LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous

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Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous

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1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.

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as I (not want) to miss the first act. 4 . 18. of course. 14. but he is late. I (be). as usual. 15. You (go) to work every day? Yes.6. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 11. 13. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. You (write) to John now? Yes. 12. I (dream) every night. You (like) this book? 8. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. except Saturdays and Sundays. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. You (dream) at night? Yes. 9. I always (write) to him on his birthday. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. I always (have) a rest after lunch. 10. 16. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 7. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview.

3. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. Adesea citesc carti englezesti. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. forma III – participiul trecut. 20. Ex. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. 6. Eu nu studiez seara. merge pe jos. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. You (know) what time is it? 4. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . 8. B. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. 9. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Ce carte citesti? 10. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. 14. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. 4. Ex. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. 17. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. 16. 2. forma II. 19.Paste Tense. Iarna ninge. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Ea isi face bagajul. 7.19. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat.

) 6 .) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. I was watching TV. Ex. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. de obicei. cu imperfectul. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. Yesterday I went for a walk.) Last year I travelled to England. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. Ex. Se traduce. This time yesterday. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. Este timpul de naratiune.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). terminata. Se traduce. de obicei. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. cu perfectul compus. terminata.

his sister was watching TV. In acest caz. He came home late. 8. We worked very hard. 1. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. 4. 3. Ex. 7. sora lui privea la televizor. He forbade her to do this. You drink too much. I enjoyed travelling. I own two umbrellas. While I was crossing the street. (In timp ce John citea. in plina desfasurare. 4. 8. 1. They drank all the wine. intr-un moment trecut. He meets John on Sundays.Adesea. Ex. I always make cakes on Sundays. 10.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. He translated the text. I play football. 10. 7. He thought about you. 7 . I sold my car. 2. In aceasta situatie. 5. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. You ask too many questions. ele aratând actiuni paralele. 6. While John was reading. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. You speak English well. 9. I met John. That sounds interesting. I hated him. Este. de asemenea. He changed his library book every day. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). 3. 9. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). I like to have a coffee in the morning. in aceeasi fraza. 2. 6. 5.

Ieri m-am sculat devreme. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. 9. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. someone (ring up). 19. 5. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 5.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. he (work) in a bank. When I (arrive). 8. 2. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. As I (write). 16. 2. 10. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. This time last Sunday. When I first (meet) him. 20. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. 1. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. When you (come in). 1. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. 4. 6. I talk on the phone. I (watch) a film on TV. 15. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 11. 18. 10. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. he (have) an accident. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. 9. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. she (have) dinner. When I (enter) the classroom. 7. 8 . 4. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. 3. 12. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. While he (learn) to drive.

Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent.) I have known John for two years.21. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. incepând din) si for (de. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. In acest caz. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni.) I have known John since 1990. this week. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. I haven’t seen John for two months. I have seen two films this week. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. 22. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata.) I haven’t seen John since September. this year.) arata o actiune trecuta. this month. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. timp de). • Ex. C. • Ex. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 9 .

daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. terminata. I must buy a new one. I haven’t got up early this morning. care are rezultate in prezent sau care.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often.m. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. dintr-un motiv sau altul. ever. In acest caz. seldom. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. I didn’t get up early this morning.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. Ex. intereseaza in prezent. Ex. never. • Ex. I must buy a new one. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. arata o actiune trecuta. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. ora 10 a. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week.m. Ex. Ex. ora 2 p. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. se foloseste Past Simple. already. just. De asemenea. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . I lost my umbrella yesterday. always. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut.

vom avea inundatii.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. I have often been to England.) Dupa cum se poate observa. It has been raining for three hours. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. He hasn’t returned home yet.) De asemene. intre un moment trecut si prezent. If it doesn’t stop soon. (Ploua de trei ore. we shall have floods. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be".) I haven’t seen him lately. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. cu accent pe durata.No. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. I am tired because I have been working all day. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. He has not (hasn’t) been working. yet (in propozitii negative). Ex. fie cu perfectul compus. care continua in prezent. Yes. I have never been to England. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. Ex. Daca nu se opreste in curând. sa continue si in viitor. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. in functie de context. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. 11 . (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. Ex. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna.

We (know) each other for several years. 12. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. 4. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. 7. I (lend) him some money today. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 15. 4. When are you going to do it? 12. Would you like a cake? 7. He always (rely on) his friend. No. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. I (live) here for one year. I (water) the flowers. It’s time we woke him up. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 9. 12 . You ever (eat) caviar? 14.1. 1. How long you (live) here? 22. Ever since that woman came to work here. The radio (play) since 7 a. she (try) to make trouble. 2. 10. thank you. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. He (not go) to bed yet. I (buy) a new house. 2. 5. 5. He (not come) home yet. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 18. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. I (not be) to the seaside this year. I already (see) this film. 6. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. You (water) the flowers? 3. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. 8. I’m tired of it.m. I (cook) all the morning. You ever (drive) a car? 17. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. 3. 10. You must come and see it. 21. I just (have) one. He just (leave) home. 11. 11. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 16. It (not rain) since December.

It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. When you (use) it last? 2. You (not see) it anywhere? No. Ninge de doua ore. 12.Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. You (be) out of work long? 5. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 16. 6. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 13. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. You (see) your mother this week? No. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). I haven’t. A fost un accident. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. 7. 10. 11. El este ministru de doi ani. 10. 4. 8. 7. I (lose) my pen. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 . 9. 18. 6. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. Un copil a spart geamul. I am not out of work now. 14. Nu am mers la vot. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 11. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. 1. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. 3. De când mi-am cumparat masina. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. 8. 1. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. 9. I (get) a job last month.

21. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. Ex. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . Da. acum doi ani.) When you rang me up. Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". 23. Afirmativ I had been working. D. am petrecut o luna aici. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Da. A plecat John? 20. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. in acest caz.) Ca sens. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. un verb de relatie. a plecat acum o ora. terminasem de scris temele. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute.19. I had finished writing my homework. ca si Present Perfect. Este. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 25. l-am luat la ora 8. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Afirmativ I had worked. Da. dar.

Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. 10. I (return) from school. 15 .Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. Ex. She said she already (be) to England. it (rain) for one hour. 4. they drank some coffee. 1. At 3 o’clock on Friday. s-a plictisit. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. she had been typing for one hour. 9. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. De asemenea. After they (finish) dinner. 6. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. 1. When I left home. 5. 3. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. When we met them. 2. When I arrived home.) Dupa cum se observa. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. 4. (Când el a intrat in camera. 3. she (study) the subject for a week. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. 7. When she sat for the exam. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. When he entered the room. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 2. he got bored.) He said it had been raining for three days. 8. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. ea batea la masina de o ora. mother (cook) for two hours.

When we reached the top. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). 9. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. 7. 6. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. 1. 6. 5. When I called on her unexpectedly. 4. When she decided to have a rest. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 9. 6.5. a inmânat-o profesorului. 3. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 8. she felt chilly. 10. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 2. she (write) letters for one hour. we (realize) we (lose) our way. 7. we (climb) for 7 hours. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. I realized she (have) a party. When I (find out) he (get married). After John (leave). am mers la culcare. 3. 16 . The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 10. 2. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. When we arrived at Sinaia. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. After we (walked) for an hour. 8. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 4. 5. 1. When I rang her up. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa.

E. We (shall) will be going. 10. 9. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. You will be going. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. I (shall) will meet him next week.7. se foloseste numai „shall". You will be going. will la persoana II si III. 8. He/she/it will be going. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. Negativ 17 . Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. They will be going. Ex. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate.

By three o’clock tomorrow.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Ex. (have + forma III). Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. I will have reached Predeal. He/she/it will not be going. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. They will not have gone. Ex. You will not have gone. He/she/it will not have gone. You will not be going.I (shall) will not be going. He/she/it will have gone. We (shall) will have gone. You will not be going. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. They will not be going. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. You will not have gone. You will have gone. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. At three o’clock. You will have gone. I will be travelling to England. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 . We (shall) will not have gone. They will have gone. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. We (shall) will not be going.

Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Ex. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). I should (would) be going. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. Ex. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). the next day. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. Este un timp rar folosit. When you come home. he would be travelling to England. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". (El a spus ca va intârzia. Ex. 19 . He said he would be late. Când vei veni tu acasa. I (shall) will have been going. He said that at 3 o’clock. I will have been studying for three hours.

va calatori spre Anglia.) It is going to rain.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. You (be) in London tomorrow. 20 . 1. Arata o intentie. arata un program precis. 6. • Ex. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. 10. 8. 7.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. bine stabilit. I am going to read this book. 3. I am sure you (like) this book. I leave for London tomorrow. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. I am sure I (succeed). I am meeting John this morning. He (be) pleased if you invite him. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. 5. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. la ora 3. I (remember) this day all my life. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. Intr-un astfel de context. 2.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. • Ex. I hope I (pass) the exam. • Ex. I (know) the results in three days’ time.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.

Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. 4. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. When I take the exam. I (pay off) all my debts. By the end of the month. 2. Let’s hurry to the beach. By 5 o’clock. it probably (rain). 5. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. we (take) our exam. When you reach Sinaia. Next year. I (have) breakfast. 3. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. 7. 2. 5. 2. 4. I (cook) for two hours. 7. 6. we (climb) the mountain. 3. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. I am sure when I arrive home. This time next day. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. I (work) at the office till late at night. Don’t expect me home for dinner. 10. the baby (cry). I (work) on this paper for a month. 21 .1. Pâna la ora 1. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. He (study) all day tomorrow. 3.m. By the end of the season. 8. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. Voi vizita târgul international. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. I (swim) in the sea. 9. 4. If we don’t hurry. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. In a week’s time. 9. they (be married) for 25 years. 10. 7. She (watch) TV. By the time you come home. 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. This time next month. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. 4. 8. 6. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. By the beginning of next week.

Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. Past Tense Continuous. ci in fraze. intre orele 12 si 1. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. Past Perfect Simple. 11. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Propozitia principala 1. nu in propozitii. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. E un obiect frumos. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. desigur.8. mâine. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Present Perfect Simple. Present Tense Continuous. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Vineri. 9.) He said he was going to school. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. 10.

(El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data. He said he would come to see me when he had time.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) She promised her mother she would help her.) 1.He said he had returned home a week before. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 . (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. Ex. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. Ex.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat.

Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 3. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 . cu timpul. Ex.a. Se poate intâlni. 2. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. Pentru moment insa. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. sa ajunga regula.) b. de exemplu. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. Ex. 1. Ex. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me".) I will have finished studying when you come home. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp.

7. the concert already (begin). He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. I was not sure if you (speak) English. She told me his name after he (leave). având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. 8. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past. They didn’t know that I (play) football. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). I congratulated him. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 10. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. After I (hear) the news. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. It was clear they (talk) business again. 1. 6. When I arrived. 6. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. When he finally reached London. I understood you (be) a painter. Looking out of the window. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 5. 5.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). I believed you (be) at the seaside. 4. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 3. 2. 1. 10. 2. 9. 9. 3. 4. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 8. 25 . she saw the sun (shine) brightly. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. When it started to rain. 7. 1.

10. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). We all believed he (win) the competition. I will lend it to you. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). 9. 17. By the time you (finish) translating the text. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. As wages had gone up. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 4. 16. 3. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. He promised he (drive) me home. 12. When their first baby (be born). she will take a job as a secretary. When I (finish) the book. 3. this beach will become very crowded. 13. 6. When I heard the main actor was ill. I shall have typed all the letters. 2. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 6. 8. 5.2. 11. As soon as the holidays (begin). 5. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). 1. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 15. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. he will drive to Sinaia. After she (learn) to type. 14. 7. they will have been married for five years. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. He believed the strike (end) very soon. we supposed prices (go up). 8. 26 . too. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 4. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 7. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. 9. After he (repair) the car. 10.

When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 5. After you (drink) a coffee. you will feel better. 27 . It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 5. 20. 9. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. 19. 6. they were listening to music. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. In 1998. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. 3. 4. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). When we (go) to see them last night. 4. 8. 2. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. precum si exceptiile: 1. 3. 8. 6. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. He was very upset because I (be) late. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. He told me he never (see) the sea. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 7. 7. I will do it when I (want) to. 2. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. 10. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). 6. 5. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. not before. 9.18. I (not decide) yet. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years.

Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 16.10. 14. he decided he (change) his job. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. A week ago. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 20. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. 3. 13. After we have finished dinner. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 12. You will never know how much I (suffer). 11. LECTIA III 28 . Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. 8. 7. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 17. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. 19. 18. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. 12. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 9. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 7. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 4. 2. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 15. 10. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 5. 11. 6. After having visited Italy. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. When I finally arrived home. we (drink) coffee and brandy. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania.

wouldn’t. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat).). Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ar merge etc. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 .MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. ai merge.

Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers.). ar fi mers etc. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. cu exceptia verbului „to be".) I would stay at home if it rained. unde 30 .) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.) I will stay at home if it rains. ai fi mers. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine.

were. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. in case. supposing. If the police should find out the truth. in loc de Present Simple. In caz ca telefoneaza. suppose.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. we would be fined. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. had. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. In acest caz. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. De asemenea. Ex. Ex. should). spune-I ca nu sunt acasa.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. dar improbabila.se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. providing. If she should ring up. tell her I am out. noi am fi amendati. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. What shall we do. este posibila 31 . (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me.

you (not find) me at home. I (not do) this. you (not pass) the exam. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. If she finds out what has happened. you (be) late. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. 4. If I like the dress. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. If I (move) to the country-side. I would be nervous. Unless you study more. he (not make) so many mistakes. If I tell you something. 2. If I won the lottery. 1.omiterea lui if. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If you don’t hurry. Ex. 3. 7. he (take) a pill. Should he have a headache. you will have to look after it. she (be) very angry. 10. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. 10. If he were more careful. 2. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. I would ring him up. If I (give up) smoking. 8. If I see him. 9. Were I in your place. would you visit me? 3. If it (go on) raining. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. I (buy) a car. I (greet) him. 5. 7. I (buy) it. 5. 9. If I (know) his phone-number. If you (take) a dog. 8. Unless you come at 6. we shall have floods. 1.

6. he would have gone home. 2. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 5. 6. If he (realize) it was so late.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. you wouldn’t have an accident. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. I (answer) the phone. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 8. 1. 33 . I (answer) it. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. you (not get) into trouble. 4. 10. 9. 4. 3. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. 2. Daca ar ploua. It (be) better if you had waited. I (answer) your question if I can. 9. If I (not tell) him. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. strazile vor fi ude. 8. 1. I would go home immediately. 1. If you (drive) more carefully. 2. 10. I would have succeeded. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. If he had written a letter to me. he (get) a bar of chocolate. If you had known English. strazile ar fi fost ude. Had I been at home. 3. 4. 1. If I (see) him. Had I learned English grammar. Dacaar fi plouat. 3. If the child is good. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. he would never have known. I would speak to him. You (be) sick if you eat so much. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. strazile ar fi ude. 6. If I (be) you. 7. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 7. 5. If you had taken my advice. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. If I (work) harder. 5.

Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. 8.7. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. I-ai da? 3. mi-ar fi fost frig. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 11. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 . Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. 9. 6. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 2. 1. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. 9. voi mânca la un restaurant. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. 5. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 12. 7. 1. 10. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 8. 10. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia.

He said he would do the exercise. He said „I have been working hard. Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. Se schimba pronumele. He said he had been working hard. in functie de sens. o He said „I was ill". 2. He said he had been ill. o He said „I will do the exercise". Ex. – He said „I am ill". He said she had given him a book. Ex.Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. o 1. He said: „She gave me a book". today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . He said he was ill.

I would stay at home. 36 . I will stay at home. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. I would have stayed at home. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow"." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. 3. He said: „I’ll be at home today". Ex." He said if it rained he would stay at home.  He said he would be at home on that day. could. Verbele modale would. 1. ought to.next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day." He said if itrained he would stay at home. should. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. "If it had rained.

Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out. He said: „I am ill". Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". Ex. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. 2. 1. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. 4. Ex. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. on holiday. I saw this film a week ago. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. Ex.  He told me to go out. He asked me if I liked music. Ex.  He said (that) he was ill. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. 37 . He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. ceea ce este o greseala. He asked me where I had been. 3. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. 5. He said „Go out". Where have you been? I’ve been away. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. The weather was fine yesterday. 2. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. I will go shopping right now. 3.

7. If I have enough money. 10. 3. I am very busy today.6. 8. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. 6. I would have answered the phone. 1. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 6. 5. please! Read the text. If I had been at home. 7. 5. I went to England two years ago. ordered) me to come in. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 12. 10. Will you help me. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 4. 2. 2. 9. 9. 3. 8. 8. 7. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . 4. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 1. 11. 2. I will buy a car next year.

complementul indirect si. in unele cazuri. please? 4. In limba engleza. I have been asked. 12. I am asked. 7. I had been asked. 6. 1. Ex. 11. 8. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. 4. 2. 10. I will be asked. 3. Ex. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. 10. In limba româna. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. 5. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. complementul 39 . I was asked.9. 9.

Unde complementul direct este a book. People play football all over the world. Ex. de asemenea. Ex. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today. 40 . my flat is being painted. 9.prepozitional. Desigur. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). In multe cazuri. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. 5. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. 4. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. care. 8. Ex. While I was in hospital. They are building a new house round the corner. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. 2. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. iar complementul indirect este him. He has found your bag. my flat was being painted. Activ: I gave him a book. 7. 1. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. A specialist will repair my TV set. The noise frightened me. While I am in hospital. In aceste situatii. 6. I will invite my friend to a party. Activ: She looked after the child. 3. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. In this office punctuality is insisted on. His coworkers must do something for him. Someone has found the missing child. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. se omite formularea by. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). de la sfârsitul propozitiei.

9.10. Burglars broke into the house. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. They didn’t look after the children properly. We objected to his proposal. They set fire to the shed. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 4. 2. 8. 5. He hasn’t slept in his bed. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 6. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. They will give me a reward. 2. 4. 7. 4. 10. The policeman will show us the way. 7. 3. 8. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. We called for the doctor. 2. They have given me a nice present. 3. 3. 5. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. I teach them English. We laughed at John. 6. 4. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. I have lent John two of my books. 7. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. The teacher asked me a difficult question. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. 9. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 6. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. when I passed by. 8. 9. 5. 2. 3.

Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. 7. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. 2. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. 13. He hates being made fun of. 5. 8. A reception was held in his honour. 10. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. 3. English is spoken all over the world. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. 9. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. 6. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. 4. 5. LECTIA VI 42 . 15. I was recommended a very good doctor. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 11. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 10. 12. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. 7. 2. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 9. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5.10. This book will soon be forgotten. The pupils will be told where to sit. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. These books mustn’t be taken away. 8. 3. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. 6. 14. 6. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic.

can’t Ex. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. I can make this traslation. (Pot sa fac aceasta. could. may. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. shall. Can = infinitiv. should. Can is a model verb. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. would. Ex. will.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. prezent Negativ: cannot. He can speak English.VERBELE MODALE Can. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 . conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". ought to. Can are sensul de a putea. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. might. Ex. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. I can do this. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. Se folosesc inlocuitori. must. Ex. a fi in stare Ex. need. Ex. • Nu au toate timpurile. prezent.

Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. (Stiu sa inot. (Da.) I can speak English. He is abroad. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. Father. nu e posibil sa. Ex. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Ex. Ex. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". May 1. I can swim. Se traduce cu a sti sa. Soarele nu a apus inca. can I take your car? Tata. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Ex. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. poti.). May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada.) Cu acest sens. El e in strainatate. In vorbirea familiara. 2. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street.Ex. a avea permisiunea Ex. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. you may. 3. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. The sun hasn’t set yet. are sensul de a putea. He could have been here in time. mayn’t 44 . Ex. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. Ex. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent.) Negativ: may not.

Ex. se adauga infinitivul trecut. It may/might rain. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. Ring up John. Negativ: must not. It’s got late. Trebuie sa plec acasa. 1. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. Ia-ti umbrela. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. He may/might be at home now. 3. Ex. Must A trebui Ex. 2. May/might pot exprima un repros.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Ex. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. s-ar putea sa ploua. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Ex. I must go home. 45 . Cu acest sens. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. You may/might help me when I am in need. Ex. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. He said I might smoke in that room. Take your umbrella. to be permitted to. Telefoneaza-I lui John. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. S-a facut târziu.

Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
2.

De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:

Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.

Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie

Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.

Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

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Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul

Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?

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Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would

Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:

Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?

A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.

Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
o

in trecut

When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.

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acolo unde este necesar: 1. 3. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 14. 15. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. Nota: In afara de „would". 18. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. You may not speak to your mother like that. I must go soon. I must look up the words in the dictionary. This child may have another cake. 20. She will be her sister. care are numai forma de trecut. 13. 6. 49 . 7. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots.This girl looks very much like Jane. 19. 10. 5. She can lend you that book. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. I must learn English. You may not smoke in this room. 17. 16. When I was a child. 12. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. I cannot translate ten pages a day. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. 1. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". You may leave earlier. He can swim very well. 9. She can play the piano very well. 4. 11. my mother used to read me fairy tales. 8. 2. O fi sora ei. Ex. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple.

He may be at home. John must be ill. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. 3. there is plenty in the fridge. You needn’t do this. It can’t be too late. You must have forgotten to lock the door. 14. He needn’t buy milk. 6. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 1. 18. 2. 8. He ought to tell me the truth. 19. You probably forgot to lock the door. 15. 20. 10.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. You might pay more attention to your work. holidays will be very different. 2. Model: He probably speaks English well. You might change your mind about that. 3. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. You might write to me more often. 7. 11. 4. He must be delayed at the office. 5. He …even drive on its surface. 4. 12. 17. 50 . When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 5. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1. 13. Man …travel through space now. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. It might rain. 1. He must speak English well. He …reach the Moon and walk there. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 16. 9. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. He should go to school everyday. John could be a winner.

8. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 3. He was probably late. It is possible for her to be very late. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 4. He probably thinks I am wrong. He probably came home very early. perhaps it is a good one. 1. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. Don’t wait. Take your umbrella. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. It may/might snow in the mountains. 7. 3. I think she was angry with you. 9. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 51 . perhaps it will rain. 8. 9. 6. 2. but I doubt it.1. 5. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. You have probably forgotten his address. I have bought his latest book. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 10. He is probably older than he looks. 7. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 6. 5. I don’t believe you were right. She is probably a very good doctor. 2. You can’t have been right. 4. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 5. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 6. You can’t be right. It is possible that I come home early. 10.

5. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. 8. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. 10. 9. You … take sleeping pills too often. 6. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. 4. 9. I don’t believe it is his fault. 6. The sky is clear. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. 9. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1.1. You …not go to bed so late at night. People … speak during the concert. When I was young. it will soon start raining. I’ll give you as much as you want. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 2. You … worry about money. 1. You … take an umbrella. 3. 3. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. … you help me solve this problem? 3. You…water the flowers. 7. 7. 2. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 4. 4. please? 7. 9. 2. When I was a teenager. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 1. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. I …wear my hair long. He …read for hours on end. 8. I don’t think the weather will change. I …read one book a day. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 8. 6. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. I don’t believe it was his fault. 5. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. 52 . I don’t think this is a true story. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. they are addictive. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 10. I don’t believe she has got so fat. 5. 10.

She is away. It’ll get stale. 6. You …(buy) so much bread. It …(rain) here. You …(lend) him so many books. 2. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. 10. I …(answer) the questions.2. … you correct my exercise. 2. 7. He …(swim) across the Danube. the road is dry. I …(see) him for that. This door … not unlock. 9.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 3. You …(see) Anna yesterday. 7. 10. I wrote him a letter. Completati spatiile goale cu must. 8. 4. 10. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. We …(wait) too long. Go to sleep. 53 . he is a nice boy. I locked the door and took the key with me. please? This letter is full of mistakes. …you tell me the truth. but I forgot it was Sunday. She …write an article for this magazine every week. I promise you not …be disturbed. he was back soon. which was very convenient. I haven’t got my bag with me. 4. 5. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 5. 3. You …do this whether you like it or not. 6. I …(get up) so early today. 9. you…get a nice present. He …(be) at home. I am sorry you wasted your time. 7. You…(lend) him your text – book. I …(leave) it on the bus. You …(wait) for me. If you win the contest. 3. He has one of his own. he is a very poor swimmer. 11. I …(be) in the garden. The student …(write) such a long composition. which would have saved me a lot of work. John …(do) such a thing. you …re-type it. he will never read them all. 4. for once? This …be John’s house. I …(answer) the questions. 5. The child … (leave) home. 9. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. I didn’t hear the phone. The light was on in his room. 6. 8. 10. 8.

Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 17. Nu. 5. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. 12. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. am baut deja doua astazi. but he himself believes he needn’t. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. 7. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. 2. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. 6. 1. Nu stiu sa crosetez. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. 16. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 8. 9. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. 21. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. Va trebui sa plec curând. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. 14. 13. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal.12. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. 20." Traduceti in limba engleza. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 19. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. 4. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 11. 18. 54 . 10." "His family consider he should. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. 3." "Yes.

Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Ex. 1. 24. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. Ex.22. De asemenea. Vreti. va rog. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. o incuiasem chiar eu. in situatii in care. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. 29. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. o urare. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. may. Come what may. Apare in propozitii exclamative. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. 27. might. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. in engleza contemporana. exprimând o lozinca. 23. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. o dorinta sau un blestem. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. Unde mergem acum? 28. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Fie ce-o fi. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. would + infinitiv. 26.

Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. Ex. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. I wish I had been born in England. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Ex. it is necessary that. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. to demand. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. to urge. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. to suggest. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. 56 .c. Everybody leave the hall. to order Ex. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. It is impossible that he do this. • Ex. to recommend. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. It is necessary that you be present. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. 1. it is desirable that. I wish I were in England now. • I wish (mi-as dori. Ex. apare ca were la toate persoanele. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. d. it is likely that. to insist. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors.

Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. Ex. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. It is time the child went to bed. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. You speak English as if you had lived in England. Ex.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor.) It is high time. (E timpul. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. it is necessary that. In exemplul de mai sus. I would sooner stay at home tonight. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. a. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. 57 . b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. a. Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. It is high time you began to study seriously. It is impossible that he should do this. d)It is time. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. (Era de mult timpul. • Ex. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. 1. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. I wish it would stop raining. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv.) Ex. se foloseste would. It is necessary that you should be present. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight.

why. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). fie in vorbirea indirecta. Intrebari introduse prin how. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Ex. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. to suggest. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. to urge. De asemenea. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala.when. Ex. • Ex. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. It is impossible that he should have done this. • Ex.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. may. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. to demand. to insist. might 58 . Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. Dupa cum se observa. Hurry up lest you miss the train. where. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. fie in vorbirea direca. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. a. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. to recommend. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv.

59 .Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. you have no right to do this. whenever. in secundara se foloseste might. I will ring you up. • Dupa so that. Oricine ai fi. Oriunde as fi. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. it was possible Ex. Whoever you may/might be. It was possible that he might be here in time. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. in secundara se foloseste may. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. iti voi telefona. Wherever I may/might be. Dupa whoever. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. It is possible that he may be here in time. you have no right to do this. I hope that he may pass the exam. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. • Ex. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. wherever. however. No matter who you may/might be. • Dupa it is possible. whichever. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. to be afraid Ex. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. in order that Ex. etc. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. no matter when. • Dupa to hope. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam.

I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry my friend is ill. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. I regret I have no children. 60 . I regret I am not a student. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 8. 1. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I regret I have only one child. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. 5. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 9. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. I wish I could speak English. 7. 2. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry you had an accident. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. Ex. I am sorry books are so expensive. 1. 1. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1. I wish the weather were fine. I regret I can’t go to the concert. 3. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. 6. iar in aceste cazuri.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 10. I am sorry you live so far away. 4. I am sorry it rains so often.

I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 8. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 1. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 5. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 10. 4. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 4. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. 9. 7. 4. 8. 3. It’s time we (go) home. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 8. 9. 61 .2. I was sorry you had got a fine. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. 1. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 6. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 3. 2. 7. I would rather you (close) that window. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 10. I was sorry you were out when I called. You behave as if you (own) the place. 9. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 2. 5. 6. 11. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. I am sorry I was late for the party. 7. 3. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 1. 5. 6.

Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. 9. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 3. 14. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 18. 2. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 62 . 14. 13. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. If only I (become) a millionaire. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 11. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 15. 17. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. As prefera sa merg la teatru. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 16. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 12. 4. 17. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. 20. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 5.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 13. 16. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. 10. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control.

Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. 5. 9. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . 20. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 8. 2. 8. 4. 3. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. la tara. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 3. 6. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. 6.19. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 8. 8. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 7. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. 2. 7. 6. 5. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.

3. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 8. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 2. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. 1. Oricare ar fi motivul. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. The road is wet. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 8. 15. 7. you should remember your own phone number. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 7. Oricât te-ai stradui. 5. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). Oricând te vei intoarce. 11. 10. 10. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 4. 14. I wish my car (not break down) last week. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. Orice mi-ai spune. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 13. 9. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 9.1. 6. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. nu te pot crede. 5. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 3. 2. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 6. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 4. 64 . Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. 12. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. nu ar trebui sa ma minti.

All success (attend) you! 18. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. 19. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). I wish I (find) another. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. diateza si timpuri. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 . The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. I have such a boring job. I wish I (be) there when it happened.16. 17.

Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. verbe exprimând un ordin. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. in cazul verbelor neregulate. to expect. to wish. I want you to go now. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) b. to allow. Ex. to consider. to hate. I’d like him to come with me. to like. to dislike. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. I saw him leave the room.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. to know. to feel. to understand. (Consider ca el este un bun student.) I let him go out and play. Ex. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see.) He ordered the door to be locked. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum.) 66 . Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to believe.) d. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. I made him study English. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) I want John to do this. Ex. to suppose. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. to watch.) c. to cause. I consider him to be a good student. to order. to hear. Ex. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want.

I rely on you to do this. He was declared to be the man of the year. I consider him to be a good student. I made him study English. to know. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. a. He proved to be a good journalist. cu verbele: to happen. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. The news was considered to be false.) They declared him to be the man of the year. to prove. They declared him to be the man of the year. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to count upon/on . to turn out.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. He was made to study English. He is considered to be a good student. Ex. He is said to be a good writer. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.) 67 . to suppose. b. to make. to expect. Ex. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see.) 1. to consider.) f. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. to declare.I expected him to come in time. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to admit. to believe. to hear. to say.) e. He considered the news to be false. verbe declarative: to state. to seem. Ex. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. He admitted the news to be false.

) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. ii voi spune unde esti.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. 68 . (E usor sa fac asta. It is easy for me to do this. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc.) This remains for him to decide.) If I happen to meet him. 1. Ex.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. I will tell him where you are. Ex. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. She is sure to come in time. de obicei.) It is necessary for me to go there.I happened to meet him in the street. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. It is impossible that I (should) come. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". It is necessary that I (should) go there. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) It is impossible for him to come. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. a. 1.

) Weather permitting.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 . aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. (Am auzit-o cântând. to leave. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. (Daca vremea va permite. to watch. am mers acasa. precum si cu verbele to find. 3. Ex. we went home.) I heard her singing.) She was heard singing. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa.to hear. to smell. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând.) 2. we shall go to the beach. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving.) I will have my hair done.) I left / found her crying. (El a fost vazut plecând. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Ex: The classes being over. vom merge la plaja.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. (Ea a fost auzita cântând.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. (Orele fiind terminate.

1. 3. 8. This fact is important. We should have a heart to heart talk. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 2. The people were impatient. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. 9. 3. She had two sons killed in the war. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. This is a valuable piece of advice. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. I can’t solve it. 2. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 4. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. 70 . 2. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. 15. This translation is easy for me to make. Ex. This is a good book. 14. 13. 7. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. 4. This problem is too difficult. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. The match was about to begin. 6. 5. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. You should bear it in mind. 6. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. 12. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. 5.subiect. I cam make it. You should take it. The time has come. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. You should read it. I had my bedroom window broken. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 10. 11.

8. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. at once. cold. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. I ordered a taxi. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 71 . 1. It is important to know the truth. 5. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. Expected that he would resign. 2. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 6. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. It is advisable that you should resign. We should do it now. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. I thought she was unable to win the contest. It is necessary that he be present. It is possible that I might buy a car. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 3. She was thought to be a gifted child. 2. 5. This is a strange thing. 3. Everybody. 7. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 4. 4. 1. 3. 8. 7. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. They heard him repeat it several times. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. 8. It is sure they have had an argument. They said she was ill. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing. I can’t believe she said that. 10. 6. It was proved that she was a liar. 9. I have closed the window. It is impossible that he should have said that. 4. It’s time we met again. 10. 9. 9.7. It is important that you should come to the office.

5. I found her digging in the garden. I saw the peasants working in the field. the audience left the hali. I saw her fainting. The decision being taken in my favour. 5. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. 10. The concert being over. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. 3. The dog was heard barking. The mud having ruined my shoes. 2. She heard the baby crying. I went home relaxed. The sun having risen. 4. 6. we were seared about having floods. I found the boy breaking the window. 6. The rain having stopped. l. 3. I went shopping. The letter being written. we sat down to dinner. I could hear her typing. Everybody being at home. 7. 10. I went to post it. 8. I saw her lying on the beach. 7. 8. The plane having taken off.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. I stopped smoking. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. She heard the hunters shooting. 4. 9. 10. 2. 9. I saw the plane landing. 6. 72 . The river having risen in the night. we hurried to the beach. Weather permitting. I had to change them. 5. I heard the child breaking the vase.

CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .

I don’t love. are you waiting? I am waiting. Do I always believe? 6. Do you like? 8. They don’t live. We aren’t studying. 8. Are you typing? 5. I always have. He isn’t telling. Do they live? 8. You don’t play. 4. Do you go? 16. Is Ann knitting? 10. Do you usually get. It snows in winter. Do I trust? 10. 6. don’t understand. 11. 2. I don’t like coffee. I don’t understand. write. 19. 13. I am not having. Is my mother resting? 8. My friend isn’t wearing. do you do? 3. The child isn’t learning. He doesn’t remember. Is my friend wearing? 7. 20.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. 3. Whom are you ringing up? 13. drinks. he walks. Do I understand? 4. Now I am doing my homework in English. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. I don’t have. Are you writing. it is raining. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. are you thinking? I am thinking. On Sundays. They aren’t swimming. Am I having? 3. Are they swimming? 6. Are we studying? 9. it often rains. 1 am cooking. Does he have? 9. 12. 7. 7. Do you smoke? 17. always borrow/is always borrowing. Do I love? 2. Does he remember? 7. Ann isn’t knitting. Why 74 . He doesn’t go to school by underground. I don’t trust. am taking. I am not going. She doesn’t talk. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. he doesn’t get up early. 14. 6. remembers. speaks. Is it raining? 2. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 9. 14. Does she talk? 3. Is he telling? 4. Do you play? 5. 1 don’t like. What do you do on your free days? 12. 4. is drinking. 15. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. 5. 2. She goes shopping on Saturdays. My mother isn’t resting. am. I do not study in the evening. are you hurrying? I don’t want. he is having. What book are you reading? 10. It isn’t raining. 18. 10. Do you dream? I dream 9. The secretary is just typing a report. He doesn’t have. go. You aren’t typing. I don’t always believe.

he had. 6. I didn’t sell. She is packing her luggage. 20. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. my friends played chess. He didn’t translate. someone rang up. 5. Did he translate? 10. he wasn’t wearing. were you going. Last Sunday. I found this old photo. Did he come? 8. You spoke. Did he change? 5. I met. I owned. Did we work? 7. 7. I didn’t enjoy. Did he think? 2. 7. He met. While I was looking for my passport. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. were you doing? 7. 17. 10. 9. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. Exercitiul 4: 1. Did they drink? 3. 3. 10. 5. 8. Last night. 10. 5. That sounded. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I arrived. 4. I played. Yesterday I lost 75 . 2. Exercitiul 2: 1. He didn’t change. he was-learning.are you opening the window? I5. He didn’t come. he realized. 4. I entered. Did you sleep well last night? 3. 16. I like to swim a lot. 9. 3. 1 liked. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. I always made. He didn’t think. 2. she was having. I was watching. Did I hate? 4. You asked. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 4. When I go to the seaside. 19. When did you return from the mountains? 11. 2. This time yesterday it was raining. the teacher was writing. I got up late yesterday morning. 8. 6. I didn’t hate. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. 9. How often do you write to your parents? 18. Yesterday. He didn’t forbid. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. I often read English books. I was writing. 1 first met. They didn’t drink. Did I sell? 6. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. Did I enjoy? 9. What were you doing last Tuesday. 8. you came in. I was talking. You drank. 6. I slept. he was working. We didn’t work.

6. I didn’t succeed. I haven’t written. I got. have you cooked? 7. He hasn’t come. Exercitiul 2: l. began. 3. 14. 10. 19. Have you paid? 19. 6. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. I have been asking. Exercitiul 4: 1. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 13. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 5. the engine – drivers have gone. He has been fishing. 9. she has been trying. 9. 6. Have you ever eaten? 13. I have bought. The weather has got warmer lately. Have you seen? she left. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 11 . I have been watering. He has been sleeping. Have you ever tried? I tried. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. I5. 16. 1t hasn’t rained. Have you lived? I have lived. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. 5. Have you been. I had breakfast and then I left for school. I was driving to Sinaia. I have been cooking. Have you read? 18. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I saw. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 18. While it was raining. He sat for his first exam last week. He has been. The child has been playing. 8. 8.my gloves. Yesterday I got up early. have you been. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. 2. 10. I got up. I returned. I have been wearing. I have lost. 9. 3. How long have you been learning English? 5. 5. I have already seen. 17. The radio has been playing. I was. 4. Have you watered? 3. 14. 10. I have’ been shopping. It has been raining. 4. He has been a Minister for 76 . I have lent. we left. She has changed. Have you been? I have been. 8. I haven’t been. have you been wearing? 6. 7. 2. I have been doing. he has caught. 20. Exercitiul 3: I. Have you visited? 12. He has just left. Have you ever driven? 16. 4. I have just had. 7. 17. 4. He hasn’t gone. He has always relied. We have known.

Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. had left. 5. I entered. had been swimming. 2. It has been snowing for two hours. 10. 4. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. it had been raining. 20. I had it at 8 o’clock. I rang him up. 6. 13. he had caught. congratulated. I found out. 9. 8. had spread. 6. he went. 11. we had lost. 5. 4. had been speaking. had been climbing. I had returned. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. I spent a month here. Exercitiul 4: 1.two years. she had been studying. he had been. She had just gone out. 2. he went. 3. 9. We must replace it. she had been writing. Have you been to this town before? Yes. Has John left? Yes. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 7. he left an hour ago. What did you look at? It was an accident. 10. we had been walking. A child has broken the window. had been having. she had been cleaning and dusting. Exercitiul 2: 1. they had been. 4. 2. 8. it had been raining. 7. had listened. it had been raining. 6. 9. had been cooking. 7. 19. they had been waiting. 10. Since I bought a car. I was sorry I had hurt him. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. he had visited. 12. I had met. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 5. he told. they had finished. he had thought. 3. had not told. 18. 9. 14. 8. 15. she had already been. 2. Exercitiul 3: 1. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. We have walked 10 km so far. 10. I have seldom walked to my office. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 7. we asked. 8. we realized. 3. he had learned/he had been learning. I called. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. she told. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. he had got married. she had not passed. two years ago. 3. he 77 . had eaten.

By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house.handed it to the teacher. 8. 5. will have spent. 2. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 10. they will be having their last English class. 4. Wil1 you remember? 9. I shall/will have paid off. 6. 5. 6. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. I went to bed. 7. 2. 7. As soon as the guests had left. I realized I had left my bag at home. 6. I shall/will succeed. On Friday. 8. 7. I shall/will have finished. 5. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 9. You will not/won’t find. I shall/will have been cooking. Exercitiul 4: 1. Will you be needing? 5. You will like. 3. 10. 2. I shall/will have been working. She will be watching. 3. 4. they will have been married. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. will have risen. 7. We shall/will have taken. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. I shall/will know. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. Will you recognize? 4. He will be. I shall/will have read 8. By this time next year. 10. between twelve and one o’clock. When I arrived at the bus stop. I shall/will pass. 10. I shall/will remember. Because of 78 . 5. I shall/will have saved five million lei. You will have seen. 6. will/shall will be climbing. 8. I shall/will be having. You will be. 9. it will probably be raining. 9. 8. I shall/will be working. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 3. Exercitiut 2: 1. 6. wilt be rising. I shall/will be swimming. 4. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 7. will be crying. 2. 3. He will be studying.

17. she has changed. 7. 8. you would soon have. 7. 9. we had been digging. Exercitiul 5: 79 . 9. 6. 3. 2. had already begun. I would remain. did not remember. 5. I have. 4. you see. 6. I played/I was playing. 5. 10. he had stolen. I usually read. 10. you have drunk. 8. 9. Exercitiul 2: 1. 14. I had read. Exercitiul 4: 1. You had to type. 20. he has arrived. 10. 9. 4. 15. 8. is born. 4. would be cancelled. prices would go up. 5. 6. 2. she has learnt. 4. begin. I had done. 11. he would win. you see. 2. she looks. you see. 3. she notices you have broken. you spoke. he would give. would end. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I had not enjoyed. I had heard. 19. he wanted. he had left. you were. 6. you finish. we reach. they were talking. he would pass. 9. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 16. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. he had been travelling. 2. he has repaired. they have been.the strike of the bus – drivers. he had just left. 10. 18. he tells. 7. 13. he would drive. 7. I finish. 3. he would finish. was shining. 3. I have received. 10. they would remain. you were. 5. you have read. I had lost. Exercitiul 3: 1. 12. you have just told. 8. arrive.

I had not eaten. he had never seen. do not eat. I work/I worked. 11. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. it goes on. we went. he would not remember. I had not decided. 9. 14. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. 3. you are reading. she will be. 12. 4. 16. 19. I will earn/will be earning. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 5. he would have. had failed.1. 15. 8. you take. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. Exercitiul 6: 1. 11. I read. I will buy. 8. I was. he had not expected. 13. I will lend. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. you will be. is. would not go. you will not find. we will drink. 8. 4. I finish. 17. 7. he trusted. Exercitiul 7: l. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. I have suffered. 7. 9. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. he had eaten. 12. 6. they had known. 4. 5. 8. is. you had been wearing. I have been reading. 3. 3. 9. will you promise? 6. it would not be raining when I arrived. 10. he hoped. I knew you were in Bucharest. 5. I would spend. they had been listening. Exercitiul 2: 80 . 7. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. I will greet 2. they have done. melts. 10. 5. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. 18. he would change. is. he had to write. 6. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. 2. I was. will soon move. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 6. 10. 9. you do. 2. I want. 10. there are. 2. 7. you will not pass. 4. 3. 20.

7. 6. Would you buy? 4. 8. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 10. 2. 7. 10. 10. you had driven. he would have told. I would have answered. he leaves. I knew. 5. 7. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. you wouldn’t have got. It would have been. 9. 9. I would buy. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. would you give him some? 3. 5. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. 4. I would like the play more if it were shorter.1. 7. 3. If a beggar asked you for money. I moved. 2. 3. he would take. 9. Exercitiul 4: l. 8. I would have answered. If it had rained. I will answer. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. 4. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 5. What would you do if you meet John? 12. you will be. I would not have made. 2. 6. 4. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 9. you were. the streets will be wet. 2. he would not make. I had worked. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. I saw. I were. 8. he will get. 7. 6. 6. I will eat at a restaurant. I had not told. I had known. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. Exercitiul 5: 1. you had invited. I wouldn’t do. 6. LECTIA IV 81 . Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 2. 3. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. I gave up. 5. he had realized. If dinner is not ready in time. you would have read. 8. the streets would have been wet. 10. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. the streets would be wet. If it rains. You will see him if you wait. 5. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. If it rained. he had tried. 3.

10. 10. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He told me to read that text. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 6. He said he had seen that film a week before. 2. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He asked me when I 82 . He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 9. He told me not to smoke so much. 4. 8. 2. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. 11. 5. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. 4. He said he had gone to England two years before. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 3. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 3. 8. 7. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. Exercitiul 3: 1. 12. He asked me if I could lend him a book. He said he was very busy on that day. 9. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said she would go shopping right then. He told me to open the door. He asked me how long I had been learning . Exercitiul 2: 1.English. 4. 4. 7. 12. 7. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 5. He asked me if I would like a cake. 3. 3. 9.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. 6. He told me to be careful with his books. He asked me if I would help him. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He asked me if the train had left. 2. 8. 2. He told me to take that pill. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 5. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. 11. He said the weather had been fine the day before.

The work will be finished today (by them). He asked me where I would spend my weekend.would be back. 10. 6. A nice present has been given to me (by them). He asked me how I had travelled. Exercitiul 2: 1. when I passed by. 5. We will be shown the way by the policeman. 10. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). 9. 3. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 6. The missing child has been found (by someone). 8. 4. 5. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. English is taught to them (by me). I will be given a reward (by them). He asked me when the rain had stopped. 7. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 6. They are taught English (by me). He asked me who that man was. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). A reward will be given to me (by them). Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 9. John has been lent two of my books (by me). The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. 4. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). 9. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 2. Exercitiul 3: 83 . 8. 7. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 3. 5. 8. I have been given a nice present (by them). Your bag has been found (by him). I was frightened by the noise. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 10. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. Football is played all over the world. 7. 2. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury).

Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 10. Were you told about the meeting? 9. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Exercitiul 6: l. 6. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. He hates people making fun of him. 7. 2. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. 2. They held a reception in his honour. The doctor was called for (by us). 5. 9. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. 3. John was laughed at (by us). Has the TV set been repaired? 2. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). Has the dog been fed? 7. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 4. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 6. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 2. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. We were asked to show our passports. 8. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). The rescue party finally discovered the climber. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students.: 3. 5. 11. Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. 10. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 9. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 3. People mustn’t take away these books. 6. Fire was set to the shed (by them). Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. Detailed 84 .1. His proposal was objected to (by us). People speak English all over the world. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). 4. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. The house was broken into (by burglars). 4. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 8. They have built this house out of stone and cement. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 7. 7. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. People will soon forget this book. 9. We were told very interesting things at the conference. 8. Will the letter be written in ink? 3.

You can’t have seen. 8. John must have been. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 12. You didn’t have to do. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. She will be able to lend. She will be able to play. 2. 17. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. I had to go. I had to learn. I couldn’t translate. You won’t have to do. 5. 6. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. He ought to have told. He must have been delayed. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. She will be able to read and write. 19. Exercitiul 2: 1. You might have changed. You can’t have been. He should have gone. 13. It can’t have been. I will have to learn.instructions will be given to us about the paper. She could play. I won t be able to translate. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 15. It can t have been. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 16. He will be able to swim. 8. 7. 12. 3 It might have rained. She could lend. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. Many new blocks are being built in our district. 18. You needn’t have done. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. He must have been. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. He could swim. It must 85 . 10. He may have been. I will have to go. 9. The child was allowed/permitted to have. 10. 2. 14. He could read and write. 7. You might have written. 14. You might have paid. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 3. 4. 15. 13. 14. You should have visited. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 5. 4. 15. 16. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. I had to look up. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 11. He was not allowed/permitted to come. 12. The museum was closed for repairs. He needn’t have bought. I will have to look up. 6. 13. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke.

The weather can’t change. would. 9. needn’t. 9. It may/might rain. can. She can’t have married. 5. You can’t miss the train. 7. 19. He can’t be at the office. 6. It must have taken a long time. 10. 4: She must be a very good doctor. It can’t have been his fault. 4. 6. You must have left your umbrella. 6. She may/might have been angry. You must have known the lesson. needn’t. 2. would. should. It may/might be a good one. 3. He must have been late. should. would. 20. S. 9. 4. Exercitiul 9: 86 . She can’t have learned English. He may/might have done. can’t. 3. She can’t have got. He may/might have been right. 3. needn’t. 6. 3. 7. 8. 6. He must be older. Exercitiul 4: l. This can’t be a true story. Exercitiul 7: 1. 10. 5. should. 5. can. 10. 7. He must think. mustn’t. 5. would. She may/might have returned. 6. Exercitiul 3: 1. Exercitiul 6: 1. needn’t. 8. needn’t. John could have been. 8. can. 7. 4. 4. 10.have been. mustn’t. She may/might have been out. Exercitiul 5: 1. can’t. He must have come home. 2. He can’t have passed. 5. can. 2. 9. You shouldn’t have gone. 10. I may/might come home. 3. would. 2. mustn’t. 4. This must be the best. 9. should. mustn’t. 5. 2. It can’t be his fault. 7. Exercitiul 8: l. 8. She may/might be very late. would. You must have forgotten. 3. mustn’t. 2. A good knowledge of English may/might help you.

You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 14. needn’t have answered. 9. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 5. will. 2. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. You will have to help me more today. must have been. can’t have left. I can’t knit. 2. shall. must have been. will. 6. 7. 9. 2. 8. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 6. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. No. Exercitiul 11: 1. I could play the piano when I was a child. shall. 7. will. 11. 10. needn’t have bought. 3. 10. 9. shall. 3. needn’t have lent. I rang you up and 87 . 16. 4. 20. needn’t have waited. 6. a porter could help you. I have already drunk two. needn’t have got up. 19. Exercitiul 10: 1. 17. 3. 7. can’t have seen. 10. 10. 9. I will have to leave soon. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 5. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. didn’t need to see. 8. All the students can and must write this paper. didn’t need to answer. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 8. didn’t need to wait. 3. You needn’t have made coffee for me. didn’t need to buy. Exercitiul 13: 1. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. will. shall. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. Exercitiul 12: 1. can’t have swum. 7. must have taken. 4. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. can’t have done. 4. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. can’t have rained. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. today. needn’t have written. 4. 5. 18. will. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. needn’t have lent. 13. 12. 5. 2. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 6. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 8.1. will. must have left.

I wish I could pay the piano. 2. I promise you. 3. 9. 23. 9. I wish you would come on holiday with me. I wish I had money to buy that painting. I must have been still at the faculty. 5. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 6. 8. Exercitiul 3: 1. S. 10. 4. Exercitiul 2: l. 7. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. I wish I could go to the concert. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. 88 . 3. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 3. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 10. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 8. 4. 6. 2. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. I had locked it myself 27. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 25. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. I wish you would take a driving licence. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. 26. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. You ought to/should have insisted. You can’t have found the door open. Where shall we go now? 28. I wish I were a student. I wish they would sign the contract.nobody answered. You may not speak during the exam. I wish you had won the competition. 2. 5. 21. 29. 9. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 1 wish I had children. 6. wait for a few minutes? 30. you shall have the book tomorrow. 8. 4. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 24. Will you. I wish I lived in Bucharest. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 7. I wish I had won the Great Prize. I wish my friend weren’t ill. please. 22. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. I wish it didn’t rain so often. I wish he would accept my proposal. 10. 7.

13. 9. 8. I were. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. he would have. I would become. we went. we could go to the beach. 3. you didn’t waste. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 6. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. you owned. my telephone worked. 2. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 3. 20. I would rather you went to the theatre. 16. S. 13. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 17. too. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. Exercitiul 6: 1. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. Exercitiul 5: l. 10. 6. you closed. watched. 12. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 16. You speak as if you were angry with me. he took. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. 10. 15. hadn’t caught a cold. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. you started. 17. I had entered. 19. 9. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 9. I were. 18. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. his daughter didn’t get married. I got. 14. you were. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 11. 18. 2. I stayed. his book would become. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 12. 7. I would rather you got up earlier. 4. 5. 11. 19. It is important that you (should) know English well. She looks as if she were a model. 4. 4. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. stopped. he told. 20. 14. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . I hadn’t forgotten.Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 8. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. 6. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2.

It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. 17. he were. 9. Whenever you may/might return. 8. 4. 10. you may/might be. you shouldn’t have believed it. 6. 5. 4. 6. 3. I would find. you retired. may attend. you can’t win such a competition. Exercitiul 8: 1. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 16. 12. 8. It is possible that she might be away. 20. Whatever the reason may/might be. 11. (should) have. 13. you may/might understand. 2. 7. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. we should take. 5. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 2. 9. 7. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 3. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 18. 15. I had been. it might not get. Exercitiul 9: 1. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. you shouldn’t lie to me. he were. she should have left. 19. I will be at home waiting for you. No matter how hard you may/might try. 8. 6. 7. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 5. we (should) leave. 4. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . it should get. 10. you should have. Whatever you may/might tell me. might prosper. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. I had. hadn’t broken down. 3. 2. I can’t believe you. should have told. 14.Brasov? 10. they (should) divorce.

It is necessary for him to be present. She (was) proved to be a liar. She was said to be ill. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. 9.1. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. It is advisable for you to resign. 10. He was heard to repeat it several times. 3. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 2. 10. John admitted the fault to be his. 10. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 7. 3. I expected you to come earlier. It’s time for us to meet again. 6. 9. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 7. I saw some children playing in the park. 9. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 5. 6. 3. 15. He was expected to resign. 4. I think him to be a good husband. I saw him speaking to his friend. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 8. 7. 12. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 8. 6. Exercitiul 5: 91 . I rely on you to lend me some money. She made me understand what had happened. 2. 2. It is impossible for him to have said that. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. I understand her to be a very good teacher. She seemed to be satisfied with me. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 13. He wanted me to help him. It is possible for me to buy a car. 4. 6. This is the main thing for us to do. They are sure to have had an argument. I watched them playing football. 10. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. He made me miss the train. 11. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 9. 5. Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. It is recommendable for you to read this book. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 2. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 8. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 4. 14. This is a good book for you to read. 4. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 3. 8. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. The people were impatient for the match to begin.

She was seen lying on the beach. 5. am plecat la cumparaturi. 3. 8. 6. 7. neam asezat la cina. 9. 2. Intrucât ploaia incetase. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. am mers sa o pun la posta. publicul a parasit sala. Toata lumea fiind acasa. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 2. She could be heard typing. 3. The plane was seen landing. Concertul fiind terminat. Exercitiul 6: 1. a trebuit sa-i schimb. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. 5. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. The baby was heard crying. 10. The hunters were heard shooting. She was seen fainting. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. The child was heard breaking the vase. 9. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii.1. 7. The peasants were seen working in the field. am plecat acasa linistit. Daca vremea va permite. 8. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 4. 4. She was found digging in the garden. The boy was found breaking the window. 6. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. Intrucât soarele rasarise. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 . 10.

to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .

to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend

forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

94

to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot

let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot

let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot

95

to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim

showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam

shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum

96

to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .

98 .

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