LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous

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Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous

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1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.

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7. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. I always (have) a rest after lunch. 13. 10. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. as I (not want) to miss the first act. 4 . except Saturdays and Sundays. 11. You (like) this book? 8. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (go) to work every day? Yes. I (be). I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 15. 18. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. You (dream) at night? Yes. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. of course. I (dream) every night. 12. You (write) to John now? Yes. 9. as usual. 14.6. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. but he is late. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. 16.

19. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. 16. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. 20. 2. 7. Ce carte citesti? 10. Iarna ninge. B. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. You (know) what time is it? 4. 14. 3. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. 9. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Ex. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. 4. 19. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. 17. 6. merge pe jos. Eu nu studiez seara. forma II. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Ea isi face bagajul. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat.Paste Tense. Ex. 8. Nu-mi place cafeaua. forma III – participiul trecut. Adesea citesc carti englezesti.

Se traduce. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. I was watching TV. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Yesterday I went for a walk.) 6 . de obicei. cu imperfectul. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. Ex. Ex. This time yesterday. Se traduce. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.) Last year I travelled to England.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). terminata. de obicei. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. Este timpul de naratiune. terminata. cu perfectul compus. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta.

Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. I play football. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. He translated the text. I own two umbrellas. 9. Ex. He meets John on Sundays. You drink too much. in aceeasi fraza. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). 10. In aceasta situatie. I enjoyed travelling. 4. I hated him. de asemenea. He came home late. 7. his sister was watching TV. 4. 6. We worked very hard. 3. Este. I met John. 7 . 1. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. He thought about you. (In timp ce John citea. 2. 7. 5. In acest caz. 8. in plina desfasurare. intr-un moment trecut. ele aratând actiuni paralele.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. That sounds interesting. He changed his library book every day. They drank all the wine. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. I always make cakes on Sundays. While John was reading. 9. sora lui privea la televizor. I like to have a coffee in the morning. I sold my car. 2. 3. He forbade her to do this. You ask too many questions. You speak English well. 1. 10. While I was crossing the street. 8. 6. Ex. 5.Adesea.

2. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. When I (enter) the classroom. 10. 9. When I (arrive). 4. I (watch) a film on TV. This time last Sunday. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. 19. 15. When I first (meet) him. 20. 5. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 9. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. 2. 8 . 11. he (have) an accident. 3. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. 1. 12. 8. I talk on the phone. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. 10. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. 6. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. When you (come in). Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. someone (ring up). he (work) in a bank. While he (learn) to drive. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. 5. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. 18. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 4. 16. she (have) dinner. As I (write). M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. 1. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. 7.

He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. In acest caz. this week. • Ex. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. incepând din) si for (de. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua.) I have known John for two years. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. I haven’t seen John for two months.) I haven’t seen John since September. I have seen two films this week. this year.) I have known John since 1990. timp de). 9 . C. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. 22. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent.) arata o actiune trecuta. • Ex. this month. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din.21.

dintr-un motiv sau altul. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. De asemenea. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. In acest caz. already. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". Ex. I must buy a new one. I must buy a new one. Ex. intereseaza in prezent. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . I haven’t got up early this morning. seldom. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. I didn’t get up early this morning.m. se foloseste Past Simple. arata o actiune trecuta. always.m. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . Ex. just. ora 2 p. I lost my umbrella yesterday. • Ex.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. ever. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. Ex. ora 10 a. terminata. never. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca.

yet (in propozitii negative).No. intre un moment trecut si prezent. Ex.) De asemene. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. care continua in prezent. vom avea inundatii. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1.) Dupa cum se poate observa. He has not (hasn’t) been working. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. I am tired because I have been working all day. I have often been to England. cu accent pe durata. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. 11 . se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. Ex.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. Yes. If it doesn’t stop soon.) I haven’t seen him lately. (Ploua de trei ore. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. I have never been to England. fie cu perfectul compus. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. we shall have floods. Daca nu se opreste in curând. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. Ex. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". It has been raining for three hours. sa continue si in viitor. He hasn’t returned home yet. in functie de context.

7. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. I (live) here for one year. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 5. He just (leave) home. I (cook) all the morning. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. I (water) the flowers. It (not rain) since December. 18. she (try) to make trouble. He always (rely on) his friend. 10. I’m tired of it. I (lend) him some money today. How long you (live) here? 22. You must come and see it. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. 12. I already (see) this film. You ever (drive) a car? 17. 21. The radio (play) since 7 a. He (not go) to bed yet. He (not come) home yet. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. 2. 3.1. I (buy) a new house. 15. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 16. 12 . You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. It’s time we woke him up. 10. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. Would you like a cake? 7. When are you going to do it? 12. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. Ever since that woman came to work here.m. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. I (not be) to the seaside this year. No. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. 11. 1. I just (have) one. 6. 4. 9. thank you. 5. We (know) each other for several years. 11. 2. You (water) the flowers? 3. 8. 4. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now.

When you (use) it last? 2. 10. A fost un accident. 9. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. 4. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 . 10. 7. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. El este ministru de doi ani. 1.Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. 9. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. 11. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. I (get) a job last month. 3. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. I haven’t. 13. I am not out of work now. 1. Un copil a spart geamul. 16. Ninge de doua ore. 8. 18. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. 6. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 7. 12. 8. I (lose) my pen. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. Nu am mers la vot. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 14. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. De când mi-am cumparat masina. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. You (see) your mother this week? No. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. 6. 11. 4. You (not see) it anywhere? No. You (be) out of work long? 5.

Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. Afirmativ I had worked. Ex. Da.19. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. am petrecut o luna aici.) When you rang me up. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. ca si Present Perfect. un verb de relatie. l-am luat la ora 8. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. terminasem de scris temele. I had finished writing my homework. 25. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . acum doi ani. a plecat acum o ora. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. D. A plecat John? 20. Afirmativ I had been working. dar. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Este. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 21. in acest caz. Da. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. 23.) Ca sens. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. Da.

(El a spus ca ploua de trei zile.) He said it had been raining for three days. it (rain) for one hour. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. When we met them. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. 3. When I left home.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. (Când el a intrat in camera. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. 6. When he entered the room. 4. she (study) the subject for a week. When I arrived home. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. After they (finish) dinner. 2. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. they drank some coffee. 8. 1. 10. I (return) from school. 2. When she sat for the exam. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. 15 . Ex. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. he got bored. 5. she had been typing for one hour. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. 9. 4. She said she already (be) to England. De asemenea. At 3 o’clock on Friday. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. mother (cook) for two hours.) Dupa cum se observa. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. 1.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. 7. ea batea la masina de o ora. 3. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. s-a plictisit.

8. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 16 . After John (listen to) the news bulletin. we (climb) for 7 hours. When we reached the top. 2. we (realize) we (lose) our way. When I called on her unexpectedly. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. am mers la culcare. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 1. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. 6. After we (walked) for an hour. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. she felt chilly. 6. 5. After Jane (swim) for half an hour.5. When we arrived at Sinaia. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). 1. 10. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. 4. I realized she (have) a party. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. When I rang her up. 9. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. 9. 8. a inmânat-o profesorului. 5. After John (leave). she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 3. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 10. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 2. 3. 7. 6. 7. When I (find out) he (get married). she (write) letters for one hour. 4. When she decided to have a rest.

E. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. You will be going. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. They will be going.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. You will be going. Ex. He/she/it will be going. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. se foloseste numai „shall". We (shall) will be going. 9. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Negativ 17 . I (shall) will meet him next week. 10. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna.7. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. will la persoana II si III. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. 8.

They will have gone. We (shall) will not be going. You will have gone. At three o’clock. You will not be going. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. They will not have gone.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 .I (shall) will not be going. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. I will be travelling to England. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Ex. We (shall) will not have gone. You will have gone. He/she/it will not be going. You will not have gone. You will not have gone. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. (have + forma III). You will not be going. Ex. I will have reached Predeal. He/she/it will have gone. They will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. By three o’clock tomorrow. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. He/she/it will not have gone. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna.

He said he would be late. I (shall) will have been going.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". he would be travelling to England. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. Ex. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. Când vei veni tu acasa. When you come home. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. I should (would) be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. He said that at 3 o’clock.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. the next day. Este un timp rar folosit. I will have been studying for three hours. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Ex. (El a spus ca va intârzia. 19 . voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex.

6. He (be) pleased if you invite him.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. • Ex.) It is going to rain. 3.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. • Ex. I am meeting John this morning. 7. Intr-un astfel de context. la ora 3. I hope I (pass) the exam. I am sure I (succeed). bine stabilit. Arata o intentie. 1. 8. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. 20 . • Ex. I am sure you (like) this book. 10. 2. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. You (be) in London tomorrow. I am going to read this book. arata un program precis. I (remember) this day all my life. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. I (know) the results in three days’ time. I leave for London tomorrow. va calatori spre Anglia. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. 5. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine.

He (study) all day tomorrow. 5. I (cook) for two hours. I (pay off) all my debts. 4. Pâna la ora 1. 9. 9. 10. 3. When you reach Sinaia. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. 7.m. By the end of the season. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. 21 . 10. 4. 2. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. 4. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. If we don’t hurry. 2. This time next day. 6. 8. Voi vizita târgul international. 2.1. the baby (cry). the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. 7. Next year. 4. By 5 o’clock. By the time you come home. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 5. I (work) at the office till late at night. they (be married) for 25 years. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. we (climb) the mountain. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. By the end of the month. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. it probably (rain). Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. By the beginning of next week. She (watch) TV. 7. Let’s hurry to the beach. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. 8. 6. I (work) on this paper for a month. I am sure when I arrive home. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. When I take the exam. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. I (have) breakfast. This time next month. I (swim) in the sea. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. 3. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. 6. we (take) our exam. In a week’s time. 3. Don’t expect me home for dinner.

10. Past Perfect Simple. intre orele 12 si 1.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . ci in fraze. (El a spus ca este bolnav.8. nu in propozitii. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. mâine. (El a spus ca merge la scola. desigur. E un obiect frumos. Present Tense Continuous. Vineri. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. 9.) He said he was going to school. Propozitia principala 1. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. Past Tense Continuous. 11. Present Perfect Simple. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza.

(El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data. Ex. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 .He said he had returned home a week before. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate).) She promised her mother she would help her. He said he would come to see me when he had time. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining.) 1.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale. Ex.

) b. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. de exemplu. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. sa ajunga regula. Se poate intâlni. 3.) I will have finished studying when you come home. 1.a. Ex. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Pentru moment insa. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 . 2. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. cu timpul. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. Ex. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. Ex.

When it started to rain. 25 . 5. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. 10. 3. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. She told me his name after he (leave). They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 2. 4. the concert already (begin). 1. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. It was clear they (talk) business again. 10. I congratulated him. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 8. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 9.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. I understood you (be) a painter. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. 7. 8. 7. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 3. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. After I (hear) the news. 1. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 4. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 9. When I arrived. Looking out of the window. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 6. 2. When he finally reached London. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 1. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 6. 5. I was not sure if you (speak) English. They didn’t know that I (play) football.

I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. 4. 10. 8. 16. 17. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 7. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. After he (repair) the car. 6. When their first baby (be born). Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. 3. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 4. 8. he will drive to Sinaia. they will have been married for five years. As soon as the holidays (begin). I will lend it to you. When I heard the main actor was ill. 11. this beach will become very crowded. 9. When I (finish) the book. 12. 26 . We all believed he (win) the competition. we supposed prices (go up). I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. 14. 7. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). As wages had gone up. 2. 15. too. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 1. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop.2. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. she will take a job as a secretary. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. I shall have typed all the letters. 13. After she (learn) to type. 3. By the time you (finish) translating the text. 6. 5. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. 9. He promised he (drive) me home. 10. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 5. I was sue the performance (be cancelled).

When we (go) to see them last night. not before. precum si exceptiile: 1. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 4. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 6. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 19. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. He told me he never (see) the sea. 5. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. I (not decide) yet. After you (drink) a coffee. He was very upset because I (be) late. 27 . 6. 2. 6. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 7. 5. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 4. 7. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 3. 5. In 1998. 3. 10. 8. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 8. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 20. you will feel better. 2. 9. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. they were listening to music. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. I will do it when I (want) to.18. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 9.

I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 8. 12. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. 5. 19. 2. 14. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 4. 3. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 20.10. 11. 17. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 18. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. A week ago. 9. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 7. 6. 12. After we have finished dinner. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 16. After having visited Italy. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. 11. 7. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. LECTIA III 28 . 15. 10. 13. When I finally arrived home. he decided he (change) his job. You will never know how much I (suffer).

ar merge etc.MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 . Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t.). la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. wouldn’t. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). ai merge.

cu exceptia verbului „to be". (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. ar fi mers etc.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. ai fi mers. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna.) I will stay at home if it rains.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine.). (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna.) I would stay at home if it rained. unde 30 .) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine.

dar improbabila. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. providing. In acest caz. we would be fined. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. were. noi am fi amendati. If she should ring up. If the police should find out the truth. in loc de Present Simple. should). should se traduce cu: in caz ca. este posibila 31 . De asemenea. supposing. in case.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). Ex.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. suppose. had.se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. tell her I am out. Ex. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. In caz ca telefoneaza. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. What shall we do.

Were I in your place. If I (give up) smoking. 2. we shall have floods. I (buy) a car. If he were more careful. I (buy) it. she (be) very angry. Ex. 1. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. 4. 8. you (not find) me at home. If I won the lottery.omiterea lui if. Should he have a headache. Unless you study more. I (greet) him. you (not pass) the exam. Unless you come at 6. 7. you will have to look after it. 2. 9. 8. If I see him. If I (know) his phone-number. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. If I like the dress. he (not make) so many mistakes. 5. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. 5. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. I (not do) this. you (be) late. I would ring him up. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 1. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. I would be nervous. 10. If you don’t hurry. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 3. 7. would you visit me? 3. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. If I tell you something. If she finds out what has happened. 9. If it (go on) raining. he (take) a pill. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. If I (move) to the country-side. If you (take) a dog.

You (be) sick if you eat so much. 2. he (get) a bar of chocolate. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. you (not get) into trouble. 6. 4. 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 6. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. strazile vor fi ude. Daca ar ploua. If I (be) you. strazile ar fi ude. 1. 5. you wouldn’t have an accident. strazile ar fi fost ude. 5. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. 8. I would go home immediately. If I (see) him. he would have gone home. If I (not tell) him. I would have succeeded. I (answer) the phone. 7. I (answer) your question if I can. 2. If the child is good. If I (work) harder. I (answer) it. he would never have known. 4. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 3. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. He (tell) you if you had asked him. If he (realize) it was so late. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 6. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. 1. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 9. Had I been at home. 3. It (be) better if you had waited. If you had taken my advice. 5. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If you (drive) more carefully. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. 2. 3. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 10. 9. Dacaar fi plouat. 1. 7. 4. 33 . Had I learned English grammar. I would speak to him. If you had known English. 8. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. If he had written a letter to me. 10.

in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 . 11. I-ai da? 3. 8. 1. 6. voi mânca la un restaurant. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. 5. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. 9. mi-ar fi fost frig. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. 12. 1. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. 10. 2. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul.7. 7. 9. 8. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 10. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia.

Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. o He said „I was ill". Ex. o He said „I will do the exercise". Ex. He said „I have been working hard. He said he had been ill. 2. in functie de sens. He said he would do the exercise. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . o 1. Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said: „She gave me a book". – He said „I am ill". He said he was ill. Se schimba pronumele. He said she had given him a book. He said he had been working hard.

I would stay at home." He said if it rained he would stay at home. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. Ex. I will stay at home. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. 3.  He said he would be at home on that day. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow".next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. 36 . ought to. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. could.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day." He said if itrained he would stay at home. Verbele modale would. I would have stayed at home. 1. He said: „I’ll be at home today". "If it had rained. should. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained.

iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. on holiday. Ex. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. He asked me where I had been. ceea ce este o greseala.  He said (that) he was ill. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. 4.Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. 1. 2. Ex. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. 37 . Incorect: He asked me what was the time. 5. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. 3. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day.  He told me to go out. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. Ex. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). The weather was fine yesterday. Ex. I will go shopping right now. 3. He asked me if I liked music. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out. I saw this film a week ago. 2. He said „Go out". Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. Where have you been? I’ve been away. He said: „I am ill". Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow.

I am very busy today. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 1. If I had been at home. 4. Will you help me. 6. 4. 2. ordered) me to come in. 7. 12. 8. 8. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . If I have enough money. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 9.6. 1. 8. 7. 3. 11. 2. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 5. 2. 3. 9. I will buy a car next year. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 10. I would have answered the phone. 10. 7. 6. please! Read the text. I went to England two years ago. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. 5.

1. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens.9. I was asked. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. 12. In limba engleza. I am asked. I will be asked. Ex. complementul indirect si. 11. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. 6. complementul 39 . 10. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. In limba româna. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. I have been asked. 9. 3. in unele cazuri. please? 4. 5. 10. 2. I had been asked. 4. Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. 7. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Ex. 8.

my flat is being painted. Unde complementul direct este a book. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). In multe cazuri. Ex. 40 . 4. He has found your bag. His coworkers must do something for him. 3. In aceste situatii. iar complementul indirect este him. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. Activ: She looked after the child. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. 9. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. While I was in hospital. The noise frightened me. 6. my flat was being painted. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. Someone has found the missing child. I will invite my friend to a party. Ex. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. se omite formularea by. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). punctuality este un complement prepozitional. A specialist will repair my TV set. They are building a new house round the corner. 8. Activ: I gave him a book. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. In this office punctuality is insisted on. While I am in hospital. 7. 5. People play football all over the world. 2. de asemenea. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today.prepozitional. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. 1. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Ex. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. Desigur. care.

2. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. 3. 4. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. They didn’t look after the children properly. 3. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. We called for the doctor. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. I teach them English. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1.10. Burglars broke into the house. 7. The teacher asked me a difficult question. 5. 9. 2. 7. 5. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 6. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 2. 4. 7. 8. They will give me a reward. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 4. 3. We objected to his proposal. The policeman will show us the way. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. I have lent John two of my books. They set fire to the shed. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. We laughed at John. 6. 2. 8. 9. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. 9. 6. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. when I passed by. They have given me a nice present. 5. 4. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 10. 3. 8.

6. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. 10. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. 12. 9. LECTIA VI 42 . Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. I was recommended a very good doctor. 15. 7. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea.10. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. 5. He hates being made fun of. 7. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. English is spoken all over the world. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. 2. 4. 14. 9. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. A reception was held in his honour. 6. This house has been built out of stone and cement. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. These books mustn’t be taken away. 4. 13. 2. 8. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. This book will soon be forgotten. 3. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. 5. The pupils will be told where to sit. 8. 11. 3. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 6. 10. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum.

shall. I can make this traslation. Ex. a fi in stare Ex. He cannot (can’t) speak English. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. can’t Ex. Can is a model verb.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. prezent. Ex. (Pot sa fac aceasta. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri.VERBELE MODALE Can. I can do this. could. Ex. may. prezent Negativ: cannot. Can are sensul de a putea. ought to. must. might. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. Se folosesc inlocuitori. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. would. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. He can speak English. need.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. should. Can = infinitiv. • Nu au toate timpurile. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". I couldn’t come to you yesterday. Ex. will. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 .

Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. Ex. Ex. May 1. a avea permisiunea Ex. mayn’t 44 .) Cu acest sens. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada.Ex. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. nu e posibil sa. Se traduce cu a sti sa.) Negativ: may not. you may. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. (Stiu sa inot. 3. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. I can swim. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street.). He could have been here in time. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. Ex. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. Ex. Ex. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. Soarele nu a apus inca.) I can speak English. are sensul de a putea. He is abroad. Ex. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. 2. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. (Da. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. The sun hasn’t set yet. El e in strainatate. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. Father. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. In vorbirea familiara. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". poti. can I take your car? Tata.

Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Negativ: must not. Ex. May/might pot exprima un repros. Ex. Trebuie sa plec acasa. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. 2. Ex. 3. Ex. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. I must go home. Telefoneaza-I lui John. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). Ia-ti umbrela. Must A trebui Ex. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. S-a facut târziu. to be permitted to. Ex. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. He may/might be at home now. 45 . Ex. It may/might rain. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. He said I might smoke in that room. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. You may/might help me when I am in need.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. se adauga infinitivul trecut. 1. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Cu acest sens. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Take your umbrella. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. It’s got late. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Ring up John. s-ar putea sa ploua. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut.

Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
2.

De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:

Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.

Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie

Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.

Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

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Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul

Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?

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Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would

Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:

Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?

A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.

Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
o

in trecut

When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.

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5. I cannot translate ten pages a day.This girl looks very much like Jane. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . You may not speak to your mother like that. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. 8. 15. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". my mother used to read me fairy tales. 1. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. 10. 14. 49 . She will be her sister. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. 11. Ex. 16. She can play the piano very well. When I was a child. Nota: In afara de „would". 6. 9. 2. acolo unde este necesar: 1. 19. I must look up the words in the dictionary. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. care are numai forma de trecut. 17. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. She can lend you that book. You may leave earlier. I must go soon. 18. You may not smoke in this room. 12. 4. This child may have another cake. Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. 13. O fi sora ei. 7. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 3. He can swim very well. 20. I must learn English.

It might rain. He ought to tell me the truth. John could be a winner. John must be ill. 9. You might write to me more often. It can’t be too late. You might change your mind about that. 50 . there is plenty in the fridge. 11. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. He …even drive on its surface. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. He needn’t buy milk. You must have forgotten to lock the door. 19.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 3. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 1. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 13. 15. He must speak English well. You probably forgot to lock the door. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1. He may be at home. holidays will be very different. 4. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 12. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 16. 8. 18. 5. 17. 2. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. 7. You might pay more attention to your work. Model: He probably speaks English well. 1. 10. 5. You needn’t do this. He should go to school everyday. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. 4. Man …travel through space now. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. 3. He must be delayed at the office. 2. 6. 14. 20.

51 . It probably took a long time to finish this translation. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. It is possible that I come home early. 6. 3. 9. 1. I have bought his latest book. I think she was angry with you. 7.1. He was probably late. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 4. 5. Don’t wait. Take your umbrella. It may/might snow in the mountains. perhaps it will rain. 10. He probably thinks I am wrong. 8. perhaps it is a good one. 6. 10. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. She is probably a very good doctor. It is possible for her to be very late. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 4. 3. 6. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 5. 8. He is probably older than he looks. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. You have probably forgotten his address. 5. You can’t be right. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 2. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. I don’t believe you were right. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 9. 2. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. You can’t have been right. but I doubt it. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. He probably came home very early. 7.

5. 9. please? 7. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. You…water the flowers. I don’t think this is a true story. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 2. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. You … take sleeping pills too often. 8. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. I’ll give you as much as you want. I …read one book a day. 8. I …wear my hair long. I … return the books before the 1st of September. You … worry about money. When I was a teenager. 6. 5. 6. 6. When I was young. 3. it will soon start raining. 9. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. … you help me solve this problem? 3. I don’t think the weather will change. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. You …not go to bed so late at night. 10. I don’t believe she has got so fat. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. 5. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 7. The sky is clear. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 9. 9. I don’t believe it is his fault. 4. You … take an umbrella.1. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 10. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. 52 . I don’t believe it was his fault. People … speak during the concert. 1. 4. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. He …read for hours on end. 10. 8. You …not expect everybody to obey you. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. 1. 3. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. 7. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 2. 4. 2. they are addictive. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night.

he was back soon. 10. I …(see) him for that. You …do this whether you like it or not. please? This letter is full of mistakes. Go to sleep.2. 6. 10. 9. 7. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. you…get a nice present. The light was on in his room. If you win the contest. 11. I wrote him a letter. John …(do) such a thing. I …(get up) so early today.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. The child … (leave) home. 53 . 4. You …(see) Anna yesterday. 3. I am sorry you wasted your time. 2. 5. for once? This …be John’s house. She …write an article for this magazine every week. I haven’t got my bag with me. Completati spatiile goale cu must. I …(leave) it on the bus. 8. I …(answer) the questions. You …(buy) so much bread. 7. The student …(write) such a long composition. which would have saved me a lot of work. 8. I promise you not …be disturbed. … you correct my exercise. he is a very poor swimmer. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. which was very convenient. 7. We …(wait) too long. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. He …(swim) across the Danube. It’ll get stale. I locked the door and took the key with me. It …(rain) here. 10. 5. 3. 2. but I forgot it was Sunday. 9. the road is dry. he will never read them all. 10. I …(be) in the garden. 5. you …re-type it. I didn’t hear the phone. This door … not unlock. You …(wait) for me. You…(lend) him your text – book. 6. 4. 4. 8. You …(lend) him so many books. She is away. He has one of his own. 3. 6. …you tell me the truth. I …(answer) the questions. He …(be) at home. 9. he is a nice boy.

Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. 54 . Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. 17. 9. 11. 16." "Yes. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. but he himself believes he needn’t. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar.12. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. 7. 12. 4. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. 21. 10." "His family consider he should. 1. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 14. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. 2. Va trebui sa plec curând. 8. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. 5. am baut deja doua astazi." Traduceti in limba engleza. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. 3. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 6. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. 19. Nu stiu sa crosetez. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. Nu. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 13. 18. 20.

24. may.22. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. o incuiasem chiar eu. Ex. o dorinta sau un blestem. Ex. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. Apare in propozitii exclamative. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. 29. in situatii in care. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. might. o urare. 1. Vreti. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. Unde mergem acum? 28. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. 26. Fie ce-o fi. 27. De asemenea. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . 23. in engleza contemporana. va rog. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. exprimând o lozinca. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. would + infinitiv. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. Come what may.

Ex. to insist. it is likely that. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. Ex. it is necessary that. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that.c. Everybody leave the hall. apare ca were la toate persoanele. I wish I had been born in England. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. to demand. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. d. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. it is desirable that. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. to order Ex. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. It is necessary that you be present. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. I wish I were in England now. to recommend. It is impossible that he do this. to suggest. • Ex. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. 56 . 1. to urge. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. Ex. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. • I wish (mi-as dori. It is desirable that we finish the translation first.

d)It is time. (Era de mult timpul. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. • Ex. It is time the child went to bed. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez.) It is high time. It is necessary that you should be present. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. I would sooner stay at home tonight. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. I wish it would stop raining. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. In exemplul de mai sus. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. a. Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. 1. a. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. (E timpul. It is high time you began to study seriously.) Ex. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. se foloseste would. It is impossible that he should do this. You speak English as if you had lived in England. it is necessary that. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. 57 . de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. Ex. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. Ex.

to urge. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. may. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. might 58 . Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. a. why. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. It is impossible that he should have done this. to demand. Intrebari introduse prin how.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). to recommend. Hurry up lest you miss the train. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. De asemenea. Dupa cum se observa.when. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). to insist. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. Ex. to suggest. Ex. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Ex. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. fie in vorbirea direca. • Ex. where. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him.

I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. I will ring you up. iti voi telefona. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. wherever. no matter when. 59 . may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. you have no right to do this. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. • Dupa it is possible. Wherever I may/might be. Oriunde as fi. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. It was possible that he might be here in time. Dupa whoever. Oricine ai fi. • Ex. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. in secundara se foloseste might. whichever. whenever. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. in secundara se foloseste may. etc. I hope that he may pass the exam. in order that Ex. it was possible Ex. No matter who you may/might be. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. Whoever you may/might be. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. It is possible that he may be here in time.Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. however. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. to be afraid Ex. • Dupa so that. • Dupa to hope. you have no right to do this. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who.

I regret I have only one child. I regret I can’t go to the concert. 1. iar in aceste cazuri. 1. I regret I am not a student. 9. 10. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I am sorry you live so far away. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. 6. I am sorry you had an accident. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. 3. 5. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1. I wish I could speak English.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. 60 . I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 7. 1. Ex. I am sorry my friend is ill. 2. I am sorry it rains so often. I regret I have no children. 8. 4. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry books are so expensive. I wish the weather were fine.

10. 9. I am sorry I was late for the party. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 7. I was sorry you were out when I called. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 5. 5. 2. 2. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 3. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. It’s time we (go) home. 5. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 4. 9. 7. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 11. 6. 8. 9. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. You behave as if you (own) the place. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 7. 4. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 1. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 1. 61 . 3. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I would rather you (close) that window. I was sorry you had got a fine. 1.2. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. 3. 10. 6. 8. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 6. 10. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 8.

15. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 14. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 11. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 16. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 5. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 17. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. 3. 13. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 18. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 14. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 2. 62 . Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 13. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 17. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. If only I (become) a millionaire. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 4. 16. 20. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 12. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 10. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 9.

Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 20. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 7. 6. la tara. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 8. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. 7. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa.19. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 5. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 8. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. 6. 8. 3. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 5. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 4. 4. 3. 2. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 9. 8. 2. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert.

4. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 3. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 2. 64 . Oricând te vei intoarce. 15. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 11. 1. 14. 7. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. nu te pot crede. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. 9. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. I wish my car (not break down) last week. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 10. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 6. Oricât te-ai stradui.1. 8. 5. The road is wet. 8. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 13. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 9. 2. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 4. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 12. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. Orice mi-ai spune. Oricare ar fi motivul. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 7. 5. 3. 6. 10. you should remember your own phone number.

If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 . Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing.16. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. I have such a boring job. I wish I (be) there when it happened. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. diateza si timpuri. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). I wish I (find) another. All success (attend) you! 18. 17. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. 19.

I want you to go now. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. to allow. to like.) c. to dislike. to know. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a.) I let him go out and play. Ex. I made him study English.) d. to watch. I’d like him to come with me. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to order.) He ordered the door to be locked. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. to consider. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to understand. to feel. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.) 66 . to hear.) b.) I want John to do this. to believe. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. (Consider ca el este un bun student. Ex. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. verbe exprimând un ordin. to hate. to suppose. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. I consider him to be a good student. to cause. Ex. Ex.Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. to expect. I saw him leave the room. in cazul verbelor neregulate. to wish.

) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. He was declared to be the man of the year. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to declare. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. to say. He is said to be a good writer. He proved to be a good journalist. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.) They declared him to be the man of the year. a. cu verbele: to happen. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on.) 67 . (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. I consider him to be a good student. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. to count upon/on . to know. to suppose. Ex. I rely on you to do this. to expect. The news was considered to be false. to consider.I expected him to come in time. to prove. to turn out. to make.) f.) e. He considered the news to be false. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. They declared him to be the man of the year. to admit. b. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. He admitted the news to be false. verbe declarative: to state. I made him study English. to believe. to seem. to hear. He is considered to be a good student.) 1. Ex. Ex. He was made to study English.

(Este imposibil ca el sa vina. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc.I happened to meet him in the street. 1. (E usor sa fac asta. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. It is necessary that I (should) go there. She is sure to come in time.) This remains for him to decide.) If I happen to meet him. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. ii voi spune unde esti.) It is impossible for him to come. It is easy for me to do this. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) It is necessary for me to go there. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". I will tell him where you are. It is impossible that I (should) come. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. a. Ex. de obicei. 68 . Ex. 1.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.

(El a fost vazut plecând. to smell. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 . aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. we shall go to the beach. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. 3. we went home. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving.) I left / found her crying.) She was heard singing. to leave. Ex.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. to watch. Ex: The classes being over. (Orele fiind terminate. (Am auzit-o cântând.to hear.) I will have my hair done.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare.) 2.) Weather permitting. (Ea a fost auzita cântând.) I heard her singing. precum si cu verbele to find. am mers acasa. (Daca vremea va permite. vom merge la plaja.

Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. 5. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui.subiect. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. I-am privit jucând fotbal. This is a valuable piece of advice. You should read it. 6. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. You should bear it in mind. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. 3. 14. 2. She had two sons killed in the war. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. 10. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Ex. 5. 11. You should take it. The people were impatient. 6. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. 3. 1. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. I can’t solve it. 2. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. I had my bedroom window broken. This is a good book. We should have a heart to heart talk. 13. This translation is easy for me to make. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. This fact is important. 8. This problem is too difficult. 2. 12. The time has come. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 7. The match was about to begin. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. I cam make it. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 70 . 9. 4. 15.

7. It is necessary that he be present. 8. 3. It is sure they have had an argument. at once. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 4. 3. 9. I thought she was unable to win the contest. 7. 10. It is advisable that you should resign. 6. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 4. I have closed the window. 8. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 8. 71 . 3. 2. 4. She was thought to be a gifted child. It’s time we met again. 5. It is possible that I might buy a car. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 6. It is important to know the truth. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. cold. They heard him repeat it several times. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 1. We should do it now. 1. Everybody. 9. It is important that you should come to the office. It is impossible that he should have said that. 5. It was proved that she was a liar. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. 9. Expected that he would resign. 2. I can’t believe she said that. They said she was ill. This is a strange thing. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 7. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. I ordered a taxi. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. 10.

I found her digging in the garden. I heard the child breaking the vase. we sat down to dinner. 72 . Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I saw the plane landing. 8. 9. 2. 3. 5. The dog was heard barking. 6. I stopped smoking. The river having risen in the night. 9. we were seared about having floods. The plane having taken off. 6. I saw her lying on the beach. Weather permitting. Everybody being at home.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. The rain having stopped. I went home relaxed. l. The letter being written. 10. 3. 7. I could hear her typing. 7. 5. I saw her fainting. She heard the baby crying. 10. I went shopping. 4. The decision being taken in my favour. The concert being over. 5. I saw the peasants working in the field. I had to change them. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 4. 6. 8. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. The mud having ruined my shoes. I went to post it. 2. She heard the hunters shooting. 10. The sun having risen. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. the audience left the hali. I found the boy breaking the window. we hurried to the beach.

CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .

My mother isn’t resting. he walks. Does he have? 9. He doesn’t go to school by underground. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. Now I am doing my homework in English. He doesn’t remember. I do not study in the evening. 19. am. Do you play? 5. 6. Do I love? 2. 7. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. do you do? 3. 2. 1 am cooking. are you thinking? I am thinking. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. are you waiting? I am waiting. I don’t love. Are you typing? 5. He doesn’t have. write. 18. go. Is my friend wearing? 7. Do I always believe? 6. The child isn’t learning. They aren’t swimming. I always have. He isn’t telling. Do I trust? 10. 11. drinks. On Sundays. Does he remember? 7. It snows in winter. You don’t play. 4. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 15. Is it raining? 2. always borrow/is always borrowing. it is raining. 20. I am not having. remembers. 1 don’t like. Do you usually get. 13. 3. Do I understand? 4. Why 74 . 14. 8. am taking. 12. 9.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. I don’t like coffee. What do you do on your free days? 12. is drinking. The secretary is just typing a report. I am not going. it often rains. 10. 2. he doesn’t get up early. What book are you reading? 10. My friend isn’t wearing. don’t understand. Is Ann knitting? 10. he is having. are you hurrying? I don’t want. Do you smoke? 17. Is he telling? 4. Are you writing. I don’t trust. Does she talk? 3. Whom are you ringing up? 13. Do you go? 16. You aren’t typing. I don’t understand. Are we studying? 9. 14. Do you dream? I dream 9. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. Am I having? 3. 5. I don’t always believe. We aren’t studying. Do you like? 8. Do they live? 8. 4. Is my mother resting? 8. speaks. Ann isn’t knitting. 7. She doesn’t talk. I don’t have. It isn’t raining. They don’t live. 6. Are they swimming? 6. She goes shopping on Saturdays.

I arrived. Did they drink? 3. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 2. 19. He met. What were you doing last Tuesday. Yesterday. 2. 7. Did I hate? 4. 4. Last Sunday. 6. 3. my friends played chess. Yesterday I lost 75 . The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 5. 10. were you going. 2. she was having. 4. Did he think? 2. 6. 16. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty.are you opening the window? I5. I often read English books. That sounded. 5. were you doing? 7. you came in. You asked. He didn’t change. 10. You spoke. When did you return from the mountains? 11. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. he was-learning. Did he come? 8. This time yesterday it was raining. He didn’t think. he wasn’t wearing. I didn’t sell. You drank. Did he translate? 10. he had. He didn’t come. 6. 3. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. When did you buy this TV set? 12. I played. Did I sell? 6. I slept. 7. Did he change? 5. 9. I met. 8. 9. 20. I was talking. 17. When I go to the seaside. We didn’t work. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. She is packing her luggage. he realized. someone rang up. I was watching. Exercitiul 4: 1. 9. 10. Did I enjoy? 9. I was writing. I got up late yesterday morning. 8. I owned. Did we work? 7. He didn’t translate. I like to swim a lot. Exercitiul 2: 1. the teacher was writing. I didn’t hate. He didn’t forbid. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. Did you sleep well last night? 3. I entered. While I was looking for my passport. 4. 1 liked. 8. 1 first met. They didn’t drink. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. I always made. he was working. I found this old photo. 5. I didn’t enjoy. Last night.

We have known. The child has been playing. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. 2. 10. I have been doing. I have been cooking. I got. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 4. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. He has just left. Yesterday I got up early. have you been. While it was raining. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. 8. The weather has got warmer lately. 14. 2. 4. 5. we left. I have just had. I have’ been shopping.my gloves. I saw. He has been sleeping. I was. 4. Have you seen? she left. I have lent. He hasn’t gone. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 11 . He has been. The radio has been playing. 14. I was driving to Sinaia. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. I have already seen. I haven’t written. I5. Exercitiul 3: I. 13. 9. I have bought. 20. Have you been. I have lost. 9. 7. 5. He has always relied. Have you read? 18. the engine – drivers have gone. Have you watered? 3. Exercitiul 2: l. 10. 17. Exercitiul 4: 1. He has been a Minister for 76 . 3. Have you lived? I have lived. She has changed. 16. 17. 1t hasn’t rained. I returned. 10. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I have been asking. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 3. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. 19. she has been trying. Have you ever tried? I tried. Have you ever driven? 16. He has been fishing. He hasn’t come. 7. have you been wearing? 6. 8. 4. 18. It has been raining. have you cooked? 7. 6. How long have you been learning English? 5. 8. I haven’t been. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. 9. 6. Have you visited? 12. 5. I got up. Have you ever eaten? 13. Have you been? I have been. Have you paid? 19. I have been wearing. I have been watering. I didn’t succeed. He sat for his first exam last week. 6. began. he has caught.

18. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. 10. 3. I called. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 2. She had just gone out. It has been snowing for two hours. 6. 2. 2. we had been walking. 9. congratulated. Since I bought a car. I found out. he had visited. 4. 8. We have been walking since 3 o clock. two years ago. 9. it had been raining. 7. we asked. I have seldom walked to my office. she told. 3. we realized. 8. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. I had met. 10. Exercitiul 4: 1. 4. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. had listened. 9. A child has broken the window. she had been cleaning and dusting. I entered. had been climbing. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 8. she had not passed. she had been studying. 5. 7. 13. had left. he had got married. she had already been. I spent a month here. 14. 2. he had thought. had been cooking. 3. 3. he left an hour ago. had not told. Exercitiul 3: 1. We must replace it. We have walked 10 km so far. had spread. he had learned/he had been learning. they had been waiting. 5. I had it at 8 o’clock. What did you look at? It was an accident. 4. 7. she had been writing. 15. 8. 12. had been swimming. he had been. 5. they had finished. we had lost. Has John left? Yes. 10. I was sorry I had hurt him. he went. he 77 . They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. had been having. He thanked me for what I had done for him. I had returned. Have you been to this town before? Yes. it had been raining.two years. Exercitiul 2: 1. had been speaking. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. it had been raining. had eaten. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. they had been. 19. he told. he went. I rang him up. 6. 6. 9. he had caught. 20. 10. 7. 11.

6. 9. 4. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. Exercitiul 3: 1. I shall/will be having. 8. they will have been married. 7.handed it to the teacher. 4. 6. 3. 3. You will like. I shall/will have read 8. By this time next year. 5. We shall/will have taken. I shall/will have been working. I shall/will know. I shall/will remember. When I arrived at the bus stop. 9. 2. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. As soon as the guests had left. I shall/will have been cooking. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. between twelve and one o’clock. they will be having their last English class. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. I shall/will pass. 2. I shall/will be swimming. 10. Exercitiut 2: 1. 8. Will you recognize? 4. I shall/will have paid off. it will probably be raining. She will be watching. 6. 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. will be crying. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 5. 7. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. 8. 7. 3. 3. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 4. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. You will be. 10. Will you be needing? 5. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. I shall/will succeed. I shall/will be working. 8. Because of 78 . 5. I shall/will have finished. You will have seen. Wil1 you remember? 9. 2. will/shall will be climbing. 9. 4. 5. 6. will have spent. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 7. On Friday. wilt be rising. I went to bed. I realized I had left my bag at home. 6. You will not/won’t find. 10. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. 7. He will be. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 10. He will be studying. will have risen.

10. Exercitiul 3: 1. prices would go up. 9. 8. was shining. 12. he wanted. he tells. you have just told. 6. he would give. 18. 4. he had just left. is born. 19. 8. 13. he had been travelling. 2. 3. 4. 9. 2. you spoke. 5. he would finish.the strike of the bus – drivers. 4. you were. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 10. 8. you would soon have. begin. you have drunk. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. 17. you see. they would remain. would be cancelled. arrive. 9. I have. I had lost. he has arrived. 7. I would remain. 10. he would win. she has learnt. he would pass. I have received. You had to type. 7. 5. 6. 4. you finish. would end. we reach. 3. 7. 8. 5. 9. 7. he had left. I had not enjoyed. I played/I was playing. I usually read. I had heard. 6. she notices you have broken. 2. 10. 6. 2. he would drive. Exercitiul 4: 1. had already begun. he has repaired. I had done. she looks. she has changed. 11. did not remember. 16. you were. you have read. you see. 20. 9. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. Exercitiul 2: 1. 15. Exercitiul 5: 79 . we had been digging. I had read. 3. they have been. 3. I finish. you see. he had stolen. 5. 14. they were talking.

The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. I have suffered. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. will soon move. 3. you do. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 4. is. 10. 4. is. 8. he would have. 19. you will not find. 2. 18. do not eat. I will earn/will be earning. he would not remember. 5. he had never seen. I was. I have been reading. 3. you had been wearing. would not go. had failed. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. he would change. 6. 7. I would spend. 10. I will greet 2. I will lend. Exercitiul 6: 1. you are reading. 9. 5. 3. Exercitiul 2: 80 . he hoped. 16. melts. 12. 11. he had to write. 11. 17. we went. they had been listening. it would not be raining when I arrived. it goes on. I will buy. they had known. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. 10. is. 9. 14. will you promise? 6. 8. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. they have done. 9. 7. 6. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. I finish. 2. 8. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 13. 15. you will be. 7. 10. 2. I was. Exercitiul 7: l. 4.1. you take. 3. he had not expected. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. 4. 12. 20. there are. I work/I worked. we will drink. I read. you will not pass. he had eaten. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 9. I had not decided. he trusted. 7. I want. she will be. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I knew you were in Bucharest. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 6. 5. 5. I had not eaten. 8.

I saw. you had invited. 7. 10. 7. you will be. 9. I gave up. 8. 2. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. I had known. you would have read. I were. I knew. If a beggar asked you for money. 6. 10. 4. I would have answered. you had driven. 5. If it rains. would you give him some? 3.1. If dinner is not ready in time. he had tried. 9. 5. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. I wouldn’t do. 8. 7. 3. 2. You will see him if you wait. he leaves. 2. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. the streets will be wet. 8. 4. 3. I will eat at a restaurant. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. Would you buy? 4. 10. I moved. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. I had worked. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 5. you wouldn’t have got. he would not make. he will get. What would you do if you meet John? 12. If it had rained. you were. 6. 9. If it rained. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 9. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 5. 2. It would have been. I will answer. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 7. the streets would be wet. 3. I would buy. I would not have made. 8. 6. I would have answered. Exercitiul 4: l. 4. 6. Exercitiul 5: 1. 6. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. the streets would have been wet. he would take. 5. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 10. he had realized. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 2. I had not told. he would have told. 7. LECTIA IV 81 . 3. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth.

He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He asked me if I would help him. 9. 2. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. 4. Exercitiul 4: 1. 12. He asked me if I would like a cake. He told me to read that text. 4. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He said he had gone to England two years before. 8. 9. He told me not to smoke so much. 2.English. 3. 3. 11. 6. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me to take that pill. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He told me to be careful with his books. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. 5. He asked me if the train had left. He said he was very busy on that day. Exercitiul 3: 1. 2. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 7. He said he had seen that film a week before. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. 3. 10. 5. 5. 8. 6. 10. Exercitiul 2: 1. He asked me when I 82 . 12. He asked me how long I had been learning . He said she would go shopping right then. He asked me if I could lend him a book. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He told me to open the door. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. 11. 8. 3. 2. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. 4. 9. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 7. 4. 6. 7.

I have been given a nice present (by them). I was frightened by the noise. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). 7. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 9. 4. Football is played all over the world. 10. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 9. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. We will be shown the way by the policeman. They are taught English (by me). The work will be finished today (by them). Two of my books have been lent to John (by me).would be back. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). A reward will be given to me (by them). A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 8. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 2. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. He asked me who that man was. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 10. 7. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 8. The missing child has been found (by someone). 2. 3. 8. 3. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Your bag has been found (by him). Exercitiul 3: 83 . A new house is being built round the corner (by them). 6. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 5. when I passed by. 10. English is taught to them (by me). He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 7. 6. 9. 5. 6. 5. A nice present has been given to me (by them). Exercitiul 2: 1. He asked me how I had travelled. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. I will be given a reward (by them). John has been lent two of my books (by me). 4. The way will be shown to us by the policeman.

We will be given detailed instructions about the paper.: 3. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). 10. He hates people making fun of him. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 8. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. Were you told about the meeting? 9. 5. 2. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 2. 7. 6. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 6.1. They held a reception in his honour. Fire was set to the shed (by them). We were asked to show our passports. 7. The doctor was called for (by us). 11. The house was broken into (by burglars). Exercitiul 6: l. 9. Detailed 84 . They have built this house out of stone and cement. People speak English all over the world. 5. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 9. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 5. 10. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. His proposal was objected to (by us). 8. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). 3. 4. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. 8. 2. John was laughed at (by us). Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 4. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 3. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. Has the dog been fed? 7. We were told very interesting things at the conference. People mustn’t take away these books. Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 4. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. People will soon forget this book. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 9. 6.

13. I will have to look up. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. The museum was closed for repairs. 15. 3. You can’t have seen. 18. I had to go. 3 It might have rained. He may have been. Exercitiul 2: 1. 10. 15. 12. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. You might have paid. 19.instructions will be given to us about the paper. You might have changed. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 4. He needn’t have bought. She will be able to play. You can’t have been. He could swim. It can’t have been. I will have to go. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. You didn’t have to do. 10. 16. The child was allowed/permitted to have. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 9. He ought to have told. 7. 14. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 12. I had to learn. 12. She could lend. 14. 16. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. You needn’t have done. He must have been. 8. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. I couldn’t translate. She will be able to read and write. 8. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. Many new blocks are being built in our district. 5. You should have visited. 15. You might have written. 13. 6. 4. He must have been delayed. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 6. You were allowed/permitted to leave. It must 85 . 13. 14. 11. John must have been. He should have gone. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. It can t have been. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 2. 2. She will be able to lend. I won t be able to translate. 5. 7. He was not allowed/permitted to come. 17. He could read and write. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. I had to look up. I will have to learn. You won’t have to do. She could play. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. He will be able to swim.

5. mustn’t. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. mustn’t. Exercitiul 5: 1. 6. 3. mustn’t. 5. She can’t have got. 4. can. can. 10. Exercitiul 9: 86 . 2. 7. Exercitiul 4: l. 10. can. 2. can’t. 6. 9. would. 3. 9. 9. John could have been. needn’t. mustn’t. 8. 4: She must be a very good doctor. It may/might be a good one. He may/might have been right. The weather can’t change. 2. He can’t have passed. 4. He must have come home. should. 5. Exercitiul 8: l. 7. It can’t be his fault. 7. can’t. needn’t. He must think. He can’t be at the office. 8. 5. 8. 19. It can’t have been his fault. 6. Exercitiul 7: 1. He must have been late. 10. 3. She may/might be very late. S. 3.have been. 7. would. needn’t. 6. 20. 10. 10. She may/might have been angry. He must be older. You can’t miss the train. 2. should. 3. You must have known the lesson. 9. 5. should. 6. 9. 6. would. needn’t. 8. would. Exercitiul 6: 1. She may/might have been out. This must be the best. You must have left your umbrella. You shouldn’t have gone. You must have forgotten. 5. would. needn’t. mustn’t. 2. She may/might have returned. can. She can’t have learned English. would. It must have taken a long time. He may/might have done. 4. I may/might come home. should. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. It may/might rain. 2. 3. This can’t be a true story. She can’t have married. 4.

13. 8. shall. Exercitiul 10: 1. needn’t have got up. 8. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. 18. All the students can and must write this paper. 10. 2. You needn’t have made coffee for me. must have been. 6. didn’t need to answer. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. You will have to help me more today. 3. will. didn’t need to buy. I can’t knit. I rang you up and 87 . can’t have done. will. Exercitiul 13: 1. Exercitiul 11: 1. must have taken. 8. 4. 6. I could play the piano when I was a child. can’t have seen. needn’t have answered. will. didn’t need to wait. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. needn’t have waited. must have left. I have already drunk two. 5. 17. 2. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. 9. 8. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. can’t have rained. I will have to leave soon. 12. 5. will. All the children ought to/should do some housework. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 16. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. can’t have swum. must have been. will. 4. needn’t have written. Exercitiul 12: 1. 4. shall. a porter could help you. needn’t have bought. shall. 5. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 5. 7. 2. 3. didn’t need to see. today. shall. 10. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". needn’t have lent. 9. 2. 9. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 3. No.1. 7. 14. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 9. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. will. 10. 11. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 19. 7. can’t have left. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 6. 6. 7. 10. 4. 20. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 3. needn’t have lent.

I had locked it myself 27. 3. 8. You ought to/should have insisted. S. 9. 23. 29. 6. 9. 21. 26. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. 7. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 25. I wish they would sign the contract. 4. 22.nobody answered. please. 2. I wish you had won the competition. 2. 6. I wish I could pay the piano. 88 . I wish you didn’t live so far away. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wish I didn’t have only one child. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 7. wait for a few minutes? 30. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 2. 3. 4. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. Where shall we go now? 28. 10. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. you shall have the book tomorrow. 5. I wish it didn’t rain so often. Exercitiul 3: 1. 3. 24. 7. I wish he would accept my proposal. 9. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 10. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. I wish I were a student. You can’t have found the door open. I promise you. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 8. I wish you would come on holiday with me. Will you. I wish you would take a driving licence. I wish I had won the Great Prize. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 5. 6. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. 8. You may not speak during the exam. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 1 wish I had children. I wish I could go to the concert. I must have been still at the faculty.

9. 20. 6. you closed. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 11. hadn’t caught a cold. 12. my telephone worked. 5. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. you didn’t waste. 6. 2. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. you started. She looks as if she were a model. you owned. 17. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2.Exercitiul 4: 1. I would rather you went to the theatre. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. we went. I stayed. 20. 18. 10. Exercitiul 5: l. 8. 19. 17. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 13. S. I hadn’t forgotten. 18. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 19. 12. he told. 4. 16. 8. I had entered. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. Exercitiul 6: 1. 6. you were. 7. I were. 4. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. It is important that you (should) know English well. his book would become. he took. we could go to the beach. 15. 7. 3. 14. watched. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . 13. 11. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. You speak as if you were angry with me. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. 16. his daughter didn’t get married. 4. he would have. 2. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 10. I were. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 3. I would rather you got up earlier. 9. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. stopped. 9. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. too. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 14. I got. I would become.

you can’t win such a competition. hadn’t broken down. I had. 2. 11. No matter how hard you may/might try. 15. he were. 12. 17. 7. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 18. you should have. I will be at home waiting for you. 8. 8. it should get. I had been. 4. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 20. 8. 7. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 6. 2. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen.Brasov? 10. might prosper. we should take. 5. Whatever the reason may/might be. 16. they (should) divorce. should have told. 3. Whatever you may/might tell me. I would find. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 10. It is possible that she might be away. may attend. 7. Whenever you may/might return. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. she should have left. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 9. 6. 10. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 13. (should) have. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 5. 19. 9. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . you may/might understand. it might not get. I can’t believe you. 14. you retired. you shouldn’t lie to me. 5. Exercitiul 8: 1. you shouldn’t have believed it. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. we (should) leave. he were. 2. Exercitiul 9: 1. 3. 4. I insist that you (should) accept this job. you may/might be. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 3. 6. 4.

They are sure to have had an argument. It’s time for us to meet again. 2. 6. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 3. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. I expected you to come earlier. I saw some children playing in the park. I understand her to be a very good teacher. It is advisable for you to resign. This is a good book for you to read. 14. 9. 2. 5. 15. She (was) proved to be a liar. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 9. 3. 4. I saw him speaking to his friend. 10. 7. I heard her scold/scolding her child. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 3. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. I rely on you to lend me some money. I watched them playing football. 11. He was expected to resign. 12.1. The people were impatient for the match to begin. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 6. 7. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. 3. This is the main thing for us to do. 10. 9. 5. 6. It is impossible for him to have said that. 5. He wanted me to help him. 8. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 5. It is recommendable for you to read this book. It is necessary for him to be present. 4. It is important for you to come to the office at once. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. She made me understand what had happened. 8. 10. 8. 13. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 8. I think him to be a good husband. 9. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 7. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. He made me miss the train. Exercitiul 4: 1. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 10. 6. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. Exercitiul 5: 91 . She seemed to be satisfied with me. She was said to be ill. Mother would like me to become a doctor. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 2. It is possible for me to buy a car. Exercitiul 2: 1. 2. John admitted the fault to be his. 7. 4. He was heard to repeat it several times.

ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. Intrucât soarele rasarise. 9. 9. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. The baby was heard crying. Toata lumea fiind acasa. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. 4. 3. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 . 5. 8. 6. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. The boy was found breaking the window. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez.1. She was seen lying on the beach. Daca vremea va permite. 8. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. She was found digging in the garden. 2. The hunters were heard shooting. publicul a parasit sala. am plecat la cumparaturi. 7. 7. The plane was seen landing. 3. The peasants were seen working in the field. The child was heard breaking the vase. 2. Concertul fiind terminat. a trebuit sa-i schimb. She could be heard typing. am mers sa o pun la posta. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 10. Exercitiul 6: 1. neam asezat la cina. ne-am grabit spre plaja. Intrucât ploaia incetase. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 6. am plecat acasa linistit. She was seen fainting. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. 5. 4. 10.

to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .

to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend

forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

94

to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot

let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot

let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot

95

to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim

showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam

shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum

96

to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .

98 .

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