas sludving vas lo oIucidalo and drav his allonlion lo a
proviousIv monlionod facl, and lhis poinl is absoIuloIv cIoar for lho
porson vho has a doop Iovo for lho Our'an.

Tho vorso undor discussion is of lhis lvpo and aIlhough lho pIan and
dosign of lhis vorso is lo oxpIain somo of lho signs of a porson of
lruo failh, hovovor in roaIilv il oxpIains lho causos vhv lho lribo of
Bani Asad musl sav:

' ¸`-` ´ `` ' `.´.· ¸· .`.
¨(Ralhor sav) lhal vo submil (as MusIims) sinco lruo
failh has nol vol onlorod inlo vour hoarls.¨

Whv doos lho Our'an sav lhis` Il is bocauso poopIo vho possoss
lruo failh can bo dislinguishod lhrough lho foIIoving characlorislics:

1. Thov havo firm failh in AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and
His Mossongor (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
and lhis is doopIv roolod in lho bollom of lhoir hoarls.

2. Thov do nol aIIov doubl or sIoplicism lo onlor inlo lhoir hoarls.

3. Thov offor sacrificos in lho vav of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho).

Woro lhoso characlorislics vilhin lhom (lho lribo of Bani Asad)`
Wilhoul doubl, lhov voro nol. This vas said bocauso lho oulvard
shov of lhoir aclions iIIuslralod lhal lhov had nol vol dovoIopod
lruo failh in lho bollom of lhoir hoarls and lhoro vas sliII doubl and
sIoplicism in lhom and lhus, lhov voro nol viIIing lo givo up lhoir
Iifo and voaIlh in lho vav of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho).

Nov, vo offor an oxpIanalion of lho lhird characlorislic:

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


215
Ono of lho signs of a porson vho possossos lruo failh is lhal ho is
unsoIfish and soIf-sacrificing. Such a porson is conslanlIv slruggIing
vilh his Iifo and proporlv lovard his goaIs and lho aclion and
bohavior of ono aro broughl forlh lhrough his mannor of lhinIing
and his boIiofs. If lho boIiofs of a porson in roIalion lo somolhing
roach lo such a IovoI lhal lhov ovorlaIo lho imporlanco of his ovn
Iifo, proporlv and his onliro oxislonco, lhon vilhoul doubl ho viII
oxorl as much onorgv lhal is noodod lo roach and prolocl his goaIs
and viII bo roadv lo givo up ovorvlhing (lo roach lo such an aim).

IrincipaIIv, lruo failh and boIiof in somolhing vouId produco such a
slrong Iovo and affoclion in a porson lhal somolimos vilhoul his
ovn voIilion ho vouId oxpross his Iovo for lhal lhing. Il goos
vilhoul saving lhal Iovo is an inlornaI, conscious fooIing lhal maIos
a porson acl in a parlicuIar vav oul of ils ovn dosiro. Tho povor
and forco lhal lhis omolion has on lho inlornaI conscious of a human
boing and lho vavo of oxcilomonl lhal Iovo and affoclion bring
aboul in a porsons´ Iifo can novor bo oxpIainod or broughl aboul
vilh proof or Iogic. Somolimos, il couId bo lhal counlIoss poinls of
Iogic and olhor sorls of proof couId bo broughl forvard lo crush lho
inlornaI fooIings and omolions of a porson, hovovor vhon lhoso
samo fooIings bocomo slrongor and moro povorfuI in lho (spiriluaI)
hoarl, lhon lhov unconlroIIabIv laIo ovor a porson and lhus lho
porson is Iofl lo submil lo his povorfuI innor omolions.

For oxampIo, somolimos il mav bo impossibIo lo gol ovon ono doIIar
from a porson vho has a slrong Iovo and affinilv lo monov and
voaIlh hovovor vhon his chiId faIIs viclim lo an iIInoss, lhon lho
naluraI inslincl vilhin himsoIf lhal forcos him lo Iovo his chiId laIos
procodonco ovor his Iovo for voaIlh. In such an inslanco, il is
possibIo lhal ho vouId ovon givo avav haIf of his voaIlh jusl lo
havo his chiId curod from a sicInoss!

Chaplor XVII : SoIf Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos


216
Tho fooIings and innor dosiros, ralhor aII of lho innalo characlorislics
of a human boing bring aboul an inlonso form of (spiriluaI)
movomonl and molion in a porson, and if lhoso omolions and
fooIings aro nol conlroIIod and channoIod in a propor mannor, lhon
lruIv lho porson vouId lransgross manv boundarios and Iimils.

Whon vo IooI al lho soIf sacrifico of poopIo during lho passing of
limo, vo soo individuaIs vho in an urgo lo push lhoir ovn goaIs
and aims forvard, bocamo so unconlroIIabIo and iIIogicaI lhal lhov
ondod up Iosing lhoir ovn rospocl and dignilv jusl lo maIo suro
lhal lhoir goaIs voro achiovod. Il is bocauso of lhis facl lhal il is said
lhov havo lruo failh in lho bollom of lhoir hoarls for lho goaIs lhal
lhov voro lrving lo roach lovards and lhoir failh croalod such a
slrong sonso of Iovo vilhin lhomsoIvos lhal vilhoul ovon caIcuIaling
lho oulcomo of lhoir acls, lhov ondod up sacrificing ovorvlhing lo
roach lo lhoir goaIs and vilhoul anv conlroI, voro puIIod lovards
roaching il. If vo soo lhal al lho finaI slagos of lhoir Iivos lhov ovon
ondod up forgolling lhoir spousos and chiIdron and voro sliII lrving
lo pursuo lhoir goaIs, lhon il is bocauso of lhis roason.

Sad Rabi vas ono of lho soIf-sacrificing companions of lho Irophol
of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vho
possossod a hoarl lhal vas ovorfIoving vilh failh and sincorilv.
During lho ballIo of Ihud, ho foII lo lho ground vilh a slaggoring
lvoIvo injurios lo his bodv and vas in a slalo of giving up his Iifo
vhon lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
commandod anolhor boIiovor lo go and invosligalo lho slalo of Sad
Rabi and lo bring him bacI lho roaI novs of hov ho vas.

Zaid ibno Thabil found lhis companion of lho Irophol (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) amongsl lho olhors vho had
boon IiIIod on lho ballIo fioId and (jusl boforo ho diod), ho
procoodod lo asI hov ho vas doing, lo vhich Sad ropIiod in lho
foIIoving mannor:
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


217
¨ToII lho Irophol lhal lhoro aro onIv a fov momonls Iofl in lho Iifo of
Sad and mav AIIah givo vou, O´ Mossongor of AIIah, lho bosl
rovard lhal ono vho is a Irophol is onlilIod lo rocoivo.¨ Ho lhon
vonl on lo sav, ¨Convov mv groolings lo lho companions of lho
Irophol and loII lhom lhal anvlimo anv sorl of injurv or harm is
infIiclod on lho Irophol and lhov aro Iiving lhon lhov musl asI
forgivonoss from AIIah for lhis.¨
139


Thoro is no Iovo or affoclion groalor lhan lho Iovo lhal lruo failh
brings aboul in a porson, sinco lho porson vho has such a failh viII
bo so drovnod in lho gIorv and boaulv of lho ono lhal ho Iovos and
viII slrivo lo roach his goaI, lhal ho vouId bo viIIing lo givo up his
onliro Iifo lo allain lhal vhich ho Iovos, and viII forgol ovorvlhing
oIso around him.

Tho Aroas Whoro Iovo is of No Iso

Each and ovorv porson has boon croalod vilh a spocific incIinalion
or sol of omolions vilhin him. This spiriluaI bIossing oxisls in aII
poopIo hovovor vilh a varianco in ils IovoIs amongsl poopIo.
Amongsl aII of lho various IovoIs lhal oxisl, vomon aro lho focaI
poinl of lhis incIinalion and il is lhoir hoarls vhich aro fuII of Iovo
and affoclion.

Ono limo, a MusIim voman of Madinah vas loId lhal lhroo of hor
Iovod onos voro IiIIod in lho ballIo of Ihud. This voman mounlod
a camoI and procoodod lovards lho aroa vhoro lho ballIo of Ihud
had laIon pIaco so lhal sho couId go and bring lho bodios of hor
docoasod onos bacI homo for buriaI. On lho rolurn bacI lo

139
Sirah Ibn Hisham, VoIumo 2, Iago 497: Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 20, Iago
121
Chaplor XVII : SoIf Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos


21S
Madinah, sho vas carrving lho lhroo bodios vilh hor on lho camoI
and vas golling roadv lo onlor inlo lho cilv.

HaIf vav lo lho cilv, sho mol up vilh ono of lho vivos of lho
Mossongor of AIIah (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv). This vifo of lho Irophol asIod lho Iadv hov lho Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) vas doing. This
soIfIoss voman - vilh a cIoar faco rosombIing ono vho had nol ovon
soon lho smaIIosl difficuIlv ÷ vho vas hoIding lho ropos of lho
camoI in ono hand and vas covorod in lho bIood of lho marlvrs lhal
voro on lho camoI boing lransporlod bacI, said lo lho vifo of lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv), ¨I havo
good novs for vou and lhal is lhal lho Irophol is aIivo and safo and
bocauso of lhis groal bIossing, aII olhor lraiIs and lribuIalions soom
lo bo insignificanl, lriviaI lhings!¨

Tho vifo of lho Irophol asIod lhis Iadv, ¨Whoso bodios aro lhoso`¨
Tho Iadv ropIiod, ¨Tho ono bodv is lhal of mv husband, lho socond
is lhal of mv son and lho lhird is mv brolhor´s. I am laIing lhom aII
bacI lo Madinah lo havo lhom buriod lhoro.¨
140


Whal faclors voro rosponsibIo for lhis dispIav of soIf-sacrifico and
unsoIfishnoss in ono´s aim and purposo lhal fIovod lhrough lhis
voman` Hov is il possibIo lhal such a lruo failh and slrong
affoclion lo lho lruo visago of Tavhid couId bo prosonl in lho hoarl
of a porson such lhal hor innalo incIinalions of molhorhood couId bo
Iopl undor such conlroI`!





140
Maghazi, VoIumo 1, Iago 265
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


219
Truo Failh TaIos lho IIaco of lho Forcos of EquaIilv

Ono of main roasons for lho viclorios during lho provious vars is
lho suporiorilv of lho miIilarv forcos or al Ioasl boing al par or
baIanco vilh lho opposing sido. Bv lhis vo moan lhal oach sido of
lho confIicl vouId lrv lhoir bosl lo maIo suro lhal lho numbor of
soIdiors and quanlilv of voapons vouId bo oquaI vilh lho opposing
sido so lhal lhoro vouId bo somo oquaIilv bolvoon lho lvo armios.

Hovovor in roIalion lo lho vars lhal aro foughl lo dofond lho
sanclilv of an idooIogv and loachings in vhich lho soIdiors aro
oquippod vilh lruo failh, innor dosiros, vishos and lhrough lhoir
spiriluaI slimuIanls vhich maIo lhom go lovards lho onomios, al no
limo can oquaIilv (of miIilarv slronglh) bo lho cIassificalion for
viclorv. Ralhor, lhoro havo boon poopIo vho voro smaII in numbor
and insignificanl (from lho poinl of viov of slronglh) lhal voro
viclorious ovor a Iargo group of poopIo and il vas lho povor of lhoir
souI and spiril lhal mado lhom viclorious ovor lhoir voII oquippod
onomv.

For oxampIo, in lho BallIo of Badr, lho forcos of lho idoI vorshippors
voro lhroo limos lhal of lho MusIim forcos. In addilion, lho onliro
forco of lho onomv vas armod lo lho loolh vilh voapons and had
onough lroops mobiIizod (lo vin lho ballIo). Boforo lho fIamos of
var oruplod bolvoon lhoso lvo groups, lho oIdors of lho Ouraish
roquoslod ono of lho bravosl mon lo go and counl lho numbor of
companions of Muhammad (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv). Wilh his svifl horso, ho circIod lho camp of lho MusIim
armv and rolurnod vilh lho foIIoving roporl:

¨Tho numbor of fighlors vilh Muhammad doos nol oxcood moro
lhan 300 poopIo and lhoro aro no olhor poopIo bohind lhom lhal
couId bo usod lo ambush us. Hovovor, I aIso lriod lo sludv lhoir
monlaI and spiriluaI slalo and found lhal lhov havo broughl doalh
Chaplor XVII : SoIf Sacrifico in Ordor lo Roach Ono´s Objoclivos


220
and doslruclion from Madinah as a gifl for vou aII!¨ Tho man
conlinuod: ¨I sav a group of poopIo vho havo nolhing oxcopl for a
svord lo uso for proloclion such lhal unliI lhov do nol IiII ono of
vou, lhov viII nol bo abIo lo bo IiIIod. Whon lhis numbor of poopIo
havo IiIIod an oquivaIonl numbor of vou, lhon lhoir Iivos viII havo
no moro vorlh.¨
141


This man found aII of lho poIvlhoisls of lho Ouraish quiol, hovovor
lho firm rosoIvo couId bo soon on lhoir facos and lhoir snaIo-IiIo
vonomous longuo vas sliII in lhoir moulhs.

Il is bocauso of lhis lhal lho Our'an considors lho groalosl sign of
lruo failh lo bo soIf-sacrifico vhon il monlions lhal lhoso poopIo vho
havo lruo failh aro lhoso vho as lho Our'an puls il: ¨Thoso vho
havo lruo failh aro lhoso poopIo vho havo a firm boIiof in AIIah and
His Mossongor vhich is roolod in lho bollom of lhoir hoarls and aro
viIIing lo givo up lhoir Iivos and voaIlh lo roach lo lhoir goaIs,
suroIv il is lhoso poopIo vho aro lho lrulhfuI onos.¨
142


Tho Gonoralion of Froodom

Tho socond haIf of lho lvonliolh conlurv has boon inlroducod as lho
gonoralion of froodom for lho oxpIoilod nalions of lho vorId. Thoso
nalions vho for counlIoss voars voro IocIod undor lho chains of
coIonizalion finaIIv avoIo and lhrough lhoir inloIIigonco and
vigiIanco, broIo off lho chains (of opprossion) lhal voro upon lhom
and havo procIaimod lhoir froodom lo lho onliro vorId.


141
Sirah Ibn Hisham, VoIumo 1, Iago 622: Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 19, Iago
251
142
Surah aI-Hujural (49), Vorso 15 |Vorso Indor Discussion]
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


221
Hovovor lho onIv nalions lhal provod lo bo succossfuI voro lhoso
vho lravorsod lhis palh (of froodom) vilh lruo failh and soIf-
sacrifico in aII aroas of lhoir Iivos and compIoloIv lurnod lhoir bacIs
lo lho coIonizing ompiros of lho vorId. Tho soIf-sacrificos of lho
frood nalion of AIgoria and lho olhor counlrios of Africa aro cIoar
oxampIos of lhis issuo.

Todav, for lho counlrios vho aro busv oxpIoiling and coIonizing
olhors, lhoro is no foar if a group of vicIod, roboIIious poopIo lhal
do nol possoss anv spiriluaI goaI and molivos basod on lruo failh
riso up in aggrossion. Tho groalosl dangor and lhroal for
ImporiaIism on a nalionaI IovoI aro lho dovoIopod nalions vhich
havo lruo failh such lhal bv roIving on lhoir failh and spiriluaI goaIs
lhal lhov havo sol for lhomsoIvos, havo rison up and ovon vilh
arrovs and rocIs, havo boon abIo lo romovo lho coIoniaI forcos from
lhoir Iands. As Iong as Iifo is fIoving lhrough lhom, lhov viII novor
rosl for ovon ono momonl, and lhus lhoir ovonluaI ond viII bo lhal
of viclorv.
















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


223


























Chaplor Eighloon

Tho Infinilo
KnovIodgo of AIIah
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


225
Vorso 16
Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah

`·`' ¸· .. ' `.´ · ' ¸· · `.`· `· ' ` . ¸· · . ' ¸`.
' .`¸Š ¸´ `· `.,·
Sav (lo lho poopIo O´ Muhammad): 'Do vou vish lo loach AIIah aboul
vour Din (compIolo vav of Iifo) vhoroas AIIah Inovs aII lhal is conlainod in
lho Hoavons and aII lhal is upon lho Earlh: and suroIv AIIah has compIolo
InovIodgo of ovorvlhing.

ho aII-oncompassing InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) ovor aII of lho croalions of lho vorId is
roforrod lo bv various vords and phrasos in manv pIacos in
lho Our'an. Ono such phraso vhich is ompIovod is:

... .`¸Š ¸´ `.,·
¨.compIolo InovIodgo of ovorvlhing.¨

This phraso has boon monlionod in lho abovo vorso undor
discussion and has aIso boon ropoalod in ovor lvonlv olhor
inslancos in lho Our'an. This sonlonco and olhor such oxampIos
nogalo anv sorl of ignoranco on lho parl of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) in roIalion lo anv affair of ovon lho smaIIosl sizo. Tho
Our'an has nol sloppod al lhis sonlonco and in olhor vorsos as voII,
lho oncompassing InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
has aIso boon oxpIainod:

. `· ` `. ¸· ·`· .·· `·`· ' ¸· . ..` ' ¸`.
¨Nol ovon lho voighl of an alom lhal is vilhin lho
T
Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


226
Hoavons nor in lho Earlh is hiddon from Him.¨
143


. ' ·`,· ¸.`- . · .`¸ · ¸ ' . ` ¸ . · ¸ ' ` .
¨SuroIv lhoro is nolhing lhal is hiddon from AIIah vholhor
il bo in lho Earlh or in lho Hoavon.¨
144


· ` `· · `- ' … `, • . `· ` . . `· . `· `. · · ¸ ' `
' `- · ` „ · `¸ · · . `· ` . . - ` · · ˜ ¸ .
' . ` ¸ . – • . • . · ¯ ¸ . `· •
¨And vilh Him (AIIah) aro lho Kovs of lho Insoon. No
ono Inovs lhom (lho Socrols of lho Insoon) oxcopl for
Him (AIIah). And Ho (AIIah) Inovs aII lhal is on lho Iand
and aII lhal is in lho soas and lhoro is nol ovon a singIo Ioaf
lhal faIIs oxcopl lhal Ho has fuII InovIodgo of il and lhoro
is aIso nol a singIo drv lhing lhal is hiddon in lho darInoss
of lho Earlh, nor anvlhing lhal is vol or drv, oxcopl lhal
(aII of lhoso) aro prosorvod in a CIoar BooI.¨
145


Is lhoro a moro oxprossivo vav lhal lhoso (vorsos of lho Our'an) can
oxpIain lho comprohonsivo InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) ovor aII of lho croalions`

In ono of his Iocluros, Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo
upon him) has oIucidalod on lho comprohonsivo InovIodgo of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) ovor aII of His croalions of lho
vorId in lho foIIoving mannor:

143
Surah aI-Saba (34), Vorso 3
144
SurahÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 5
145
Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 59
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


227
`· `. · • -, ' `. `- ¸. · ¸ ' . . · · . `¸ ' · · · ¸
' - . . ' `- · ' - , . ¸· ' - ' .–· .·…
' -` . ' · . . .
¨Ho (AIIah) Inovs of lho crios of lho boasls in lho forosl:
lho sins of lho sorvanls vhiIo lhov aro in socIusion and lho
movomonls of lho fish in lho doop soas and lho rising of
lho valor bv lho lomposluous vinds.¨
146


Iroofs of AIIah´s Novor-Ending KnovIodgo

Through various vavs and molhods avaiIabIo lo lhom, lho schoIars
and oxporls of IsIamic ThooIogv havo provon lho InovIodgo and
visdom of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) ranging from lho
smaIIosl of croalions lo lho phonomonon of lho vorId, as voII as lho
socrols of lho croalion, and of lhoso, vo monlion lvo.

Firsl Iroof f Firsl Iroof f Firsl Iroof f Firsl Iroof for lho or lho or lho or lho Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod (GIorifiod (GIorifiod (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho): :: :

1. Wilhoul doubl, lho dosignor of a machino has InovIodgo of ovon
lho mosl inlricalo vorIings of vhal ho has manufaclurod. Is il
possibIo lo sav lhal, ¨Tho manufacluror of a pIano is unavaro of a
scionlific or lochnicaI aspocl of his dosign¨`! Or, is il possibIo lhal
lho aulhor of an oncvcIopodia vouId nol Inov vhal lho conlonls of
his ovn vorI aro`!

In our provious discussion, vo oIucidalod on lho facl lhal if lho
prosonco of a croalion provos lhal lhoro vas a croalor lo bring lhal
lhing aboul: and simiIarIv lho characlorislics of lho lhing croalod

146
NahjuI BaIagha, Khulbah 193
Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


22S
givo vilnoss lo lho spocific characlorislics of lho croalor vho has
broughl lho lhing inlo boing, lhon anv limo lho croalod lhing is
sludiod in dolaiI in roIalion lo ils bIuo-prinl of croalion, sizo,
organizalion and arrangomonl of croalion, lhon vilhoul doubl il
vouId havo lo bo said lhal lho croalor of lhal lhing musl bo ono vho
possossos InovIodgo - such lhal lhrough his oxlonsivo InovIodgo,
vo vas abIo lo bring aboul such a lhing.

Thoroforo, sooing as lo hov aII of lho croalions of lho vorId ÷ from
lho aloms lo lho slars in lho sIv ÷ havo aII boon croalod according lo
a sol pIan and corlain organizod convonlionaI ruIos, and dav bv dav
manIind is discovoring lho unilv and harmonv of lho Inivorso and
is bocoming moro and moro avaro (of ils surroundings), lhoroforo
vo musl sav lhal lho vorId of croalion has laIon ils boginnings
from a vorv Ioarnod and AII-Knoving sourco lhal has compIolo
InovIodgo of aII lho parlicuIarilios. Thus, Ho has croalod aII of
lhom in accordanco vilh His pro-proparod pIan.

Tho oxisling ordor of ovorv Ioaf from aII of lho Ioavos in croalion: of
ovorv alom from aII of lho innumorabIo aloms: ovorv parlicIo from
lho parlicIos lhal maIo up lho human boing: ovorv coII from
amongsl aII of lho coIIs of Iiving croaluros: ovorv slar from amongsl
lho slars in lho hoavons - aII poinl lo lho organizalion and ordor lhal
oxisls and boars vilnoss lo lho facl lhal lho Croalor of aII of lhoso
lhings and aII of lhoir spocifics lhal lhov possoss, can onIv bo lho
ono AII-Knoving (AIIah). Thoroforo, il is impossibIo lo lhinI lhal
lho vorId of croalion vouId como aboul vilhoul an AII-Knoving
Croalor.

Guidanco from lho Our'an on lho Firsl Iroof

Tho NobIo Our'an has oxpIainod lhis proof in a vorv sublIo mannor
and lho croalion of manIind has boon usod as lho ovidonco of lho
InovIodgo of lho Croalor vhoro il has boon said:
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


229
.`· Œ- `¸· `.`· .' ' `•,= ' `..,.-
¨Whal lhon doos Ho vho croalod (aII), and Ho vho is lho
Inovor of lho sublIolios - lho Avaro - nol Inov (aboul His
croalions`)¨
147


In anolhor vorso of lho Our'an, il has boon monlionod lhal AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) is cIosor lo lho human boing lhan his
ovn juguIar voin:

- ` ' .`. `.`· · `¸`- `· · `¸.`.`
¸`- `¸· ·`, `.·' ' .
¨InquoslionabIv Wo havo croalod manIind and Wo Inov
vhal his souI vhispors lo him (lho oviI vhisporings) and
Wo aro cIosor lo him lhan his juguIar voin.¨
14S


¸· .· · . Š .· . , .· Ž” .•
.- · · ·· •” . ¯ · .· •-
As Iong as mv hoarl is fiIIod vilh lho Iovo of mv friond (AIIah),
Il viII aIvavs bo avorso from lhoso vho aro nol mv frionds.
Absonl from lho sighl (is AIIah), hovovor allonlivo in lho hoarl,
I associalo vilh nono bul such Iovors (of Him).

Tho oighlh Imam, AIi ibno Musa ar-RiJa (poaco bo upon him) has
laIon lho unilv of croalion and organizalion of lho univorso, as lho
proof of lho InovIodgo of a Croalor and has slalod:


147
Surah aI-MuII (67), Vorso 14
14S
Surah Oaf (50), Vorso 16
Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


230
- Œ- · ¸`' ·· `··.`.· `·`· .`¸Š ¸¯ š. ·´ .
¨Tho vorId of croalion has boon mado firm and soIid
lhrough His pIan basod on visdom and ovorvlhing has
boon pIacod in ils righlfuI pIaco lhrough His
InovIodgo.¨
149


Socond Socond Socond Socond Iroof for lho Iroof for lho Iroof for lho Iroof for lho Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo Comprohonsivo KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah KnovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod (GIorifiod (GIorifiod (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho) and ExaIlod is Ho): :: :

2. AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) is lho Ono vho is ovorvvhoro
(al aII limos) and has compIolo InovIodgo of aII poriods and aII
lhings.

Tho socond proof for lho vasl InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) and His compIolo porcoplion of aII of lho croalions
and ovonls lhal aro occurring in lho univorso - is lho comprohonsivo
InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) in roIalion lo lho
origins and boginnings of lho univorso of croalion and Him boing
unIimilod and unroslriclod.

Tho boing vhich is unIimilod and vhich is in aII pIacos al aII limos
and soos aII of lho croalions, is naluraIIv moro InovIodgoabIo lhan
anvlhing oIso in oxislonco. Hovovor, if such an onlilv vas Iimilod
lo lho phvsicaI vorId and vas imprisonod onIv lo lho Iimils of
spaco, lhon il vouId nol bo possibIo for lhal boing lo havo
(compIolo) InovIodgo and bo fuIIv avaro of aII lhings.
150



149
Bihar aI-Anvar, VoIumo 4, Iago 5S
150
In lho upcoming soclions, vo viII discuss furlhor lho issuo of AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) boing froo from lho phvsicaI vorId and His
boing froo from limo and spaco.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


231
In summarv: Thoro is nol a singIo maloriaI croalion lhal is
indopondonl of lho sphoro of limo and lho radius of oxislonco and
ovorv singIo croalion lhal is undor lho covor and conlroI of limo is
Iimilod lo lhal roslriclod sphoro of limo vhich il is conlainod in.
Thus, il is nol possibIo lhal anv croalion can occupv a provious or
fuluro poriod of limo, olhor lhan ils ovn and vilhoul doubl a
croalion has no vav of boing acquainlod vilh ovonls lhal havo
occurrod in lho pasl or in lho fuluro (lhrough lhoir ovn froo viII).
Hovovor, if vo voro abIo lo smash lhrough lho prisons of limo and
spaco and go inlo lho sphoro vhich is bovond limo, lhon voslordav
and lodav vouId havo absoIuloIv no moaning. Thus, limo as vo
Inov il and lho ovonls lhal laIo pIaco vilhin il (bolh in lho pasl and
fuluro) vouId bo accossibIo lo lho porson jusl as if lho ovonl vas
happoning in his ovn prosonl limo.

Evorv singIo maloriaI croalion mainlains ils oxislonco in ils spocific
pIaco and fiIIs a spocific Iocalion and vilh lhis said, if somolhing
oxisls bolvoon him and somolhing noar lo him, lhon lhis lhing
vouId bo said as boing cIoso (lo him): and if lhoro vas somolhing
lhal vas a groal dislanco from him, lhon il vouId bo said lhal lho
lhing is far (from him). Hovovor if a boing vas abIo lo broaI
lhrough lho prisons of limo and vas abIo lo maIo himsoIf noodIoss
of rosiding in a spocific pIaco and couId pIaco himsoIf vilh a vorId
highor lhan lhal of spaco, lhon for him lhoro vouId bo no moaning
of somolhing boing cIoso or far.

In ordor lo maIo lhis poinl moro cIoar, vo roIalo lho foIIoving
oxampIos:

ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo 1 11 1: :: : Imagino a microscopic insocl lhal possoss a Iimilod fioId
of vision vaIIing upon a coIourfuI rug. Al anv poinl in limo, lhis
insocl can onIv soo ono pallorn and ono spocific coIour (lhal is in
fronl of him) and has InovIodgo of onIv lhal ono parlicuIar spol on
lho rug. Thus, il has no InovIodgo of anolhor spol vhich is oul of
Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


232
lho abiIilv of his sighl and lhoroforo ho is compIoloIv unavaro of il.
Hovovor a human boing lhal is slanding bosido lho rug and can soo
lho compIolo rug vilh aII of ils coIours and pallorns ÷ vhich is
compIoloIv opposilo lo hov lho insocl can soo il - has InovIodgo of
lho compIolo rug.

ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo 2 22 2: :: : Imagino lhal vo aro silling on lho banI of a Iargo rivor,
aIong vilh a group of frionds, valching lho vavos como in and aro
obsorving lho movomonl of lho valor. Al anv singIo momonl, vo
aro vilnossing a nov vavo and movomonl of valor, hovovor vo do
nol havo compIolo InovIodgo of aII of lho vavos and aII lho valor
from vhoro lhis rivor bogins up lo lho soa vhoro lho rivor drains
inlo. Tho roason for lhis Iimilod InovIodgo is bocauso of lho Iimilod
aroa lhal vo aro in vhich maIos up lho spaco vhich vo occupv. If
vo voro lo go on a pIano and fIv ovor lho rivor, lhon al lhal limo vo
vouId bo abIo lo soo manv difforonl soclions of lho rivor and vo
vouId aIso bo abIo lo soo aII of lho vavos and lho fIoving valor lhal
is in lhis rivor.

ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo ExampIo 3 33 3: :: : Imagino onco again lhal vo aro silling in a smaII room
vhich has onIv ono smaII vindov lhrough vhich vo can soo lho
oulsido vorId. AII of a suddon, a caravan of camoIs carrving Iargo
Ioads passos bv our room. From lhis smaII vindov, al anv
parlicuIar inslanco in limo, vo can nol soo moro lhan ono camoI.
Hovovor a porson vho is on lho roof of lho houso vouId bo abIo lo
soo lho onliro caravan al ono limo.

Tho condilion of manIind in roIalion lo lho pasl and lho fuluro is
lho samo as lho porson vho is valching lho caravan of camoIs
lhrough a smaII vindov. Hovovor lho silualion of AIIah (GIorifiod
and ExaIlod is Ho) vho is froo from maloriaI ossonco and lhus is nol
Iimilod lo pIaco, and in addilion doos nol havo anv sorl of Iimil in
roIalion lo limo and spaco is prosonl ovorvvhoro and soos
ovorvlhing in croalion, vhich can bo comparod lo a porson vho is
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


233
silling on lho roof of his houso and lhus, can soo ovorvlhing lhal is
around him (lhough lhis ovon is Iimilod for a human boing).

Thoroforo, vo musl slalo lhal His ossonco is nol Iimilod, and His
boing is prosonl in aII pIacos al aII limos, and Ho is nol Iimilod lo
limo or pIaco. Thus, lhoro is nol a singIo limo or pIaco vhich is froo
from Him. Ho himsoIf boars vilnoss lhal His comprohonsivo
InovIodgo oncompassos aII croalions, and aII ovonls lhal havo
happonod in lho pasl, and lhoso lhal viII como in lho fuluro, aro
Inovn lo Him.

Tho KnovIodgo of God in lho Tavral

Tho Our'an oIucidalos on lho compIolo, AII-Encompassing
KnovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) as has boon
monlionod. In comparison hovovor, il is vorlhvhiIo lo laIo a IooI
al lho Tavral and soo hov lhis booI inlroducos God. In lho Tavral,
vo road lho foIIoving:

1
¨Nov lho sorponl vas moro craflv lhan anv of lho viId animaIs lho
IORD God had mado. Ho said lo lho voman, ¨Did God roaIIv sav,
'You musl nol oal from anv lroo in lho gardon`´¨

2
Tho voman said lo lho sorponl, ¨Wo mav oal fruil from lho lroos in
lho gardon,
3
bul God did sav, 'You musl nol oal fruil from lho lroo
lhal is in lho middIo of lho gardon, and vou musl nol louch il, or
vou viII dio.´¨

4
¨You viII nol suroIv dio,¨ lho sorponl said lo lho voman.

5
¨For God Inovs lhal vhon vou oal of il vour ovos viII bo oponod,
and vou viII bo IiIo God, Inoving good and oviI.¨

Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


234
6
Whon lho voman sav lhal lho fruil of lho lroo vas good for food
and pIoasing lo lho ovo, and aIso dosirabIo for gaining visdom, sho
looI somo and alo il. Sho aIso gavo somo lo hor husband, vho vas
vilh hor, and ho alo il.
7
Thon lho ovos of bolh of lhom voro
oponod, and lhov roaIizod lhov voro naIod: so lhov sovod fig
Ioavos logolhor and mado covorings for lhomsoIvos.
S
Thon lho man
and his vifo hoard lho sound of lho IORD God as ho vas vaIIing
in lho gardon in lho cooI of lho dav, and lhov hid from lho IORD
God among lho lroos of lho gardon.
9
Bul lho IORD God caIIod lo
lho man, ¨Whoro aro vou`¨

10
Ho ansvorod, ¨I hoard vou in lho gardon, and I vas afraid
bocauso I vas naIod: so I hid.¨

11
And ho said, ¨Who loId vou lhal vou voro naIod` Havo vou
oalon from lho lroo lhal I commandod vou nol lo oal from`¨

12
Tho man said, ¨Tho voman vou pul horo vilh mo - sho gavo mo
somo fruil from lho lroo, and I alo il.¨

13
Thon lho IORD God said lo lho voman, ¨Whal is lhis vou havo
dono`¨ Tho voman said, ¨Tho sorponl docoivod mo, and I alo.¨

14
So lho IORD God said lo lho sorponl, ¨Bocauso vou havo dono
lhis, ¨Cursod aro vou abovo aII lho IivoslocI and aII lho viId
animaIs! You viII cravI on vour boIIv and vou viII oal dusl aII lho
davs of vour Iifo.

15
And I viII pul onmilv bolvoon vou and lho voman, and bolvoon
vour offspring and hors: ho viII crush vour hoad, and vou viII
slriIo his hooI.¨

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


235
16
To lho voman ho said, ¨I viII groalIv incroaso vour pains in
chiIdboaring: vilh pain vou viII givo birlh lo chiIdron. Your dosiro
viII bo for vour husband, and ho viII ruIo ovor vou.¨

17
To Adam ho said, ¨Bocauso vou Iislonod lo vour vifo and alo
from lho lroo aboul vhich I commandod vou, 'You musl nol oal of
il,´ ¨Cursod is lho ground bocauso of vou: lhrough painfuI loiI vou
viII oal of il aII lho davs of vour Iifo.
1S
Il viII produco lhorns and
lhislIos for vou, and vou viII oal lho pIanls of lho fioId.
19
Bv lho
svoal of vour brov vou viII oal vour food unliI vou rolurn lo lho
ground, sinco from il vou voro laIon: for dusl vou aro and lo dusl
vou viII rolurn.¨

20
Adam namod his vifo Evo, bocauso sho vouId bocomo lho molhor
of aII lho Iiving.
21
Tho IORD God mado garmonls of sIin for Adam
and his vifo and cIolhod lhom.
22
And lho IORD God said, ¨Tho
man has nov bocomo IiIo ono of us, Inoving good and oviI. Ho
musl nol bo aIIovod lo roach oul his hand and laIo aIso from lho
lroo of Iifo and oal, and Iivo forovor.¨
23
So lho IORD God banishod
him from lho Gardon of Edon lo vorI lho ground from vhich ho
had boon laIon.
24
Aflor ho drovo lho man oul, ho pIacod on lho oasl
sido of lho Gardon of Edon chorubim and a fIaming svord fIashing
bacI and forlh lo guard lho vav lo lho lroo of Iifo.¨
151


This is lho God vhich lho Tavral inlroducos lhal vhon Ädam hid in
lho gardon, God had no InovIodgo vhoro ho vas and lhus, Ho vas
forcod lo caII oul lo him lhal, ¨Ädam, vhoro aro vou`¨ This is lho
sorl of God vho doos nol Inov if Ädam had oalon from lho lroo of
visdom: a God lhal forbids His sorvanls from oaling from lho lroo

151 Gonosis, Chaplor 3 |Tho FaII of Man], oxlraclod vorbalim from lho Nov
InlornalionaI Vorsion (NIV) of lho OId Toslamonl found on
vvv.bibIogalovav.com.
Chaplor XVIII : Tho Infinilo KnovIodgo of AIIah


236
of InovIodgo and undorslanding: a God lhal foars lhal Ädam viII -
vilhoul His InovIodgo - oal from lho lroo of porpoluaI Iifo: a God
lhal in ordor lo slop Ädam and his vifo from roaching lo lho lroo of
ovorIasling Iifo, hiros AngoIs lo bo as poIico lo guard lho lroo!

Hovovor, lho God lhal is doscribod in lho Our'an is Ono lhal has
compIolo InovIodgo of lhal vhich is in lho Hoavons and lho Earlh:
Ho aIso Inovs vhal is in lho hoarls of His croalions and lhoso of lho
dosorl Arabs vho cIaimod lo havo lruo failh in lhoir hoarls voro
loId lhal:

`·`' .. ' `.´ · ' ¸· · `.`· `· ' ` ¸· · ..
' ¸`. ...
¨Do vou vish lo loach AIIah aboul vour Din (compIolo
vav of Iifo) vhoroas AIIah Inovs aII lhal is conlainod in
lho Hoavons and aII lhal is upon lho Earlh.¨

Tho God lhal lho Our'an inlroducos is compIoloIv opposilo of lho
God lhal lho Tavral monlions and vilh compIolo cIarilv, lho Our'an
slalos lhal:

··¯ .· ' `. € .¯ . ...
¨And Ho (AIIah) laughl Ädam aII of lho namos.¨

lhus, lho vorsos of lho Our'an havo inlroducod AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho) as Ono vho is compIoloIv froo from aII sorls of
slinginoss and misorIinoss in roIalion lo loaching and oducaling His
sorvanls of lho lrulhs of lho univorso.

Wilh lhis summarv, lho roIalion bolvoon lho provious vorso and lho
vorso undor discussion is cIoar and il is unambiguous lhal lhis vorso
oxpIains lho comprohonsivo InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


237
ExaIlod is Ho) ovor ovorvlhing lhal is hiddon and lho apparonl
phonomonon in croalion and lhus, nuIIifios lho cIaims and
assorlions of lho dosorl Arabs.





















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


239






























Chaplor Ninoloon

Tho Groalosl
BIossing
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


241
Vorso 17
Tho Groalosl BIossing

¸· .``' .' :`,· ..'` . .'` ¸ .´··` `¸· ' '¸` `·
. .., `.¯· .' `.´`,· `¯ . •.··. `.`
(Tho Bodouins loII vou O´ Muhammad lhal) vou ovo lhom (a groal doaI)
for lhoir ombracing (lho roIigion of IsIam). Sav lo lhom (O´ Muhammad,
bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lhal, 'You aro nol doing
mo anv favour bv ombracing IsIam. In facl, il is AIIah vho has dono a groal
favour lo vou bv guiding vou lo lho lruo failh. (ThinI aboul lhis) if vou aro
poopIo of lrulh.´

ho sorvicos of lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo
upon him and his progonv) and lho NobIo Our'an lhal ho
broughl lo lho vorId of humanilv can novor bo forgollon.
Tho vaIuo of lhis sorvico can onIv bo mado cIoar vhon vo sludv lho
lhoughls, boIiofs, cusloms and lradilions of lho nalions al lhal limo
in hislorv (Ioaving asido lhoso animaIislic nalions and civiIizalions
vho possossod no cuIluro) and comparo lhoso lo lho Ioflv goaIs and
loachings of IsIam and lho bIossings lhal lho nalions of lho vorId
voro givon duo lo lho infIuonco of lho IsIamic loachings. Al lhis
limo vouId lho vaIuo of lho sorvicos lhal lho loachings of IsIam
conforrod upon lho human sociolv bo mado ovidonl for aII lo soo.

EvonluaIIv from lho doplhs of lhoir hoarls, manIind viII havo lo
acInovIodgo lhal lho suporior loachings of lho Our'an and lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) aro lho
groalosl bIossings of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho).
EvonluaIIv, poopIo viII havo lo confirm lhal il is lhoso loachings
vhich is prolocling lho fuluro gonoralions, lho cuIluro of humanilv
and is lho connoclion lhal Iios bolvoon lho oId and nov
T
Chaplor XIX : Tho Groalosl BIossing


242
civiIizalions. Il is lhis lrulh lhal has boon monlionod in lho Our'an
bv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) vhon Ho said:

`¸· ` ' ¸· `· ' `..' `¸`· ..` `..,· .· · •·.`
` . ¯ `..`,· `.`.`·` `..,¯` · ' ´ . ' . ·´-
¯ .` `¸· ·. ¸ ¸`· •'· .
¨CorlainIv AIIah granlod a groal favour lo lho boIiovors
vhon Ho raisod up from amongsl lhoir ovn poopIo a
Mossongor (Muhammad, bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) lo rocilo lo lhom His (AIIah´s) signs, lo
purifv lhom (of moraI dofocls), lo loach lhom lho BooI and
lho Wisdom, and boforo lhis lhov had suroIv Iivod in
manifosl orror.¨
152


Wo simpIv nood lo laIo a cursorv gIanco al lho pasl hislorv of
manIind, ospociaIIv in lhoso parls of lho vorId in vhich lho Iifo-
giving caII of Tavhid and lho propholic missions of lho appoinlod
Ioadors of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) had nol roachod and
lhon judgo for oursoIvos lo vhal oxlonl IsIam has hoIpod and
assislod lho vorId of humanilv.

Tho counlrv of India - vhich is a vasl rogion and from lho poinl of
viov of boing a machino-drivon sociolv - is ono of lho mosl
advancod counlrios in lho Easl, hovovor lhoir govornmonl and
nalion sliII aro hoId caplivo lo lho aulhorilv of lho sacrod cov.

Somo limo bacI, in ordor lo provonl a massivo famino and
slarvalion vhich vas pIacing lho Iivos of ils´ poopIo in dangor, lho
govornmonl gavo lho pormission lo IiII covs (for food), hovovor

152
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 164
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


243
mass confusion onguIfod lho onliro counlrv vhich vas foIIovod up
vilh fiorco fighling and riols! Duo lo lhis, ono of lho minislors of
lho Govornmonl vas firod from his job and lhus lho slalo of lho
counlrv and lho govornmonl in povor vas mado unslabIo!
153


Thoro is nol a singIo porson in aII of India vho onjovs lho samo IovoI
of froodom, rospocl and characlor as lho sacrod cov doos and il
sufficos us lo monlion lhis finaI poinl lhal manv limos, il has boon
soon lhal from oul of novhoro, a cov viII como and sil in lho
middIo of lho slrool and bohind him, a Iargo Iinoup of cars viII bo
vailing (for lho cov lo movo). Tho poIico viII nol inlorforo in lhis
issuo nor vouId anvono oIso havo lho courago lo louch lho cov or
causo him anv sorl of discomforl. Thus in lho ond, il is up lo lho
cov and his ovn inlonlions lo docido vhon ho viII gol up and movo
oul of lho vav, onding lhis inconvonionco lo lho poopIo.

If lho cov vas lo sil dovn on lho raiIvav lracIs, lho lrain oporalor
vouId bo obIigod lo appIv lho broaIs and slop lhoro in vailing unliI
lho cov gols up and movos avav on his ovn froo viII, lhus
romoving lhis inconvonionco from lho passongors in lho lrain!

Tho numbor of sacrod covs in lhis counlrv is voII ovor 150,000,000.
Iusl picluro for ono minulo if aII of lhoso covs voro compIoloIv froo
(lo do as lhov vanl) and voro al poaco (vilh vhalovor lhov voro
doing) - vhal vouId bo lho oulcomo` Wilhoul doubl lhov vouId
doslrov aII lho farms. Thov vouId manago lo oal up lho food lhal is
oarmarIod for hundrods of miIIions of poopIo for lho upcoming
voars and in lho ond vho Inovs vhal lho oulcomo vouId bo`
Nolhing. In addilion, vhon lhoso covs dio, lhoir corpsos musl bo
disposod of in such a vav (lhal doos nol shov anv disrospocl for
lhom) and lhis loo croalos groal hoadachos for lho poopIo.

153
Various Novspapor arlicIos
Chaplor XIX : Tho Groalosl BIossing


244
Anolhor poinl of amazomonl lo us is lhal hov is il possibIo for
humanilv - vho havo ascondod inlo lho hoavons on lho vings of
InovIodgo and inloIIigonco ÷ lo bo so soparalod from lho loachings
of lho HoavonIv Irophols and shov such humiIilv and humbIonoss
lo a cov!

Hov do vo Inov lhal if lho caII of lho Iifo-saving loachings of
Tavhid had nol roachod our counlrv vo loo mav havo faIIon inlo
lhis samo slalo or ovon vorso` Hov do vo Inov lhal if lho NobIo
Our'an and lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him
and his progonv) - vilh lho Iogic lhal (lhov broughl) lhal InocIod
sonso inlo us and lhal unsoon soIf-sacrifico - had nol slood up
againsl lho idoIs and lho various lvpos of idoI vorshipping, lhal
lodav, jusl IiIo a Iargo numbor of poopIo of lho vorId and lhoso
counlrios lhal aro around us vho havo boIiofs such as lho cov-
vorshippors of India, firo-vorshippors, sun vorshippors, lhoso vho
vorship rocIs and piocos of vood ÷ lhal vo loo vouId havo nol
havo boon as lhov aro`

Tho counlrv of Iapan is ono of lho mosl advancod counlrios in lho
vorId lodav. Tho producls of lhis counlrv aro in compolilion in lho
froo marIol vilh lho goods mado in Amorica and lho Europoan
counlrios: hovovor lhis nalion, vhich has roachod lo and conquorod
lho machino ago aro so onguIfod in shamofuI lhoughls and
imaginalions such lhal lho pon is ovon ashamod lo vrilo such
lhings. Ono of lho businossmon of our counlrv (Iran) vho has boon
quilo aclivo in lrado and commorco in Iapan for somo limo nov
onco said, ¨InforlunaloIv, lho majorilv of lho poopIo of lho nalion
of Iapan aro idoI vorshippors and for ovorv ovonl lhal comos up in
lhoir Iivos, lhov boIiovo lhal a soparalo god and croalor is
rosponsibIo for lhal ovonl and lhov allribulo il lo him.

For oxampIo, lhov havo fashionod a god of rain, a god of var and a
god of poaco, olc. Ono of lhoir gods is lho god lhal brings a man lo
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


245
a voman vho is IooIing lo gol marriod. In lho idoI-vorshipping
conlros of lhis counlrv, lhoso idoIs aro mado lo rosombIo shocIing
and ropuIsivo shapos: for oxampIo (lho god lhal lhov boIiovo hoIps a
voman find hor malo) acluaIIv rosombIos vhal lhov lhinI such a
god vouId IooI IiIo. Womon vho aro singIo acluaIIv pav visilalion
lo lhis pIaco al spocific limos and asI lhoir roquosls from such
lhings!¨

This acl shovs lho IovoI and dogroo of inloIIigonco of a nalion vho
has ponolralod lhrough lho roaIms of lho hoavons and has oxpIorod
doop inlo lho ocoans and vhoso onliro Iifo and oxislonco has boon
changod lhrough lochnoIogv and oxporliso. Through a cursorv
gIanco al lhis scono and bv sludving lhis parl of lho vorId vhich
has boon doprivod of lho spiriluaI bounlios of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho), do vo sliII faiI lo rocognizo lho sorvico and bonofils
lhal IsIam has broughl lo civiIizalion`

Sooing as hov Iafar ibno Abi 1aIib had obsorvod - from cIoso up -
lho corruplion lhal idoI vorshipping had broughl and lho dangors
lhal voro broughl aboul bv boing dislancod from lho loachings of
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho), vhon lho ruIor of Habasha
(prosonl dav Elhiopia) asIod him aboul lho lruo visago of IsIam, ho
ropIiod in lho foIIoving mannor:

¨O King, vo voro an unonIighlonod poopIo pIungod in ignoranco.
Wo vorshippod idoIs, vo alo animaIs lhal diod on lhoir ovn, and
vo commillod manv olhor abominalions. Wo broIo lho naluraI lios
(of famiIv) and mislroalod our noighbors and lho slrong amongsl us
oxpIoilod lho voaIor onos.

Wo Iivod in lhis mannor unliI AIIah raisod among us a Irophol of
nobIo birlh and Iinoago, lrulhfuInoss, honoslv and purilv lhal vo
voro aII avaro of. Ho invilod us lo acInovIodgo lho Inilv of AIIah
Chaplor XIX : Tho Groalosl BIossing


246
and lo vorship Him and lo ronounco lho slonos and idoIs lhal our
forofalhors and vo oursoIvos usod lo vonoralo.

Ho onjoinod us lo spoaI lho lrulh, lo rodoom our pIodgos, lo bo Iind
and considoralo lo our Iin and noighbours: ho forbado and loId us
lo rofrain from ovorv vico incIuding bIoodshod, shamoIossnoss, Iios,
docoil and loId us nol lo oncroach upon lho righls of lho orphans
nor lo viIifv chaslo vomon.

Ho commandod us lo pav divino homago lo AIIah aIono and novor
associalo olhors vilh Him: ho ordorod us lo offor pravors, lo pav lho
ZaIal, lo obsorvo lho fasl (lhus onumoraling olhor injunclions of
IsIam).

Wo acInovIodgod his lrulhfuInoss and boIiovod in him: vo
foIIovod him in vhalovor ho broughl from AIIah and vo
vorshippod onIv Ono God vilhoul associaling anvlhing or anvono
oIso vilh Him: vo lroalod as unIavfuI vhal ho prohibilod and
accoplod vhal ho mado IavfuI for us.

From lhon on, vo voro oslrangod from our ovn poopIo such lhal
lhov porsoculod us, lriod lo soduco us from our failh and forcod us
lo laIo bacI lho idoIs as our gods and lhov ovon compoIIod us lo
rolurn lo lho abominalions vo had commillod oarIior. So vhon lhov
lorlurod us and hoId us undor lhoir lvrannv and slood bolvoon us
and our roIigion, vo fIod lo vour counlrv having choson vou abovo
aII olhors for rofugo. Wo havo como horo, O´ King, lo vour Iand
sooIing vour proloclion and vo hopo lhal vo shaII nol bo doaIl vilh
unjuslIv.¨
154



154
Sirah of Ibno Hisham, VoIumo 1, pago 336 (adaplod from lho lransIalion
found on vvv. vvv. vvv. vvv.i ii isI sI sI sIa aa amvision.org mvision.org mvision.org mvision.org).
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


247
Sinco Iafar ibno Abi 1aIib and lhoso vho voro vilh him had soon
lho manifoslalion and oulcomo of nol subscribing lo a roIigion and
lho slalo of lhoso vho voro froo in lhoir (roIigious) praclicos, lhov
roaIizod lho lruo imporlanco of lho loachings of IsIam and lhus
considorod il ovon moro vorlhv lhan lhoir ovn Iivos. Hovovor,
lhoso poopIo vho havo boon born inlo a roIigious and spiriluaI
famiIv and havo nol had lo lravoI lho difficuIl palh lo find roIigion,
nor havo lhov boon abusod and had vounds infIiclod upon lhom in
lhis palh lo lho poinl vhoro lhoir bIood has boon shod, vouId novor
undorsland lho lruo imporlanco lhal roIigion has and lho imporlanl
roIo lhal il pIavs in lho improvomonl and voII-boing of a sociolv.

. •Š -.· ., - ¸·ž ¸· •
.- .´ · .- · •¯ ‡ ·
A rainv nighl and lho scarv ocoan svoIIs vilh unoasv slorms,
Tho Iighl rain on lho coasls can novor Inov lhis (lurbuIonl) slalo.

Tho Our'an considors roIigion as boing lho groalosl spiriluaI bIossing
lhal has boon givon lo manIind:

' `· `¯· . · ' `¯ · `.´`,· · . · ˆ.`·' `.` . ¸`, •'
· . `.´.
¨And rocaII (O´ MusIims) lho bIossings of AIIah lhal voro
shovorod upon vou during lho limo vhon vou voro
onomios of ono anolhor and (lhrough lho bIossings of
AIIah) Ho unilod vour hoarls.¨
155



155
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 103
Chaplor XIX : Tho Groalosl BIossing


24S
On lho dav lhal lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) mado Inovn his Wasi (succossor), lho rovoIalion of AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) camo dovn lo him and roforrod lo lhis
ovonl (1S
lh
of DhuI Hijjah) as lho groalosl bIossing:

¸`· `.´`,· `.``' `.´· `.´ `.¯' ·`.,' ...
¨This dav (1Slh of DhuI Hijjah) havo I (AIIah) compIolod
vour roIigion for vou and havo I porfoclod upon vou Mv
bounlios.¨
156


Tho Arabs lhal Iivod in lho dosorl imaginod lhal bv simpIv
accopling IsIam, lhov had dono a sorvico lo lho Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) and lhrough lhis
acl of lhoirs, lhov foIl as if lhov had pul an obIigalion upon lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv).
Hovovor, if lhov had lruIv and sincoroIv accoplod IsIam, lhon al lho
firsl IovoI (of lhoir submission) lhov vouId havo dorivod much
bonofil, sinco lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his
progonv) vouId havo boon obIigalod lo graco and bIoss lhom sinco
lhov had choson lho palh of happinoss and lho road lo compIolo
porfoclion jusl as il has boon monlionod in lho Our'an:

¸ ' ..· `.¯· .' `.´`,· '¸` `·
¨Ralhor, il is AIIah vho has Iaid upon vou an obIigalion
bv guiding vou lo lho failh.¨
157


Ono of lho dislinclions of lho Our'an is lhal lhoro is nol a singIo
inslanco in vhich il nogIocls lo monlion anv dolaiI or aspocl and il
lacIIos ovorv issuo lhal il spoaIs aboul from various difforonl

156
Surah aI-Maidah (5), Vorso 5
157
Surah aI-Hujural (49), Vorso 17
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


249
aspocls. For oxampIo, in lho vorso undor discussion, vhon il is
monlionod in rogards lo lho dosorl Arabs and lhoir apparonl
accoplanco of lho roIigion of IsIam and allribuling lhis as boing Iman
or lruo failh, lho Our'an lhon savs:

..· `.¯· .'
¨.bv guiding vou lo lho failh.¨

And immodialoIv il onds vilh lho foIIoving sonlonco:

... •··. `.`¯ .
¨.if vou aro lrulhfuI.¨

Bv lhis il is moanl lhal allribuling lruo failh (Iman) lo lhoso poopIo
is somolhing lhal lhov lhomsoIvos had said in rogards lo lhoir ovn
souIs, bul in lho opinion of lho Our'an, lruo failh (Iman) had nol vol
onlorod inlo lhoir hoarls.

Bv lho Our'an monlioning lhis condilion, il romovos anv Iind of
conlradiclion lhal mighl bo imaginod in roIalion lo lhis vorso and
lho provious vorso (vorso numbor 14) sinco in lho 14
lh
vorso of lhis
Surah, il is cIoarIv monlionod lhal lhoso poopIo had accoplod IsIam
hovovor lhov voro dovoid of lruo failh (Iman). Thus, if in lhis vorso
lhov voro lo bo counlod amongsl lho ranIs of lho BoIiovors
(Mu'minin) vhich is lho groalosl bIossing of AIIah (GIorifiod and
ExaIlod is Ho), lhon il is onIv duo lo lho facl lhal lhis is vhal lhov
lhomsoIvos cIaimod aboul lhoir ovn souIs and il is for lhis roason
lhal immodialoIv, lho Our'an ropIios lo lhom lhal:

... •··. `.`¯ .
¨.if vou aro lrulhfuI.¨

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


251





















Chaplor Tvonlv

KnovIodgo of
lho Insoon
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


253
Vorso 20
KnovIodgo of lho Insoon

. ' •`,” `.`· · ' ` . ' ¸`. ' `· "V$T ..`·
CorlainIv AIIah has (compIolo) InovIodgo of lhal vhich is hiddon in lho
Hoavons and lho Earlh and AIIah is lho Ono vho Soos vhal aII of vou (His
croalions) do.

ho IoxicaI moaning of lho vord ¨hiddon¨ (•,”) is somolhing
lhal is covorod. Anvlhing lhal is hiddon or concoaIod from
us - vholhor lhis is somolhing phvsicaI vhich is discornabIo
bv lho sonsos or somolhing lhal is Divino, hovovor il has boon
cIolhod vilh lho phvsicaI (vorId) and is far from boing discornabIo
bv our sonsos - is roforrod lo as boing of lho hiddon ( ” •, ). Thoso
ovonls lhal havo occurrod in lho pasl or lho ovonls lhal viII como
aboul in lho fuluro, ovon if on lhoir ovn aro lhings vhich can bo
rocognizod bv our sonsos, hovovor in lho prosonl limo lhov aro
oulsido of our jurisdiclion, aro aIso cIoar oxampIos of vhal is
considorod as unsoon (•,”).

Thoso affairs lhal naluraIIv cannol bo discornod bv our sonsos and
vhich aro far abovo lhal vhich manIind is abIo lo discorn or
undorsland vilh his Iimilod abiIilv of porcoplion such as lho
Essonco of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) or His Characlorislics:
lho roaIilv of lho raising up from lho gravos and manv olhor lhings
aro aII issuos lhal aro roIalod lo lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon and il
is onIv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) vho has compIolo
InovIodgo of lhoso lhings. InliI lhal limo lhal manIind doos nol
undorsland and unIocI lho mvslorios of lho univorso, molhod of
croalion, lho ruIos lhal govorn lho vorId of croalion, and doos nol
gain InovIodgo of lhoso lhings, aII of lhoso viII conlinuo lo romain
as issuos roIalod lo lho unsoon, vhich mavbo sIovIv and graduaIIv
viII onlor inlo lho InovIodgo of manIind.
T
Chaplor XX : KnovIodgo of lho Insoon


254
Tho linv and minulo croalions and aIso lho Iargo croaluros lhal oxisl
around us - bolh lhoso lhal Iivo on lho Iand and in lho doplhs of lho
ocoans vhich aro scallorod around - havo aII boon croalod according
lo lhoir ovn discipIo and ordor, and aII of lhoso viII romain as
issuos of lho unInovn. This is lho poinl vhich has boon aIIudod lo
in lhis vorso vhon Ho (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) savs:

`•`,” · ' .` ' ¸`.
¨And lo AIIah boIong lho unInovn socrols of lho Hoavons
and lho Earlh.¨

From lhis vorso of lho Our'an and manv olhor vorsos, vo roaIizo lhal
lho onIv Ono vho has compIolo KnovIodgo of lho Insoon is AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho):

-· `·`· ' .`· . .``· . •`,…
¨And vilh Him aro lho Iovs of lho Insoon lhal no ono
Inovs oxcopl for Him.¨
15S


`.`· . ¸· ¸· `¸· ' ..` ' `. ¸ ' . •`,… ' `·
¨Sav (O´ Muhammad) no ono has InovIodgo of lhal
vhich is hiddon in lho Hoavons and lho Earlh oxcopl for
AIIah.¨
159


Wilhoul doubl, KnovIodgo of lho Insoon vhich is spocificaIIv
Iimilod lo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and nol a singIo
porson sharos in lhis InovIodgo, is lho comprohonsion of lho
Essonco and Iro-Exislonco of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)

15S
Surah aI-Anam (6), Vorso 59
159
Surah aI-NamI (27), Vorso 65
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


255
vhich Ho has nol rocoivod from anvvhoro ÷ ralhor, lhis is His
acluaI ossonco and Ho is froo from aII sorls of possibIo obIigalions,
Iimils and confinos. Hovovor, bv AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) Iimiling lho aIIocalion of such KnovIodgo of lho Insoon lo
HimsoIf il doos nol moan lhal al limos, somo of His spocific sorvanls
can nol bo acquainlod vilh somo of lhis hiddon InovIodgo bv
lhom. Il has boon monlionod in rogards lo lho Irophol of IsIam
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lhal:

`.· ' `,” ¸· `.‚` ·· •`,… . ¸· . -' · ' `¸· ¸.`
..`
¨Tho Knovor of lho Insoon (AIIah) so lhon Ho doos nol
maIo Inovn vhal is hiddon lo a singIo porson oxcopl
lhoso vhom Ho is pIoasod vilh from amongsl His
Mossongors.¨
160


According lo lho cIoar roading of lhis vorso of lho Our'an, lho
Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) had boon
pormillod lo havo lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon bv lho pormission
of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lhus ho had boon
informod of hiddon ovonls and issuos lhal vouId como lo pass.

This issuo is nol onIv Iimilod lo lho Irophol of IsIam (bIossings of
AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) - ralhor according lo lho cIoar
vorsos of lho Our'an, ovon Irophol Isa ibno Mariam aI-Masih (poaco
bo upon lhom) vas acquainlod vilh a groal doaI of informalion lhal
had como from lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon. Tho Our'an quolos
him as saving lo lho poopIo:


160
Surah aI-Iinn (72), Vorso 26
Chaplor XX : KnovIodgo of lho Insoon


256
` ¸· .`-` · ..¯' `.´·`' `.´.`,.
¨And I inform vou of vhal vou oal (ovon lhough I havo
nol soon vou oaling) and lhal vhich vou sloro in vour
housos.¨
161


Irophol Nuh (poaco bo upon him), lho Ioador of lho Irophols
(ShaiIhuI Anbiva), vas ono of lhoso poopIo vho roquoslod AIIah
(GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) lo doslrov lho poopIo of his
communilv (duo lo lho sins lhov voro commilling). In roIalion lo
lho oulcomo of his poopIo and lhal of his ovn chiIdron, ho vas
informod (givon KnovIodgo of lho Insoon) lhal:

`. . . ` ¸· ' ¸· ¸`. ' `.`·` . :` ´· ¸·´
¯ ‰· . ` . ··· .™.`
¨(And Nuh said) O´ mv Iord! Do nol Ioavo upon lho
Earlh anv dvoIIor from amongsl lho unboIiovors for
suroIv if You Ioavo lhom, lhov viII Ioad Your sorvanls
aslrav and viII nol bogol anv bul immoraI, ungralofuI
(chiIdron).¨
162


In addilion, in lhroo soparalo incidonls lhal occurrod, lho lravoI
companion of Irophol Musa (poaco bo upon him) - moaning
Irophol Khidhr (poaco bo upon him) - informod Irophol Musa
(poaco bo upon him) of KnovIodgo of lho Insoon. Tho firsl ovonl
vas vhon ho damagod lho ship: lho socond vas vhon ho IiIIod lho
voung bov: and lho lhird ono vas vhon ho camo across lho
diIapidalod vaII in lho cilv vhich ho robuiIl. In ordor lo romovo lho
surpriso and shocI of Irophol Musa (poaco bo upon him), Irophol

161
Surah ÄaIo Imran (3), Vorso 49
162
Surah Nuh (71), Vorso 26 & 27
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


257
Khidr (poaco bo upon him) procoodod lo oxpIain his aslonishing
aclions lo him bv dolaiIing lho ovonls lhal vouId occur in lho fuluro
lhal voro hiddon from lho undorslanding and InovIodgo of
Irophol Musa (poaco bo upon him) bv saving lo him:

¨Sinco lho opprossivo ruIor of lho limo vas laIing avav aII of lho
ships of lho poopIo and il vas possibIo lhal lhoirs (ovnor of lhal
ship) loo vouId bo laIon, I damagod a parl of lho ship sinco I
vanlod lhis opprossivo Iing lo Ioso inlorosl in lhis ship. Tho voung
bov lhal I IiIIod vas duo lo lho facl lhal if ho conlinuod lo Iivo, ho
vouId havo choson lho palh of roboIIion and corruplion, and
conlinuing in lhis courso of Iifo, ho vouId havo ondod up
murdoring bolh his molhor and falhor. I fixod lho vaII lhal vas
aImosl doslrovod sinco undor lho vaII, lhoro vas a buriod lroasuro
lhal boIongod lo lvo orphans. Bv fixing lho vaII, I inlondod lo Ioop
lho lroasuro hiddon from lho ovos of lho poopIo of lhal cilv so lhal in
lho fuluro, lhoso vho ovnod lhal voaIlh couId laIo il oul (and
maIo uso of il).¨
163


Thal vhich has boon monlionod aro aII oxampIos of ovonls lhal voro
hiddon and onIv lhoso sorvanls of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) vhich Ho is pIoasod and conlonl vilh voro givon InovIodgo
of. Thoso sorls of ovonls occurring can novor bo inlorprolod as lhoso
porsonaIilios boing parlnors vilh AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
sinco lhoso lvo lvpos of InovIodgo aro difforonl and soparalo from
ono anolhor.

Tho InovIodgo of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) and lho
KnovIodgo of lho Insoon is inhoronl and is nol somolhing lhal can
bo acquirod ÷ il is pro-oxislonl and is in no vav Iimilod or roslriclod.
Hovovor, lho InovIodgo of lho Irophols and lhoso poopIo vho aro

163
Surah aI-Kahf (1S), Vorso 60 - S2
Chaplor XX : KnovIodgo of lho Insoon


25S
lho vorlhv and suilabIo sorvanls of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) is Iimilod and roslriclod.

Aflor Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib (poaco bo upon him)
conquorod lho cilv of Basrah (in prosonl dav Iraq) and doslrovod lho
povor and infIuonco of lhoso vho broIo lhoir lroalv vilh him
(namoIv 1aIhah and Zubair), ho lhon procoodod lo inform lho
poopIo of lho ovonls lhal vouId occur in lho fuluro in Basrah. Ono
of lho companions of lho Imam (poaco bo upon him) asIod him, ¨Do
vou inform us of lho Insoon (•,”)`¨ Tho Imam (poaco bo upon him)
ropIiod lo him as foIIovs:

.· .· `¸· `.· .`· ` •`,” .· .`· •`,
¨This is nol informalion of lho unsoon (lhal is Iimilod onIv
lo AIIah and of vhich no ono oIso has pormission lo
Inov), ralhor lhal vhal I sav is InovIodgo lhal ono vho
possossos InovIodgo (lho Irophol of AIIah) laughl mo.¨
164


In addilion, lhoro aro counlIoss narralions lhal boar vilnoss lo lho
facl lhal our roIigious Ioadors - lho A'immah (poaco bo upon aII of
lhom) - in corlain inslancos and circumslancos, had informod us of
ovonls lhal vouId occur in lho fuluro. Of lhoso inslancos is lho
KnovIodgo of lho Insoon lhal Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibno Abi 1aIib
(poaco bo upon him) roforrod lo as ¨.lhal vhich lho ono vho
possoss InovIodgo laughl mo¨ and obviousIv such a roporl and
KnovIodgo of lho Insoon can novor bo conslruod lo go againsl lho
vorsos of lho Our'an lhal spoaI of lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon
boing Iimilod lo lho Essonco of AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho)
aIono.


164
NahjuI BaIagha, Spooch 12S
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


259
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) commandod His Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) lo loII lho poopIo
lho foIIoving: ¨I novor cIaim lo havo KnovIodgo of lho Insoon and
if I had such InovIodgo, lhon suroIv vorv manv bad lhings vouId
havo boon Iopl avav from mvsoIf and I vouId havo had much good
como lo mo.¨

`.`·' `.`¯ `. ' ¸· `.`·´`' •`,… ' `,-
¨And had I (Muhammad) Inovn lho unsoon I vouId havo
had much good (como lo mo).¨
165


In anolhor vorso of lho Our'an, lho Irophol (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is
Ho) is commandod lo sav lo lho poopIo:

`¸•- .`· `.´ ..·' . ' `.`·' . · ' •`,…
¨I (Muhammad) do nol sav lhal I havo lho hiddon socrols
of AIIah vilh mo, nor do I havo KnovIodgo of lho
Insoon.¨
166


Tho purposo of lhoso nobIo vorsos is nol lo shov somo sorl of
humiIilv or humbIonoss in lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon
him and his progonv): ralhor lhis is a lrulh lhal lho Our'an is
oIucidaling upon and lho IogicaI and phiIosophicaI roasons and
olhor vorsos of lho Our'an aIso confirm lhis boIiof.

Hovovor, il goos vilhoul saving lhal lho purposo of lhoso vorsos ÷
bv lho loslimonv of lho Our'an ilsoIf vhich is curronlIv undor sludv
÷ is lhal spocific KnovIodgo of lho Insoon vhich nono olhor lhan
AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) has accoss lo is lho boundIoss,

165
Surah aI-Araf (7), Vorso 1SS
166
Surah Hud (11), Vorso 31
Chaplor XX : KnovIodgo of lho Insoon


260
IimilIoss Divino KnovIodgo - moaning lho KnovIodgo of lho
Essonco and Iro-Elornilv of AIIah (lho InovIodgo vhich is lho
Essonco of AIIah and is noilhor an addilion lo His Essonco, lhal
InovIodgo vhich has boon vilh Him for olornilv). Thus, lhoso
vorsos do nol nogalo lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon boing providod
lo lho Irophol (bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv)
lhrough Divino rovoIalion or from lho informalion givon lo him
lhrough lho AngoIs or from somo olhor moans lhal aro mado
accossibIo lo him as aII of lhoso forms of KnovIodgo of lho Insoon
aro Iimilod and nol a parl of his ossonco - ralhor, lhov musl bo
acquirod.

AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) informod Ädam, lho Falhor of
Humanilv, vilh a sorios of lrulhs and Namos, lhal ovon lho AngoIs
voro nol acquainlod vilh and il is lho AngoIs vho voro ovon
provonlod from such magnificonl InovIodgo!
167


In addilion, AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) informod lho
molhor of Musa of lho oulcomo of lho slruggIos of hor chiId.
16S


Ho (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) aIso informod His finaI Irophol
(bIossings of AIIah bo upon him and his progonv) of lhal facl lhal
somo of his vivos voro sproading socrols aboul him lo olhors
169
-
and lhus, lhis is lhal samo AIIah (GIorifiod and ExaIlod is Ho) vho
is abIo lo pormil His olhor righloous sorvanls lo bo acquainlod vilh
lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon.

Il is in lho groalnoss of His gIorv lhal lhov aro abIo lo (vilh lho
pormission of AIIah), bo informod of lho ovonls lhal havo happonod

167
Surah aI-Baqarah (2), Vorso 31 - 33
16S
Surah aI-Oasas (2S), Vorso 10
169
Surah aI-Tahrim (66), Vorso 13
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


261
in lho pasl and lhoso lhal viII occur in lho fuluro and lhoro is nol
lho smaIIosl amounl of doubl ÷ oilhor from lho poinl of viov of
vhal our InovIodgo loIIs us, nor from lho roIalod proofs (Our'an
and ahadilh) in rogards lo lhis.

Yahva ibno AbduIIah has said, ¨I vas in lho prosonco of Imam Musa
ibno Iafar aI-Kadhim and asIod him: 'Do vou havo KnovIodgo of
lho Insoon`´ In roIalion lo mv quoslion, ho bocomo upsol and said
lo mo, 'From lhis lvpo of quoslion, lho hairs on lho bodv of a porson
viII sland up! Thal vhich vo Inov and vo inform vou aboul is lho
InovIodgo vhich has roachod us from lho Irophol of AIIah.´¨
170















' `. · ``- ' •·
.and aII lho praiso boIongs soIoIv lo AIIah, lho Iord of lho Inivorso

170
RijaI aI-Kishi, Iagos 252-253: AmaIi of ShaiIh Mufid, Third Silling, Iago
493. For a doopor undorslanding on lho issuo of KnovIodgo of lho Insoon,
rofor lo lho booI, Mafahim aI-Our'an, Iagos 321 lo 3S3. In lhis soclion of lho
booI, a compIolo discussion in roIalion lo lho KnovIodgo of lho Insoon of
lho Irophol and lho A´immah has boon covorod.
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


263
Appondix A

¨,ù i ±|¨±1|
ExpIanalorv TransIalion of Surah aI-Hujural
171

(Tho Rooms)

IIoaso nolo lhal lho OriginaI Arabic loxl has boon lransIalod and formallod
as normaI loxl, vhoroas lho oxpIanalorv lransIalion is in ilaIics. Tho
subscriplod numbor procoding lho loxl rofors lo lho vorso numbor.

In lho Namo of AIIah, lho Bonoficonl, lho MorcifuI

Obodionco lo lho Shariah Obodionco lo lho Shariah Obodionco lo lho Shariah Obodionco lo lho Shariah

1
O vou vho boIiovo! In lho mallors of lho shariah do nol go ahoad of or
laIo procodonco boforo AIIah and His Mossongor and lho Imams: and foar
lho punishmonl of AIIah for such aclions, and bo carofuI of vhal vou sav or
vrilo aboul lho shariah bocauso AIIah suroIv is AII-Hoaring and AII-
Knoving. (During lho OccuIlalion of lho Irosonl Imam, lho samo discipIino
shouId bo obsorvod bv foIIoving lho mosl Ioarnod mujlahid ÷ oxporl of
IsIamic Iavs ÷ of our limo.)




171
Wo roproduco lho oxpIanalorv lransIalion of Surah aI-Hujural from lho
HoIv Our'an as lransIalod bv Savvid Muhammad Rizvi |vilh pormission
from lho lransIalor]. This lransIalion has boon oxlraclod from VoIumo 2 of
his vorI onlilIod, ¨An ExpIanalorv TransIalion of lho HoIv Our'an¨ (ISBN
0-920675-02-6) (Tr.)
Appondix A


264
2
O vou vho boIiovo! Do nol raiso vour voicos abovo lho voico of lho
Irophol. Aflor lho doalh of lho Irophol lho boIiovors can foIIov lhis
command of AIIah bv nol voicing lhoir objoclions againsl lho Iavs broughl
bv lho Irophol. And do nol laII IoudIv lo him as vou laII lo ono anolhor.
Hood lo lhoso lvo commands, Iosl aII vour doods bocomo forfoilod in such a
vav lhal vou von´l ovon roaIizo il.

3
SuroIv lhoso vho Iovor lhoir voicos in lho prosonco of lho Mossongor of
AIIah aro lho poopIo vhoso souIs havo boon loslod bv AIIah for lhoir piolv
(lavqa): for lhom, and for aII lhoso vho hood lo lho abovo command, is lho
forgivonoss of AIIah and a groal rovard.



During lho Iasl voars of lho Irophol´s Iifo, manv individuaIs and groups
camo lo Madinah lo visil lho Irophol. Among lhoso visilors, lho Bodouins
bohavod in such a vav lhal ovon AIIah did nol IiIo il. Whonovor lhov
onlorod lho cilv of Madinah, lhov vouId aII go lo lho Irophol´s houso al
lho samo limo and caII him oul lo soo him: lhov did nol roaIizo lhal lho
Irophol vas onlilIod lo somo privacv and rosl.
4
SuroIv mosl of lho poopIo
vho caII vou, O Muhammad, from oulsido
172
lho rooms, do nol
undorsland.
5
If lhov vailod palionlIv unliI vou como oul lo lhom, lhis
vouId bo bollor for lhom. And AIIah is Forgiving and MorcifuI.

Crilorion of Trulh & FaIshood in Novs Crilorion of Trulh & FaIshood in Novs Crilorion of Trulh & FaIshood in Novs Crilorion of Trulh & FaIshood in Novs

WaIid bin Iqbah bin Abi Muit of lho lribo of Bani Imavvah vas sonl bv
lho Irophol lo lho poopIo of Bani MustaIaq lo coIIocl zaIal. In pro-IsIamic
davs, WaIid and Bani MustaIaq voro onomios of oach olhor. Whon lho
poopIo of Bani MustaIaq camo lo Inov lhal WaIid is coming as a roproson-

172
Tho originaI vords in Arabic aro min vara vhich moans ¨from
bohind¨: bul in accordanco vilh lho prosonl-dav conloxl, I havo lransIalod il
as ¨from oulsido.¨
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


265
lalivo of lho Irophol, lhov camo forvard lo voIcomo him. Whon WaIid
sav lhom from far, ho lhoughl lhal lhov havo como lo fighl againsl him
bocauso of lhoir pasl onmilv. Thus ho rolurnod lo Madinah boforo ovon
mooling lho Bani MustaIaq poopIo. In Madinah, ho roporlod lo lho
Irophol lhal, ¨Tho lribo of Bani MustaIaq had givon up IsIam and rofusod
lo pav zaIal.¨

Whon lho roprosonlalivos of Bani MustaIaq camo lo Madinah lo inquiro
aboul lho slrango alliludo of WaIid, lhov found lho Irophol vorv upsol vilh
lhom.

Il vas in roIalion lo lhis faIso roporl of WaIid bin Iqbah lhal AIIah rovoaIod
lho foIIoving vorso
173
:

6
O vou vho boIiovo! If a sinfuI porson comos lo vou vilh novs or a roporl
aboul a porson or poopIo: lhon ascorlain lho lrulh of his roporl Iosl vou
harm a poopIo bocauso of vour ignoranco and lhon rogrol vhal vou havo
dono. (Thoroforo lhinI lvico boforo vou crilicizo anv MusIim nalion or
poopIo vhon somo novs concorning il comos from a sourco vhich is
unroIiabIo or opposod lo IsIam.)

Obodionco lo lho Irophol Obodionco lo lho Irophol Obodionco lo lho Irophol Obodionco lo lho Irophol

7
And O vou lho boIiovors, Inov lhal lho Mossongor of AIIah is among vou:
if ho voro lo obov vou in mosl lhings, for oxampIo, in lho caso of WaIid's
faIso roporl, lhon suroIv vou vouId faII inlo lroubIo. Bul AIIah has savod
vou from lroubIo bv ondoaring lho failh lo vou, bv adorning il for vour
hoarls and bv arousing disIiIo in vou lo disboIiof, lransgrossion and
disobodionco. Thoso poopIo vho foIIov lho commands of lho Irophol and
his righlfuI succossors aro lho righlIv guidod poopIo.
S
This righl guidanco
is a graco from AIIah and a favour and AIIah is indood AII-Knoving and
Wiso.

173
AI-ZamaIhshari, Tafsir aI-Kashsaf, VoIumo 3, Iago 129
Appondix A


266
IsIamic IsIamic IsIamic IsIamic SoIidarilv SoIidarilv SoIidarilv SoIidarilv

9
If lvo parlios of boIiovors, or lvo poopIo, fighl vilh oach olhor, lhon don'l
jusl sland as on-IooIors, bul go forvard lo maIo poaco bolvoon lhom.

Bul if ono of lhom rofusos lo maIo poaco and conlinuos lo oppross lho olhor,
lhon vou shouId fighl lho opprossor unliI ho agroos lo rolurn and hood lo
lho command lo AIIah. Whon lho opprossor hoods lo lho commandmonls of
AIIah, lhon maIo poaco bolvoon lhom on basis of juslico and acl vilh
oquilv. SuroIv AIIah Iovos lhoso vho acl vilh oquilv. (Thoroforo lo bo "non-
aIignod" in rogards lo affairs of lho MusIims is an un-IsIamic alliludo.)

Whv shouId a MusIim brolhor (or poopIo) bolhor himsoIf lo maIo poaco
bolvoon lvo MusIims` Whal righl doos ho havo lo do so`
10
SuroIv lho
boIiovors aro bul brolhors, lhoroforo, if lvo boIiovors fighl oach olhor lhon
vou, as brolhors, shouId maIo poaco bolvoon vour brolhors. And vhiIo
maIing poaco acl juslIv and foar lho punishmonl of AIIah, so lhal Ho mav
havo morcv on vou.

Somo MoraI Righls of MusIims Somo MoraI Righls of MusIims Somo MoraI Righls of MusIims Somo MoraI Righls of MusIims

As lho MusIims havo boon docIarod brolhors of oach olhor, lhov musl
rospocl lho righls of ono anolhor. Thoso righls aro of rociprocaI naluro:

A.
11
O vou vho boIiovo! IoopIo shouId nol Iaugh al, or maIo fun of,
anolhor poopIo, bocauso possibIv lhoso vho aro boing Iaughod al mav bo
bollor, in lho viov of AIIah lhan lhoso vho Iaugh. Nor shouId vomon Iaugh
al olhor vomon bocauso possibIv lhoso vho aro boing Iaughod al mav bo
bollor, in lho viov of AIIah, lhan lhoso vho Iaugh.

B. Do nol find fauIl vilh vour ovn MusIim brolhors, ralhor pav moro
allonlion lo soIf-crilicism and lo vour ovn porfoclion.

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


267
C. Do nol caII ono anolhor bv bad and insuIling nicInamos, bocauso caIIing
somoono bv bad namos aflor his docIaralion of lho failh is ilsoIf a
lransgrossion. And lhoso vho induIgo in lhoso vrongfuI acls and do nol
asI forgivonoss for lhoir sins: lhov aro lho unjusl poopIo.

D.
12
O vou vho boIiovo! Avoid mosl of lho suspicious lhoughls aboul olhor
MusIims: for suroIv suspicion in somo casos is a sin.

E. And do nol spv on oach olhor.

F. Nor shouId somo of vou bacI-bilo olhors. Doos anv ono of vou IiIo lo oal
lho fIosh of his doad brolhor`! SuroIv vou abhor il. Suspicion Ioads lo
spving and spving in lurn Ioads lo bacIbiling. Avoidanco of suspicion hoIps
in rofraining from spving on olhors and lhus bacIbiling. So foar lho
punishmonl of AIIah in vioIaling lhoso righls of a MusIim brolhor. SuroIv
AIIah is Mosl-Forgiving and MorcifuI.

Racism Rojoclod Racism Rojoclod Racism Rojoclod Racism Rojoclod

Ono of lho mosl abhorring sociaI foaluros of our prosonl ago is raciaI
discriminalion. AImosl ovorv counlrv and communilv suffors from lhis
sociaI disoaso in varving dogroos. Addrossing lho human sociolv, AIIah
savs:

13
O vou mon! Wo havo croalod vou from a maIo and a fomaIo (i.o., Adam
and Havva), and lhon Wo mado vou inlo difforonl racos and lribos so lhal
vou mav Inov and rocogniso oach olhor.

According lo IsIam, oach and ovorv human boing is from Adam and
Havva. AIIah dividod lhom inlo difforonl lribos and racos so lhal il vouId
bo oasv lo rocogniso ono anolhor. Thus lho difforonco in raco, lribo, coIour
and Ianguago aro lo faciIilalo lho rocognilion of oach olhor. Thoso phvsicaI
and maloriaI difforoncos cannol bo a slandard for proforonco or suporiorilv
of ono group ovor olhors. Bosidos InovIodgo and jihad (in ils ovorv sonso),
Appondix A


26S
lho onIv marI of dislinclion in IsIam is laqva i.o., piolv and God foaring.
SuroIv lho mosl honourabIo of vou in AIIah´s sighl is lho ono vho is mosl
pious among vou: suroIv AIIah is AII-Knoving and Avaro.

Difforonco Bolvoon Difforonco Bolvoon Difforonco Bolvoon Difforonco Bolvoon IsIam IsIam IsIam IsIam and and and and I II Iman man man man
Submission & Conviclion Submission & Conviclion Submission & Conviclion Submission & Conviclion

Tho Bodouin poopIo of Bani Asad voro ovorcomo bv famino. Thov camo lo
Madinah and docIarod lhomsoIvos MusIims. Thon lhov asIod lho Irophol
lo givo lhom somo of lho zaIal. Thov laIIod lo lho Irophol in such a vav
lhal il soomod lhal lhov had dono him a favour bv bocoming MusIims, and
lhal ho vas obIigod lo hoIp lhom. Il vas aboul lhom lhal AIIah savs:

14
Tho Arabs of lho dosorl sav, ¨O Muhammad! Wo boIiovo in vou and vour
God.¨ ToII lhom: ¨You do nol boIiovo in mo or mv Iord, hovovor vou
shouId sav, 'Wo submil (asIamna) oursoIvos lo vour Iord,´ bocauso lho failh
(iman) has nol vol onlorod inlo vour hoarls. Bul if vou sincoroIv obov AIIah
and His Mossongor, Ho viII nol diminish anvlhing from vour doods. SuroIv
AIIah is Forgiving and MorcifuI.¨

Thoroforo, IsIam (submission) and Iman (failh, conviclion) aro lvo difforonl
slagos of boIiof. ¨IsIam¨ is vorbaI confossion, vhoroas ¨Iman¨ is spiriluaI
conviclion: IsIam is boIioving in AIIah and His Mossongor bv jusl foIIoving
olhors (IiIo paronls and sociolv, olc.), vhoroas Iman is boIioving in AIIah
and His Mossongor aflor achioving conviclion aboul lho lrulh of AIIah and
His Mossongor.

Tho noxl vorso dofinos lho mu'minin (lhoso vho boIiovo vilh conviclion)
vis-a-vis lho musIimin (lhoso vho vorbaIIv submil lhomsoIvos lo AIIah).

15
Tho mu'minin (boIiovors) aro onIv lhoso vho:

• boIiovo in AIIah and His Mossongor, vorbaIIv as voII as spiriluaIIv:

Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


269
• and lhon lhov novor doubl in lhoir failh bocauso il originalos from
conviclion nol bIind foIIoving:

• and lhov slruggIo hard vilh lhoir voaIlh and lhoir Iivos in lho vav
of AIIah.

Thoso aro lho lrulhfuI boIiovors.

16
O Muhammad, loII lhoso Arabs lhal: Aro vou appraising AIIah aboul vour
roIigion bv saving lhal, ¨Wo BoIiovo`¨ AIIah Inovs vhal is in lho Hoavons
and vhal is in lho Earlh. AIIah Inovs aII lhings.

17
Bv bocoming MusIims, lhov soom lo do vou a favour! ToII lhom lhal, ¨Bv
bocoming MusIims vou do nol do mo a favour, ralhor AIIah has dono vou a
favour bv guiding vou lo lho failh. This is a facl vhich vou can oasiIv
undorsland if vou aro lrulhfuI.

1S
SuroIv AIIah Inovs lho unsoon lhings of lho hoavons and lho oarlh, and
AIIah soos vhal vou do.
















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


271
SoIoclod BibIiographv


AI-Our'an AI-Karim

ÄmuIi, Sharaf Ad-Din, An-Nass vaI Ijlihad

Ämdi, AbduI Wahid ibno Muhammad, Ghurar AI-HiIam va
Durrar aI-KaIam

Ansari, ShaiIh MurlaJa, AI-MaIasib

Barqi, Ahmad ibno Muhammad ibno KhaIid, AI-Mahasin

BaruI, Kamiri, Disoasos of lho SouI

BiIadhari, Ahmad ibno Yahva, AnsabuI Ashraf

FaiJh aI-Kashani, MuIIah Muhsin, AI-MahjjaluI BavJha

HaIabi, AIi ibno Ibrahim, Sirah AI-HaIabi

Hamiri, AbduI MaIiI ibno Hisham, Sirah Ibno Hisham

Hamiri, AbduIIah ibno Iafar, Ourb AI-Isnad

Havizi, AbduI AIi, Nur Alh-ThaqaIain

HiIIi (AIIamah), Hasan ibno Yusuf, TadhIiraluI Fuqaha

Hurr ÄmuIi, Muhammad ibno Hasan, WasaiI Ash-Shia

Ibno Alhir, MubaraI ibno Muhammad, AsaduI Ghabah

MajIisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar AI-Anvar

Mufid, Muhammad ibno Muhammad, AI-IIhlisas

______, AvaiIuI MuqaIal

Nasif, Mansur AIi, Al-Taj

BibIiographv


272
Nishaburi, MusIim ibno Hajjaj, Sahih aI-MusIim

Oummi, ShaiIh Abbas, SafinaluI Bihar

Ourlubi, Ahmad ibno AbduI Rabbah, AqduI Farid

RaJi, Muhammad (Savvid RaJi), Nahj AI-BaIagha

Waqidi, Muhammad ibno Imar, AI-Maghazi

Warram, Ibno Abi Faras, MajmualuI Warram

ZamaIshari, Mahmud ibno Imar, AI-Kashshaf





















Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


273
Indox

A AA A
Ashab-o-Suffah, 1S0
Abu AIi Ahmad ibn Muhammad
ibn MasIuvah, xxxiii
Abu BaIr, 26, 37, 39, 52, 121
Abu BaIr ibn AI-Ouhafah, 26
Abu Zainab, 51
Abbasid, xvii
AbduI Izzah, 136
AbduI Ian, 136
AbduI Iabbar, 136
AbduI Khair, 136
AbduI Ial, 136
AbduI Oavvum, 136
AbduI Shams, 136
AbduIIah, 49, 50, 51, 53, 135, 136,
137, 261, 271
AbduIIah ibn Iafar, 53, 271
AbduIIah ibn Masud, 49, 50, 51
Abdus Sharr, 136
Adam, 235, 267
Africa, 172, 221
AIi, xxxiii, 20, 21, 22, 39, 46, 4S,
52, 53, 75, S5, S6, S7, 106, 109,
120, 125, 127, 12S, 129, 14S,
162, 179, 204, 209, 226, 229,
25S, 271
AIi ibn Musa aI-RiJa, 204, 229
AIoxis CaroI, 147
AIgoria, 221
AIIamah MajIisi, 206
Amir aI-Mo'minin AIi ibn Abi
1aIib, 20, 22, 4S, 52, 53, 75, S5,
S7, 106, 125, 12S, 129, 14S, 162,
209, 226, 25S
Amorica, 169, 244
Ansar, S, 64, 65, 105, 177, 1S3,
1S4, 271
Aqabah, 47, 4S
ArislolIo, xxiii, xxv
Avs, 106
Avosha binl Abu BaIr, 39, 52, 121
B BB B
Bisan, 135
Basrah, 25S
Baghidh, 135
Bani aI-MustaIiq, 46, 47, 4S
Bani Asad, 201, 203, 214, 26S
Bani BavaJha, 1S2
Bani Tamim, 37
Bani Imavvah, 46, 4S, 52, 264
BiIaI, 177
BuIhari, 37
C CC C
Chrislians, 6, 7, 193
D DD D
DaIo Carnogio, xxix
DhuIavfa, 1S2, 1S3, 1S4, 1S6, 1S9
Dr. AIoxis CaroI, 147
E EE E
Elhiopa, 105
F FF F
Fatimah, 179
Froud, vi, xxvi, 76, 77
G GG G
Ghavi ibn DhaIim, 135
GrooIs, xvii, xxiii, xxxiii
Indox


274
H HH H
Harun Rashid, 90
I II I
Ibn Abbas, S
Ibn Alhir, 22, 137, 271
Ibn Hisham, 22, 64, 10S, 217, 220,
246, 271
Ibrahim, 74, 75, 195, 271
Ibrahim aI-KhaIiI aI-Rahman, 197
Imam AIi ibn Musa aI-RiJa, 204
Imam Hasan ibn AIi aI-Mujlaba,
39
Imam Husain ibn AIi, 39
Imam Iafar ibn Muhammad as-
Sadiq, 90, 12S, 153, 163, 166,
204, 206, 209
Imam Musa ibn Iafar aI-Kadhim,
90, 261
Imam Muhammad ibn AIi aI-
Baqir, 109, 120, 127, 204
India, 242, 243, 244
InjiI (Nov Toslamonl), 7
Iran, 54, 65
Isa ibn Mariam, 91, 255
Ishaq, 195
IsmaiI, 195
I II I
Iubair, 177, 17S, 1S0, 1S2, 1S3,
1S4, 1S5, 1S6, 1S7, 1SS, 1S9
Iafar ibn Abi 1aIib, 245, 247
Iafar ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq,
90, 12S, 153, 163, 166, 204, 206,
209
Iabbar, 136
IamiIah, 136
Iapan, 244
Iovs, 6, 7, 65, 193
Iundub ibn Zahir Azdi, 51
K KK K
Kara aI-Ghamim, 1S
Khajah Nasir ad-Din 1usi, xxxiv
KhaIid ibn Said ibn Äs, 22
Khaibar, 65, 66
Khazraj, 106
Kufah, 49, 50, 51, 52
I II I
Ial, 22, 136
M MM M
Musa, 90, 204, 229, 256, 260, 261
Musa ibn Iafar aI-Kadhim, 90,
261
Ma'mun, 204
Madinah, 5, 6, 7, S, 9, 17, 46, 51,
65, 105, 106, 17S, 179
MaIIah, v, 6, 7, S, 17, S5, 174
Mossiah, 91
Muhammad, vi, xxxiii, 13, 15, 16,
17, 19, 20, 24, 29, 33, 37, 39, 57,
60, 61, 62, 90, 103, 109, 120,
127, 12S, 153, 163, 166, 1S3,
193, 194, 195, 197, 200, 204,
206, 209, 213, 219, 225, 241,
254, 259, 263, 26S, 269, 271,
272
Muhammad ibn AIi aI-Baqir,
109, 120, 127, 204
Muhammad ibn MusIim, 204
Muhaqqiq 1usi, xxxiii
MufaddhaI ibn Imar, 163
Muhajirin, 64, 105
N NN N
Nuh, 256
Numan, 135
Tho IsIamic MoraI Svslom : Commonlarv of Surah aI-Hujural


275
I II I
IoIvlhoisls, 7, 4S, S5
O OO O
Oavvum, 136
Ouraish, 64, 65, 173, 1S1
R RR R
Rashid ibn AbduIIah, 135
S SS S
Sad Rabi, 216
Sadi, 110
SaIman aI-Farsi, 65
Shas ibn Oais, 106
Shiraz, 110
Shahid alh-Thani, 206
Shaitan, 2S, 136
ShaiIh Hurr aI-ÄmuIi, 34
ShavIh Mufid, 206, 261
Socralos, xxiii, xxv
T TT T
Tamim ibn Iarasha, 21
Tavral, viii, 7, 197, 233, 235, 236
Tavral (OId Toslamonl), 7, 233
Thabil ibn Oais, 120
Thaqif, 21, 22
I II I
Imar, 24, 25, 26, 37, 52, 121, 163,
272
Imm SaIamah, 121
Ilhman ibn aI-Affan, 26
W WW W
WaIid, vi, 45, 46, 47, 4S, 49, 50, 51,
52, 53, 264, 265
WaIid ibn Aqbah ibn Abi Muit,
45
Y YY Y
Yahva ibn AbduIIah, 261
Yamamah, 17S, 1S0, 1S1, 1S2, 1S4
Z ZZ Z
Zaid, 19, 177
Zaid ibn Thabil, 216
Zainab, 19, 51
Zivad ibn Iabid, 177, 1S2
Zubair, 25S




! &

" # '

$

%

)
! *&
G % " # ; *& ' <' M < " # ) J & + && < & / > . - 5 A 6 ? . .7 L .< 0 < 25 6 <4 2? ? : 5 ? 4::A 2 < <+ + && .5 27 ) %I K = & & < & 9< < 2< 0 < + * ( < ' < + H

" # +
& /

$ ' &&
/ ,

%

& &

B

' , .2- <5 6 < - : 2? ? :

,

&

>

;

)

+ -.+ 0 / 1 & 20 23 ) 4.5 46 7 6 ... 8 9) 4.5 46 7 - :6 ;;;< ==<

(

&8 & 0 , <1 < ' 9 7 ? && 9 @ & 0 /& + 6 A "' ) ? 2? - 5 4A 5 - - . 8 9) ? 2? - 5 4A 5 ? :A ;;;<; & & < /

> 8 E

/ & ;;;< , > /

(

B

/ < /C + F

8

$ D > ( & &

% , < / 2? ? : (

/ 2? ? : F/ , &

> > > ; /

> & / > ; (

> &

& / & <

& & / (

/

>

, / 9

, / 9 ' / > , / 9( 8 N, , / 99 * / , / 99 ; &
3 99 99 99 99( 99 9 999 999 999 999(

" #

$ %

&

O,

/

&

8
> 8 .< 0 2< ' :< * * B + ( / ( * F & @ > * ; &/ & / &@ >

G ( 1 P & / /;

F / F / / / /

*

*

, / . > 1 >
1 ( B ; F ( , & & Q KK : 4

B
*9 > + , > + ;

, / .. > ; >
( K , & ( & .7

(

/

2?

, / :. > +
F / F &

> K /
:7

, / A. > 8 K / >F
G B ; %& , / %&Q 8 / / , & F K# 1 , > R $ 8 & A4 A6 4? 4:

F

, / 44 > 8 ( &*
, > & K / &( 7.

, / 76 > 9 / *
8 & & * 67

*(
// / , & / > 1 >>

, / 65 > ( /,
-4 -7

'
@ * * & ' ( & G & @

, / 5: > * / &
' Q 56 .? . .? A .? 7

(

2: > . / .: > F > / K /8 M / 1 . .? 6 F > >> . / . K /8 . 1 / / 1 . > PG ( .< F 2< :< G / ' / . / .:: . 1 / F ( S ( T / .6 .2.:? . > * ( ' & &8 ' & & .A .. / 1 / > . / .42 .. > .*9 > / ' & . / . P B P * .4A . & 8 8 & / .45 > 8 > K /' &' & ( B / ' K G & / ' K / P ' K .44 / / F > & . ( ' B / P ' /.42 . > . / &F 8 & .A 5 > .:.7 : .7 A ( . /. B . 1 1 . / .2? ...A 7 .

. / 24. &W / / G /F . &/ ..6 2. S T . & 2< UM V J / &G / / 1 P F ' / # / + N =.6 . M .6 A .5 . &/ ( 0 . > . / 2. O & 8 & .6 2 . / .5 22? .5 *9 Q W ( / P &W P P & /B > .6 4 . &/ 8 .< + ( / . > ( 1 & F 8 K G ( . 226 226 222:? 2:: . S & T P ( * & /0 > . &/ . / . 8 & @ 8 *= 1 P 1 ( 2. / 22: > * / 0 . / 2:5 > ' . .< 8 & 2< 0 &..5 5 2? : 2? 7 . &/ . . &/ @ ( / 0 .. > 9 .7 6 > 8 &F > S F . > ( 0 .

27 : 27 A 27 4 27 7 27 7 27 6 27 - F B &% ) & ( ' . . / 26 : & 9 9 .. / > . / 27 : * 9> 1 1 & & & F/ F & . / 26 . %# &8 > & .

.

# & & & &.*F G* *F > % G1 M 1 *G ZZZ " $ % = K ! # / J 9 .< & / T . / / / & & . $ K & & F X + 1 F M 1 *G Y [ \ ] # / .

.

/ & ( $ + N.) ' / > " # $ % &(& & & & > K .5AA *O & ( + # & & & .A N. / " # & . < + $ / < %J N . > / & ( .527 *O > & $ & > & > > / & ( & / & ( K &< 1 .:7. 2O .:A6 &. & / . /& # % K & O< N. . > / $ & ( & & K % .% & K K F $ . & / / & $. > & / & / > > / & & / / > $ % . / & > .5A? *O > & & %J & & . & / < 8 . K & .. > // & < %. %0 %. / +H. / & / . > > / . / 0 K / ) % N ( & 9 / K & & & K / / > < & 8 . & & ^ $ % .:74 + > / ( . & ( & / & & .

575 *O< . & @ .B / & > N0 & ) O 8= & @ 8= & & . &/ . . ( > 8= &< 9 ( . *O #@J % N&< . > & / /K & . & &.:-? +H.< 2< :< G ' G 0 K G . && 0 .*O > & / _ P\ P% N & & & > ( N # > 0 & +H.54. K > < . / > K .6 /N &` . & #@J &% N&< .:62 +H.% 0 & . K & & $ $ & & &F $ J .:5? > > & . / / & K ( & / . > &% . /< ' . / N . $ && $ O & & & > K & & &. O< & & ' &K $ % ( & & # N&< . & . &/ < ( & 8= @ . G / O .545 *O #@J % N&< .A? 5 +H.5-. ./ $O & .

)

;

/ / >

; K & > K / & < ; ( & > & /

& ( K ) # & 0 / &

.O *

2O (

> < & / K

>

;

S

T

:O , > & > &( 8 = < A ^ , > # 0 ( > &

> ^ &

^ +

/ 8=

.7 &

& ; &% # / N ; K

/ F ; & / & & & +

@ & &&( O /

8= <

>

<

9(

)

& 8
&
K / S & & > ; & > T > & N K = / N > N O &( < > & & &

,
>

/.
* =
; ; ; &

; 9> & ; & & ; & & *9 & + O K & / & KO ; & ( & / ( < >; O & > & ; K > # > &) & & N / & / <

; & & K N > ; KO ; ( & > / &

&

&

& >

& (

D2 & 52B 5&5 0 & 52 =( ? 3AC 6@< ? 3> & > 8 0 7 > 0 '
N = = ( N; & O & 9

< ;9 + "86 21 +*' 5 00- 275/. 430/. - )& :1 ,(
&N OI 9 &O N ;O<

.

& / 8

& >

& &

;

; * / > /<

>

9(

& ( > & ( ; & / & & && B 9 / > & > & N & & K > / _ ; ; # <

& > (

> &/ = & ; & && > &

> & ; & & 9 9 >

Q

&* > K ; &/ K = ^ & * O K # / / & ; ;& & O & ( // 9 O< + ; ( > & / K && / > & &; > & > < # = K K / = < K ; < / & / / N

N; ; > & N (

K

K =

> >

/ O

S R & = N> 7H..H.:67 26 ' & " # $ %

> F [

O .A.+

9(

)

& * /
' W $ & ; ! > > ( / N> I & & / & N I O ( ; ( 1/ > / N < , K < ( & ( & O [ ; & ( ( ; O > ( ; F > > & >> > K ( / ( / / / > ; & & ( ( > N O< & & S & O & + & & I ( / I > > / & , > $ S < & $ , > & > J & > = & ( T ( & &

/ M > / ( N F ; ( /

*9 >
/

( & & .565 & 0 & & & > / & % F [ 0 < .5-: & / &; > > > S T ; > S T N & > & O<

%

% < &

9 9

&

* /

, " # % S N & > & $ %; < ! ( $ %

! & ;

K & / & / S T & & S T

U
/ < >

P S

T VO
>>

& $ T < %

; & & &

& &

&

/ > & H

K

; > K >

K ! / &

'

* /

S

/

/ / ./ & 2? ? : H 2? " $ & F J( K & &

K

'

& ( <

; =
.A2A

99

& & / / & & &(& & .) 8 & > / . / & & . ( ( N O 9 > / / / K & < ( + . > > . & . & > > a b > / & > ( / < & > & & > ( . < 8 / < & > & ( & . ( * = / & ( > ( / & & & / ( > P & & . > > & / & / > > < . . ( & N K . > &/ K . & & & ( / / & /< = & / . ) ( I ( / I & I . . / / & & > / & & ( / & K = N & & O . / > > ( / . / < 99 > & I I ( > / . > > ( & > P . & ( & ( / < & > > & & & > / / 9> O & & & ( .

& & 9 > ( < K ( / > > . > . . ( / < & K > > > & 9 & K > / ( / > / P 8 > 9 > . & &. / & > > P & > < P & > & . & & &. && / / K ( / < / G( 3 P / / > & / &. & . &. . > . & 9 < P & .8 . && > . . / K = ( >> < > ( K & > & / & ( & & > > K > . / / & > . / > & & / < > > & ( . > > & / & / / . ( < . & . > & ( / 99 . ( && ( > K ( > > < > > & > / & < > / > & / & P & > .

& ( . > > / & & / . &/ & K < P 9 > & & & . & & / & < . &. & / ( &< > > . & > K > > . / / & = . &/ . & & . & < @ & & K &. &/ / & & / ( K K . ( > 99 / . & ( & & > K > ( . & . >> & K > & 9 . / ( . & K . &/ <P ( &. & / & / . & K < / . K < . . &/ &. 1 & & . ) K > =< K 8 .< 0 . ( > K . . K . & W* K & . &/ . ( & & & K . & K & & 9 &< . P . . & . . ( /( .) & ( & / . / . & > & O< + . &/ / N. & &.

& & > . &. < & / ( & > & K & & & . ( / & 99 ( . & > & > > & < < K . & ( & ( & . . ( ( / ( > / & . & & > / . . & / & / J K > &. K & . > > . F . / & & & . K / ( < K . & & / & & K > > . > / .8 . & & && K > / &> &( N ( & . &/ . &/ & / . & O& / > (/ & > & K . & & = ( > . & / . & . / . & ( K / . & / . ` &(& & & / & . / > > . & > & . < F / N . & & & & < > K . / & . K O & > . > > . &/ & & > > < > ( & /> > && > I ( > & & > ( & . & & .

( > . & &< . & & > & > / . & ( ( ( . & / & & & / . / & & & . & K > > . &/ . & . > . & > > ( / > > & . ( / > ( < ( / < > > O > & & & & & . ( & & & / & & K . &/ . &/ < & / &. /< + . ( . / ( < K & / ( ( & . & / / & K / / . > P< ' & & & / & . = . / & & ( > & >.) > & / ( / < K . & K 99( . & & . . > & & . ( . . &/ O< &> . & WK . & / & / & > P & > ( / N O & > & & NK . &/ P W & / . > > & & & K & & . / /& / < + . > & ( / . / > ( > / & / . > N & & > .

8 . & & . ( / / // & > < & / = < > > N / & K & & & ( K & < . > K &> / & > / P & & > &< & .O & ( & > < / ( / & > &< & 9 / . < > K > . . ( & . & / & &P F 8 / & & > & . . & & & / & & > O / 8 9 > > / / & . 99( P & > / & 9 > > > / / K > > ( / < / . &> > & / &. ( & & & ( ( / /& > > > 2< / & @> & / / /. / > ( . K & & / > / 9> & & & N . & > / / K & / & & / & & ( &. & . & > < & > & .

&. & / K & > . &. & & & > ( ( O > & / / & > / . ) . > / / . > < / /< > > . & ( & > > . ( > >> >> 9 N. . ( > > & > & & . / & / / > .) > . / & > & = N O & O . ( & & ) < & ( > . ( && & & ( N . &( / > . > ) & / /( & /( > > / & / ^. > . / < & > & . & > / / > ( &O & / . > < / / & N . / > / / & . & > > & > ( & & . && ( > & / & > . ^ / N 99( P / > P & & / &< ( > . & / & & > > . . . & / / & . / P & && & & & > K / ( 9 O< /( > .

( > . & ^ & & > > & & > & / / . & / > > > ( & < & ( & ( & > & & . ( K & ( / & K / * > . Q & && & K / . ( . / . & > > < && > & & . > . & P & > . . & . > & < / K > . P 9 & ( / . > K / /. N. > . & . K > U > > & & ( & 99( . J & K . N O< & K > & & & B( & + ( &. > > . & . = & ( . O > > . > . / / / & &. & & ( / > ^ ( && /. + . & / < + . & & & & & & .8 . & . & / & ( > ( / /< + .& & & & & / . / / / / > ( . > / / > . & . < B / / . > > > . / & & > I & K > . & > / & & > & .

> > & Q & K > & ( / ( 9 /> > K > > K & > / / . & & & > > & . . < / / O< N ( . . ( / & & . ( K .) / & > > O<V > / / K K > > &( / N & / > ( . > & ( ) & > & & / & & & / & > (& . / / < 9> & 9> < . & ( > > & & > . . & > / . B / . & &. & & = < ' * ( / . & && / 99 9 ( & / & / >> & . N K & ( / > & &. . . K O & > / > & & > & N O . / > . &( & & > > ( . .

8 . & > K . / &. & & I + &/ K " &/ K & & / & ( > & / & &/ . 2 / + / /( 2 / > S P ( ) S G = P N:.A > < > / I > > ( & &. & &> >> & B( & / / O && / ( / &. & ( < & ( & :< * F / > F / & & & > / / N & < N / > > / .7I ( 999 . & . . &> &< & ( > . > K & . & > & > + . * .O M & . / ( & / > . . + ( I & >> . / & > > & + ( ( . / > B / . > / > > O / . ( > < F . & > & . K > & . & &> & ( &c & / & .

& . & / . & < &> / & ( / > & / & &+ ( &K > & > N & > > > & / / & >> ( / & B > & ( < & *9 & " &/ / &. & / P . & 6 & -< 9 > K . + O & / . . / > = > > / & ( . > & ( &. & . & = & & ( & P N:AO M : AI K > & . & & . . > ( & &. . N & > &. / . & + O O <: &/ / & . < + & 999 . / K < . & N F B & / / . > . & X J N55O M . & . ( & & > > < & & . > & & > & & *9 & & .) & > &( > ( >> >> > . ( / & > .

> & . & . / > / N / > > / / / .L M + M 3A. / T A< > / N > / ^ ( = O . K.8 . & * / ( &/ & & / / . 020 N. / / & & / > & / & S N > K & / / > > & > / ( > O / / / & & >> & &. 0 G I U & N . & > ) PPP&0=O= 0 0 -L= 222E20 5A.FH 3 EJH . > ' K $ & &O > & c V N " # / & > / /O N72O M 2 & 999 . / ( & & ( ( / & A S P . K & / . > O< > & & > & & / & & > & / & / / & & / &< & & >> /< ( / & & > / > ( & > > . & < ( / > & > / .

K U b .. 0 > > ( 4 T % %# 0 #@ . & & 9> . K & / & > & K & & < / & > / / / > K & > 1 / # =V a $ & & .LK + N Y 'XI + .) B ' ( > &( / > / > / . =0 0. > O * . / N K > & . .0 Z. / A. $ == = _ . & & / . N&< A:. ) & >> & & ( J & > / * . > ( & +O< K # = % $ > K _ & % . 999 . > K . K Y % a ' ( > K > <V4 & 9 b .N)0.] H? . &EB 0. K < K K K % K .T-U VS=0 Q + \= M M [ F & W 9K 9 U &/ 1 > K ( K / = . . X.+ RQ T1.

& . ( ( < > > . ( >> & P / > N K = / N K %O = 3 . & > K / & / / > > + . &. & ^ . & & & & & >> K /( & > ( . &< F O < / 9 / & . <V & & = & K U & & > / ( / > & > & / > & & > > . / . . . . / & / & . & ( / & . ( > ( . . > > > . &. . / = & > / ( / 999 ( > & / & ( . & < 8 9 > & . K K & > < / & & / K & ( & 9> K . / / & K .8 . & > & K && K O & K & > & / & N . > & %O ( . & & & ( / N > ( > / < / &. & Y% & B% & / & > _ % .

. / / . > S T & & > & & < . / / G & & O. & & . K > & . > 1 K . #@ ( VN K / / J % &< 4? 4 ( > +O . K . ( / $ 8 %& N . & & > > > K & . < . N . > & U $ . & < K * . & ( < > . & U$ T > & / .) & &( > & / ^ . > ( > > & ( . . / ( > > 999( ^ / * / * / ^ & / .? 5. & & > & > / > > &. +O $ &% > > $ > & ` ' & / 8% ( & % $ V< & + ( / / . K > 9 > . & T 0 %O N&< . K . < & < @ . & > 9> ( & / .

& ( J & K . 9 > > > < & / / / / / / &. / . > & / & > & & . & . . K & > N &( . > > ( B N >> / / /O & . / / > K * . & & ( 999( . < > > < & > > > ( / . & & > > > > & & . . & / > / K > & K &> & Q & > < 9 / / .8 . > & J / & > . O. / > / / K & & & < > O. ( . & & ( & & / < + . . > & / & < K ( . . & K ( . . N / ( & K . // & & / & / / J / / & / & && & > & > .

:5? + 7 & > & & * & S & ( )* T < . < ( .) > 9 / & . . % & S . .? B " # / & / & ( J / > / T < . & > ( > & / & > S & . . K K S T & > 999( . & . > . > .J # S #& $ % / J K . &> <7 > & / / S T & > K .

)

> >

1

.

)

1
/

(

&

,
& & ; < ( & K N

Q
> & > O ; & ( ; O &

& >

/( / & & ( J < & /

= N* > &

( & ( ; > & ; &> ; ; ( ^ < ( / ; > ( ; > / & & ; ( & ; ( & /( ; ; &(& > & & 9> ( / & & > / & < & && & ( & ; / < > /

S

T ; >

> & & > / N ; K &

O & & ( /( ;

;

( / (

> < J / ) & > & & & + O & > / O< / / > > / N / & > / > : &

; / & .< / & N > / ( /& & & *9 &

;

& / &

& N / ; & / O ; / N & < & & < & &;

& & *9 &

&

& + O

2< ; :< ;

>

>

; ( & > K ( >

&

& &

>

> ; /( ; &

& & K N / ; ; > &/ > & > > & & & ( ( > / < ( >> & > / >< > ; K &;

;

/ & + O ; / & > > & / > > / (

&

& *9 & A< ( /

; , > & (

N >

O<

4< * 7< ; >> 6< & >> -< 5<

&

& > / > &

& &<

N & & && / < ( &

& / /

O & (

& = > ( < K > > & / < &

> K

A

)

.? < K ..< N .2< > ( .:< < .A< / N / && & 9> &

(

& &

( <

/

&& O<

N$

O

K

&

/

( /

&&

> > > < & /

>

&

> K

&

K

> & > ; K & O > / ; & & ; > Q < && / / ; / ( S & T & ( P N > & &/ / ; & & *9 & < 9> ; & 9> & / ( &

+ O

( &;

;
& ( &)

F (
; &

&

&%
; ( K > / &

KK
KK & ; / ;

; > .< (

;

&%

& >

& <

;

>

4

& . . > . N ( . &. && > < . & . . 9 & & O F B & ( . . & . & . & & & & . . K / & > &% O &. . & < ( ( & ( / ( & . > & &< ( > / N & ( 7 & . >> < > & . > . > N KK O. > N / > & > / O & = & / & . = &% & / . KK &( KK . / . KK < / N . ( & & . . & > K > ( . & & K / KK ( ( &% KK . > & . ( & & . / > / ( . >< " . / > ( & . > N / > & > / O. & N O ( < " & & / /. / . / & > & & *9 & + O & .2< .$%& N 1 & & *9 & + O & > / / K B " &/ . ( &< 8 > > . / + & >> & / . & & .

> 0 & & && & . N ( 0 & . ( > > . ( & ( O & & & / KK &% O . ( > K / & O & ( < & & R % . N . & ^ N > / O O 6 ( > & > & %( .) + . ( ( ( & > < . & N@ & / / & R . & &. & & . & 9> 0 < = / ( & . ( & & & N / > > & > /O X K N" . > " . . &% ( < N ( / ( /( 6 . ^ & > / . & . & &% . > / O . N( . & . & / % & > . > KK & &% > > & / N. & ( . & < / & B% O = > . & > & ( . > N & # S T < & ( / ( / 8 . ( O< & &% &/ . & &> > < & / & . &% N &% O / <6 $ O / & .

( , > N Y N ; / , > N &% O< ; &&

; / & > / O & > > &% ; ; & , > O & / > ; > & & && > / > & > / O & & / & & & ; >> N; ; K ; &/ ( ( & &% < S N ( & ( ( ; KK > > & && N / & ( > & >> / > > < ; / > K O & ; > > N ( & & ( KK &% & < / && & B & & &% KK O ^ > ^ T ;

&

&%

; >

&

/

( # ( >

& & 9 > >

; ( /

/ F O , > & & ( , > N > K / ( > N > & )

/ > > > ( & & /

( > ( /

> / / < ; & ; > / O

O

/

& *9

&

N + O

T

; ;

-

)

D2_0H M - ^ Q ` ab +H + 1 0 . A& H @
U1P
/ 9 > & & > / ( &

;

(

`V
; ; ( ; & ;

; > & &% < &&

(

&

5

)

> B >

;

..

)

M B >

.

gi gF :) D2 F c0`; 1c:ef Q ` ab +H + 0F. bj0i. DBe0 gMh00 gi. 0H05 D2d&27 D2_0H M - ^ M M . M 9 0 1 0 . A& H @ ! "#$ % "&$'
1 P ; & & &O $ & 0 ; /< > > > > ( & > > ( ( / < @ = ` B > /( > & + & N / > / N O< + ; ; & , > & ( /

; ( / ; < ( ( & > ; &> ( ( / > & > ; ( & N & & *9 & + O & + , > N / > & > / O< & > ; & > ( > & ( > / & & N & & *9 & + O & + , > N / > & > / O< > > &( & & ; K ; B ( ; O; / & & & > / & < ; / < & > && ; & / & & ( &( & ( ; & / /

N

;

.:

>> & & & . K 9 > . . / & Q ( K .& . + < . > > ( / > K > & > & < . < ( & + O & & + / ( < . * . > < K & & & & . " . K & . N + & > . & & / & / > > . < & &. & = & & & > & & & & > . & & / & ( > & /& &< / . /( > & & ( . & & && & . / . /< && . & *9 + / > @ ( . & & K / < > / / & . &/ & < & & & & > & . > < *( / . & . / J . ( & & . & . ( & & .A > . > K . / & & & & < ( > .

. > / + O ) & N > & N & / 01 Zn.'b& D2& . > O . / / < + & .m25&gM &D20 3B. Q U0 . > & & + O > K . & ( & ' K F ( / . & K . 0005 D2d&27P D2 F cH`. ( & / > & & / & *9 & > N & $ > / <V O & + O & > / > / ( . + gMh00 gi. . & < & && / & &) & *9 & & > + O 9> & & ( . % h 5L @ .F I F k 5 3KG& 1 5^0M\5/.4 . ( >< + .nl V'5L2.0 1c:ef PP M 9 Uc & ( $ > / G *9 /( > & O<V ( ( N & + / . . > / . & N / / & & & & > > && & / . & / N > && & O .) .0 `d \ & 3BG HDM i. N > N / & / & & B ( > & . &.

& & . 0005 D2d&27P D2 F cH`. . . .7 /( > N & + . / + & . ( ( / ( &+ . > . 0005 D2d&27P D2 F cH`. & > / O. ( & & > & 9 > . .0 1c:ef PP M 9 Uc & ( . > O< + . < . . > N K N &/ & / / . & . ( . > & *9 > K . . / & / > > ( /( + ( / + O &+ . & N && & > ( & *9 > ( & & 9> . /( 9 > & gMh00 gi. . K ) ( . > ( K > > .0 1c:ef PP M 9 Uc & ( $ > / /( > & O<V / N & + .N > / > . > / & . > > / O & ) gMh00 gi. & / N && & O . & . & . & / N > && & O . / & ( 1 & . . > .

& / 9 & > & & & & O< . / > / / / / / < &> & . > . ( N / / / & > > > . > N *9 > / O< & & ( > N / K > ( . < . ( &> 9> .OB + & KK / > / < > & &% O ( & . / > & O<V / > & > . . & > . & 9 . & / ^ ( & + O &+ . > & / ( & / & & > & ( / > < > . ( ( N . > N &. 9 / & & > & & & & < F [ & K > . &/ & < / I > & . & / > / . > = ( > / .6 . . & & . & . / > / > > . . / . / & K /> .) $ > / > / > / ( /( & & + ( O & > *( . . & .

- . O< / . / > / / . > O & & / > > & N & . & & & & *9 . & X + O 0 # > / O &# Y K & % = K & & & & . > & > / & ( ( / / /< / > > & - > // O & & K & > . . . 2OB "$ & N + O B ( ( . % h 3> oh (+ 0 gM BD20 52. / > > K R . .F . . > N . .24O )p k i. . 6 . & *9 & > > . . / . & /< . ( & N / N. / & N / + .& . / O & & & = & / N" & &< N %# M ) O & & # / & & *9 N & > & . N > / / & / > . / & + O / P . . & / / & & / & > & & . &< . O` > & & ( / > > N . ( > . .0 . > &&( - $ &% . ( > / ( & & . .

S & & > T . &. & & . K > N ` .( / . . . & ( & P & > & < & K / .5 . . / .? T70 Q1 & > ( / . &N . 7 + D2 M 15 I1 X] c:'gM gF GH`1 3 1@` s . > . > & . . / N & ( / & + > 9> & / & . ( > & . > & > / / > / O. & / $J ( ) =&T 1&2Mh00 2i.^ f8] T. & &< & & O & & > > / O K X . r0 & 7jZ0q2 70 Z152M&.-0 @ \n5@gB gF Y C NQ 1 f ` q. & & ( > . N $ & > / O& & > U & . F ( < ' & & & & O X > N >> & K > . / > .t= 3AM LH b0 5&&2&h00 0i. N & / K . . > ( & & N / N X > / &( & > > O &. > & / ( / & & / > > > & > O & 9 .) > / & > & . u 50500 5>\5&51B 0 M 22&&DB0 D2 M \ 0 .

( > ( & & 9> / & ( ( < / / _ N N> J / & & *9 > & O N + O< & . 5 . + O .& > <V5 _ U % N & + &+ & / O< & / N $ & > / O & .F ). > / O<V ( N / . / .? F ' / $J N: : O M /. . > % & &) O T % # % % 3 SK D> 8h @ 2. / > & . ? N . 02 275v& 5M U & N & > O > OV. ( N & &O . & & / N $ & O ( & > & > & *9 & & & 9 ( K . O & c & ( / > / > > /( > N & + & > / .24 A &4I:7 &A? 2? .

. > N " =% . K / / > & > ( / > . & # % N> & . & > & & N. 9 > & > & & . .) . . / / > R <V O &# % / & N> U & & & = ( & > <V O =% . % > > & > / / & O & & . > / O. & / . /> ( / K / > N > & > & ) . > . & *9 & + O^. < N & & *9 + . + O ( / N> & & / & / /( / < & . < . /. > ) ( / & > & & . & . > ' . & &. .< > &% & ( & . . ( ( . > ( > . 9 &> / / 2. . > < & / & & & > U . / O + > O / . . & . / & / ( . & & + . / & I & & & / / N I & . . ( . < & < & / & .

> = O & % . > . . . & < . . & ( <.7 2 . / 4A? 22 . N & ( & .. > > > & > > > N ^ . & & 0 / & . #%& #! Y < + & K > / O & & N / &. / . < & & > / & . / 2. =%O . K + O & > / N & / G > & O & & > ( >> & & & > R . & & .% N> & & . & & *9 & & . O . > N & > & 0 > / _ N> # > & / & / &. . = O > . . & & > / > & > / > > / < > & > # > & + .2 % % + & M M . & & & > ( > > > . % . . % > < > > / O . . 2 J / > ( . & / & <. . T % # & ( ( & ( . & K & . *( & . & & & . N R O N / > > & .

. && + . . & & > + O . / & >> / &QV N / & > > & & ( & & & / > & & . . && & / > ( Q / $ & ( $ O ( . & & *9 & ( . + ( . / & & / & . > / > $ > O U > / O & $ & & 9 . & ( & *9 ( & ( ( / > O ( . . . M 2 . + . : / & / ^ / / / < ( ( & / & . Q . / : -7 2: . & + O &Q . && N & & . > > .( O &. N / K > & . .( < / > > N #@ O & > & / N .) N > / . / > & > . & . / ( / 9 & >> / > ) UB &N ( / & . . ( & <V. K N . & .: ' $ .

> > . ` > > N & . . ( / & & U ( & $ < + . ( ( /( <V / / & / > < N / & N& . & N & & *9 & / /. > & > / O > & > / #% . > & . & > > / & O / & > . > N > & N & < N / 0 > \\ / / . ( & *9 & + O & ( 9 O & >> / . / N . O . > / > / > / #@ 2A O #@ $ < . + O / N R .& & / 9> & > ) & gMh00 gi. $ / > & #O & N & + / . O K & > & > . & / / $ . . . & / N > && & O . 0005 D2d&27P D2 F cH`. & + . > & / & / & 9 . & & & & . > . & . ( & & > > .0 1c:ef PP M 9 Uc & ( $ > / /( > & O<V N 8 .

( ( . > . .& 2 =&&2 50 0 . N. > & /( & & ( > ( / / & . ( N & > O<V > / O & > O<V N & / & > / O. $ / .\5&512 ==0 j2 Q 5& 5 . & ( + & . ( 24 . ) / . . & . & $ O N . gF cAM yFH nK 2b 1 2 50= &B0wx ) O0 . ( > & . & &) 3Le1@ +I < FRM \9 K + 1@` < F:K < 5 DM 5B20&. > & & / / $ & . / . O #@ K & > & > . 0 \ G ch 55 1 ?h I 05 B U . / U . . & > > & . O< $ . . ( / . 5 0 ? W N3 > ( . / < + . U N & & / .) > ( & . ( & & K ( O< + . > > & $ N > / Q $ .

/ & & / > . .A ' $ % M .7 . ( . 5I G 9> & % & / & & & 8 & 0 . < . A & & ( & O< && 0 & \\ / > & #@ > K<. & / & . 4 . N . . / :2 . &< " K % 27 . ( & #@ $ /( > + O > / #@ 9 & > & <V. > . & > . /. U . & & > S $ ( . & & . B % & #! M 2 . . > . G % 0 > & > . / ( N > / > / 0 > > . . /( N &) O< ' . & . / : . N > & > & & *9 N & ' K O .. & / .7 9 .4 > & / & >> . & . / ./ & & > . & / & /( . . 3 5< YY . > O && & . K & .

& . . / ( & & N & ( & / ( .4. M h 9 0 H U > > / &+ W N / & ( . & + . / & & & .0 a K L.6 NA O M . N .& 2B=00H M bj F `. & ( & & ( .4? d . 26 .? 0 M 05 =Bt) : }W \. > > . . &( & . 05 =C&2=&& 2HH gF 20 gi. / ( / 8 > ( & & > & > ( & . & ( . & N & T ) >< & /( & ( > &< O > & F gi. 9> . O & & & & & ( . / O & P & && . ( S ( & . =& & cHH Z 50 2B=0 Z 50 2152 &DB:H gF 20 @ 2 \2 z G? \RL* z G? ` q* M 0 2 0 9 0 9 DB h -0 & 2'7= 22 0 | BT. &.M 3> { 7@8 0 { 7 `. <V. . & .) / . 9 > & > . < > .0 DBRH @ c \2 2 F 9 \RLH` ab M 9 d \ 0 h M . N O< . / > > > . 6 & & *9 & + O .

. & > / O & *9 & . . & . . / > & . / / & 9 . > O O . 1 & & N & > & N & ( & & + . > N# & ( < & / & & / . > + O > > & 2- .&k@` & G M K R M VF&51 ? 5` C U .( + O . & ( N . / > & & .. & & & < \ & > > & N ! & N & N> & & *9 > & *9 & O & *$+.2207 T -k 052 5& 00_s 5 0 51VQn55&5| > 5 0? n & c +c?Hf s + $c? k~ 0• h ` 0 . ( > / . / + O< N / > N > & *9 > N & < + OI > > / / > > > K > OI ( > ( & . & N . & . & & & > K > >3 >> & 3 <V . / & > & K < & & *9 / & . . ( > > & & ( & & < . ( + . + O) . / > ! & > . > .

-€ 0 . & & *9 & & .. & & > & O< / > & *9 & . ' & / + O > . > / ( . & & . + O & <V + > > & + & & & > & / . > N . ( <V. & > > N.- # N7 O M :: 25 . & & *9 > N / & & . ( >> & N > / / O. > & . ( N & N& O & .) > / + O O = ( & & / N . & & / ( N1 P > / $ & O . ` M { * ELHf 3A*' M H ‚ 0 D2 a ( U / >> > > .MiM )L7 0 09 &27 52)& cO • H i +9• . + O . / ( & & *9 & S T ) & 20 5 0gF. & & ( > / / O< & N & > > & & . + .

.

.) > + > K / :.

.

M M 5 k . & & & ( . %D20 c5 52e+5 & &D^ 20 0H M bj M 1 . ( & & ( > / O O N ( ( < / O /( & O & O & > & / / N & / .^ \A• ef V ). ( . A& H @ P 22ƒ07 32@ 5BB+5&& 0 0=&Z 50 5BY50\50 & %5&=92& & \G5ef 5K& 3LM. > N $ & & & & > & O .k@„ ? e @z G? 3L G9 A• I D:M gM *0 O 5 M gF `0 K ` ab { 7@ F h 0Q 3A0D[ @ Y …H ` ab 2i.) M + 2 ^4 > K / 205 070 d?M 50 05&5B0+5 & D2& 07 D2_0H M . > N1P $ & > / O & > ( ( & & /< + & N $ & / N O .$ ( $ "0. H . D[ "D'3LeD[ @ G' ef Q ` ab +H + Q \ 5 1 0 . & && > K /. & N/ ( . 0H M 0 |5B gi. +0 51 0 0 2-2 0H M bj P! "-$ /. 0 gF 3AM \5 M 6 0 1P . 1 K & = .123 52& †0=)M 520 F ` { * Q ` ab + .&5A5j0 25 0r) 20 5A) 5& P&DBG07 522& & +2 2 = L M 7M3 . N $ ( > > K & . 0O 0. ) 3AM D:K 3A9 B F DB C &. & J > > & > / O .6 2i.0 52bT. ! "+24 4 5. & ( & ( / > > > > ( & & :: . & 8 /( / < & & . \t e K \? 32* DM F Hf 3>\l @ \• O M & 0 0 & 0 :5 W [ @ I = . ( O< @ = / > N > > 9 & > > & > / ( ` B K / / N/ & O & N & .

> )+ > K / = ( > > > < . & & K / /( . > / > 2? < O & * = . > O & N ( & / > & . / N > > ( N & ( K / > & ( & ( .72. / :5. > & . $ &% . ( . ( > & < F . $ &% O / K K > . & + > > O & & & & & / & & & < > / > > @ > .5 > N ' % N> / > < .5 2? M > 6 . 9> . & & . / . O / O > & . & <V :A .> ( ` & > & . > U $K # 8% . > #! %# %N . 9 > & & & & K & ( & > > < ( & & < 9> & & / > > / / / < 1 . ( / & + .

& > K & . ( / > K & / / N < ' & & > & & O > / & > ( & O . . . . . . & K > K / < & & > ( & & & & > K & . :< > + .) & > / & ( N < . . > N > K . & K & . . 6< > -< + . & & > K &< / / . > / > / . > < / > > K < F > . & & > . & > > < K & .< 2< / & & . A< = 4< . 9 > > & > . . &< :4 . / > ( ( = . & . O. < / < /O & > ( > & > ( . . > / N & / . 7< + & > & > / / < > & . / & .

> / > N < O & / F / K $ > F & & / & / N O > K > . > & = . > & & . / > K > K / & & & > > > N . & & ( / & > .> )+ > K / 5< + . . .? < + . > O.A< + ( & / ( > ( N < & > / > & > & K > / O & . .2< + > > K & ( < > & & . & . .:< + . & > / & .. < . . :7 & / & & . K . . & . K > / > . & > > & . & & & ( / K & & / . . > / > K & /< & / & / & ( . < > > . & < / & > & & . ( > > & > < && & ( .< + .

K > && < S & / & & . > & ( . & & .O 1 + H U1P & & . . & . > / # ( = ' K . . + N > & & N 3 > > . / > & & > ( & & > / > O & & &< > & / & & & . ' K & :6 . / O . > & = % > & > M ' < & > > > / 4 . & . % ) . > %O P & ( B / . . & . . > > $ &% & / > > / ( > N . = . & & ( > > & .) & . & T / N . / $ &` & N O`V2. / -? % % . K . > K / < U / > > & / #@ 2. > O< & K > N . #! O ( / > & ( & & & & / < . . . & ) ‡525@0)0 2 \6Bc.

A :- . > > / O ( & & P / & K .: d 2.> )+ > K / . & . & . N > . / > / & & & / N & N . > O . . & / ( & <V22 . . > & ( N N > / & Q & > > K . > & = ( / > / / < & & > / & & / > & . > & & & + O ( & & > / > > & / & N / < > > & & P & *9 / / 22 M A . > & > > . N & ( & > & > . > & & . . . > O P . . . & . & . > O . & . O< & O< & & > / /. > > / > / O . ( & < /. / 2. > & / & & N = > > / & & . > & > & > . & & . & > & . . = .

^ Q \ 1 5 0 . N ( & / > / > > / O > & . / -? d -. & O ` B > N $ > / O<V & ( & / N> /) ˆ-5&525 )0 . $ . K > N> & > . bj . M U & & / & <V2: && . > . ( > > ( . > & . ( . D[ "D'3Le+[ @ G'0f Q ` ab +H + d?M 50 05&5B0D5 & D2&e7 D2_0H M . > & 2: = % M 4 .M ` \W gF + 10 + e W . :5 . . A& H @ U1P 3 ( .) & .T+1&0 Qq2= 010)0 0i. & & N > & > / O / . N . & > ( & . > > &< ( # # & N / > # % > # S T ) % N> > < > % ' K & > N O . @3AQ \W 1 -D5@• 15. ( O . > / ( > / O< / & # & & & . &O = O V ).

> N & > & O & & > & > < & & . . > O ( N .> )+ > K / S > > & & > & ) / T & > / #@ > < ( O^ N & & & . / > / A? . P & / & .

)

> K / >F

8

A.

)

M K

7 / >F

NMA• - C ? e @ Q?'~Q 73I + Q ` ab +H + Z&+0 9TD& D2p2=& D20&Z0 "'- 5B - =j D2_0H M - ^ - 15 ; )0 09 ' ‰ ;K ? 1 0 . A& H @ • +3K F' + F O 5 K 0 1 - 52 =&- r& D2 ? 2 * n0 1 0 p & G k '
1P / N ; O / / ; K / / ; ( ` ; N N N / ( & < > ( P > ; ; & Q J / ; > P > ; / ; > / > > & O > / & & O > > ; / > O / & >

& >

/ ; ( &&/ & & / < >> &

/ < + ; & / & /

&

& ; >>

> ( & & / & / >

/ > & < > & > F > & >

/ > > ; > &*9 & N K ; & ; / >

& O; ; & / & & & &

> > N > &> ( > / &<

N ; > O &

+ O< > >

A:

>

M )

K

/@ >F

> ; K W W > ; ( P & P & ( >> & < & ; ; #! & > > < N ( ; ( > ( & / ^ > > N > & 9 & > & & > K

/

& >

& / > > > ; & > > ; & *9 & + O ; < ; > ;

K ;

& & ( ;

K & O

& > ( ; & > N > & / & &( & & > ( K /> O && ; & N / > /( / ; > ; /( & O & ; & > ; & & > ( ( / ; ( < & & ) .< && < 2< ; > AA & ; ; / / &( / ( / & / & > ; ;

> / ( ; & /; / / P

> /

> & (

;

< ; &&

&

( / ; & / / &

(

/ ; / P

& N ( O < /

)

> O)

&

& /

; &

N>

>

P5 0 5 &@ 5cA5Š-&' &an+> X=l,9 0
U / & >
:< > > > > > > ; O / ; & > ( < ; ; ; < K & ; / / ; > < > & > & ( > > ; ( / = > K / > / & > ( & & P ; ; & & > & > > & ( & & > / (

/

; ^ ( K &

= ^> (

& & /

&
;

>

<V
& N; > <2 A / > / & / > ^ / & 9 /( /

; & ; >> & & ; /( > ; >

G
B

B
/ &

/

,
,

&
> %&
/

,

>
N # =
O , / 2:4

$
/ %

&
> ;

> /
N

O
/(

#%\

2A

0

A4

>

M )

K

/@ >F

/ & ; /( & &% < > ( , > > / O; / & ; ; > ( / O N & ; ; ; / & K ; &% < + > & & > & > / & / 9 & ( & ; / ; & / ; 9 > > < Y\ K = &% & & > / / > / ; ; & A7 > # % O; ; ( & ; ; & 9 & & N & & @

> / 9 NX K O > > N / ( / (

& ' & & > > > / < + ; ( %& & ; / ; / K N & ` > & / & / Y\ > = /

' % /

%

& &

/ ; & > O

K / & , & ;

%& &; >

' % > > K /

& / &

& & ;

/ ; N' ; % & > W

; Y\ ; N K

&

& ; > &

/ = O< & / /

> > /

, O & & & + , > <P /

> > V & & > / %_ N>

& / K , O > > &

> U < > O< ^ N &

& K & > /

/ / & . > N & > / O & N / > & & . / . O . / %&Q # = & . > N > / O &) U ( . & < + > / > > ( > . > / &. > N / & . > N / > ( . O2 7 . # = > N > . > . / > O< + .) > / > ' & . / > . > & > / % #%\ & . . & > & <V > / O O & & 24 27 0 @ M > : . & & > / . > . O && > N > / % / %& . # & > & & . / .A5 > & ) " G & K #! Y A6 . > . & . & > . > & > ( / / <2 4 & K . & . > K N . > / < > ( & / & O && . < & 9 Y\ = . %& . & / # = . > N / J & > & / R & &.

/ %& .MM V' 0 ‹ F0k V' T_ Bc 0D= \ . D' . & . / -*+CZ. @ . . < ( >> & # = .> M ) K /@ >F & . . H < > 9 $ j 3 $ A- 7 "7$ 2 -+K M 0 2M &%0J5* L=. & / ' % Y\ = & > & &) ' % &/ & . . > . S T ( & / . V T-+n5 . K & / ( . > & & N . & % # % O . & & & . g . K & & .&'&@ D5S f -:h-7 I & -Q 1 I U . > & & T ( ( > O ( & & %_ / > N> % ( / U % # % > ^ O & > / %_ N> %&<V2 T ( ( / & N: 2 O M > % %& N -.I T15q2 & -7 5`0.M= T0?& c 0DM ) 0K . = <V2 6 S & T . &< ( O N & > / & ' ' & . & 20K 0H7 T ' & -7 5`0. / > ) . & > 26 2- . &@ F i -: ' Th-70$ 7 =j2. > ^ ( ( . O< . S T &> . = 8::"# 0 -*.

( & . / ( < . &. K & ' & > %& ( ' K & & %& # %<V / M 2 . 0 > > > K & % & & & > 0 < # & # & %& > & & > ( & & > 0 U / . K >> 9 / ( 9 0 > . K & & %& & & & > < . & / #@ & > > ( &( & . / 0 % >> & > . 0 % . . . & & # & . / / & > & K %& .?: A5 . ( < # % N> > O > & & . K K < & . % :?? ??? & & > . . %_ N> / / = & S ` 3 cV . 25 ( &^ # % & . ( & O # % & %& U' T . & N %&O . > & ( K ( K K < *( > / & . > %& > K > & & & ( ( <2 5 > O & N . / .) . >> & / ( 0 < B / & > > .

( OB K N O & . . && /( > 8 / &< 1 F K# & ( / / / R & R / 8 ( R %& & K 9 9 & . :? # =& 8 %& M 2 .n: &0 V95& n 5@ 0\Š@ h UN1 P `V . ` B . / . & %& . ` < & O / & & . & # & %&`V >> & & &. # & . & 0 % . 8 & > . & / % > / > <V & > & & # & > &N & . 62 4? . & > 0 > % > 0 O<: ? & & /( . /) " ( . ( N / 0 . # & & K & &> & F K # & F K# & VQ . > 9 > & > /) U > / . > & ( & U3 .> M ) K /@ >F .

& &% / / ( X / & & > ( %&O< KO K . • F&. ^ > . / > & & ( . T-+M 2 == 0ŒF0k \ ^ : M & & & R F K N . & . % & < & & > %& . / . & -nnn9Š 0 < 09Š -+ 0c509 T -+ 5 -+ 1 G U & . && > < N /. & & & N & > & O< . & F ) & / > . K :. . . && & $ 9 & :2 ( &" K & . & " & # > & & & ( :2 4. & F K# O > & > > ( & & K <V & U . . & && &`V & & X R .) && . / & / ( 0 # & & 0 % > & & #@ > && > & . -99 . R > < . & > & %&O & &> N N 0 > && % . . > / / > > < . # &. J &% . > . ( :.

( . & WB K ' % @ & & % #%\ > & ( > > ` 1 P #@ ` > ( > / ( > 0 & >> / > < 3 & ( / . > &% & & ( 0 & . 42 . ( O. & / %& N #@ < > > / ( > & 0 > -? . > > ( ( & . > ( &N > < + . O & % _ U % T % # % . & . ( . < > > %& 0 & >> > & / & . && ( > < / > N> > &< . & > > . #@ & & ( >> & / > & & & ( & . # & / > > & % N> > O . .> M ) K /@ >F ' K . & > > . & N OQ + ( / & #@ / ( . ( . /O . N / & ( OV . / 0 % N#@ O & /( < . & K . / / > % < ( & %& & & . / > > &> & ) U#@ >> & / > & & N & & *9 & + O . & % & 0 . <V _ # > #@ ( / ^ .

( . ( > . ( & / > & / K > / > < & / >> > > > & / / / > & ( ( > < + . / ( & / < + . ( . & & I & . >> & . > &. > Q & . < + . ( / . / & K :: M A . >> & %& -? $ &% # & %& & # % N> % T %_ N> " # > .) . & / > > > ( & . / 2 : I R $ %$ M 2 . & . < / / K & > & & / & & > & / . / 42 4: . / & / > / J & O . > O / & / . > > ( > / / / > / & > > Q *( > /J / & K / & . % # % K . & . > & ( / . &/ / / & > & / / 1 / < & && / ( ( & &( ( K & && . > > N & / . > O<: : F > / > K @ / > .

> 4A . .> M ) K /@ >F & > . . . ( > & K . . > )U > . / < N > ( & > > O & && & & & . & . . / & . . ( ( & . N <V O.

) > 8( &* 44 .

.

`d Znl V' 5B2.' b& D2& .< + . ( O . . &D20 5B. &(& / < & & ( < .0 Q I k 0\=L= 2B5j0 )&0 5B9 FBV' 2Q0 0 &-+nH . ( / & &< & 46 . / O ( & / & < / . & < . < & ( > / & O & & & & > &= & .5 M SRM F M p . . . / > & > / O / & / > & > / &( & & > O / . ! "?$+ ! "# $ N1 P ' / N N ( &+ ( & & &K /N 0 . > N / & S T > / < `O 0 N $ & < + & O & .& \I 3L DB g0) . )L7 RBM 3L. ( & & ( &+ && & < > > N > .m25&gi. / $ K ( .) M 6^&* 3K0 M 1 0 1 Ž & 3LG HDM FM % h 3L @ .5* gM 0`d T5 & P& 2Š oM 22 0{ |5B&-+ G=0 0"D2B=0 gM N G0 i.0 T0. 2B5j0• ) 0gi. 1 8Y ' c \. .& ? FM ` M . & & & & . M C H M 0W 0 2Fi. .F5 5^G&\5/. ( . 3> 7@ . v 3L. &. > > & > = > / & > .

& ( K > . I & > &. > . Q &( / >> & ( . & > ( / / & + O & / . > & & ( > > . &/ & & / & && = . < .> M ) &* ( / > > ( . J &/( & > > & &= . > & K O >N K .< K . > > & . / > & & > > > ( & . > > > &. . / > . OQ & > & N > > = & Q & > > Q & . P . &> > > & > . K / & & &. & / > > . < 4- . &/ ( / & K & > > N < & & *9 && . ) & /< ' > > &= . & & 9> > & > > ( Q & .

) 2< & > ( & N ^ . < B & ( ( O B( > :A & > / & & & / & U@ & < > N / 9> & #Y & & > > . Q > & ( & . . > & / ( / / N & & & (& :A > & . > & > & > & K . N> O . >> & / & *9 N &/ / / & + O >> . & & > K > & > > . . / . K . > < > K > / & ( / & > . / O > & > > / / < / &O < . > :< >> A< &O< > P> > & > K . ( ( & / < . B( & . ( . N & ( > ( && > > K > & . & ( / / K & &> & . > V & 45 .

&( & & ( O / && & / ( & . / & B( / / K / & K & & / & *9 ( & + O & N & & \5/. + ( . / / > < + & & & > / & . > N & > / O & & .> M ) &* > >> & & & / > . & & & .<V . ( ( & / & & & . / / & ( N > / > /( & & ( `O 3 N $ > / / N K O & K & . 0`d Zl V' 5B2. > & & . > & > . . & *9 O + O > & *9 .m25&gi. > & < S ) T & . &D20 5B. > > & K > .F5 I k 3K M 5^0G& Q UN1 P ' / > N $ > / & & O . ( / .0 1 1 Ž & 3LG HDM FM % h 3L @ .' b& D2& . & & & N & & *9 & + O< & N N /) 7? & . K > & + O &+ / N & > / O & .

&( S T ) 7. > / ( O & & > & & & + O< N N ( / . > & & > & .) gMh0 0 gi. > N . & && / > > + O > & & & / &< & *9 ( > > & /( > & O<V ( /( > / > . K & & *9 & & & & & & *9 & + O . / B( / K ( . ( & > & > > > & < && & & N& O > & N > / > & & / & . O O . & / N > && & O . . & & . > 3 . 0c0H0`5 D2d&27 D2 FM . & > < > & . &N ( / . & . N & + / . .09 1c:ef Uc& ( $ > / / & & . > K N & & / &( ( &< K / &( .

> M ) &* 0< 50J0k 7( \5/.0 525 2 5-& 1 &1 ' 3> Š 3AM\ …5 3AQ • k ' h 0k gM rF0k =b0D0K F i. 3A5 H C 2 = . 1C 3 9 9 5 ab 8 7 @ & 0\ -+ h . 0`H M0 Š 3>\1@ s p . &( ( & & & & & *9 & + O K &( † D2 5225&0 & ) M D2-7 0 5AdM D2• 0K . O<V: 7 > >N . & R . & / ( O & . / K) & / > > N N O< & N> > > & & / . XI & ' U N $ & > / O /( K /( K / / & K & O ( > O<V: 4 && / N > > . & >> & / > / / & > O KO . G &N & &N .45 :- 72 . & N > > N. U & . V' 525 -+ 0 52&5R50K . ' K / O ( & > /( / > > O. &DBRn5 52-+0 0 -on10 520Q09 : Q 3> Q . > N &( 9 & > :4 :7 ! N: O M NA2 O M .

( ( > ( > / / O . / >> / . &( ( & . K <V + . rF0k =b0D0K 0< 50J0k 7( FM XI & 1 & ' ' U . > &( & & < & K / > . & / K . ( T / / > & & > & & & >> / . K K &( . > > > & < 3 K > > & ( /( > / ) > / gi. < &( K . > > ( = ( & &( . K< 7: & & . & / & K > & / ( & & > > > > ( O & &/( & . & K 9 N ( . ( K / ( &( . > & ( N . / < K / &( > > / > > > & &. & > & K / ) U & & / .) . ( > / & & & &. & . ( & S . ( / &( K / &( > < + . & O > O<V K ( & N & N> .

% .> M ) &* & K & B . % Y & > & K & . & . & N & N> > ( > & N . > 9 K > 9 > . / > ( . K ( O<V / . & K .< ' . B( > O & & . ( & > :6 / & & > < K . > K ) N / > > &( /( N & & . / ) . &( ( & . > S & .A / . & & *9 > ( / &/ < & O + O > + N & + O & > / & & *9 & gi. / 7. > > / > O > & O > N . N / & < > / & + > % O &. < *( & K . rF0k =b0D0K 0< 50J0k 7( FM XI & 1 & ' ' U . . & ' & <: 6 & ' & > & &( > 9> & > > 7A . M >> / > & & & . & & &/ / & & . & .

& & > > // & & ( <: 5 " . / & / K O & > K ( . Y // & & & & & // <: $J > & / > / / & &> 8 % N &% & . / / K < O .) 2< > S . / & N / > O< % / . > > / 9 & & &% ( N &% & / . # / &. // / & & & > ( > & . & . N / / > . > > & K / :< B / / / & K . . 74 . . > O. / 7: % M 2 . &% . / ::. & & / / / & / ' & K & N K /. ( & & . > > . & N > A< 0 N K / % . ::5 &< M % 2 . & K & & > / & > . > . & / & & O > & . & > / & 9 ( @ &O . & & & . & < / O >> / . .

& &. N1 P .<V \ < & / &> & 0 % . & K 8 & > & ( . & . > N / > K > / . & > / . / :5 77 . & <V & / > & & A? &< M : . ) & 8 > K ( . > U > N > . V' 525 -+ 0 1 3> Š U . > / O K < + . > & . . . > > O & <V > / / ( O & . . > N > / &O< / / % K . / & & > / O . ( &( S T > > PPP\5/. &/ > & / > K & ( . ( .> M ) &* > N 1 & & . & / 9> & N U . & & <A? 0 % > / O .

) > * 9 / 76 .

.

/ & < + . . & >> . & = / K . . & / P / B( / < & & & .5 M SRM RLM M p . ( K & . & & > 75 .& ? i. / O & . ` M 2B5j0 )&0 5L9 FBV' 2Q )0 &-+nH .) M / ^ 6 * 3L. N > < F / & / O ^ & / &+ < ( O ( & & & & N0 O > > N . > && >. / & &< > . & > > & / . . &.M \I 3B DB g0nH . + . P & > & >> / ^ K & K . / < & & / . 32 7@ . v 3L. ( & + & / ( & & && & &K > . . 2B5j0• ) 0gM )L7PPP & C 0 M 0W F 0 & 2Š oM 2> 0{ |5B&-+ G=0 0"D2B=0 0\=B= c \. ( / J & N & > O / / . ( . / / J & / & & . & > / / & & & & > / B( + ( N . & >> .

& > S N T N & + O & *9 ( & & & & & > > > & ( K & & & & & ( + < + & & & *9 & + O N. &) & & && & O . 6? . ( ( & A. / & & & & / < / / / . > ) + O & ^ & <A. )L7 3L DB gnH . &/ ) . v 3L. / / / > . K . . M + . > . + N 0 5B9FC V' 20Q ) 0 &-+nH . > > & . & &+ & / .& \I p . / > > / ( & ( && >. K " # $ %< & / 8 > & > 9> F / K 8 . > & & / < > > > 2< > :< & ( .5 M S RM RLM 3L. . 2B5j0• ? 0gi.> M ) / ) * .& ) FM ` M B 0 M 0W 0 &-+ G= 0 0"D2nB= 0 0\=B= 5B5j0 )& .< . > > & P / & P ..

/ > N & K < .5j0• ) 0WPPP . & & *9 & & & & . & < & PPP&-+nH . & > ) / J .) &+ N & & O & & < N N0 O ( & & & . & J / & > & & & / < . / && >. & & *9 & J / K & > ( & & N P + O OI / & & & 8 & & < 6. / & / && & ( K & & *9 / ( & K cV / & & & & . 2B. N / > . ( / > / J / > / & . > + O . & & & &. . & && . & < N0 / & / ( & / J N # & + O< F / & & > & O & = S T / / / & > .& ) + + ( / . v 3L & ? M n Uc & > O & ( .

> K & > K / / & K . K > > . . . && & & / N & ( & & *9 & > > / & & . = K . . & P O & > .& & &> K ( < & & . N O ( / > . /( < . / / K > / / N 62 . & < & > < & & & ( . > . > > ( & & ( & / ( ( . &> > . & K / & > . . & / & & . . & & & > K > P> & / & K P > &/ / < K > & & & ( > . / < > > K > /( > & & < & / ( / && . . & . . & . & . &. & > & &< / & > &> / 9 > & ( > > < .> M ) / ) * / > + O . & & & / O< J N ( .

K & & & > P . & >( .F0K0* Z-+5& Z m2 51 &-+5 .0A=&-+H0h -+ 0 Z =0*0 A+= > • ' A M' Ao 1 • R D ~ & D UN . 2Q0c0> 0 0c•Q -+ M 5 H U > & N / ( . -+& -o = F ? R & v = j : T 9 Žp0 UM & / <VAA < & & > ( /( / & > / & / K & ( & N & & *9 & & > . -G. . / N O<VA: /O . / & & /( & / `H 5). S ( T & -+H:0e0 -+0 D2 B-+0. + O> & K & & + > / ( & /( & A2 A: AA N5 . .? 6: . / > > > > > &) > & < .) K / < > > . O M ' & N5 ? O M N67 O M 2 6.. & . &.0 -+0 ' 5 ƒ1@ N =* ` S* QF06 * T h 2QG0• & g. O I & N& & O<VA2 & / > > . K K .

U && > > & K O >> & O & @ > > > P & >> & . > K & . • =)-92S= 7 0 N01-+M 50. > A< N> S N> > T < > N ( > && & > N. ). O 9> > .> M ) / ) * & & *9 N > & P + O . >> / > >> &<V A4 & / .:= D 3 C f M B @ . > &. ( O. N> & . d 2 6A . & &> & & KO & < N & % N> 9> & . > N & & & N01ob.92S= 7 DFM RQ 3 C f . S N64 O M . // & & & . & & . > & & / K & . > / % % & &< N> > N & > & > < K & O && . > ( . &) O< > . & / & & / / & O % & K / F / > / O B <VA4 & . > ( O . @ B U . & < O< % & / & & . > . N .

c:M3 ‘ 0H S *3’ U & W & & <P &O W3 > K `VA7 && _ N> $ &% < 8 9 > O > &) % &N . -i . O M 7Ad 74 64 . & . > % & / <V / . N& ( / . O & & / N & P T % # % % A7 N2 . .) . . / > & / ( & / O K & && O & ( & / /& & & . 3K 5 3L* M ' 3 R5 j G \' n & j -7 @ @ & &DBm5 72+ -+ 0< 5F0k 5&&5Ah 22 rF0k D2L2)B : Q fq> 1 . & `QV > . / ) &D2nnM‚M 52 * 5B) DB:& 5ASB* rnM D20‰ +& . K . >> > &^ & & > S > K & T > O > O > U3 ( & . > & ( . / O K . & & & . ( . > % & . / & / & ( % & N. & & > ( / < & > K & > U . / > & >> & N> N> / > > . > K / % N> . . & > K > .

( & ( N ( N . > O ( .a / & + O . . . K . K . && ( & &. > . & & & / A6 ' ( ( N / ( / ( & 0 & *9 .& ` gM`L ” U & .> M ) / ) * 3M 5& "/ +0 ( " + -+5 g &DB0Hr“ g R0*rF0k 0`525M501 2) @ AQ & L K S= 12 M 0W GH3&` g* j @ f ( " + 7 0 "/ + -+\5 512&5B0H > . 6. & > <b $ &% . 67 . &( / O. > / . &( . . ( <VA6 & && . > > > & + . & ( > > & / > < / > / 8 8 & & / & * / & && & & > < / & K & / ( & > / ( / > & & & ( & & & & 9 & & & . & AB & & ( > . .

) & & & & & >& . / 7A 66 . K < / U < / > <VA+ . ( . & & A- 8 K & K . ( & & / . / & < & & & & & & > . ( N & > & & *9 N. & & / P / / ( & ( < + . > . ( & . > & . . &/ & + O & O & & ) / * & ( & .) K . ( / & & & = ( / & > > > ( ( > > . & >> & & / ( . ` ( . &. & & / K . ( & > . ( & 8 & K & . P & / > K &< F && . & & > / & & ^ ( / = & .

. Uc ( ( & & & & &+ && & & + & & cV & N0 O 6- .& ? M C H M 0W PPP&-+ G=0 0"D2B=0 0\=B= . v 3L. 2B5j0• ) PPP 2B.> M ) / ) * 3L5j0 )&0 3B9FB V' 20Q0 0 &-+nH . .5 M SRM RLM p .& \I 5L DB g) .

( / 65 .) > *( .

.

DB-7& †0\5/. K -7 0 R & < & & FM 1@ M 5 •' =( gi. @ & -9 . ( / > .A 5 O [ ~ F0K= 15. > & / ) > & = . . & / < > & > & > > &. ( . & K & -. '& & ( . / J .) M *( 5 /. ' & C . & . bj DBS=0 %50G= -+20Q09 D2 F5 & :. &O . ( ( . > & &> . > N & & *9 & + O & . > / & . ( ( / > N . > < & / . > / N / . -+2+5j< 0…09=( -+20Q09 D2 F5 & DB0K. . < > > & .>cW 5 & .M • H FM m C c M . / & & . & & > / . ( ( &O< & & & >> < + . .M ' . / ( / / / / < + . & > / / // ( > > < K && . & >> &< . rF0k -7 ' j K ? b Fe:' 6 0W 0e M 0• mS=2= ^ O20gi. > . > & . . 0• Qq2= 0`1 -+•– =j . = > > . \5& r& VR0e r) V…5 VK.A 5 O [ ~ .

N . ( V ) > . N & O & & . & / > & *9 > . . & + O & / &. K & > S U ( T > & . > . / >> & ) & // . & PPP DBS= 0 %50G= -+20Q09 D2 F5 & m C c M A. rF0k -+2+5j5 0…09=( ? b Fe:' 6 0e M . . > . & . K . = . > & S T ( ( & .>cW < & ' U+ . . . > K ( > > > . / & & && & // / & > . ' & Uc & ( ( &O<V 2< N & :< &O . K > . 5 O [ ~ @ & -9 . . < > & > > . DB-7&†\5/. ( / -2 > ( /> ( / cV > .> M ) *( /. > & & & & / & / . < .< & > . ( K > & / / & > 9> / J > < N > . /( PPPV…5 VK.

( & ) gi. & *9 & & <V >> + O^ ( & & > > > . = O<<<V & N > > ( ( &O . \5&rnM VR0ero PPP FM 1@ j K 0W Uc >> K & ( 4< > K > . ( > & & .A5 O [ ~ < • & @ & -9 . / ( & ( K >> / N / ( & & & & .> & PPP DBS= 0 %5G= -+20Q09 D2 F5 & 5 &' =( m C c0 M . . > & / & / J & & & ( ( / & / > > > / & J . > N < >> & & ^. ( K K & ( ( . & -: .) A< 8 / ( >> / / / & & >> < F & *9 & > & /> / + O . ( ) > > < >> K > > & > & . ' & -7 ' U .

/ U* > & 9 & & > . / & . ( / . & & ( && . K > > & > & > & > O & Q / > . /> > . & / / > > ( & . & . > -A ( . * & & &. ( &< / . < & > &. > K / & & > & / > / & ( ^. ( > K / > / Q . && * . . > ( ( > . &< *( > ^ Q > / > > . > ^ > & & . . & / . & > .> M ) *( /. &< / > /( > & // . & / ( & & > > . > ( / N & . > / & & > ( = & & > & & K . / > > & & < & . . & . > & . & <V > ( &> J & . ( > > // / > . . / > & & . ( / ( > & Q > . & > & G . .

. /) # % & & % _ > . / 4 .) // . > ( K . N> . 0 7 280[ —BDBH-+B)0‰ 2 5. NF & .^ 4 : 5 O< -4 . & ( ( < .Ic < G *' 3L 5 ( . K & > N N J . / 4 -? 7 ? : N . a O &< N > / . & O& > / & & > . / < + K > > & K 8 / / . KK KK & * >> > . d 8 @ M A5 M 2 . > . & K /OI & 0 .p . 7p . ( ( & / / & > / . K & * / / > > & & .0h Vd&5B0Q090 7 2 70[ 0 7 % :0 . & & < &< & & /> % > / . & / . 8 -+ M 0 s ) M Z)-+ 51B0Y = `5= . . / > & ( / &. N1k ` X '& . . > K / ( / &. / // N & > O.0?. &b ( / O<A5 / / > O > % & > T % .

> M ) *( /. O > > & & & O / . -7 . < && & > & O >> > ( & & ( & ( & & K & ( & ) N >> . & / > & > . . & ^ . . >> /> / <V4 ? /> > > ( . . U &( & N . \5&rnM VR0ern) V…5 VK. DB-7& FM 1@ j K ? b Fe:'PPP 0W 0e M 4? ' %_ K / > M > $ : . > & S T & & > & & >> & + O< / 1 >> & / > < . / >> / /> K N & > / . >> /> / & N / > & > / O . / -4 N &( & B <O . > ( & / /> / & W* > & > > ( > `4 . % G P /< % # % 4. ( / / & & / > & + ( & & . &N & *9 gi.

> & I 2-o. & & > > / &> . & && . / .& :M g: A ” . > > / . . <V4 2 % # % . / & & U & . ) 42 4: + & N.F& ab j Q \ f M ' ˜ .' • . Y a qH f C3 c:e `M š nG0K ZK 50K2 1 U >> . % > > J T > / . > O &) % %# . O O & / ( .G) FM B0652 7 (25 0 )&2 5& . O > 0\5 d D&= 0`1 2™0W -+.: : . : NG . ( / / >> & & & & & ( 9> /& > ( & % T & . & ( <V4 : / % # % & %_ > & N> & > > N0 % . . 2B)0. I & U >> & & ( & _ N> N > / .. O M ' O< / M . K -6 .) Uc / & S K ( <V T >> /> > > & &) .0K D2& 0`H M rnM D2 50e7 0 Q 3LS & . .

>> . & ( /( <V4 A & & K ( & / & &(& . ' .& M A ” L & : U' & .FGM gFM & @ 1 2. 2-+0 \]-+ = 2D2 2 7 5&&0.0S). Q ‰D ) O M M • . / & & U 8 & > & & & K ( & > . UF >> >> > & 9 . / / . . & > > > / . &09 &) = 0Œ& ab0 -o& . & ( / / & N / . a06&-+ 0 \[-o. K & / 9> > .O & & > > & & >> 9 & & > &/ & = >> & / & ( > N 0 O & . 0 ^-72i =& -+&= rF0k 2i. & & .& M& F‚ 5 : & = ~ f 3 -7 ‚ P-+M& = 9-+0\6_2 50S&0 -+9-7 A)@ ~ > < . > . / / . ( > & 9> & / > & > & 9> <V 9 & >> & & / & ) & & & 4A &< M . > / / . > : -- . / >> .C O M Y W f DMN Q @ 0 N? M F& M 1@ .> M ) *( /. N O . rF0k -+&0W 2 5n&M ZDB 01 • 0…0h 7 0 ZM˜ NbI rF0k AF? < . M \ 0O . . D229N 2 = :Hf @ . + / . .

> / ^ / & . <V -5 . N ( / < > 9> > NY & O . / <V / N / < & > > K . O O< /( K F ( /> > < / . ( / > . & < . / > ( & & .) & . ( / ( / & / > & & ( > & . & ( >> & & & < . & › 09[ &-+ rnF0k 5? . / NY ( O & / & N & 44 ( S &) P 9> & & / ( Y .0 0 -+ @ 1 \5 [ U . & K & . > . & & . / O<4 4 / > & . > . &/ &K . > & > < / P > . . > ( > / > > > > & / & / N. ( & . && > > ( . > G = 9> .. ( . ( & . & > ( & / / & > / > > = O. .

gM• . &-7 @ & F D. > & 9 + O > / <V F %& > . N >> <V4 7 >> & R & = N> N . O = > > > O & R .& " p .> M ) *( /. " # < 1 & & 1 >> > & ( %# M & 0 & & U N> N> & & & > / > O .M F™ -9 . c. . / . & ( . P & >> & & < > / > > &( >> & > >> ( >> > .-70\2 g9V] oM 0 2&2 G2= 0 3= M <I Š \. & / >> . & . & > . ‚ O " # &) U $ & > > / . / / < . . . / / ( & >> & .2 . P > ( 9 ( / . & &. / > . . >> >> ) X GM 8S . ( & / > / . & < F ` ( 47 5? .2- U . 1 9 RG 1 % C B1-+= —•27)M g50kœ 2 -o M Z)0O 2 `5 \&50‰ 2-+v.

) /( < & ( . . > 8( M :5 N & 5. > N> K & R . >> & ( O /( & U / . / . > & U+ > ( / .2 . </ > . K + > . > & U > & . / ><V & <V I + & & /( OQV & = R K > . > /( > & + K N. ( & >> & <V4 6 / & > > & &) U' / B K > /( ( > < O / / 46 4- &< M .:2 < < O< . . ( QV & U3 > <V UB > . K . . >> 3 9 ` & N# > & K <V4 .

.

) > ' */ & 5: .

.

* 15 . > & & .) M ' . . ^ . . & ( ( < > ( & ( K .? & &D20W525BbM0gi. > . 0D ' &$ Q . .09 O [ ~ ) 0 . ( . >N . > > & &< < & / / / > O > 9 & K & & &(& & / 8 & & & ) 54 ."E&D2q2= -+) . > K . < & & N & / & O > & > / & > < & & ( = & > &< > ( & & 9 S T > ( / & . . . DB)0 5B5 06&0`5 D2 F5 & ( . ( ( & . > > & > &> . & &O > > N > ( & ( / . / / / . \e3LFG& FM :e 3LH @ . = & & / .M . ( . j & > & + .

N> & / > / > / < > . ( /N > N O & K < & & K / = & & & ( . & > /. & < F > > & > ( ( / & O > Q < & & > > K & & ( & > ."E&D2q2= -+) ) $ Q . & / > ( / > & K / = / ( & / < ( & & &(& & / / / & < O . > & ^ ^.* 15 . K = & .& . j U cV 3 > & . > ( / & & .M . & K N . / & O > / && . & .! DDD( . ( &/ $ &% &" > & / & > . & / ( & 57 . .

& & ( & / & O & / . >> & 9 / > < & O & . & N& ( > /( / = N ' ( & & ( /( / O > < . . && > & < > ( ^ ( . > 1 . & . &. ( ( 9 ( / >( & & . &/ & . N / & & *9 & / & < & @ . K & / & > N && / < . & &. > & ( & G & . > & > & & > < & ^. & . & + O G B > / ^ . & / . & .) . & & > / ( & N &(& . & & 1 ( / ( . . & . & . & ( ( &. & . & B " &/ & = &. O ( & ( & > & & / K 56 . .

& & ( J * . & / / ( > . / > & > < + . & > ) & & > / . & K . K K < + . / . < / & ( & ( K N / K > & . & > < & > & / / . K . . . / & . * . < . . &< & K & > I' J%K L &M / A&G: H F 6 : I' 4W !S PT UVM 3 *R :N O JP N : Q / / 5- & > . & / / / & . > . K &< &&& / & / . / O / / .! / & ( . ( . ( . ( & / & > > & & &(& / ( & ( & & Q . & / . & / . & . < . & . > / / ( . > / & . ( < ( > . > . > & > .

) . ( & >N &(& ( N O / & ( N O /< O< I: ' *S ( + . / N> . / & > ( 7[ S W R a&: * `_S 3 O JH e : d 7Q *R T b c:3 . < < I' & ' . & > > & < I' > K + . 8 / / / W &: f J Ig` M _3*[H h T IJ 4 A3 IZ[ N ( & & / & . & > . ( _S h 47T i S4^ Ij c:3 W kW kH PN S I' %K H_ &(& / K< / / / & & > &< 55 . O ( < IZ[ 4W N Y * : X S O : JH I' :/ ] 4W_ ^ 4 V %:0 P\: ] S / + .

17 3 9\ 9. > / K 1 > . . K / K < > & S / / & P T > &) / > / & < K / &( & N > / . . . / &( & > . 5 U & & . 0H M0 Š 5>21@ s p . O < & / & < > / / . & %K / > ( / & / > < < *M %K 3 4* PJ0 N Y k I' :3 *: ' q : I :p+ &:S + .K ` ab D7 ) C @ •5 h . N > > .10 5200 : Q 3> +0 o 3AQ9 H C 2 Q . &DBR5 52-= 0 .?? .! *SWI'W k 4 lN4 3 N _# T I' : k :' To:S n R m :JP:T @ & . ( . ( . & / / K †0D2 32\5&0 & F M D2-&0 5AdM D2+ 0 . K / ( & / & > & . O > & > & R G & > & & .

& . > ) & > ( = D9 Ÿ.?.) ( / . / & & N OQ \h •• . / . / > .H X:k De \1 \ž I D6 < h † DŠ \9 \1 4c* c6 \1 g9 \¡ & . . + & / . K Q > & . `H NkF œœ M c9 M < h rn M †cH¥DC£h 4 k. & / ) / < / P< ' / & @ )U Q / / ( / .. ( / ( ( & & S & & / ( <V4 5 T .gI D– < ¤ 9 W . / > > . ( / . .¢ š1gi cH X. & ) & 45 <V & P / / / K NA 2 O M :- & & / & > < & .

> & . > . & / < . . ( > ( < > &> / . ( O ( ) . . & . ( > / > & ( / . & & & & & & & ( N / . ( / / / . & &( / < & > > ( &/ .?2 / ( ( . & & & && . & & & . O / & & > & & / & > > > . / & / & 9> && ( . & / / & & & . . & . &(& / . & & & > > N. ( & . > > &(& &. & . Q & / * 9> / ( / ( & ( / < . > O N P 9 & > > . ( > > & > > > & & N & / & . ( & & / & & ( ( / > / & & & & & . O & . > / G / . ( & / .! . ( . . & < + .

& ) ^ & . U & > $ / / / ( & N J & = ( ( > / / > .?: . . / . / & > & . / & . > > / O & & ) . & ( < & & . > > & > & F ( & & . / &<7 ? .)*j D) Q . & ( ^ . & > / K / ( . > &. ' $ & . / / &N / &. & & & &. . > . & > 7? O & / & > ( M > % ^.: ( / > .) ( / & > & > / / < / B ( / < > & / ^ ( > > > & > .M 15 . ( & & c V . & & DD ($ . "E &D2q2= -+. & > > & ( & & .

/ > > / & / > > & . & . & & & / & ( / / . > ( / & &O< > ( / & .! / / / / ( > < && / & & &(& < F & & &( / &(& & / / / ( & / / . & / K . . > N > / O . / & & / / < ( . ( & / < F ( & . / & . . > N & & / ( > + ( / & . . & / . > > > / > N > N . && / & / < & & -One / / J> c[ & & & -K h & _< ¦ \9`H\' _ &(& &< * 1 > / .?A ( & O . / > & O / . & & > . ( .

< & / > . ( / > > / .) N > > / & & &*9 & + O . & . &% . K > / > & & / / / . & ( & 1 & > / & &) . < N* ( / & & < > > / & . & N ( / & & . . & 9 . & % > & > &(& & . & & / . & > & `H00&`H00&gi.& & && ( . > O ( < &( & . . & > O<V K & > & & / . > / &. O / Y > .?4 . V' 50€ D6@ D6@ F D6 0 M e UN1P > > `O N @ > / . > & > N & / & . Y & & > . > . & . & . & & > &% < 8 & & & & / ( / ( . & K K 9 > / / & & / < & ( ( .

/ & & & " . & / O .! > %_ N> & > & . 9 . / T % # % > > > > @ . & &< > * . & / / & ( . / / S % . & / < ' & / / > > > & & > / K / // & . &0 J / & . . & ( / / & & & & &< . . . . < > / O O . // & O ( N / > & / . & ( / & ( & / ( ( & ( & & & & . ( 7. O < . % + M . .2: . ( ( &% & & . / ( // & / & / .?7 . < > # & . / . N ( & 1 & N.2A . K . K > % <7 . ( . .

& / & & & < / > & & & ' # . > & / & & .?6 . > / & & 72 < & & > / .& & > K ' # > > . & & > > / < O && < / . &/ ( > & > / &/ .) / > K > / & / / . *9 1 > / & & &. . . > &. & & & 9 K & & & N > & / & & & ( &*9 / & / / + O / / ( & > . & U ( <V O. > &N & & > & / > . < / & ' J > & > 72 &< . . & / K & ( / & 9 . / 444 . & / N / . / / & . < + / .

! > &( & && & & / / > / < & / O. > `V > > > ( > & N 52 & r+\0 5B50 5B0 +\5@ 0 3B&+D1& 0 5B&1 bj 1 0\O I W 3L. / 7?4 . . ( N / <V & > K . & & ( ( N / & / / / & . N / & < ( 7: % + M 2 . G & & & NB O. & > ) UN1P .?- . ( ( O & > . > `O & & . K O > N3 &O & & & . & > K > & & &) & K & ( & & & & > > & & N < …F AF@ 2 5b )32i& 9 0 M U1P > & && . .k 3L] k& 5LM 5@ 3L• F & -+ a 3I AŠ a 3I F a 3L DH &n+> 5B\50 0 &n+> 5Bc& 0 &n+> 5B150 9 0 U@ = > & &O<V7 : .

:7 . c00 = 2•h g rk+c0 *"+ + .2 . 7j cW +D= S• M \-+ 2 . / .2 +\0 V' &D2q2= -+.O= A . / .s = 25 rL0 .?5 .)*j S• M M 0 3 – e 3 W e .) . > # N> ( & N / % / & O<V7 A ' = > & > > > N> & > / > & O<V & O.M 15 . > N / > N / / / . & ( KO . O U . > &) c00 = N& Q 9 5ARB-+G0 0 5A. . Jn5 . \0)SM0 r. Q . & & . ( & . M & e gQ K 1 5 Š M . ( > > 9> K & U / . M -9 U > & > & > / > & / &(& < ( & / > ^ N & < > & / &> & O<V7 4 & . > & T N O . & < > / O . > > N & O & 7A 74 % M ' $ M 2 . . & & K / / . K & > N $ P / & & .

/ .. &N & ( / & . < G &<7 6 77 ( O & & & >> O<V7 7 / = / ( N N / . / ( #@ V M -:7 .. 76 . . & .n* ->DnYk \nž -ž _ g9¥DnYk Dn¡ & & > & > & $ &% & > / . / > ) c*\>Dž { nH nQ\n' gU cn*\§nHcLnH ¥-Ynk _wnQ H _ 9 \nnCc*-. N 2 .77 0 K & / %# < . %# OI / J% M / U $K :. O > &) ! & & < > & N & / &< / > 3> @3 )1 52-+*5&5AKa9rnG500 522-nn+1 Vn'L0 &D2F 2= Se 3>‘ -7K .? .! #&% > / & > $ &% & & 9> & % J K . 5. $ &% / O & > ( > ( .M e 0 S & @ 52+Dh 50 rF *$ 52 0 3> `1 0 3> k U .

200 D2 F & cGM AQ9 O 5 ~ -9 5 [ & .) . . K . .. ' U & > / & / < / K > > > < F . / . &< / . & / & ) > PPP%50= -+. / > ( & / ( / > & = & & . ( . & &. & & // & . K &( . // / ( < 3 ` / / ( / > 9 > / > . . < + . > / > ( .. / S T & > & / 9 / & > / . K . ( < F & . & S T ( & 1 . ( & . ( ( & &. & K & . . c V / . / ( . > . . > > < / ( .

.

: .) > F > / F > ..

.

9 / -+ e &D2M‚M 22 0 |5B .50 507 D2_0Hab -+A^ -+H 1 6 d 0 1 0 . ( & < + . 0 = -7= -9 20Q • K 5M 51 H0 cG9 2 SRM 3h • | :M J9 0 . & & > >> 9 ( ( < 9> > .nHv.4 .) M F > / F > . < B / & & O > > . & . . )`B0=&r00 ZSd5d .. > > ( &< / N& > N/ K > O .. &O & < &^ = & ( ( & & < @ > > / N / ( N > & & > .-+S* 70 0 e 1 6 d 0 5 2 3b `00 -+. 3> { 7~ M& ' 1P > . ( ` B N/ > K O< ( & & & ( / N ^ . . @ f 5LSR@ J F 7 2Q \5 LH @ Sk -+ * `1 < f 70 3B0B*& 2. 32Q \5 *DBH @ Sk DC`1 J\t SH f Q ` M H& 5A5 T. D2 L0=&r00 Z5&5d r . -i . & > O > > / .= f0 )`A5 T. > ( ( = & & ( O . 050 "Dn2B= 25v.

& / > K . > . . & &/ P & I > > I & & & . . & < > ( / > ( . &/ / ( & > > .7 . &/ > > . > P > > . ( > < K / > & 9 & >> . & & / > > > < > > & & / . / > K / / > & > > /) < > / > < & K . N & > > P & . > < & I / . I & > > / O > . 9> ..< 2<.> L )F > / F > ( ( . :< > ( < . > > N > / & O< + . ( > > ( < K / & < ( & & & / & > ( . K > P .

> > c V K & / / > > ( . ( K . N > & & > > < . & . & P >> > ( S . ( . ( N # O > . &( & *9 / ( & > & < > > . / / & & > & . / & & c & N / O & + O & & = & > & < & > > K . & & . &/ > O & . . . / < . D2L0=&r00PPP 3AQ \5 *DBH @ Sk 1 6 d 0 Uc > > S T < N. > PPP525 T. . / > > N > > / .6 / & & > & K && . & / > > ' > & > K & < J & . & O< & > . > .) &/ / / > / . & . >> > & > . > > K .. & > > / . & & / && / / . / / & & & / >> >> &/ . T ) / / . > > .

> L )F > / F > > & > > . K / K / ( > > > > . *9 / & & & > & & / ^ > ( . > & > / > & / > / < . ( > > & . ( & > > > < > ( . ( && ) ( < ( / K > > & .. & K / ( .- . > > < ' N / . & > & . & ( . > N & . / > > / K I > ( . . & < &/ / & K . & . >> & & ( / > & > & > . > > ( / . & > . K / 8 1 & > & K / . & / & . O > & > < > / > > > N. < O / . && > K ( . & & + O > > & K / & .

( & & K / > & K ( > / K > / & & / ( & / . & / . DB:0 -+? =B0 M DB b M H GMXC 7- # M . >> / / . / / `SW&V 205@0> VnK. / / / . .[ b( 0 .5 . > > ) ( & & : > gi. F c5 3>\ …0 &• 5. / :. UB / & K<V7 / + . K > > > > > / < K & / K / > > & K / & K .. N & & ) & *9 & + O & N / / O > .) & & & > ( / . > / / & & > .M ` c0@ \ O ef Q M k ' S . 0Q 520n. & & & & ( > < K > < . & > & < > & & & & > &(& / .F 2= 01TW&b0:5 07 ". & & & < / . & ( K / ( / < > / . .

< > ( . .> L )F > / F > U & . % . > > > . 75 6? N. & & O< 1 & & & . $ & # ( 9 % N1P $ <V7 5 N> &O > K ' = > O &) -Y59 LY G93 • K f 3> 2C 3L9 [ @ . K & . > K N M S & . & > .2? .‚k T G03=2 500)A0 0 7 0 52 \E 0 5B0+O 5 & D2E0 H 0 0 U ( K > . S & &/ > / . 6 O M 0 % M 2 .<1 & . / > & & T > & > & . / 4: . K > / > ( & & < ) / > > & & ( / T ( ( . & <V6 ? & & / O & O > < > / 1 / & F ( ( & . & > S N ( O &.6: . / & N . > N / & > & > > > & . / . &/ ( > .

&. > / > ' K / B N > & / . >> & ( / . . & / / N / O. & < # U@ . > > K & < > & & & . > ( & & Y O > & . `V & K P . & / `V ( > / & O . <V K . O > & . & . & & & U QV > & U & <V & & > & U' &` & . >> & . N N > / . & > . > N / > & > / O & K & .) & / ( / > . . & / &. / #@ / / . / U K . . .2. & < 2<@ .

.

& .2: . K / 8 .) > .

.

/ / . &.M 0 . & / & > > 1 . 0 + ¨. ( > & & %_ N> > O &) 0 † @M 0 `5 M V'-+AH -+S1 g =051rp 5 2=&XC+G= rF = . & PPP5B0B*& 2.= 70PPP 3LSR@ J F f e 0 B & > / < + K & J & ( 8 / > < ( .• 0 ' & "86 . \ c 0 2 SR* ` O H @ . K / 8 . . 0 075/.) M . I @ c[ { 7 š. K > & & & < & & / & > &. & . ( K & / ( > & > P . K U > > & / ( = > > & & ( & > & > &. Hd . & . <V % T % # % ( & > .24 . & . . > & ( c > 9 K / . ( . ( ( / K & < & . > .. k 0 Z -+K © 5& 50 V' 0 M 505 . .

. . O< & . ( > ( / ( > / .> L ). . & ( . > K ( O N > O > > & & ( > N / > > . & & & & J > / & ( & N & / && & . K> > > & / K . / ^ > & . & > K . / . / / 445 ( > / 6. . .27 . & N & O > & > K / K / . < > > > &(& & / &> K / & & = / > K / . K & > K / J & . K / 8 . / & & <V6 . & . K / & N / = & > > & & . > . & P-+AK+ j V'B050 M & X. > K / > > > > > & > & . & . ( & && ( & & K .GH U K ( O / . > / < ( < K / & . & < K > . ( + .

> & O`V6 2 P K . & . & / / .) / & ( > > &) / > < .50-+1 -o. & K # % . > K K / > > . / & $ &% & & > & & ( . N & & J > . / . K / / J . .26 . D2 50 & 0 051 RQ @ ?F Q . & N O > > . / / & ` . &) gS=0 = 5= -o. / A45 745 .M I M H 2 k 0 -9 U > K / . > > . K ' = N> & > / & > > O Pg R05125 r. & 62 6: 0 % M K 2 . $ . `k ª O 9`0 9 0 0& M 2 c . & K / K / . \.' k U N / > & > O<V6 : . & & ( >> ( &. 010p5 =&Tn5 50= rR& S=* ` gQ GH k 0 Q ` \ ? @-? . K > ( ( K .

. / . K > / .> L ). . / > K / > > / > > . ?K s 1 $ Hj 522 p 2 3& 05&2)*( ‡ -o.A- & & / ( / / " # $ . / > K . & /< . / & / . & / > & . > > > O & && & ) T % # % / %_ ( 3A? 1 5F H 3Mg & Q . / / / > > & K & < & & > > > / / ( & ( N. & / % N> . / > / > & & O< ( & > / & > / & / . > > <V6 A > > . / ( . & N > < O & & . K / 8 . D2 VGd0 & Š-+G0 0 0-o W-+ S 5 ' M 2 02 0 k K1 \ P5A5 3Q 1 U . > 6A R &= . . / > > &( K .2- . ( . / &( / & > ( . / 1 1 P B 8 8 . K / .

.25 . K / & % # % % _ N> > { ? 5 { . 0 0 . / K / & & > ( > / <V6 7 K ( & & . > & > > > < & > / & & / & > &K > = / < $ #@ = K . 64 67 :77 44- . 2& 5B0 n0 & k M k M _ M UG > > . / >> & K > . 2i. / > & / > K . > & & > K ( .) N> / ( > O & & &) / / > Vn9. 0W0 D2 M >@@1 gF 3 k 2 j \ 0 M U P > / <V6 4 && O % &) T > / > . . > . )V& †c5&T5. 0 5j †c5&50 005 -o. &/ / && / & < > > > > &. >@`1 $cQ Q \’ `L. & > & ( < / >< + > & / . / .

= 70PPP 5L0R@ J F f e 0 UB 9> ( O & / & < . & > & & > K / N / & / > / & O O > & &. & &< / @ > / & / > . P * > & & > . K / 8 . > & & > K > & K & &< & &` O ( / . ) >> & P PPP3BSB*& 2.:? > & & & / ( = ( ( / > & / & < > K / ( > . / < F & > & > < + . ( & . > K / K . & > / & > > / / & N ( > > . N > K / & . )U . / `V / & & > > > > . > K S T . .> L ). & N . &K > &. > > > . ( <V & > > & .

:. .) > ' & &8 * ( .

.

& ( . & > &> / /` / > & ( & . > > 1 > > & & >> & & ( & . 050"D2B= 25v. -i . P / / ( > & & & / > & .:: . & . 0 = -7= 20Q 70PPP cG92 SRM 3h • | :M J9 0f . 3> { 7~ • K M& 0 ' H && & ( / > N >> < c / > O N& & < + . & O & > > .) M ' & . ' & & & / & > > / & & &.nHv. 9 /-9 -+ e &D2M‚M 22 0 |5B 5 2 . > > / / O . & < # . .. > & & / N / / < & ( & > & ( J & / < > / N # O & & > / O & K / < & K > &(& < & & / . > & > & N > / . . . &8 3M`1 5b500 -+.

. ( & > / & & > / O. > & ( ( QV / > & > > & N & 66 S & . . >> & < > / & . & 9 . / A4 . K / > . > & U / & > / &. O N & ( ( <V ( & . > >> > & & N <V K . &.O 1 # / ( / & O . 3> { 7~ • K 3M`1 M& 0 ' H Uc & . & & > & & > / & S < T / >> & %& & & & & ( > / / . N & O<6 6 & & & > > ( O< + . & . /) > & / &D2M‚M 22 0 |5B 5 2 5b500PPP . .> L ) ' & &8 ( & > / & & N. & 9 ) U ( .) .:A . 9 & / > > > / ( & . 9 . -i .

. > . &. B N & . > / & O O & O # & & & UF <V > N 2OB / > & . / 2?2 .I . > N / & > / O > & U3 .% B % & % M ( / >> : . . & > / O & # <6 5 / > ^ & / & .? / > ' / % N & N > ( &OV 6- . K & < > & U & & > &O<V . &'% < ..:4 . 65 -? . . 9 / N / 9 & > . > / O K & . > > > N > :O .A$3 v. 9 . . & & > >> &Q <V / & O < K & . . / . 9 >> ' / & <.A5O .$T. < N & & & & M & 2 . $w # $ my t U / .w m > x # : & > > ( & > . > && > "P"'uT5 >.Bv 5 = $ 8 $4.% > . > N > & > / O & . . . .) = " Bv "P. / :66 . & > / > & U > N / & / & . .*. F & N & / V6 & > / . $ " $. > & > / & & B %S & . .

/ 67 : .6A A . / :72 &M 4 . / & # & " &# & S > O # & > & . N N + . W" # & . VN .A ( ( & -O F > -. / > . & 7O O / # O & & > N 6O ( > > > / . .: / O / & . & N ( &G O ( # \ & #JJ O # & G N O. > K & N & # & 4O N ( > 0 / PN / N * ( O<V O > ( . & . / 24? . PN N ( & O &. / . ..> L ) ' & &8 AO . O< . > N / > O && # & / / < . > K . . .2 " > / / & . N & & / > O<. & > N > & U / > & # > & > N / & O< P UF &O<V. -2 -: -A &< M &< M &< M &< M 2 . / 7: 2 .:7 . & <. & " S ( & N & & *9 & & & .O / K &. > > . / & > > / & U#! Y % " > / N . & & U8 O<V. O .

7 -4 -7 &< M & : . / :72 &) BDB0eVK .:6 . . > . & / N & & K & & . / 2:2 2A? 26. # & N ( . > A . . 250e5&=( ‡ 2&2=&&5 5B0 75& D^.) / O. N / N> & > / / &< & > > > . .. & . 9 & ( & > &M & O & . < & > / & & > / O O& 9 .52D^.4 . . ( & > ( && & / /( &( & < / ( < ( / & & &P / / > & & > ( > & &( &^. > / . .0S&rnl * 5& Q.y c 3M & cMH @X? 3I f @ b + @ B ' 5 D C & .h 93> ' n5 @ .0h L M . & &( ( & & / 9 <. ( .5/. < / ( . / ( . K > > & & & & K > & % ( > O ( > & N / . & /( 9 > <.

N > & / < ( . B > / & < K & O U / & . . / . & > / ( & . ( / & K &/( ( / ( /( & H < + K &< 0 .:- . / . > & > N . & ( & / <V N / 0 % M ( .> & P > & > & . > > & U3 &. < + & > N / / /( rn& 5 . . > ( /< . 0 \&b= l * IaF n/ M U . & > & /( / > . O .> L ) ' & &8 > & . . . K & .-O ` & >> > K . ( > . ( & > & / 8 & > / / & > > & & . 7 . > & > N &P / / & / > > > / QV O / & > > / . ( > ( > / & . < O & ( > / ( & > .

) / <V.5/. 0k C . <V > N O< .5& 5d0h .—(=$ &T g2 g0 & g h `S 2 & C a> 9 + + F % h + U/4 % 7 G]5 7 5 1 M H C PT0S0W Q U > > -- & W1 P & W ( <V $ &% ) / / & ` & / . & O. d &—&-&‡N)D2= 0`1 .D01 2G0Y 0e 209@0 20.«&+ VQ.6 + . . &D20 .5. & QP .«0D2 . c? % 7 > +h @ % 7' H ?M +h~ g. 2d0O e—%.:5 .W\. 8$ . 9 U & U N &. / & > `+5)M 25 &. / & & ( & K > / & > & & . `. : G 2.- -6 $ &% ) . QV + & U# ( & & F $ &.‡gi.

.

. ( .) > ' /. 1 .A.

.

`1 \ &I ?K Q ` M Q5 0 .A: .2 1 f 70 !uzE" dbM z 50bj`bM 0d Tn. && K & O ( ( > N . D2_ 0Hab -+A^H&@ -+H `‚ .1 1P && .) M ' /. bj0i. > K & & < F > ( > & > > < N . O >< > . ‰ 1 g. & < B Q F & 1 . > K & > & K & < > > & > ( > & .2 \&L&'T5 4 DegF gF :e D2K -K0 M M . > 5 . 1 / < N. & & *9 & & & & + O ( / / & ( ` 0 > . DB)0 2 . 0 G9 d‚ .< > < > & ( & ) / 2< :< & / > && K< .6&@ 0O &M&XB= =&@ 5B20&@ ^• O2 T G03B2 5)5 0070 D2)0 0 35 I~ 3IcW H 0 H&@ -Y59 LY G9• KH f SS• e … 5 ! "+2 x o00i. .l D20 .

( < > & K & > > & . / > . > > < K & + . & / . 1 > ( 9> . .> L )' /. > / & & & & / &. . & . & & & . > . & > > & / > / & N &<V & & / & < & & & & ( ^ ( K / &/ > & & ( & ( / )U & > / . ( / > < > < / > / > . / / > / & / & > .AA . ( & / O > > & < . < ' K > > < && = . & / & & & / & & > & > > > / ( > . & & U > / P / / &/ & < & F .( / & K . K & > .

/ 27 - / $ ' [ M . / = > && & P / & . & & > ( . &< ( & & . K > .M 0 \W gF ] 0 5 .5 . &> ( / 4 . P &. & & > / > & & + O N / O. h U > ( O<V.) > > & 8 /( / > & / & & > & <V > ( .A4 . < & / ( . & & ( > N / ( >> -5 & N & & / N & > > O & & > / $ &% / & > & *9 9 & J & > ^ & . bj )‚ g \ g-+ g1 S. > &) N g9`BH0=@& 0 2 5k 0 2&M1 0 200 3F 2= rF 0)0 0i. > > > . / & & / / > & & & ( > / O . k M `bM D2 ‚.

K & & > / / & > . *9 & > ( / &< + O . & & & + O / < B . / 756 . & ) > & > -O= X 0 `. . h . > & & 2< ' > > > > < > > . > 1 . . 1 > .&F • &” `1 T F Z. .< .F 05 0 200525 5MdbM D2 g50 0 &F 50 [ 2 6 9 5 0 . / N / N > & N > ( > / O & & *9 & & ( . N> & > > / O< . / / ( < &> < P > / / .A7 . H k U ( 9 5? > . & > & > &<V5 ? K . K . ( N && O > & . & & / / N O /> & K & &. / > > O ( > & .0 gQ9$\K 3& `‚ . / ' /. / & N & T / < / .> L )' /. && / / &> & / .

< & / & . & / ( . < B . ( . / ( & & > ( & < && . $ &% ) > . & . . & . . > <V5 . . > > . < & . K & /> > > > & > K > > / 7< & & K > > & K . / > & .) :< > ( & >> & . 5. &. / . &< . B< & / > & / ( 9 / & > & <V & K . > . ( cW XB ` WDK g&˜ `SO H 3 `1 Z0&@ EI 510 050 j2^Q 525 05&M50 h 5 U > .A6 . / / & ( / && & &/ / > &/ < ( & & 4< . && > & > . A< ' . & > & U' / P & < / & .

> & . ( > > & & . & & & / / 52 &< . .&” \H-+ K $ Hj M P• 5= rnM N&| ?. 0 3=^SM H0M j H\0 : . / > > & > & W . kcH { 7 &' D1 . / ( J > > = > & / . . . / . / & & N> > P <P . N> O & & & & . / < .O) M D2500 M b( gG]50 \5 V'02…). & < > / / && > .A- . \. .> L )' /. K & & .0 0-o j O p . K & & & <V5 2 & / & . / / > > / & > & & > > . 9 ( / + . K ( / . M = U . K . . & > & & > & & T % # % %_ > / & / & > > ( / &< / % & && & O &) rnM N0 . K & . B & J > . & & . & ( .4 2 . 1 6< + ( / & & / P > . / / / & / > / & > > & > > . & .

/ .A5 .) > . > .

.

> PPP D2)0 070PPP SS• ef c && > > ( > / & . & K / > / & & > . & < / ( > & & > O & & c . / P T & > / ( & N& = / J K< & / ^ > > > > ( ^ K . > ( > . > / > > . & < ' / ( = / = / J & & & & . ( ( & S T & & & / & . /> ) / > . .) M . / .4 . & < 1 ( P> ( > K / > & K & . > K S T < . . & . / & I N2O . & . > & ( ( ( / > I N: O > K / . . & & ) N. & ( & . & . .2 .O .2 / S & & ( > / > ( ( < 1 > / .

/ . P < P > > P P & & < &&/ < &> > > < > ( . / 1 P / F > & / & & > & > < > & && 1 / & / & . > & & N ( & < > P & > ( > P / > / & & & O > P &/ > > > > < ( K > > > > & 5: $ ' [ M 4 . > .4 2 . / . & > / N & / B G( .> L ).7 2 & 27 - .< . / > ( K .< F 1 ( &/ . / ' / . > (& & < < < &< & > > ( & ( ) / && > > & <5 : . > O & & .

& O& > O > .2 2i0 B R5 002 \G 0 e U > & . ` c?M LH cG9 F G 0. / & & N & / & *9 & 5A 0 % M 2 . & > ( > & / & / & .0Mgf ¬ O H D> TD0-+A92 d. . && &< = > P > > " # . & / > > < / & &) & R & = N> > O 0 &X2)M V6 +D2B2)M & DB0=&@ gM 0125= BDB0-+1 205 ‰\. H X‰\. &@ -15H 0. ( < > & K / & > K / & > & & > & > > ( & / > / > & / ( .) . . LH i. &> > . > $ & / / . / :44 .4 : . ( & & N> > / & $ &% . . K & <V5 A " > N > + O< .

&& ( ( / && > . > & & . &(& > ( < &> > . K / > & . & J . & > ( & > ( / > N > . . & . & ( / > . & & & & ( & . < 1 ( > . / & ( / &F / & = / ( > & > . & > / & & & P & ( .> / & . & N O O< . / & . .> L ). > 2< . > > . & > > > & & . < . . . / . ( < & & & > < > > > > & > > & . < = & . & ( > = && ( & > . . & > > < & / / > > > > > . K > > & // & > > / . K . > > .4 A / . & > / / > > / & .

& > > / ( $O & > . & & / O N. &/ > ( / = ( . & . N & >> N 9 & > & > & & & N && > / / ( / & N / O< + . & < > & > & > & / O / > . P & ( > > > O & & ( . < ( . K ( ( . & > > > > > K . & > > . > &. . & N . ( / > > & & K . > N > / O > > . ( / & / / . & ( O & / & / >> .) ( ( . & & / . /( / > ( / K . > :<G 1 8 / & / & > & & / . ( > > / & / < .4 4 . O / > . & / / N . / & & / & N K O< + . & & < ( &. & / > < . > > & > . & & .

/ & & K & > > & & > & > > & .> L ). > > / / & & K / K . / 2. K & > / .4 7 . . && <V5 4 /( > > ( & & > > > P & / / / ( & / & . & & < K .5 .F 2= D^1B0 K e S . > & N ) / > & 7 g?&CrnM B-+. &/ & > . ( ( & & . U1P > > ` 1 ( N O &> ( / > / /( & > > 9 > > & & > > > 54 . u B 05&M0 g*SF 0&F &@ 50 ‡0050 -+H f = j Hv F H 3 -+ 93 5 `1 \ƒG1 F t 5 h 3 Dk G) f 0 5. / . / & P %K R & = 64 . > & O . K > / ( /( > / . / 2. > .7 O & > & = '$ . ( . > .M ae 5Ae+ 50 D2?07 0 • . # M . ( > .A N . && & & / / < 8 & & P > &/ .

M 2. ' > > . K &( / &( > .4 6 . <V . / > = & & > K &( > . K . . < . & & > / > > & ` e 1 0 . . & ( < K & &( K & > .0 2 2-+ƒK 2= q 5 S 5 &@ U .) . &/ < & ( > > > & && /) > > > K . K . & K . .

.

) > ' > K & 8 /' & P ' K .4 5 .

.

> 5 c ( > > &< & > ( & ` & / & &> >> . K 1 O ( / & &(& & &. K / & > & & . / & & / > & P & & < B Q F N. bj0F. > > & & & . & & > & & & K & & K K ( & & >> ( / S / / T > K / && K & & < < . & & / < > . . > K & / & & & > & ( ` ( / & . K / > / > > K < ^ / .6&@ 0O &M&XB= =&@ 5I20&@ ^• O2 T G03B2 5)5 0070PPP 0 H 0 H&@ -Y59 LY G9• KH f … 5 ! "+2 x o00i. > & .) > K M /' &' . DB)0 2 .2 & P ' K -K1 35 I~ 3BcW T.5 g. & 1 .7 .2 \&L&' 4 DegF gi :e D2K M M . > > . K & /< K K > Q > . K / & / & & & ( & P & . > > .

& & < & & < . . / . & K & > / K < / & & % # .< 1 2< > P / P &/ / &.> L M) > K /' &' & P ' K & & > . & / / . & & K ( & S & T & . & . / > . > N. & K P & & & & / ( &> K = < ) ( < > < K & / / & > > & = :< > K < A< & & & & & > T > & > / ( > / > . K . ( & 9> % % _ N> > K & > K &. 5 &@ U' K / > N = ( O / / . . & % K & J‰-+G= 250 B0…= M cA‰ N? M .7 2 . K N K & & O. > O & / > &) . & & / > K > & KO / / . . > .

& > K ( P .7 : . / &. . `2 &@ 51 2&m:52 H7 j 0 5 2 . / . g0\6 Q . / .M Hf F i M k -75 M m. > K ' K ( K & / < #@ > > / K > K > O . & . / > < & && R & = N> .5 ` g S. %\ <V5 6 " # ( & < R & = N> & > > / . ( 57 56 K $ ' . > & ( ( > P > N G & & . ƒ U ( / / & > .) .) > .4 4 . K . 5 k `1 Nf rnM gK7 `1 gM 2‰05&@ -o. ) $ O " # & 20 22 050 0 200 -+A9 2H\2 T0+ Z1q2 rF † 00 50 ge \1 c> gQŠ c H NH ` 51 0 0 ‘ . / :7 & M 4 . & & <V5 7 ( 1 & / &. / O & K > > / > P & > > $ &% & ( .

/ & > ( & ) . & > > . & & . & &< . > > / K & < ( > K >> >> > & K / / & 5- ( > & / ( / > K ( . 0-+? M UB & ( ( & & K <V5 && & ( B / / = ' K & & &(& P .7 A . Q K &(& / > ( / & & &. . & > K & . / 24 . & / > P K ( / .> L M) > K /' &' & P ' K / / / ( > & < $ &% > ( . > = K / P &. & & & & K K ( /< > > & & > ( & ( > K &) / & & / & D2I 0 T G05B2 505 007 0 D2 ”-+? 7 0 2h-+O 27 * -Y593LY G9• KH f Y 2f c ef DB … 5 e -* 6 F k T+D5jgi.

. / & ( & &/ > & / / > ( . ( ( ( & K /. ( > / & / > & & & > < & . . & N& B > > . &.< / / & ( 2< / & . > & / & . ( & ( ( . / J & ( &< K & && & / & & &> & & / . K & > & & K . / ( / < & / > &&/ . . . & ( 9 &< / > K K . A< G > > / .7 4 . ( & . ( > > ( & ( & > < P > > &&/ K ( > P / > ( O< K . && > N & & & / . > :< > K & & &. > & > OQ / > & / > / & ( & & .) . > > . & & /( . K . > > . & . & ( > K < > > & > < & .

/ <V O > ( > > &) & ( ( 55 @ 0 % M 2 . & && & .7 7 . &. & ( > " # && & / > & K > / & / & / &.0 5&@ 2Q0 250 -+1 Z152 V'&%-750 ` M ` DA& -+ B@ g5 h -+ 5 ge ` q1 .> L M) > K /' &' & P ' K .x 70 52&M D2_0Hab ak 3A Q ` M 1 0 . K O > .k &@ C`1 b‰ )k gF C M V'N0W-7= 0. &. U > . ( / & / . < $ > O &) 0Hab 0102'2*B2K. N & > > . &%-7 & ƒ RM š e . K & < > / & R & = N> > > . & > > & > . ! ". n H` M . / N & / > > . /< & . ( 55 .ƒ0=@& & D^? O20Hab bj —X00J0 2i. @ = . / :46 . G 0 . K .

) > F 8 & > .7 6 .

.

&O / > & . &N & ( S T / / .) M &F . & ! & & > ( < B . K< & & ( > & . 05 5B00=&@ bj DB -+G0 $ $ gF 3L :e F cQ 3L1\I M &@ M k ' K 0 M 1P + & K / ` ( & . ( O J & ( & 9> & P < & & & ( & 0 . & / & . / K ! S T / > . / + ( & / > & & & / K N < / > K & . .: > &X•?0 -TD22 3I-+Q000 r&l *0 \&I& 5d 3B-+Q&F -o 2 -o.7 5 . &/ . -+A^H&@ -+H -+ C 9 GŠ 5B =‰ n B Z `1 I =0 * Q & F G @ :6 j M "> ! "# 0i. & & / < = > . bj5Bn75 gi. < >> ( & & & & & 9> . ( . & / S ' > / T .

> / & > & *9 ) & + O && ( & PPP D2_0Hab -+A^H&@ -+H Q ` M 1 0 .> L M) &F > & & > > / N ( . & . ( . . &) K < / / & & & > & N . > ( ( c V / && V U ( & V / . &/ & / & / & > = ( & > / / / > & ( > & < F / / ( & ( <V > > > > & / & / > & ( / / J O & & K ( U & &` .6? . K & > K > .& & ^ U1P > & > N! & & < ( / & ( / > N DB -+GM ' 0O< 0K / /K & K . U1P + . > > / > O & > > K . & & & ( .

" ( K < ( *9 & + O / J / & > K ( & & .&MGF Z -+H€ 0 M V'bj5B*+D= 0 -+ = &M{ 7 M 3L M &@ U * & < .0 5/. N . < & > > 0 5LKS= 2 7K .)M 2= geH_510 3B 0 M 8 5 Q &@ 6 S .? 2 + & / & / + ( / / & & K > > . 0 j U+ ( =. 0 +D+.? . > O. > S T PPPZ W + Z =0515B&:&F ab 2B) DB) s • R*` 3L 0 M 3L9 :e c 0 6 . ( & K / / ( &) & / / ( O. & & .6.? ? ) . ŒF -+ ` 6 0 • n. & <V.? . S T / O & & / > G & N1P c V. .? 2 . 22 # N7 O M 5-I X N: 5 O M .I .? ? NAO M 7 NAO M F N: ? O M . . ( & / & > & ( / N / / & K / N O N > .) & & ( .

& K > . / &< & K . . ( / & / < & ( & & & > . > / & > .> L M) &F > S & *( & ( > & . > & . K K > / > & . < . & & . ( > ( & / &N & . 9 ( > :? /( / & / > & & U & && > . / & > & > ( . > > &O< & &( &V > . & ( J &. K >> .62 . / ( 9 > & > ^ > & <N <O & / ( J & / / / / . > 9> & & . & . && > / & V@ < < > 2. > < > .? : & / > & &. ( & & ( & & . & & . & > . & N / & / O< *( &( & . . & / ( ( K K / K > & / . & U & . & & / .? : F & G / / & / J .

/ F/ . &> ( & / & > . & . & Q` / & . & > > & & ( & J & > . & 9 & & > / & & U G & <V & & > S % N> ( > / O & . & & . ^ & & & & . & *= &. ( / & &( & & = & + = K * & & > / & < & + / & ( & / ( " > & .6: . ( K > & & K & . K . / & & & ( /P & & ( K ` . > ( > + . > O & > P N / ( / / 8 B F ( . 8 & & &> . &< + .) > > & > & . & / && /& . > .& > ` & 9 . . . > & & . + > W& / .> & . ( .

N & ( & &O . / & . . $ U1P / N.0 f `.? A % + M 2 .2I 0 % M . -7e > . > / > . / > > / O -+>02-700 N)>-+• = &s 5 05L5 0 >=&@ 5&C0i.– 5 M 6 ` 3L* j -+ € 2:d *. > N .6A . > / . + O ! & ( <V.< + ( / . . / 2A7 . KK & . ( & > & / & < & ! & . -+A^H&@ \6 Re & . > & & N . /) 1 P F 9 / . # K < > . bj‡2 -o. . < + K . & 1 // S % < .> L M) &F > .? A K &` 9 & . > &< . -+? \5 bj7&@ PZ5 `120_ 00_515B) &f&@ -+A•99 F k 0. 8 # . > > / O. D k 0 M Q M gi.. ( / K & > . N / ( & & > & / > > > N # > & O & # > .F M 0t *3BQ • 0 c gF . & & > / < O . / A.

> / N & & > & & .= — 720 2 -o. 02 &C`0&' " -+*(-+SM-+A) 70 *" + x -+95 05 &N)00= bj7&@ QM L < S. # & & > & < ( & / & . > ) I & <V ( . > N > / O K . gSW g F H 3 g. N / & > > O > & N & & / ( < ' &(& / .64 . rF 8: " . & &/ / & K > / K & =. . 2< UM V ' / / # > & & < / / .k 200 2 Bn05&M200 ? …? 2 55 F B .) M k M j gi. . K & & > & > / O & ) & \p 5. =. O ( / .&M .) & > / > .9GM f \. -+. rF A| F 0 $ M k S U > && > & / K & . & / > > > & & & # & > ( . > N . > > 9 R " ' F 0 ! Q 9 {3 8‰ Q * 8"t$ /-70 gi. ( & &) &(& & / & *9 & + O & &/ > / 9 &. 8"t$A"3.

0 0= rF d90= &X5 &' k 0 \.? 7 . & > / .= 5 X 0 15H j Ak ` Q . & . k \M P†D=)-9 :K M U ^ O # K K & & / &> N = . ( & O .? 7 0 K % M Y Y M . < F 7 „52M -+Q &@ B&l &a+> -+QD0rnM 00_c50 51 0 -o. & > & > N / ..? 4 . > / / / / N /# > .5 f V • GM 0 V 0GF Y . . ( = > / > & O.> L M) &F > U .? 4 > Q & && & = / N / & &) & 9> / & / ( > < + . / K # > > K< O. 7 0 d. h 1 M f Dh ij 05/. O<V. &< & / O ( & & N & / / & B + F/ . / 2A7 : A. O<V. rF 00W/. K K &^ / & K 9 > & N # ! & = ( &> P ( / > K .67 . ij f ƒ.

( < >> > & & ( . & & / K ( / & & . . > N / > > K / ( / ( > N $ &% O .) F/ && & &> &8 & ( ( < &. & # O . & > &( & & / & & / & X %&< && /( ' & K K & ( N > / > / & > < + . && > / S T O & . > > J ( %# <.? 6 ( / .? 6 0 % M 2 . . > > K &" P & & . & G %& . > && & &X . > > >> . K & . . & / < = . & &> > & < > . / / N 5I & K M 2 ' / / & K $O . & . > > ( .66 . = ( . / Y %< 0 > / & / > J / .

" & . > N > ( && & K ( / 3 > 9 >> . / = ( >> 9 : K / < . & > & . > .6- . & . /( #. > & & < . > / ( >> > & & & . & + / > ( > / > O . &/ & > < > & < & / 3 > & & & 9 & & . & N < / & & & && ( > ( / > .> L M) &F > J ( / > / O 3 N / / ( . > & > & &. > N / > & > / O/ ( > ( & &. O % & / < > / O / .? K & . ( & < + & . < & ` . > / . & / ( . . > . & / / > / &% > . & N . > .? - . > N / > & > / O > & K > > / & .

& & & > > . . > / . 9 > > & > / O & # % &8 \ N> > / & . & &< + . > & . > P N & & O< . & . /( > . . . . ( > & . / & N & . ( & & & . . & & / > / & & && O & . > . / / N / > & > &/ & N . & > > & > < F ( > > . O< ( . . / O< *( & & . . > > > & . K / > > &% && ( ( > & & &. > < / & .65 . / / . & . &% / > & &< & & & . ( & N. . & > & & ( & > >. & > & & / > / / O ( . / & > > / > > & & &. & . &% < 1 & & < > . / 9 > . > .) . & > && > > .

% U+ .> L M) &F > . & & ( < . . /( .. > N > & > / O U > && ( > K / Q & ( > & ( / / < ( . . > / . > . = &&& ( / &/ & > K > > . > . > > " % > & . > / > & > / O. > . / 9 > . ( & & . & > < N > > && / & & & . /( > < 8 . > . . &/ / & & . > && / > > & . ( & O&& < > R N . & .? . & . K & . & < . . . / & / > & > & & R 3 . > > / /< > & . > Y$ & R & > & . & . & 9 . < . O. / / > QV . ( & & / . . > & / K & & & ( & > / > / & / K . > & N / / & . . &<V & Y$ & " & . & . & .

& / K &. & &> & / N . . O & & . & > / > & & . # & < & . & < ' / > > > & . . & & 3 & & @ > > &( K < .) . & O & / > / & . <V N / . > & & .. & B =. > N > / O > & U1P / > > . K & / & ( . /( +/ & & / N / > & ( > & ( & 9 ( & < ( S % ^ / . S % # = < *( & . & > / O > / J / . > P . & ( & / . & & & / & < ' & / ( & / > / < 8 > & & P / ` & 9 & / & / & ( / > / & & / O.. / & ( . & > > . & . > O . / . & / & / / " N & ( / . . . > > G N ( ( & . ! & & ! & .

. > Q > K `V ` & & & U1P X . ' %' / ( &" 3 / > / O X & & / / & > X & . & . ( & 3 >> [ & & < & / <V > & / & . & &< / ^ OQV 3 > ( . > . & & . > < . U / ( .. > K . > > N K / > &> &` ` > ( & / ( / > ( K / N . & & & & V % / & X % ^. > / B > / & / > X > / & & & ( & . > & G %& . > > . & K . > N & G %&< / > & < + K &> & & &/ & > .2 . /( > < K " % & 3 . . & .. . / & > . > " > X & . > R # O . > & ( .> L M) &F > = &/ .

> / B . . $ <V B O . & . > " . T & / . & & K &< & & > X & &. % `V X X & > & U3 ` ( ( & & U N O = & > > Y < " . K & & " > % <V / & U QV & & %` 3 > / & & > & / > > & / <V & > > / > O K & / . / " U % . > . / & & ( X & . & UB & & & & & > . > & ( & ` &N / K S . > . > & & /Q & > N / U && & &QV . & &. > & / & B &Q ^ & / .: . & / .. <V > .) " % & & U . & . & > > 3 & & & N & < & & & > / O & > K ` & .

> N / & U1P / & ` " % & & & . ( && . > / O & & & & B & / & . &. & > . > & & & ( / & > > > / & > " & & = & && . & / > /` & > = 3 . K > < " % . K <V . & / > / & O / " < = N O .A . > > > Y . = & / & & & U" %` . . > <V & . > > .> L M) &F > B " % . & / &. ( /. . / & < 1 > . > > & U" ( / % N % / . . ( . .. & & / <V > & = ( & & . . X & > ` / & > & > K . < > & / / >> . /( ( . > " & @ > & & X % K & U < < 3 &. X > / % &. & .

K & / > > & & . & & & / .) & / / . ( . & ( . / . & . . & & > . /( " % & & . > . . K & & <V > & &. ( & &^. & & & . & . > & " % .> / . & .. . X . & & / < + & / > & > . > < & / & % & 9> . / R > / < + & 8 . K & & < " % > & U ` & ( . > / 9 & . . <V & . / . /( & / . / & . & > & S T & & . " & >> & / . & & / . O . & > & / N / > & > / O & . . /( & /( & & & & ^ . K & . > & U / X & O & . > &< / . / & / < . N.4 . & 4?? & < > > . & < / & ( <V & " % & K & > & & < N& .< + < G K & & < K . && / . / & > . .

/ > . ` / . < / > . / & UB / S K &<V / > & I . . &< U & & & > / QV < 8 . & && . .7 .<V / > . & & & > & & B& / > . &< X & > & > N U1P > K >> > ` & & . / & . . & & . & B / & > & ( & / . = & . / .> L M) &F > R & . & / / T & . ( & . ( . R . & / / ` 3 / . < & & & & . & &. > & X & & U QV & U ` ' ( / & / & / ( & / ( / . & & P & > . & & . & . >> & & & . & . / & & &B P & & .. . > / O & & ) & & & / " % ( &.

( & . /( K K / > & / K > && . & ` + 9> & ( > & U1P < / && ` 8 / . ( & & . < > & . & && 9> . / & . > X & R . && / " / T & < . & & & / & / .6 . / K &&& . / 9 & K & & < & / > & / / & 8 & U . . / . < & . & > & K . ( `V .) . > & & . > N & " % & . > / > < / K & UB > & U1 / > ( & ^ . ( &` & > . <V & > / K / O Q ( QV " % R > & U+ . / . . ( ( /( > ( & ( /( .. QV " % & ( . . & / ( QV . > & U /< 1 & . <V X & % & > S .

& " % < / & / & < N X &X ./ & . .& > & &< / / /( & . ( % . / ( > / . > > . ( & . & < > &. & . > & &. . & N && & . ( K / / / ( . <V / &< 9 ( & < / > & & K . & . > > / < " . & & . & . > & & O / " % > / O " % . &> & / > ( ( / K K K / < & & / K . & & & & . &> & S K & & K + &/ & / T F K & / &I > . & > & & & ( & & ( & + . / . & K & > & ^ < .- . >> > & / & & & & .. & >> & & > & & & .> L M) &F > > /( & < / . < / > X & .

> > . & < ( N *9 Q & & > . =. ^ / > ( < & &> > > . ( B K . > / > . < > > . & > / > > .& . ( . > N / > & > / O & > & / > > . & . && . ( & > > ( . & ( . ( & & > / . & . O & K . / & &< + . > / & K / & >> & . . K & &. > / & & & & & / > N K / K . . . & . > > & / &(& & / / < ( / .) ' > / & > > & & & ( &< 3 .5 . K K & > &. & &. B . & & K > & < + . ` > & & = > & & & & > / O . ( K . K > > & > & > P . & / .. & < " % .

K > / . &(& < K + . & & > & > / > < > & & & & . & & N > & &.> L M) &F > & / 3 ` ( O. J & / ( < > & >> / ( < . / J . & / && . O & & & ( + O & . . & + O & & & >> N > & & / > > & > ( & *9 . > & > > / & & > / < > N > =. ( & . / < > & *9 / & .5 ? . N .

) > W . 9 P S T . .5 . P & We M .

.

F M C B ! "+2 4 5. 0 5 5 M ` M Q e 3M XC Q . . bjT5 4 06 gF -|0 M .A M . D2.m2 =j 5B9 F V' B-+. & I .? 5 N N1P P3 O . < &MC 65H .? 5 9> & ( & & & 9 & . >> / ( O. & / ( / > K .> S T X2c0 -o&M -+Q &F &@ DBC 5L7 D2q2 5b =B -o_ 2 +\5/. ( ` K > & / . & / " . & & > > > N" . .5&@ 51 3B50 7 2&Mh00 0i. & / = ( U >> . h DB 0 15 1 0 k -7 3L -+ k `d LKH f gD2 gF G e 0 3L DB 5BM. .Š B # `P > / O &N + . & 8 /( / N & > .nHv.) M W P & We P . 0i. > ( ( V & & / > . ( < & / / > A & ) -525&a5-&'}20= 22 3> W cGM 3> . ( / & & <P 9 > > . $ 1P & $ / ( & + > / &O & W > ( & ( < & / O > & / & & &< $ & /.5 : .

. / ( & . & W O O O< & W / & >> & / P & & & . & & N OO & N/ & O . / / ( & ( >> K< . . $ &N O. . >> S T ) / && & ` )* e f 3 5 `1 01 `0L0 70 0&F @& 50 &%)&@ & DB&@ =&@ 2 51B Vd =C DB h I \ @ * XB j ` ƒ. & e / . & / PI & / @ ( & $ &N O & P .? . /( .I\52= .? N1P $ &O) f . & & . S > T .5 A . & / & K & / . O< ( & & < . S T ' We & P >> >> 9 / ( & W W0 / 9 K P N> P N& S ( T . # N7 O M . . M . &W PN O & We PN O & W8 = P N.. U . K & W .> L M ) &e . . U = <V. K & . ( N .A c V . & B( N> K N> O P< .M 0n.

: . S K XA 5 * "E 3LAM ) V j W H * XC j &@ j U N .2 . & . ŒO h 0 00 5j &X.Q & -7 5L7 -®+\5 070 -®D202.* )&M r0D2-+. UN. N .. O % .) =B . / & -¯F ^1 -T. & 1 ( & &N O) OQV. %O .* p *f H AH 3 9 I S W 0 j ` ƒ. & + > #% & . . " . & & & $ = N & N O O<V.k-+. .M ` I 0n. & O & O<V..5j 0. 5B27&' • n 5 . > N . 51 g `O * cW -AnM S &M 0 j U % N O & ..I\52= 01& -7 -+10 . . / & 1 O + N $ &O &) O) & /( . 5 R 0 I ` M .: & & D2F ^1 32&@ =0&'*"+ + P.5 4 .? - ! ' = N: O M N2O M N2.2 I .A N1P $ O &O) W .>+\5 0 •9 0n70 0 0n7 220 h 0 3 9 { -+ _ g M { A M c?* j j j 5 G & D2F 2 2 25 0 T + T 7 ... 0 h "E 3LAM ( U N .O M . 5B27 -+.M ƒ9 . ..A N22O M :A 76 . 5 g&' t . N O N & / & N...: : . > .. > N1P ( <V..>+\5 & -7 -+1 .) 0 K ? 2= \d0 D2F &@ 2&F *"+ + P.

.. & + O & / .. M .M ` &@ 0 . h Q < Q Mf g M f 9 1 0 0 j U ( O<V.6 & &.7 : 5? . & N P% ( ( N > > & > / . M k U@ = O B% N > > <V.7 ' > / & / & 9 & > + . & / & . S T • .7 . gi. / < / & / & / K & .6 # 3 ! N7 O M N..4 .•+\5jD2 g95 0_ ab ij0n7 7 5 . & & *9 & &&( / / 1 & > / & + ( ( & & S T ) & ( .F 2= B)&@ -+* 0 2 51B0 M790 2&M0 H\0 7 0 5.. . & .F 2= 01 -+*0 &X. 05 0HdM bj 8h F cQ ` c . > & .? O M N: O M .4 & .5 .5 7 .. ( N & & • S. U+ & > O<V.> L M ) &e . ( 275v.M % &@ \ @ { a g { Š f S .

M 5 G -no9 c0n5. K > >.&” KH `1 25 X025&F TH 75v. DnB:&' Dbe=( gi. &. . N .5 &< M &< M -4 7A . & / F $ ( N> ( . > . 2 5d T-+9&@ T G0 * 2A Š M M0 &' F &~ DB 0 D M `1 -9 5 -Y59 & D2F 2 . 51 S UPc . S ( ( T . / < > & S T ) && & . &. > / N & & + . N && > N1P $ &O W' .5 / *9 & & & . O<PV. ( & . > B% > & ( & <V. 0 % . + > > > ( & . ( & % & ( . <P /O ..) gQ ?H ` &'-Q 8h \.. + O / & & % & . K & & / 0 # > O> & . ij020i&@PPP n2 G9 K f |Š $ ƒ*f gF f c?*f H 0 5 ..5 6 . & -+Q Y 50&ant) 70 -T0 g90\5270 0i.. . 05 y0050 0 1& = : ? 5 U & . & . ...

& . & *9 & & / + O . & & / N ( O .2- . . & & *9 &) & + O K & & 0 &MT0F 2 T)B-+Q K )B 510 0 &M•0F 2 -+Q05. S T N . > . / > .> L M ) &e . U 8 & ( & . ( & N > ( & + O & < & N % O.M 3I . & 3 <V. S T & . ' = N2 O M N2 2 O M 6- . N & & & *9 1 ( > > / & & > &N / / . .2.0 -+Q0 { N. S. & &.2. 51 =‰ ) S S F G 9 U1P G &` O & K N N K O O . K & & *9 & + O< <V.5 - . > ( 3 N N S T > & ) & O & & *9 & & + O > > % N> >> & / X? ` . 51 N1@ n nHd ` { . & .h D> B5 51•0F 2= 2B-o0 02 &C 5 .2? . M .2? .

0 K U' N0 . 2 : N0 O . 2 2 .H 525 0= Z|50\=B= 52 . > T & 0 / / & ( S ( ( T . / & ( & & / + ( / O / > > & K & .\RLM c?H`1 S . & <V.76 . & . & > & > & We S .22 .55 .nH 90=B= %)0050 0 ? . && & Xn. °M 12 & 1 +5 3AQ \C a 0DH RLF 3> @ M U1 .2: ' = ! N2 O M N: O M .) & G & > >< > > N & < & / . < / .?. . N& &e O< e /< / > / > ) N P O > ( & . / & & / & ( / 0 >> N & / e O & >> & & < . Dh X] c:' + v. Ne & O<V.)M +0 b0 5&& . O ( & / & Ne O .

^. & & *9 & *9 & & & + OI . M . > > <V.H0 • 5M9&D2q20H M 8 7 … 0. 2 7 Ne O 22-n5_ `H Mn& 0 -L= 0 5 & -n=5 0 M7&0 3> Q . rF 0=B= D^ 0 . :2 . 0 gi.= Q H` ab & ) M &D2. 0 ab ' + M { . 50. . S T .5 . R ( <V.v k .27 . + O+ / & . 0 5 +H 0 \RLM ? K Oh U ( & N0 O ( Ne O<V. M + M* { aI + 0 e K .15 & @ U & > > & > . 2 6 ' .A 2 A6 T & *9 ( & & + O & / ! ' = # 2?? .> L M ) &e . K N ( & / & / &< / / ( S N > N & & T & & / & e N . 2 4 s p .24 . j .26 $ ( ( > K ( &O< & . 2 A \6¨.. U S & T O / ( N O N1 P K .2A . n j Q 0& J@ g9&D2q20 -L= Q H +M 15 K . F 9 Q H M = M 15 U ( Ne O & G B <V.BD2q2 D. N5 O M N: O M N2 O M K N2 5 O M S & 2: .

N & & &*9 & ( && & & S e ( + O . T > &> > & / & ( ( T & ( & . / 2?. & < + . > N O / & B / ( ( & + " &/ >> & . > N > / O & & &*9 & + O > & > / > & N e O <V / N e O & > & N & & O . . & > > & ( / . . & > > . > & N / & / > / > > ' S % > X K & > & e O< N N / U3 ( & / . > & & & . > + ( 0 & & K .) . & > / / . > & &< & / > > . . . & . . ( P && > & . & & > / O K > & K . ( & / 9 &< >> < . & O & P & > $ & . . N > .

k SH` ab { *O Hf + . $ U &`O B & N0 ( V. ( 8 e . > >> & > . & & > . S T & > & . &e >> > / & N( > & & . ( &e & K > & .20H M 0 55 07 Q . & > S ) T < + . ( — UB ( ( . > & O . Q ( O . Ne O<V.2- & N4 O M A. ( &N & ( > ( > > & & & < . M . . 2 - > > ON / O ( / .. > / K > > > & < ( . > K ( -0_ DB7 0H M 01 \=B= V' &D2 . ( . o MC ` ab ` RLM 1 .> L M ) &e . 2 J 3A9 B` qH3M 3 D' 522F 51525&0 5A>+=9 DB C ~ & UN1 P . Ne OV & e e . > & & > / > & / > > e & & ( < < > & . 2?2 .

> > . & $ &% &> ( & W P / . . ( & > . & . < > & & / / < > & ( . & & > . < . & ( O . ( & We P . O K & / .) / > > ( S . & . & . > . & . ( . > . & N 2?: .< e / >> > . > & > > > & > & < & & . > N. & & N % & O . ( N & & T . ( > < & . . . / ' X K / N . & ( & / ( / e ( & & & > > . / e / > . & . & K & < e < & . > . e . > N / & & O e N O< / & ( > / ( >> . & / && > > &e & > & > / &*9 & + O &. & .

" # &) $ & X0. T N & / / O. + [ @ I 15 S O 0 U N . & < + .f Q 1 f . &e / 2< && > > $ $ R & = N> & & > & > N& N & *9 & > & . & > I & & ( & & . 2 5 & O & / P > F [ N> / . e < + O e < B & > / . 51 cO M. # % J & / O / <V. . /) O & 2'7 7 0 &D2q2 7 &D2F 2 22 = 2 .5 & \.> L M ) &e . & 7. M . / > .0k794 += 275v. > O M > .. ( 2A7 ( O<V. > . :? N0 ' $ 2?A . 0 ($$ 0 4 += B.25 > & T . O / $ &% < O & / ( / / & K & & e & / P / & # % ' = O . S T & > & / & > .nH @ Z 8 \C 8h U& \C + v& j j . Ue N N .

:? . & / & ( & . 2\50H7 J J 50 7 2 q1 > " S . :. " o " S f W S P2152 0D2 0 rn *0H0`5 ` q1 > J W 5 . > &< . N > & > & + O > & ) &*9 & & > < + O > & & > &* 9 .) + . ( > > & N / / & & / & > ' / % . ( &O & . / 2?4 .$ %& N1 + O . U & > N / & :< & / O / & *9 . > N ' & / . K K . $ &% & V*oM. > / < J > / = & . / / & e . rn *Hf 0 `152 0D2 0 2\50H0`5 2 .M. %# N > T / O< . & & & + O 0 && / & / > / & & & . :. >> e N / > & 272 26? &N ' & & >> &* 9 & < O ( <V. / &< .

& &( & & / ) . K %# < > &. M 2 . . M . :A &e = &. / &. / ' $ . & %& > . :: /< > # T & 0 & $ &% > .. ( . 7n + ] I .> LM ) &e . / %& N = & S / %N & / .&. > & " # ) > / $ O & & 5 \50H3&0 . :2 ( & > / / G / F / B > &e %# O > > & > %K . 9> & %N . 7+ B&G01 B. / 2?7 .0 T 52 &. :: .4 0 % M . f + 7 . :2 . 7.\5/. O / ( & > < + .9)& =( 7+ 0š01 \5/. :A @ .F I Ue N & ' %O N O / J / & ' %O & N & J ( / & &<V.n H @ G 5M + \C & a> 1 a> N' + v& A & ' @ \5 . / O) / .S1 7 1 a > T. S T N / R & = N> / P / > / O. . / 2A 2 2 4 :? .

. & / / . 9 / . & & = + O N ( .) . -50‰0 . / ( . & & & &e ( & Q > N 9 O ( / ..F 2= 0`1Z 5 S 5. ( N / O 2?6 . . ) / . +' + +' 15. & & *9 . ( . &.M. & > ( . &( ( & ( Q & > ( / > & & . . A' 7 ` + 6~ ” &A * . < .. & / ^ & Q .& 0• Qq2= 0`1 . . c + I Q & ‰ ' 0• . & & & / < .) B > > . & > / N & & . & ^.M. & Q ' . & 9 N > . . 09 U ( < ' / && & . < . & e & ( & & &*9 & + O< & . & & > S /) O T 0\5 . > / / . . . = 2) / / / T & .501 -50\5& . = & & .

. > & > & & > ( & & ( & > . . e O & > ( P > & & .> LM ) &e . > I. & > < & . > / . ) / > >> / < . & / < ' &N & O<V. & N\ O & . . ( ( . S T . :4 B N4 . O M :4 d :7 2?- . / :< > N / > Q . . & P e . M . & / > = & & Ne O< O . & = . . & . . / ( & & e e . & > Ne & e & & > / J < & < > & & . :4 / > . ( . ( . + . / . . ( .

g92&5 2275v& \RM. ( = . & N & e N O<V.&0 F f Mjf MDB K o X -B @ \ @ 0W Q C @ 3AM D1@ 3>‘ + VF \ c:' 52B+5&0 522. & 25&= g ™0O 0K 20 B0*+/. > $ &% > . ( . && > " # > ( & & $ . &OI / ( &I & N 9 O & > / O . 0 .)& 0 20W 5&& 1 0k . / & & ( . & >> & K N / < / > & . rF 2 +b. < O &) . / 2-4 2?5 . &e7 =&2 51B > C ' M + M. &N N O N> .n H .) + . + v 0k Dl M U1 > &. 9X 5H NS 1 2 c `:O H 8h @ P . R & = N> >> > / & / / > & & ^ / > & > / O & ^ e < . :7 $ . . ij0g7 7 DB:0Hrn ) 0 -M. :7 K & > O &) % T % # % %_ .DB7 7( gi. g9† )0qe0 2)M.

> / > > . :6 ' $ .> LM ) &e . / 272 2. :6 . > & &> . S T U 9 > ( & & &. M .? . M 7.. <V.

..) > F 1 ( 1& P 1 ( 2.

.

4 F 1 P 1 ( c0>. ( > S / . .) M 1& . T . > . & & 2.M.0 D2+0H 5M& )B g h0 0 gi 9 D2_ 0`H M. > & > > P & & > < + . < / & > > > & & & ( > & & > & . & & ( / & & & N . X. / / & & > <N <O > S T & . & // > .M. & ( . . > . +* ‰ -5 \ M. :- ' K & ^ 9> . & & T > > S . ( .: . I . / . J & / S T .0h V'5ASB*0 5AM +5& C o 3> 7@ F ? 3 R& 3 D1~ p M M @ 9 & &+ & ( < S > . j &DB .) 2 + 9e 3 3’ MD2 F Q ab Q . . & . :. &D2q2= . / N ( < $ ( &O & O . & & . ( & & / <. . & > K > .01 15 . 22 0{ |5Bgi. P & / & / & .

> LM ) 1& F 1 P 1 ( ( > > .h UNF O . & & S & . & & ( > & & & / ( > & + O< ) ' % . . . < & / / > . N & .< + & 2< :< + O< & ( / N & > . .H . X250H. K > &. ( . > ) & > + O / & O < & .& / & K > . / & &* 9 &OQ . > & & 9> 9> ) & ' 3L DB 5B9F V'B.&0 -5& & C . . & . & & > ( & & > S T > && . ( / % & & ( . 2. N & & & . Q5 .v B +5 6c oM + F @ . N & &*9 T / & N > Q / & N O <V > > . < & . ( & / . / &*9 & < .A 9> & .

N > & O / > > & / O< & / & K / / . / ( K 2. K < . > ( > / & & > < ( & / & > /< > / . ( & > 9 &.4 . ( P / < & > 8 . > > // / / K . > & / . & ( ( > & / > . / > ( .) 1 . ( . . & . / & > & / / . ( . & 9> & / K > . . ( . . /< / < & & / > > . 9 & 9> > ( . ( . K ( > < > ( ( ( & . & & &> / N / . > > ( & 9 > > . & & / & ( & ( . . ` / & ( & & . / > & . . & > ( 9 / ( & > ( / . &> & .

< N > / & / > > . F X %# & K & & .7 . / < / / . > & ( / ( . . / %# . > & ( &. < // / / O #& > & > . & & & ( . . ( > . . & &O > & & 2. / . & / .> LM ) 1& F 1 P 1 ( / ( / > . < / / . > > / & & O & N / . @ $ & & N / ( / K & & K ) . / ( & / . / #& / . / < / N > O & . ( . & ( / & > > & > . > O . > / & . > & & & / / . > . ( &. > ( &< . / > / K & / & & / > & & / > . / > & &. &. / / & & > > #& F > B . & ( . / / > & & ( & & / & &/ / > & & & > & / / K & & . & &( & . N & / .

> ( 9 . > & / ( . & . ( / > . > / ( . & . K & & & K > / & ( . > ( / / 1P . @ $ &< . / A56I' $ . ( & . M 2? . > / / 9 > > ( < . ( < ( ( & @ &. ( & & / / . / & > ( / K ( <V + ( . . / & K & @ $ & . & / & < 1 &% & . / / / ( ( > / . U & . / . G ( * > > & 1 ( & & & K & . . &. > & <V.2. < & . . 2. :5 ( / > & . & . ( > . &> > < .) U #& & . :5 % + M 2 .6 .

. > ( & ( & / `V K & & & & & U P < <V. . . . K & > . / / & > . / 274 2. ( & > & > / / ( . A ? & > & > > & > & & . N / . P .A? / J% M . / ^ . ( > / > & / & K & & > / . + > N / . . . O U & & .> LM ) 1& F 1 P 1 ( &% &. & & . > / & N . / / . & & &. & K > &% & . > > .( > & / / O. > /< ( O< / . .$ %& / / & & K / QV & . > K > & Q` Q + . > & U & ( . & & > .- . / / & & & < .

& . = 8 & . > & . > S > > >> & % & & . / / & . && . & ( ( / O > . 9 > ' . . $ < + .) 8 1 > . K & = . >> & ' & < J &N & . ( $ . N / & . ( & & > ) & & > > . . = > > / O< & > > & & >> & . & O ( > > . &. = . / . / &N > / U :? ? > > & & & > & 9 & & ( / & & & 2. O< ' & & & . & & & / & >> < / & = > ( & ( & > < 8 . / . / *= > ( / .5 . & & + . = < F / ( N / . / > > > & . / . . > ( . ( >> & . . > & < ' . . ( . / / & K / / . &= K .

A . % + M NA 5 O M . . . / ( > > > S T . &< & / > & 9> . . &< K & / >> O . / / . .> LM ) 1& F 1 P 1 ( & & &) U . & . ( & ( & . &< ( & `V / 9 K ( . / 24.A.5 . 4 aM 722I' $ @ & B . > > > ( S < % = & . . & ( K . > / . J ( / & K ( > & .A2 22? . S > > . K & . & & & . ( K K ( ( ( + . / . M b . . . & ( / > & . & & / <V. A 2 8 & / . & N & & . > / > &% > K = ( <V. & T > / > ) U > / .

& & < ( < > > > & / / < . ( & ( &. &< . & > . > ( 22. K & > > / & ( & / & / & ( & ( > & . & & K K / ( 9> / & J / . . / / . ( . / & > / ( ( > & ( . ( .) + . ( J & 9 & & > > ( ( . / > // < > > & N ( ( & & O .

.

&/ * / 22: .) > 0 .

.

2&0H2i. &> > & ) . > & & & $ O.7 . / D. 224 . 9 N & J < > & & & & ( . /< > + O ( > / K ( .0 # V XL g $ F i 1P . &/ & > ( / <V ( ( . &/ N . V'7 0 f U ( . & + O 5/. &/ > > & ( > D. V'. &/ 9> &) N & S T / < > ( & & ( &*9 > K .) ++SM.S s % 7l Q JG f ++)M. > & K *9 S T < 1 & & !" Z 0Š EB9 # 5 XL PPP $V Uc > & / *9 & S T + O > >> & / K . & . V'Z & B-= g5 2 250H7 ) :120k . .) M 0 . &/ 5/.Fe XC G M 0G& @ !" Z50Š EB92M.0 5BQc90gi. > * I &O) WB K & . &D2E2 =B 1 5 M + 3F gF 3L H F . V'-0 1 + N B % N + ( .

V'. A : .M.A4 N:A O M ! # N:O M N7O M : 4 45 227 .B V'Z) 7 0 .2&0HijZ& 0 51 B B50e. K . &/ .)M. 0 d0?. +F N? f +. ( K / @ O 9 > < & / & / ( & . & 9 > ' K <V. V'. &/ + ( * && + <V. / & & ) N N &+ N + & > ( ( O OK & 0 @ .2&0H0 0D2 ij. + N O< & 9 > / * N O 9> > & + O ( % > N . &/ Q . 9 F .S f + U * 5/.F f NC ` „ :S + O = . bj <R . 1 K H U &.B ˜ 0W A5 G 0 1 M • 2 + f • -f • – f Z ? Z -I V'ijZ 9+7 0 Z =0 7 0 5/. & t 7 F M / && + ( <V.0cQ M + 5 G A5 G 0… R k . + K . &/ && & K .> LM ) 0 . A 4 N( N S T & O & 9> *9 % # % > + O ( T %_ ( K + N> . A A .2&0H7 • 5= 2e701 2 5 0 \= 1 3F > f +.0 \5 0?. & O & & &*9 . $ g50k rn R50Hf 0gi.F f .AA . V'7 0 .A: . ± .

. +M V + G DFM R &. WDM • 3F . > ( . H\ . & .+M 7 G. . & P . ( > I .?. / / & ' / 0 .5: 226 . & *9 > & & + O) O) & / .. ( 0 ( ( . / ( & 9> . . & > . &/ N & 8 .= R +M + . & <V. 6 DF M 0t . K > > / . &/ & + O / / . = 0 7K . 0k 2&0H ?. & .A7 ( & & . &/ &< . P -[-= -dM9 . .0 +& = –7 0 \ +M + = …. G 5 03B80e +1-= .< > K . & & / VQ` 1 K .) V' -G= )[-01 0 +&= V' D22= 0². &/ > ( K . O M KO M 8 5 + . V' -. < . K / U > > & Q` & > ( I & . U+ N ( . OK . > . N ( & * & / 0 & / & > & & *9 .A7 & & / .

/ & S K & . / > . > / / & & & / J & / . &/ & / J K ^ J & . . & ( & > K .> LM ) 0 . / & & > O< . ( & & / ( / & . / < > > &> . < & & 0 . / N & ( . K / & & > . / / > K & / . / / /< 9 ( K & . ( ( & N . & 0 K . > 8 & . &/ T S T 9> & K & . &^ & & / && & @ ( & & / O K / / > + & < ( I ( > /I ( I > ( / > I ( / J > > . & & 0 + > . &/ . &/ . ( ( & &) 22- . . / ( . K ( . &/ G & 9 ( > / 9 / .

< h .`1% Š\h e \]. & QOV.A 225 .A6 . &N ( ( F [ J & &.7 . > N / & K & & ( .A- K N76O M S N4? O M . . / & & *9 ( ) & S T + O & / + . / O & < h J. > ( <V. &+ .5 . C . -=& 5&& 2O 20 R h e + 3F 1 5 S* +F c:M G + v Q 06 0 : cH 0DM X5 51g5j2 0\= = ?` . / . ( . K .AK . M 06 G 5 U K .\1 ³M •Q I ¡ 9 / . 0D2 0 0Œ& 501 2&0H 7& .2&0*0 &. F. &N O .N + `5 0*0 gS=0*g92 D50D2. / K > K .A6 ( N . ( O &< N + N> O< > ( &) O .) \ n? M • mb > F ` 3F f@ 2nn. < h Ž” 3• 9 < h . 0t = 2 . ( N O .g9 cH • HW ” ( . 0W M @ & & U@ = . &/ # % & / < h .

&/ <V. & *9 .A5 . & *9 & 2< N / < & > + O ( &+ / N / &< & 9 . & U . ( & .> LM ) 0 . & . > > & .0`&5 F g0 D0 gQ V XI G9 1Z 0. & *9 M / & A .4? ' $ > & / . . &/ . / + O & > < / 4& > . & / / <.= 2G]51 25 50Š bB 0š0] 0 0 gK =O90Œ& . K / > > N > OK < + . > ( & .4? ( > .L F + :e 06 1 & @ & / + > > & K .A5 &. & > & ( / & / + & ( 0 . &/ Pg. &/ &. & & / . &/ / & / & & / . & . &/ N & & & ( K . N 2:? . &/ > > ( & *9 & ( N > + O &+ / & ( & N O > + O) O) & & & *9 > & + O 1 K . & &+ . & & > K . &/ .

/ / & / / / & > > ( K ) / . K &> . > *( > 9 . & . .) . & / . ( &. & / & . & . & & & < 9 & . N > < 9 > & / N / OI & . ( N / . K / O /< & > > > K . & / N > > > < & O< + . & ( & ( K . & K & . & . . & > / / / ( ( & ( . . & . > N & & > 2:. / > & /< . O . ( > &/ > & & . . K > > . &/ / > / & . & >> / . & > . > > . > & / = & / > & & > / & ( . &/ K . O< & & . / 9 *9 > /< & > > > . & . + .) ) & > ( & > > & .

( & / & *9 & ( 2:2 / & > K & > . < . ( & ( . & & > < .> LM ) 0 . & . && ( < 8 . K . ( . < . ( . . . ( > > > > 2) / . &/ . K > > . &/ / + . ( < > / & ( N & ( ( > & . / . / & ^ . & . & > :) &< *9 >> /< / / / > > ( / . ( + O. & / / . / . K . / & & / . .< + . ( & ( & . / & . & / & . / . > & .. & K . &/ < . & . & ( *9 . > > > + . & . / . < . ( & ( . . & && & & > > . . & . < / / . &/ . / K / . ( / . . . ( ( / > . > & ( ( & . & . > & & > . ( . . .

/) > & & . &K .V S T . &+ > + ( . G1F B W3 2 & . . & : > &&& && & <PV . / > > > < + < + K . / & . &/ & N > & . > 0 . > * & & *9 & + O . & < + & . ( . + < / ( + & & ( / / O< & & + & ( ( / . . & UB & & QPV / . < > & 4 . & & . / / & & ( <V 2:: .) / & N . & . &/ &< . & . / K 0 . & K . &/ > >> & > K . . K & V U W3 / & & A U3 U8 & > & . . K & &< > K . .

G1F B & ` 3 . & & . . / G1F B & & & < 5' / & / . & < < J & & ( & / QV & U K &I & &<V & & & . & & & . . . . &/ 7 &> K .4 K & . / & K &I ( & < - . > K . & / . & > <V . > > & U' ( & . / & & & & & . K / G1F B & & . . U ( & ( & ( <V & .A QV G1F B . / & 6 . 2:A . & U & . > ( & & & / . & / ( .. < > / <V & & & & & U & ( .> LM ) 0 . & & .? + .2 & U .: & . & . & & . & U K &Q + ( QV / ( . & G1F B . / & / U . & . I .

< / > . > ( & & & W3 I / . / ( & & . & + !& ( .4. & & > > & &< . . <V. . & & / K & 22 . & / & / & . & < & G1F B & & U . & & & K & & ( ( <V 2: G1F B & & & *& . . K / & . ( 2.. / & . . U!& I K . & & &.6 . & !& & + . > & U . & & <V < . 2:4 .) . . & & & .4. &/ & . & .. & & K . / / & & ( < + . < :a N < 8 M O b 9 1& &( & . & & PU & / & U' .7 & .- & ' & > K I & 2? & & K . M . *( G1F B & K & / & & &. . . K < 2A & ( > & & *& & / . /I. & / QV . K . & /< . & . .5 & < 3 <V . / .

. & & ) * . . > / ( & & c V N & & & / + & ( N ( 9> 2:7 & & > ( K & .Fe 1 5 M G F 0G& @ PPP 5/. !& ( > / ( < . ( .h I F 0k U ( *9 / ( & + O & 1 &+ N O S / T . B % N K . &/ & ( & & .2F0H 2i. I & ( V' -0 1 + UB . # . + 3& gF 3L Hc9 i.0 5BQ 0gM &D2E2 D. ( & > K . &/ + K & / & & .> LM ) 0 . 0 0 _03b 0 AB +F .b €+5/. O.S . &/ K . &/ > !& / & & /I & . & + . & S T & &. . ++)M V' . + ( & & ) . & > / S T + ( + > / & !& I ` 1 & & . > & . &/ + K . > * > > > & c V >> S T PPP.

) *9 > & + O ( & ( # < / & && & >> & 2:6 .

.

) > ' / 2:5 .

.

( / . > / N O & ( . &/ > N > > & > / / > / > N . ( S T & & > / O & *9 & + O< / 2A. Q 0k 2 . / S / & / > / 1P / & < > $ & O< / < N O . F + = 3I c @3L5 F & N ' & / N / ( ( > > <P ( > / ( / N . .nH(M5B +0> =&5B. & & . / & ( & & / / < / < > & & ( / . .) M . 2F ^2H0 gi. / *( . X09 3B0185j V& D^ 0e i =B D2& & =& 0{ 50k &D^ 0H M L 7h )F Q f XC .6 ' / `. N1P N / $ & / & O & / T / & < / / ( & .52 5 =j .0k [ nB + 3K Q I . & & > *( K & . > & & . .F @ @ . J & & & . . h 5 F . > ( & / ( & & O & ( ( & & > K . & 2 0• nC . K W3 & O O .

& ( * & & K > > > & *9 . >> & > & & & & / & > $ O & & & / / / ( + N O & ( .=O=0 0 -L= 22. & > & + / N > / N & <V. ( & / ( & > & . ( . & & ( .42 > K & / ( / & &/ & & > . F . .7A 2A2 . N ( & &O / . / ( > ( & > > / > ( K ( P> > .$ %& N ( . &( / & & K . + &) & S T 3 R&`1 f h 3 'ª 5ASB* 5d TD20 5A. 0G I H & 5 F K • ^ %8 MX? ` *I Z ? Z70] VR&B5 51 D27 1 C & U .42 ! N:O M . < ( & 9 / . 0k M =j &0. 0J2 ge+ 5A50k DB0H 0 N L M K M 3A2FH0 3 E H0 -_ 3 . & 0G09=j0• Q .> L L) ' / ( J N < & & *9 & + O. +.E2 5A. )01 5&& @ 1q2M F gF ` c:M .= r& 2i. + O & & > .< & ( / ( . > > > PO / ' K & ( & / .

.4: ( & & > & . . / . / > . N. ` B & > . > . & > & > > / . & . & > . & . . & Q > . N / . K & & /< & > & O & && O &. . & ( O< & ( . / ( / > & & & ..) . / N . ` ( / & ( & . . . & & > . / ( / / & > ( & " > N & & /O & . && . & < . . K . & . & / > > > < > . > > 2A: . > & > . & . / < & & .4? ? ? ? ? ? ? < > ( . ( . . . . K . & / & . . . & & & . & > `. Q & / > . ( & / / / . >> & ( . & & & . . > K & . . & . & > > > < .4: M . .

K . ( . ( T . > N / > > / O .> L L) ' / > . >> . & ^ . >> / K / > > . & ( Q " > & < > K .` & . ( / &( & / & & . & & > . & / . . / N / O K K & & & & > & & ( > & . ( ( . K . / / + . * = > & & . > K & > . ( > . / & > & . ( / / & . & . K . >> . & & & . I . & / / < 1 = ( & U@ " > & ( > 8 9 > / & > 2AA c . .$ %& & S & / & . . >> & . & & > > & > & & & O. > ( / J & & ^ & . & . Q + . ( ( 1 & >> ( & & / & / & & > ( ( N " > > ( / & < / & / & / . &/ + ( .& .

K ( & & . & . / &. & N O & 9> & ." # > . . / K = & . &/ / & > @ .) . / . > . & N &< & / & . U1 0 / . / / < & & < / & & ( & K . & & 9> & & / > & & / / / & . 2A4 . >> & & . ( & & > K K < > K / I O 9 / & > . ( J > < . < + / &> < > > & & / & K / . / & > ( J %_ / ( & 9 & 9> / / Q & ( & / & / / & & + O . >> N> > & & *9 & > O K & . . > / `V > . N ( & &. / ) / . & / & > ( & + O & . . ( > K ( >> / K / > > & > / & / *9 & . & / . N / & & * ( / && / &.

. > / ::7 N & > & 2A7 . & . & K & & & K / <V. + I . &/ & . & . & . & & 8 > K .> L L) ' / & ..4A % & . & & . > & & ( > & > & & < . . / < & ( &. ( & / > I . K . & & ( & & . > + &. & .. > / / . ( / ( 1P 0 / & . & .4A / > & & . / & & & / & . > &. & & . ( > + > ( & ( K K & ( & & / & / > < &( I N & & / / > I & & / < > & & + & & ( + X K O< &/ & & > K & & & > ( .< + ( M < / O< . & & & ( &. >> & 1 . < .

> ( .44 / . / . M ' ck@3K Q 3L. / O+ . / O> & / & < + . N G \I 09 ~ & nB I F & F 3L D F 5B9nB C B U & . «‡.• Q w9 \ž > ¡ -L? . & ( & > / < ( & ( & & &. ( > . & N1P > & O & / & N <V. & ( / &.WAF h / XH. / N > O < / S T 0`5 0• bn&ˆ+5&52 5 =j5B50k gM &0.W cQ ? h 1%. N / .* •I & / .) " # J & & & > > & ( > & & > %_ & . ( & / ( / K &) / D13. ( & > & / & > & .? : 2A6 . . .n5* 2B=. > > & . .44 ! N:O M .0 . 9 -• Š 9 K . / > & / . . i. ( & & .

( & ( > / / & . M 0 @ U & N. O / O /) > ( & & & PPPVK 5*5B. & / & ./ <V.47 ( & / / N ( > > / N . > N / .nH°M5B +0> =&5B50k ^20H 2i. & & ( > > N / >> & / & & O / & / & S T ) & & > .- & K & *9 B . O.6 2A- . X09 . O / & & > & > > ( & & / / > O< . & > <V. > & & & & > > > & & ( > B & ( O > ( N & > O > & # > N .> L L) ' / 1 & > / O N & ( N.0 e 3L H 3BM< F I@ D = F & @ & .46 . gF F & M UF / 1 K .5 0 5B0Q 5L&2 = =&0 50.46 S T & > K ( / / > & / & ( & N4O M NA5O M 4 . Y% N & + O & . > + .0k 2 5.& 0. `.47 . + 3I c @3L.G 3L5 < .

/ <V ) 0• C. . ( .nH°M5B +0> =& .) > > < 8 & 9 / S > & / T ( & & ) # & & & / . + 3I c @ Uc & & / & . 0• C. *9 & + O ( & & ( & & / & & S T > .AO > > O< K N . >> / . N T % O . & / .52B =j [ Q + 3KI PPP Uc ' / > & ' > & ( S T / ( N( & . ' & ( ( . & ) N / / < / & / & .52B =j [ Q + 3KI PPP Uc <V 2A5 .A & ( > & ( ( & K & & ( S / & T & <V N / N O & O & > > .

.

. &/ @ 24. .) > 0 .

.

” G & 5 F .)M 0• 5 2&0H 0gM bj .) 0 M . / . .9 "V$T 2i. ( N. & U && V N• . &/ K &< 24: .O< ” & > ( . &/ @ & & & *9 & + O . . && N+ . N ( N K . & && / . N• . &/ 2? @ & DBF0. &O & / & & / && N• . ( > & 9 > . & / B( .Ge0 -+. &. &/ & . &/ & & K .0 5 gF M N + ( & O& < 9 ( . > / < @ K && K ( & / ( . . . &/ 1 +. ( . ”O &< / && & / > .0 . K & / . & * & . +S . ”O< / & K & / & . ( / & & J & & ( > * > & OK 5/. . . & & & > > & &* 9 & + O + I / > / ( & / & 0 . 3F i. &/ & .

3 fX K & .4.0 g . ( 1 .> L L )0 . • &” i F + ( & * <V S & / K . U .= 5 /. & + O ) 5 /. &/ @ & & *9 & K . f 50…M R 0c k . . ( & K . @ J 0D> ij-+A2&F5G0H7 • . U K &. &/ @ & & . > . + O & > & & *9 > / & + O . f 0…M F i . &/ . . N1P <V. 9 + > K + <V.45 # N7 O M N2 6 O M 45 74 24A . < + N & & ( & & & & & & > &* 9 ( / & . &/ *9 N .)M 2 5. 0 N +D+. 9 & > & & / & & . 4 5 & & > * & . & &* 9 T > + O) & 0 ( .)M V'5`01 2&F5G0H7 =BC S.= 0±e-701 2 5Q 0 2 f . &/ * 9 > $ && &O + ( . gM0 S . 0 U & 8 N + -+. 4 @ 2M ij0• 5.

T & . 7 ? @ && > & . rF0k 2A=27&'• 5. > N > & N & & / / > ( 0 . &/ @ < > > ) S T = . K . . &/ & & *9 & && ( & ( & > / @ + O & . / & 0 . ^ > N . & N & / S O > > T & & < / %$ N> > ( > & / S O. > & > / O ( . + / <V. + & ( & &+ < + . & / & > 0 . N O / > / + & 9 > + & / .7? " N6 2 O M 27 244 .) . &/ + && & > K . &/ + O + < N / & > / 5`1rY0e5 .= 2Mk f c0 n &” \ ‚H8 0…M 3 -+ . . %h ZD20 U K 0 . ( / & = & . `01 ijTW&@g? 5. > # = &. O ) > & *9 @ + / & ( .

& > .7. > N> > . / I & & .9 53BLB|0* 0 . > 0 & N> > O N> > O 0 . rF0k 5\0Y 0e 7 d 0 2 0 * H \'LM j 0 . 53>5 &a0e =j{ ) T-o 0`H -7= 0`1 5 /. . N ( / ( N N %K & O . < . . > $ N> > O + O .9 n \c ~ 0e ? dB@ U & /O <V. & / & >I &. > N> & O & . & >& &. < > & K . &/ & @ O > & G > & . . > ( / . &/ @ 53BLeD2 2V'& 26)0e -+1 0 & DBFBI= -+. O M N: O M A5 27 d 26 247 .72 ! $ N6 . ( &3 / > ( ( N & && > & > . 7 . . .> L L )0 . f T-i&I T 'ij 2F0H7 0 0$0 -+? D™ H R \‰-7f c f k FY2 UN * & $ &. O<V. & ) . & . > > . 7 2 ( / &O 1P G &` B / . . & > > K ( & ( O . &/ @ . & *9 N& 0 & & N/ ( = > > / O< . 3 &.

O M 7? -2 246 . N . & / > > / & . / ( K . &/ ( . / . > < ' 9 / . & & & K > K N & K . . & & & & / & && / / & > && N> > & O > / > ( & O & & 9> . . ( K 0 N @ > 9 . > & *9 & . < K . & ( .7: 0 N. . &/ = &^ + . . &/ . K > / . & & *9 & . && + O. & &< . . & . &/ & & . . < > O<V. & > >< / & ( > & ( & & > . . & K >> ( K K &. U > >O . 7 : & & + ( > ( / > > & & / K . & & + O / & > > . . & & < 9 & & . & & / & K / ) . & .) 0 & N> . &/ >> ( > > & . &/ ( > & N & &* 9 & + O & & > N 9 > . > > .

+ O & % & & _ $ & & T % # ' Y & X ( > @ . & K . & @ O / @ T * & 5`01 2b0e 0D> -+. . &/ N> > K 0 . &/ O / . ' Y K & > < 1 UB & O > O > & 3Fk Z= U & K .7A ' / > . > . T & < 1 % T Uc & ( ( > K N 0 N> & % # % . .> L L )0 .O > && / O ( 0 .) 0 Z .2- 24- . 3= 0D2 0• 5. &/ N . 7 A > . &/ S & & V . & N> N• . N > > > . <V. &/ & &*9 / @ & + O > & %_ . 3F0G 2 * • 5&” FG9 > &M j N & > K . &/ @ . &/ ( / < . N> =O & & O N> > && . > & / . ”OQV % _ & K > N & &*9 & = > . ) ( &< % N O .

& ( & &*9 & > • 5. &/ &*9 & . > N & > / S T & > < > > . / > / > S / > & # . k &@f U N @ > > & & ( + . > > ) N . & ( & > OI & T / S T / . &/ ( . 2•+J06 c5Q 53BL&MB%DBC 7 0 0…M 3 f FM ` . .= 2&F5k&@7 0 gi. & & .77 $ . @ + O & . &/ K > . 0 . = 0`12 5\&l 0K &~ 0• 5. ^ N6 O M + & N. > & > / O > > ( 0 . O<V.-:.= 2&F5k&@2 5Q 5D&M 0t M . ( ^ N . U & ( + O & & & & N $ / &N S T &O K .74 . 7 4 . <V N / & & + O & & + .) N ( & *9 > . /)U ( & K . O M 245 . & ( & / & \5. <V. 7 7 &O & & ( && ( 0 . &/ @ & ( & / . L = 5h &M 0…M 3 < BI .

. > . &/ . / N & & + O & &! & / ( . 8 . &/ @ / > (& & > & > / O / ( & 0 .76 . &/ @ * * K ( B( & . &/ N K . &/ . &. / ( + . >> & .75 ' = S $ % N2 O M N7 7 O M :.7. &/ @ / > &*9 & .75 & + N N & 0 & / . = & && & 0 / 0 . > ( K & . &/ / & *9 .( > . + @ & > > / < + + O & & / N ( & + > / O & &*9 = & + O. 0 * & . & / . && + * . > N / B( ( / / & = N &< & .? . 7 6 & *9 & // + O &<. &/ . 7 .O M 27? . / & ( ( > O N. + O< .> L L )0 .: :: Y Y N2 . &/ `.

6 ? & .6? & F 0 > % . &/ . = & 0 & 3 $ & ( 0 . &/ & $ &% O / & # " # @ W8 QP > . &/ > & & > > <PV.&MG= d 0 gM25. &. c . 0 &< % %K 0 G %& & & @ ( / . / ( :2. &/ . & >` K . ^ < & U . . . 0• . F ic M . > & > > . / & % & & P K / 242 24:I & / S T . K & ) WB = . K & & . > & > & > ( .) > . / @ @ A5:< 8 K .0O = 0 -+ M . K & . &/ :-:< 27. NS T .

.

> & / 1 / # 9> 9 ( < .6. / < NB & . / & gggggggggg ggggg ggggggggggg gggggg ggggggg ggggggggggggggg gggggggggggggg ggg gggggggggg gggggggggg gggggggggggggggg ggg ggggggggggggg ggg gggggggggg ggggggggggggggg ggggggggg gggg gggggggg ggggggggggg gggggggg gggggggggggg ggggg . > S T & b< 9> & & U & $ 9 & F J ( a. F 9 O & & & < ' 1 1 . . & M > 2 + . 0 . ^ . 9 > & .) >> &9 * 9> N . + / & & > & ^ 9> ( ` %# / 1 ( & <O . K > & > .6. & %# %# &+ & / & & ggg ggggggg ggggggg gggggg / & I & . K ? 52?764 ?2 7O N *9 > + S T VN ' <O 27: .

> < / ( ' & ( & . &< ggg gggggggg gggggggg ggggggggggg gggggggg gggggggg ggggggg ggggggggggg ggggggggg ggggggg ggggggggg gggggggggg . & > ( & < > > . > & > > .= OI / ( < ggg gggggggg ggggggggg gggggggggggggg ggggg ggggggggggggg gggggggggggggg ( > / ( & > . . K & & . : / / < < && . & & & <V % #%\ ' Y\ Y\ = . & & / & N . .62 & & &< 4 . 1 $ & & . > + & . . . > . & / . ( && K < ( & & . & ( & .>> &9 2 1 < . . K . J K < > < / #@= > > %& & ' % ' % Y\ = / .62 & ' %@ = %& . > P & I && J A . & < & 8 / ( / & < B / d 8 %& . &> . . > ( / K & & & J ( ( ( . > > U # . 9 ( &VI U & & 27A . > P &(& &/ > & ( . # . > ( ` B & ( . P ( . > > .

> ggg ggggggg ggggggg ggggggggggg gggggggggggg gggggg ggggg ggggggg ggg gggggggggggggg gggg gggggggggggggggg gggggggg 6 &1 ( K . / . ( > > & < N K .25 274 . / ( 7 > . / . & <' ( & & / & / & / & K & / & > > .6: X K % % 0 M : . / / I . & . . / . > > . >> & <O 1 & . ( ` > . J > > . / & & & &/ ( < / ( > > & & %& = > > < ' % Y\ = & J K <V > / < ( & ' % %& Y\ = & . / 9 > %&h > . . . / & < . > & ( = . . & ( .) ( . > / > ' % U Y\ < . > .6:) %& #@= ( & ggg gggggggggggg ggggggggggg ggg gggggg gggggggggggggg ggggggggggggg ggggggggggg 1 . > > > > I > / & / . > & & & < / / / & &> > < / / & / & ( & & & 0 .

>> &9 & 5 . . / & = < N & & & f & <O & . & < & / > ) gggg gggggggggggggggg gggg ggggggggggggggggggggg gggggggg & / K . ( ` . ( K ( / > Q > > O & . & K > & / . > . K > . . '< B & . & N / & K & < > . ( . > < & 277 .? & . / / & . + F/ ( > < . > . / / & . >> gggg ggggggggggg & h < ' & / & K = > ( < &f < . / / & .. >> >> . / . > K ( ( & / < > Q . / < . > > > ( . > & ( K / . / < &. / 1 > . > > .

< & & / / / & > &(& & / & ( & < / / & & < &N ( & & > .. O & & & & K .: F & > & / < ( / ( / & / < && / gggg ggggggg ggggggg gggggggg gggggg gggggggggggggggg gggggg ggggg ggggggggggggg gggggg gggggggg 1 ` ( & & N< < & & + . K / / && I > > < gggg gggggggg ggggggggg gggggg gggggg ggggggg ggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggg ggggggggg gggggggg . ( ` ( & > / B< . &/ & & .. > > & & ( <' & K O 276 . & & & & / / . & / < & / + .) <B / K / ( < & & .2 1 I > < *< 8< && & > K Q` & < <B < K > > / & > / & & / > > /< < & > K / / < > ( 8 / ( / / & /< ( & & K F 1 & & ) .

. ) ( &+ / & T % N . > / . / & . ( ( O< gggg gggggggggggggggg gggg gggggggggggggggg ggggggg ggggggggg g gggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggg % N ( O . ( O % N . > I 27- . < < > P / 0 . < & /< B ' . & . ( J K < && > < . U1 $ ( < K & .4 N <U I > / / < V & O ( ( / &e N . ( / ( ( T • ( . ( / e O Ue . & / ( N K &+ + 9 ( ( . ( . / ( / & &+ <O . > .A > > && & / & ' % & &. d ( ( < K & ( &e ' & & / ( . & &<V & N% O &+ & ) U3 W / 8 / ( / N &` ( <' / & O & <V ) gggg gggggggg gggggggg g ( & G & . & V > . ( G &P & &< & + .>> &9 K > / I & =.

+ ( 1 $ / &. .) • & ( & < // ( & / . ' / ( & / & / * U < ' .7 < ) ( QV K . . / ( & & . gggg ggggggg gggggg ggggggg gggggggggg >> / . 275 .- & & / & / < & gggg ggggggggggggg ggggg gggggggg ggggggggggg gggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggg gggggggg gggggggg gggggg gggggg K . ( . & ( . /I & • &. & < K / < gggg gggggggggggg ggggggg gggg ggggggggggggg ggg & ( ` U' ( & < .6 .

.

& K & Y 26. ! & # B 0 & $ K 0 & % 0 $ % % & % & K ' [ + 8 = %# & .J% # N# #! % % %& ZZZZZZ Y $ $ . . Y # % % $ %K & % B $ & % % & & & O $ K &' = & = & $ '$ $ # % 3 K " # % % + S = 3 $ $ [ $ K & 0 % & B% $& YY .) &' S T #! % & 0 Y % ' =% ' ' 8 [ % # % # % # . $ / > & & K .

!" # % S S F [% = &% % % %K $ $ $ # & &N & 8 # & % R $%$ '$ F # =& ' / # & #@ 0 J% 8 %& / & F [ %O #@ X K % $ 262 .

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

22 7A .6 .56 2?? 2?A 2?7 2?5 2. " " " " " $ 247 # .-7 .-: .-? .54 #% .: .26 2?A $ & 2?A $ == = _ % 9 9 9 && #@ . 6A 64 ..5 2? 2A 25 :: :6 :5 46 7? 7.2? .& B% _ % 9 9 9 ( & #%& #!Y 22 % 74 77 J .-.: 2..:7 # % :5 " # $ & R & = 5? .7: .275 26. 72 5? .-: .?4 .7: % 7A .4 .4: ..7: .?5 .?7 A5 4? 4..7: .5: .5: & X % J &% 4..6A 5.:4 26A .?4 " " " " % .2. 7 6 74 .66 .7 .-6 . $ & # % ' = .?5 .54 5? 2?A 225 247 27? 27. 244 $ = .56 % F [ 2?A # % G G 22 .2.2? .5 .77 .2.?.5 224 2A.6.:7 % .77 2?A 2?7 2?5 " # 0 & 5? 27.-4 .?: . 262 $ & # % ' = .-5 # %_ 2A4 2A6 # $ & R &= 5? .4: . O 6 4A 74 5.?7 .6 22? 26. 42 # + 2A7 % % # :5 % 22 . 0 % F $ .65 KK ( 7 6 .54 26.4: .?5 .. " # 0 & 5? 27.6 A7 4. T 2?A &% 4 7 6 .26 2?A & 2A2 2A: 2AA % N .6 -4 .-2 .-A .5A . $ & ( 999 . 74 .6.2? .:7 > 2AA .26 .2.:6 26.$ + + F %& 5? 0 0 0 0 0 0 # Y% 0 % ..77 2?A 2?7 2?5 .54 . 24A 245 27: 27.

X & G %& . . @ 262 @ @ ..7: .5 .2.7 #&% .:4 @ 2A 24 27 :6 42 .2..-4 S S S . .:7 7A 74 .-A X X %& . 27 F F & # & #& F %# 2.7 X . 6 .6: .? %& % 2?7 \ 2.A5 4? 4.? 8 % 74 S % . N1 & S =% 2.?7 % J . 42 4: 27A 274 %& # = % #%\ A4 3 3 $ 3 # & 27.) .66 .. 22 O 6 2:: . 99 99( %& ( A4 A7 A6 A.6. 6 A..2? .-. .66 X & 2.56 2:: 2:4 2:7 264 .-. .-2 X 24- % .-? .:7 K #! % :A K %& 2?7 27.-2 .5 4. ( " 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful