POWER QUALITY

Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY Email: help@matlabcodes.com

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ABSTRACT: THE UBIQUITOUS APPLICATIONS OF POWER ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS RESULTED IN POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS, SUCH AS VOLTAGE DISTORTION NON LINEAR LOADS ON IS OF SENSITIVE PURE AND THE ILL EFFECTS OF

DUE TO HARMONICS GENERATED IN SUPPLY CURRENTS OF VARIOUS ORDER ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS AND VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVE FORMS. THE DETERIORATION A.C. SUPPLY POWER QUALITY OF AT VARIOUS

INCREASING CONCERN OF ELECTRIC UTILITIES ,SINCE HARMONICS ELECTRONIC SINUSOIDAL ONE OF THE THE THREE ARE CAUSES AND WAVE THE FORM OF ELECTRIC

EQUIPMENT DESIGNED TO OPERATE ON RATEDVOLTAGE

FREQUENCY. HARMONIC DISTORTION AND SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT DAMAGE MOST SERIOUS POWERQUALITY PROBLEMS NOW A DAYS . MAIN IMPORTANT FACTORS RELATED WITH POWER QUALITY

UTILITY, CUSTOMER AND EQUIPMENT MANFACTURERS. THE AIM OF

THIS PAPER IS TO TAKE A OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF HARMONIC GENERATION , THEIR EFFECTS, MEASUREMENT AND ELIMINATION TECHINIQUES TO BRING THE TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION WITHIN PERMISSIBLE BY USING HARMONIC SUPPRESSOR SYSTEMS . LIMIT

INTRODUCTION: Harmonic Voltages and Currents are the integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. In India ,for 50Hz. frequency of second harmonic is 100Hz, on. Though the applied voltage is sinusoidal because of their nonlinear characteristics the current drawn by them is non sinusoidal. This non sinusoidal current after passing through the low impedance of power causes distortion in sinusoidal voltage which can be split up as sinusoids of the different frequencies, which when added together results in original distorted waves. Advancements in power electronics caused the use of such a equipment in power system at LV,MV,HV and EHV levels increasing at a faster rate, harmonics is negative by product of this development. Utility of nonlinear loads resulted in large harmonics in supply currents causing distortion of the voltage wave form resulting in deterioration of power quality. Deviation from sinusoidal shape is generally expressed in terms of harmonic components. All the harmonic current deteriorates the performance and impose various problems. Therefore , identification of sources of harmonic are important. Sources of harmonics: Harmonics of different orders generated when connected power system network by different sources as below: • • • • The non linear loads such as inverter fed adjustable speed drive. The use of powerfactor correction capacitor creates parallel or series resonance Process control and solid state power conversion equipments. Energy efficient compact flourescent lamps. third harmonic is 150Hz. and so

problems increasing the harmonic distortion.

• • • •

Use of AC and DC adjustable speed drives Static VAR compensators. Transformers produces very high levels of harmonics when they are initially

energized, the so called in rush current will generate harmonics of several orders. Cycloconverters,Lift control system,Traction,AC voltage regulators, UPS, Battery The following are the undesirable effects of harmonic on the operation of different equipment connected to power system network. The effect of harmonic depends on harmonic voltages and currents are the integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. EFFECTS OF HARMONICS:

chargers.

1.The duration presence of long duration harmonic cause more serious effects on connected to the power system . 2. Amplitude of harmonics ….large amplitude harmonics of short duration under resonance condition cause dielectric breakdown due to over voltages. Now a days various devices and equipment being measured applications are more sensitive compared to the past.

the various equipments

The capacitor used for power factor correction and in different filters decreases

resulting in increasing in current drawn by capacitor beyond permissible limits. The capacitor acts as sink for harmonic currents resultant effect of harmonics is overloading , hence over heating increases dielectric stress and increase the power lost. The thermal failure of capacitor may take place because of higher temperature. • • • •

Non sinusoidal power supplies results in reduction of torque of induction motor It will increase interference with telephone , communication and logic circuits. Error in reading of induction type energy meters which are calibrated for pure Higher order harmonics causes voltage stress and carona . Presence of harmonics in power system network can cause additional

sinusoidal A.C power.

losses in power system network, overheating of transmission lines, transformers and generators etc.,

Malfunction or even failure of electronic or computer controls. Hence it is clear that day by day the increase in harmonic contents will impose new problems performance due to the coordination between on operations of electronic equipment . The energy efficient produced in future trends result in poor voltage distortion. Hence it is essential to have the proper the supply authorities and consumers regarding the power electronic equipment that will be

quality problem, their causes and results and solutions available to eliminate them. IMPORTANCE OF HARMONIC MEASUREMENTS: • Meaurement provides the real time information about the power system network to utilities, consumer and designer .Filters designed after harmonic measurements are technically better and economical. • Measurement provide information to analyze the combined effect of harmonic EQUIPMENT USED FOR MEASUREMENT OF HARMONICS: In these systems it is necessary that the signal input to the harmonic analyzer should faithfully represents the voltage and current signals to be analysed Hence the accuracy of Transducer used in harmonic measurement is very important. Measurement of the harmonic current transformer up to I) 25. II) III) capacity IV) Potential transformer Switchable capacitive voltage divider (CVD) . For each phase of the system with to reproduce harmonics other than 50Hz accurately . The AC system measurement in the frequency domain are carried out by a 50th harmonic without any problem. is performed by using current generated by different loads on power quality.

Capacitive voltage transformer offers considerable error in the transformation

ratio at harmonic frequencies .The error is significant even for harmonics of order below

harmonic analyzer equipped with grade signal conditioners and ADC. The harmonic analyzer are microprocessor based high precession instrument using fast fourier techniques to analyze the input signal. Different types of instruments available for harmonic measurement are :

Power profiler BME 303A: It can measure and print in addition to various Power network analyzer DIP8000: It is portable three phase network measured data are transformed to PC and documentation. Measurement setup: The measurement is done via high quality probe. The loads the waveforms of graph sheets. Memory hicorder 8840(Hioki make) :It is used to measure three line Dynamic signal analyzer model Hp3561: The parameters such as

electric quantities voltage and current total harmonic distortion and frequency.

analyzer designed for power surveys in which the for evaluation

computer

currents and there line to voltage.

fundamental frequency of A.C. current, line or phase voltage across potential transformer.

HARMONIC ELIMINATION TECHNIQUES: To avoid the ill effects of harmonics on the operation of sensitive equipments, it is necessary to keep harmonic contents below safe limit by installing filter at load end. The simplest way of eliminating harmonics of different orders is to install filters at the location generated by different loads are connected in two ways in power system network.

1.SERIES CONNECTED FILTERS: Such type of filters are connected in of

series with power system network and offer high impedance at turning frequencies high impedance offered by filters allow very little harmonics are passed. The drawback series filters are load current.

high cost, because the rating of filter component required is rated full

2.SHUNT CONNECTED FILTERS: It is most commonly used filters in A.C.

power system network and offers very low impedance path to harmonics. Shunt type of filters are cheaper than series type because the shunt connected filters are designed for graded insulation levels which makes the components cheaper than the series filter components. Following are the different techniques used to eliminate harmonics of different orders to keep harmonic distortion within permissible limit.

PASSIVE FILTERS: These are LC resonating or parallel resonating circuits which offer at below tuned frequencies and inductive beyond tuned frequency. TYPES OF PASSIVE FILTERS:

very high or low

impedance at tuning frequency. These filters are resistive at tuned frequency, capacitive

1.Series passive filters: These are connected in series and offers very high

impedance to different harmonics at tuned frequency, because of its very high cost such type of filters are not used.

2.Shunt passive filters: These are connected between line and earth and

offer very low impedance at resonant frequency. Hence particular harmonic or harmonics directed to earth and prevented from passing further. The high pass shunt filters are connected to the point of common coupling block all over the harmonic frequency and passes all higher frequency. • •

3.Single tuned filters 4. Double tuned filters.

• 5. Triple tuned filters. 6. continuously tuned filters. Passive techniques employs following devices: • • 1.Passive L-C shunt filters. 2.Power factor correction capacitor. ADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE FILTERS

1.Simple in construction, less costly and efficient 2.Serves dual purpose harmonic filtration and power factor correction of DISADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE FILTERS: • • • 1.Cannot function under saturated condition. 2.Number of passive filters installed must be equal to the number of harmonic levels to be compensated. 3. Connection of passive filters necessities a specific analysis of each installation.

 load.

• • •

4.Non adaptability to system variations . 5.Bulky in size. 6.Tendency to resonate with the other load.

2.ACTIVE FILTERS: When the number of harmonics to be filtered, large no of branches of passive filters will be required . The large no of branches of passive filters will be required. The actual number of branches will depend upon no of harmonic level of branches will depend upon no of harmonic level to be compensated. Hence, because of passive filter use for filtration of large no of harmonics results in large size &more cost. Introduction of self commutated devices e.g. MOSFETS, IGBT etc. Accelerated the research in design of active filter & resulted low cost, high performance active filter suitable to eliminate the harmonics of different orders to overcome the drawbacks of passive filters. Active filters compensates voltage of current harmonic signal measured. The injected voltage or current harmonic signal measured. The injected voltage or current harmonic signals in to the power system network is of same magnitude and opposite in phase of the measured harmonic signal . It comprises power converter and control loop which controls the harmonics injection of the filter as the function of harmonic signal measure. TYPES OF ACTIVE FILTERS : • 1.SHUNT TYPE ACTIVE FILTER: These devises are designed to constantly monitor the harmonics in the load current and same harmonic equal in magnitude and opposite in phase thus cancel the original harmonics. These are connected in parallel with harmonic generating non-linear load. • 2.SERIES TYPE ACTIVE FILTER: These are connected in series with network and non-linear load . it introduces a suitable voltage through a matching transformer, voltage introduce by series filter is in such a way that the supply sees a very high impedance for harmonic and low impedance for fundamental. • 3.HYBRID FILTERS: these are combination of passive and active filter to improve performance similar to active filter – with reduction in cost. DISADVANTAGE OF ACTIVE FILTER:

Complex and costlier. HARMONIC CANCELLATION: The phase cancellation or cancellation technique is used in case of static power converters to eliminate lower harmonic. To use the above technique the following conditions must be satisfied. 1.Trasformerratio and impedance must be equal. 2.The delay angle of each pulse must be exactly same. 3.the loads must be equal. ISOLATION TRANSFORMER; These are used in isolating third harmonic that are common when delta to star configuration is used. HARMONIC BLOCKING: When harmonic content is less, then harmonic blocking technique is used to protect the most effected equipment e.g. capacitor bands used for power factor correction offers very low impedance to high frequency harmonics, may get damaged because of large current drawn due to thermal break down. In this case inductor or damping resistor is connected in series to protect the capacitor bank. HARMONIC SUPPRESSOR SYSTEM: Moreover a novel control method called Harmonic suppressor system is designed in which a new control method is used. It any operates with sensing nonlinearities present in the load. The compensation process involves novel technique which is achieved without complication and involves control logic. To achieve this current controlled logic. These schemes either use (1) a reactive volt ampere calculator to set the compensator current reference which generates a delay in compensation process introduces a time delay or and a low pass is also required to eliminate the ripple from sensed D.C. link voltage which also (2)error between D.C link voltage reference and the sensed D.C. link capacitor voltage to set the amplitude of the source current reference. Single phase compensator and it’s operating principle are given below:

A single phase compensator is operated in a controlled current Boost type converter mode. The current drawn from the utility is made to flow a sinusoidal reference current within a fixed hysterisis band. The height of this window determines source current compensator. profile, it’s harmonic spectrum and switching frequency of the devices. The link capacitor voltage is kept constant throughout the operating range of the CONCLUSION: Harmonic distortion is increasing day by day at a faster rate and is a matter of concern to the utility, customer and manufacturers of different equipment. To keep the harmonic distortion to low value, following actions are necessary.  In India it is necessary first to create awareness regarding harmonic problems, their effects and elimination techniques among the utility, consumers and manufacturers of different equipments to make power system less polluted.
 The

harmonic standards should be imposed on the equipment and should be made standards before selling it in open market.

mandatory to the manufactures and consumers. The equipment should strictly comply to the harmonic
 The

utility should monitor the installation of high tension consumers periodically,

regarding the harmonic distortion and penalties should be imposed on customers using equipments crossing specified limits.
 Filters

should made compulsory to H.T. consumers.

REFERENCES: 1. “Power quality issues standards &guide lines”, IEEE,Vol-32,May96 2. IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electric power system standard 519-1992.

Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY Email: help@matlabcodes.com

Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com

More Papers and Presentations available on above site

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